WorldWideScience

Sample records for building energy simulation

  1. Building energy demand aggregation and simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    to neighbourhoods and cities. Buildings occupy a key place in the development of smart cities as they represent an important potential to integrate smart energy solutions. Building energy consumption affects significantly the performance of the entire energy network. Therefore, a realistic estimation...... of the aggregated building energy use will not only ensure security of supply but also enhance the stabilization of national energy balances. In this study, the aggregation of building energy demand was investigated for a real case in Sønderborg, Denmark. Sixteen single-family houses -mainly built in the 1960s......- were examined, all connected to the regional district heating network. The aggregation of building energy demands was carried out according to typologies, being represented by archetype buildings. These houses were modelled with dynamic energy simulation software and with a simplified simulation tool...

  2. Methodology for Validating Building Energy Analysis Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; O' Doherty, B.; Burch, J.

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this report was to develop a validation methodology for building energy analysis simulations, collect high-quality, unambiguous empirical data for validation, and apply the validation methodology to the DOE-2.1, BLAST-2MRT, BLAST-3.0, DEROB-3, DEROB-4, and SUNCAT 2.4 computer programs. This report covers background information, literature survey, validation methodology, comparative studies, analytical verification, empirical validation, comparative evaluation of codes, and conclusions.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Tryggvason, Tryggvi

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution will be introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment. The building energy performance...... simulation program requires a detailed description of the energy flow in the air movement which can be obtained by a CFD program. The paper describes an energy consumption calculation in a large building, where the building energy simulation program is modified by CFD predictions of the flow between three...... program and a building energy performance simulation program will improve both the energy consumption data and the prediction of thermal comfort and air quality in a selected area of the building....

  4. Automated Comparison of Building Energy Simulation Engines (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B.; Horowitz, S.; Booten, B.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation describes the BEopt comparative test suite, which is a tool that facilitates the automated comparison of building energy simulation engines. It also demonstrates how the test suite is improving the accuracy of building energy simulation programs. Building energy simulation programs inform energy efficient design for new homes and energy efficient upgrades for existing homes. Stakeholders rely on accurate predictions from simulation programs. Previous research indicates that software tends to over-predict energy usage for poorly-insulated leaky homes. NREL is identifying, investigating, and resolving software inaccuracy issues. Comparative software testing is one method of many that NREL uses to identify potential software issues.

  5. Draught risk index tool for building energy simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorre, Mette Havgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    Flow elements combined with a building energy simulation tool can be used to indicate areas and periods when there is a risk of draught in a room. The study tests this concept by making a tool for post-processing of data from building energy simulations. The objective is to show indications...

  6. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Tryggvason, T.

    1998-01-01

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution will be introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment. The building energy performance...

  7. Acquisition of building geometry in the simulation of energy performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2001-06-28

    Building geometry is essential to any simulation of building performance. This paper examines the importing of building geometry into simulation of energy performance from the users' point of view. It lists performance requirements for graphic user interfaces that input building geometry, and discusses the basic options in moving from two- to three-dimensional definition of geometry and the ways to import that geometry into energy simulation. The obvious answer lies in software interoperability. With the BLIS group of interoperable software one can interactively import building geometry from CAD into EnergyPlus and dramatically reduce the effort otherwise needed for manual input.The resulting savings may greatly increase the value obtained from simulation, the number of projects in which energy performance simulation is used, and expedite decision making in the design process.

  8. Building Performance Simulation tools for planning of energy efficiency retrofits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø; Karlshøj, Jan; Vestergaard, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Designing energy efficiency retrofits for existing buildings will bring environmental, economic, social, and health benefits. However, selecting specific retrofit strategies is complex and requires careful planning. In this study, we describe a methodology for adopting Building Performance...... to energy efficiency retrofits in social housing. To generate energy savings, we focus on optimizing the building envelope. We evaluate alternative building envelope actions using procedural solar radiation and daylight simulations. In addition, we identify the digital information flow and the information...... Simulation (BPS) tools as energy and environmentally conscious decision-making aids. The methodology has been developed to screen buildings for potential improvements and to support the development of retrofit strategies. We present a case study of a Danish renovation project, implementing BPS approaches...

  9. Design of energy-efficient buildings using interaction between Building Simulation Programme and Energy Supply Simulations for District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Nagla, Inese

    -energy district heating concept for low-energy buildings. The annual energy performance is evaluated as well as the socio-economy of a demonstrative network based on realistic energy loads that derived from a human behaviour model. Finally the presentation comments on the reasonable lower limit for the heat......Building design must evolve from today's practice – where the individual building parts are optimized separately – into a future where the whole building, including all installed systems, is optimized by integrating innovative technologies that will furthermore make the building itself an active...... part of the total energy system. Integrated design is a design process informed by multidisciplinary knowledge, where different software plays an important role in the designing process. Numerous simulation programs from different kinds of engineering fields (indoor climate, energy balance, district...

  10. Integration of Building energy and energy supply simulations for low-energy district heating supply to energy-efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    of the human behaviour regarding the building and link the results to the simulation program for DH networks. The results show that human behaviour can lead to 50% higher heating demand and 60% higher peak loads than expected according to reference values in standardized calculation of energy demand....... The analysis also shows that the connection of low-energy buildings to DH networks is potentially a good solution in Denmark for reaching the climatic goals, but a high degree of connection must be reached, especially for detached houses, where most of the buildings in a typical community must be connected......The future will demand implementation of C02 neutral communities, the consequences being a far more complex design of the whole energy system, since the future energy infrastructures will be dynamic and climate responsive systems. Software able to work with such level of complexity is at present...

  11. MALAYSIAN WEATHER DATA (TRY) FOR ENERGY SIMULATIONS IN BUILDINGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter

    2001-01-01

    Detailed energy simulations for buildings in Malaysia have become possible after the recent construction of a Malaysian TRY (Test Reference Year) based on 21 years of hourly weather data from Subang Meteorological Station. The climatic parameters contained in the TRY are dry bulb temperature, wet...... bulb temperature, absolute humidity, relative humidity, cloud cover, wind speed, wind direction, sunshine hours, global, diffuse and beam solar radiation. The computer program TSBI3 uses the TRY to perform annual energy simulations for buildings hour by hour. The input and output are very detailed...... making TSBI3 a powerful tool for energy analysis and optimisation of buildings. Other applications of the TRY are manifold including energy studies for solar systems and photovoltaic architecture....

  12. Simulation and Big Data Challenges in Tuning Building Energy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    EnergyPlus is the flagship building energy simulation software used to model whole building energy consumption for residential and commercial establishments. A typical input to the program often has hundreds, sometimes thousands of parameters which are typically tweaked by a buildings expert to get it right . This process can sometimes take months. Autotune is an ongoing research effort employing machine learning techniques to automate the tuning of the input parameters for an EnergyPlus input description of a building. Even with automation, the computational challenge faced to run the tuning simulation ensemble is daunting and requires the use of supercomputers to make it tractable in time. In this proposal, we describe the scope of the problem, the technical challenges faced and overcome, the machine learning techniques developed and employed, and the software infrastructure developed/in development when taking the EnergyPlus engine, which was primarily designed to run on desktops, and scaling it to run on shared memory supercomputers (Nautilus) and distributed memory supercomputers (Frost and Titan). The parametric simulations produce data in the order of tens to a couple of hundred terabytes.We describe the approaches employed to streamline and reduce bottlenecks in the workflow for this data, which is subsequently being made available for the tuning effort as well as made available publicly for open-science.

  13. Guidelines for Energy Simulation of Commercial Buildings: Final.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Michael; Caner, Phoebe

    1992-03-01

    This report distills the experience gained from intensive computer building simulation work for the Energy Edge project. The purpose of this report is twofold: to use that experience to guide conservation program managers in their use of modeling, and to improve the accuracy of design-phase computer models. Though the main emphasis of the report is on new commercial construction, it also addresses modeling as it pertains to retrofit construction. To achieve these purposes, this report will: (1) discuss the value of modeling for energy conservation programs; (2) discuss strengths and weaknesses of computer models; (3) provide specific guidelines for model input; (4) discuss input topics that are unusually large drivers of energy use and model inaccuracy; (5) provide guidelines for developing baseline models; (6) discuss types of energy conservation measures (ECMs) and building operation that are not suitable to modeling and present possible alternatives to modeling for analysis; and (7) provide basic requirements for model documentation. This project was initiated to determine whether commercial buildings can be designed and constructed to use at least 30% less energy than if they were designed and built to meet the current regional model energy code, the Model Conservation Standards (MCS) developed by the Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council. Secondary objectives of the project are to determine the incremental energy savings of a wide variety of ECMs and to compare the predictive accuracy of design-phase models with models that are carefully tuned to monitored building data.

  14. Radiation exchange between persons and surfaces for building energy simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorre, Mette Havgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Dreau, Jerome Le

    2015-01-01

    intersection points with the edges of the surface, making the method applicable to rooms with complex geometry. The method for calculating view factors is robust and applicable to building energy simulation tools. Calculation time can be long depending on the complexity of geometry, grid-size and the choice...... energy simulations. The method calculates view factors by numerical integration of projected area factor. Over time the projected area factor of a person has been simplified by geometrical shapes. These shapes were compared with more complex equations on precision and calculation time. The same was done...

  15. Building energy analysis of Electrical Engineering Building from DesignBuilder tool: calibration and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, J.; Osma, G.; Caicedo, C.; Torres, A.; Sánchez, S.; Ordóñez, G.

    2016-07-01

    This research shows the energy analysis of the Electrical Engineering Building, located on campus of the Industrial University of Santander in Bucaramanga - Colombia. This building is a green pilot for analysing energy saving strategies such as solar pipes, green roof, daylighting, and automation, among others. Energy analysis was performed by means of DesignBuilder software from virtual model of the building. Several variables were analysed such as air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, daylighting, and energy consumption. According to two criteria, thermal load and energy consumption, critical areas were defined. The calibration and validation process of the virtual model was done obtaining error below 5% in comparison with measured values. The simulations show that the average indoor temperature in the critical areas of the building was 27°C, whilst relative humidity reached values near to 70% per year. The most critical discomfort conditions were found in the area of the greatest concentration of people, which has an average annual temperature of 30°C. Solar pipes can increase 33% daylight levels into the areas located on the upper floors of the building. In the case of the green roofs, the simulated results show that these reduces of nearly 31% of the internal heat gains through the roof, as well as a decrease in energy consumption related to air conditioning of 5% for some areas on the fourth and fifth floor. The estimated energy consumption of the building was 69 283 kWh per year.

  16. Indoor Environment and Energy Use in Historic Buildings - Comparing Survey Results with Measurements and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohdin, P.; Dalewski, M.; Moshfegh, B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing demand for energy efficiency places new requirements on energy use in historic buildings. Efficient energy use is essential if a historic building is to be used and preserved, especially buildings with conventional uses such as residential buildings and offices. This paper presents...... results which combine energy auditing with building energy simulation and an indoor environment survey among the occupants of the building. Both when comparing simulations with measurements as well as with survey results good agreement was found. The two efficiency measures that are predicted to increase...... energy and thermal performance the most for this group of buildings were reduced infiltration and increasing heat-exchanger efficiency....

  17. Co-Simulation of Building Energy and Control Systems with the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-08-22

    This article describes the implementation of the Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB). The BCVTB is a software environment that allows connecting different simulation programs to exchange data during the time integration, and that allows conducting hardware in the loop simulation. The software architecture is a modular design based on Ptolemy II, a software environment for design and analysis of heterogeneous systems. Ptolemy II provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run-time. The BCVTB provides additions to Ptolemy II that allow the run-time coupling of different simulation programs for data exchange, including EnergyPlus, MATLAB, Simulink and the Modelica modelling and simulation environment Dymola. The additions also allow executing system commands, such as a script that executes a Radiance simulation. In this article, the software architecture is presented and the mathematical model used to implement the co-simulation is discussed. The simulation program interface that the BCVTB provides is explained. The article concludes by presenting applications in which different state of the art simulation programs are linked for run-time data exchange. This link allows the use of the simulation program that is best suited for the particular problem to model building heat transfer, HVAC system dynamics and control algorithms, and to compute a solution to the coupled problem using co-simulation.

  18. Energy and thermal analysis of glazed office buildings using a dynamic energy simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirazis, H.; Blomsterberg, A. [Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (Sweden). Div. of Energy and Building Design

    2005-07-01

    Although highly glazed buildings have more access to daylight than traditional buildings their energy efficiency is sometimes questionable. This paper presented energy and indoor climate simulations of single skin office buildings in Sweden with the use of a dynamic energy simulation tool. An analysis of building alternatives with 30, 60 and 100 per cent window areas were investigated. Parameters concerning the buildings' orientation, plan type, control set points and facade type were varied in the simulations. A virtual reference building was created as representative of Swedish office buildings constructed in the late 1990s. The design was determined by various Swedish agencies. Detailed performance specifications for energy and indoor climate were established and typical construction methods were determined. System descriptions and drawings were prepared. A validation of the simulated performance of the building showed that the performance specifications were accurate. A parametric study of energy use and indoor climate was conducted. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and control systems were described in detail. Orientation, plan type, control set points, and facade elements were changed while other parameters such as the shape of the building and occupant activity levels remained the same. A sensitivity analysis was conducted regarding occupant comfort levels and the energy used for operating the building. It was concluded that the energy efficiency of a building depends on facade construction. It was suggested that highly glazed buildings will benefit through the use of advanced simulation tools during the design stage. It was also noted that the main aim when designing glazed buildings should be to avoid a high cooling demand. The impact of control set points on heating and cooling is also crucial for energy use, as well as the orientation of rooms. It was suggested that an increase in glazing area does not necessarily mean higher

  19. Impact of the U.S. National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS) on Building Energy Performance Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2007-08-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Building Sciences (NIBS) started the development of the National Building Information Model Standard (NBIMS). Its goal is to define standard sets of data required to describe any given building in necessary detail so that any given AECO industry discipline application can find needed data at any point in the building lifecycle. This will include all data that are used in or are pertinent to building energy performance simulation and analysis. This paper describes the background that lead to the development of NBIMS, its goals and development methodology, its Part 1 (Version 1.0), and its probable impact on building energy performance simulation and analysis.

  20. Energy simulation and optimization for a small commercial building through Modelica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Bryan

    Small commercial buildings make up the majority of buildings in the United States. Energy consumed by these buildings is expected to drastically increase in the next few decades, with a large percentage of the energy consumed attributed to cooling systems. This work presents the simulation and optimization of a thermostat schedule to minimize energy consumption in a small commercial building test bed during the cooling season. The simulation occurs through the use of the multi-engineering domain Dymola environment based on the Modelica open source programming language and is optimized with the Java based optimization program GenOpt. The simulation uses both physically based modeling utilizing heat transfer principles for the building and regression analysis for energy consumption. GenOpt is dynamically coupled to Dymola through various interface files. There are very few studies that have coupled GenOpt to a building simulation program and even fewer studies have used Dymola for building simulation as extensively as the work presented here. The work presented proves Dymola as a viable alternative to other building simulation programs such as EnergyPlus and MatLab. The model developed is used to simulate the energy consumption of a test bed, a commissioned real world small commercial building, while maintaining indoor thermal comfort. Potential applications include smart or intelligent building systems, predictive simulation of small commercial buildings, and building diagnostics.

  1. Computer simulated building energy consumption for verification of energy conservation measures in network facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankey, B.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program called ECPVER (Energy Consumption Program - Verification) was developed to simulate all energy loads for any number of buildings. The program computes simulated daily, monthly, and yearly energy consumption which can be compared with actual meter readings for the same time period. Such comparison can lead to validation of the model under a variety of conditions, which allows it to be used to predict future energy saving due to energy conservation measures. Predicted energy saving can then be compared with actual saving to verify the effectiveness of those energy conservation changes. This verification procedure is planned to be an important advancement in the Deep Space Network Energy Project, which seeks to reduce energy cost and consumption at all DSN Deep Space Stations.

  2. Energy consumption program: A computer model simulating energy loads in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, F. W.; Lansing, F. L.; Chai, V. W.; Higgins, S.

    1978-01-01

    The JPL energy consumption computer program developed as a useful tool in the on-going building modification studies in the DSN energy conservation project is described. The program simulates building heating and cooling loads and computes thermal and electric energy consumption and cost. The accuracy of computations are not sacrificed, however, since the results lie within + or - 10 percent margin compared to those read from energy meters. The program is carefully structured to reduce both user's time and running cost by asking minimum information from the user and reducing many internal time-consuming computational loops. Many unique features were added to handle two-level electronics control rooms not found in any other program.

  3. Advancement of DOE's EnergyPlus Building Energy Simulation Payment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Lixing [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Shirey, Don [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Raustad, Richard [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Nigusse, Bereket [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sharma, Chandan [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Lawrie, Linda [DHL Consulting, Bonn (Germany); Strand, Rick [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Pedersen, Curt [COPA, Panama City (Panama); Fisher, Dan [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Lee, Edwin [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Witte, Mike [GARD Analytics, Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Glazer, Jason [GARD Analytics, Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Barnaby, Chip [Wrightsoft, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2011-09-30

    EnergyPlus{sup TM} is a new generation computer software analysis tool that has been developed, tested, and commercialized to support DOE's Building Technologies (BT) Program in terms of whole-building, component, and systems R&D (http://www.energyplus.gov). It is also being used to support evaluation and decision making of zero energy building (ZEB) energy efficiency and supply technologies during new building design and existing building retrofits. The 5-year project was managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory and was divided into 5 budget period between 2006 and 2011. During the project period, 11 versions of EnergyPlus were released. This report summarizes work performed by an EnergyPlus development team led by the University of Central Florida's Florida Solar Energy Center (UCF/FSEC). The team members consist of DHL Consulting, C. O. Pedersen Associates, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Oklahoma State University, GARD Analytics, Inc., and WrightSoft Corporation. The project tasks involved new feature development, testing and validation, user support and training, and general EnergyPlus support. The team developed 146 new features during the 5-year period to advance the EnergyPlus capabilities. Annual contributions of new features are 7 in budget period 1, 19 in period 2, 36 in period 3, 41 in period 4, and 43 in period 5, respectively. The testing and validation task focused on running test suite and publishing report, developing new IEA test suite cases, testing and validating new source code, addressing change requests, and creating and testing installation package. The user support and training task provided support for users and interface developers, and organized and taught workshops. The general support task involved upgrading StarTeam (team sharing) software and updating existing utility software. The project met the DOE objectives and completed all tasks successfully. Although the EnergyPlus software was enhanced

  4. Thermal energy storage in buildings using PCM. Computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khudhair, A.M.; Farid, M.M.; Chen, J.J.J. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Bansal, P.K. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results of phase changing material, RT20, impregnated up to 26%-wt into the gypsum wallboards to produce a significant thermal storage medium (PCMGW). A full-scale test facility using the PCMGW was monitored for two years, and was modeled using the thermal building simulation package, SUNREL, to evaluate the latent heat storage performance of the PCM treated wallboards. Measured and simulated results showed that the use of PCMGW met two needs: quick absorption of solar heat for use during off-sunshine hours and avoid overheating during sunshine hours. The PCMGWs effectively smoothed out diurnal daily fluctuations of indoor air temperatures on sunny days and, therefore, providing thermal comfort. Although the benefits of PCMGW were clearly demonstrated, it was necessary to optimize the melting point and quantity of the PCM and to highlight the importance of showing how many days the PCM could effectively minimize the indoor temperature fluctuation. In a 90-day period during summer, a PCM of with a melting range of 18 C - 22 C could be fully utilized for 39% and partially utilized for 55.5% of the summer days when there is either partial melting or partial freezing. There is no benefit for only 5.5% of the summer days when the PCM remains either in the solid or liquid state. These percentages show that the decision of using 26%-wt RT20 with the melting range of 18-22 C is a practical and realistic one. (orig.)

  5. The Database of Egyptian Building Envelopes (DEBE): A database for building energy simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Shady; Wanas, O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a part of an ongoing research that aims to describe the influence of building constructions on energy consumption through a survey that is conducted in Cairo and its surrounding residential neighbourhoods. An inventory of the selected neighbourhoods envelope constructions and their characteristics is described in accordance with the new Egyptian energy standard for residential buildings. After thorough screening and classification, the constructions are digitalized and uploa...

  6. Energy Consumption and Indoor Environment Predicted by a Combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Building Energy Performance Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2003-01-01

    An interconnection between a building energy performance simulation program and a Computational Fluid Dynamics program (CFD) for room air distribution is introduced for improvement of the predictions of both the energy consumption and the indoor environment.The article describes a calculation...... of the energy consumption in a large building where the building energy simulation program is modified by CFD predictions of the flow between three zones that are connected by pressure and buoyancy-driven air flow through open areas. The two programs are interconnected in an iterative procedure. The article...... shows also an evaluation of the air quality in the main area of the buildings based on CFD predictions. It is demonstrated that an interconnection between a CFD program and a building energy performance simulation program will improve both the energy consumption data and the prediction of thermal...

  7. Simulation Technology of Environmental Impacts by Zero-energy Residential Buildings Based on Emergy Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhou; XiaoLong Xue; WangShu Yang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation technology of environmental impact for the building. By emergy analysis method, emergy costs of building( or construction engineering) can be calculated in the life cycle. It includes the engineering cost, environmental cost and social cost of building. Through integrating GIS technology with multi-agent technology, life cycle substance and energy metabolism of building ( construction engineering) can be simulated and their environmental influence can be dynamically displayed. Based on the case study of entries works ‘Sunny Inside’ by Xiamen University in 2013 China International Solar Decathlon Competition, we discovered the changing pattern of surrounding environmental impact from waste streams of the zero-energy building and ordinary construction. The simulation results verified and showed the Odum principles of maximum power. This paper provides a new research perspective and integration approach for the environmental impact assessment in building and construction engineering. The result will help decision-making in design and construction engineering scheme.

  8. Issues to Be Solved for Energy Simulation of An Existing Office Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Uhn Ahn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing focus on low energy buildings and the need to develop sustainable built environments, Building Energy Performance Simulation (BEPS tools have been widely used. However, many issues remain when applying BEPS tools to existing buildings. This paper presents the issues that need to be solved for the application of BEPS tools to an existing office building. The selected building is an office building with 33 stories above ground, six underground levels, and a total floor area of 91,898 m2. The issues to be discussed in this paper are as follows: (1 grey data not ready for simulation; (2 subjective assumptions and judgments on energy modeling; (3 stochastic characteristics of building performance and occupants behavior; (4 verification of model fidelity-comparison of aggregated energy; (5 verification of model fidelity-calibration by trial and error; and (6 use of simulation model for real-time energy management. This study investigates the aforementioned issues and explains the factors that should be considered to address these issues when developing a dynamic simulation model for existing buildings.

  9. Brute force optimization: combining mass energy simulation and life cycle analysis to optimize building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, Stuart; Richman, Russell [Department of Architectural Science, Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Science, Ryerson University (Canada)], email: sfix@ryerson.ca, email: richman@ryerson.ca

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of energy resources and the rising concerns about the environment, building designers are shifting towards green building designs. However since no design optimization for an entire building exists, a significant degree of uncertainty is involved in design decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the brute force optimization process which is a method removing the uncertainty from green building designs. This method relies on the selection of optimization criteria and then several simulations are performed. A demonstration pilot was carried out in Toronto and over one million design permutations were conducted. Results showed that parameters such as total building area, window performance and infiltration level are the most important to the lifetime energy consumption of a building. This study pointed out the important parameters to optimize in order to reduce a building's energy consumption.

  10. Simulation-based support for integrated design of new low-energy office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    design disciplines (structural, fire, architecture etc.) to the integrated building design process. The research therefore revolves around the hypothesis that parametric analyses on the energy performance, indoor environment and total economy of rooms with respect to geometry and characteristics...... of building elements and services can be used to generate a useful input to the early stage of an integrated building design process. To pursue a corroboration of this hypothesis, a method for making informed decisions when establishing the input to the overall building design process is proposed. The method...... relies on the use of building simulation to illustrate how design parameters will affect the energy performance and the quality of the indoor environment prior to any actual design decision. The method is made operational in a simple building simulation tool capable of performing integrated performance...

  11. An experience on integrating monitoring and simulation tools in the design of energy-saving buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S. Flores; Lesino, G. [INENCO, Universidad Nacional de Salta, CONICET, Buenos Aires 177 (4400) Salta (Argentina); Filippin, C.; Beascochea, A. [Universidad Nacional de La Pampa, CONICET, Spinetto 785 (6300) Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we describe the design and thermal behaviour of a bioclimatic Auditorium at the National University of La Pampa, used for teaching activities in Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina). The building was monitored in winter and simulated with SIMEDIF for Windows, a code developed at the Non Conventional Energy Research Institute (INENCO, Argentina). Then, a new project of a similar building was proposed for General Pico city, and the obtained physical model was used to simulate the building under the summer temperatures of the new city. The building was redesigned and passive solar strategies were applied to reduce heating and cooling loads. The final layout and the monitored thermal behaviour of the new building in winter and summer are described. Without additional cost, the new building savings were 50% in heating requirements respect to the conventional layout, and 70% in the requirements of conventional energy for cooling. (author)

  12. Simulated thermal energy demand and actual energy consumption in refurbished and non-refurbished buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, C. A.; Visa, I.; Duta, A.

    2016-08-01

    The EU legal frame imposes the Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) status to any new public building starting with January 1st, 2019 and for any other new building starting with 2021. Basically, nZEB represents a Low Energy Building (LEB) that covers more than half of the energy demand by using renewable energy systems installed on or close to it. Thus, two steps have to be followed in developing nZEB: (1) reaching the LEB status through state- of-the art architectural and construction solutions (for the new buildings) or through refurbishing for the already existent buildings, followed by (2) implementing renewables; in Romania, over 65% of the energy demand in a building is directly linked to heating, domestic hot water (DHW), and - in certain areas - for cooling. Thus, effort should be directed to reduce the thermal energy demand to be further covered by using clean and affordable systems: solar- thermal systems, heat pumps, biomass, etc. or their hybrid combinations. Obviously this demand is influenced by the onsite climatic profile and by the building performance. An almost worst case scenario is approached in the paper, considering a community implemented in a mountain area, with cold and long winters and mild summers (Odorheiul Secuiesc city, Harghita county, Romania). Three representative types of buildings are analysed: multi-family households (in blocks of flats), single-family houses and administrative buildings. For the first two types, old and refurbished buildings were comparatively discussed.

  13. Assessment of Retrofitting Measures for a Large Historic Research Facility Using a Building Energy Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Tae Chae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A calibrated building simulation model was developed to assess the energy performance of a large historic research building. The complexity of space functions and operational conditions with limited availability of energy meters makes it hard to understand the end-used energy consumption in detail and to identify appropriate retrofitting options for reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. An energy simulation model was developed to study the energy usage patterns not only at a building level, but also of the internal thermal zones, and system operations. The model was validated using site measurements of energy usage and a detailed audit of the internal load conditions, system operation, and space programs to minimize the discrepancy between the documented status and actual operational conditions. Based on the results of the calibrated model and end-used energy consumption, the study proposed potential energy conservation measures (ECMs for the building envelope, HVAC system operational methods, and system replacement. It also evaluated each ECM from the perspective of both energy and utility cost saving potentials to help retrofitting plan decision making. The study shows that the energy consumption of the building was highly dominated by the thermal requirements of laboratory spaces. Among other ECMs the demand management option of overriding the setpoint temperature is the most cost effective measure.

  14. Stochastic Modeling of Overtime Occupancy and Its Application in Building Energy Simulation and Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Kaiyu; Yan, Da; Hong, Tianzhen; Guo, Siyue

    2014-02-28

    Overtime is a common phenomenon around the world. Overtime drives both internal heat gains from occupants, lighting and plug-loads, and HVAC operation during overtime periods. Overtime leads to longer occupancy hours and extended operation of building services systems beyond normal working hours, thus overtime impacts total building energy use. Current literature lacks methods to model overtime occupancy because overtime is stochastic in nature and varies by individual occupants and by time. To address this gap in the literature, this study aims to develop a new stochastic model based on the statistical analysis of measured overtime occupancy data from an office building. A binomial distribution is used to represent the total number of occupants working overtime, while an exponential distribution is used to represent the duration of overtime periods. The overtime model is used to generate overtime occupancy schedules as an input to the energy model of a second office building. The measured and simulated cooling energy use during the overtime period is compared in order to validate the overtime model. A hybrid approach to energy model calibration is proposed and tested, which combines ASHRAE Guideline 14 for the calibration of the energy model during normal working hours, and a proposed KS test for the calibration of the energy model during overtime. The developed stochastic overtime model and the hybrid calibration approach can be used in building energy simulations to improve the accuracy of results, and better understand the characteristics of overtime in office buildings.

  15. Simulation-based coefficients for adjusting climate impact on energy consumption of commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Hathaway, John E.

    2016-11-23

    This paper presents a new technique for and the results of normalizing building energy consumption to enable a fair comparison among various types of buildings located near different weather stations across the U.S. The method was developed for the U.S. Building Energy Asset Score, a whole-building energy efficiency rating system focusing on building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting systems. The Asset Score is calculated based on simulated energy use under standard operating conditions. Existing weather normalization methods such as those based on heating and cooling degrees days are not robust enough to adjust all climatic factors such as humidity and solar radiation. In this work, over 1000 sets of climate coefficients were developed to separately adjust building heating, cooling, and fan energy use at each weather station in the United States. This paper also presents a robust, standardized weather station mapping based on climate similarity rather than choosing the closest weather station. This proposed simulated-based climate adjustment was validated through testing on several hundreds of thousands of modeled buildings. Results indicated the developed climate coefficients can isolate and adjust for the impacts of local climate for asset rating.

  16. Simulation Speed Analysis and Improvements of Modelica Models for Building Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorissen, Filip; Wetter, Michael; Helsen, Lieve

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents an approach for speeding up Modelica models. Insight is provided into how Modelica models are solved and what determines the tool’s computational speed. Aspects such as algebraic loops, code efficiency and integrator choice are discussed. This is illustrated using simple building simulation examples and Dymola. The generality of the work is in some cases verified using OpenModelica. Using this approach, a medium sized office building including building envelope, heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and control strategy can be simulated at a speed five hundred times faster than real time.

  17. Calibrated energy simulations of potential energy savings in actual retail buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhafi, Zuhaira

    Retail stores are commercial buildings with high energy consumption due to their typically large volumes and long hours of operation. This dissertation assesses heating, ventilating and air conditioning saving strategies based on energy simulations with input parameters from actual retail buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is that "Retail store buildings will save a significant amount of energy by (1) modifying ventilation rates, and/or (2) resetting set point temperatures. These strategies have shown to be beneficial in previous studies. As presented in the literature review, potential energy savings ranged from 0.5% to 30% without compromising indoor thermal comfort and indoor air quality. The retail store buildings can be ventilated at rates significantly lower than rates called for in the ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Therefore, two dissertation objectives are addressed: (1) Investigate opportunities to reduce ventilation rates that do not compromise indoor air quality in retail stores located in Central Pennsylvania, (2) Investigate opportunities to increase (in summer) and decrease (in winter) set point temperatures that do not compromise thermal comfort. This study conducted experimental measurements of ventilation rates required to maintain acceptable air quality and indoor environmental conditions requirements for two retail stores using ASHRAE Standard 62.1_2012. More specifically, among other parameters, occupancy density, indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations, and indoor temperatures were measured continuously for one week interval. One of these retail stores were tested four times for a yearlong time period. Pollutants monitored were formaldehyde, carbon dioxide, particle size distributions and concentrations, as well as total volatile organic compounds. As a part of the base protocol, the number of occupants in each store was hourly counted during the test, and the results reveal that the occupant

  18. Achieving Actionable Results from Available Inputs: Metamodels Take Building Energy Simulations One Step Further

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsey, Henry; Fleming, Katherine; Ball, Brian; Long, Nicholas

    2016-08-26

    Modeling commercial building energy usage can be a difficult and time-consuming task. The increasing prevalence of optimization algorithms provides one path for reducing the time and difficulty. Many use cases remain, however, where information regarding whole-building energy usage is valuable, but the time and expertise required to run and post-process a large number of building energy simulations is intractable. A relatively underutilized option to accurately estimate building energy consumption in real time is to pre-compute large datasets of potential building energy models, and use the set of results to quickly and efficiently provide highly accurate data. This process is called metamodeling. In this paper, two case studies are presented demonstrating the successful applications of metamodeling using the open-source OpenStudio Analysis Framework. The first case study involves the U.S. Department of Energy's Asset Score Tool, specifically the Preview Asset Score Tool, which is designed to give nontechnical users a near-instantaneous estimated range of expected results based on building system-level inputs. The second case study involves estimating the potential demand response capabilities of retail buildings in Colorado. The metamodel developed in this second application not only allows for estimation of a single building's expected performance, but also can be combined with public data to estimate the aggregate DR potential across various geographic (county and state) scales. In both case studies, the unique advantages of pre-computation allow building energy models to take the place of topdown actuarial evaluations. This paper ends by exploring the benefits of using metamodels and then examines the cost-effectiveness of this approach.

  19. Optimization of the Building Energy Performance through Dynamic Modeling, Systems Simulation, Field Monitoring and Evaluation of Renewable Energy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Banerjee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The annual energy consumption in the residential and commercial sectors, in India is rising consistently at about 8% and the overall energy consumption in buildings has seen an increase from a low of 14% in the 1970s to nearly 33% in 2004/05. The electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 254.049 GW as of end of September 2014. The research paper will deal with the modeling and optimization of the building energy performance by means of the application of the dynamic building simulation, the optimization of the energy systems and the verification of the energy consumptions and comfort conditions. An integrated tool is at an early stage of development to optimize the building energy performance to be expressed in terms of total energy use. The goal of the research paper is to optimize the building energy performance through the potential of the passive building technologies and the increase of efficiency of the building system.

  20. A SOFTWARE TOOL TO COMPARE MEASURED AND SIMULATED BUILDING ENERGY PERFORMANCE DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maile, Tobias; Bazjanac, Vladimir; O' Donnell, James; Garr, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    Building energy performance is often inadequate when compared to design goals. To link design goals to actual operation one can compare measured with simulated energy performance data. Our previously developed comparison approach is the Energy Performance Comparison Methodology (EPCM), which enables the identification of performance problems based on a comparison of measured and simulated performance data. In context of this method, we developed a software tool that provides graphing and data processing capabilities of the two performance data sets. The software tool called SEE IT (Stanford Energy Efficiency Information Tool) eliminates the need for manual generation of data plots and data reformatting. SEE IT makes the generation of time series, scatter and carpet plots independent of the source of data (measured or simulated) and provides a valuable tool for comparing measurements with simulation results. SEE IT also allows assigning data points on a predefined building object hierarchy and supports different versions of simulated performance data. This paper briefly introduces the EPCM, describes the SEE IT tool and illustrates its use in the context of a building case study.

  1. The updated algorithm of the Energy Consumption Program (ECP): A computer model simulating heating and cooling energy loads in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Strain, D. M.; Chai, V. W.; Higgins, S.

    1979-01-01

    The energy Comsumption Computer Program was developed to simulate building heating and cooling loads and compute thermal and electric energy consumption and cost. This article reports on the new additional algorithms and modifications made in an effort to widen the areas of application. The program structure was rewritten accordingly to refine and advance the building model and to further reduce the processing time and cost. The program is noted for its very low cost and ease of use compared to other available codes. The accuracy of computations is not sacrificed however, since the results are expected to lie within + or - 10% of actual energy meter readings.

  2. Combining a building simulation with energy systems analysis to assess the benefits of natural ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Remmen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    systems analysis. Results show that for an energy system such as the Mexican, with a relatively simple connection between supply and demand of electricity, natural ventilation mainly creates savings, whereas in the Danish system, the system operation is also affected by energy savings through natural......This article shows the combination of a thermal air flow simulation program with an energy systems analysis model in order to assess the use of natural ventilation as a method for saving energy within residential buildings in large-scale scenarios. The aim is to show the benefits for utilizing...... natural airflow instead of active systems such as mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning in buildings where the indoor temperature is over the upper limit of the comfort range. The combination is done by introducing the energy saving output - calculated with a model of natural ventilation using...

  3. Effective Energy Simulation and Optimal Design of Side-lit Buildings with Venetian Blinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tian

    Venetian blinds are popularly used in buildings to control the amount of incoming daylight for improving visual comfort and reducing heat gains in air-conditioning systems. Studies have shown that the proper design and operation of window systems could result in significant energy savings in both lighting and cooling. However, there is no convenient computer tool that allows effective and efficient optimization of the envelope of side-lit buildings with blinds now. Three computer tools, Adeline, DOE2 and EnergyPlus widely used for the above-mentioned purpose have been experimentally examined in this study. Results indicate that the two former tools give unacceptable accuracy due to unrealistic assumptions adopted while the last one may generate large errors in certain conditions. Moreover, current computer tools have to conduct hourly energy simulations, which are not necessary for life-cycle energy analysis and optimal design, to provide annual cooling loads. This is not computationally efficient, particularly not suitable for optimal designing a building at initial stage because the impacts of many design variations and optional features have to be evaluated. A methodology is therefore developed for efficient and effective thermal and daylighting simulations and optimal design of buildings with blinds. Based on geometric optics and radiosity method, a mathematical model is developed to reasonably simulate the daylighting behaviors of venetian blinds. Indoor illuminance at any reference point can be directly and efficiently computed. They have been validated with both experiments and simulations with Radiance. Validation results show that indoor illuminances computed by the new models agree well with the measured data, and the accuracy provided by them is equivalent to that of Radiance. The computational efficiency of the new models is much higher than that of Radiance as well as EnergyPlus. Two new methods are developed for the thermal simulation of buildings. A

  4. Expand the Modeling Capabilities of DOE's EnergyPlus Building Energy Simulation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Shirey

    2008-02-28

    EnergyPlus{trademark} is a new generation computer software analysis tool that has been developed, tested, and commercialized to support DOE's Building Technologies (BT) Program in terms of whole-building, component, and systems R&D (http://www.energyplus.gov). It is also being used to support evaluation and decision making of zero energy building (ZEB) energy efficiency and supply technologies during new building design and existing building retrofits. Version 1.0 of EnergyPlus was released in April 2001, followed by semiannual updated versions over the ensuing seven-year period. This report summarizes work performed by the University of Central Florida's Florida Solar Energy Center (UCF/FSEC) to expand the modeling capabilities of EnergyPlus. The project tasks involved implementing, testing, and documenting the following new features or enhancement of existing features: (1) A model for packaged terminal heat pumps; (2) A model for gas engine-driven heat pumps with waste heat recovery; (3) Proper modeling of window screens; (4) Integrating and streamlining EnergyPlus air flow modeling capabilities; (5) Comfort-based controls for cooling and heating systems; and (6) An improved model for microturbine power generation with heat recovery. UCF/FSEC located existing mathematical models or generated new model for these features and incorporated them into EnergyPlus. The existing or new models were (re)written using Fortran 90/95 programming language and were integrated within EnergyPlus in accordance with the EnergyPlus Programming Standard and Module Developer's Guide. Each model/feature was thoroughly tested and identified errors were repaired. Upon completion of each model implementation, the existing EnergyPlus documentation (e.g., Input Output Reference and Engineering Document) was updated with information describing the new or enhanced feature. Reference data sets were generated for several of the features to aid program users in selecting proper

  5. Indoor environment and energy consumption optimization using field measurements and building energy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Chasapis, Kleanthis; Gazovic, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Modern buildings are usually equipped with advanced climate conditioning systems to ensure comfort of their occupants. However, analysis of their actual operation usually identifies large potential for improvements with respect to their efficiency. Present study investigated potential...... for improvements in an existing office building – a Town Hall of Viborg, Denmark. Thorough field measurements of indoor environment and occupant satisfaction survey were conducted to identify and describe indoor environmental quality problems. Collected data were also used to calibrate computer simulation model......, which was used for optimization of building’s performance. Proposed optimization scenarios bring 21-37% reduction on heating consumption and thermal comfort improvement by 7-12%. The approach (procedure) can help to optimize building operation and shorten the adjustment period....

  6. Hourly test reference weather data in the changing climate of Finland for building energy simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Jylhä

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic building energy simulations need hourly weather data as input. The same high temporal resolution is required for assessments of future heating and cooling energy demand. The data presented in this article concern current typical values and estimated future changes in outdoor air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and global, diffuse and normal solar radiation components. Simulated annual and seasonal delivered energy consumptions for heating of spaces, heating of ventilation supply air and cooling of spaces in the current and future climatic conditions are also presented for an example house, with district heating and a mechanical space cooling system. We provide details on how the synthetic future weather files were created and utilised as input data for dynamic building energy simulations by the IDA Indoor Climate and Energy program and also for calculations of heating and cooling degree-day sums. The information supplied here is related to the research article titled “Energy demand for the heating and cooling of residential houses in Finland in a changing climate” [1].

  7. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX) Methodology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.

    2011-11-01

    The test suite represents a set of cases applying the new Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX) Methodology developed by NREL. (Judkoff et al. 2010a). The NREL team developed the test cases in consultation with the home retrofit industry (BESTEST-EX Working Group 2009), and adjusted the test specifications in accordance with information supplied by a participant with access to large utility bill datasets (Blasnik 2009).

  8. IFC BIM-Based Methodology for Semi-Automated Building Energy Performance Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2008-07-01

    Building energy performance (BEP) simulation is still rarely used in building design, commissioning and operations. The process is too costly and too labor intensive, and it takes too long to deliver results. Its quantitative results are not reproducible due to arbitrary decisions and assumptions made in simulation model definition, and can be trusted only under special circumstances. A methodology to semi-automate BEP simulation preparation and execution makes this process much more effective. It incorporates principles of information science and aims to eliminate inappropriate human intervention that results in subjective and arbitrary decisions. This is achieved by automating every part of the BEP modeling and simulation process that can be automated, by relying on data from original sources, and by making any necessary data transformation rule-based and automated. This paper describes the new methodology and its relationship to IFC-based BIM and software interoperability. It identifies five steps that are critical to its implementation, and shows what part of the methodology can be applied today. The paper concludes with a discussion of application to simulation with EnergyPlus, and describes data transformation rules embedded in the new Geometry Simplification Tool (GST).

  9. Statistical simulation of user behaviour in low-energy office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfafferott, J.; Herkel, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    A large number of design guidelines and tools are available for the design of passive cooling systems. Using the underlying thermodynamic models, a certain input (e.g. air change rate, internal heat gains or sun control) results in a certain output (i.e. room temperature). However, in real buildings the room temperature at a given outdoor temperature is a distribution rather than a single value. Therefore, the building engineer should take uncertainties into account, since the actual use of the building, the building physical properties or the user behaviour are statistically distributed. One promising approach to include these uncertainties in the design procedure is the use of statistical models: the design parameter is defined by a mean value and its deviation. From a control theoretical point of view, the deterministic controlled system responds to random disturbance variables by a statistically distributed response function. Considering the institute building of Fraunhofer ISE as example, this study shows how statistical simulations can be applied to the design process of passive cooling in low-energy office buildings. (author)

  10. Validation studies of the DOE-2 Building Energy Simulation Program. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.; Winkelmann, F.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents many of the validation studies (Table 1) of the DOE-2 building energy analysis simulation program that have taken place since 1981. Results for several versions of the program are presented with the most recent study conducted in 1996 on version DOE-2.1E and the most distant study conducted in 1981 on version DOE-1.3. This work is part of an effort related to continued development of DOE-2, particularly in its use as a simulation engine for new specialized versions of the program such as the recently released RESFEN 3.1. RESFEN 3.1 is a program specifically dealing with analyzing the energy performance of windows in residential buildings. The intent in providing the results of these validation studies is to give potential users of the program a high degree of confidence in the calculated results. Validation studies in which calculated simulation data is compared to measured data have been conducted throughout the development of the DOE-2 program. Discrepancies discovered during the course of such work has resulted in improvements in the simulation algorithms. Table 2 provides a listing of additions and modifications that have been made to various versions of the program since version DOE-2.1A. One of the most significant recent changes in the program occurred with version DOE-2.1E. An improved algorithm for calculating the outside surface film coefficient was implemented. In addition, integration of the WINDOW 4 program was accomplished resulting in improved ability in analyzing window energy performance. Validation and verification of a program as sophisticated as DOE-2 must necessarily be limited because of the approximations inherent in the program. For example, the most accurate model of the heat transfer processes in a building would include a three-dimensional analysis. To justify such detailed algorithmic procedures would correspondingly require detailed information describing the building and/or HVAC system and energy plant parameters

  11. A virtual laboratory for the simulation of sustainable energy systems in a low energy building: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, M.; O'Donovan, A.; Murphy, M. D.; Delaney, F.; Hill, M.; Sullivan, P. D. O.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop a virtual laboratory simulation platform of the National Building Retrofit Test-bed at the Cork Institute of Technology, Ireland. The building in question is a low-energy retrofit which is provided with electricity by renewable systems including photovoltaics and wind. It can be thought of as a living laboratory, as a number of internal and external building factors are recorded at regular intervals during human occupation. The analysis carried out in this paper demonstrated that, for the period from April to September 2015, the electricity provided by the renewable systems did not consistently match the building’s electricity requirements due to differing load profiles. It was concluded that the use of load shifting techniques may help to increase the percentage of renewable energy utilisation.

  12. Energy Simulation of a Holographic PVT Concentrating System for Building Integration Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Marín-Sáez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A building integrated holographic concentrating photovoltaic-thermal system has been optically and energetically simulated. The system has been designed to be superimposed into a solar shading louvre; in this way the concentrating unit takes profit of the solar altitude tracking, which the shading blinds already have, to increase system performance. A dynamic energy simulation has been conducted in two different locations—Sde Boker (Israel and Avignon (France—both with adequate annual irradiances for solar applications, but with different weather and energy demand characteristics. The simulation engine utilized has been TRNSYS, coupled with MATLAB (where the ray-tracing algorithm to simulate the holographic optical performance has been implemented. The concentrator achieves annual mean optical efficiencies of 30.3% for Sde Boker and 43.0% for the case of Avignon. Regarding the energy production, in both locations the thermal energy produced meets almost 100% of the domestic hot water demand as this has been considered a priority in the system control. On the other hand, the space heating demands are covered by a percentage ranging from 15% (Avignon to 20% (Sde Boker. Finally, the electricity produced in both places covers 7.4% of the electrical demand profile for Sde Boker and 9.1% for Avignon.

  13. Weather data analysis based on typical weather sequence analysis. Application: energy building simulation

    CERN Document Server

    David, Mathieu; Garde, Francois; Boyer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In building studies dealing about energy efficiency and comfort, simulation software need relevant weather files with optimal time steps. Few tools generate extreme and mean values of simultaneous hourly data including correlation between the climatic parameters. This paper presents the C++ Runeole software based on typical weather sequences analysis. It runs an analysis process of a stochastic continuous multivariable phenomenon with frequencies properties applied to a climatic database. The database analysis associates basic statistics, PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and automatic classifications. Different ways of applying these methods will be presented. All the results are stored in the Runeole internal database that allows an easy selection of weather sequences. The extreme sequences are used for system and building sizing and the mean sequences are used for the determination of the annual cooling loads as proposed by Audrier-Cros (Audrier-Cros, 1984). This weather analysis was tested with the datab...

  14. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  15. Development and integration of a green roof model within whole building energy simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Decruz, Aloysius

    2016-01-01

    Green roofs are increasingly being employed as a sustainability feature of buildings. The sustainability approach in building designs requires reducing energy consumption and adopting low carbon energy sources without compromising the increasing expectations of comfort and health levels. Given the wide range of building designs, climates and green roof types, it is desirable to evaluate at the design stage the energy saving impact and other potential benefits from the application of green roo...

  16. Simulation of energy use, human thermal comfort and office work performance in buildings with moderately drifting operative temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2011-01-01

    ) supplemented with CAV ventilation. Simulations comprised moderate, hot–dry and hot–humid climate. Heavy and light wall construction and two orientations of the building (east–west and north–south) were considered. Besides the energy use, also capability of examined systems to keep a certain level of thermal......Annual primary energy use in a central module of an office building consisting of two offices separated with a corridor was estimated by means of dynamic computer simulations. The simulations were conducted for conventional all-air VAV ventilation system and thermo active building system (TABS...... comfort was examined. The results showed that with the moderate climate, the TABS decreased the primary energy use by about 16% as compared with the VAV. With hot–humid climate, the portion of the primary energy saved by TABS was ca. 50% even with the supply air dehumidification taken into account...

  17. EXPANDING THE CAPABILITIES OF DOE'S ENERGYPLUS BUILDING ENERGY SIMULATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don B. Shirey, III; Richard A. Raustad

    2004-04-01

    EnergyPlus{trademark} is a new generation analysis tool that is being developed, tested, and commercialized to support DOE's Building Technologies (BT) Program in terms of whole-building, component, and systems R&D (http://www.energyplus.gov). It will also support evaluation and decision making of zero energy building (ZEB) energy efficiency and supply technologies during new building design and existing building retrofits. Version 1.0 of EnergyPlus was released in April 2001, followed by six updated versions over the ensuing three-year period. This report summarizes work performed by the University of Central Florida's Florida Solar Energy Center (UCF/FSEC) to expand the capabilities of EnergyPlus. The project tasks involved implementing, testing, and documenting the following new features: (1) A model for energy recovery ventilation equipment that transfers both sensible (temperature) and latent (moisture) energy between building exhaust air and incoming outdoor ventilation air; (2) A model to account for the degradation of cooling coil dehumidification performance at part-load conditions; (3) A model for cooling coils augmented with air-to-air heat exchangers for improved dehumidification; and (4) A heat transfer coefficient calculator and automatic sizing algorithms for the existing EnergyPlus cooling tower model. UCF/FSEC located existing mathematical models for these features and incorporated them into EnergyPlus. The software models were written using Fortran-90 and were integrated within EnergyPlus in accordance with the EnergyPlus Programming Standard and Module Developer's Guide. Each model/feature was thoroughly tested and identified errors were repaired. Upon completion of each model implementation, the existing EnergyPlus documentation (Input Output Reference and Engineering Document) was updated with information describing the new model/feature.

  18. Dynamic Simulation of the Green Roofs Impact on Building Energy Performance, Case Study of Antananarivo, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Tiana Rakotondramiarana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs improve building energy performance and constitute an alternative to sustainable buildings. A green roof model is dynamically coupled with a building thermal model to assess its energy performance that takes into account the indoor air temperature dynamic changes. Under the climate conditions in Antananarivo, we compared green and conventional roofs. The present study shows that green roofs protect the roof structure under extreme temperature and large temperature fluctuations. For the case of Antananarivo, the amplitude of the temperature fluctuations at the top face of the support is reduced by 28 °C when using green roof. The impact of the green roof on indoor air temperature and energy demand is investigated. The vegetation decreases the maximum indoor air temperature and improves the building thermal comfort during summer days. It has no effect on the minimum indoor air temperature, but additional soil thickness can increase it. In addition, a global sensitivity analysis, which is carried out on the proposed model without considering any specific weather data, allows us to identify the most influential parameters on the energy demand. It has been found that green roofs have almost insignificant thermal impact in insulated buildings; however, their potential prevails over the building envelope and weather characteristics in the case of non-insulated building.

  19. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.; Polly, B.; Collis, J.

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define 'explicit' input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  20. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    and Ben Polly, Joseph Robertson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Collis, Jon [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define "explicit" input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  1. Validation Methodology to Allow Simulated Peak Reduction and Energy Performance Analysis of Residential Building Envelope with Phase Change Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Christensen, C.; Bianchi, M.

    2012-08-01

    Phase change materials (PCM) represent a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in residential buildings. This paper summarizes NREL efforts to obtain accurate energy simulations when PCMs are modeled in residential buildings: the overall methodology to verify and validate Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) and PCM algorithms in EnergyPlus is presented in this study. It also shows preliminary results of three residential building enclosure technologies containing PCM: PCM-enhanced insulation, PCM impregnated drywall and thin PCM layers. The results are compared based on predicted peak reduction and energy savings using two algorithms in EnergyPlus: the PCM and Conduction Finite Difference (CondFD) algorithms.

  2. Modelling, experimentation and simulation of a reversible HP/ORC unit to get a Positive Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Carmo, Carolina; Quoilin, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    covering the building annual heating needs and, furthermore, electricity is produced thanks to the surplus of heat in a so-called HP/ORC reversible unit. This paper focus on these three main points: sizing, experimentation and simulation of the reversible unit. First, an optimal sizing of the components...... storage, the solar roof and the reversible HP/ORC unit is developed and allows to perform a sensivity analysis. Annual results show that this technology leads to a Positive Energy Building....... and fluid R134a shows promising performance with a net electrical energy produced over one year reaching 4030 kWh. Following that, a prototype has been built and has proven the feasibility of the technology. Finally, a simulation code including the building, the ground heat exchanger, the thermal energy...

  3. Optimization of sustainable buildings envelopes for extensive sheep farming through the use of dynamic energy simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Menconi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive sheep farming can be seen as a marginal market, compared to other livestock and agricultural activities, taking into account only the economic absolute values. But for many rural marginal areas within the European Community member states, in particular for those located in the Mediterranean area on hills or mountains with high landscape value, extensive sheep farming is not only the longest practiced animal farming activity, but also the most interesting considering its adaptability to the territorial morphology and the restrictions that have been established over the years in terms of sustainable rural development practices. At the moment, most of the structures used in this type of farming are built using low cost and sometimes recycled, but often unsuitable, materials. Few specific studies have been carried out on this particular issue assuming, presumably, that the very low profit margins of these activities made impossible any restructuring. Taken this into account, the new Rural Development Plans that will be issued in 2014 will surely contain some measure dedicated to innovations in farming structures and technology towards facilitating the application of the principles of energy optimization. This is the framework in which the present research has developed. The software that has been applied to perform the energy optimization analysis is the dynamic energy simulation engine Energy Plus. A case study farm has been identified in the small village of Ceseggi (PG, situated in Central Italy. For the case study optimum thermo hygrometric conditions have been identified to ensure the welfare of animals and operators and it has been hypothesized the insertion of an ideal HVAC system to achieve them. Afterwards were evaluated the different energy requirements of the building while varying the insulation material used on the vertical surfaces. The greater goal is to verify which could be the best insulation material for vertical

  4. A technical framework to describe occupant behavior for building energy simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William; Hong, Tianzhen

    2013-12-20

    Green buildings that fail to meet expected design performance criteria indicate that technology alone does not guarantee high performance. Human influences are quite often simplified and ignored in the design, construction, and operation of buildings. Energy-conscious human behavior has been demonstrated to be a significant positive factor for improving the indoor environment while reducing the energy use of buildings. In our study we developed a new technical framework to describe energy-related human behavior in buildings. The energy-related behavior includes accounting for individuals and groups of occupants and their interactions with building energy services systems, appliances and facilities. The technical framework consists of four key components: i. the drivers behind energy-related occupant behavior, which are biological, societal, environmental, physical, and economical in nature ii. the needs of the occupants are based on satisfying criteria that are either physical (e.g. thermal, visual and acoustic comfort) or non-physical (e.g. entertainment, privacy, and social reward) iii. the actions that building occupants perform when their needs are not fulfilled iv. the systems with which an occupant can interact to satisfy their needs The technical framework aims to provide a standardized description of a complete set of human energy-related behaviors in the form of an XML schema. For each type of behavior (e.g., occupants opening/closing windows, switching on/off lights etc.) we identify a set of common behaviors based on a literature review, survey data, and our own field study and analysis. Stochastic models are adopted or developed for each type of behavior to enable the evaluation of the impact of human behavior on energy use in buildings, during either the design or operation phase. We will also demonstrate the use of the technical framework in assessing the impact of occupancy behavior on energy saving technologies. The technical framework presented is

  5. Dynamic simulation of residential buildings with seasonal sorption storage of solar energy - parametric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hennaut, Samuel; Thomas, Sébastien; Davin, Elisabeth; Andre, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This work focuses on the evaluation of the performances of a solar combisystem coupled to seasonal thermochemical storage using SrBr2/H20 as adsorbent/adsorbate couple. The objective is to determine the characteristics required for solar system and storage reactor to reach a 100 % solar fraction for a building with a low heating load. The complete system, including the storage reactor, is simulated, using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. The influence of some components and p...

  6. On the Use of Integrated Daylighting and Energy Simulations to Drive the Design of a Large Net-Zero Energy Office Building: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmetti, R.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-08-01

    This paper illustrates the challenges of integrating rigorous daylight and electric lighting simulation data with whole-building energy models, and defends the need for such integration to achieve aggressive energy savings. Through a case study example, we examine the ways daylighting -- and daylighting simulation -- drove the design of a large net-zero energy project. We give a detailed review of the daylighting and electric lighting design process for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Research Support Facility (RSF), a 220,000 ft2 net-zero energy project the author worked on as a daylighting consultant. A review of the issues involved in simulating and validating the daylighting performance of the RSF will be detailed, including daylighting simulation, electric lighting control response, and integration of Radiance simulation data into the building energy model. Daylighting was a key strategy in reaching the contractual energy use goals for the RSF project; the building's program, layout, orientation and interior/furniture design were all influenced by the daylighting design, and simulation was critical in ensuring these many design components worked together in an integrated fashion, and would perform as required to meet a very aggressive energy performance goal, as expressed in a target energy use intensity.

  7. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  8. Redesigning Terraced Social Housing in the UK for Flexibility Using Building Energy Simulation with Consideration of Passive Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasim Altan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A chosen case study house forms the basis of this paper, which is a pilot energy-efficient social housing project, completed by one of the largest housing developers in the UK. The main aim of this study is to inform the redesign of flexible energy-efficient housing units. The housing, designed for social tenants, was built by the Accent Group in 2005, using modern construction methods and sustainable materials, based on extensive research from the adaptable and “Grow Home” principles of Avi Friedman as well as open building implementation. The first pilot scheme was designed in collaboration with the Building Energy Analysis Unit at the University of Sheffield, together with the Goddard Wybor Practise, and was a successful housing development with respect to being environmentally friendly and a low-energy design scheme for the UK climate. This paper presents redesigning of flexible terraced housing units, and their performance evaluation, using a building simulation method as well as the passive-house planning package. The aim was to plan a row of terraced houses that can not only utilize a flexible design concept in floor planning layout, but also to reduce energy consumption with a passive design with particular attention paid to material selection. In addition, building simulation work has been carried out with the use of DesignBuilder software for both thermal and energy performance evaluation. The study examines the annual energy performance and comfort conditions in the designed house to be situated in the Northeast of England, UK. A terraced house unit design is considered a flexible home that can adjust to the needs of different tenants for the purpose of achieving a sustainable building under different aspects, such as low energy, low carbon, use of renewables, and low impact materials, with flexibility by design.

  9. Religious building energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielvogel, L.G.; Rudin, A.

    1988-02-01

    The Interfaith Coalition on Energy (ICE) was organized in 1980 by the Philadelphia area religious community and, funded in 1982 by local private foundations and corporations, began an energy management program for religious buildings whose utility bills are paid by congregations. Since that time, ICE has completed on-site energy audits for 226 congregations with a total of 546 buildings. Each audit report contains a description of the facilities and their energy systems, a baseline year of energy data, a computation of energy use per square foot, and a list of recommendations to reduce energy costs in order of simple payback.

  10. Quantifying the potential of automated dynamic solar shading in office buildings through integrated simulations of energy and daylight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa; Svendsen, Svend; Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    The façade design is and should be considered a central issue in the design of energy-efficient buildings. That is why dynamic façade components are increasingly used to adapt to both internal and external impacts, and to cope with a reduction in energy consumption and an increase in occupant com...... solar shading, which emphasises the need for dynamic and integrated simulations early in the design process to facilitate informed design decisions about the façade....... components by using integrated simulations that took energy demand, the indoor air quality, the amount of daylight available, and visual comfort into consideration. Three types of façades were investigated (without solar shading, with fixed solar shading, and with dynamic solar shading), and we simulated...

  11. Modelica-based Modeling and Simulation to Support Research and Development in Building Energy and Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-02-12

    Traditional building simulation programs possess attributes that make them difficult to use for the design and analysis of building energy and control systems and for the support of model-based research and development of systems that may not already be implemented in these programs. This article presents characteristic features of such applications, and it shows how equation-based object-oriented modelling can meet requirements that arise in such applications. Next, the implementation of an open-source component model library for building energy systems is presented. The library has been developed using the equation-based object-oriented Modelica modelling language. Technical challenges of modelling and simulating such systems are discussed. Research needs are presented to make this technology accessible to user groups that have more stringent requirements with respect to the numerical robustness of simulation than a research community may have. Two examples are presented in which models from the here described library were used. The first example describes the design of a controller for a nonlinear model of a heating coil using model reduction and frequency domain analysis. The second example describes the tuning of control parameters for a static pressure reset controller of a variable air volume flow system. The tuning has been done by solving a non-convex optimization problem that minimizes fan energy subject to state constraints.

  12. Integration of a hygrothermal transfer model for envelope in a building energy simulation model: experimental validation of a HAM-BES co-simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroukhi, M. Y.; Abahri, K.; Belarbi, R.; Limam, K.

    2016-11-01

    The present paper focuses on studying a new methodology to predict the overall behavior of buildings, which combines two simulation tools: COMSOL Multiphysicsand TRNSYS. The first software is used for the modeling of heat, air and moisture transfer in multilayer porous walls (HAM model—Heat, Air and Moisture transfer), and the second is used to simulate the hygrothermal behavior of the building (BES model—Building Energy Simulation). The combined software applications dynamically solve the mass and energy conservation equations of the two physical models. In this context, a coupled heat, air and mass transfer model is proposed. This model incorporates simultaneously the diffusive, convective and conductive effects on the building elements. Heat transfer is considered in the strongly coupled situation where the mass and heat flux are temperature, vapor pressure and total pressure dependents. The model input parameters are evaluated experimentally through the development of various experimental prototypes in the laboratory. Thereafter, an experimental setup has been established in order to evaluate the hygrothermal process of building walls. The experimental procedure consists to follow the temperature and relative humidity evolutions within the envelope thickness, submitted to controlled and fixed boundary conditions. Finally, using the developed experimental device, comparison between experimental data and numerical solution of the HAM-BES co-simulation platform was undertaken. Results showed good agreement with acceptable errors margins.

  13. Application of sensitivity analysis in building energy simulations: combining first and second order elementary effects Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, David Garcia; Musy, Marjorie; Bourges, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis plays an important role in the understanding of complex models. It helps to identify influence of input parameters in relation to the outputs. It can be also a tool to understand the behavior of the model and then can help in its development stage. This study aims to analyze and illustrate the potential usefulness of combining first and second-order sensitivity analysis, applied to a building energy model (ESP-r). Through the example of a collective building, a sensitivity analysis is performed using the method of elementary effects (also known as Morris method), including an analysis of interactions between the input parameters (second order analysis). Importance of higher-order analysis to better support the results of first order analysis, highlighted especially in such complex model. Several aspects are tackled to implement efficiently the multi-order sensitivity analysis: interval size of the variables, management of non-linearity, usefulness of various outputs.

  14. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid....... This paper presents and categorizes quantitative indicators suitable to describe both aspects of the building’s performance. These indicators, named LMGI - Load Matching and Grid Interaction indicators, are easily quantifiable and could complement the output variables of existing building simulation tools...

  15. Energy efficient building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  16. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  17. Simulated performance of the Thermo Active Building System (TABS) with respect to the provided thermal comfort and primary energy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Toftum, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    The central module of an office building conditioned by a Thermo Active Building System (TABS) coupled with constant volume ventilation was evaluated by means of dynamic computer simulations. Additionally, the same building model was simulated with a conventional all air VAV ventilation system...

  18. Scalable Deployment of Advanced Building Energy Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Building Automation and Control Network BDAS Building Data Acquisition System BEM building energy model BIM building information modeling BMS...A prototype toolkit to seamlessly and automatically transfer a Building Information Model ( BIM ) to a Building Energy Model (BEM) has been...circumvent the need to manually construct and maintain a detailed building energy simulation model . This detailed

  19. 建筑能耗模拟在能源审计中的应用%Application of building energy simulation to energy audit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋应乾; 曾艺; 龙惟定

    2011-01-01

    以某大厦为例,阐述了建筑能耗模拟时的模型校验方法,并利用经过校验的模型进行了能耗预测和节能量计算.指出在进行能源审计时,必须用实际的建筑资料和历史能耗数据对所建模型进行校验,只有经过实测能耗数据校验的模型才能对建筑能耗进行准确预测;通过能耗模拟进行能耗预测和节能量计算,可以节省大量的时间,且更加准确、直观,具有很好的应用前景.%Taking a group of buildings as an example, describes the model verification method in building energy simulation, and makes energy consumption prediction and energy saving calculation based on the verified model. Points out that actual building energy consumption data and historical data should be used to verify the model during energy audit, only the model that is verified by the measured energy consumption data can be used to accurately predict building energy consumption; demonstrates that using energy simulation to make energy consumption prediction and energy saving calculation can save a lot of time, be more accurate and intuitive, and it will have a good prospect.

  20. Post Occupancy energy evaluation of Ronald Tutor Hall using eQUEST; Computer based simulation of existing building and comparison of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulom, Duyum

    Buildings account for about 40 percent of total U.S. energy consumption. It is therefore important to shift our focus on important measures that can be taken to make buildings more energy efficient. With the rise in number of buildings day by day and the dwindling resources, retrofitting buildings is the key to an energy efficiency future. Post occupancy evaluation (POE) is an important tool and is ideal for the retrofitting process. POE would help to identify the problem areas in the building and enable researchers and designers to come up with solutions addressing the inefficient energy usage as well as the overall wellbeing of the users of the building. The post occupancy energy evaluation of Ronald Tutor Hall (RTH) located at the University of Southern California is one small step in that direction. RTH was chosen to study because; (a) relatively easy access to the building data (b) it was built in compliance with Title 24 2001 and (c) it was old enough to have post occupancy data. The energy modeling tool eQuest was used to simulate the RTH building using the background information of the building such as internal thermal comfort profile, occupancy profile, building envelope profile, internal heat gain profile, etc. The simulation results from eQuest were then compared with the actual building recorded data to verify that our simulated model was behaving similar to the actual building. Once we were able to make the simulated model behave like the actual building, changes were made to the model such as installation of occupancy sensor in the classroom & laboratories, changing the thermostat set points and introducing solar shade on northwest and southwest facade. The combined savings of the proposed interventions resulted in a 6% savings in the overall usage of energy.

  1. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX): Instructions for Implementing the Test Procedure, Calibration Test Reference Results, and Example Acceptance-Range Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.

    2011-08-01

    This publication summarizes building energy simulation test for existing homes (BESTEST-EX): instructions for implementing the test procedure, calibration tests reference results, and example acceptance-range criteria.

  2. Empirical Validation of Building Simulation Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    The work described in this report is the result of a collaborative effort of members of the International Energy Agency (IEA), Task 34/43: Testing and validation of building energy simulation tools experts group.......The work described in this report is the result of a collaborative effort of members of the International Energy Agency (IEA), Task 34/43: Testing and validation of building energy simulation tools experts group....

  3. Structured building model reduction toward parallel simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs, Justin R. [Cornell University; Hencey, Brondon M. [Cornell University

    2013-08-26

    Building energy model reduction exchanges accuracy for improved simulation speed by reducing the number of dynamical equations. Parallel computing aims to improve simulation times without loss of accuracy but is poorly utilized by contemporary simulators and is inherently limited by inter-processor communication. This paper bridges these disparate techniques to implement efficient parallel building thermal simulation. We begin with a survey of three structured reduction approaches that compares their performance to a leading unstructured method. We then use structured model reduction to find thermal clusters in the building energy model and allocate processing resources. Experimental results demonstrate faster simulation and low error without any interprocessor communication.

  4. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike

    2010-01-01

    The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and how the Net ZEB status should be calculated differs in most countries. This paper presents an overview of Net ZEBs energy calculation methodologies proposed by organisations representing eight different countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Norway, Switzerland and the USA. The different...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  5. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX); Phase 1 Test Procedure: Building Thermal Fabric Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, Ron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States; Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States; Bianchi, Marcus [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States; Neymark, Joel [J. Neymark & Associates, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report documents the initial Phase 1 test process for testing the reliability of software models that predict retrofit energy savings of existing homes, including their associated calibration methods.

  6. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX); Phase 1 Test Procedure: Building Thermal Fabric Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy tasked NREL to develop a process for testing the reliability of models that predict retrofit energy savings, including their associated calibration methods. DOE asked NREL to conduct the work in phases so that a test procedure would be ready should DOE need it to meet legislative requirements related to residential retrofits in FY 2010. This report documents the initial 'Phase 1' test procedure.

  7. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  8. Net-zero Building Cluster Simulations and On-line Energy Forecasting for Adaptive and Real-Time Control and Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiwang

    Buildings consume about 41.1% of primary energy and 74% of the electricity in the U.S. Moreover, it is estimated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory that more than 1/4 of the 713 GW of U.S. electricity demand in 2010 could be dispatchable if only buildings could respond to that dispatch through advanced building energy control and operation strategies and smart grid infrastructure. In this study, it is envisioned that neighboring buildings will have the tendency to form a cluster, an open cyber-physical system to exploit the economic opportunities provided by a smart grid, distributed power generation, and storage devices. Through optimized demand management, these building clusters will then reduce overall primary energy consumption and peak time electricity consumption, and be more resilient to power disruptions. Therefore, this project seeks to develop a Net-zero building cluster simulation testbed and high fidelity energy forecasting models for adaptive and real-time control and decision making strategy development that can be used in a Net-zero building cluster. The following research activities are summarized in this thesis: 1) Development of a building cluster emulator for building cluster control and operation strategy assessment. 2) Development of a novel building energy forecasting methodology using active system identification and data fusion techniques. In this methodology, a systematic approach for building energy system characteristic evaluation, system excitation and model adaptation is included. The developed methodology is compared with other literature-reported building energy forecasting methods; 3) Development of the high fidelity on-line building cluster energy forecasting models, which includes energy forecasting models for buildings, PV panels, batteries and ice tank thermal storage systems 4) Small scale real building validation study to verify the performance of the developed building energy forecasting methodology. The outcomes of

  9. Experimental measurements of thermal properties for Mexican building materials to simulate thermal behavior to save energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez-Galan, Jesus; Almanza, Rafael; Rodriguez, Neftali [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Ingenieria

    2008-07-01

    One of the main factors that determine the reliability of building's thermal design is the values of thermal and heat transfer properties used during this process. In order to optimizing such thermal design process, there is little information available of the most utilized building materials in Mexico; hence, some measurements were carried out. We present thermal conductivity experimental results for: red brick, tepetate, adobe and concrete. Furthermore, experimental data of convective heat transfer coefficients are reported on: red brick, tepetate, adobe and concrete walls. Kondratyev methodology was used for thermal conductivity estimations. Kondratyev methodology is based on the cooling off of bodies in regular state analysis. Thermal conductivity values were: red brick k{sub L} = 0.906 W/mC, tepetate k{sub T} = 0.648 W/mC, adobe k{sub A} = 0.570 W/mC, and concrete k{sub C} = 1.918 W/mC. Red brick, tepetate, adobe and concrete test walls of 0.46 x 0.56 and 0.06 m thick, were manufactured, as well as a prototype of testing for mounting the walls, in order to evaluate their convective heat transfer coefficients. Measurements were carried out at the Institute of Engineering-UNAM Wind-Tunnel, for an air velocities interval of 2-10 m/s. Reported values for convective coefficients fluctuate on 16-134 W/m{sup 2}2 C, depending on material and position wall, as well as air velocity. (orig.)

  10. Virtual Design Studio (VDS) - Development of an Integrated Computer Simulation Environment for Performance Based Design of Very-Low Energy and High IEQ Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yixing [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Zhang, Jianshun [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Pelken, Michael [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Gu, Lixing [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Rice, Danial [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Meng, Zhaozhou [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Semahegn, Shewangizaw [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Feng, Wei [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Ling, Francesca [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Shi, Jun [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Henderson, Hugh [CDH Energy, Cazenovia, NY (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Executive Summary The objective of this study was to develop a “Virtual Design Studio (VDS)”: a software platform for integrated, coordinated and optimized design of green building systems with low energy consumption, high indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and high level of sustainability. This VDS is intended to assist collaborating architects, engineers and project management team members throughout from the early phases to the detailed building design stages. It can be used to plan design tasks and workflow, and evaluate the potential impacts of various green building strategies on the building performance by using the state of the art simulation tools as well as industrial/professional standards and guidelines for green building system design. Engaged in the development of VDS was a multi-disciplinary research team that included architects, engineers, and software developers. Based on the review and analysis of how existing professional practices in building systems design operate, particularly those used in the U.S., Germany and UK, a generic process for performance-based building design, construction and operation was proposed. It distinguishes the whole process into five distinct stages: Assess, Define, Design, Apply, and Monitoring (ADDAM). The current VDS is focused on the first three stages. The VDS considers building design as a multi-dimensional process, involving multiple design teams, design factors, and design stages. The intersection among these three dimensions defines a specific design task in terms of “who”, “what” and “when”. It also considers building design as a multi-objective process that aims to enhance the five aspects of performance for green building systems: site sustainability, materials and resource efficiency, water utilization efficiency, energy efficiency and impacts to the atmospheric environment, and IEQ. The current VDS development has been limited to energy efficiency and IEQ performance, with particular focus

  11. Numerical simulation of flare energy build-up and release via Joule dissipation. [solar MHD model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Bao, J. J.; Wang, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    A new numerical MHD model is developed to study the evolution of an active region due to photospheric converging motion, which leads to magnetic-energy buildup in the form of electric current. Because this new MHD model has incorporated finite conductivity, the energy conversion occurs from magnetic mode to thermal mode through Joule dissipation. In order to test the causality relationship between the occurrence of flare and photospheric motion, a multiple-pole configuration with neutral point is used. Using these results it is found that in addition to the converging motion, the initial magnetic-field configuration and the redistribution of the magnetic flux at photospheric level enhance the possibility for the development of a flare.

  12. Energy Performance of Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    "Sustainable development" has been defined best by the Brundtland Commission as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Adequate and affordable energy supplies have been key to economic development and are c......"Sustainable development" has been defined best by the Brundtland Commission as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Adequate and affordable energy supplies have been key to economic development...... and are central to improving social and economic well- being, and human welfare and raising living standards. Even if energy is essential for development, it is only a means to an end. The end is good health, high living standards, a sustainable economy and a clean environment. The European Climate change...... programme (ECCP) was established in June 2000 to help identify the most environmentally cost-effective measures enabling the EU to meet its target under the Kyoto Protocol, namely an 8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2012. Energy use in buildings accounts for almost half of all CO...

  13. Energy efficiency of building envelope

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    November, 12-13th, in Saint-Petersburg the 7th International congress "Energy efficiency. XXI century" took place. The reports were done in breakuo groups according to the various aspects of energy efficiency challenge: HVAC systems, water supply and sewerage systems, gas supply, energy metering. One of the grourps was devoted to thermophysics of buildings and energy effective design of building envelope.

  14. Building America House Simulation Protocols (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.

    2010-10-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  15. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    U.S. and China are the world’s top two economics. Together they consumed one-third of the world’s primary energy. It is an unprecedented opportunity and challenge for governments, researchers and industries in both countries to join together to address energy issues and global climate change. Such joint collaboration has huge potential in creating new jobs in energy technologies and services. Buildings in the US and China consumed about 40% and 25% of the primary energy in both countries in 2010 respectively. Worldwide, the building sector is the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emission. Better understanding and improving the energy performance of buildings is a critical step towards sustainable development and mitigation of global climate change. This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  16. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  17. Energy Innovations for Healthy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Healthy buildings provide high indoor environmental quality for occupants while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. This project advanced the development and marketability of envisioned healthy, energy-efficient buildings through studies that evaluated the use of emerging technologies in commercial and residential buildings. The project also provided resources required for homebuilders to participate in DOE’s Builders Challenge, concomitant with the goal to reduce energy consumption in homes by at least 30% as a first step toward achieving envisioned widespread availability of net-zero energy homes by 2030. In addition, the project included outreach and education concerning energy efficiency in buildings.

  18. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  19. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings.

  20. Using EnergyPlus to Simulate the Dynamic Response of a Residential Building to Advanced Cooling Strategies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booten, C.; Tabares-Velasco, P. C.

    2012-08-01

    This study demonstrates the ability of EnergyPlus to accurately model complex cooling strategies in a real home with a goal of shifting energy use off peak and realizing energy savings. The house was retrofitted through the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) deep energy retrofit demonstration program; field tests were operated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The experimental data were collected as part of a larger study and are used here to validate simulation predictions.

  1. Towards a Net Zero Building Cluster Energy Systems Analysis for US Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    energy optimization process described to this point includes analysis of building energy efficiency improvements and optimization of energy generation... energy efficiency measures for each simulated building type. 3. Simulate the Energy Efficiency Cases – simulate the energy efficiency scenarios and...type identified in the building characterization step from the inventory. 2. Energy Efficiency Measures (EEM) – determine the appropriate building

  2. Embodied Energy in Sustainable Buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkos, A.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. A direct contribution to getting a more sustainable world is to reduce the energy consumption. Much is done in the operational energy of buildings. The embodied energy, used during the construction of a build

  3. Building energy governance in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, YiHsiu Michelle

    With Asia's surging economies and urbanization, the region is adding to its built environment at an unprecedented rate, especially those population centers in China and India. With numerous existing buildings, plus a new building boom, construction in these major Asian cities has caused momentous sustainability challenges. This dissertation focuses on China's leading city, Shanghai, to explore and assess its existing commercial building energy policies and practices. Research estimates that Shanghai's commercial buildings might become a key challenge with regard to energy use and CO2 emissions as compared to other major Asian cities. Relevant building energy policy instruments at national and local levels for commercial buildings are reviewed. In addition, two benchmarks are established to further assess building energy policies in Shanghai. The first benchmark is based on the synthesis of relevant criteria and policy instruments as recommended by professional organizations, while the second practical benchmark is drawn from an analysis of three global cities: New York, London and Tokyo. Moreover, two large-scale commercial building sites - Shanghai IKEA and Plaza 66 - are selected for investigation and assessment of their efforts on building energy saving measures. Detailed building energy savings, CO2 reductions, and management cost reductions based on data availability and calculations are presented with the co-benefits approach. The research additionally analyzes different interventions and factors that facilitate or constrain the implementation process of building energy saving measures in each case. Furthermore, a multi-scale analytical framework is employed to investigate relevant stakeholders that shape Shanghai's commercial building energy governance. Research findings and policy recommendations are offered at the close of this dissertation. Findings and policy recommendations are intended to facilitate commercial building energy governance in Shanghai and

  4. Thermal-comfort analysis and simulation for various low-energy cooling-technologies applied to an office building in a subtropical climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Ashfaque Ahmed; Rasul, M.G.; Khan, M.M.K. [College of Engineering and the Built Environment, Faculty of Sciences, Engineering and Health, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Qld 4702 (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Simulation of buildings' thermal-performances is necessary to predict comfort of the occupants in buildings and to identify alternate cooling control-systems for achieving better indoor thermal environments. An analysis and prediction of thermal-comfort using DesignBuilder, based on the state-of-the-art building performance simulation software EnergyPlus, is carried out in an air-conditioned multi-storeyed building in the city of Rockhampton in Central Queensland, Australia. Rockhampton is located in a hot humid-region; therefore, indoor thermal-comfort is strongly affected by the outdoor climate. This study evaluates the actual thermal conditions of the Information Technology Division (ITD) building at Central Queensland University during winter and summer seasons and identifies the thermal comfort level of the occupants using low-energy cooling technologies namely, chilled ceiling (CC), economiser usages and pre-cooling. The Fanger comfort-model, Pierce two-node model and KSU two-node model were used to predict thermal performance of the building. A sophisticated building-analysis tool was integrated with the thermal comfort models for determining appropriate cooling-technologies for the occupants to be thermally comfortable while achieving sufficient energy savings. This study compares the predicted mean-vote (PMV) index on a seven-point thermal-sensation scale, calculated using the effective temperature and relative humidity for those cooling techniques. Simulated results show that systems using a chilled ceiling offer the best thermal comfort for the occupants during summer and winter in subtropical climates. The validity of the simulation results was checked with measured values of temperature and humidity for typical days in both summer and winter. The predicted results show a reasonable agreement with the measured data. (author)

  5. Simulating Building Fires for Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo C.; Johnson, Randall P.

    1987-01-01

    Fire scenes for cinematography staged at relatively low cost in method that combines several existing techniques. Nearly realistic scenes, suitable for firefighter training, produced with little specialized equipment. Sequences of scenes set up quickly and easily, without compromising safety because model not burned. Images of fire, steam, and smoke superimposed on image of building to simulate burning of building.

  6. State building energy codes status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

  7. Tropical Zero Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik

    2006-01-01

    of the building, so that windows are only towards the north and south, in order to reduce the solar heat gains. In order to reduce the loss of cooling through the building envelope, the walls and the roofs are heavily insulated, and the windows have double low energy glazing. The building will be lit primarily...... lighting. These measures include the use of high efficient lighting controlled according to demand, high efficiency pumps and fans, a high efficiency chiller, and use of energy efficient office equipment. The buildings PV system is connected to the grid. Solar electricity is exported to the grid during......The new headquarter for Pusat Tenaga Malaysia is designed to be a Zero Emission Office Building (ZEO). A full range of passive and active energy efficiency measures are implemented such that the building will need no more electricity than what can be produced via its own Building Integrated PV...

  8. Building Energy Simulation and Analysis for A Building Group in Guangzhou%广州地区某建筑群典型建筑能耗模拟及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江向阳; 张勇华

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the software of eQUEST is used to simulate energy consumption for two typical buildings in building group in Guangzhou, by which two typical buildings energy-saving rates are obtained. Simulation results show that through enhanced natural ventilation, improved thermal performance of envelope and improved EER of air conditioning system, the energy-saving rates of building A1 and building B1 are 69.7% and 64.8% respectively. The building energy efficiency design is superior to《Residential building energy efficiency design standard in hot summer and warm winter zone》 JGJ 75-2003. It plays an exemplary role in progressively implementing the design stan- dard of energy-saving 65% in Guangzhou.%本文运用eQUEST软件对广州地区某建筑群内典型建筑进行能耗模拟计算.计算两栋典型建筑的节能率。计算结果表明,通过强化建筑自然通风降温功能,提高围护结构隔热性能和提高空调设备能效比等节能措施,A1建筑和B1建筑节能率分别为69.7%和64.8%。该建筑群的节能设计优于《夏热冬暖地区建筑节能设计标准》JGJ75—2003提出的建筑节能50%标准,对在广州地区居住建筑中逐步实施节能65%的建筑节能设计标准具有重要的示范作用。

  9. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, C. Metzger [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    As Building America has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  10. Building America Top Innovations 2012: House Simulation Protocols (the Building America Benchmark)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored House Simulation Protocols, which have helped ensure consistent and accurate energy-efficiency assessments for tens of thousands of new and retrofit homes supported by the Building America program.

  11. Energy Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, G. P.; Pavlak, G. S.; Florita, A. R.; Dodier, R. H.; Hirsch, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    A prototype energy signal tool is demonstrated for operational whole-building and system-level energy use evaluation. The purpose of the tool is to give a summary of building energy use which allows a building operator to quickly distinguish normal and abnormal energy use. Toward that end, energy use status is displayed as a traffic light, which is a visual metaphor for energy use that is either substantially different from expected (red and yellow lights) or approximately the same as expected (green light). Which light to display for a given energy end use is determined by comparing expected to actual energy use. As expected, energy use is necessarily uncertain; we cannot choose the appropriate light with certainty. Instead, the energy signal tool chooses the light by minimizing the expected cost of displaying the wrong light. The expected energy use is represented by a probability distribution. Energy use is modeled by a low-order lumped parameter model. Uncertainty in energy use is quantified by a Monte Carlo exploration of the influence of model parameters on energy use. Distributions over model parameters are updated over time via Bayes' theorem. The simulation study was devised to assess whole-building energy signal accuracy in the presence of uncertainty and faults at the submetered level, which may lead to tradeoffs at the whole-building level that are not detectable without submetering.

  12. Virtual Design Studio (VDS) - Development of an Integrated Computer Simulation Environment for Performance Based Design of Very-Low Energy and High IEQ Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yixing [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Zhang, Jianshun [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Pelken, Michael [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Gu, Lixing [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Rice, Danial [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Meng, Zhaozhou [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Semahegn, Shewangizaw [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Feng, Wei [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Ling, Francesca [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Shi, Jun [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Henderson, Hugh [CDH Energy, Cazenovia, NY (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Executive Summary The objective of this study was to develop a “Virtual Design Studio (VDS)”: a software platform for integrated, coordinated and optimized design of green building systems with low energy consumption, high indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and high level of sustainability. This VDS is intended to assist collaborating architects, engineers and project management team members throughout from the early phases to the detailed building design stages. It can be used to plan design tasks and workflow, and evaluate the potential impacts of various green building strategies on the building performance by using the state of the art simulation tools as well as industrial/professional standards and guidelines for green building system design. Engaged in the development of VDS was a multi-disciplinary research team that included architects, engineers, and software developers. Based on the review and analysis of how existing professional practices in building systems design operate, particularly those used in the U.S., Germany and UK, a generic process for performance-based building design, construction and operation was proposed. It distinguishes the whole process into five distinct stages: Assess, Define, Design, Apply, and Monitoring (ADDAM). The current VDS is focused on the first three stages. The VDS considers building design as a multi-dimensional process, involving multiple design teams, design factors, and design stages. The intersection among these three dimensions defines a specific design task in terms of “who”, “what” and “when”. It also considers building design as a multi-objective process that aims to enhance the five aspects of performance for green building systems: site sustainability, materials and resource efficiency, water utilization efficiency, energy efficiency and impacts to the atmospheric environment, and IEQ. The current VDS development has been limited to energy efficiency and IEQ performance, with particular focus

  13. Transactive Energy Simulation Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-24

    TESP combines existing domain simulators in the electric power grid, with new transactive agents, growth models and evaluation scripts. The existing domain simulators include GridLAB-D for the distribution grid and single-family residential buildings, MATPOWER for transmission and bulk generation, and EnergyPlus for large buildings. More are planned for subsequent versions of TESP. The new elements are: • TEAgents - simulate market participants and transactive systems for market clearing. Some of this functionality was extracted from GridLAB-D and implemented in Python for customization by PNNL and others. • Growth Model - a means for simulating system changes over a multiyear period, including both normal load growth and specific investment decisions. Customizable in Python code. • Evaluation Script - a means of evaluating different transactive systems through customizable post-processing in Python code. TESP provides a method for other researchers and vendors to design transactive systems, and test them in a virtual environment. It allows customization of the key components by modifying Python code.

  14. Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Bourrelle, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    clear and consistent definition and a commonly agreed energy calculation methodology. The most important issues that should be given special attention before developing a new ZEB definition are: (1) the metric of the balance, (2) the balancing period, (3) the type of energy use included in the balance...... on the review of the most of the existing ZEB definitions and the various approaches towards possible ZEB calculation methodologies. It presents and discusses possible answers to the abovementioned issues in order to facilitate the development of a consistent ZEB definition and a robust energy calculation...

  15. Energy use in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This is the report on Task IB, Familiarization with Additional Data Collection Plans of Annual Survey of BOMA Member and Non-Member Buildings in 20 Cities, of the Energy Use in Office Buildings project. The purpose of the work was to monitor and understand the efforts of the Building Owners and Managers Association International (BOMA) in gathering an energy-use-oriented data base. In order to obtain an improved data base encompassing a broad spectrum of office space and with information suitable for energy analysis in greater detail than is currently available, BOMA undertook a major data-collection effort. Based on a consideration of geographic area, climate, population, and availability of data, BOMA selected twenty cities for data collection. BOMA listed all of the major office space - buildings in excess of 40,000 square feet - in each of the cities. Tax-assessment records, local maps, Chamber of Commerce data, recent industrial-development programs, results of related studies, and local-realtor input were used in an effort to assemble a comprehensive office-building inventory. In order to verify the accuracy and completeness of the building lists, BOMA assembled an Ad-Hoc Review Committee in each city to review the assembled inventory of space. A questionnaire on office-building energy use and building characteristics was developed. In each city BOMA assembled a data collection team operating under the supervision of its regional affiliate to gather the data. For each city a random sample of buildings was selected, and data were gathered. Responses for over 1000 buildings were obtained.

  16. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  17. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dandan [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yan, Da [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Wang, Chuang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2012-06-01

    This technical report presented the methodologies, processes, and results of comparing three Building Energy Modeling Programs (BEMPs) for load calculations: EnergyPlus, DeST and DOE-2.1E. This joint effort, between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA and Tsinghua University, China, was part of research projects under the US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE). Energy Foundation, an industrial partner of CERC-BEE, was the co-sponsor of this study work. It is widely known that large discrepancies in simulation results can exist between different BEMPs. The result is a lack of confidence in building simulation amongst many users and stakeholders. In the fields of building energy code development and energy labeling programs where building simulation plays a key role, there are also confusing and misleading claims that some BEMPs are better than others. In order to address these problems, it is essential to identify and understand differences between widely-used BEMPs, and the impact of these differences on load simulation results, by detailed comparisons of these BEMPs from source code to results. The primary goal of this work was to research methods and processes that would allow a thorough scientific comparison of the BEMPs. The secondary goal was to provide a list of strengths and weaknesses for each BEMP, based on in-depth understandings of their modeling capabilities, mathematical algorithms, advantages and limitations. This is to guide the use of BEMPs in the design and retrofit of buildings, especially to support China’s building energy standard development and energy labeling program. The research findings could also serve as a good reference to improve the modeling capabilities and applications of the three BEMPs. The methodologies, processes, and analyses employed in the comparison work could also be used to compare other programs. The load calculation method of each program was analyzed and compared to

  18. Energy modeling of two office buildings with data center for green building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yiqun; Yin, Rongxin; Huang, Zhizhong [Institute of Building Performance and Technology, Sino-German College of Applied Sciences, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2008-07-01

    Energy simulation models are developed with EnergyPlus for two office buildings in a R and D center in Shanghai, China to evaluate the energy cost savings of green building design options compared with the baseline building. As a R and D center of an international IT corporation, there are data centers in the two buildings, which make them different from typical office buildings. The data centers house high energy consuming IT equipments and need 24 h air-conditioning every day all year round. In order to achieve energy cost savings, multiple energy efficiency strategies are employed for design proposed building, encompassing high performance building envelope, lighting system, and HVAC system. Through energy modeling, the design proposed options are compared to an ASHRAE 90.1-2004 compliant budget model to highlight energy cost savings versus ''standard practice'' and show the potential LEED trademark Credit EA1 - Optimize Energy Performance. Meanwhile, they are also compared to China Code model to figure out the energy cost savings versus the most popular practice conforming to China Public Building Energy Saving Design Standard. The whole building energy simulation results show that the yearly energy cost saving of the proposed design will be approximately 27% from China Code building and 21% from ASHRAE budget building, which can achieve 4 points for LEED credit due to energy performance optimization. (author)

  19. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E.; Engebrecht-Metzger, C.; Horowitz, S.; Hendron, R.

    2014-03-01

    As BA has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  20. 75 FR 20833 - Building Energy Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for Information. SUMMARY: The...

  1. Intelligent energy buildings based on RES and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplanis, Socrates; Kaplani, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the design features, the energy modelling and optical performance details of two pilot Intelligent Energy Buildings, (IEB). Both are evolution of the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept. RES innovations backed up by signal processing, simulation models and ICT tools were embedded into the building structures in order to implement a new predictive energy management concept. In addition, nano-coatings, produced by TiO2 and ITO nano-particles, were deposited on the IEB structur...

  2. A View on Future Building System Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael

    2011-04-01

    This chapter presents what a future environment for building system modeling and simulation may look like. As buildings continue to require increased performance and better comfort, their energy and control systems are becoming more integrated and complex. We therefore focus in this chapter on the modeling, simulation and analysis of building energy and control systems. Such systems can be classified as heterogeneous systems because they involve multiple domains, such as thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, electrical systems, control systems and communication systems. Also, they typically involve multiple temporal and spatial scales, and their evolution can be described by coupled differential equations, discrete equations and events. Modeling and simulating such systems requires a higher level of abstraction and modularisation to manage the increased complexity compared to what is used in today's building simulation programs. Therefore, the trend towards more integrated building systems is likely to be a driving force for changing the status quo of today's building simulation programs. Thischapter discusses evolving modeling requirements and outlines a path toward a future environment for modeling and simulation of heterogeneous building systems.A range of topics that would require many additional pages of discussion has been omitted. Examples include computational fluid dynamics for air and particle flow in and around buildings, people movement, daylight simulation, uncertainty propagation and optimisation methods for building design and controls. For different discussions and perspectives on the future of building modeling and simulation, we refer to Sahlin (2000), Augenbroe (2001) and Malkawi and Augenbroe (2004).

  3. Energy Savings by Treating Buildings as Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, L. D. Danny

    2008-09-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities for dramatically reducing energy use in buildings by treating buildings as systems, rather than focusing on device efficiencies. Systems-level considerations are relevant for the operation of heat pumps (where the temperatures at which heat or coldness are distributed are particularly important); the joint or separate provision of heating, cooling, and ventilation; the joint or separate removal of sensible heat and moisture; and in the operation of fluid systems having pumps. Passive heating, cooling, and ventilation, as well as daylighting (use of sunlight for lighting purposes) also require consideration of buildings as systems. In order to achieve the significant (50-75%) energy savings that are possible through a systems approach, the design process itself has to involve a high degree of integration between the architect and various engineering disciplines (structural, mechanical, electrical), and requires the systematic examination and adjustment of alternative designs using computer simulation models.

  4. JPL Energy Consumption Program (ECP) documentation: A computer model simulating heating, cooling and energy loads in buildings. [low cost solar array efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Chai, V. W.; Lascu, D.; Urbenajo, R.; Wong, P.

    1978-01-01

    The engineering manual provides a complete companion documentation about the structure of the main program and subroutines, the preparation of input data, the interpretation of output results, access and use of the program, and the detailed description of all the analytic, logical expressions and flow charts used in computations and program structure. A numerical example is provided and solved completely to show the sequence of computations followed. The program is carefully structured to reduce both user's time and costs without sacrificing accuracy. The user would expect a cost of CPU time of approximately $5.00 per building zone excluding printing costs. The accuracy, on the other hand, measured by deviation of simulated consumption from watt-hour meter readings, was found by many simulation tests not to exceed + or - 10 percent margin.

  5. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  6. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  7. Optimizing Existing Multistory Building Designs towards Net-Zero Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Y. AbuGrain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent global developments in awareness and concerns about environmental problems have led to reconsidering built environment approaches and construction techniques. One of the alternatives is the principle of low/zero-energy buildings. This study investigates the potentials of energy savings in an existing multi-story building in the Mediterranean region in order to achieve net-zero energy as a solution to increasing fossil fuel prices. The Colored building at the Faculty of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Cyprus was chosen as a target of this study to be investigated and analyzed in order to know how energy efficiency strategies could be applied to the building to reduce annual energy consumption. Since this research objective is to develop a strategy to achieve net-zero energy in existing buildings, case study and problem solving methodologies were applied in this research in order to evaluate the building design in a qualitative manner through observations, in addition to a quantitative method through an energy modeling simulation to achieve desirable results which address the problems. After optimizing the building energy performance, an alternative energy simulation was made of the building in order to make an energy comparison analysis, which leads to reliable conclusions. These methodologies and the strategies used in this research can be applied to similar buildings in order to achieve net-zero energy goals.

  8. Analysis of building energy efficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIDeying; FANYun; HAOBin

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the matter of building energy efficiency and heating system, and puts forward the measure of heating innovation, aiming at the improvement of Chinese building energy efficiency and heating innovation, which exceeds some possible advice for future development.

  9. Co-simulation of innovative integrated HVAC systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trcka, Marija; Hensena, Jan L.M.; Wetter, Michael

    2010-06-21

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings HVAC systems can help in reducing energy consumption and increasing occupant comfort. However, no single building performance simulation (BPS) tool offers sufficient capabilities and flexibilities to analyze integrated building systems and to enable rapid prototyping of innovative building and system technologies. One way to alleviate this problem is to use co-simulation, as an integrated approach to simulation. This article elaborates on issues important for co-simulation realization and discusses multiple possibilities to justify the particular approach implemented in the here described co-simulation prototype. The prototype is validated with the results obtained from the traditional simulation approach. It is further used in a proof-of-concept case study to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight its benefits. Stability and accuracy of different coupling strategies are analyzed to give a guideline for the required coupling time step.

  10. Combining building thermal simulation methods and LCA methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frank; Hansen, Klaus; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2008-01-01

    Thsi paper describes recent efforts made by the Danish Building Research Institute regarding the integration of a life cycle assessment (LCA) method into a whole building hygro-thermal simulation tool. The motivation for the work is that the increased requirements to the energy performance...

  11. Energy end-use intensities in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This report examines energy intensities in commercial buildings for nine end uses: space heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, office equipment, and other. The objective of this analysis was to increase understanding of how energy is used in commercial buildings and to identify targets for greater energy efficiency which could moderate future growth in demand. The source of data for the analysis is the 1989 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption survey (CBECS), which collected detailed data on energy-related characteristics and energy consumption for a nationally representative sample of approximately 6,000 commercial buildings. The analysis used 1989 CBECS data because the 1992 CBECS data were not yet available at the time the study was initiated. The CBECS data were fed into the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system, a building energy simulation program developed by the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to derive engineering estimates of end-use consumption for each building in the sample. The FEDS estimates were then statistically adjusted to match the total energy consumption for each building. This is the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) first report on energy end-use consumption in commercial buildings. This report is part of an effort to address customer requests for more information on how energy is used in buildings, which was an overall theme of the 1992 user needs study. The end-use data presented in this report were not available for publication in Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1989 (DOE/EIA-0318(89), Washington, DC, April 1992). However, subsequent reports on end-use energy consumption will be part of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption and Expenditures series, beginning with a 1992 data report to be published in early 1995.

  12. Influence Of Building Zoning On Annual Energy Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Rivalin, Lisa; Marchio, Dominique; Stabat, Pascal; Caciolo, Marcello; Cogné, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Simulation tools are widely used to assess the energy consumption of a building. In the modeling process, some choices should be made by the simulation tool user such as the division of the building into thermal zones. The zoning process is user dependent, which results in some difference in energy consumption results and model set-up and computational times. The aim of this work is to assess the influence of building zoning on the results of the dynamic thermal simulation including airflow a...

  13. IEA Energy Training Capacity-building Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The IEA has carried out training activities in energy-related areas from its origins as an agency, with the Emergency Response Exercises (ERE), designed to prepare member countries for oil supply disruption through a set of specially prepared drills simulating crisis conditions. The globalisation of world energy markets in recent years and the wider engagement of the IEA beyond its members have expanded this role, as demand for training instruction has increased. In response, the IEA has created the Energy Training and Capacity-Building Programme, which, through seminars and workshops, secondments and internships, will offer training in the methods and standards that make IEA work in a wide range of energy-related areas, including statistics, the international standard for objective policy recommendations.

  14. Thermally activated building systems in context of increasing building energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Branislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible ways to provide heating to the building is to use thermally activated building systems. This type of heating, besides providing significant increase in building energy efficiency, allows using low-temperature heating sources. In this paper, special attention is given to opaque part of the building façade with integrated thermally activated building systems. Due to fact that this type of system strongly depends on temperature of this construction-thermal element and type and thickness of other materials of the façade, influence of these parameters on energy efficiency was analyzed in this paper. Since the simplest and most promising way of using geothermal energy is to use it directly, for our analysis this source of energy was selected. Building energy needs for heating were obtained for real residential multi-family building in Serbia by using EnergyPlus software. The building with all necessary input for simulation was modeled in Google SketchUp with aid of Open Studio Plug-in. Obtained results were compared with measured heating energy consumption. The results show that thermally activated building systems represent good way to increase building energy efficiency and that applying certain temperatures within this element, low-energy house standard can be achieved.

  15. Renewable Energy Applications for Existing Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S. J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper introduces technical opportunities, means, and methods for incorporating renewable energy (RE) technologies into building designs and operations. It provides an overview of RE resources and available technologies used successfully to offset building electrical and thermal energy loads. Methods for applying these technologies in buildings and the role of building energy efficiency in successful RE projects are addressed along with tips for implementing successful RE projects.

  16. Using Expert Systems To Build Cognitive Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive simulations are runnable computer programs for modeling human cognitive activities. A case study is reported where expert systems were used as a formalism for modeling metacognitive processes in a seminar. Building cognitive simulations engages intensive introspection, ownership and meaning making in learners who build them. (Author/AEF)

  17. Residential building thermal performance energy efficiency in Yangtze River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王厚华; 庄燕燕; 吴伟伟

    2009-01-01

    Using energy consumption software VisualDOE4.0,simulation was carried out on the energy consumption of a typical residential building in Yangtze River basin,with a focus on thermal performance of envelope each component and application of total heating recovery equipment. The effects of thermal performance of building envelope each component on energy efficiency ratio were analyzed. Comprehensive measures schemes of energy saving were designed by the orthogonal experiment. The energy efficiency ratios of different envelopes combination schemes were gained. Finally,the optimize combination scheme was confirmed. With the measurement dates,the correctness of the simulation dates was completely verified.

  18. NET-ZERO ENERGY BUILDING OPERATOR TRAINING PROGRAM (NZEBOT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizendine, Anthony; Byars, Nan; Sleiti, Ahmad; Gehrig, Bruce; Lu, Na

    2012-12-31

    topics in the primary five-day Building Energy/Sustainability Management Certificate program in five training modules, namely: 1) Strategic Planning, 2) Sustainability Audits, 3) Information Analysis, 4) Energy Efficiency, and 5) Communication. Training Program 2 addresses the following technical topics in the two-day Building Technologies workshop: 1) Energy Efficient Building Materials, 2) Green Roofing Systems, 3) Energy Efficient Lighting Systems, 4) Alternative Power Systems for Buildings, 5) Innovative Building Systems, and 6) Application of Building Performance Simulation Software. Program 3 is a seminar which provides an overview of elements of programs 1 and 2 in a seminar style presentation designed for the general public to raise overall public awareness of energy and sustainability topics.

  19. Building Energy Modeling: A Data-Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Can

    Buildings consume nearly 50% of the total energy in the United States, which drives the need to develop high-fidelity models for building energy systems. Extensive methods and techniques have been developed, studied, and applied to building energy simulation and forecasting, while most of work have focused on developing dedicated modeling approach for generic buildings. In this study, an integrated computationally efficient and high-fidelity building energy modeling framework is proposed, with the concentration on developing a generalized modeling approach for various types of buildings. First, a number of data-driven simulation models are reviewed and assessed on various types of computationally expensive simulation problems. Motivated by the conclusion that no model outperforms others if amortized over diverse problems, a meta-learning based recommendation system for data-driven simulation modeling is proposed. To test the feasibility of the proposed framework on the building energy system, an extended application of the recommendation system for short-term building energy forecasting is deployed on various buildings. Finally, Kalman filter-based data fusion technique is incorporated into the building recommendation system for on-line energy forecasting. Data fusion enables model calibration to update the state estimation in real-time, which filters out the noise and renders more accurate energy forecast. The framework is composed of two modules: off-line model recommendation module and on-line model calibration module. Specifically, the off-line model recommendation module includes 6 widely used data-driven simulation models, which are ranked by meta-learning recommendation system for off-line energy modeling on a given building scenario. Only a selective set of building physical and operational characteristic features is needed to complete the recommendation task. The on-line calibration module effectively addresses system uncertainties, where data fusion on

  20. Energy Efficiency Approach to Intelligent Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Birangal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has nowadays become one of the most challenging tasks and this has boosted research on fresh fields, such as Ambient Intelligence. Energy consumption in the housing and tertiary sectors is especially high in developed countries. There is a great potential for energy savings in these sectors. Energy conservation measures are developed for newly constructed buildings and for buildings under restoration. However, to achieve a significant diminution in energy consumption apart from the standard energy-efficiency methods, pioneering technologies should be implemented, including renewable energy. Now, buildings are increasingly anticipated to meet higher and more complex performance requirements. Among these requirements, energy efficiency is renowned as an international goal to promote energy sustainability. Different approaches have been adapted to concentrate on this goal, the most up to date relating consumption patterns with human occupancy. Energy efficiency is keywords that can be originate these days in all domains in which energy demand exists. A significant aspect that can improve the energy efficiency in buildings is the use of building automation systems. Alternatively, building automation systems are usually not considered for energy conservation, as they are mostly used for comfort and safety. This consistently causes immense problems due to an fruitless use of these systems and unawareness of energy consumption. It is therefore essential that the existing system solutions are adapted to focus on energy conservation. Our research approach in developing an intelligent system to improve energy efficiency in intelligent buildings, which takes into account the different technical infrastructures of building

  1. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  2. First Swiss building and urban simulation conference. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweifel, G.; Citherlet, S.; Afjei, T.; Pahud, D.; Robinson, D.; Schaelin, A.

    2010-07-01

    These contributions presented at a conference, held in 2009 in Horw, near Lucerne, Switzerland, deal with the simulation of building technical services. Three contribution blocks dealt with thermal and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) simulation, airflow and stochastic modelling and urban simulation. In the thermal and HVAC simulation session, the potential and limitations of building energy performance simulation is examined from an engineering perspective, a parametric study of an air heat exchanger for the cooling of buildings is presented and a comparison of measured and estimated electric energy use and the impact of assumed occupancy patterns is made. Contributions on standard solutions for energy efficient heating and cooling with heat pumps, the validation and certification of dynamic building simulation tools, standards and tools for the energy performance of buildings with a simple chiller model and the system-simulation of a central solar heating plant with seasonal duct storage in Geneva, Switzerland, are presented. In the airflow and stochastic modelling session, the optimisation of air flow in operating theatres is examined, and air-flow phenomena in flats are explained with illustrations of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Also, the comparison of test reference years to stochastically generated time series and a comprehensive stochastic model of window usage are discussed. Contributions on the simulation of air-flow patterns and wind loads on facades and the choice of appropriate simulation techniques for the thermal analysis of double skin facades complete the session. In the final Urban Simulation session, a new CFD approach for urban flow and pollution dispersion simulation is presented, a comprehensive micro-simulation of resource flows for sustainable urban planning, multi-scale modelling of the urban climate and the optimisation of urban energy demands using an evolutionary algorithm are discussed.

  3. The READY program: Building a global potential energy surface and reactive dynamic simulations for the hydrogen combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogo, César; Brandão, João

    2014-06-30

    READY (REActive DYnamics) is a program for studying reactive dynamic systems using a global potential energy surface (PES) built from previously existing PESs corresponding to each of the most important elementary reactions present in the system. We present an application to the combustion dynamics of a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen using accurate PESs for all the systems involving up to four oxygen and hydrogen atoms. Results at the temperature of 4000 K and pressure of 2 atm are presented and compared with model based on rate constants. Drawbacks and advantages of this approach are discussed and future directions of research are pointed out.

  4. Energy Analysis for New Hotel Buildings in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. George B. Hanna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of energy simulation analysis to determine the effectiveness of building characteristics in reducing electrical energy consumption for hotel buildings in Egypt. Specifically, the impact on building envelope performance is investigated for different strategies such as window size, glazing type and building construction for two geographical locations in Egypt (Cairo and Alexandria. This paper also studies the energy savings in hotel buildings with 200 rooms for different Lighting Power Densities (LPD, Energy Input Ratios (EIR, Set point Temperatures (SPT and HVAC systems. The study shows certain findings of practical significance, e.g. that a Window-to-Wall Ratio of 0.20 and reasonably shaded windows lower the total annual electricity use for hotel buildings by more than 20% in the two Egyptian locations.

  5. Building concepts for a transition towards energy neutrality in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, B.J.; Paauw, J. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Opstelten, I.J.; Bakker, E.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper building concepts for the near future are described which enable the transition towards a net energy neutral building sector in the Netherlands by the year 2050. With 'net energy neutrality' is meant that, on a yearly basis, the total energy consumption in the built environment is compensated by local renewable energy production e.g. by using solar thermal (T), photovoltaic (PV), PVT and/or wind. A study concerning the feasibility of a 'net energy neutral built environment by 2050' set the energetic ambitions for the building concepts to be developed. This resulted in different concepts for residential buildings and for office-buildings. The building concepts are based on passive house technology to minimise the heating and cooling demand, and make optimal use of active and passive solar energy. Concepts for new to build domestic buildings are in fact energy producing to compensate for the remaining energy demand of existing, renovated dwellings. In all concepts the 'trias energetica' or 'energy pyramid' served as a general guideline, striving for minimisation of energy demand, maximal usage of renewable energy and usage of fossil fuels as efficiently as possible. Different full roof integrated options for using solar energy (PV, T or PVT) with variable storage options have been compared by making simulations with a dynamic simulation programme, to gain insight on their impact on energy, building engineering and economic impact. Also different possibilities for installations to fulfil the heating demand for the space heating and DHW demand are compared. For each concept, the resulting primary energy profiles for space heating and cooling, domestic hot water, electricity consumption for lighting, ventilation and household appliances are given.

  6. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  7. IEA EBC Annex 67 Energy Flexible Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Jensen, Søren Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    The foreseen large deployment of renewable energy sources may seriously affect the stability of energy grids. It will be necessary to control energy consumption to match instantaneous energy production. The built-in Energy Flexibility in buildings may be utilized for stabilizing the energy grids......, allowing for a larger roll out of renewable technologies. The Energy Flexibility of a building is the ability to manage its energy demand and generation according to local climate conditions, user needs and grid requirements. Energy Flexibility of buildings will thus allow for demand side management...... and load control and thereby demand response based on the requirements of the surrounding grids. Currently there is, however, no overview or insight into how much Energy Flexibility different building types and their usage may be able to offer to future energy systems. Three is thus a need for increasing...

  8. Implications of building energy standard for sustainable energy efficient design in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaro, Joseph; Mwasha, Abraham [University of West Indies, W. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, St. Augustine Campus (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2010-07-01

    The rapid growth of energy use, worldwide, has raised concerns over problems of energy supply, energy sustainability and exhaustion of energy resources. While most of the developed countries are implementing building energy standard rapidly to reduce building energy consumption and moving aggressively to achieve sustainable energy efficient building; the position of developing countries respect to energy standard implementation for this purpose is either poorly documented or not documented at all. Presently, there exists a gap between existing building designs and the increasing demand for sustainable energy efficient building design in developing countries. In that respect, this paper investigates the implementation status of building energy standards in developing countries and its implications for sustainable energy efficient designs in building. The present implementation status of building energy standard in 60 developing countries around the world, were analyzed using online survey. Hence, this study revealed the present implementation status of building energy standards in developing countries, implications for sustainable energy efficient designs in building and how building energy standards can be used to fill the gap between existing building designs and increasing demand for sustainable energy efficient building.

  9. Energy and Process Assessment Protocol for Industrial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    operation and maintenance procedures pertaining to building energy efficiency . _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ERDC

  10. Handbook of energy use for building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, R.G.; Stein, C.; Buckley, M.; Green, M.

    1980-03-01

    The construction industry accounts for over 11.14% of the total energy consumed in the US annually. This represents the equivalent energy value of 1 1/4 billion barrels of oil. Within the construction industry, new building construction accounts for 5.19% of national annual energy consumption. The remaining 5.95% is distributed among new nonbuilding construction (highways, ralroads, dams, bridges, etc.), building maintenance construction, and nonbuilding maintenance construction. The handbook focuses on new building construction; however, some information for the other parts of the construction industry is also included. The handbook provides building designers with information to determine the energy required for buildings construction and evaluates the energy required for alternative materials, assemblies, and methods. The handbook is also applicable to large-scale planning and policy determination in that it provides the means to estimate the energy required to carry out major building programs.

  11. The European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    This paper investigates the actual energy use for building operation with the calculated energy use according to the Danish implementation of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). This is important to various stakeholders in the building industry as the calculated energy ...... calculated energy use. More buildings should be investigated in the same manner before any sound conclusion can be made regarding whether the implementation of EPBD in a wide context leads to truly energy-efficient buildings.......This paper investigates the actual energy use for building operation with the calculated energy use according to the Danish implementation of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). This is important to various stakeholders in the building industry as the calculated energy...... performance is used for estimating investment security, operating budgets and for policy making. A case study shows that the actual and calculated energy use is practically the same in an average scenario. In the worst-case uncertainty scenario, the actual energy use is 20 % higher than the corrected...

  12. Building-to-Grid Integration through Commercial Building Portfolios Participating in Energy and Frequency Regulation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlak, Gregory S.

    Building energy use is a significant contributing factor to growing worldwide energy demands. In pursuit of a sustainable energy future, commercial building operations must be intelligently integrated with the electric system to increase efficiency and enable renewable generation. Toward this end, a model-based methodology was developed to estimate the capability of commercial buildings to participate in frequency regulation ancillary service markets. This methodology was integrated into a supervisory model predictive controller to optimize building operation in consideration of energy prices, demand charges, and ancillary service revenue. The supervisory control problem was extended to building portfolios to evaluate opportunities for synergistic effect among multiple, centrally-optimized buildings. Simulation studies performed showed that the multi-market optimization was able to determine appropriate opportunities for buildings to provide frequency regulation. Total savings were increased by up to thirteen percentage points, depending on the simulation case. Furthermore, optimizing buildings as a portfolio achieved up to seven additional percentage points of savings, depending on the case. Enhanced energy and cost savings opportunities were observed by taking the novel perspective of optimizing building portfolios in multiple grid markets, motivating future pursuits of advanced control paradigms that enable a more intelligent electric grid.

  13. EULEB EUropean high quality Low Energy Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The EULEB-Project is intended to supply information to architects and engineers throughout Europe and beyond it. Within the EU it will support the new Energy Directive on Buildings through providing design and engineering details of European public high quality buildings with low energy consumption. By providing a CD containing information on architecture, energy consumption and economical efficiency as well as the comfort of these innovative buildings in use, the lac...

  14. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  15. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-27

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  16. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  17. Commercial Buildings Energy Performance within Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Existing commercial buildings represent a challenge in the energy efficiency domain. Energy efficiency of a building, very often equalized to a building’s performance should not be observed as a standalone issue. For commercial buildings, energy efficiency needs to be observed and assessed within...... the context of performance of resident businesses. We examine both business performance and energy performance and how they relate to one another to conclude that building occupants, who are also employees, hold the key to optimizing both metrics in one of the most cost-efficient ways. Finally, the goal...... of our contribution is twofold: 1) to re-scope the concept of building performance to and show the importance to consider, hand- in-hand, both energy performance and performance of resident businesses, and 2) re-state the importance of the potential that lies in the active involvement of building...

  18. Investigation of building energy autonomy in the sahelian environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, O.; Ouedraogo, A.; Kuznik, F.; Baillis, D.; Koulidiati, J.

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the energy generation of a set of photovoltaic panels is compared with the energy load of a building in order to analyse its autonomy in the sahelian environment when taking into account, the orientation, the insulation and the energy transfer optimisation of its windows. The Type 56 TRNSYS multizone building model is utilized for the energy load simulation and the Type 94 model of the same code enables the coupling of photovoltaic (PV) panels with the building. Without insulation, the PV energy generation represents 73.52 and 111.79% of the building electric energy load, respectively for poly-crystalline and mono-crystalline panels. For the same PV characteristics and when we insulate the roof and the floor, the energy generation increases to represent successively 121.09 and 184.13%. In the meantime, for building without insulation and with insulate the roof, the floor and 2 cm insulated walls, the energy consumption ratios decrease respectively from 201.13 to 105.20 kWh/m2/year. The investigations finally show that it is even possible to generate excess energy (positive energy building) and reduce the number and incident surface area of the PV panels if we conjugate the previous model with building passive architectural design mode (orientation, solar protection ...).

  19. Calibrating Building Energy Models Using Supercomputer Trained Machine Learning Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Edwards, Richard [ORNL; Parker, Lynne Edwards [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Building Energy Modeling (BEM) is an approach to model the energy usage in buildings for design and retrofit purposes. EnergyPlus is the flagship Department of Energy software that performs BEM for different types of buildings. The input to EnergyPlus can often extend in the order of a few thousand parameters which have to be calibrated manually by an expert for realistic energy modeling. This makes it challenging and expensive thereby making building energy modeling unfeasible for smaller projects. In this paper, we describe the Autotune research which employs machine learning algorithms to generate agents for the different kinds of standard reference buildings in the U.S. building stock. The parametric space and the variety of building locations and types make this a challenging computational problem necessitating the use of supercomputers. Millions of EnergyPlus simulations are run on supercomputers which are subsequently used to train machine learning algorithms to generate agents. These agents, once created, can then run in a fraction of the time thereby allowing cost-effective calibration of building models.

  20. Modelling, design, and optimization of net-zero energy buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Athienitis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Building energy design is currently going through a period of major changes. One key factor of this is the adoption of net-zero energy as a long term goal for new buildings in most developed countries. To achieve this goal a lot of research is needed to accumulate knowledge and to utilize it in practical applications. In this book, accomplished international experts present advanced modeling techniques as well as in-depth case studies in order to aid designers in optimally using simulation tools for net-zero energy building design. The strategies and technologies discussed in this book are, ho

  1. Results. Building integrated energy supply; Resultater. Bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Rasmus L.; Noergaard, J.; Daniels, O.; Justesen, R.O.

    2011-08-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The analysis was conducted by making a large number of simulations of which the best combinations were selected. The final result takes form of a single top-50 list with the best combinations of energy systems according to CO{sub 2} emission, energy consumption and economics. The present report contains the conclusions of and comments on the project's results. (ln)

  2. Collapse simulation of building constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrest'yanov Viktor Nikolaevich

    Full Text Available The physical reasons for building structures destruction are both the forces arising at stress-strain state of construction elements and external influences arising at emergency situations, as well as their moments, impulses and periodic impulses with the frequencies close to of fluctuations frequencies of construction elements. We shall call the mathematical calculation models for the parameters-reasons of destructions the basic models. The basic models of destruction of building structures elements allow not only providing necessary level of reliability and survivability of the elements and the construction as a whole already at the stage of their design, but also giving the chance, at their corresponding completion, to provide rational decisions on the general need of recovery works and their volume depending on destruction level. Especially important for rational design decisions development, which ensure the demanded constructional safety of building structures, is library creation of the basic mathematical models of standard processes of bearing elements destructions for standard construction designs for the purpose of the further forecast (assessment of the level and probabilities of standard destructions. Some basic mathematical models of destructions processes of the standard elements of building structures are presented in the present article. A model of accounting for construction defects and a model of obtaining requirements to probabilities of partial destructions of a construction are given. Both of these models are probabilistic.

  3. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  4. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  5. Analysis of annual cooling energy requirements for glazed academic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, S.A. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hassan, A.H. [Vinyl Chloride Malaysia Sdn Bhd, Terengganu (Malaysia). Dept. of Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Malaysia experienced rapid increase in energy consumption in the last decade due to its high economic growth and increase in the standard living of household. Energy is becoming more costly and the situation is worsened by the global warming as a result of greenhouse gas emission. A more efficient energy usage and significant reduction in the released emission is therefore required. Space cooling with the use of air conditioners is practiced all year round in Malaysia and this accounts for 42% of total electricity energy consumption for commercial buildings and 30% of residential buildings. Reduction in the energy used for cooling in the built environment is a vital step to energy conservation in Malaysia. The objective of the present study was to analyze the annual cooling energy of highly glazed academic buildings which are located in a university in Malaysia. The outcome of the study would enable further remedial actions in reducing the energy consumption of the buildings' air conditioning system. The study is conducted by computer simulation using EnergyPlus software to calculate the cooling energy of a selected building or area. Comparison is made against the rated equipment load (i.e., the air handling unit) installed in the buildings. Since the buildings in the present study are not constructed parallel to each other the effect of building orientations with respect to the sun positions are also studied. The implications of shades such as venetian blind on the cooling energy are investigated in assessing their effectiveness in reducing the cooling energy, apart from providing thermal comfort to the occupants. In the aspect of operation, the present study includes the effects of reducing the set point air temperature and infiltration of outdoor air due to doors that are left open by the occupants. It is found from the present study that there are significant potentials for savings in the cooling energy of the buildings.

  6. Gray energy of building materials; Graue Energie von Baustoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasser, U.; Poell, M.

    1995-12-31

    The tables of this publication present gray energy data for 500 building materials, chemicals, processes and transportation processes stemming from over 50 sources. Explications and recommendations for the building practice are included. 9 figs., tabs., 59 refs.

  7. Flexible Framework for Building Energy Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E.; Macumber, D.; Weaver, E.; Shekhar, D.

    2012-09-01

    In the building energy research and advanced practitioner communities, building models are perturbed across large parameter spaces to assess energy and cost performance in the face of programmatic and economic constraints. This paper describes the OpenStudio software framework for performing such analyses.

  8. Benchmarking Hong Kong and China energy codes for residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.L.; Chen, Hua [The Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom (China)

    2008-07-01

    Mandatory energy codes to curb energy use of residential buildings have been formally launched in China for more than two decades but little has been publicized in literature. Similar codes are not available for residential buildings in Hong Kong, but most residential buildings in Hong Kong, especially public housing estates, are HK-BEAM certified to demonstrate their compliance with regulatory and basic design requirements. Given HK-BEAM is internationally recognized and there are doubts about the effectiveness of the China codes, how the energy efficiency of the HK-BEAM certified buildings compare with buildings in compliance with the China codes is of interest to most building designers and policy makers. This paper describes how the energy efficiency of a case study building in compliance with the China codes compare with the one in compliance with HK-BEAM. The energy simulation by HTB2 and BECRES reveal that the case study building in compliance with the China codes is 51.1% better in energy use. In the study, the relative impact of each compliance criterion on energy use and cooling load has been quantified by sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity values indicate that energy use is most sensitive to air-conditioning operation hours, indoor design temperature, coefficient of performance (COP) of the room air-conditioners (RAC) units, and the envelop characteristics. The results of this study indicate that a HK-BEAM certified building cannot satisfy the China codes requirements. This provides good reference to the policy makers, the building owners, and to the China and Hong Kong Governments when considering reciprocal recognition of building energy codes. (author)

  9. Design challenges for a climate adaptive multi-functional lightweight prefab panel for energy-efficient retrofitting of residential building based on one-room model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkmans, T.J.A.; Donkervoort, D.R.; Phaff, J.C.; Valcke, S.L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Current solutions for highly energy-efficient retrofitting rely on thick static insulation, airtight construction and extensive ventilation systems to become independent from variable outdoor conditions. A building skin that adapts to the outdoor conditions to regulate the indoor conditions could pr

  10. Development of an Integrated Process, Modeling and Simulation Platform for Performance-Based Design of Low-Energy and High IEQ Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixing

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a "Virtual Design Studio (VDS)": a software platform for integrated, coordinated and optimized design of green building systems with low energy consumption, high indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and high level of sustainability. The VDS is intended to assist collaborating architects,…

  11. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Building Energy Optimization Analysis Method (BEopt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored BEopt software, which ensures a consistent analysis platform and accurate simulations. Many BEopt algorithms have been adopted by private-sector HERS software tools that have helped improve the energy efficiency of tens-of-thousands of ENERGY STAR-certified homes.

  12. Whole-building Hygrothermal Simulation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Grau, Karl

    2003-01-01

    An existing integrated simulation tool for dynamic thermal simulation of building was extended with a transient model for moisture release and uptake in building materials. Validation of the new model was begun with comparison against measurements in an outdoor test cell furnished with single...... materials. Almost quasi-steady, cyclic experiments were used to compare the indoor humidity variation and the numerical results of the integrated simulation tool with the new moisture model. Except for the case with chipboard as furnishing, the predictions of indoor humidity with the detailed model were...

  13. Addendum to the Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engebrecht-Metzger, C.; Wilson, E.; Horowitz, S.

    2012-12-01

    As Building America (BA) has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocols (HSP) provides guidance to program partners and managers so that energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects can be compared alongside each other. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  14. Addendum to the Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engebrecht, C. Metzger [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-12-01

    As DOE's Building America program has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program’s goals. The House Simulation Protocols (HSP) provide guidance to program partners and managers so that energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects can be compared alongside each other. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  15. Policy Pathways: Energy Performance Certification of Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the most effective measures to address energy security, climate change and economic objectives. The Policy Pathways series can help countries capture this potential by assisting with the implementation of the 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations that were published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 2008. This policy pathway on energy performance certification of buildings is the second in the series. It aims to provide a 'how-to' guide to policy makers and relevant stakeholders on the essential elements in implementing energy performance certification of buildings programmes. Energy performance certification of buildings is a way to rate the energy efficiency of individual buildings -- whether they be residential, commercial or public. It is a key policy instrument that can assist governments in reducing energy consumption in buildings. This policy pathway showcases experiences from countries around the world to show examples of good practice and delivers a pathway of ten critical steps to implement energy performance certification of buildings programmes.

  16. DEEP: A Database of Energy Efficiency Performance to Accelerate Energy Retrofitting of Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoon Lee, Sang; Hong, Tianzhen; Sawaya, Geof; Chen, Yixing; Piette, Mary Ann

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents a method and process to establish a database of energy efficiency performance (DEEP) to enable quick and accurate assessment of energy retrofit of commercial buildings. DEEP was compiled from results of about 35 million EnergyPlus simulations. DEEP provides energy savings for screening and evaluation of retrofit measures targeting the small and medium-sized office and retail buildings in California. The prototype building models are developed for a comprehensive assessment of building energy performance based on DOE commercial reference buildings and the California DEER prototype buildings. The prototype buildings represent seven building types across six vintages of constructions and 16 California climate zones. DEEP uses these prototypes to evaluate energy performance of about 100 energy conservation measures covering envelope, lighting, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, plug-loads, and domestic hot water. DEEP consists the energy simulation results for individual retrofit measures as well as packages of measures to consider interactive effects between multiple measures. The large scale EnergyPlus simulations are being conducted on the super computers at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The pre-simulation database is a part of an on-going project to develop a web-based retrofit toolkit for small and medium-sized commercial buildings in California, which provides real-time energy retrofit feedback by querying DEEP with recommended measures, estimated energy savings and financial payback period based on users’ decision criteria of maximizing energy savings, energy cost savings, carbon reduction, or payback of investment. The pre-simulated database and associated comprehensive measure analysis enhances the ability to performance assessments of retrofits to reduce energy use for small and medium buildings and business owners who typically do not have resources to conduct

  17. Optimized design of low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Esbensen, Peter Kjær; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    by 33% compared to current level and that the CO2 emission should be halved. This calls for sustainable development in the building sector, but at the same time, it has to be economically efficient. People are conscious about savings in energy, but consideration to economic aspects are their primary......In 1996 the Danish government presented their plan (Energi21) formulating how Denmark could fulfill the demands for CO2-reduction recommended by United Nations. The major issues in the plan, regarding new and existing buildings, is that heat demand for new buildings in year 2005 should be reduced...... concern which can be seen during the construction of new buildings. People want energy-friendly solutions, but they should be economical optimized. An exonomical optimized building design with respect to energy consumption is the design with the lowest total cost (investment plus operational cost over its...

  18. On Variations of Space-heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hung-Wen; Hong, Tianzhen

    2013-05-01

    Space heating is the largest energy end use, consuming more than 7 quintillion joules of site energy annually in the U.S. building sector. A few recent studies showed discrepancies in simulated space-heating energy use among different building energy modeling programs, and the simulated results are suspected to be underpredicting reality. While various uncertainties are associated with building simulations, especially when simulations are performed by different modelers using different simulation programs for buildings with different configurations, it is crucial to identify and evaluate key driving factors to space-heating energy use in order to support the design and operation of low-energy buildings. In this study, 10 design and operation parameters for space-heating systems of two prototypical office buildings in each of three U.S. heating climates are identified and evaluated, using building simulations with EnergyPlus, to determine the most influential parameters and their impacts on variations of space-heating energy use. The influence of annual weather change on space-heating energy is also investigated using 30-year actual weather data. The simulated space-heating energy use is further benchmarked against those from similar actual office buildings in two U.S. commercial-building databases to better understand the discrepancies between simulated and actual energy use. In summary, variations of both the simulated and actual space-heating energy use of office buildings in all three heating climates can be very large. However these variations are mostly driven by a few influential parameters related to building design and operation. The findings provide insights for building designers, owners, operators, and energy policy makers to make better decisions on energy-efficiency technologies to reduce space-heating energy use for both new and existing buildings.

  19. Energy conservation in 29 historic school buildings in Palermo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butera, F.; D' Orso, A.; Farruggia, S.; Rizzo, G.; Silvegtrini, G.

    1985-04-01

    In the rehabilitation program of 29 old school buildings in Palermo energy conservation measures were included. By means of simulation models, several options were examined, ranging from solar active systems to properly designed heating systems. The study showed, because of the characteristics of the buildings, their occupation pattern and the mild climate, that the most cost-effective option was a properly controlled heating system. Italian energy conservation building regulations were shown to be scarcely suitable to the cases examined, and a certain resistance to technological innovation was found in some designers, especially the older ones.

  20. From Zero Energy Buildings to Zero Energy Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, Ben; Kutscher, Chuck; Macumber, Dan; Schott, Marjorie; Pless, Shanti; Livingood, Bill; Van Geet, Otto

    2016-08-26

    Some U.S. cities are planning advanced districts that have goals for zero energy, water, waste, and/or greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, zero energy districts present unique opportunities to cost-effectively achieve high levels of energy efficiency and renewable energy penetration across a collection of buildings that may be infeasible at the individual building scale. These high levels of performance are accomplished through district energy systems that harness renewable and wasted energy at large scales and flexible building loads that coordinate with variable renewable energy supply. Unfortunately, stakeholders face a lack of documented processes, tools, and best practices to assist them in achieving zero energy districts. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is partnering on two new district projects in Denver: the National Western Center and the Sun Valley Neighborhood. We are working closely with project stakeholders in their zero energy master planning efforts to develop the resources needed to resolve barriers and create replicable processes to support future zero energy district efforts across the United States. Initial results of these efforts include the identification and description of key zero energy district design principles (maximizing building efficiency, solar potential, renewable thermal energy, and load control), economic drivers, and master planning principles. The work has also resulted in NREL making initial enhancements to the U.S. Department of Energy's open source building energy modeling platform (OpenStudio and EnergyPlus) with the long-term goal of supporting the design and optimization of energy districts.

  1. Comparative Validation of Building Simulation Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    _2 and DSF200_4, the third empirical test case is also specified as DSF400_3, but it's completion is under consideration. The comparative test cases can not be directly used for the validation of the software due to often disagreement of the results, however the result of the exercises...... is that the comparative validation can be regarded as the main argument to continue the validation of the building simulation software for the buildings with the double skin façade with the empirical validation test cases.......The scope of this subtask is to perform a comparative validation of the building simulation software for the buildings with the double skin façade. The outline of the results in the comparative validation identifies the areas where is no correspondence achieved, i.e. calculation of the air flow...

  2. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since...... the authorities fail to mobilise the stakeholders to implement energy efficient technologies in local building practices. This points towards a need to reframe policy initiatives in order to take the complexity of the challenge of dissemination of energy efficient technologies in practice into account......; acknowledging that singular instruments are seldom sufficient to boost a wider transition in building practices, since no simple cause or driver for change exists. The municipal level is essential in facilitating change within energy efficient technologies, since municipals have strong interrelations...

  3. Reinforcement learning for energy conservation and comfort in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalamagkidis, K. [Computer Science and Engineering Department, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Kolokotsa, D. [Technical Educational Institute of Crete, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Chania, Crete (Greece); Kalaitzakis, K.; Stavrakakis, G.S. [Technical University of Crete, Department of Chania, Crete (Greece)

    2007-07-15

    This paper deals with the issue of achieving comfort in buildings with minimal energy consumption. Specifically a reinforcement learning controller is developed and simulated using the Matlab/Simulink environment. The reinforcement learning signal used is a function of the thermal comfort of the building occupants, the indoor air quality and the energy consumption. This controller is then compared with a traditional on/off controller, as well as a Fuzzy-PD controller. The results show that, even after a couple of simulated years of training, the reinforcement learning controller has equivalent or better performance when compared to the other controllers. (author)

  4. Energy Aspects of Green Buildings - International Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauskale, L.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.; Lecis, I.

    2016-12-01

    At present, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main environmental priorities globally, and implementation of sustainability aspects in the construction industry, including energy aspects, is of major importance for long-term environmental development, as buildings have a long life cycle and require many resources both for construction and operation periods. The aim of the research is to analyse energy aspects of green buildings. The results of research show that the construction of green buildings can significantly result in energy savings and has other benefits for different market participants. Future research directions have been identified as well.

  5. Optimization of the Public Buildings Energy Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipović, P.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, B.

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising interest in the improvement of energy efficiency in public buildings nowadays atthe EU level. Increasing energy efficiency can lead to both better thermal comfort, as well as netsavings on energy bills. Furthermore, the right choice of energy source can lead to large savings inCO2...... be achieved by taking a holistic approach during the refurbishment of thebuilding, at the same time increasing thermal comfort of the students and employees. Finally, thedeveloped model would be easy to adapt to any other similar public building, which could lead tofurther savings in energy consumption....

  6. Energy based prediction models for building acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In order to reach robust and simplified yet accurate prediction models, energy based principle are commonly used in many fields of acoustics, especially in building acoustics. This includes simple energy flow models, the framework of statistical energy analysis (SEA) as well as more elaborated...... principles as, e.g., wave intensity analysis (WIA). The European standards for building acoustic predictions, the EN 12354 series, are based on energy flow and SEA principles. In the present paper, different energy based prediction models are discussed and critically reviewed. Special attention is placed...

  7. Intelligent buildings in context of energy rationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews state of the art, the development activities, and futuristic vision on 'smart' and 'intelligent' buildings' construction in context of measures which improve their energy efficiency. The technologies for programming, regulation and automation of energy consumption in buildings, which characterize the current form of 'smart' buildings together with the implementation of 'intelligent' facades, are already pointing to some significant results which may be accomplished in relation to energy efficiency optimization of buildings without compromising their greater flexibility and comfort in use. One of the major preconditions for further development of these systems is the integration of design processes which refer to the core of a building and to its installation utilities.

  8. Multi-Criteria Analysis of Alternative Energy Supply Solutions to Public Nearly Zero Energy Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Šiupšinskas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes energy supply alternatives for modernised public nearly zero energy buildings. The paper examines alternative energy production systems such as heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, adsorption cooling, biomass boiler, solar photovoltaic, wind turbines and combinations of these systems. The simulation of the analysed building energy demand for different energy production alternatives has been performed using TRNSYS modelling software. In order to determine an optimal energy supply variant, the estimated results of energy, environmental, and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi-criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Predicting Energy Performance of a Net-Zero Energy Building: A Statistical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Joshua; Webb, David

    2016-09-01

    Performance-based building requirements have become more prevalent because it gives freedom in building design while still maintaining or exceeding the energy performance required by prescriptive-based requirements. In order to determine if building designs reach target energy efficiency improvements, it is necessary to estimate the energy performance of a building using predictive models and different weather conditions. Physics-based whole building energy simulation modeling is the most common approach. However, these physics-based models include underlying assumptions and require significant amounts of information in order to specify the input parameter values. An alternative approach to test the performance of a building is to develop a statistically derived predictive regression model using post-occupancy data that can accurately predict energy consumption and production based on a few common weather-based factors, thus requiring less information than simulation models. A regression model based on measured data should be able to predict energy performance of a building for a given day as long as the weather conditions are similar to those during the data collection time frame. This article uses data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Net-Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF) to develop and validate a regression model to predict the energy performance of the NZERTF using two weather variables aggregated to the daily level, applies the model to estimate the energy performance of hypothetical NZERTFs located in different cities in the Mixed-Humid climate zone, and compares these estimates to the results from already existing EnergyPlus whole building energy simulations. This regression model exhibits agreement with EnergyPlus predictive trends in energy production and net consumption, but differs greatly in energy consumption. The model can be used as a framework for alternative and more complex models based on the

  10. Policy Pathways: Modernising Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Buildings are the largest consumers of energy worldwide and will continue to be a source of increasing energy demand in the future. Globally, the sector’s final energy consumption doubled between 1971 and 2010 to reach 2 794 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), driven primarily by population increase and economic growth. Under current policies, the global energy demand of buildings is projected by the IEA experts to grow by an additional 838 Mtoe by 2035 compared to 2010. The challenges of the projected increase of energy consumption due to the built environment vary by country. In IEA member countries, much of the future buildings stock is already in place, and so the main challenge is to renovate existing buildings stock. In non-IEA countries, more than half of the buildings stock needed by 2050 has yet to be built. The IEA and the UNDP partnered to analyse current practices in the design and implementation of building energy codes. The aim is to consolidate existing efforts and to encourage more attention to the role of the built environment in a low-carbon and climate-resilient world. This joint IEA-UNDP Policy Pathway aims to share lessons learned between IEA member countries and non-IEA countries. The objective is to spread best practices, limit pressures on global energy supply, improve energy security, and contribute to environmental sustainability. Part of the IEA Policy Pathway series, Modernising building energy codes to secure our global energy future sets out key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The Policy Pathway series aims to help policy makers implement the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations endorsed by IEA Ministers (2011).

  11. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Energy Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W.

    2013-09-26

    The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.

  12. Zero energy buildings and mismatch compensation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes an overall energy system approach to analysing the mismatch problem of zero energy and zero emission buildings (ZEBs). The mismatch arises from hourly differences in energy production and consumption at the building level and results in the need for exchange of electricity via...... of the energy production unit. Based on historical data for the electricity supply area in western Denmark, this paper makes a first attempt to quantify mismatch compensation factors. The results indicate that such compensation factors are a little below one for buildings with photovoltaics (PV) and a little...... the public grid even though the building has an annual net-exchange of zero. This paper argues that, when looked upon from the viewpoint of the overall electricity supply system, a mismatch can be both negative and positive. Moreover, there are often both an element of levelling out mismatches between...

  13. Energy Savings Modeling of Standard Commercial Building Re-tuning Measures: Large Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2012-06-01

    Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BAS's capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This report investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system retuning measures on a typical large office building prototype model, using the Department of Energy's building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated - each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All of these measures and combinations were simulated in 16 cities representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy

  14. Thermal mass impact on energy performance of a low, medium and heavy mass building in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Bojan V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy mass materials used in building structures and architecture can significantly affect building energy performance and occupant comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate if thermal mass can improve the internal environment of a building, resulting in lower energy requirements from the mechanical systems. The study was focused on passive building energy performance and compared annual space heating and cooling energy requirements for an office building in Belgrade with several different applications of thermal mass. A three-dimensional building model was generated to represent a typical office building. Building shape, orientation, glazing to wall ratio, envelope insulation thickness, and indoor design conditions were held constant while location and thickness of building mass (concrete was varied between cases in a series of energy simulations. The results were compared and discussed in terms of the building space heating and cooling energy and demand affected by thermal mass. The simulation results indicated that with addition of thermal mass to the building envelope and structure: 100% of all simulated cases experienced reduced annual space heating energy requirements, 67% of all simulated cases experienced reduced annual space cooling energy requirements, 83% of all simulated cases experienced reduced peak space heating demand and 50% of all simulated cases experienced reduced peak space cooling demand. The study demonstrated that there exists a potential for reducing space heating and cooling energy requirements with heavy mass construction in the analyzed climate region (Belgrade, Serbia.

  15. Buildings Interaction with Urban Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Wyckmans, Annemie; Zucker, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The goal towards a fossil free energy system is expressed in amongst others European and national targets, and puts pressure on the application of renewable energy sources combined with energy efficiency. Many cities are even more ambitious than their national targets and want to be among the first...... on the impacts that buildings play in the overall energy system. Here buildings are not only consumers but rather prosumers that are able to produce renewable energy themselves. Buildings moreover offer potential storage capacities that can be utilized in demand shifting, which is necessary to enable increased...... to demonstrate that they can become not only smart fossil-free energy cities but sustainable in a wider sense, including water, waste, transportation and more. In the current paper, the research agenda to support such goals through smart city efforts is presented for a few European cases as examples, focusing...

  16. Sensitivity Analysis Applied in Design of Low Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Building performance can be expressed by different indicators as primary energy use, environmental load and/or the indoor environmental quality and a building performance simulation can provide the decision maker with a quantitative measure of the extent to which an integrated design solution...... satisfies the design requirements and objectives. In the design of sustainable Buildings it is beneficial to identify the most important design parameters in order to develop more efficiently alternative design solutions or reach optimized design solutions. A sensitivity analysis makes it possible...... to identify the most important parameters in relation to building performance and to focus design and optimization of sustainable buildings on these fewer, but most important parameters. The sensitivity analyses will typically be performed at a reasonably early stage of the building design process, where...

  17. 某绿色建筑能耗实测数据校验eQUSET建筑能耗模拟软件模型的研究%Measured Data Verification of Energy Consumption in a Green Building for Building Energy Simulation Software eQUEST Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晏京; 吴祥生; 陈金华; 张小欧

    2014-01-01

    以重庆市某高校三星绿色建筑为例,对其全年实际运行能耗进行分项统计,利用eQUEST建筑能耗模拟软件建立该建筑的能耗模拟模型。逐项比较实测数据与模拟数据,分析产生误差的原因,并使校验过后的模型模拟数据误差达到相关标准要求。通过对所建模型的校验模拟,证明了经过实测数据校验的模型能够对建筑能耗进行更准确的预测。总结了一些校验模型的方法,为后续能耗模拟提供了参考。%According to the subentry statistic of a green building in Chongqing, the building energy consumption simulation model is established by eQUEST software, comparing the measured data and simu-lated data, analyzing the cause of the error, and the checked model simulation data error achieves the re-quirements of relevant standards. Through the verification of the model, data checking model can make more accurate prediction on the energy consumption of buildings. Some methods for checking model are summarized as reference for subsequent energy simulation.

  18. Modernizing buildings. Saving energy. 4. ed.; Gebaeude modernisieren. Energie sparen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burk, Peter [Institut Bauen und Wohnen, Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Where and how does a building lose energy? How can energy consumption be reduced? What are the most relevant legal boundary conditions? How to find the best experts in this field? What aspects must be considered in the final acceptance of the construction work, in the final invoice verification, and in the issuing of Energy Performance Certificates? Energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources are getting ever more important. Especially in the building sector, the energy conservation potential is high. Step by step, this practical guide shows how to choose the best investments and reduce the energy cost in following years.

  19. Energy optimization of office buildings; Energioptimering af kontorbyggeri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittchen, K.B.; Place Hansen, E.J. de (Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBi), Hoersholm (Denmark)); Radisch, N.H.; Treldal, J. (Ramboell A/S, Koebenhavn (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    The project analysed two main office building types - high-rises and low-rises - and calculated a number of parameters, using the simulation program BSim. Calculations showed that the overall building design and orientation effect is moderate compared with, for instance, use of daylight control and low-energy lighting, computers, etc. Considerable energy savings can be achieved by use of natural ventilation in the summer, thus only using mechanical ventilation with heat recovery during the day in the winter. Open-plan offices result in a better indoor climate and lower energy consumption than cubicle offices. (LN)

  20. Using DOE Commercial Reference Buildings for Simulation Studies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, K.; Deru, M.; Studer, D.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed 256 EnergyPlus models for use in studies that aim to characterize about 70% of the U.S. commercial building stock. Sixteen building types - including restaurants, health care, schools, offices, supermarkets, retail, lodging, and warehouses - are modeled across 16 cities to represent the diversity of U.S. climate zones. Weighting factors have been developed to combine the models in proportions similar to those of the McGraw-Hill Construction Projects Starts Database for 2003-2007. This paper reviews the development and contents of these models and their applications in simulation studies.

  1. Revealing myths about people, energy and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.; Moezzi, M.

    2000-05-01

    In this essay we take a closer look at some energy myths, focusing on the ways energy professionals and the public alike, talk, write and teach about how energy affects the way in which we design, operate, retrofit and inhabit buildings. What myths about people, energy and buildings are current today? Who tells these myths and why do we believe them? How do myths affect our behavior? Myths are a way of understanding the world we live in. They may represent incomplete understanding, or be based on premises that are scientifically not valid, but they help us understand and explain how the world works, and we shape our behavior accordingly.

  2. Building energy modeling for green architecture and intelligent dashboard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlois, Justin

    Buildings are responsible for 40% of the carbon emissions in the United States. Energy efficiency in this sector is key to reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions. This work studied the passive technique called the roof solar chimney for reducing the cooling load in homes architecturally. Three models of the chimney were created: a zonal building energy model, computational fluid dynamics model, and numerical analytic model. The study estimated the error introduced to the building energy model (BEM) through key assumptions, and then used a sensitivity analysis to examine the impact on the model outputs. The conclusion was that the error in the building energy model is small enough to use it for building simulation reliably. Further studies simulated the roof solar chimney in a whole building, integrated into one side of the roof. Comparisons were made between high and low efficiency constructions, and three ventilation strategies. The results showed that in four US climates, the roof solar chimney results in significant cooling load energy savings of up to 90%. After developing this new method for the small scale representation of a passive architecture technique in BEM, the study expanded the scope to address a fundamental issue in modeling - the implementation of the uncertainty from and improvement of occupant behavior. This is believed to be one of the weakest links in both accurate modeling and proper, energy efficient building operation. A calibrated model of the Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation's LEED Gold, 3,400 m2 building was created. Then algorithms were developed for integration to the building's dashboard application that show the occupant the energy savings for a variety of behaviors in real time. An approach using neural networks to act on real-time building automation system data was found to be the most accurate and efficient way to predict the current energy savings for each scenario. A stochastic study examined the impact of the

  3. Buildings and energy in the 1980`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Many energy programs were put into place during the 1970`s and 1980`s to lessen the dependence upon foreign oil supplies and to improve how all forms of energy are used. A significant percent of total energy consumption occurred in the residential and commercial sectors. This report concentrates on the physical makeup of the residential and commercial buildings sectors and their use of energy, and examines changes that occurred during the 1980`s. Chapter 1 presents a summary of major findings. The following three chapters focus on different aspects of the overarching theme of buildings and energy in the 1980`s. Chapter 2 discusses major characteristics of residential and commercial buildings. Chapter 3 considers the major energy sources and end uses in terms of number of buildings and floorspace. Chapter 4 focuses on energy consumption and expenditures. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 contain tables at the end of each chapter that summarize data from detailed tables that are available separately on diskette or via EIA`s Electronic Publishing System (EPUB). Following the body of the report, appendices and a glossary provide additional information on the methodologies used in this report and on the residential and commercial building consumption surveys on which this report is based. 62 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. Impacts of Model Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivaraman, Deepak [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, Rosemarie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) periodically evaluates national and state-level impacts associated with energy codes in residential and commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), funded by DOE, conducted an assessment of the prospective impacts of national model building energy codes from 2010 through 2040. A previous PNNL study evaluated the impact of the Building Energy Codes Program; this study looked more broadly at overall code impacts. This report describes the methodology used for the assessment and presents the impacts in terms of energy savings, consumer cost savings, and reduced CO2 emissions at the state level and at aggregated levels. This analysis does not represent all potential savings from energy codes in the U.S. because it excludes several states which have codes which are fundamentally different from the national model energy codes or which do not have state-wide codes. Energy codes follow a three-phase cycle that starts with the development of a new model code, proceeds with the adoption of the new code by states and local jurisdictions, and finishes when buildings comply with the code. The development of new model code editions creates the potential for increased energy savings. After a new model code is adopted, potential savings are realized in the field when new buildings (or additions and alterations) are constructed to comply with the new code. Delayed adoption of a model code and incomplete compliance with the code’s requirements erode potential savings. The contributions of all three phases are crucial to the overall impact of codes, and are considered in this assessment.

  5. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    comprehensive renovations in the coming years and in connection with this renovation process energy saving measures can be implemented relatively inexpensive and cost effective. This opportunity should be used to insure the buildings in the future as far as energy consumption is concerned. This paper gives...

  6. Energy Impacts of Nonlinear Behavior of PCM When Applied into Building Envelope: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.

    2012-08-01

    Previous research on phase change materials (PCM) for building applications has been done for several decades resulting in plenty of literature on PCM properties, temperature, and peak reduction potential. Thus, PCMs are a potential technology to reduce peak loads and HVAC energy consumption in buildings. There are few building energy simulation programs that have PCM modeling features, and even fewer have been validated. Additionally, there is no previous research that indicates the level of accuracy when simulating PCM from a building energy simulation perspective. This study analyzes the effects a nonlinear enthalpy profile has on thermal performance and expected energy benefits for PCM-enhanced insulation.

  7. Relevant factors in Spanish buildings energy certification process

    OpenAIRE

    Palme, Massimo; Isalgue Buxeda, Antonio; Coch Roura, Helena; Serra Florensa, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    European directive EPBD (2003) and Kyoto protocol (1997) obligated the signer countries to implement an energy certification process of buildings in their laws. In Spain, the government established (RD 47/2007) two certification options: a simplified certification (that does not permit to obtain the best certification results) or a simulation process based on the Lider and Calener tools (DOE-II based simulators adapted to Spanish norms). In this work we report the results of a large number of...

  8. Design of low-energy building and energy consumption analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸣; 陈滨; 范悦; 朱佳音; 索健

    2009-01-01

    In China,a new "Design standard for energy efficiency of residential buildings (for cold region)" was introduced in 2006. In this new standard,more high level insulation of the building envelope is required,yearly energy requirement for heating must be less than 55 kWh/(m2·a)(regarded as a low-energy house). The new attempt was carried out in the process of architecture design with an evaluation on energy consumption of the building. The design plan was brought forward and compared. PHPP software from German was applied to calculate energy consumption of the passive residential building. The optimum design planning was discussed and model of passive house suited to China’s national conditions were attempted. The compactness,solar air collector and the window-wall ratio have essential influence on the energy consumption of buildings. The annual heat demands for the buildings with the window-wall ratio 0.35 and 0.50 are 48 kWh/(m2·a) and 46 kWh/(m2·a),respectively. The yearly auxiliary heat of building with the wall-mounted solar air collectors and the window-wall ratio 0.35 is just 4.8 kWh/(m2·a).

  9. Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

  10. Translating Building Information Modeling to Building Energy Modeling Using Model View Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WoonSeong Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to translate between Building Information Modeling (BIM and Building Energy Modeling (BEM that uses Modelica, an object-oriented declarative, equation-based simulation environment. The approach (BIM2BEM has been developed using a data modeling method to enable seamless model translations of building geometry, materials, and topology. Using data modeling, we created a Model View Definition (MVD consisting of a process model and a class diagram. The process model demonstrates object-mapping between BIM and Modelica-based BEM (ModelicaBEM and facilitates the definition of required information during model translations. The class diagram represents the information and object relationships to produce a class package intermediate between the BIM and BEM. The implementation of the intermediate class package enables system interface (Revit2Modelica development for automatic BIM data translation into ModelicaBEM. In order to demonstrate and validate our approach, simulation result comparisons have been conducted via three test cases using (1 the BIM-based Modelica models generated from Revit2Modelica and (2 BEM models manually created using LBNL Modelica Buildings library. Our implementation shows that BIM2BEM (1 enables BIM models to be translated into ModelicaBEM models, (2 enables system interface development based on the MVD for thermal simulation, and (3 facilitates the reuse of original BIM data into building energy simulation without an import/export process.

  11. Translating building information modeling to building energy modeling using model view definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, WoonSeong; Kim, Jong Bum; Clayton, Mark J; Haberl, Jeff S; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to translate between Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Building Energy Modeling (BEM) that uses Modelica, an object-oriented declarative, equation-based simulation environment. The approach (BIM2BEM) has been developed using a data modeling method to enable seamless model translations of building geometry, materials, and topology. Using data modeling, we created a Model View Definition (MVD) consisting of a process model and a class diagram. The process model demonstrates object-mapping between BIM and Modelica-based BEM (ModelicaBEM) and facilitates the definition of required information during model translations. The class diagram represents the information and object relationships to produce a class package intermediate between the BIM and BEM. The implementation of the intermediate class package enables system interface (Revit2Modelica) development for automatic BIM data translation into ModelicaBEM. In order to demonstrate and validate our approach, simulation result comparisons have been conducted via three test cases using (1) the BIM-based Modelica models generated from Revit2Modelica and (2) BEM models manually created using LBNL Modelica Buildings library. Our implementation shows that BIM2BEM (1) enables BIM models to be translated into ModelicaBEM models, (2) enables system interface development based on the MVD for thermal simulation, and (3) facilitates the reuse of original BIM data into building energy simulation without an import/export process.

  12. Analysis of a Building Energy Efficiency Certification System in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk Joon Park

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Korean government has established a national plan for the promotion of zero energy buildings to respond to climate change and energy crises. To achieve this plan, several energy efficiency policies for new and existing buildings have been developed. The Building Energy Efficiency Certification System (BEECS aims to promote the spread of high energy-efficient buildings by evaluating and certifying building energy performance. This study discussed Korean building energy efficiency policies and analyzed especially the influence of the BEECS on the actual energy consumption of a residential building and calculated energy performance of non-residential buildings. The BEECS was evaluated to have influence on gas and district heating consumption in residential buildings. For non-residential buildings, a decreasing trend was shown in calculated primary energy consumption in the years since the BEECS has been enacted. Appropriate improvements of the certification system were also discussed by analyzing relationship between building characteristics and their energy consumptions.

  13. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  14. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  15. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-07

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

  16. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  17. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  18. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  19. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  20. About energy saving and increase of energy efficiency in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the article the analysis of National law №261 "Energy saving and increase of energy efficiency..." from the point of view of building systems is given. The recommendations for modernization of heat, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems taking into account energy efficiency requirements are given.

  1. Detailed weather data generator for building simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Adelard, L; Garde, F; Gatina, J -C

    2012-01-01

    Thermal buildings simulation softwares need meteorological files in thermal comfort, energetic evaluation studies. Few tools can make significant meteorological data available such as generated typical year, representative days, or artificial meteorological database. This paper deals about the presentation of a new software, RUNEOLE, used to provide weather data in buildings applications with a method adapted to all kind of climates. RUNEOLE associates three modules of description, modelling and generation of weather data. The statistical description of an existing meteorological database makes typical representative days available and leads to the creation of model libraries. The generation module leads to the generation of non existing sequences. This software tends to be usable for the searchers and designers, by means of interactivity, facilitated use and easy communication. The conceptual basis of this tool will be exposed and we'll propose two examples of applications in building physics for tropical hu...

  2. Status and prospects of building energy efficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONGWeiding; ZHOUHui

    2003-01-01

    The paper briefly describes situation of building energy consumption in China. The authors indicate some relations in building energy efficiency should be dealt with properly: energy saving and energy efficiency, envelopes and building services systems, energy use and indoor environment, electric power saving and energy saving, devices and system, energy efficiency at stable state and at dynamic state. The authors suggest to use Coefficient of Energy Consumption as a Indicator of building energy efficiency.

  3. Mixed strategies for energy conservation and alternative energy utilization (solar) in buildings. Final report. Volume III. Appendixes. [10 appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    This appendix summarizes building characteristics used to determine heating and cooling loads for each of the five building types in each of the four regions. For the selected five buildings, the following data are attached: new and existing construction characteristics; new and existing construction thermal resistance; floor plan and elevation; people load schedule; lighting load schedule; appliance load schedule; ventilation schedule; and hot water use schedule. For the five building types (single family, apartment buildings, commercial buildings, office buildings, and schools), data are compiled in 10 appendices. These are Building Characteristics; Alternate Energy Sources and Energy Conservation Techniques Description, Costs, Fuel Price Scenarios; Life Cycle Cost Model; Simulation Models; Solar Heating/Cooling System; Condensed Weather; Single and Multi-Family Dwelling Characteristics and Energy Conservation Techniques; Mixed Strategies for Energy Conservation and Alternative Energy Utilization in Buildings. An extensive bibliography is given in the final appendix. (MCW)

  4. Gray energy of building materials; Graue Energie von Baustoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasser, U.; Poell, M. [Buero fuer Umweltchemie, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-05-15

    The report highlights the importance of gray energy and discusses the relationship to environmental balances. Literature values for the most important building materials are collated and commented. 9 figs., tabs., 59 refs.

  5. Energy Metrics for State Government Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Trevor

    Measuring true progress towards energy conservation goals requires the accurate reporting and accounting of energy consumption. An accurate energy metrics framework is also a critical element for verifiable Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Energy conservation in government can reduce expenditures on energy costs leaving more funds available for public services. In addition to monetary savings, conserving energy can help to promote energy security, air quality, and a reduction of carbon footprint. With energy consumption/GHG inventories recently produced at the Federal level, state and local governments are beginning to also produce their own energy metrics systems. In recent years, many states have passed laws and executive orders which require their agencies to reduce energy consumption. In June 2008, SC state government established a law to achieve a 20% energy usage reduction in state buildings by 2020. This study examines case studies from other states who have established similar goals to uncover the methods used to establish an energy metrics system. Direct energy consumption in state government primarily comes from buildings and mobile sources. This study will focus exclusively on measuring energy consumption in state buildings. The case studies reveal that many states including SC are having issues gathering the data needed to accurately measure energy consumption across all state buildings. Common problems found include a lack of enforcement and incentives that encourage state agencies to participate in any reporting system. The case studies are aimed at finding the leverage used to gather the needed data. The various approaches at coercing participation will hopefully reveal methods that SC can use to establish the accurate metrics system needed to measure progress towards its 20% by 2020 energy reduction goal. Among the strongest incentives found in the case studies is the potential for monetary savings through energy efficiency. Framing energy conservation

  6. Tools for Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia; Aden, Nate; Tsakiris, Aristeidis

    With growing urbanization, our cities are playing an increasingly important role in accelerating energy efficiency improvements and mitigating climate change (REN21 2016). Cities are one of the biggest consumers of energy in the world, representing almost two-thirds of global primary energy demand...... and accounting for 70 per cent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the energy sector (IEA2016). Therefore, with urbanization forecast to continue cities will be a critical driver in the sustainable energy transition. Typically city governments have direct decision powers to implement policy actions, which have...... (Holder 2016). Population growth and urbanization are together expanding global building stocks that are increasing the urgency to reduce GHG emissions from the buildings sector by at least a quarter by 2030, in order to have a chance of limiting average global temperature increase to less than 2 degrees...

  7. Building Energy Codes: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Globally, 32% of total final energy consumption is attributed to the building sector. To reduce energy consumption, energy codes set minimum energy efficiency standards for the building sector. With effective implementation, building energy codes can support energy cost savings and complementary benefits associated with electricity reliability, air quality improvement, greenhouse gas emission reduction, increased comfort, and economic and social development. This policy brief seeks to support building code policymakers and implementers in designing effective building code programs.

  8. Simulation of Micro-Climate in Heated Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Diachek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents main theoretical principles that serve as a basis for the developed numerical model of processes pertaining to conjugated heat exchange in the heated buildings. Information on functional capabilities of the developed programme, results of calculations and comparison of the obtained data with the conditions of heat comfort are given in the paper. It has been established that an application of simulation processes pertaining to energy and substance transfer at the design stage is considered as a rather efficient method for provision of the required parameters of a micro-climate and optimization of heat consumption by heated buildings.

  9. A Software Architecture for Simulation Support in Building Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Leal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Building automation integrates the active components in a building and, thus, has to connect components of different industries. The goal is to provide reliable and efficient operation. This paper describes how simulation can support building automation and how the deployment process of simulation assisted building control systems can be structured. We look at the process as a whole and map it to a set of formally described workflows that can partly be automated. A workbench environment supports the process execution by means of improved planning, collaboration and deployment. This framework allows integration of existing tools, as well as manual tasks, and is, therefore, many more intricate than regular software deployment tools. The complex environment of building commissioning requires expertise in different domains, especially lighting, heating, ventilation, air conditioning, measurement and control technology, as well as energy efficiency; therefore, we present a framework for building commissioning and describe a deployment process that is capable of supporting the various phases of this approach.

  10. Calculation steps. Building integrated energy supply; Beregningsgang. Bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Rasmus L.; Noergaard, J.; Daniels, O.; Justesen, R.O.

    2011-08-15

    In the future, buildings will not only act as consumers of energy but as producers as well. For these ''prosumers'', energy production by use of solar panels, photovoltaics and heat pumps etc will be essential. The objective of this project was to find the most optimal combinations of building insulation and use of renewable energy sources in existing buildings in terms of economics and climate impacts. Five houses were analyzed based on different personal load, consumption profiles, solar orientation and proposed building envelope improvements and use of combinations of renewable energy systems. The analysis was conducted by making a large number of simulations. The present report describes the applied simulation models, and explains the results and computer codes. The parameter variations are described for each house as well as the common calculation steps for each house. The results are presented in case sheets, as performance graphs, and top-50 lists for the best cases regarding CO{sub 2} emission, energy consumption and economics. (ln)

  11. Analysis of Energy Demand for Low-Energy Multi-Dwelling Buildings of Different Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrė Streckienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To meet the goals established by Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy performance of buildings, the topics of energy efficiency in new and old buildings must be solved. Research and development of new energy solutions and technology are necessary for increasing energy performance of buildings. Three low-energy multi-dwelling buildings have been modelled and analyzed in the presented study. All multi-dwelling houses are made of similar single-family house cells. However, multi-dwelling buildings are of different geometry, flat number and height. DesignBuilder software was used for simulating and determining heating, cooling and electricity demand for buildings. Three different materials (silicate, ceramic and clay concrete blocks as bearing constructions of external walls have been analyzed. To decrease cooling demand for buildings, the possibility of mounting internal or external louvers has been considered. Primary energy savings for multi-dwelling buildings using passive solar measures have been determined.

  12. An Occupant Behavior Model for Building Energy Efficiency and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L. L.; Chen, T.; Jia, Q. S.; Yuan, R. X.; Wang, H. T.; Ding, R.

    2010-05-01

    An occupant behavior model is suggested to improve building energy efficiency and safety. This paper provides a generic outline of the model, which includes occupancy behavior abstraction, model framework and primary structure, input and output, computer simulation results as well as summary and outlook. Using information technology, now it's possible to collect large amount of information of occupancy. Yet this can only provide partial and historical information, so it's important to develop a model to have full view of the researched building as well as prediction. We used the infrared monitoring system which is set at the front door of the Low Energy Demo Building (LEDB) at Tsinghua University in China, to provide the time variation of the total number of occupants in the LEDB building. This information is used as input data for the model. While the RFID system is set on the 1st floor, which provides the time variation of the occupants' localization in each region. The collected data are used to validate the model. The simulation results show that this presented model provides a feasible framework to simulate occupants' behavior and predict the time variation of the number of occupants in the building. Further development and application of the model is also discussed.

  13. Nonlinear predictive energy management of residential buildings with photovoltaics & batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Sun, Fengchun; Moura, Scott J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies a nonlinear predictive energy management strategy for a residential building with a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system and second-life lithium-ion battery energy storage. A key novelty of this manuscript is closing the gap between building energy management formulations, advanced load forecasting techniques, and nonlinear battery/PV models. Additionally, we focus on the fundamental trade-off between lithium-ion battery aging and economic performance in energy management. The energy management problem is formulated as a model predictive controller (MPC). Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control scheme achieves 96%-98% of the optimal performance given perfect forecasts over a long-term horizon. Moreover, the rate of battery capacity loss can be reduced by 25% with negligible losses in economic performance, through an appropriate cost function formulation.

  14. Guidelines for Using Building Information Modeling for Energy Analysis of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reeves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Building energy modeling (BEM, a subset of building information modeling (BIM, integrates energy analysis into the design, construction, and operation and maintenance of buildings. As there are various existing BEM tools available, there is a need to evaluate the utility of these tools in various phases of the building lifecycle. The goal of this research was to develop guidelines for evaluation and selection of BEM tools to be used in particular building lifecycle phases. The objectives of this research were to: (1 Evaluate existing BEM tools; (2 Illustrate the application of the three BEM tools; (3 Re-evaluate the three BEM tools; and (4 Develop guidelines for evaluation, selection and application of BEM tools in the design, construction and operation/maintenance phases of buildings. Twelve BEM tools were initially evaluated using four criteria: interoperability, usability, available inputs, and available outputs. Each of the top three BEM tools selected based on this initial evaluation was used in a case study to simulate and evaluate energy usage, daylighting performance, and natural ventilation for two academic buildings (LEED-certified and non-LEED-certified. The results of the case study were used to re-evaluate the three BEM tools using the initial criteria with addition of the two new criteria (speed and accuracy, and to develop guidelines for evaluating and selecting BEM tools to analyze building energy performance. The major contribution of this research is the development of these guidelines that can help potential BEM users to identify the most appropriate BEM tool for application in particular building lifecycle phases.

  15. Simulation Of Probabilistic Wind Loads On A Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Shah, Ashwin R.

    1994-01-01

    Method of simulating probabilistic windloads on building developed. Numerical results of simulation used to assess reliability of building and risk associated with tendencies of large gusts or high steady winds to cause building to sway, buckle, and/or overturn. Using method to analyze proposed design in iterative design cycle, building designed for specified reliability.

  16. Assessment of energy utilization and leakages in buildings with building information model energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egwunatum I. Samuel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the ability of building information models (BIM to serve as a multidisciplinary data repository, this study attempts to explore and exploit the sustainability value of BIM in delivering buildings that require less energy for operations, emit less carbon dioxide, and provide conducive living environments for occupants. This objective was attained by a critical and extensive literature review that covers the following: (1 building energy consumption, (2 building energy performance and analysis, and (3 BIM and energy assessment. Literature cited in this paper shows that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model has helped project design teams to predict and create optimized energy consumption by conducting building energy performance analysis utilizing key performance indicators on average thermal transmitters, resulting heat demand, lighting power, solar heat gains, and ventilation heat losses. An in-depth analysis was conducted on a completed BIM integrated construction project utilizing the Arboleda Project in the Dominican Republic to validate the aforementioned findings. Results show that the BIM-based energy analysis helped the design team attain the world׳s first positive energy building. This study concludes that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helps to expedite the energy analysis process, provide more detailed and accurate results, and deliver energy-efficient buildings. This study further recommends that the adoption of level 2 BIM and BIM integration in energy optimization analysis must be demanded by building regulatory agencies for all projects regardless of procurement method (i.e., government funded or otherwise or size.

  17. Simulation of Room Climate of Public Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prorokova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the details of modeling of heat exchange and mass transfer in a room in the formation of a microclimate. The mathematical model is implemented in the program ANSYS Fluent and is used to predict the climate parameters after the implementation of energy saving measures in the building. Verification of the mathematical model by comparing the experimental data with the results of the measurement of microclimate parameters of the experiment.

  18. Energy management in buildings using photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulou, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Although fossil fuels remain the primary global energy source, developing and expanding economies are creating an ever-widening gap between supply and demand. Efficient energy management offers a cost-effective opportunity for both industrialized and developing nations to limit the enormous financial and environmental costs associated with burning fossil fuels. The implication of photovoltaic systems in particular presents the potential for clean and sustainable electrical energy to be generated from an unrestricted source. Energy Management in Buildings Using Photovoltaics demonstrates how ad

  19. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    windows have already been developed and prototypes constructed for laboratory test and a third generation of the window design is now in the developing and designing face in a new project. The first window constructed was made of wood profiles and a low-energy double glazing unit. The second and third......This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...

  20. Self-energy production applied to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlo, Fabricio Ramos del; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Sao Paulo State University Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: perrella@feg.unesp.br; Holanda, Marcelo Rodrigues de [Sao Paulo Univ. (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Engineering School], E-mail: marcelo@debas.eel.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The decentralization of energy production in order to obtain better environmental conditions, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the cost reduction of electricity and thermal energy consumed in residential buildings has been proposed in the literature. This paper proposes to demonstrate what are the chances of having a microcogeneration system toward the residential application. In this study, we contemplate the technologies involved and their possible inputs that are arranged in a superstructure to be studied. As a first step we obtain the cost of the products generated by the configuration that consists basically of two sources of power generation, and through optimization calculations intended to obtain the best configuration, taking into consideration the selection between four fuels, two equipment generators (Fuel Cell and Internal Combustion Engine)and three levels of energy production for each one. An economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the opportunity of selling the energy generated considering the fluctuations of the residential building consumption needs. (author)

  1. Classification of low energy houses in Danish Building Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    The new Danish Building Regulations (Building Regulations, 2005) introduces the total energy consumption, i.e. energy use for heating, ventilation, cooling and domestic hot water, for buildings as a measure for the energy efficiency of new buildings, i.e. moving away from the former U-value demands....... In addition to the minimum requirements for new buildings, the new Building Regulations also specify requirements for characterizing a building as either low energy building class 1 or low energy building class 2. This paper describes a type-house that is presently being built in Denmark. The type......-house easily meets the requirements for being categorized as a low energy building class 1, and the paper investigates how much U-values can be increased if the type-house were to fulfil the requirements for a low energy building class 2 or a building that just fulfils the minimum demands....

  2. Building energy, building leadership : recommendations for the adoption, development, and implementation of a commercial building energy code in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerstream, T. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Allard, K. [City of Thompson, Thompson, MB (Canada); Anderson, N.; Beacham, D. [Manitoba Office of the Fire Commissioner, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Andrich, R. [The Forks North Portage Partnership, MB (Canada); Auger, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency; Downs, R.G. [Shindico Realty Inc., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Eastwood, R. [Number Ten Architectural Group, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Hewitt, C. [SMS Engineering Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Joshi, D. [City of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Klassen, K. [Manitoba Dept. of Energy Science and Technology, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Phillips, B. [Unies Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Wiebe, R. [Ben Wiebe Construction Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Woelk, D. [Bockstael Construction Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Ziemski, S. [CREIT Management LLP, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    This report presented a strategy and a set of recommendations for the adoption, development and implementation of an energy code for new commercial construction in Manitoba. The report was compiled by an advisory committee comprised of industry representatives and government agency representatives. Recommendations were divided into 4 categories: (1) advisory committee recommendations; (2) code adoption recommendations; (3) code development recommendations; and (4) code implementation recommendations. It was suggested that Manitoba should adopt an amended version of the Model National Energy Code for Buildings (1997) as a regulation under the Buildings and Mobile Homes Act. Participation in a national initiative to update the Model National Energy Code for Buildings was also advised. It was suggested that the energy code should be considered as the first step in a longer-term process towards a sustainable commercial building code. However, the code should be adopted within the context of a complete market transformation approach. Other recommendations included: the establishment of a multi-stakeholder energy code task group; the provision of information and technical resources to help build industry capacity; the establishment of a process for energy code compliance; and an ongoing review of the energy code to assess impacts and progress. Supplemental recommendations for future discussion included the need for integrated design by building design teams in Manitoba; the development of a program to provide technical assistance to building design teams; and collaboration between post-secondary institutions to develop and deliver courses on integrated building design to students and professionals. 17 refs.

  3. Building Cyber-Physical Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatescu, Grigore; Stamatescu, Iulia; Arghira, Nicoleta; Calofir, Vasile; Fagarasan, Ioana

    2016-01-01

    The built environment, as hallmark of modern society, has become one of the key drivers of energy demand. This makes for meaningful application of novel paradigms, such as cyber-physical systems, with large scale impact for both primary energy consumption reduction as well as (micro-) grid stability problems. In a bottom-up approach we analyze the drivers of CPS design, deployment and adoption in smart buildings. This ranges from low-level embedded and real time system challenges, instrumenta...

  4. To build an energy-saving society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ To speed up the development of cycling economy and build an energy-saving society is the key point of work in the coming years for the General Administration of Qualitv Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China(AQSIQ).

  5. Investigation of Energy Saving Possibilities in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Milutienė

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Buildings sector is the largest single energy end-user in the EU. There are numerous possibilities to save energy in buildings. This research deals with the analysis of the possibilities to save energy in buildings of northern latitudes by applying a passive solar energy technique. The article presents results of solar radiation monitoring in Vilnius for a 12 years period and assessment of the possibilities to save heat energy. Data could be used in designing solar houses, calculating passive solar energy gains and evaluating CO2 emissions reduction.

  6. Energy Efficiency Improvement Potential in Historical Brick Building

    OpenAIRE

    Žogla, Gatis; Blumberga, Andra; Zvaigznītis, Kristaps; Dzikēvičs, Miķelis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Burinskiene, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency in historical heritage buildings is viewed as a taboo because these buildings usually are law-protected and no energy efficiency measures that would change the appearance of building are allowed. In this paper we look at a potential of increasing energy efficiency level in historical buildings. Measurements to determine energy efficiency of a historical brick building have been done, which also give the possibility to determine the potential of energy efficiency measures in ...

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Reference Building Models of the National Building Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Field, K.; Studer, D.; Benne, K.; Griffith, B.; Torcellini, P.; Liu, B.; Halverson, M.; Winiarski, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Yazdanian, M.; Huang, J.; Crawley, D.

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program has set the aggressive goal of producing marketable net-zero energy buildings by 2025. This goal will require collaboration between the DOE laboratories and the building industry. We developed standard or reference energy models for the most common commercial buildings to serve as starting points for energy efficiency research. These models represent fairly realistic buildings and typical construction practices. Fifteen commercial building types and one multifamily residential building were determined by consensus between DOE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and represent approximately two-thirds of the commercial building stock.

  8. Modeling energy flexibility of low energy buildings utilizing thermal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    the load shifting potential of an apartment of a low energy building in Copenhagen is assessed, utilizing the heat storage capacity of the thermal mass when the heating system is switched off for relieving the energy system. It is shown that when using a 4-hour preheating period before switching off...... of the external envelope and the thermal capacity of the internal walls as the main parameters that affect the load shifting potential of the apartment....... to match the production patterns, shifting demand from on-peak hours to off-peak hours. Buildings could act as flexibility suppliers to the energy system, through load shifting potential, provided that the large thermal mass of the building stock could be utilized for energy storage. In the present study...

  9. Estimation of the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and building energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Weng, Qihao; Gurney, Kevin R.; Shuai, Yanmin; Hu, Xuefei

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and energy use from residential and commercial buildings across multiple scales in the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Anthropogenic heat discharge was estimated based on a remote sensing-based surface energy balance model, which was parameterized using land cover, land surface temperature, albedo, and meteorological data. Building energy use was estimated using a GIS-based building energy simulation model in conjunction with Department of Energy/ Energy Information Administration survey data, Assessor's parcel data, GIS floor areas data, and remote sensing-derived building height data.

  10. Occupant performance and building energy consumption with different philosophies of determining acceptable thermal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Andersen, Rune Vinther; Jensen, Kasper Lynge

    2009-01-01

    Based on building energy and indoor environment simulations, this study uses a recently developed method relying on Bayesian Network theory to estimate and compare the consequences for occupant performance and energy consumption of applying temperature criteria set according to the adaptive model...... of thermal comfort and the more conventional PMV model. Simulations were carried out for an example building with two configurations (with and without mechanical cooling) located in tropical, subtropical, and temperate climate regions. Even though indoor temperatures differed significantly between building...

  11. Building Energy Efficiency in India: Compliance Evaluation of Energy Conservation Building Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Delgado, Alison

    2014-03-26

    India is experiencing unprecedented construction boom. The country doubled its floorspace between 2001 and 2005 and is expected to add 35 billion m2 of new buildings by 2050. Buildings account for 35% of total final energy consumption in India today, and building energy use is growing at 8% annually. Studies have shown that carbon policies will have little effect on reducing building energy demand. Chaturvedi et al. predicted that, if there is no specific sectoral policies to curb building energy use, final energy demand of the Indian building sector will grow over five times by the end of this century, driven by rapid income and population growth. The growing energy demand in buildings is accompanied by a transition from traditional biomass to commercial fuels, particularly an increase in electricity use. This also leads to a rapid increase in carbon emissions and aggravates power shortage in India. Growth in building energy use poses challenges to the Indian government. To curb energy consumption in buildings, the Indian government issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which applies to commercial buildings with a connected load of 100 kW or 120kVA. It is predicted that the implementation of ECBC can help save 25-40% of energy, compared to reference buildings without energy-efficiency measures. However, the impact of ECBC depends on the effectiveness of its enforcement and compliance. Currently, the majority of buildings in India are not ECBC-compliant. The United Nations Development Programme projected that code compliance in India would reach 35% by 2015 and 64% by 2017. Whether the projected targets can be achieved depends on how the code enforcement system is designed and implemented. Although the development of ECBC lies in the hands of the national government – the Bureau of Energy Efficiency under the Ministry of Power, the adoption and implementation of ECBC largely relies on state and local governments. Six years after ECBC

  12. The impact of indoor thermal conditions, system controls and building types on the building energy demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corgnati, Stefano Paolo; Fabrizio, Enrico; Filippi, Marco [Dipartimento di Energetica (DENER), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    It is possible to evaluate the energy demand as well as the parameters related to indoor thermal comfort through building energy simulation tools. Since energy demand for heating and cooling is directly affected by the required level of thermal comfort, the investigation of the mutual relationship between thermal comfort and energy demand (and therefore operating costs) is of the foremost importance both to define the benchmarks for energy service contracts and to calibrate the energy labelling according to European Directive 2002/92/CE. The connection between indoor thermal comfort conditions and energy demand for both heating and cooling has been analyzed in this work with reference to a set of validation tests (office buildings) derived from a European draft standard. Once a range of required acceptable indoor operative temperatures had been fixed in accordance with Fanger's theory (e.g. -0.5 < PMV < -0.5), the effective hourly comfort conditions and the energy consumptions were estimated through dynamic simulations. The same approach was then used to quantify the energy demand when the range of acceptable indoor operative temperatures was fixed in accordance with de Dear's adaptive comfort theory. (author)

  13. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laustsen, Jens

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse current approaches to encourage energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings. Based on this analysis the paper enumerates policy recommendations for enhancing how energy efficiency is addressed in building codes and other policies for new buildings. This paper forms part of the IEA work for the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. These recommendations reflect the study of different policy options for increasing energy efficiency in new buildings and examination of other energy efficiency requirements in standards or building codes, such as energy efficiency requirements by major renovation or refurbishment. In many countries, energy efficiency of buildings falls under the jurisdiction of the federal states. Different standards cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as residential or simple buildings, commercial buildings and more complicated high-rise buildings. There are many different building codes in the world and the intention of this paper is not to cover all codes on each level in all countries. Instead, the paper details different regions of the world and different ways of standards. In this paper we also evaluate good practices based on local traditions. This project does not seek to identify one best practice amongst the building codes and standards. Instead, different types of codes and different parts of the regulation have been illustrated together with examples on how they have been successfully addressed. To complement this discussion of efficiency standards, this study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through such initiatives as efficiency labelling or certification, very best practice buildings with extremely low- or no-energy consumption and other policies to raise buildings' energy efficiency beyond minimum requirements. When referring to the energy saving potentials for buildings, this study uses the analysis of recent IEA

  14. Uncertainty of Energy Consumption Assessment of Domestic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Heiselberg, Per; Simonsen, A.;

    2009-01-01

    of the uncertainty of energy consumption assessment of domestic buildings. The calculated energy consumption of a number of almost identical domestic buildings in Denmark is compared with the measured energy consumption. Furthermore, the uncertainty is determined by means of stochastic modelling based on input...... distributions found by literature study, industry guidelines, measurements and - when necessary - simple assumptions. A number of parameters are investigated and ranked in terms of importance to determine which ones contribute the most to the overall level of uncertainty. Measurements and simulations are found...... to correspond reasonably well; however, it is also found that significant differences may occur between calculated and measured energy consumption due to the spread and due to the fact that the result can only be determined with a certain probability. It is found that occupants' behaviour is the major...

  15. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in Office Buildings, Advanced Energy Design Guides: Office Buildings (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing new office buildings that result in 50% less energy use than conventional designs meeting minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use office buildings with gross floor areas up to 100,000 ft2 (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller office buildings with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of office buildings.

  16. Deep Energy Retrofit Guidance for the Building America Solutions Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE Building America program has established a research agenda targeting market-relevant strategies to achieve 40% reductions in existing home energy use by 2030. Deep Energy Retrofits (DERs) are part of the strategy to meet and exceed this goal. DERs are projects that create new, valuable assets from existing residences, by bringing homes into alignment with the expectations of the 21st century. Ideally, high energy using, dated homes that are failing to provide adequate modern services to their owners and occupants (e.g., comfortable temperatures, acceptable humidity, clean, healthy), are transformed through comprehensive upgrades to the building envelope, services and miscellaneous loads into next generation high performance homes. These guidance documents provide information to aid in the broader market adoption of DERs. They are intended for inclusion in the online resource the Building America Solutions Center (BASC). This document is an assemblage of multiple entries in the BASC, each of which addresses a specific aspect of Deep Energy Retrofit best practices for projects targeting at least 50% energy reductions. The contents are based upon a review of actual DERs in the U.S., as well as a mixture of engineering judgment, published guidance from DOE research in technologies and DERs, simulations of cost-optimal DERs, Energy Star and Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) product criteria, and energy codes.

  17. Energy consumptions in existing buildings; Les consommations d'energie des batiments existants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, St. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg, 78 - Saint-Remy-Les-Chevreuse (France)]|[Costic, 78 - Sainte Remy les Chevreuses (France)

    2002-05-01

    This document presents a sectoral analysis of the energy consumptions in existing French buildings: 1) - residential sector: social buildings, private dwellings; 2) - tertiary sector: office buildings, hotels, commercial buildings, school buildings, hospitals; 3) - industry; 4) - general status. (J.S.)

  18. Energy and Environmental Research in the Building Area; Energie- und Umweltforschung im Bauwesen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjei, T. [Institut Energie am Bau, Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Muttenz (Switzerland); Filleux, Ch. [Basler and Hofmann AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gutzwiller, L. [Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), Berne (Switzerland); Frank, T.; Zimmermann, M. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Gaegauf, Ch. [Oekozentrum Langenbruck, Langenbruck (Switzerland); Preisig, H. [Architekturbuero, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hartmann, P. [Ingenieur-Buero, Effretikon (Switzerland); Luzzi, A. [Institut fuer Solartechnik (SPF), HSR Hochschule fuer Technik, Rapperswil (Switzerland); Schwehr, P.; Zweifel, G. [brenet, building and renewable energies network of technology, HTA Luzern, Horw (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    contributions on energy-efficient office lighting, thermal plasma as a source of light, control of thermo-active building components (TABS), building operation when not in use and the Internet-based control of building technical services. The 'Building ventilation' section includes contributions on CO{sub 2}-controlled ventilation in schoolrooms, reduction of electricity consumption in small ventilation systems, humidity in low energy consumption buildings, the use of tracer gas methods in the depot of the Swiss National Museum and open absorption systems for air-conditioning. The 'Building physics and building envelope' block includes contributions on new optical coatings for sun-protection glazing, a life-span analysis for vacuum insulation panels (VIP), two contributions on the ageing of vacuum insulation panels and building systems using VIP. Planning aids presented include contributions on system verification for the 'Minergie-ECO' standard, an SIA pamphlet on grey energy, climatic conditions in offices, an SIA norm on dynamic air-conditioning and a simulation program for use in the early stages of planning. A section on sustainable building concepts is included which presents contributions on integrated planning, instruments for the practical calculation of life-cycle costs, flexibility in building, a cyclic model for contracting and the ecological advantages offered by new combined heat and power systems. In the building renewal area, presentations are included on evaluation methods, an advisory system for use when making decisions on sustainable renewal, renovation to meet passive-house standards, a solar-powered presence detector and 'Minergie'-modernisation practice. Building technology for cooling and complete building technology systems reported on include a review of energy consumption in large buildings, high-efficiency cooling for renovation projects, an on-line energy-monitoring system, free-cooling using underground water

  19. Building Energy Information Systems: User Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-03-22

    Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

  20. Building technology. Renewable energies, building automation, energy efficiency; Gebaeudetechnik. Erneuerbare Energien, Gebaeudeautomation, Energieeffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veit, Joerg; Schmidt, Peer (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The functionality and efficiency of a building significantly are influenced by the installations of technical building equipment and especially by the building automation. Under this aspect, the authors of the book under consideration report on new ideas for an enhanced energy efficiency. At first, important regulations and laws (Renewable Energy Law, Act for the Retention, Modernisation and Expansion of Combined Heat and Power) are presented. In the chapter on renewable energies, the authors specifically address photovoltaic systems. Other features of this book are building automation, energy efficiency, operational and project management. The last chapter of this book presents an overview of trade fairs and events as well as training centres of the Zentralverband der Deutschen Elektro- und Informationstechnischen Handwerke (Frankfurt (Main), Federal Republic of Germany) and of the national associations.

  1. Integrated Energy Design of the Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa

    involved in the building design process. This project also illustrates the importance of understanding the interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers and architects. Contrary to the traditional notion that the building’s performance is determined by the architect’s first sketch on a napkin......, to a great extent it is already determined by the building’s context and the building programme. This places great responsibilities on the shoulders of both engineers and architects in the critical first phases of design.......This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research...

  2. Assessment of Building Integrated Energy Supply and Energy Saving Schemes on a National Level in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Birkl, Christoph

    Until now buildings are most seen as creating a demand for energy. However, if we want to develop an energy system being independent of fossil fuels in the future, this will require new higher standards for energy efficiency and a radical introduction of new and renewable energy technologies, all...... together implying that buildings in the future might act as prosumers that is both demanding and producing energy. In this report we look at the overall consequences for the energy system of introducing new technologies as photovoltaics and heat pumps in combination with strong energy conservation measures....... A number of energy system scenarios are prepared based on technical simulations for single-family houses carried out by the University of Aalborg....

  3. Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, John R.; Hand, James R.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2011-07-01

    This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where we’re going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and (3) to help foster alignment among energy code-development organizations. The authors researched current approaches nationally and internationally, conducted a survey of key stakeholders to solicit input on various approaches, and evaluated the key issues related to integration of renewable energy requirements and various options to address those issues. The report concludes with recommendations and a plan to engage stakeholders. This report does not evaluate whether the use of renewable energy should be required on buildings; that question involves a political decision that is beyond the scope of this report.

  4. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... windows have already been developed and prototypes constructed for laboratory test and a third generation of the window design is now in the developing and designing face in a new project. The first window constructed was made of wood profiles and a low-energy double glazing unit. The second and third...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  5. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  6. Energy savings modelling of re-tuning energy conservation measures in large office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nick; Katipamula, Srinivas; Wang, Weimin; Huang, Yunzhi; Liu, Guopeng

    2014-10-20

    Today, many large commercial buildings use sophisticated building automation systems (BASs) to manage a wide range of building equipment. While the capabilities of BASs have increased over time, many buildings still do not fully use the BAS’s capabilities and are not properly commissioned, operated or maintained, which leads to inefficient operation, increased energy use, and reduced lifetimes of the equipment. This paper investigates the energy savings potential of several common HVAC system re-tuning measures on a typical large office building, using the Department of Energy’s building energy modeling software, EnergyPlus. The baseline prototype model uses roughly as much energy as an average large office building in existing building stock, but does not utilize any re-tuning measures. Individual re-tuning measures simulated against this baseline include automatic schedule adjustments, damper minimum flow adjustments, thermostat adjustments, as well as dynamic resets (set points that change continuously with building and/or outdoor conditions) to static pressure, supply-air temperature, condenser water temperature, chilled and hot water temperature, and chilled and hot water differential pressure set points. Six combinations of these individual measures have been formulated – each designed to conform to limitations to implementation of certain individual measures that might exist in typical buildings. All the individual measures and combinations were simulated in 16 climate locations representative of specific U.S. climate zones. The modeling results suggest that the most effective energy savings measures are those that affect the demand-side of the building (air-systems and schedules). Many of the demand-side individual measures were capable of reducing annual total HVAC system energy consumption by over 20% in most cities that were modeled. Supply side measures affecting HVAC plant conditions were only modestly successful (less than 5% annual HVAC energy

  7. House Embodied Energy and Zero Energy Building Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita MILUTIENĖ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Seeking to mitigate climate change it is impossible to avoid radical changes in construction sector, because it accounts for 40% of primary energy use for buildings operation in Europe and other countries.  Production of building materials also affects climate change and environment quality.  The concept of zero energy building (ZEB emphasizes energy efficiency, energy saving and renewable energy use during the operation of buildings and it is a necessary step in changing the present situation. Nevertheless there are more possibilities for improving building sector sustainability. The article presents analysis of embodied energy reduction using straw bales and other local materials for wall construction. Estimations have shown that replacing a structural component as bricks with local wood, and thermal insulation material - stone wool with straw bales, it is possible to reduce embodied energy and embodied carbon of a wall more than 7 times. Pressed straw being a building material with good thermal properties, straw bale buildings could meet the passive houses standard or help fulfilling the concept of zero energy building without additional harm to the nature of extra thermal

  8. Energy efficiency and existing buildings. Energetical sanitation of residential buildings and commercial buildings; Energieeffizienz + Bestand. Energetische Sanierung von Wohn- und Nutzgebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sick, F. (ed.) [Fachhochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft, Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Within the first International User Forum - energy efficiency and existing buildings - of the Ostbayerische Technologie Transfer Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at 15th and 16th February, 2007, in Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Potentials and markets of the energetic building refurbishment (Andreas Wagner); (2) Implementation of the EU building regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany in DIN V 18599; energy pass, EnEV 2006, results of the legislation (Fred Weigl); (3) Financing and economic efficiency of measures of energetic building refurbishment (Frank Pinsler); (4) Saving energy in building pools - Experiences from 1,000 buildings of the capital Munich (Matthias Domke); (5) Solar housing estates - Energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy in North-Rhine Westphalia (Hartmut Murschall); (6) Integrated planning - from single components to total project (Boris Mahler); (7) Dynamic simulation - Introduction into methods of calculation for non-residential buildings (Andreas Gerber); (8) Approaches of calculation according to DIN 18599 and evaluation (Helmut E. Feustel); (9) An overview on software tools for an energetic building refurbishment (Anja Rosenbach); (10) Incorporation of regenerative energies in building refurbishment - The 'Solar energy centre' in multi-storey residential buildings (Bernhard Jurisch); (11) Home-automation - networking of plants saves energy and operating costs (Manfred Riedel); (12) Cogeneration-cold coupling (Wolfgang Schoelkopf); (13) International significance of the energetic building refurbishment (Robert Hastings); (14) Energetic reconstruction of plate buildings in Germany, Eastern Austria, Russia and People's Republic of China (Alfred Kerschberger); (15) eea - European Energy Award - The European standard for energy efficient communities (Armand Duetz, Ilga Schwidder); (16) Best practice examples from Austria (Ernst

  9. Control of energy flow in residential buildings; Energieflussregelung in Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Martin

    2011-07-01

    Energy systems in residential buildings are changing from monovalent, combustion based systems to multivalent systems containing technologies such as solar collectors, pellet boilers, heat pumps, CHP and multiple storages. Multivalent heat and electricity generation and additional storages raise the number of possible control signals in the system. This creates additional degrees of freedom regarding the choice of the energy converter and the instant of time for energy conversion. New functionality of controllers such as prioritisation of energy producers, optimization of electric self consumption and control of storages and energy feed-in are required. Within the scope of this thesis, new approaches for demand-driven optimal control of energy flows in multivalent building energy systems are developed and evaluated. The approaches are evaluated by means of system energy costs and operating emissions. For parametrisation of the controllers an easily understandable operating concept is developed. The energy flow controllers are implemented as a multi agent system (MAS) and a nonlinear model predictive controller (MPC). Proper functionality and stability are demonstrated in simulations of two example energy systems. In both example systems the MPC controller achieves less energy costs and operating emissions due to system wide global optimization and the more detailed system model within the controller. The multi agent approach turns out to perform better for systems with a huge number of components, e.g. in home automation and energy management systems. Due to the good performance of the reference control strategies, a significant reduction of energy costs and operating emissions is only possible with limitations. Systems for heat generation show only an especially low potential for optimization because of marginal variation ins heat production costs. The adaptation of the operation mode to user priorities, changing utilization characteristics and dynamic energy

  10. Scripted Building Energy Modeling and Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E.; Macumber, D.; Benne, K.; Goldwasser, D.

    2012-08-01

    Building energy modeling and analysis is currently a time-intensive, error-prone, and nonreproducible process. This paper describes the scripting platform of the OpenStudio tool suite (http://openstudio.nrel.gov) and demonstrates its use in several contexts. Two classes of scripts are described and demonstrated: measures and free-form scripts. Measures are small, single-purpose scripts that conform to a predefined interface. Because measures are fairly simple, they can be written or modified by inexperienced programmers.

  11. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  12. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  13. Commercial-sector energy-consumption data-base-development project. Volume III. Analysis of energy consumption in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    Results are presented of an effort to develop comprehensive and reliable energy consumption data for office buildings. A survey was conducted of readily available energy consumption data and the literature that describes the factors which drive energy use in such buildings was analyzed. Information on heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems was assembled. A number of building energy use simulation programs were reviewed to determine their suitability for estimating energy consumption by function and the effects of tradeoffs in building design and operating parameters on building energy use. Simulations using the AXCESS program were conducted. The 1975 data base of the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) was obtained and analyzed. Data describing energy use on a regional and national basis were developed, and regression equations based on these were obtained. The ability of these equations to predict average energy use was then confirmed by applying them to four office buildings not in the BOMA data base. A number of proposals for the further improvement of the equations were developed, including additional data collection. Specifically, the survey of actual and simulated data on a regional basis is reported in Section 2. HVAC systems are discussed in Sections 3 and 4. BOMA obtains annual data on about 1000 buildings covering such items as location, floor area, height, age, average occupancy rate, average number of employees, types of tenants, type of air conditioning, and energy consumption by fuel and the description and analyses of the BOMA data are presented in Sections 5 and 6.

  14. Building envelope for New Buildings and Energy Renovation of Existing Buildings. Project results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Rose, Jørgen; Esbensen, Peter Kjær

    1999-01-01

    At the energy conference in 1995, Denmark agreed on reducing the total CO2-emission by 20%. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to increase thermal insulation thickness both in new and retrofitted buildings.This will, for both cases, impose a series of building physics problems, as the knowledge...... of heat- and moistureflow is insufficiently documented for large insulation thicknesses. Thermal bridges, for instance, plays a larger role for the overall heat loss in these constructions, and moisture in insulation materials will decrease the overall performance of the construction.Due to these facts......, External insulation systems for facades, Integral Building Envelope Performance Assessment...

  15. Building as active elements of energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bulut, Mehmet Börühan

    2016-01-01

    Buildings account for approximately 40% of the energy demand and 33% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union. Accordingly, there are several efforts that target energy efficiency in buildings both at the European and Swedish levels. The role of buildings in climate change mitigation, however, is not limited to energy savings. Buildings are expected to become key elements of the future smart energy systems by supplying and using energy in a more flexible way. Reducing the e...

  16. Energy Use Intensity and its Influence on the Integrated Daylighting Design of a Large Net Zero Energy Building: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmetti , R.; Scheib, J.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini , P.; Petro, R.

    2011-03-01

    Net-zero energy buildings generate as much energy as they consume and are significant in the sustainable future of building design and construction. The role of daylighting (and its simulation) in the design process becomes critical. In this paper we present the process the National Renewable Energy Laboratory embarked on in the procurement, design, and construction of its newest building, the Research Support Facility (RSF) - particularly the roles of daylighting, electric lighting, and simulation. With a rapid construction schedule, the procurement, design, and construction had to be tightly integrated; with low energy use. We outline the process and measures required to manage a building design that could expect to operate at an efficiency previously unheard of for a building of this type, size, and density. Rigorous simulation of the daylighting and the electric lighting control response was a given, but the oft-ignored disconnect between lighting simulation and whole-building energy use simulation had to be addressed. The RSF project will be thoroughly evaluated for its performance for one year; preliminary data from the postoccupancy monitoring efforts will also be presented with an eye toward the current efficacy of building energy and lighting simulation.

  17. Low-energy district heating in energy-efficient building areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2011-01-01

    of a low-energy network for low-energy houses in Denmark. We took into account the effect of human behaviour on energy demand, the effect of the number of buildings connected to the network, a socio-economic comparison with ground source heat pumps, and opportunities for the optimization of the network......-efficient buildings. This considerable impact of human behaviour should clearly be included in energy simulations. We also showed that low-energy DH systems are robust systems that ensure security of supply for each customer in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way in areas with linear heat density down...... energy use in the best design was 14.3% lower than the primary energy use for standard, recently designed networks, and distribution heat losses were halved. Moreover, the exploitation of the entire available pressure by means of careful network design decreased the average pipe size required, which...

  18. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1981-05-01

    The aim of the Energy Efficient Buildings Program is to conduct theoretical and experimental research on various aspects of building technology that will permit such gains in energy efficiency without decreasing occupants' comfort or adversely affecting indoor air quality. To accomplish this goal, we have developed five major research groups. The foci of these groups are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality; Building Energy Analysis; Energy Efficient Windows and Lighting; and Building Energy Data, Analysis and Demonstration.

  19. Energy conservation in existing office buildings. Appendices to report, Phase I, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    A blank form of Questionnaire No. 1 is first presented, followed by data compiled from that questionnaire. Then data are presented on the analyses of the 436 buildings, statistical validation for selection of the 44 building sample, and some examples of the matching buildings for the 44 building sample. Questionnaire No. 2 is then given, followed by additional data collected from the study concerning energy consumption and building characteristics. To complete the appendices, a simulation of a typical building and a hypothetical building is included. (MCW)

  20. Intelligent energy buildings based on RES and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplanis, S., E-mail: kaplanis@teipat.gr; Kaplani, E. [R.E.S. Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Technological Educational Institute of Western Greece M. Alexandrou 1, Koukouli 26 334, Patra (Greece)

    2015-12-31

    The paper presents the design features, the energy modelling and optical performance details of two pilot Intelligent Energy Buildings, (IEB). Both are evolution of the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept. RES innovations backed up by signal processing, simulation models and ICT tools were embedded into the building structures in order to implement a new predictive energy management concept. In addition, nano-coatings, produced by TiO2 and ITO nano-particles, were deposited on the IEB structural elements and especially on the window panes and the PV glass covers. They exhibited promising SSP values which lowered the cooling loads and increased the PV modules yield. Both pilot IEB units were equipped with an on-line dynamic hourly solar radiation prediction model, implemented by sensors and the related software to manage effectively the energy source, the loads and the storage or the backup system. The IEB energy sources covered the thermal loads via a south façade embedded in the wall and a solar roof which consists of a specially designed solar collector type, while a PV generator is part of the solar roof, like a compact BIPV in hybrid configuration to a small wind turbine.

  1. Intelligent energy buildings based on RES and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplanis, S.; Kaplani, E.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the design features, the energy modelling and optical performance details of two pilot Intelligent Energy Buildings, (IEB). Both are evolution of the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept. RES innovations backed up by signal processing, simulation models and ICT tools were embedded into the building structures in order to implement a new predictive energy management concept. In addition, nano-coatings, produced by TiO2 and ITO nano-particles, were deposited on the IEB structural elements and especially on the window panes and the PV glass covers. They exhibited promising SSP values which lowered the cooling loads and increased the PV modules yield. Both pilot IEB units were equipped with an on-line dynamic hourly solar radiation prediction model, implemented by sensors and the related software to manage effectively the energy source, the loads and the storage or the backup system. The IEB energy sources covered the thermal loads via a south façade embedded in the wall and a solar roof which consists of a specially designed solar collector type, while a PV generator is part of the solar roof, like a compact BIPV in hybrid configuration to a small wind turbine.

  2. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Oscar Hernández; Martin, Juan Pablo San; Garcia-Alegre, María C; Santos, Matilde; Guinea, Domingo

    2015-10-30

    Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB) prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling) caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction.

  3. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Hernández Uribe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction.

  4. Smart Building: Decision Making Architecture for Thermal Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Uribe, Oscar; San Martin, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Alegre, María C.; Santos, Matilde; Guinea, Domingo

    2015-01-01

    Smart applications of the Internet of Things are improving the performance of buildings, reducing energy demand. Local and smart networks, soft computing methodologies, machine intelligence algorithms and pervasive sensors are some of the basics of energy optimization strategies developed for the benefit of environmental sustainability and user comfort. This work presents a distributed sensor-processor-communication decision-making architecture to improve the acquisition, storage and transfer of thermal energy in buildings. The developed system is implemented in a near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB) prototype equipped with a built-in thermal solar collector, where optical properties are analysed; a low enthalpy geothermal accumulation system, segmented in different temperature zones; and an envelope that includes a dynamic thermal barrier. An intelligent control of this dynamic thermal barrier is applied to reduce the thermal energy demand (heating and cooling) caused by daily and seasonal weather variations. Simulations and experimental results are presented to highlight the nZEB thermal energy reduction. PMID:26528978

  5. Integrated energy design of the building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vraa Nielsen, M.

    2012-07-01

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research project analysed how the implementation of technical knowledge early in the building design process can quantify the effect of a building's facades on its energy efficiency and indoor climate and thereby facilitate a more qualified design development. The project was structured in the following way: 1) the importance of integrating knowledge in the early stages of design, and how it can be done; 2) understanding the facade's typology; and 3) the complex notion of comfort. The project touched not only on the technical capabilities and requirements governing facade design, but also the process by which it takes place. This was done by applying the methodology of Integrated Energy Design (IED) and analysing its applicability in the design of facades. A major part of the project was an actual engagement in the architectural process to test out incorporating a consciousness about energy and comfort as part of a more holistic performance evaluation. The research project illustrates the great potential in taking passive properties into account through a geometrical optimisation inherent in the development of the architectural concept. It demonstrates that integration of technical knowledge at the early stages of design not only can qualify the geometrical processing, but also facilitate the design development of the facade. Thereby a more holistic performance optimisation can be obtained through parameters such as overall facade geometry and orientation, functional organisation, room height and depth, facade layout, window geometry and transparency, design of the window aperture, etc. Through the wide range of affiliated project involved in at the architectural firm over

  6. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  7. EVALUATION OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE USING DOE-2 ENERGY SIMULATION PROGRAM IN SINGAPORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Seng Kian

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, due to worldwide energy cost rising significantly, there has been an essential need to minimize the energy consumption. This global warning address many countries including Singapore realizing the important of energy efficiency in industries and buildings. This paper deals with analyzing the energy consumption of an 11-storey commercial building in Singapore using DOE-2 Energy Simulation Program. A study is made on the benefits derived from modifying the building envelope, space system setting, air-conditioning plant, and lighting. This encompasses a description of its quantitative impact on cooling load, energy consumption and energy saving achieved as compared with the original building. Following this, a life cycle costing is done to determine the economic benefits attained from this modification. This study shows that some alternative solutions can be achieved using energy simulation program to conserve the energy consumption.

  8. Low energy building with novel cooling unit using PCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaber, Samar

    2012-02-13

    This thesis aims to reduce the energy consumption as well as greenhouse gases to the environment without negatively affecting the thermal comfort. In the present work, thermal, energetic and economic impacts of employing passive solar systems combined with energy conservation systems have been investigated. These energy systems have been integrated with a typical residential building located in three different climate zones in Europe and Middle East regions.Hour-by-hour energy computer simulations have been carried out using TRNSYS and INSEL programs to analyze the performance of integrated energy systems. Furthermore, IESU software module has been developed to simulate a novel cooling unit using Phase Change Material (PCM). This unit is named as Indirect Evaporative and Storage Unit (IESU). Thereafter, complete economic equations for the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) criterion have been formulated. Furthermore this criterion has been optimized for different variables as a function of thermal parameters and economic figures from local markets. An optimum design of both residential buildings and energy systems has great impact on energy consumption. In fact, results showed that the energy consumption is reduced by 85.62%, 86.33% and 74.05% in Berlin, Amman and Aqaba, respectively. Moreover, the LCC criterion is reduced by 41.85% in Berlin, 19.21% in Amman and 15.22% in Aqaba.The macro economic analysis shows that once this research is applied in one million typical residential buildings in the selected climate zones, the annual avoided CO{sub 2} emissions are estimated to be about 5.7 million Tons in Berlin. In Aqaba, around 2.96 million Tons CO{sub 2} emissions will be saved annually and in Amman about 2.98 million Tons will be reduced. The payback period from the achieved saving is 18 years, 11 years and 8.6 years in Amman, Aqaba and Berlin, respectively.

  9. Simulating Energy Transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever wanted to know whether a CO2 tax outperforms the EU emissions trading scheme? Or how long it really takes markets to change and to let consumers choose differently? In this book, Emile Chappin explores simulation models to provide us with answers before policy interventions are impleme

  10. Building Simulation Modelers are we big-data ready?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in computing and sensor technologies have pushed the amount of data we collect or generate to limits previously unheard of. Sub-minute resolution data from dozens of channels is becoming increasingly common and is expected to increase with the prevalence of non-intrusive load monitoring. Experts are running larger building simulation experiments and are faced with an increasingly complex data set to analyze and derive meaningful insight. This paper focuses on the data management challenges that building modeling experts may face in data collected from a large array of sensors, or generated from running a large number of building energy/performance simulations. The paper highlights the technical difficulties that were encountered and overcome in order to run 3.5 million EnergyPlus simulations on supercomputers and generating over 200 TBs of simulation output. This extreme case involved development of technologies and insights that will be beneficial to modelers in the immediate future. The paper discusses different database technologies (including relational databases, columnar storage, and schema-less Hadoop) in order to contrast the advantages and disadvantages of employing each for storage of EnergyPlus output. Scalability, analysis requirements, and the adaptability of these database technologies are discussed. Additionally, unique attributes of EnergyPlus output are highlighted which make data-entry non-trivial for multiple simulations. Practical experience regarding cost-effective strategies for big-data storage is provided. The paper also discusses network performance issues when transferring large amounts of data across a network to different computing devices. Practical issues involving lag, bandwidth, and methods for synchronizing or transferring logical portions of the data are presented. A cornerstone of big-data is its use for analytics; data is useless unless information can be meaningfully derived from it. In addition to technical

  11. Chinese kangs and building energy consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YuGuo; ZHUANG Zhi; LIU JiaPing

    2009-01-01

    Chinese kangs are an integrated system for cooking, sleeping and heating in rural Northern China with more than 2000 years history. In 2004 there were 67 million Chinese kangs used by 44 million rural families or 174 million people. Chinese kangs store surplus heat from stove during cooking and releases it later for both home heating and localized bed heating. Such a widely used heating system has been rarely studied. Understanding kangs is important for developing new effective home heating systems for better energy efficiency and improving indoor air quality in Northern China. In this paper,we review and present some preliminary results from our field measurement and mathematical modeling, and discuss the development of Chinese kangs as related to future energy consumption in rural homes, and building energy consumption in China in general. We suggest that transition and new technologies for rural home heating in Northern China, i.e. the future of Chinese kangs, should be considered as the top priority in managing future building energy consumption in China.

  12. Energy Performance of Verandas in the Building Retrofit Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossano Albatici

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Passive solar elements for both direct and indirect gains, are systems used to maintain a comfortable living environment while saving energy, especially in the building energy retrofit and adaptation process. Sunspaces, thermal mass and glazing area and orientation have been often used in the past to guarantee adequate indoor conditions when mechanical devices were not available. After a period of neglect, nowadays they are again considered as appropriate systems to help face environmental issues in the building sector, and both international and national legislation takes into consideration the possibility of including them in the building planning tools, also providing economic incentives. Their proper design needs dynamic simulation, often difficult to perform and time consuming. Moreover, results generally suffer from several uncertainties, so quasi steady-state procedures are often used in everyday practice with good results, but some corrections are still needed. In this paper, a comparative analysis of different solutions for the construction of verandas in an existing building is presented, following the procedure provided by the slightly modified and improved Standard EN ISO 13790:2008. Advantages and disadvantages of different configurations considering thermal insulation, windows typology and mechanical ventilation systems are discussed and a general intervention strategy is proposed. The aim is to highlight the possibility of using sunspaces in order to increase the efficiency of the existing building stock, considering ease of construction and economic viability.

  13. 76 FR 74050 - Measured Building Energy Performance Data Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... energy performance data taxonomy as part of its DOE Buildings Performance Database project. This... energy performance data taxonomy as part of its DOE Buildings Performance Database project. This... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. Curriculum for Commissioning Energy Efficient Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Lia

    2012-09-30

    In July 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded funding to PECI to develop training curriculum in commercial energy auditing and building commissioning. This program was created in response to the high demand for auditing and commissioning services in the U.S. commercial buildings market and to bridge gaps and barriers in existing training programs. Obstacles addressed included: lack of focus on entry level candidates; prohibitive cost and time required for training; lack of hands-on training; trainings that focus on certifications & process overviews; and lack of comprehensive training. PECI organized several other industry players to create a co-funded project sponsored by DOE, PECI, New York State Energy and Research Development Authority (NYSERDA), California Energy Commission (CEC), Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) and California Commissioning Collaborative (CCC). After awarded, PECI teamed with another DOE awardee, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), to work collaboratively to create one comprehensive program featuring two training tracks. NJIT’s Center for Building Knowledge is a research and training institute affiliated with the College of Architecture and Design, and provided e-learning and video enhancements. This project designed and developed two training programs with a comprehensive, energy-focused curriculum to prepare new entrants to become energy auditors or commissioning authorities (CxAs). The following are the key elements of the developed trainings, which is depicted graphically in Figure 1: • Online classes are self-paced, and can be completed anywhere, any time • Commissioning Authority track includes 3 online modules made up of 24 courses delivered in 104 individual lessons, followed by a 40 hour hands-on lab. Total time required is between 75 and 100 hours, depending on the pace of the independent learner. • Energy Auditor track includes 3 online modules made up of 18 courses delivered in 72 individual

  15. Recent Developments of the Modelica"Buildings" Library for Building Energy and Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael; Zuo, Wangda; Nouidui, Thierry Stephane

    2011-04-01

    At the Modelica 2009 conference, we introduced the Buildings library, a freely available Modelica library for building energy and control systems. This paper reports the updates of the library and presents example applications for a range of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Over the past two years, the library has been further developed. The number of HVAC components models has been doubled and various components have been revised to increase numerical robustness.The paper starts with an overview of the library architecture and a description of the main packages. To demonstrate the features of the Buildings library, applications that include multizone airflow simulation as well as supervisory and local loop control of a variable air volume (VAV) system are briefly described. The paper closes with a discussion of the current development.

  16. Development of Residential Prototype Building Models and Analysis System for Large-Scale Energy Efficiency Studies Using EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2014-09-10

    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in residential building energy efficiency and codes have resulted in increased interest in detailed residential building energy models using the latest energy simulation software. One of the challenges of developing residential building models to characterize new residential building stock is to allow for flexibility to address variability in house features like geometry, configuration, HVAC systems etc. Researchers solved this problem in a novel way by creating a simulation structure capable of creating fully-functional EnergyPlus batch runs using a completely scalable residential EnergyPlus template system. This system was used to create a set of thirty-two residential prototype building models covering single- and multifamily buildings, four common foundation types and four common heating system types found in the United States (US). A weighting scheme with detailed state-wise and national weighting factors was designed to supplement the residential prototype models. The complete set is designed to represent a majority of new residential construction stock. The entire structure consists of a system of utility programs developed around the core EnergyPlus simulation engine to automate the creation and management of large-scale simulation studies with minimal human effort. The simulation structure and the residential prototype building models have been used for numerous large-scale studies, one of which is briefly discussed in this paper.

  17. Estimating Solar Energy Potential in Buildings on a Global Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia

    2015-01-01

    This chapter contributes to the debate around net-zero energy concept from a global perspective. By means of comprehensive modelling, it analyses how much global building energy consumption could be reduced through utilisation of building-integrated solar energy technologies and energy......-efficiency improvements. Valuable insights on the locations and building types, in which it is feasible to achieve a net-zero level of energy performance through solar energy utilisation, are presented in world maps....

  18. Energy balances of four office buildings in different locations in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soutullo, Silvia; Enriquez, Ricardo; San Juan, Cristina; Ferrer, Jose Antonio; Heras, M Rosario [Energy Efficiency in Buildings R and D Unit., CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)], email: silvia.soutullo@ciemat.es

    2010-07-01

    Southern Europe climates are characterized by important heating and cooling needs, thus to minimize the greenhouse gas emissions, efficient buildings must be designed. Two types of techniques can be used: passive techniques which consist in optimizing the building design to reduce its energy demand and then the implementation of active renewable energy systems to supply all the demand. The aim of this study is to present the design and analysis process of buildings in Spain. Simulations using TRNSYS 16 were performed on 4 buildings situated in Madrid, Almeria, Asturias and Soria to represent all climates of Spain. Results showed that efficient buildings can be designed in Southern Europe and that the simulation tool is a good means to optimize the combination of passive and active solar systems; it was found that 80% of the present energy consumption can be saved. The design and analysis process presented herein was proved to help in optimizing the energy consumption of buildings in Southern Europe.

  19. Energy Costs of Energy Savings in Buildings: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rousse

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that the cheapest energy is the one you do not need to produce. Nevertheless, this claim could somehow be unsubstantiated. In this article, the authors try to shed some light on this issue by using the concept of energy return on investment (EROI as a yardstick. This choice brings semantic issues because in this paper the EROI is used in a different context than that of energy production. Indeed, while watts and negawatts share the same physical unit, they are not the same object, which brings some ambiguities in the interpretation of EROI. These are cleared by a refined definition of EROI and an adapted nomenclature. This review studies the research in the energy efficiency of building operation, which is one of the most investigated topics in energy efficiency. This study focuses on the impact of insulation and high efficiency windows as means to exemplify the concepts that are introduced. These results were normalized for climate, life time of the building, and construction material. In many cases, energy efficiency measures imply a very high EROI. Nevertheless, in some circumstances, this is not the case and it might be more profitable to produce the required energy than to try to save it.

  20. Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Not really...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scofield, John H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Newsham et al. have recently published a re-analysis of energy-consumption data for LEED-certified commercial buildings supplied by the New Buildings Institute (NBI) and US Green Building Council. They find that, on average, LEED buildings use 18-39% less energy per floor area than their conventional counterparts, consistent with and adding clarity to conclusions originally reached by NBI. These conclusions, however, hang on a particular definition of the mean energy intensity of a collection of buildings that is not related to the total energy used by those buildings. Furthermore, site energy considered by Newsham et al. and NBI, unlike source energy used for the EPA's building Energy Star rating, does not account for the energy consumed off-site in generating and delivering electric energy to the building, whose inclusion is crucial for understanding greenhouse gas emission associated with building operation. Here I demonstrate that both the site energy and source energy used by the set of 35 LEED office buildings and Newsham et al.'s matching CBECS office buildings are statistically equivalent. Hence Newsham et al. offer no evidence that LEED-certification has collectively lowered either site or source energy for office buildings. (author)

  1. Energy intelligent buildings based on user activity : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Aiello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Occupant presence and behaviour in buildings has been shown to have large impact on heating, cooling and ventilation demand, energy consumption of lighting and appliances, and building controls. Energy-unaware behaviour can add one-third to a building's designed energy performance. Consequently, use

  2. Pusat Tenaga Malaysia's Zero Energy Office (ZEO) Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, C.K.; Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik

    Technical Review of the Zero Energy Office building in Malaysia. The building, which has an energy index of 50 kWh/m2/year, reaches a net annual energy of zero through the use of building integrated photovoltaic panels. For reference, ordinary offices in Malaysia consume 200 - 300 kWh/m2/year...

  3. Computational Support for the Selection of Energy Saving Building Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wilde, P.J.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Buildings use energy for heating, cooling and lighting, contributing to the problems of exhaustion of fossil fuel supplies and environmental pollution. In order to make buildings more energy-efficient an extensive set of âenergy saving building componentsâ has been developed that contributes to mini

  4. Stochastic Control of Energy Efficient Buildings: A Semidefinite Programming Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiao [ORNL; Dong, Jin [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The key goal in energy efficient buildings is to reduce energy consumption of Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems while maintaining a comfortable temperature and humidity in the building. This paper proposes a novel stochastic control approach for achieving joint performance and power control of HVAC. We employ a constrained Stochastic Linear Quadratic Control (cSLQC) by minimizing a quadratic cost function with a disturbance assumed to be Gaussian. The problem is formulated to minimize the expected cost subject to a linear constraint and a probabilistic constraint. By using cSLQC, the problem is reduced to a semidefinite optimization problem, where the optimal control can be computed efficiently by Semidefinite programming (SDP). Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and power efficiency by utilizing the proposed control approach.

  5. Rational use of energy by thermal insulation of residential buildings. Rationelle Energienutzung durch Waermeschutz von Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feist, W. (Inst. Wohnen und Umwelt, Darmstadt (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Processes in buildings need to be studied in detail to determine the technical potential of energy savings. Simulation models for thermal behaviour and simulation calculations prove that the technologies available today and the building input justifiable for the central-European climate will allow so-called passive-systems buildings to be built. Such a passive-systems building was built in Darmstadt Kranichstein. The heart of these passive-systems buildings is an excellent thermal insulation, its meticulous execution and the reduction of heat losses by ventilation. (BWI)

  6. Energy efficiency in multi-story buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staritcyna Anastasiia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this project a research on energy efficiency of Malta house was provided, it is a residential multi-story building in Helsinki, Jätkäsaari area. This project describes introduction with a new heating system for residential dwellings, which uses only heated air. To maintain air temperature in comfort level heat recovery and district heating is used in the same system. The task was to research efficacy of the enclosure structures. For research the 3D model has been created in the program the Revit 2015 and Lumion 13. Thermotechnical calculation for three types of a design has been executed in the program U-value.net.

  7. Learning in a Landscape: Simulation-building as Reflexive Intervention

    CERN Document Server

    Beaulieu, Anne; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This article makes a dual contribution to scholarship in science and technology studies (STS) on simulation-building. It both documents a specific simulation-building project, and demonstrates a concrete contribution to interdisciplinary work of STS insights. The article analyses the struggles that arise in the course of determining what counts as theory, as model and even as a simulation. Such debates are especially decisive when working across disciplinary boundaries, and their resolution is an important part of the work involved in building simulations. In particular, we show how ontological arguments about the value of simulations tend to determine the direction of simulation-building. This dynamic makes it difficult to maintain an interest in the heterogeneity of simulations and a view of simulations as unfolding scientific objects. As an outcome of our analysis of the process and reflections about interdisciplinary work around simulations, we propose a chart, as a tool to facilitate discussions about si...

  8. Intervention strategies for energy efficient municipal buildings: Influencing energy decisions throughout buildings` lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The current energy-related decisionmaking processes that take place during the lifetimes of municipal buildings in San Francisco do not reflect our ideal picture of energy efficiency as a part of staff awareness and standard practice. Two key problems that undermine the success of energy efficiency programs are lost opportunities and incomplete actions. These problems can be caused by technology-related issues, but often the causes are institutional barriers (organizational or procedural {open_quotes}people problems{close_quotes}). Energy efficient decisions are not being made because of a lack of awareness or policy mandate, or because financial resources are not available to decisionmakers. The Bureau of Energy Conservation (BEC) is working to solve such problems in the City & County of San Francisco through the Intervention Strategies project. In the first phase of the project, using the framework of the building lifetime, we learned how energy efficiency in San Francisco municipal buildings can be influenced through delivering services to support decisionmakers; at key points in the process of funding, designing, constructing and maintaining them. The second phase of the project involved choosing and implementing five pilot projects. Through staff interviews, we learned how decisions that impact energy use are made at various levels. We compiled information about city staff and their needs, and resources available to meet those needs. We then designed actions to deliver appropriate services to staff at these key access points. BEC implemented five pilot projects corresponding to various stages in the building`s lifetime. These were: Bond Guidelines, Energy Efficient Design Practices, Commissioning, Motor Efficiency, and Facilities Condition Monitoring Program.

  9. USING TIME VARIANT VOLTAGE TO CALCULATE ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND POWER USE OF BUILDING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Augenbroe , Godfried

    2015-12-09

    Buildings are the main consumers of electricity across the world. However, in the research and studies related to building performance assessment, the focus has been on evaluating the energy efficiency of buildings whereas the instantaneous power efficiency has been overlooked as an important aspect of total energy consumption. As a result, we never developed adequate models that capture both thermal and electrical characteristics (e.g., voltage) of building systems to assess the impact of variations in the power system and emerging technologies of the smart grid on buildings energy and power performance and vice versa. This paper argues that the power performance of buildings as a function of electrical parameters should be evaluated in addition to systems’ mechanical and thermal behavior. The main advantage of capturing electrical behavior of building load is to better understand instantaneous power consumption and more importantly to control it. Voltage is one of the electrical parameters that can be used to describe load. Hence, voltage dependent power models are constructed in this work and they are coupled with existing thermal energy models. Lack of models that describe electrical behavior of systems also adds to the uncertainty of energy consumption calculations carried out in building energy simulation tools such as EnergyPlus, a common building energy modeling and simulation tool. To integrate voltage-dependent power models with thermal models, the thermal cycle (operation mode) of each system was fed into the voltage-based electrical model. Energy consumption of systems used in this study were simulated using EnergyPlus. Simulated results were then compared with estimated and measured power data. The mean square error (MSE) between simulated, estimated, and measured values were calculated. Results indicate that estimated power has lower MSE when compared with measured data than simulated results. Results discussed in this paper will illustrate the

  10. Do LEED-certified buildings save energy? Yes, but...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, Guy R.; Mancini, Sandra; Birt, Benjamin J. [National Research Council Canada - Institute for Research in Construction, Ottawa (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    We conducted a re-analysis of data supplied by the New Buildings Institute and the US Green Buildings Council on measured energy use data from 100 LEED-certified commercial and institutional buildings. These data were compared to the energy use of the general US commercial building stock. We also examined energy use by LEED certification level, and by energy-related credits achieved in the certification process. On average, LEED buildings used 18-39% less energy per floor area than their conventional counterparts. However, 28-35% of LEED buildings used more energy than their conventional counterparts. Further, the measured energy performance of LEED buildings had little correlation with certification level of the building, or the number of energy credits achieved by the building at design time. Therefore, at a societal level, green buildings can contribute substantial energy savings, but further work needs to be done to define green building rating schemes to ensure more consistent success at the individual building level. Note, these findings should be considered as preliminary, and the analyses should be repeated when longer data histories from a larger sample of green buildings are available. (author)

  11. Co-Simulation of Detailed Whole Building with the Power System to Study Smart Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Fuller, Jason C.; Srivastava, Viraj; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.

    2014-12-24

    Modernization of the power system in a way that ensures a sustainable energy system is arguably one of the most pressing concerns of our time. Buildings are important components in the power system. First, they are the main consumers of electricity and secondly, they do not have constant energy demand. Conventionally, electricity has been difficult to store and should be consumed as it is generated. Therefore, maintaining the demand and supply is critical in the power system. However, to reduce the complexity of power models, buildings (i.e., end-use loads) are traditionally modeled and represented as aggregated “dumb” nodes in the power system. This means we lack effective detailed whole building energy models that can support requirements and emerging technologies of the smart power grid. To gain greater insight into the relationship between building energy demand and power system performance, it is important to constitute a co-simulation framework to support detailed building energy modeling and simulation within the power system to study capabilities promised by the modern power grid. This paper discusses ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and presents underlying tools and framework needed to enable co-simulation of building, building energy systems and their control in the power system to study applications such as demand response, grid-based HVAC control, and deployment of buildings for ancillary services. The optimal goal is to develop an integrated modeling and simulation platform that is flexible, reusable, and scalable. Results of this work will contribute to future building and power system studies, especially those related to the integrated ‘smart grid’. Results are also expected to advance power resiliency and local (micro) scale grid studies where several building and renewable energy systems transact energy directly. This paper also reviews some applications that can be supported and studied using the framework introduced

  12. Modeling and Simulation of Multi-Room Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.W.U. Perera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are one of the largest energy consumers in the world which accounts for nearly 40% of the total global energy consumption. In the countries where cold climate conditions predominate, space heating is the key contributor to the increased energy consumption. Today there is a growing trend to use Building Energy Management Systems (BEMS to control the energy consumption of buildings in an efficient manner. BEMS require a good heating model of the building to be integrated for better control purposes. This article refers to the development of different types of physics based buillding heating models, regarding single-zone, multi-floor and multi-room buildings. They address the propriety of each model in building heating control concerning the prediction accuracy and the prediction time. These models are verified for a residential building having three floors. According to the results, the multi-floor model is recognized to have the best qualifications obliged as a model for control.

  13. Climate impacts on extreme energy consumption of different types of buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingcai; Shi, Jun; Guo, Jun; Cao, Jingfu; Niu, Jide; Xiong, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes of building energy consumption and its relationships with climate can provide basis for energy-saving and carbon emission reduction. Heating and cooling energy consumption of different types of buildings during 1981-2010 in Tianjin city, was simulated by using TRNSYS software. Daily or hourly extreme energy consumption was determined by percentile methods, and the climate impact on extreme energy consumption was analyzed. The results showed that days of extreme heating consumption showed apparent decrease during the recent 30 years for residential and large venue buildings, whereas days of extreme cooling consumption increased in large venue building. No significant variations were found for the days of extreme energy consumption for commercial building, although a decreasing trend in extreme heating energy consumption. Daily extreme energy consumption for large venue building had no relationship with climate parameters, whereas extreme energy consumption for commercial and residential buildings was related to various climate parameters. Further multiple regression analysis suggested heating energy consumption for commercial building was affected by maximum temperature, dry bulb temperature, solar radiation and minimum temperature, which together can explain 71.5 % of the variation of the daily extreme heating energy consumption. The daily extreme cooling energy consumption for commercial building was only related to the wet bulb temperature (R2= 0.382). The daily extreme heating energy consumption for residential building was affected by 4 climate parameters, but the dry bulb temperature had the main impact. The impacts of climate on hourly extreme heating energy consumption has a 1-3 hour delay in all three types of buildings, but no delay was found in the impacts of climate on hourly extreme cooling energy consumption for the selected buildings.

  14. Automated Translation and Thermal Zoning of Digital Building Models for Energy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Nathaniel L. [Cornell University; McCrone, Colin J. [Cornell University; Walter, Bruce J. [Cornell University; Pratt, Kevin B. [Cornell University; Greenberg, Donald P. [Cornell University

    2013-08-26

    Building energy simulation is valuable during the early stages of design, when decisions can have the greatest impact on energy performance. However, preparing digital design models for building energy simulation typically requires tedious manual alteration. This paper describes a series of five automated steps to translate geometric data from an unzoned CAD model into a multi-zone building energy model. First, CAD input is interpreted as geometric surfaces with materials. Second, surface pairs defining walls of various thicknesses are identified. Third, normal directions of unpaired surfaces are determined. Fourth, space boundaries are defined. Fifth, optionally, settings from previous simulations are applied, and spaces are aggregated into a smaller number of thermal zones. Building energy models created quickly using this method can offer guidance throughout the design process.

  15. An adjusted energy-saving quantity calculation method for building energy-efficient retrofit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清勤; 孟冲

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at a comprehensive assessment of energy-saving retrofitting effect on existing buildings,a calculation method is developed to adjust energy-saving quantity in standard condition for comparison under the same conditions. A mathematical model,method theory and calculation steps are given. Error analysis results show that this method can be applied accurately to practical engineering projects. In a case study of energy-saving quantity assessment before and after retrofitting on a certain hospital in Shanghai,with energy simulation software TRNSYS,detailed application of this method is introduced and analyzed. The method is applied to the case of energy-saving quantity assessment to a hospital in Shanghai before and after retrofitting with the energy simulation software TRNSYS.

  16. Energy Performance of Buildings - The European Approach to Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the European approach to improve sustainability in the building sector, which has a very high potential for considerable reduction of energy consumption in the coming years. By approving the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive the European Union has taken a strong...... leadership role in promoting energy efficiency in buildings in Europe, that will be the most powerful instrument developed to date for the building sector in Europe....

  17. Energy Performance of Buildings - The European Approach to Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the European approach to improve sustainability in the building sector, which has a very high potential for considerable reduction of energy consumption in the coming years. By approving the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive the European Union has taken a strong leadership role in promoting energy efficiency in buildings in Europe, that will be the most powerful instrument developed to date for the building sector in Europe. This paper presents the European appr...

  18. Sensitivity analysis for daily building operation from the energy and thermal comfort standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Marko G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy performance of buildings is one of the most important tasks for reaching sustainability. Assessing building energy consumption is performed more often with specialized simulation tools. Sensitivity analysis proved to be a valuable tool for creating more reliable and realistic building energy models and better buildings. This paper briefly describes the methodology for running global sensitivity analysis and tools that can be used, and presents the results of such an analysis conducted for winter period, daily, on input variables covering a real building's operation, control and occupant related parameters that affect both thermal comfort and heating energy consumption. Two sets of inputs were created. The only difference between these sets is an addition of clothing insulation and occupant heat gain as input variables. The reference building was simulated for three distinctive winter weeks. Two additional input variables have an effect especially on thermal comfort, but they do not disturb the relative order of other influential input variables. The common influential variables for both energy consumption and thermal comfort were identified and are: air handling unit sup-ply temperature and airflow rate and control system related parameters. This can help in future research into implementing the simulation-assisted optimized operation in real buildings. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  19. Economical optimization of building elements for use in design of nearly zero energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    for finding the economical optimal solutions based on the use of the cost of conserved energy for each main building envelope part and building service system and cost of produced energy for each energy producing system. By use of information on construction cost and developed models of the yearly energy use......Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy policy. There are many ways of designing nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on how to end up with the most economical optimal solution. Therefore this paper present a method...... for each component, a function is set up that represents the relation of the marginal cost of conserved energy and the energy use for different quantities and qualities of the components. The optimal mix of solutions for the whole building is found by selecting building parts with the same cost...

  20. Energy and IAQ Implications of Alternative Minimum Ventilation Rates in California Retail and School Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    For a stand-alone retail building, a primary school, and a secondary school in each of the 16 California climate zones, the EnergyPlus building energy simulation model was used to estimate how minimum mechanical ventilation rates (VRs) affect energy use and indoor air concentrations of an indoor-generated contaminant. The modeling indicates large changes in heating energy use, but only moderate changes in total building energy use, as minimum VRs in the retail building are changed. For example, predicted state-wide heating energy consumption in the retail building decreases by more than 50% and total building energy consumption decreases by approximately 10% as the minimum VR decreases from the Title 24 requirement to no mechanical ventilation. The primary and secondary schools have notably higher internal heat gains than in the retail building models, resulting in significantly reduced demand for heating. The school heating energy use was correspondingly less sensitive to changes in the minimum VR. The modeling indicates that minimum VRs influence HVAC energy and total energy use in schools by only a few percent. For both the retail building and the school buildings, minimum VRs substantially affected the predicted annual-average indoor concentrations of an indoor generated contaminant, with larger effects in schools. The shape of the curves relating contaminant concentrations with VRs illustrate the importance of avoiding particularly low VRs.

  1. Energy Conservation of the Designated Government Buildings in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangskarn Prapat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The designated government buildings have implemented and administered energy program under the energy development and promotion Act 2007 for many years continuously until 2015. Appointment person responsible for energy, performing energy management and implementing the energy conservation work plan and measures are legal requirements for the designated buildings. Therefore, the ministry of Energy has launched the project to support the implementation of energy management. The aim of the project was to create the energy management system in the designated government buildings, and to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, the evaluation of the project has been presented from the achievements of 839 designated government buildings. The energy saving is more than 440 ktoe/year. This is about 3% of energy consumptions of buildings.

  2. Energy efficiency in buildings: the road to a real market transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerschot, Constant van (Lafarge, RandD (France)); Glachant, Dominique (EDF, Energy Efficiency Program (France))

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the research carried out by the Energy Efficiency in Buildings (EEB) project of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development between 2006 and 2009. In particular it reports the creation of a computer simulation model of adoption rates for energy-efficiency investments and the outputs of the model in two building classes - residential and commercial - in specific geographies. The EEB research also includes a perception survey among building professionals and opinion formers. It carried out wide-ranging interactions with stakeholders in the six regions covered by the project Brazil, China, Europe, India, Japan and the USA. The purpose of the project is to identify how to achieve substantial progress towards its vision of a world in which buildings consume zero net energy and produce less CO{sub 2}. It concentrates on energy used in buildings rather than energy generation for the grid. The EEB simulation model is designed to simulate decisions made by building owners (or others responsible for making the decisions) faced with a choice of investment in a range of design and construction options. It simulates decisions based on micro-economic criteria and calculates the resulting energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions (both at the building and sub-sector levels). Rather than identifying the measures required to achieve a given energy consumption, it sets out to understand the conditions under which certain design and technology selections will be made. EEB concentrated on four major sub-sectors: single-family and multi-family housing, offices and retail buildings. For each sub-sector simulations were run for a specific location, taking account of the actual building, energy and climate characteristics. Several 'reference cases' were created to represent the range of building and energy combinations in that market. Existing building energy data were used to calculate the energy performance of each of 609 potential construction

  3. Design of energy efficient building with radiant slab cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen

    2007-12-01

    Air-conditioning comprises a substantial fraction of commercial building energy use because of compressor-driven refrigeration and fan-driven air circulation. Core regions of large buildings require year-round cooling due to heat gains from people, lights and equipment. Negative environmental impacts include CO2 emissions from electric generation and leakage of ozone-depleting refrigerants. Some argue that radiant cooling simultaneously improves building efficiency and occupant thermal comfort, and that current thermal comfort models fail to reflect occupant experience with radiant thermal control systems. There is little field evidence to test these claims. The University of Calgary's Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Building, is a pioneering radiant slab cooling installation in North America. Thermal comfort and energy performance were evaluated. Measurements included: (1) heating and cooling energy use, (2) electrical energy use for lighting and equipment, and (3) indoor temperatures. Accuracy of a whole building energy simulation model was evaluated with these data. Simulation was then used to compare the radiant slab design with a conventional (variable air volume) system. The radiant system energy performance was found to be poorer mainly due to: (1) simultaneous cooling by the slab and heating by other systems, (2) omission of low-exergy (e.g., groundwater) cooling possible with the high cooling water temperatures possible with radiant slabs and (3) excessive solar gain and conductive heat loss due to the wall and fenestration design. Occupant thermal comfort was evaluated through questionnaires and concurrent measurement of workstation comfort parameters. Analysis of 116 sets of data from 82 occupants showed that occupant assessment was consistent with estimates based on current thermal comfort models. The main thermal comfort improvements were reductions in (1) local discomfort from draft and (2) vertical air temperature stratification. The

  4. Commercial Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Anderson, David M.; Wang, Na

    2014-10-31

    A growing number of building owners are benchmarking their building energy use. This requires the building owner to acquire monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer energy use data (CEUD) as a way to give building owners whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. Meter profile aggregation adds a layer of protection that decreases the risk of revealing CEUD as the number of meters aggregated increases. The report statistically characterizes the similarity between individual energy usage patterns and whole-building totals at various levels of meter aggregation.

  5. Building Energy Audit Report for Pearl Harbor, HI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-09-30

    A building energy audit was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at selected Pearl Harbor buildings, identify cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This report documents the findings of that assessment.

  6. Learning in a landscape : Simulation-building as reflexive intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaulieu, Anne; Ratto, Matt; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a dual contribution to scholarship in science and technology studies (STS) on simulation-building. It both documents a specific simulation-building project, and demonstrates a concrete contribution to interdisciplinary work of STS insights. The article analyses the struggles that

  7. Energy efficient design for residential buildings in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.YAO; K.STEEMERS; B.LI

    2003-01-01

    This paper illustrates an integrated energy design model based on the energy balance of a single zone. The results of energy efficient residential building design for the different climate zones of China by implementing an integrated energy model have been presented. Optimum measures of building design for typical Chinese residential buildings are introduced, with the objective of minimizingannual energy consumption for those buildings and improving thermal comfort. One overriding conclusion is that significant energy savings and thermal comfort can be achieved though optimum design.

  8. Simulated Aging and Characterization of Phase Change Materials for Thermal Management of Building Envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Method B). West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International. ———. 2009. Standard Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials. ASTM E84-09...storage in buildings : A state of art. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11(6):1146-1166 Yu, S., S. Jeong, C. Chyoung, and S. Kim. 2014. Bio-based...Simulated Aging and Characterization of Phase Change Materials for lhermal Management of Building Envelopes Elizabeth J. Gao, Jignesh Patel, Veera M. Boddu

  9. Energy consumption in commercial buildings: A comparison with BEPS budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Metered energy consumption data were collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed building energy performance standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20 percent above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  10. Development of a methodology for defining whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 2, Development concept stage report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.W. (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA (USA)); Deringer, J.J. (Deringer Group, Riva, MD (USA)); Hall, J.D. (American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC (USA)) (comps.)

    1990-09-01

    The Whole-Building Energy Design Targets project is being conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The objective of the project is to develop a flexible methodology for setting energy performance guidelines with which architects, engineers, planners, and owners can assess energy efficiency in commercial building design. This volume, the third in the four-volume report on the Targets project concept stage, contains the minutes of the workshops as well as summaries of the expert's written comments prepared at the close of each workshop. In Section 2, the building energy simulation workshop is summarized. Section 3 provides a summary of the building cost workshop.

  11. Suitable scheme study of Chinese Building Energy Efficiency CDM Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Beijia; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Shaoping; Wang, Feng

    2010-11-01

    China has great potential to develop Building Energy Efficiency Clean Development Mechanism (BEE CDM) projects, although have many challenges. Our results show that large-scale public buildings and urban residential buildings have relatively high BEE CDM potential, when comparing their characteristics to the CDM project requirements. The building enclosure, illumination energy conservation, air condition energy saving, solar thermal, and solar photovoltaic technology have relatively high application potential while considering the energy saving potential and marginal emission reduction cost. Case study of large-scale buildings shows that technology integration of building enclosure, illumination energy conservation, air condition energy saving, solar thermal can reduce required building number to 130 in order to meet the 1×105 tCO2 e/a reduction criteria. Some suggestions are also given in this paper.

  12. Impacts of Climate Change on Energy Consumption and Peak Demand in Buildings: A Detailed Regional Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hathaway, John E.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Scott, Michael J.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of numerous commercial and residential building simulations, with the purpose of examining the impact of climate change on peak and annual building energy consumption over the portion of the Eastern Interconnection (EIC) located in the United States. The climate change scenario considered (IPCC A2 scenario as downscaled from the CASCaDE data set) has changes in mean climate characteristics as well as changes in the frequency and duration of intense weather events. This investigation examines building energy demand for three annual periods representative of climate trends in the CASCaDE data set at the beginning, middle, and end of the century--2004, 2052, and 2089. Simulations were performed using the Building ENergy Demand (BEND) model which is a detailed simulation platform built around EnergyPlus. BEND was developed in collaboration with the Platform for Regional Integrated Modeling and Analysis (PRIMA), a modeling framework designed to simulate the complex interactions among climate, energy, water, and land at decision-relevant spatial scales. Over 26,000 building configurations of different types, sizes, vintages, and, characteristics which represent the population of buildings within the EIC, are modeled across the 3 EIC time zones using the future climate from 100 locations within the target region, resulting in nearly 180,000 spatially relevant simulated demand profiles for each of the 3 years. In this study, the building stock characteristics are held constant based on the 2005 building stock in order to isolate and present results that highlight the impact of the climate signal on commercial and residential energy demand. Results of this analysis compare well with other analyses at their finest level of specificity. This approach, however, provides a heretofore unprecedented level of specificity across multiple spectrums including spatial, temporal, and building characteristics. This capability enables the ability to

  13. Schneider Electric called on real estate leaders to build Energy Efficient Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Schneider Electric, the global specialist of energy management, together with China Real Estate Industry Association, China Real Estate & Residential Association and China Building Electricity Efficiency Association, implored real estate industry leaders to sign a petition to pledge their dedication towards the building of energy efficient buildings.

  14. Analysis of Solar Energy Use for Multi-Flat Buildings Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Valančius

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the energy and financial possibilities to install renewable energy sources (solar energy generating systems when renovating multi-flat buildings. The aim is to analyse solar energy system possibilities for modernization of multi-flat buildings (5-storey, 9-storey and 16-storey, providing detailed conclusions about the appropriateness of the energy systems and financial aspects. It is also intended to determine the optimal technological combinations and solutions to reach the maximum energy benefits. For the research computer simulation tools “EnergyPRO” and “PV*SOL Premium” are chosen. Also actual collected heat and electricity consumption data is used for the analysis.

  15. Thermal Comfort and Ventilation Criteria for low Energy Residential Buildings in Building Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Guangyu; Kurnitski, Jarek; Awbi, Hazim;

    2012-01-01

    Indoor environmental quality and energy performance of buildings are becoming more and more important in the design and construction of low energy, passive and zero energy buildings. At the same time, improved insulation and air tightness have the potential to resulting in a deterioration...... of the indoor air quality in such buildings. Currently, there are no global guidelines for specifying the indoor thermal environment in such low-energy buildings. The objective of this paper is to analyse the classification of indoor thermal comfort levels and recommended ventilation rates for different low...... energy buildings, and propose a set of indices that would enable better quantification and comparison among low energy buildings. In this study, the building codes and voluntary guidelines have been reviewed on the basis of experience of Finland, UK, Denmark, USA and Germany. The analysis in this paper...

  16. The urban canyon and building energy use: Urban density versus daylight and passive solar gains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømann-Andersen, Jakob Bjørn; Sattrup, Peter Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The link between urban density and building energy use is a complex balance between climatic factors and the spatial, material and use patterns of urban spaces and the buildings that constitute them. This study uses the concept of the urban canyon to investigate the ways that the energy performance...... of low-energy buildings in a north-European setting is affected by their context.This study uses a comprehensive suite of climate-based dynamic thermal and daylight simulations to describe how these primary factors in the passive energy properties of buildings are affected by increases in urban density.......It was found that the geometry of urban canyons has an impact on total energy consumption in the range of up to +30% for offices and +19% for housing, which shows that the geometry of urban canyons is a key factor in energy use in buildings. It was demonstrated how the reflectivity of urban canyons plays...

  17. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    The major goals of the research are to gain insight into the probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption; to obtain observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm comsumption estimates of the DOE 2.0A simulation model; and to investigate home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions. The first chapter covers the investigation of determinants of household energy consumption. The presentation begins with the underlying economic theory and its implications, and continues with a description of the data collection procedures, the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. In the second chapter the assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation. The third chapter contains information regarding households' willingness to make energy conserving investments and their ranking of various conservation features. In the final chapter conclusions and recommendations are presented with an emphasis on the policy implications of this study. (MCW)

  18. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  19. European national strategies to move towards very low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    , Denmark, Finland, France, Germany and United Kingdom (England and Wales). Even though the calculation methods are in accordance with the definitions in the EPBD and thus the relevant CEN standards, there are national deviations that make a cross-country comparison of the calculated energy performance...... difficult. One way of promoting very low energy buildings is by various direct or indirect actions that make these kinds of buildings more attractive. The most popular support for low energy buildings is e.g. loans with low interest rates to finance low energy buildings. This is done either by means...... high energy performance. It is important to stress the need for MS to introduce a national or regional definition of very low energy buildings in their building regulation and to develop a national strategy towards this level of energy performance to become the standard. This market transformation...

  20. Statistical models describing the energy signature of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Thavlov, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Approximately one third of the primary energy production in Denmark is used for heating in buildings. Therefore efforts to accurately describe and improve energy performance of the building mass are very important. For this purpose statistical models describing the energy signature of a building, i.......e. the heat dynamics of the building, have been developed. The models can be used to obtain rather detailed knowledge of the energy performance of the building and to optimize the control of the energy consumption for heating, which will be vital in conditions with increasing fluctuation of the energy supply...... or varying energy prices. The paper will give an overview of statistical methods and applied models based on experiments carried out in FlexHouse, which is an experimental building in SYSLAB, Risø DTU. The models are of different complexity and can provide estimates of physical quantities such as UA...

  1. Potential Use of Radiant Walls to Transfer Energy Between two Building Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    Due to a reduced energy demand in low energy buildings, low temperature heating and high temperature cooling can be used to control thermal comfort. Nevertheless, highly varying heat loads due to solar radiation can create sometimes an imbalanced energy demand inside the building. Instead of being...... considered as a disturbance, this asymmetry can be used as a heat source for another zone of the building. By means of computer simulations, the possibility of shifting the energy demand between two office rooms with different thermal loads has been studied. Due to the small temperature difference between...

  2. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1979-12-01

    The research reported in this volume was undertaken during FY 1979 within the Energy & Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This volume will comprise a section of the Energy & Environment Division 1979 Annual Report, to be published in the summer of 1980. Work reported relate to: thermal performance of building envelopes; building ventilation and indoor air quality; a computer program for predicting energy use in buildings; study focused specifically on inherently energy intensive hospital buildings; energy efficient windows and lighting; potential for energy conservation and savings in the buildings sector; and evaluation of energy performance standards for residential buildings.

  3. An Automated BIM Model to Conceptually Design, Analyze, Simulate, and Assess Sustainable Building Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Jalaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the environmental impacts and simulating the energy consumption of building’s components at the conceptual design stage are very helpful for designers needing to make decisions related to the selection of the best design alternative that would lead to a more energy efficient building. Building Information Modeling (BIM offers designers the ability to assess different design alternatives at the conceptual stage of the project so that energy and life cycle assessment (LCA strategies and systems are attained. This paper proposes an automated model that links BIM, LCA, energy analysis, and lighting simulation tools with green building certification systems. The implementation is within developing plug-ins on BIM tool capable of measuring the environmental impacts (EI and embodied energy of building components. Using this method, designers will be provided with a new way to visualize and to identify the potential gain or loss of energy for the building as a whole and for each of its associated components. Furthermore, designers will be able to detect and evaluate the sustainability of the proposed buildings based on Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED rating system. An actual building project will be used to illustrate the workability of the proposed methodology.

  4. Advanced low-energy building at Innsbruck. Integral concept; Niedrigenergie-Neubau in Innsbruck. Integrales Konzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldhoff, C.; Lenzen, B.; Schrag, T.; Raedler, J. [Dezentral - Energiekonzepte und Gebaeudesimulationen Waldhoff Raedler Lenzen Schrag GbR, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    The new administrative building of the Tyrol state government integrates architecture, utilisation and technical facilities into an optimized overall system. Thermal simulations were used in the project in order to achieve optimum energy efficiency and thermal comfort. The building has a surface of about 11,000 m{sup 2}; the total cost was about 21 million Euros. (orig.)

  5. Energy Simulation of Electric Energy System in Building Base on Kingview%基于组态王的办公楼电能系统的节能仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚娟; 江萍

    2014-01-01

    近年来,办公楼的电能和热能消耗很大,为了节能,本课题设计了节电、节水及节热的综合节能系统,建筑电能系统和供暖系统的参数通过传感器采集,在无人状态下,将用电设备断电和将供热管道的水阀进行调节,以达到智能化控制和节能的目的.对此课题,主要是利用组态王 Kingview V6.5对办公楼的电能系统的智能化控制方面做了动画仿真和分析.通过对单间办公室照明器的智能控制状态动画仿真来模拟理论建立的模型,并能进行初步的节能的计算.%In recent years, the cost of electric energy and heat energy are very large. The research designs a generic save energy system in electric, water and heat. The sensors collect the parameter about electric and hot water heating system, transport the controller to cut off the power supply and adjust the valve for the purples of intelligent control and save energy, In research, we are doing emulation and analysis in electric energy for the integrate control and save energy based on Kingview V6. 5. The state simulation of intelligent control for lighting controller in the single office is connected to the theory model for the preliminary analysis of the energy saving and calculation.

  6. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part I. Understanding and practicing energy conservation in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parady, W. Harold; Turner, J. Howard

    1980-06-01

    This is a training program to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic guide, which contains three parts. Part I considers the following: understanding the importance of energy; developing a concern for conserving energy; understanding the use of energy in buildings; care and maintenance of energy-efficient buildings; and developing energy-saving habits. A bibliography is presented.

  7. Transient Performance Simulation on Building Integrated Photovoltaic/thermal Solar Energy System%建筑太阳能光电热一体化系统的瞬态性能模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小凤; 庄春龙; 成镭; 张洪宇

    2013-01-01

    The software TRNSYS is used to simulate and analyze transient working situations of the building roof integrated photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T)solar energy system which is designed to provide power and hot water simultaneously. Thought series of tests in summer,instantaneous power output,cumulative capacity,transient in/out water temperature of PV/T module and flat plate solar collector,cumulative effective heat gain of PV/T module and flat plate solar energy collector in a given period,efficiency of photovoltaic and photothermal transfer and comprehensive solar energy utilization efficiency of system are recorded. Consequences manifest solar energy PV/T integrated system on the roof is an appropriate type for solar energy use of buildings in summer in Chongqing area where is usually thought no valuable possibility to use solar.%  利用TRNSYS软件对重庆夏季建筑屋顶太阳能光电热一体化系统进行瞬态模拟分析计算,得到系统瞬时发电量与一段时间内累计发电量,光电热模块瞬时进出水温度与太阳能平板集热器瞬时进出水温度,系统一段时间内光电热模块累计有效得热量与一段时间内太阳能平板集热器累计有效得热量,系统的光电转换效率、光热转换效率以及太阳能综合利用效率。结果表明,建筑屋顶太阳能光电热一体化系统是重庆地区建筑太阳能光电热一体化系统适宜的型式。

  8. Revisit of Energy Use and Technologies of High Performance Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng; Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-03-30

    Energy consumed by buildings accounts for one third of the world?s total primary energy use. Associated with the conscious of energy savings in buildings, High Performance Buildings (HPBs) has surged across the world, with wide promotion and adoption of various performance rating and certification systems. It is valuable to look into the actual energy performance of HPBs and to understand their influencing factors. To shed some light on this topic, this paper conducted a series of portfolio analysis based on a database of 51 high performance office buildings across the world. Analyses showed that the actual site Energy Use Intensity (EUI) of the 51 buildings varied by a factor of up to 11, indicating a large scale of variation of the actual energy performance of the current HPBs. Further analysis of the correlation between EUI and climate elucidated ubiquitous phenomenon of EUI scatter throughout all climate zones, implying that the weather is not a decisive factor, although important, for the actual energy consumption of an individual building. On the building size via EUI, analysis disclosed that smaller buildings have a tendency to achieving lower energy use. Even so, the correlation is not absolute since some large buildings demonstrated low energy use while some small buildings performed opposite. Concerning the technologies, statistics indicated that the application of some technologies had correlations with some specific building size and climate characteristic. However, it was still hard to pinpoint a set of technologies which was directly correlative with a group of low EUI buildings. It is concluded that no a single factor essentially determines the actual energy performance of HPBs. To deliver energy-efficient buildings, an integrated design taking account of climate, technology, occupant behavior as well as operation and maintenance should be implemented.

  9. Quantification of Uncertainty in Predicting Building Energy Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Frier, Christian; Heiselberg, Per;

    2012-01-01

    for the dynamic thermal behaviour of buildings. However, for air flow and energy consumption it is found to be much more significant due to less “damping”. Probabilistic methods establish a new approach to the prediction of building energy consumption, enabling designers to include stochastic parameters like......Traditional building energy consumption calculation methods are characterised by rough approaches providing approximate figures with high and unknown levels of uncertainty. Lack of reliable energy resources and increasing concerns about climate change call for improved predictive tools. A new...... approach for the prediction of building energy consumption is presented. The approach quantifies the uncertainty of building energy consumption by means of stochastic differential equations. The approach is applied to a general heat balance for an arbitrary number of loads and zones in a building...

  10. Commercial building end-use energy metering inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidell, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Reilly, R.W.

    1985-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive inventory of end-use metered data. The inventory did not discover many sources of metered end-use data; however, research into existing data bases and extensive discussions with professionals associated with building energy conservation have enabled a clear characterization to be developed of the types of metered data that are required to further energy conservation in commercial buildings. Based on the results of the inventory and this clarification of data requirements, the adequacy of existing data bases has been assessed, and recommendations have been developed for future federal data collection efforts. A summary of sources of existing metered end-use data is provided in Section 2.1 and its adequacy has been summarized. Collection of further end-use metered data is both desirable and valuable for many areas of building energy conservation research. Empirical data are needed to address many issues which to date have been addressed using only simulation techniques. The adequacy of using simulation techniques for various purposes needs to be assessed through comparison with measured data. While these data are expensive to acquire, it is cost-effective to do so in the long run, and the need is not being served by the private market. The preceding conclusion based on results from the inventory of existing data highlights two important facts: First, although the data are widely desired in the private sector, they are not widely available. Second, where suitable data are publicly available and contain the desired supporting information, their collection has generally been funded by government-sponsored research.

  11. Robustness of building design with respect to energy related occupant behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Buso, Tiziana; Andersen, Rune Korsholm;

    2013-01-01

    was to investigate how occupants' behaviour varies according to the building envelope design: different input values have been chosen for three design features - thermal mass, transparency and solar shadings - in order to discover the most robust ones. The study is earned out through simulations on an office......Occupant behaviour is often the first reason for the discrepancy between designed and real total energy use in buildings. A possible solution to bridge this gap is designing buildings whose performances show little variations despite of alternating occupants' behaviour. The aim of this work...... of a building during the design phase in order to obtain more realistic energy predictions....

  12. Thermal comfort and ventilation criteria for low energy residential buildings in building codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Guangyu; Kurnitski, Jarek; Awbi, Hazim;

    2012-01-01

    Indoor environmental quality and energy performance of buildings are becoming more and more important in the design and construction of low energy, passive and zero energy buildings. At the same time, improved insulation and air tightness have the potential to resulting in a deterioration of the ...

  13. Optimizing Energy Consumption in Building Designs Using Building Information Model (BIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egwunatum Samuel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the ability of a Building Information Model (BIM to serve as a multi-disciplinary data repository, this paper seeks to explore and exploit the sustainability value of Building Information Modelling/models in delivering buildings that require less energy for their operation, emit less CO2 and at the same time provide a comfortable living environment for their occupants. This objective was achieved by a critical and extensive review of the literature covering: (1 building energy consumption, (2 building energy performance and analysis, and (3 building information modeling and energy assessment. The literature cited in this paper showed that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helped project design teams to predict and create optimized energy consumption. To validate this finding, an in-depth analysis was carried out on a completed BIM integrated construction project using the Arboleda Project in the Dominican Republic. The findings showed that the BIM-based energy analysis helped the design team achieve the world’s first 103% positive energy building. From the research findings, the paper concludes that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helps to expedite the energy analysis process, provide more detailed and accurate results as well as deliver energy-efficient buildings. The study further recommends that the adoption of a level 2 BIM and the integration of BIM in energy optimization analyse should be made compulsory for all projects irrespective of the method of procurement (government-funded or otherwise or its size.

  14. Optimizing Energy Consumption in Building Designs Using Building Information Model (BIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egwunatum, Samuel; Joseph-Akwara, Esther; Akaigwe, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Given the ability of a Building Information Model (BIM) to serve as a multi-disciplinary data repository, this paper seeks to explore and exploit the sustainability value of Building Information Modelling/models in delivering buildings that require less energy for their operation, emit less CO2 and at the same time provide a comfortable living environment for their occupants. This objective was achieved by a critical and extensive review of the literature covering: (1) building energy consumption, (2) building energy performance and analysis, and (3) building information modeling and energy assessment. The literature cited in this paper showed that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helped project design teams to predict and create optimized energy consumption. To validate this finding, an in-depth analysis was carried out on a completed BIM integrated construction project using the Arboleda Project in the Dominican Republic. The findings showed that the BIM-based energy analysis helped the design team achieve the world's first 103% positive energy building. From the research findings, the paper concludes that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helps to expedite the energy analysis process, provide more detailed and accurate results as well as deliver energy-efficient buildings. The study further recommends that the adoption of a level 2 BIM and the integration of BIM in energy optimization analyse should be made compulsory for all projects irrespective of the method of procurement (government-funded or otherwise) or its size.

  15. The perceived value of using BIM for energy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anderson M.

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is becoming an increasingly important tool in the Architectural, Engineering & Construction (AEC) industries. Some of the benefits associated with BIM include but are not limited to cost and time savings through greater trade and design coordination, and more accurate estimating take-offs. BIM is a virtual 3D, parametric design software that allows users to store information of a model within and can be used as a communication platform between project stakeholders. Likewise, energy simulation is an integral tool for predicting and optimizing a building's performance during design. Creating energy models and running energy simulations can be a time consuming activity due to the large number of parameters and assumptions that must be addressed to achieve reasonably accurate results. However, leveraging information imbedded within Building Information Models (BIMs) has the potential to increase accuracy and reduce the amount of time required to run energy simulations and can facilitate continuous energy simulations throughout the design process, thus optimizing building performance. Although some literature exists on how design stakeholders perceive the benefits associated with leveraging BIM for energy simulation, little is known about how perceptions associated with leveraging BIM for energy simulation differ between various green design stakeholder user groups. Through an e-survey instrument, this study seeks to determine how perceptions of using BIMs to inform energy simulation differ among distinct design stakeholder groups, which include BIM-only users, energy simulation-only users and BIM and energy simulation users. Additionally, this study seeks to determine what design stakeholders perceive as the main barriers and benefits of implementing BIM-based energy simulation. Results from this study suggest that little to no correlation exists between green design stakeholders' perceptions of the value associated with using

  16. The building network energy statistics 2004[Norway]; Bygningsnettverkets energistatistikk 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The energy statistics for 2004 is the 8th in a row from the building network. The report presents analysis and statistics for various building energy use and technical installations. There are 1907 building objects included in the statistics situated in 254 of the counties in the country. In all this includes 9.3 mill. square meters heated area. Out of this 2.5 % residences is mainly constituted of department buildings. The rest is non-residential buildings in total 7.6 % of the entire building mass in Norway. The total energy consumption in the selection in 2004 is approx. 2.4 TWh. The climate in Norway in 2004 was the 6th warmest since the measurements started for 138 years ago. The report includes energy gradient figures and energy use from various climatic zones. The report shows the energy consumption distributed on various building types, variations in the energy consumption depending on the type of heating system, cooling, building sizes, ages and other factors. Figures for the energy consumption related to building function are included. Approx. 60 % of the buildings is new since the last yearly report. Those that were included in the 2003 report show a reduction in the temperature corrected specific energy consumption of 4.7 % from 2003 to 2004. The oil consumption has been reduced the most. Several building types have reduced the oil consumption with 50% and the total reduction is about 11 mill. litres of oil. The reasons are partly a switch to electric heating systems and partly a general reduction of the energy consumption. The report also includes statistics regarding technical conditions in the buildings such as heating system types, energy carriers, cooling, ventilation, energy flexibility, utilization and other factors. (tk)

  17. Optimizing Existing Multistory Building Designs towards Net-Zero Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Y. AbuGrain; Halil Z. Alibaba

    2017-01-01

    Recent global developments in awareness and concerns about environmental problems have led to reconsidering built environment approaches and construction techniques. One of the alternatives is the principle of low/zero-energy buildings. This study investigates the potentials of energy savings in an existing multi-story building in the Mediterranean region in order to achieve net-zero energy as a solution to increasing fossil fuel prices. The Colored building at the Faculty of Architecture, Ea...

  18. Analysis of variables that influence electric energy consumption in commercial buildings in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.M.Q. [Technical Drawing Department, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Energy Planning Program, Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Research and Graduate Studies in Engineering - COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); La Rovere, E.L. [Energy Planning Program, Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Research and Graduate Studies in Engineering - COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Goncalves, A.C.M. [Program for Graduate Studies in Architecture, School of Architecture and Urbanism, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    Air conditioning systems in commercial buildings in Brazil are responsible for about 70% share of their energy consumption. According to BEN 2009 (The Brazilian Energy Balance), energy consumption in the residential, commercial and public sectors, where most buildings are found, represents 9.3% of the final energy consumption in Brazil. This paper aims to examine design factors that could contribute to greater reductions of electric energy consumption in commercial buildings, with emphasis on air conditioning. Simulations were carried out using shades and different types of glass, walls, flooring and roofing. The VisualDOE 2.61 was used as a simulation tool for calculating energy consumption of the analyzed building. This paper shows that the energy performance of the building is considerably influenced by the facade protection and shows, through tables, the impact that decisions related to the top-level and facades have on the energy consumption of the building. The authors concluded that the results confirm the importance of taking energy use into account in the very first design stages of the project, since appropriate choices of types of glass, external shading and envelope materials have a significant impact on energy consumption. (author)

  19. The Influence of Energy Targets and Economic Concerns in Design Strategies for a Residential Nearly-Zero Energy Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Marie Barthelmes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Finding cost-optimal solutions towards nearly-zero energy buildings in accordance with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD is a challenging task. In order to reach the 20-20-20 targets, EU energy policy has introduced new ambitious levels for the large-scale spread of nearly-zero energy buildings (nZEBs and the concept of the cost-optimal level, defined as the energy performance level, which leads to the lowest cost during the estimated economic lifecycle of the building. Consequently, building design has begun a challenge involving both energy targets and economic concerns. The aim of this research is to analyze an example building of a new single family house, using the cost-optimal methodology, in order to define how energy and economic aspects influence the preliminary design phase of the project and, in particular, the choice of the performance features of some components of the project itself, such as envelope elements and systems. The impact on energy performances of different configurations for the building envelope and heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems was assessed with the dynamic simulation software EnergyPlus. Finally, the costs of the different design scenarios were estimated, according to the European Standard EN 15459:2007 to establish which of them had the lowest global cost and, consequently, represents the cost-optimal level for the design configurations analyzed. In order to test the stability of the results obtained, different sensitivity analyses were carried out.

  20. The Role of Energy Storage in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.; Finley, C.; Koritarov, V. S.; Molburg, J. C.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Fuli; Brackney, L.; Florita, A. R.

    2010-09-30

    Motivation and Background of Study This project was motivated by the need to understand the full value of energy storage (thermal and electric energy storage) in commercial buildings, the opportunity of benefits for building operations and the potential interactions between a building and a smart grid infrastructure. On-site or local energy storage systems are not new to the commercial building sector; they have been in place in US buildings for decades. Most building-scale storage technologies are based on thermal or electrochemical storage mechanisms. Energy storage technologies are not designed to conserve energy, and losses associated with energy conversion are inevitable. Instead, storage provides flexibility to manage load in a building or to balance load and generation in the power grid. From the building owner's perspective, storage enables load shifting to optimize energy costs while maintaining comfort. From a grid operations perspective, building storage at scale could provide additional flexibility to grid operators in managing the generation variability from intermittent renewable energy resources (wind and solar). To characterize the set of benefits, technical opportunities and challenges, and potential economic values of storage in a commercial building from both the building operation's and the grid operation's view-points is the key point of this project. The research effort was initiated in early 2010 involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify these opportunities from a commercial buildings perspective. This report summarizes the early discussions, literature reviews, stakeholder engagements, and initial results of analyses related to the overall role of energy storage in commercial buildings. Beyond the summary of roughly eight months of effort by the laboratories, the report attempts to substantiate the importance of

  1. Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Shi, Qing

    2014-03-20

    China will account for about half of the new construction globally in the coming decade. Its floorspace doubled from 1996 to 2011, and Chinese rural buildings alone have as much floorspace as all of U.S. residential buildings. Building energy consumption has also grown, increasing by over 40% since 1990. To curb building energy demand, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and programs. Combined, this growth in buildings and renovations, along with the policies to promote green buildings, are creating a large market for energy efficiency products and services. This report assesses the impact of China’s policies on building energy efficiency and on the market for energy efficiency in the future. The first chapter of this report introduces the trends in China, drawing on both historical analysis, and detailed modeling of the drivers behind changes in floorspace and building energy demand such as economic and population growth, urbanization, policy. The analysis describes the trends by region, building type and energy service. The second chapter discusses China’s policies to promote green buildings. China began developing building energy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China’s cities, and they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China’s markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to LEED), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings. In the third chapter, we take “deep dives” into the trends affecting key building components

  2. IFC HVAC interface to EnergyPlus - A case of expanded interoperability for energy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir; Maile, Tobias

    2004-03-29

    Tedious manual input of data that define a building, its systems and its expected pattern of use and operating schedules for building energy performance simulation has in the past diverted time and resources from productive simulation runs. In addition to its previously released IFCtoIDF utility that semiautomates the import of building geometry, the new IFC HVAC interface to EnergyPlus (released at the end of 2003) makes it possible to import and export most of the data that define HVAC equipment and systems in a building directly from and to other IFC compatible software tools. This reduces the manual input of other data needed for successful simulation with EnergyPlus to a minimum. The main purpose of this new interface is to enable import of HVAC equipment and systems definitions, generated by other IFC compatible software tools (such as HVAC systems design tools) and data bases, into EnergyPlus, and to write such definitions contained in EnergyPlus input files to the original IFC files from which building geometry was extracted for the particular EnergyPlus input. In addition, this interface sets an example for developers of other software tools how to import and/or export data other than building geometry from and/or into EnergyPlus. This paper describes the necessary simplifications and shortcuts incorporated in this interface, its operating environment, interface architecture, and the basic conditions and methodology for its use with EnergyPlus.

  3. 75 FR 54117 - Building Energy Standards Program: Preliminary Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... energy consumption of buildings built to Standard 90.1-2007, as compared with buildings built to Standard... building energy consumption. Additionally, DOE has preliminarily determined site energy savings are...] [FR Doc No: 2010-22060] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [Docket No. EERE-2006-BC-0132] RIN 1904-AC18......

  4. 1994 Building energy codes and standards workshops: Summary and documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    During the spring of 1994, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, conducted five two-day Regional Building Energy Codes and Standards workshops across the United States. Workshops were held in Chicago, Philadelphia, Atlanta, Dallas, and Denver. The workshops were designed to benefit state-level officials including staff of building code commissions, energy offices, public utility commissions, and others involved with adopting/updating, implementing, and enforcing state building codes in their states. The workshops provided an opportunity for state and other officials to learn more about the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requirements for residential and commercial building energy codes, the Climate Change Action Plan, the role of the U.S. Department of Energy and the Building Energy Standards Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, the commercial and residential codes and standards, the Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS), Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEM), training issues, and other topics related to the development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement of building energy codes. In addition to receiving information on the above topics, workshop participants were also encouraged to inform DOE of their needs, particularly with regard to implementing building energy codes, enhancing current implementation efforts, and building on training efforts already in place. This paper documents the workshop findings and workshop planning and follow-up processes.

  5. The impact of clerestory lights on energy efficiency of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đenadić Dalibor M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The buildings are among major energy consumers, whose energy efficiency is rather low. Clerestory windows are responsible for a large portion of energy losses from the buildings. The energy efficiency of buildings can greatly be improved by upgrading clerestory and other windows. This paper focuses on the theoretical and experimental investigations on how this can be performed in an old school building in the town of Bor in eastern part of Serbia. For that purpose a modern measuring technique has been applied to identify the existing status, and to compare theoretical and actual conditions.

  6. Zero Energy Buildings: A Critical Look at the Definition; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Deru, M.; Crawley, D.

    2006-06-01

    A net zero-energy building (ZEB) is a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs through efficiency gains such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable technologies. Despite the excitement over the phrase ''zero energy'', we lack a common definition, or even a common understanding, of what it means. In this paper, we use a sample of current generation low-energy buildings to explore the concept of zero energy: what it means, why a clear and measurable definition is needed, and how we have progressed toward the ZEB goal.

  7. 4th international conference in sustainability in energy and buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Höjer, Mattias; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings, SEB12, held in Stockholm, Sweden, and is organised by KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden in partnership with KES International. The International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings focuses on a broad range of topics relating to sustainability in buildings but also encompassing energy sustainability more widely. Following the success of earlier events in the series, the 2012 conference includes the themes Sustainability, Energy, and Buildings and Information and Communication Technology, ICT. The SEB’12 proceedings includes invited participation and paper submissions across a broad range of renewable energy and sustainability-related topics relevant to the main theme of Sustainability in Energy and Buildings. Applicable areas include technology for renewable energy and sustainability in the built environment, optimisation and modeling techniques, informati...

  8. Energy management handbook for building operating engineers student workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The handbook provides operating engineers with the basic information needed to implement specific energy conservation opportunities, and additional information is presented relative to the formulation and development of the energy management plan. Chapters are entitled: The Need for Energy Management (International Factors, The US Energy Situation, Energy and the Building Owner); The Fundamentals of Energy Consumption in Buildings (Energy Basics, Heat Basics, Heat Flow and the Building Envelope, Air and Comfort, Factors Affecting Energy Use In Buildings); Principles of Energy Conservation (Building Energy Consumption Characteristics); Planning the Energy Management Program (Obtaining Commitment and Support, Establishing the Energy Use Index, Organizing to Develop the Plan, Developing and Implementing the Plan); Conducting a Survey of Facilities and Operations (The Energy Audit, Preparation of Building and Systems Profile, Measurement and Instrumentation); Guidelines for Energy Conservation (Operator ECO's, Owner ECO'S); Developing the Draft Final Plan (Analyze Survey Findings, Putting the Plan on Paper, Review and Submit); Implementing the Program (Developing the Final Plan, Implementing the Plan, Monitoring and Updating the Program). A glossary is included and specific information on degree days and cooling hours for some selected cities and a computer energy study data for the New York Hilton are included in appendices. (MCW)

  9. North European Understanding of Zero Energy/Emission Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Nieminen, Jyri;

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide CO2 emission mitigation efforts, the growing energy resource shortage and the fact that buildings are responsible for a large share of the world’s primary energy use drives research towards new building concepts, in particular Zero Energy/Emission Buildings (ZEBs). Unfortunately...... may observe a correlation between the zero energy/emission building approach adopted by a country and this particular country’s utility grid characteristics. Moreover, it is to be noted that the ZEB concept is not well defined at the national level in northern Europe and that all of the participating...... countries are still to adopt a national definition for these types of buildings. This results often in more than one understanding of ZEBs in each country. This study provides a concise source of information on the north European understanding of zero energy/emission buildings. It puts forward a number...

  10. A Study on the LEED Energy Simulation Process Using BIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Soo Ryu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the domestic and international environmentally friendly certification system, energy-related credit occupies a high ratio in the total distribution of certification score Leadership in the Energy and Environmental Design (LEED system is a certification system developed by the US Green Building Council (USGBC in order to assess the environmental friendliness of buildings. The energy-related credit is approximately 30% of the total and also the energy simulation ratio specifically is the highest among the single credits as it is 20%. In this research, the energy simulation process using Building Information Modeling (BIM based on the energy simulation case performed at the A-Tower, LEED certification was proposed. It places an emphasis on the verification process which was short in the previous research. The architectural geometry modeled through the BIM tool is converted to the gbXML, and in this process the geometry is verified through the interference check functions, the gbXML Viewer and the FZKViewer. The energy simulation is performed after the verification procedure. The geometry verification process in the A-Tower project is presented throughout this paper. In conclusion, an improved process is proposed for the productivity and reliability of energy simulation.

  11. An Investigation of Envelope Situation and Simulation of Heating/Cooling Energy Consumption for Rural Residential Buildings in Shanghai%上海农村住宅围护结构现状调查与供暖空调能耗模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雨林; 林忠平; 王晓梅

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, based on the building envelope investigation results of 108 rural residential houses in Shanghai, the comparison work with the national standard of Hot Summer and Cold Winter Region Residential Building Design Standard was carried out. The envelope thermal performance of current rural residential buildings was obtained. Based on the investigation results and with the building energy simulation software of DesignBuilder, a basic model for Shanghai rural residential buildings was established.Furthermore, the heating and cooling energy consumption was simulated, and the energy consumption level was achieved. In addition, the importance of energy conservation of rural residential buildings was presented.%本文基于对108户上海农村住宅围护结构的实际调查结果,通过与(JGJ 134-2001)进行比较,分析得到了上海农村住宅围护结构的热工现状.而后以调查分析结果为基础,采用逐时能耗分析软件DesignBuilder建立了上海农村住宅的基本模型,通过对基本模型进行全年能耗模拟,获得了上海农村住宅的供暖空调能耗水平,并简要分析了农村住宅节能的重要性.

  12. Training program for energy conservation in new-building construction. Volume II. Energy conservation technology: for the building inspector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    A Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. This training manual contains the basic information necessary to acquaint the field building inspector with the concepts of energy conservation in buildings and instructs him in the basic techniques of field inspection of energy compliance.

  13. Microencapsulated Phase Change Composite Materials for Energy Efficient Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Alexander

    This study aims to elucidate how phase change material (PCM)-composite materials can be leveraged to reduce the energy consumption of buildings and to provide cost savings to ratepayers. Phase change materials (PCMs) can store thermal energy in the form of latent heat when subjected to temperatures exceeding their melting point by undergoing a phase transition from solid to liquid state. Reversibly, PCMs can release this thermal energy when the system temperature falls below their solidification point. The goal in implementing composite PCM walls is to significantly reduce and time-shift the maximum thermal load on the building in order to reduce and smooth out the electricity demand for heating and cooling. This Ph.D. thesis aims to develop a set of thermal design methods and tools for exploring the use of PCM-composite building envelopes and for providing design rules for their practical implementation. First, detailed numerical simulations were used to show that the effective thermal conductivity of core-shell-matrix composites depended only on the volume fraction and thermal conductivity of the constituent materials. The effective medium approximation reported by Felske (2004) was in very good agreement with numerical predictions of the effective thermal conductivity. Second, a carefully validated transient thermal model was used to simulate microencapsulated PCM-composite walls subjected to diurnal or annual outdoor temperature and solar radiation flux. It was established that adding microencapsulated PCM to concrete walls both substantially reduced and delayed the thermal load on the building. Several design rules were established, most notably, (i) increasing the volume fraction of microencapsulated PCM within the wall increases the energy savings but at the potential expense of mechanical properties [1], (ii) the phase change temperature leading to the maximum energy and cost savings should equal the desired indoor temperature regardless of the climate

  14. Simulation Technology Laboratory Building 970 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.L.; Starr, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Simulation Technology Laboratory, Building 970. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 and Early Severe Health Effects thresholds are 78 and 46 meters, respectively. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 100 meters.

  15. Building Green: The Adoption Process of LEED- and Energy Star-Rated Office Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkani, Arvin P.

    2012-01-01

    There are opportunities for green building technology in office buildings to produce energy savings and cost efficiencies that can produce a positive economic and environmental impact. In order for these opportunities to be realized, however, decision makers must appreciate the value of green building technology. The objective of this research is…

  16. Using Dashboards to Improve Energy and Comfort in Federal Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Marini, Kyle; Ghatikar, Girish; Diamond, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Federal agencies are taking many steps to improve the sustainability of their operations, including improving the energy efficiency of their buildings, promoting recycling and reuse of materials, encouraging carpooling and alternative transit schemes, and installing low flow water fixture units are just a few of the common examples. However, an often overlooked means of energy savings is to provide feedback to building users about their energy use through information dashboards connected to a building?s energy information system. An Energy Information System (EIS), broadly defined, is a package of performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems that is used to collect, store, analyze, and display energy information. At a minimum, the EIS provides the whole-building energy-use information (Granderson 2009a). We define a ?dashboard? as a display and visualization tool that utilizes the EIS data and technology to provide critical information to users. This information can lead to actions resulting in energy savings, comfort improvements, efficient operations, and more. The tools to report analyzed information have existed in the information technology as business intelligence (Few 2006). The dashboard is distinguished from the EIS as a whole, which includes additional hardware and software components to collect and storage data, and analysis for resources and energy management (Granderson 2009b). EIS can be used for a variety of uses, including benchmarking, base-lining, anomaly detection, off-hours energy use evaluation, load shape optimization, energy rate analysis, retrofit and retro-commissioning savings (Granderson 2009a). The use of these EIS features depends on the specific users. For example, federal and other building managers may use anomaly detection to identify energy waste in a specific building, or to benchmark energy use in similar buildings to identify energy saving potential and reduce operational cost. There are

  17. Building simulations supporting decision making in early design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    framework that facilitates proactive, intelligent, and experience based building simulation which aid decision making in early design. To find software candidates accommodating this framework, we compare existing software with regard to intended usage, interoperability, complexity, objectives, and ability...

  18. Geometry model construction in infrared image theory simulation of buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢鸣; 李玉秀; 徐辉; 谈和平

    2004-01-01

    Geometric model construction is the basis of infrared image theory simulation. Taking the construction of the geometric model of one building in Harbin as an example, this paper analyzes the theoretical groundings of simplification and principles of geometric model construction of buildings. It then discusses some particular treatment methods in calculating the radiation transfer coefficient in geometric model construction using the Monte Carlo Method.

  19. Application Of Sustainable Design Principles To Increase Energy Efficiency Of Existing Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoury B.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of different energy retrofitting techniques and examines the impact of employing those methods on energy consumption of existing residential buildings. Based on the research findings, the most effective and practical method of retrofitting has been proposed in order to improve energy efficiency of existing buildings. In order to achieve this goal, an existing residential building has been simulated in FirstRate 5 software so as to determine the existing thermal performance of the building. Afterwards, considering sustainable design principles, different insulation layers, glazing, and construction materials have been employed to conduct a comprehensive thermal performance study. Based on the research outcomes, the best technique for increasing energy efficiency of existing buildings and reducing their environmental impact and footprint has been identified and proposed for practical purposes.

  20. Intelligent Controls for Net-Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haorong; Cho, Yong; Peng, Dongming

    2011-10-30

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate enabling technologies that can empower homeowners to convert their homes into net-zero energy buildings in a cost-effective manner. The project objectives and expected outcomes are as follows: • To develop rapid and scalable building information collection and modeling technologies that can obtain and process “as-built” building information in an automated or semiautomated manner. • To identify low-cost measurements and develop low-cost virtual sensors that can monitor building operations in a plug-n-play and low-cost manner. • To integrate and demonstrate low-cost building information modeling (BIM) technologies. • To develop decision support tools which can empower building owners to perform energy auditing and retrofit analysis. • To develop and demonstrate low-cost automated diagnostics and optimal control technologies which can improve building energy efficiency in a continual manner.

  1. Implementation of Models for Building Envelope Air Flow Fields in a Whole Building Hygrothermal Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Grau, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Simulation tools are becoming available which predict the heat and moisture conditions in the indoor environment as well as in the envelope of buildings, and thus it has become possible to consider the important interaction between the different components of buildings and the different physical...... phenomena which occur. However, there is still room for further development of such tools. This paper will present an attempt to integrate modelling of air flows in building envelopes into a whole building hygrothermal simulation tool. Two kinds of air flows have been considered: 1. Air flow in ventilated...... cavity such as in the exterior cladding of building envelopes, i.e. a flow which is parallel to the construction plane. 2. Infiltration/exfiltration of air through the building envelope, i.e. a flow which is perpendicular to the construction plane. The new models make it possible to predict the thermal...

  2. "Watts per person" paradigm to design net zero energy buildings: Examining technology interventions and integrating occupant feedback to reduce plug loads in a commercial building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi Kim, Mika

    As building envelopes have improved due to more restrictive energy codes, internal loads have increased largely due to the proliferation of computers, electronics, appliances, imaging and audio visual equipment that continues to grow in commercial buildings. As the dependency on the internet for information and data transfer increases, the electricity demand will pose a challenge to design and operate Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Plug Loads (PLs) as a proportion of the building load has become the largest non-regulated building energy load and represents the third highest electricity end-use in California's commercial office buildings, accounting for 23% of the total building electricity consumption (Ecova 2011,2). In the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO2008), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that presents long-term projections of energy supply and demand through 2030 states that office equipment and personal computers are the "fastest growing electrical end uses" in the commercial sector. This thesis entitled "Watts Per Person" Paradigm to Design Net Zero Energy Buildings, measures the implementation of advanced controls and behavioral interventions to study the reduction of PL energy use in the commercial sector. By integrating real world data extracted from an energy efficient commercial building of its energy use, the results produce a new methodology on estimating PL energy use by calculating based on "Watts Per Person" and analyzes computational simulation methods to design NZEBs.

  3. Reducing the operational energy demand in buildings using building information modeling tools and sustainability approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Valinejad Shoubi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable building is constructed of materials that could decrease environmental impacts, such as energy usage, during the lifecycle of the building. Building Information Modeling (BIM has been identified as an effective tool for building performance analysis virtually in the design stage. The main aims of this study were to assess various combinations of materials using BIM and identify alternative, sustainable solutions to reduce operational energy consumption. The amount of energy consumed by a double story bungalow house in Johor, Malaysia, and assessments of alternative material configurations to determine the best energy performance were evaluated by using Revit Architecture 2012 and Autodesk Ecotect Analysis software to show which of the materials helped in reducing the operational energy use of the building to the greatest extent throughout its annual life cycle. At the end, some alternative, sustainable designs in terms of energy savings have been suggested.

  4. An analysis of buildings-related energy use in manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niefer, M.J.; Ashton, W.B.

    1997-04-01

    This report presents research by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop improved estimates of buildings-related energy use in US manufacturing facilities. The research was supported by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The research scope includes only space conditioning and lighting end uses. In addition, this study also estimates the energy savings potential for application of selected commercial buildings technologies being developed by the BTS office to manufacturing and other industrial process facilities. 17 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Scout: An Impact Analysis Tool for Building Energy-Efficiency Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Chioke; Langevin, Jared; Roth, Amir; Phelan, Patrick; Parker, Andrew; Ball, Brian; Brackney, Larry

    2016-08-26

    Evaluating the national impacts of candidate U.S. building energy-efficiency technologies has historically been difficult for organizations with large energy efficiency portfolios. In particular, normalizing results from technology-specific impact studies is time-consuming when those studies do not use comparable assumptions about the underlying building stock. To equitably evaluate its technology research, development, and deployment portfolio, the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Office has developed Scout, a software tool that quantitatively assesses the energy and CO2 impacts of building energy-efficiency measures on the national building stock. Scout efficiency measures improve upon the unit performance and/or lifetime operational costs of an equipment stock baseline that is determined from the U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook (AEO). Scout measures are characterized by a market entry and exit year, unit performance level, cost, and lifetime. To evaluate measures on a consistent basis, Scout uses EnergyPlus simulation on prototype building models to translate measure performance specifications to whole-building energy savings; these savings impacts are then extended to a national scale using floor area weighting factors. Scout represents evolution in the building stock over time using AEO projections for new construction, retrofit, and equipment replacements, and competes technologies within market segments under multiple adoption scenarios. Scout and its efficiency measures are open-source, as is the EnergyPlus whole building simulation framework that is used to evaluate measure performance. The program is currently under active development and will be formally released once an initial set of measures has been analyzed and reviewed.

  6. Integration of solar energy in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K.; Lund, P.; Mennola, T.; Vartiainen, E. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.; Rasinkoski, A.; Spiers, D.; Eenilae, P. [Neste Advanced Power Systems (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    New photovoltaic building elements were developed and the uses of various solar technologies in buildings were optimised with computational design tools. The novel amorphous silicon photovoltaic elements allow for economic integration of photovoltaics in large facades. The cost of grid-connected systems may be reduced by approximately 20 % through the advanced design approaches developed. (orig.)

  7. Implementation of Models for Building Envelope Air Flow Fields in a Whole Building Hygrothermal Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karl Grau; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Simulation tools are becoming available which predict the heat and moisture conditions in the indoor environment as well as in the envelope of buildings, and thus it has become possible to consider the important interaction between the different components of buildings and the different physical ...

  8. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  9. 76 FR 56413 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... analysis using an appropriate building energy estimation tool. DOE intends to use the EnergyPlus \\3...-revision codes, two prototype buildings would be analyzed--one that exactly complies with the pre-revision... in the following sections. \\4\\ ``Exactly complies'' means that the prototype complies with...

  10. Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-Recovery Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargeter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Building owners are caught between two powerful forces--the need to lower energy costs and the need to meet or exceed outdoor air ventilation regulations for occupant health and comfort. Large amounts of energy are wasted each day from commercial, institutional, and government building sites as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)…

  11. Energy use and environmental impact of new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalberth, Karin

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the energy use and environmental impact of residential buildings. Seven authentic buildings built in the 1990s in Sweden are investigated. They are analysed according to energy use and environmental impact during their life cycle: manufacture of building materials, transport of building materials and components to the building site, erection to a building, occupancy, maintenance and renovation, and finally demolition and removal of debris. Results show that approx. 85 % of the total estimated energy use during the life cycle is used during the occupation phase. The energy used to manufacture building and installation materials constitutes approx. 15 % of the total energy use. 70-90 % of the total environmental impact arises during the occupation phase, while the manufacture of construction and installation materials constitutes 10-20 %. In conclusion, the energy use and environmental impact during the occupation phase make up a majority of the total. At the end of the thesis, a tool is presented which helps designers and clients predict the energy use during the occupation phase for a future multi-family building before any constructional or installation drawings are made. In this way, different thermal properties may be elaborated in order to receive an energy-efficient and environmentally adapted dwelling.

  12. Low-energy buildings on mainstream market terms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks into the challenge of actually implementing energy efficient technologies and concepts in mainstream new build. The aim of the paper is to point out some of the provisos of promoting low-energy buildings on mainstream market terms, emphasising the need to understand forces working...

  13. Analysis of Different Methods for Computing Source Energy in the Context of Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A.; Bonnema, Eric; Goldwasser, David; Pless, Shanti

    2016-08-26

    Building energy consumption can only be measured at the site or at the point of utility interconnection with a building. Often, to evaluate the total energy impact, this site-based energy consumption is translated into source energy, that is, the energy at the point of fuel extraction. Consistent with this approach, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) definition of zero energy buildings uses source energy as the metric to account for energy losses from the extraction, transformation, and delivery of energy. Other organizations, as well, use source energy to characterize the energy impacts. Four methods of making the conversion from site energy to source energy were investigated in the context of the DOE definition of zero energy buildings. These methods were evaluated based on three guiding principles--improve energy efficiency, reduce and stabilize power demand, and use power from nonrenewable energy sources as efficiently as possible. This study examines relative trends between strategies as they are implemented on very low-energy buildings to achieve zero energy. A typical office building was modeled and variations to this model performed. The photovoltaic output that was required to create a zero energy building was calculated. Trends were examined with these variations to study the impacts of the calculation method on the building's ability to achieve zero energy status. The paper will highlight the different methods and give conclusions on the advantages and disadvantages of the methods studied.

  14. EPA's Energy Star Buildings Provides a Road Map to Energy Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneiri, Michele

    1997-01-01

    Several colleges and universities participate in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Energy Star Buildings program, in which institutions commit to improving their buildings' energy efficiency and reducing energy costs. All participants must also be a Green Lights Program participant or agree to specific building-wide lighting upgrades. The…

  15. The relation between indoor environnemental quality (IEQ and energy consumption in building based on occupant behavior - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi Iman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ is an important topic which impacts on occupant health, productivity and also energy consumption in buildings. The four main parameters for IEQ evaluation are: Thermal comfort, indoor air quality, visual comfort and aural comfort. The occupant behavior in buildings defines as any direct or indirect act which an occupant selects to change the displeasure environmental condition into the comfort conditions. The selected behavior by human has a significant impact on the energy consumption in buildings. This paper reviews the methods which used to simulate IEQ parameters, energy consumption and human behavior in buildings. It aims to promote the idea of more consideration about the relation between occupant behavior and energy usage in buildings. This summary of existing studies about the importance of human behavior factor in energy simulation software helps to identify new methods and strategies for simulating IEQ, Energy and behavior.

  16. Using the Beopt Automated Residential Simulation Test Suite to Enable Comparative Analysis Between Energy Simulation Engines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares-Velasco, Paulo Cesar [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Verification and validation are crucial software quality control procedures to follow when developing and implementing models. This is particularly important because a variety of stakeholders rely on accurate predictions from building simulation programs. This study uses the BEopt Automated Residential Simulation Test Suite (BARTS) to facilitate comparison of two energy simulation engines across various building components and includes building models that isolate the impacts of specific components on annual energy consumption. As a case study, BARTS has been used to identify important discrepancies between the engines for several components of the building models. These discrepancies are caused by differences in the algorithms used by the engines or coding errors.

  17. Using the BEopt Automated Residential Simulation Test Suite to Enable Comparative Analysis Between Energy Simulation Engines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Maguire, J.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.

    2014-09-01

    Verification and validation are crucial software quality control procedures when developing and implementing models. This is particularly important as a variety of stakeholders rely on accurate predictions from building simulation programs. This study uses the BEopt Automated Residential Simulation Test Suite (BARTS) to facilitate comparison of two energy simulation engines across various building components and includes models that isolate the impacts of specific building components on annual energy consumption. As a case study, BARTS has been used to identify important discrepancies between the engines for several components of the building models; these discrepancies are caused by differences in the models used by the engines or coding errors.

  18. Energy Management System Audit and Implementation in Educational Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the high energy consumption of educational buildings in available study; it is conducted to estimate the energy consumption at the Faculty of Humanities (Building No. 2, Science and Research Campus (SRC of the Islamic Azad University (IAU, Tehran, Iran. Auditing and implementing the energy management system in the implied building, efforts are finally made to propose managerial solutions towards reducing energy consumption in this building. After gathering data of the building, including quantity of energy consumption in a one-year period of study in 2005 and the energy consumption equipment in the building followed by a detailed data analysis, the overall energy consumption tendency is investigated in the building. As a result, it is found that the lightening system and electric motors of central heating system consumed the highest level of electricity energy and the highest thermal energy consumption due to boilers. By more analysis of the entire data, solutions are suggested for reducing the energy consumption used in lightening, central heating and cooling systems and boilers. A review of all the practical solutions for improving the systems available in the building showed that regarding the energy management matrix, the energy management system in the building stood at zero point, because the building lacked any operating unit under the title of 'Energy Management' which could monitor energy consumption at the university. Therefore, it is concluded that the energy efficiency in the building may be optimized to a certain extent by presenting a system for energy data collection, analysis and systematic implementation as well as a system for collection of basic information about energy-consuming equipment by means of measurement instruments. By providing this system, procedures are presented for optimizing energy consumption and saving in the building, while a management system and a complete information system are created at the

  19. Building Energy Audit Report, for Hickam AFB, HI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Brown, Daryl R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-09-30

    A building energy assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at Hickam AFB, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This documents reports the results of that assessment.

  20. Tweeting : Smart meters raise awareness of energy consumption in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-11-15

    The University of Mississippi (UM) will monitor, analyze and report on energy consumption in its campus buildings in real-time using SmartSynch Smart Meters. The technology uses smart meter data to help identify a detailed pattern of electricity usage with the objective of finding methods to alter behaviour to reduce electricity usage and carbon emissions. SmartSynch installed 16 Smart Meters on campus with additional deployments being planned. The technology will enable the university to monitor energy consumption, track building power performance over time, compare building energy usage, and review the impact of the weather on energy use while reducing its carbon footprint. Additionally, UM will use Facebook, Twitter and an RSS feed to provide regular public updates on its buildings' energy consumption based on SmartSynch Smart Meter data. Each building will have its own profile on the social networking sites. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  1. Solar Energy Windows and Smart IR Switchable Building Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarny, James; Kornish, Brian

    2011-09-30

    The three building envelope functions with the largest impact on the energy usage are illumination, energy flux and energy production. In general, these three functions are addressed separately in the building design. A step change toward a zero-energy building can be achieved with a glazing system that combines these three functions and their control into a single unit. In particular, significant value could be realized if illumination into the building is dynamically controlled such that it occurs during periods of low load on the grid (e.g., morning) to augment illumination supplied by interior lights and then to have that same light diverted to PV energy production and the thermal energy rejected during periods of high load on the grid. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of a glazing unit design that integrates these three key functions (illumination and energy flux control, and power production) into a single module.

  2. Energy-efficient buildings: Does the marketplace work?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    For a variety of reasons, U.S. households, businesses, manufacturers, and government agencies all fail to take full advantage of cost-effective, energy-efficiency opportunities. Despite a growing environmental ethic among Americans and a concern for energy independence, consumers in this country are underinvesting in technologies, products, and practices that would cut their energy bills. The result is a large untapped potential for improving energy productivity, economic competitiveness, environmental quality, and energy security. The thesis of this paper is that the marketplace for energy efficiency, in general, is not operating perfectly, and the marketplace for energy-efficient buildings, in particular, is flawed. The reasons for underinvestments in cost-effective, energy efficiency are numerous and complicated. They also vary from sector to sector: the principal causes of energy inefficiencies in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation are not the same as the causes of inefficiencies in homes and office buildings, although there are some similarities. One of the reasons for these differences is that the structure of marketplace for delivering new technologies and products in each sector differs. Energy-efficiency improvements in the buildings sector is critical to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, since most of the energy consumed in buildings comes from the burning of fossil fuels. This paper therefore begins by describing energy use and energy trends in the U.S. buildings sector. Characteristics of the marketplace for delivering energy efficiency technologies and products are then described in detail, arguing that this marketplace structure significantly inhibits rapid efficiency improvements.

  3. Integrated thermal simulation of buildings and regenerative evaporative coolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, P.G.; Mathews, E.H.; Grobler, L.J. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Centre for Experimental and Numerical Thermoflow)

    1994-01-01

    The thermal environment inside a building, fitted with a regenerative evaporative cooler, is influenced by the performance of the cooler. However, this performance is again influenced by the indoor air conditions. It means that the thermal performance of the building and the performance of the cooler cannot be separated. This paper proposes an innovative model for simulating the integrated thermal performance of buildings and regenerative evaporative coolers. The cooler model employs a standard single equation to characterize the performance of a cooler. Only the coefficients of this equation differs for different coolers. These coefficients are found from empirical performance data available from suppliers. The model was integrated with a comprehensive building thermal analysis program and verified successfully. This model now enables the designer to simulate any regenerative evaporative cooler connected to any building in any climatic region. The control strategy best suited for different off-design conditions can now also be investigated. (Author)

  4. Simulation of probabilistic wind loads and building analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1991-01-01

    Probabilistic wind loads likely to occur on a structure during its design life are predicted. Described here is a suitable multifactor interactive equation (MFIE) model and its use in the Composite Load Spectra (CLS) computer program to simulate the wind pressure cumulative distribution functions on four sides of a building. The simulated probabilistic wind pressure load was applied to a building frame, and cumulative distribution functions of sway displacements and reliability against overturning were obtained using NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structure Under Stress), a stochastic finite element computer code. The geometry of the building and the properties of building members were also considered as random in the NESSUS analysis. The uncertainties of wind pressure, building geometry, and member section property were qualified in terms of their respective sensitivities on the structural response.

  5. Simulation Tests in Whole Building Heat and Moisture Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Woloszyn, Monika

    2006-01-01

    An important part of the International Energy Agency project, ECBCS, Annex 41 is about modelling the integral heat, air and moisture transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings”. Such modelling deals with all most relevant elements of buildings: The indoor air, the building envelope, t...

  6. Success factors of energy performance contracting (EPC) for sustainable building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Pengpeng, E-mail: xupp.cn@gmail.com [Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chan, Edwin Hon-Wan; Queena Kun Qian [Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2011-11-15

    Hotel building is a type of high-energy-consuming building and most existing hotel buildings need energy efficiency improvement in China. Energy performance contracting (EPC) is considered a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) project. However, EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently and many EPCs have not been successful in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. This research aims to develop a set of critical success factors (CSFs) of EPC for sustainable energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China. Semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with practitioners and other professionals were conducted. The findings reveal the relative importance of the 21 number of identified success factors. In order to explore the underlying relationship among the identified critical success factors (CSFs), factor analysis method was adopted for further investigation, which leads to grouping the 21 identified CSFs into six clusters. These are (1) project organization process, (2) EPC project financing for hotel retrofit, (3) knowledge and innovation of EPC, sustainable development (SD), and M and V, (4) implementation of sustainable development strategy, (5) contractual arrangement, and (6) external economic environment. Finally, several relevant policies were proposed to implement EPC successfully in sustainable BEER in hotel buildings. - Highlights: > EPC is a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit project. > CSFs of EPC mechanism for sustainable BEER of hotel building in China are examined. > Six clusters are extracted from 21 identified CSFs based on factor analysis.

  7. Energy conservation in developing countries using green building idea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Akram; Mansoor Qureshi, Ijaz

    2013-06-01

    Green buildings uses processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle. In these buildings Certain energy conservative and environment friendly steps are considered and implemented from design, construction, operation, maintenance and renovation. In present era no doubt new technologies are constantly constructed and used in creating greener structures, energy efficient buildings. The common objective is to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health using available energy efficiently. To increase the efficiency of the System or the building, Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomasscan significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building. Any how power generation using renewable sources that is Solar system may further enhance energy conservation ideas. Power Factor improvement can also be another source of efficient tool for efficient use of Electrical Energy in green buildings. In developing countries a significant amount of Electrical Energy can be conserved and System efficiency as a whole can be increased by Power Factor correction. The reverse flow of power can be locally engaged instead of creating extra stress and opposition to the existing grid lines.

  8. Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Technical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Popelka, A. [Tysak Engineering, Acton, MA (United States); Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V. [Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to characterize the economic energy efficiency potential and investment requirements for space heating and hot water provided by district heat in the stock of state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The assessment involves three activities. The first is a survey of state and municipal institutions to characterize the stock of institutional buildings. The second is to develop an estimate of the cost-effective efficiency potential. The third is to estimate the investment requirements to acquire the efficiency resource. Institutional buildings are defined as nonresidential buildings owned and occupied by state and municipal organizations. General categories of institutional buildings are education, healthcare, and cultural. The characterization activity provides information about the number of buildings, building floorspace, and consumption of space heating and hot water energy provided by the district system.

  9. A Thermal Simulation Tool for Building and Its Interoperability through the Building Information Modeling (BIM Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Nicolle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes potential challenges and opportunities for using thermal simulation tools to optimize building performance. After reviewing current trends in thermal simulation, it outlines major criteria for the evaluation of building thermal simulation tools based on specifications and capabilities in interoperability. Details are discussed including workflow of data exchange of multiple thermal analyses such as the BIM-based application. The present analysis focuses on selected thermal simulation tools that provide functionalities to exchange data with other tools in order to obtain a picture of its basic work principles and to identify selection criteria for generic thermal tools in BIM. Significances and barriers to integration design with BIM and building thermal simulation tools are also discussed.

  10. Worldwide status of energy standards for buildings: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janda, K.B.; Busch, J.F.

    1993-02-01

    This informal survey was designed to gain information about the worldwide status of energy efficiency standards for buildings, particularly non-residential buildings such as offices, schools, and hotels. The project has three goals: 1. To understand and learn from the experience of countries with existing building energy standards; 2. To locate areas where these lessons might be applied and energy standards might be effectively proposed and developed; and 3. To share the information gathered with all participating countries. These appendices include the survey cover letter, the survey, and the details of selected energy standards in 35 countries, thus providing supporting material for the authors` article of the same title.

  11. Energy efficiency of buildings with phase-change materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of energy efficient buildings using innovative building materials such as phase change materials, in addition to improving indoor comfort, energy savings and costs, can be achieved by increasing their market value. Because of its ability to absorb and release energy at predictable temperatures, phase change materials are effective in controlling and maintaining the thermal environment in the building. The use of phase changing materials, materials stored latent energy storage is an effective form of heat. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36016: Experimental and theoretical investigation of frames and plates with semi-rigid connections from the view of the second order theory and stability analysis

  12. Improved energy efficiency and optimization of microclimate in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunovič Dragišić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is possible to reduce energy consumption without losing comfort as a result of using efficient energy saving technologies and advanced environment control methods for buildings. One of the measures to improve energy performance of buildings can be installation of decentralized air intake and exhaust mechanical ventilation systems with plate heat exchangers in apartments making it possible to «return» up to 85% of thermal energy. The article deals with the decentralized system controlled ventilation with heat recovery and alternative solutions heating supply air in residential buildings.

  13. Supercomputer Assisted Generation of Machine Learning Agents for the Calibration of Building Energy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Edwards, Richard [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Building Energy Modeling (BEM) is an approach to model the energy usage in buildings for design and retrot pur- poses. EnergyPlus is the agship Department of Energy software that performs BEM for dierent types of buildings. The input to EnergyPlus can often extend in the order of a few thousand parameters which have to be calibrated manu- ally by an expert for realistic energy modeling. This makes it challenging and expensive thereby making building en- ergy modeling unfeasible for smaller projects. In this paper, we describe the \\Autotune" research which employs machine learning algorithms to generate agents for the dierent kinds of standard reference buildings in the U.S. building stock. The parametric space and the variety of building locations and types make this a challenging computational problem necessitating the use of supercomputers. Millions of En- ergyPlus simulations are run on supercomputers which are subsequently used to train machine learning algorithms to generate agents. These agents, once created, can then run in a fraction of the time thereby allowing cost-eective cali- bration of building models.

  14. The comparison of the energy performance of hotel buildings using PROMETHEE decision-making method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujosevic Milica L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual energy performance of the atrium type hotel buildings in Belgrade climate conditions are analysed in this paper. The objective is to examine the impact of the atrium on the hotel building’s energy needs for space heating and cooling, thus establishing the best design among four proposed alternatives of the hotels with atrium. The energy performance results are obtained using EnergyPlus simulation engine, taking into account Belgrade climate data and thermal comfort parameters. The selected results are compared and the hotels are ranked according to certain criteria. Decision-making process that resulted in the ranking of the proposed alternatives is conducted using PROMETHEE method and Borda model. The methodological approach in this research includes the creation of a hypothetical model of an atrium type hotel building, numerical simulation of energy performances of four design alternatives of the hotel building with an atrium, comparative analysis of the obtained results and ranking of the proposed alternatives from the building’s energy performance perspective. The main task of the analysis is to examine the influence of the atrium, with both its shape and position, on the energy performance of the hotel building. Based on the results of the research it can be to determine the most energy efficient model of the hotel building with atrium for Belgrade climate condition areas. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Spatial, Environmental, Energy and Social aspects of the Developing Settlements and Climate Change - Mutual Impacts

  15. Environmentally suitable building materials. Grey energy and sustainability of buildings; Umweltgerechte Baustoffe. Graue Energie und Nachhaltigkeit von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pueschel, Danny; Teller, Matthias (eds.)

    2013-02-01

    The editors of the book under consideration present a compilation of contributions on environmentally suitable building materials from different perspectives. It provides an overview of 'Grey Energy' and a total energy balance of buildings. The most contributions are based on lectures of a symposium in April, 2011, in the Knobelsdorff School in Berlin-Spandau (Federal Republic of Germany).

  16. The influence of thermal insulation position in building exterior walls on indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption of residential buildings in Chongqing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Yu, W.; Zhao, X.; Dai, W.; Ruan, Y.

    2016-08-01

    This paper focused on the influence of using position of thermal insulation materials in exterior walls on the indoor thermal comfort and building energy consumption of residential building in Chongqing. In this study, four (4) typical residential building models in Chongqing were established, which have different usage of thermal insulation layer position in exterior walls. Indoor thermal comfort hours, cooling and heating energy consumption of each model were obtained by using a simulation tool, Energyplus. Based on the simulation data, the influence of thermal insulation position on indoor thermal comfort and building energy consumption in each season was analyzed. The results showed that building with internal insulation had the highest indoor thermal comfort hours and least cooling and heating energy consumption in summer and winter. In transitional season, the highest indoor thermal comfort hours are obtained when thermal insulation is located on the exterior side.

  17. Building thermography as a tool in energy audits and building commissioning procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Timo

    2007-04-01

    A Building Commissioning-project (ToVa) was launched in Finland in the year 2003. A comprehensive commissioning procedure, including the building process and operation stage was developed in the project. This procedure will confirm the precise documentation of client's goals, definition of planning goals and the performance of the building. It is rather usual, that within 1-2 years after introduction the users complain about the defects or performance malfunctions of the building. Thermography is one important manual tool in verifying the thermal performance of the building envelope. In this paper the results of one pilot building (a school) will be presented. In surveying the condition and energy efficiency of buildings, various auxiliary means are needed. We can compare the consumption data of the target building with other, same type of buildings by benchmarking. Energy audit helps to localize and determine the energy saving potential. The most general and also most effective auxiliary means in monitoring the thermal performance of building envelopes is an infrared camera. In this presentation some examples of the use of thermography in energy audits are presented.

  18. Passive low energy cooling of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Baruch

    1994-01-01

    A practical sourcebook for building designers, providing comprehensive discussion of the impact of basic architectural choices on cooling efficiency, including the layout and orientation of the structure, window size and shading, exterior color, and even the use of plantings around the site. All major varieties of passive cooling systems are presented, with extensive analysis of performance in different types of buildings and in different climates: ventilation; radiant cooling; evaporative cooling; soil cooling; and cooling of outdoor spaces.

  19. Energy efficient buildings : a plan for BC : creating a legacy of energy efficient buildings in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    A plan to conserve energy and improve energy efficiency in homes and buildings in British Columbia was presented. Benefits of the plan included savings for consumers throughout BC; an increase in the value of homes and buildings; a return on investment after an average of 5 years; improved comfort and indoor air quality in buildings; creation of equipment manufacturing, building design, development and trades jobs across the province; and reduced environmental impacts, including greenhouse gas (GHG) and smog-creating air emissions. An outline of cost-effective energy efficiency targets was presented to complement ongoing local, provincial and federal programs. A number of market challenges were reviewed, such as the lack of information available to consumers on energy efficiency, the increased initial cost of energy efficient buildings, and the fact that opportunities to reduce energy consumption after construction are limited and expensive. It was suggested that energy consumers are not often aware of the environmental and social costs of over-consumption of energy. Details of existing programs that support energy efficiency were presented, as well as information concerning sales tax exemptions for high efficiency heating equipment and other materials used to conserve energy. Various provincial policies and incentives supporting energy conservation were outlined. Cost-effective targets for energy efficiency for new and existing buildings were presented, as well as details of rebates for homeowners. Capital costs for new construction standards were presented, as well as details of incentives and provincial sales tax exemptions.

  20. Building Design Guidelines for Solar Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of "solar architecture" and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings.

  1. Life Cycle Cost optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marszal, A.J.

    2011-12-15

    Buildings consume approximately 40% of the world's primary energy use. Considering the total energy consumption throughout the whole life cycle of a building, the energy performance and supply is an important issue in the context of climate change, scarcity of energy resources and reduction of global energy consumption. An energy consuming as well as producing building, labelled as the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept, is seen as one of the solutions that could change the picture of energy consumption in the building sector, and thus contribute to the reduction of the global energy use. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires a clear understanding and a uniform definition. The ZEB concept is an energy-conservation solution, whose successful adaptation in real life depends significantly on private building owners' approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that is balanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition should further specify: (1) the connection or the lack of it to the energy infrastructure, (2) the unit of the balance, (3) the period of the balance, (4) the types of energy use included in the balance, (5) the minimum energy performance requirements (6) the renewable energy supply options, and if applicable (7) the requirements of the building-grid interaction. Moreover, the study revealed that the future ZEB definitions applied in Denmark should mostly be focused on grid

  2. Building Energy-Efficiency Best Practice Policies and Policy Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); de la Rue de Can, Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Amann, Jennifer Thorne [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington, D.C. (United States); Staniaszek, Dan [Sustainability Consulting Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-26

    This report addresses the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions and the greatest opportunity to reduce these emissions. The IPCC 4th Assessment Report estimates that globally 35% to 40% of all energy-related CO2 emissions (relative to a growing baseline) result from energy use in buildings. Emissions reductions from a combination of energy efficiency and conservation (using less energy) in buildings have the potential to cut emissions as much as all other energy-using sectors combined. This is especially the case for China, India and other developing countries that are expected to account for 80% or more of growth in building energy use worldwide over the coming decades. In short, buildings constitute the largest opportunity to mitigate climate change and special attention needs to be devoted to developing countries.

  3. ASEAN-USAID Buildings Energy Conservation Project. Final report, Volume 3: Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, J.M.; Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.

    1992-06-01

    The auditing subproject of the ASEAN-USAID Buildings Energy Conservation Project has generated a great deal of auditing activity throughout the ASEAN region. Basic building characterisfic and energy consumption data were gathered for over 200 buildings and are presented in this volume. A large number of buildings were given more detailed audits and were modeled with either the ASEAM-2 computer program or the more complex DOE-2 program. These models were used to calculate the savings to be generated by conservabon measures. Specially audits were also conducted, including lighting and thermal comfort surveys. Many researchers in the ASEAN region were trained to perform energy audits in a series of training courses and seminars. The electricity intensifies of various types of ASEAN buildings have been calculated. A comparison to the electricity intensity of the US building stock tentatively concludes that ASEAN office buildings are comparable, first class hotels and retail stores are more ewctricity intensive than their US counterparts, and hospitals are less intensive. Philippine and Singapore lighting surveys indicate that illuminance levels in offices tend to be below the minimum accepted standard. Computer simulations of the energy use in various building types generally agree that for most ASEAN buildings, electricity consumption for air-conditioning (including fan power) consumes approximately 60% of total building electricity. A review of the many studies made during the Project to calculate the savings from energy conservation opportunities (ECOS) shows a median potential savings of approximately 10%, with some buildings saving as much as 50%. Singapore buildings, apparently as a result of previously implemented efficient energy-use practices, shows a lower potential for savings than the other ASEAN nations. Air-conditioning ECOs hold the greatest potential for savings.

  4. Towards a Wireless Sensor Platform for Energy Efficient Building Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karsten Menzel; Dirk Pesch; Brendan O'Flynn; Marcus Keane; Cian O'Mathuna

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the IT-support for energy performance rating of buildings is insufficient. So-called IT-platforms often "built" of an ad-hoc, inconsistent combination of off-the-shelf building management compo-nents, distributed data metering equipment and several monitoring software tools. A promising approach to achieve consistent, holistic performance data management is the implementation of an integrated, modular wireless sensor platform. This paper presents an approach of how wireless sensors can be seamlessly inte-grated into existing and future intelligent building management systems supporting improved building per-formance and diagnostics with an emphasis on energy management.

  5. The effect of using low-polluting building materials on ventilation requirements and energy use in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Frontczak, M. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-07-01

    The main objective of the ongoing research project described in this paper was to study the potential for reducing energy used for ventilating buildings by using low-polluting building materials, without compromising the indoor air quality. To quantify this potential, the exposure-response relationships, i.e. the relationships between ventilation rate and perceived indoor air quality, were established for rooms furnished with different categories of polluting materials and the simulations of energy used for ventilation were carried out. The exposure-response relationships were based on a summary of data reported in the literature on exposure-response relationships for materials tested in laboratory settings in small-scale glass chambers, and in full-scale in climate chambers, test rooms or normal offices. New experiments were also considered in which the effect of using low-polluting materials on perceived air quality was examined in test rooms ventilated with different outdoor air supply rates, low-polluting materials being selected in small glass chambers. The results suggest that the exposure-response relationships vary between different building materials and that the perceived air quality can be improved considerably when polluting building materials are substituted with materials that pollute less. The preliminary energy simulations indicate that selecting low-polluting materials will result in considerable energy savings as a result of reducing the ventilation rates required to achieve acceptable indoor air quality. (au)

  6. Infrared termography application in energy audits of buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Palma Sellés, Pablo; Piedecausa García, Beatriz; López Davó, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of this research are (i) to determine the correct use of infrared thermography in the energy analysis of buildings and to verify its application in conducting energy audits thereof; (ii) to conduct a proposal for a standard methodology (with its corresponding final report) for energy audit of buildings based on currently applicable regulations, specifying the parts of the audit process where the authors propose to include thermal inspections by using infrared thermography.

  7. A Building Energy Efficiency Optimization Method by Evaluating the Effective Thermal Zones Occupancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cotana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency is strongly linked to the operations and control systems, together with the integrated performance of passive and active systems. In new high quality buildings in particular, where these two latter aspects have been already implemented at the design stage, users’ perspective, obtained through post-occupancy assessment, has to be considered to reduce whole energy requirement during service life. This research presents an innovative and low-cost methodology to reduce buildings’ energy requirements through post-occupancy assessment and optimization of energy operations using effective users’ attitudes and requirements as feedback. As a meaningful example, the proposed method is applied to a multipurpose building located in New York City, NY, USA, where real occupancy conditions are assessed. The effectiveness of the method is tested through dynamic simulations using a numerical model of the case study, calibrated through real monitoring data collected on the building. Results show that, for the chosen case study, the method provides optimized building energy operations which allow a reduction of primary energy requirements for HVAC, lighting, room-electricity, and auxiliary supply by about 21%. This paper shows that the proposed strategy represents an effective way to reduce buildings’ energy waste, in particular in those complex and high-efficiency buildings that are not performing as well as expected during the concept-design-commissioning stage, in particular due to the lack of feedback after the building handover.

  8. Development of a Mobile Application for Building Energy Prediction Using Performance Prediction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ri Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Korean government has enforced disclosure of building energy performance, so that such information can help owners and prospective buyers to make suitable investment plans. Such a building energy performance policy of the government makes it mandatory for the building owners to obtain engineering audits and thereby evaluate the energy performance levels of their buildings. However, to calculate energy performance levels (i.e., asset rating methodology, a qualified expert needs to have access to at least the full project documentation and/or conduct an on-site inspection of the buildings. Energy performance certification costs a lot of time and money. Moreover, the database of certified buildings is still actually quite small. A need, therefore, is increasing for a simplified and user-friendly energy performance prediction tool for non-specialists. Also, a database which allows building owners and users to compare best practices is required. In this regard, the current study developed a simplified performance prediction model through experimental design, energy simulations and ANOVA (analysis of variance. Furthermore, using the new prediction model, a related mobile application was also developed.

  9. Factsheet on Energy Neutral School Buildings and Office Buildings; Infoblad Energieneutrale scholen en kantoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    A brief overview is given of all aspects of energy-neutral building and renovating school and office buildings. Besides technique, also attention is given to process, financing, management and maintenance. This factsheet is part of a series of three factsheets on energy neutral construction of houses and buildings. The other two are: 'Factsheet on Energy Neutral Building : Definition and ambition' and 'Factsheet on Energy Neutral Building' [Dutch] Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van alle aspecten van energieneutraal bouwen en renoveren van woningen. Naast techniek komen ook proces, financiering en beheer en onderhoud aan de orde. Dit Infoblad maakt deel uit van een serie van drie Infobladen over energieneutraal bouwen voor woningen en gebouwen. De andere twee zijn: 'Infoblad Energieneutraal bouwen: definitie en ambitie' en 'Infoblad Energieneutrale Woningbouw'.

  10. Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Joao [Centre of Mechatronics Engineering - CEM/Institut of Mechanical Engineering - IDMEC, University of Evora, R. Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal); Martins, Joao [Centre of Technology and Systems/Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-06-15

    Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the ''heart and soul'' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems. (author)

  11. Energy-efficient window systems. Effects on energy use and daylight in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow-Huebe, H.

    2001-11-01

    This thesis deals with energy-efficient windows in Swedish buildings. Parametric studies were performed in the dynamic energy simulation tool Derob-LTH in order to study the effects of window choices on energy use and indoor climate for both residential and office buildings. A steady-state program was used to evaluate two years of measurements of energy use and indoor temperatures of an energy-efficient row-house. Two behavioural studies regarding (1) daylight transmittance, view and room perception using super-insulated windows and (2) the satisfaction with the daylight environment and the use of shading devices in response to daylight/sunlight were conducted in full-scale laboratory environments exposed to the natural climate. Results show that as the energy-efficiency of buildings increase, window U-values must decrease in order not to increase the annual heating demand, since the heating season is shortened, and useful solar gains become smaller. For single-family houses with a window-to-floor area ratio of 15 % and insulated according the current Swedish building code, the U-values should thus on average be lower than 1.0 W/m{sup 2}K. For houses insulated according to 1960s standard, the U-value may on average be 1.6 W/m{sup 2}K. For colder climates (northern Sweden), the U-values should be somewhat lower, while slightly higher U-values can be tolerated in milder climates of south Sweden. Thermal comfort during winter is improved for energy-efficient windows. However, overheating problems exist for both super-insulated houses and highly glazed office buildings showing a need for very low U-values in combination with low g-values. Daylight experiments indicate that the use of two low-emittance coatings tints the transmitted daylight enough to be appreciated, and colours may be perceived as more drab and rooms more enclosed. A compromise between energy-efficiency and daylighting may be needed, and it is suggested that only one coating be used except when very

  12. Software augmented buildings: Exploiting existing infrastructure to improve energy efficiency and comfort in commercial buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Bharathan

    Commercial buildings consume 19% of energy in the US as of 2010, and traditionally, their energy use has been optimized through improved equipment efficiency and retrofits. Beyond improved hardware and infrastructure, there exists a tremendous potential in reducing energy use through better monitoring and operation. We present several applications that we developed and deployed to support our thesis that building energy use can be reduced through sensing, monitoring and optimization software that modulates use of building subsystems including HVAC. We focus on HVAC systems as these constitute 48-55% of building energy use. Specifically, in case of sensing, we describe an energy apportionment system that enables us to estimate real-time zonal HVAC power consumption by analyzing existing sensor information. With this energy breakdown, we can measure effectiveness of optimization solutions and identify inefficiencies. Central to energy efficiency improvement is determination of human occupancy in buildings. But this information is often unavailable or expensive to obtain using wide scale sensor deployment. We present our system that infers room level occupancy inexpensively by leveraging existing WiFi infrastructure. Occupancy information can be used not only to directly control HVAC but also to infer state of the building for predictive control. Building energy use is strongly influenced by human behaviors, and timely feedback mechanisms can encourage energy saving behavior. Occupants interact with HVAC using thermostats which has shown to be inadequate for thermal comfort. Building managers are responsible for incorporating energy efficiency measures, but our interviews reveal that they struggle to maintain efficiency due to lack of analytical tools and contextual information. We present our software services that provide energy feedback to occupants and building managers, improves comfort with personalized control and identifies energy wasting faults. For wide

  13. The Cost of Enforcing Building Energy Codes: Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vine, Ed [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sturges, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rosenquist, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to summarize key findings regarding the costs associated with enforcing building energy code compliance—primarily focusing on costs borne by local government. The review takes into consideration over 150 documents that discuss, to some extent, code enforcement. This review emphasizes those documents that specifically focus on costs associated with energy code enforcement. Given the low rates of building energy code compliance that have been reported in existing studies, as well as the many barriers to both energy code compliance and enforcement, this study seeks to identify the costs of initiatives to improve compliance and enforcement. Costs are reported primarily as presented in the original source. Some costs are given on a per home or per building basis, and others are provided for jurisdictions of a certain size. This literature review gives an overview of state-based compliance rates, barriers to code enforcement, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and key stakeholder involvement in improving compliance with building energy codes. In addition, the processes and costs associated with compliance and enforcement of building energy codes are presented. The second phase of this study, which will be presented in a different report, will consist of surveying 34 experts in the building industry at the national and state or local levels in order to obtain additional cost information, building on the findings from the first phase, as well as recommendations for where to most effectively spend money on compliance and enforcement.

  14. Workshop proceeding of the industrial building energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, H.; Gadgil, A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    California has a large number of small and medium sized industries which have a major impact on the demand growth of California utilities. Energy use in building services (lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.). These industries constitute an important but largely neglected fraction of the total site energy use. The ratio of energy use in building service to the total site energy use is a function of the industrial activity, its size, and the climate at the site of the facility. Also, energy use in building services is more responsive to weather and occupant schedules than the traditional base-load'' industrial process energy. Industrial energy use is considered as a base-load'' by utility companies because it helps to increase the utilities' load factor. To increase this further, utilities often market energy at lower rates to industrial facilities. Presently, the energy use in the building services of the industrial sector is often clubbed together with industrial process load. Data on non-process industrial energy use are not readily available in the literature. In cases where the major portion of the energy is used in the building services (with daily and seasonal load profiles that in fact peak at the same time as systemwide load peaks), the utility may be selling below cost at peak power times. These cases frequently happen with electric utilities. 30 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. End-use energy consumption estimates for U.S. commercial buildings, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.; Wrench, L.E.

    1997-03-01

    An accurate picture of how energy is used in the nation`s stock of commercial buildings can serve a variety of program planning and policy needs of the US Department of Energy, utilities, and other groups seeking to improve the efficiency of energy use in the building sector. This report describes an estimation of energy consumption by end use based upon data from the 1992 Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). The methodology used in the study combines elements of engineering simulations and statistical analysis to estimate end-use intensities for heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting, refrigeration, hot water, cooking, and miscellaneous equipment. Statistical Adjusted Engineering (SAE) models were estimated by building type. The nonlinear SAE models used variables such as building size, vintage, climate region, weekly operating hours, and employee density to adjust the engineering model predicted loads to the observed consumption (based upon utility billing information). End-use consumption by fuel was estimated for each of the 6,751 buildings in the 1992 CBECS. The report displays the summary results for 11 separate building types as well as for the total US commercial building stock. 4 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Life Cycle Multi-Criteria Analysis Of Alternative Energy Supply Systems For A Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rogoža

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses energy supply alternatives for a partially renovated residential building. In addition to the existing district heating (base case alternative systems, gas boilers, heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, solar cells, and combinations of these systems have been examined. Actual heat consumption of the building and electricity demand determined by the statistical method are used for simulating the systems. The process of simulation is performed using EnergyPro software. In order to select an optimal energy supply option, the life cycle analysis of all systems has been carried out throughout a life span of the building, and the estimated results of energy, environmental and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi–criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  18. Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of solar architecture'' and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Durability of future energy-efficient building components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Diana

    Over the last decade, there has been a goal-oriented focus in the European Union on energy efficiency in the building sector to free it from the use of fossil fuels. Increases in the energy efficiency of building components means increased initial costs, for both new buildings and renovations...... tools. The method includes both energy analysis compared to current and future energy requirements, and analysis of possible failures in the building design (Failure Mode and Effects analysis). The method also includes an economic perspective (Net present value) given that the choice of a specific...... that the maintenance is already thought into the solution, so that the work can be done fast and easily with a minimum of expense. Minimizing costs is an important aspect in the complete solution so that we not only develop energy-efficient solutions, but also solutions that are economical. Two case studies were...

  20. Town planning parameters in the function of building energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović-Protić Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building is that consuming the least energy while providing comfort. The energy consumption of buildings, in general, as well as in Serbia, is among other things conditioned by the heating, cooling and lighting requirements with a goal of achieving of thermal and light comfort. Heating energy consumption is the result of heat loss and gain, and their values, in addition to other parameters, depend on town planning parameters. The paper focuses on the comparative analysis of impact of building different exposures to wind as well as on impact of the different prevailing orientations on energy efficiency of buildings. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 36042: Optimizacija arhitektonskog i urbanističkog planiranja i projektovanja u funkciji održivog razvoja Srbije

  1. Source Energy and Emission Factors for Energy Use in Buildings (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document supports the other measurement procedures and all building energy-monitoring projects by providing methods to calculate the source energy and emissions from the energy measured at the building. Energy and emission factors typically account for the conversion inefficiencies at the power plant and the transmission and distribution losses from the power plant to the building. The energy and emission factors provided here also include the precombustion effects, which are the energy and emissions associated with extracting, processing, and delivering the primary fuels to the point of conversion in the electrical power plants or directly in the buildings.

  2. Final report on the energy edge impact evaluation of 28 new, low-energy commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, M.A.; Diamond, R.; Nordman, B. [and others

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the findings of the Energy Edge Impact Evaluation. It is the fourth and final report in a series of project impact evaluation reports. Energy Edge is a research-oriented demonstration of energy efficiency in 28 new commercial buildings. Beginning in 1985,the project, sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), was developed to evaluate the potential for electricity conservation in new commercial buildings. By focusing on the construction of new commercial buildings, Energy Edge meets the region`s goal of capturing otherwise lost opportunities to accomplish energy conservation. That is, the best time to add an energy-efficiency measure to a building is during the construction phase.

  3. Building Energy Efficiency and the Use of Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Luo

    To become a country of energy saving, consumption reduction, low carbon emissions and life has become a national policy background, we need to convert conception of architectural aesthetics and make necessary adjustments and consciousness. Techniques and methods of support, or method of the research are still needed in the construction, building energy conservation, the environmental protection, low carbon and recycling methods are taken measures. Developing, finding and adopingt "native" and "primary" processed materials, or in which inject new technology to form new material is an effective approach to ensure more ways from environmental protection, energy-saving building and building materials in such ideas to implement.

  4. Renewable building energy systems and passive human comfort solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omer, Abdeen Mustafa [17 Juniper Court, Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    With environmental protection posing as the number one global problem, man has no choice but to reduce his energy consumption. One way to accomplish this is to resort to passive and low-energy systems to maintain thermal comfort in buildings. The conventional and modern designs of wind towers can successfully be used in hot arid regions to maintain thermal comfort (with or without the use of ceiling fans) during all hours of the cooling season, or a fraction of it. Climatic design is one of the best approaches to reduce the energy cost in buildings. Proper design is the first step of defence against the stress of the climate. Buildings should be designed according to the climate of the site, reducing the need for mechanical heating or cooling. Hence maximum natural energy can be used for creating a pleasant environment inside the built envelope. Technology and industry progress in the last decade diffused electronic and informatics' devices in many human activities, and also in building construction. The utilisation and operating opportunities components, increase the reduction of heat losses by varying the thermal insulation, optimise the lighting distribution with louver screens and operate mechanical ventilation for coolness in indoor spaces. In addition to these parameters the intelligent envelope can act for security control and became an important part of the building domotic revolution. Application of simple passive cooling measure is effective in reducing the cooling load of buildings in hot and humid climates. Fourty-three percent reductions can be achieved using a combination of well-established technologies such as glazing, shading, insulation, and natural ventilation. More advanced passive cooling techniques such as roof pond, dynamic insulation, and evaporative water jacket need to be considered more closely. The building sector is a major consumer of both energy and materials worldwide, and that consumption is increasing. Most industrialised

  5. Energy Aspects of Green Buildings – International Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauskale L.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main environmental priorities globally, and implementation of sustainability aspects in the construction industry, including energy aspects, is of major importance for long-term environmental development, as buildings have a long life cycle and require many resources both for construction and operation periods. The aim of the research is to analyse energy aspects of green buildings. The results of research show that the construction of green buildings can significantly result in energy savings and has other benefits for different market participants. Future research directions have been identified as well.

  6. Thermal comfort and energy-efficient cooling of nonresidential buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Kalz, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    This book supports HVAC planners in reducing the cooling energy demand, improving the indoor environment and designing more cost-effective building concepts. High performance buildings have shown that it is possible to go clearly beyond the energy requirements of existing legislation and obtaining good thermal comfort. However, there is still a strong uncertainty in day-to-day practice due to the lack of legislative regulations for mixed-mode buildings which are neither only naturally ventilated nor fully air-conditioned, but use a mix of different low-energy cooling techniques. Based on the f

  7. CFD simulation and energy efficient analysis of stratified cleaning in large-space clean factory buildings%高大洁净厂房分层净化CFD模拟与节能性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秀芳; 肖武; 赵彬

    2012-01-01

    分析了高大洁净厂房的空间特点、使用时间特点、净化负荷特点,提出了在高度上分层的净化空调方案.采用CFD模拟了某高大洁净厂房采用分层净化空调时的气流组织,浓度场、温度场的模拟结果表明,该方案适用于高大洁净厂房.%Analyses the characteristics of space, service time and cleaning load in the building, and provides the stratified cleaning air conditioning scheme. Simulates the air distribution of stratified cleaning air conditioning in a large-space clean factory building with CFD. The concentration and temperature fields obtained show that the stratified cleaning air conditioning scheme suits for large-space clean factory buildings.

  8. Working mechanism and numerical simulation of assembly coastal building techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈育民; 刘汉龙; 陈泽

    2008-01-01

    A new coastal technique, named as assembly coastal building, was introduced. The main concept of the technique was the assembling components which could be combined and locked together to form a large caisson. The assembly coastal building technique was used in a sea access road in Zhuanghai 4X1 well, Dagang Oilfield. The design plans and in-situ tests in the sea access road project were introduced in detail. According to the Zhuanghai project, the numerical simulation method of assembly coastal building technique was proposed. 2D numerical simulations were performed in FLAC to analyze the displacement and stability of the technique in the construction process and post-construction period. The settlement calculated is close to the in-situ results, which proves that the proposed numerical method is reasonable. Results show that the assembly coastal building technique has large safety factor under the gravity loading and wave loadings.

  9. Implementation of Energy Code Controls Requirements in New Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hatten, Mike [Solarc Energy Group, LLC, Seattle, WA (United States); Jones, Dennis [Group 14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Cooper, Matthew [Group 14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Most state energy codes in the United States are based on one of two national model codes; ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1 (Standard 90.1) or the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Since 2004, covering the last four cycles of Standard 90.1 updates, about 30% of all new requirements have been related to building controls. These requirements can be difficult to implement and verification is beyond the expertise of most building code officials, yet the assumption in studies that measure the savings from energy codes is that they are implemented and working correctly. The objective of the current research is to evaluate the degree to which high impact controls requirements included in commercial energy codes are properly designed, commissioned and implemented in new buildings. This study also evaluates the degree to which these control requirements are realizing their savings potential. This was done using a three-step process. The first step involved interviewing commissioning agents to get a better understanding of their activities as they relate to energy code required controls measures. The second involved field audits of a sample of commercial buildings to determine whether the code required control measures are being designed, commissioned and correctly implemented and functioning in new buildings. The third step includes compilation and analysis of the information gather during the first two steps. Information gathered during these activities could be valuable to code developers, energy planners, designers, building owners, and building officials.

  10. Capacity of Building Energy Efficiency in Liepaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilita Ābele

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation with recuperation is a means of reducing heat consumption per square meter below 50 (kWh/m2 in Latvia through proper project design and trained personnel. The aim of this research is to show necessity for a ventilation system with recuperation. This research would further permit preparing recommendations for responsible decision-makers. There are no regulatory enactments that would provide ventilations indispensability during the renovation process in Latvia. The recommendation for ventilation with recuperation should be incorporated during the renovation as a mandatory requirement in Latvia. Renovated buildings with European co-financing in Liepaja city have been used as a research basis. Different renovated building groups are compared: those without ventilation, with ventilation, ventilation with recuperation. Each one of these building groups will have more than one object. The obtained data will be heat consumption per square meter (kWh/m2. It is not possible to achieve good results with badly designed projects as well as with non-trained personnel, therefore this system is quite often either not used or ignored. Ventilation with recuperation is to be a mandatory requirement in renovated buildings. During the research it has been realized that the available information is not sufficient to compare renovation processes in other countries of comparable climatic conditions. It would be preferable to meet researchers working on similar themes to be able to share mutual experience and to promote co-operation in this field.

  11. Sustainable construction building performance simulation and asset and maintenance management

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of recent research works that highlight best practice solutions, case studies and practical advice on the implementation of sustainable construction techniques. It includes a set of new developments in the field of building performance simulation, building sustainability assessment, sustainable management, asset and maintenance management and service-life prediction. Accordingly, the book will appeal to a broad readership of professionals, scientists, students, practitioners, lecturers and other interested parties.

  12. Towards Nearly Zero Energy Buildings in Europe: A Focus on Retrofit in Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia D’Agostino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the focus of European (EU policies aimed at a sustainable and competitive low-carbon economy by 2020. Reducing energy consumption of existing buildings and achieving nearly zero energy buildings (NZEBs are the core of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED and the recast of the Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD. To comply with these requirements, Member States have to adopt actions to exploit energy savings from the building sector. This paper describes the differences between deep, major and NZEB renovation and then it provides an overview of best practice policies and measures to target retrofit and investment related to non-residential buildings. Energy requirements defined by Member States for NZEB levels are reported comparing both new and existing residential and non-residential buildings. The paper shows how the attention given to refurbishment of NZEBs increased over the last decade, but the achievement of a comprehensive implementation of retrofit remains one of main challenges that Europe is facing.

  13. A look at commercial buildings in 1995: Characteristics, energy consumption, and energy expenditures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The commercial sector consists of business establishments and other organizations that provide services. The sector includes service businesses, such as retail and wholesale stores, hotels and motels, restaurants, and hospitals, as well as a wide range of facilities that would not be considered commercial in a traditional economic sense, such as public schools, correctional institutions, and religious and fraternal organizations. Nearly all energy use in the commercial sector takes place in, or is associated with, the buildings that house these commercial activities. Analysis of the structures, activities, and equipment associated with different types of buildings is the clearest way to evaluate commercial sector energy use. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is a national-level sample survey of commercial buildings and their energy suppliers conducted quadrennially (previously triennially) by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The target population for the 1995 CBECS consisted of all commercial buildings in the US with more than 1,000 square feet of floorspace. Decision makers, businesses, and other organizations that are concerned with the use of energy--building owners and managers, regulators, legislative bodies and executive agencies at all levels of government, utilities and other energy suppliers--are confronted with a buildings sector that is complex. Data on major characteristics (e.g., type of building, size, year constructed, location) collected from the buildings, along with the amount and types of energy the buildings consume, help answer fundamental questions about the use of energy in commercial buildings.

  14. Diffusion of Energy Efficient Technology in Commercial Buildings: An Analysis of the Commercial Building Partnerships Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Chrissi Argyro

    This study presents findings from survey and interview data investigating replication of green building measures by Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) partners that worked directly with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL partnered directly with 12 organizations on new and retrofit construction projects, which represented approximately 28 percent of the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CBP program. Through a feedback survey mechanism, along with personal interviews, quantitative and qualitative data were gathered relating to replication efforts by each organization. These data were analyzed to provide insight into two primary research areas: 1) CBP partners' replication efforts of green building approaches used in the CBP project to the rest of the organization's building portfolio, and, 2) the market potential for technology diffusion into the total U.S. commercial building stock, as a direct result of the CBP program. The first area of this research focused specifically on replication efforts underway or planned by each CBP program participant. The second area of this research develops a diffusion of innovations model to analyze potential broad market impacts of the CBP program on the commercial building industry in the United States. Findings from this study provided insight into motivations and objectives CBP partners had for program participation. Factors that impact replication include motivation, organizational structure and objectives firms have for implementation of energy efficient technologies. Comparing these factors between different CBP partners revealed patterns in motivation for constructing energy efficient buildings, along with better insight into market trends for green building practices. The optimized approach to the CBP program allows partners to develop green building parameters that fit the specific uses of their building, resulting in greater motivation for replication. In addition, the diffusion model developed

  15. Interactive Visualization of Heterogeneous Data for Energy Efficiency of Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Nancy; Lange, Benoit; Puech, William

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Since 1997, Kyoto protocol has highlighted the importance of a rational usage of energy. France and the EU have fixed several objectives concerning reduction of energy consumption and of greenhouse gas emission, and use of renewable energies. The main goal of the RIDER project (Research for IT Driven EneRgy Efficiency), is to develop an ICT-­‐based smart plataform for multiscale and multistandard energy management of buildings. In particular, the visualization componen...

  16. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world`s major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  17. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world's major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  18. Federal R&D Agenda for Net Zero Energy, High-Performance Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    indicate a gap between design intent and construction that results in reduced energy performance (Torcellini et al. 2006). Building energy efficiency is...occupant, building, or community needs and preferences. New technologies that maximize building energy efficiency and minimize operational energy use...including low-income home energy assistance program, weatherization assistance, state energy programs, state building energy efficiency codes incentives and

  19. Energy efficient building design. A transfer guide for local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  20. Modelling energy demand in the Norwegian building stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Igor

    2008-07-15

    Energy demand in the building stock in Norway represents about 40% of the final energy consumption, of which 22% goes to the residential sector and 18% to the service sector. In Norway there is a strong dependency on electricity for heating purposes, with electricity covering about 80% of the energy demand in buildings. The building sector can play an important role in the achievement of a more sustainable energy system. The work performed in the articles presented in this thesis investigates various aspects related to the energy demand in the building sector, both in singular cases and in the stock as a whole. The work performed in the first part of this thesis on development and survey of case studies provided background knowledge that was then used in the second part, on modelling the entire stock. In the first part, a literature survey of case studies showed that, in a life cycle perspective, the energy used in the operating phase of buildings is the single most important factor. Design of low-energy buildings is then beneficial and should be pursued, even though it implies a somewhat higher embodied energy. A case study was performed on a school building. First, a methodology using a Monte Carlo method in the calibration process was explored. Then, the calibrated model of the school was used to investigate measures for the achievement of high energy efficiency standard through renovation work. In the second part, a model was developed to study the energy demand in a scenario analysis. The results showed the robustness of policies that included conservation measures against the conflicting effects of the other policies. Adopting conservation measures on a large scale showed the potential to reduce both electricity and total energy demand from present day levels while the building stock keeps growing. The results also highlighted the inertia to change of the building stock, due to low activity levels compared to the stock size. It also became clear that a deeper

  1. Saving Energy in Historic Buildings: Balancing Efficiency and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, John H.; Randall, Brad

    2012-01-01

    By now the slogan of the National Trust for Historic Preservation that "the greenest building is the one already built" is widely known. In an era of increased environmental awareness and rising fuel prices, however, the question is how can historic building stock be made more energy efficient in a manner respectful of its historic integrity and…

  2. Energy Efficiency of Higher Education Buildings: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Nelson; Pereira, Luísa Dias; Ferreira, João; Conceição, Pedro; da Silva, Patrícia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to propose an energy efficiency plan (with technical and behavioural improvement measures) for a Portuguese higher education building--the Teaching Building of the Faculty of Economics of the University of Coimbra (FEUC). Design/methodology/approach: The study was developed in the context of both the "Green…

  3. Extend EnergyPlus to Support Evaluation, Design, and Operation of Low Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Heejin; Wang, Weimin; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Yun, Kyung Tae; Glazer, Jason; Scheier, Larry; Srivastava, Viraj; Gowri, Krishnan

    2011-12-21

    During FY10-11, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in collaboration with the EnergyPlus development team implemented the following high priority enhancements to support the simulation of high performance buildings: (1) Improve Autosizing of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Components; (2) Life-Cycle Costing to Evaluate Energy Efficiency Upgrades; (3) Develop New Model to Capture Transformer Losses; (4) Enhance the Model for Electric Battery Storage; and (5) Develop New Model for Chiller-Tower Optimization. This report summarizes the technical background, new feature development and implementation details, and testing and validation process for these enhancements. The autosizing, life-cycle costing and transformer model enhancements/developments were included in EnergyPlus release Version 6.0, and the electric battery model development will be included in Version 7.0. The model development of chiller-tower optimization will be included in a later version (after Version 7.0).

  4. Buildings Energy Efficiency: Interventions Analysis under a Smart Cities Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Battista

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the world’s population lives in urban areas and in inefficient buildings under the energy point of view. Starting from these assumptions, there is the need to identify methodologies and innovations able to improve social development and the quality of life of people living in cities. Smart cities can be a viable solution. The methodology traditionally adopted to evaluate building energy efficiency starts from the structure’s energy demands analysis and the demands reduction evaluation. Consequently, the energy savings is assessed through a cascade of interventions. Regarding the building envelope, the first intervention is usually related to the reduction of the thermal transmittance value, but there is also the need to emphasize the building energy savings through other parameters, such as the solar gain factor and dye solar absorbance coefficients. In this contribution, a standard building has been modeled by means of the well-known dynamic software, TRNSYS. This study shows a parametrical analysis through which it is possible to evaluate the effect of each single intervention and, consequently, its influence on the building energy demand. Through this analysis, an intervention chart has been carried out, aiming to assess the intervention efficiency starting from the percentage variation of energy demands.

  5. Energy management study: A proposed case of government building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Baharum, Mohd Faizal

    2015-05-01

    Align with the current needs of the sustainable and green technology in Malaysian construction industry, this research is conducted to seek and identify opportunities to better manage energy use including the process of understand when, where, and how energy is used in a building. The purpose of this research is to provide a best practice guideline as a practical tool to assist construction industry in Malaysia to improve the energy efficiency of the office building during the post-production by reviewing the current practice of the building operation and maintenance in order to optimum the usage and reduce the amount of energy input into the building. Therefore, this paper will review the concept of maintenance management, current issue in energy management, and on how the research process will be conducted. There are several process involves and focuses on technical and management techniques such as energy metering, tracing, harvesting, and auditing based on the case study that will be accomplish soon. Accordingly, a case study is appropriate to be selected as a strategic research approach in which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence for the data collection process. A Government office building will be selected as an appropriate case study for this research. In the end of this research, it will recommend a strategic approach or model in a specific guideline for enabling energy-efficient operation and maintenance in the office building.

  6. Energy management study: A proposed case of government building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd [School of Technology Management and Logistics, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia); Baharum, Mohd Faizal [School of Building, Housing and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Align with the current needs of the sustainable and green technology in Malaysian construction industry, this research is conducted to seek and identify opportunities to better manage energy use including the process of understand when, where, and how energy is used in a building. The purpose of this research is to provide a best practice guideline as a practical tool to assist construction industry in Malaysia to improve the energy efficiency of the office building during the post-production by reviewing the current practice of the building operation and maintenance in order to optimum the usage and reduce the amount of energy input into the building. Therefore, this paper will review the concept of maintenance management, current issue in energy management, and on how the research process will be conducted. There are several process involves and focuses on technical and management techniques such as energy metering, tracing, harvesting, and auditing based on the case study that will be accomplish soon. Accordingly, a case study is appropriate to be selected as a strategic research approach in which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence for the data collection process. A Government office building will be selected as an appropriate case study for this research. In the end of this research, it will recommend a strategic approach or model in a specific guideline for enabling energy-efficient operation and maintenance in the office building.

  7. Alternative materials for desert buildings: a comparative life cycle energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlmutter, D.; Freidin, C.; Huberman, N. [Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, (Israel)

    2007-03-15

    This study examines the potential life-cycle energy savings that may be achieved by combining an innovative alternative building material and a bioclimatic approach to building design under the distinctive environmental conditions of a desert region. A residential building in the Negev region of Israel is used as a model for the assessment. Designed with a number of climatically-responsive design strategies and conventional concrete-based materials, the building was energy-independent in terms of summer cooling and had only modest requirements for winter heating. As a second step to the assessment, the integration of an alternative building material based on industrial waste and local raw materials in the building's walls was considered through thermal simulation. The alternative materials are produced through a process developed to make productive utilization of fly-ash from oil shale and coal combustion. Material properties were analyzed using laboratory specimens, and it was established that high-quality building components could be produced using the developed technological procedure with standard manufacturing equipment. The consumption of both embodied and operational energy was analyzed over the building's useful life span, and this life-cycle analysis showed the clear advantage of integrating alternative materials in a building under environmental conditions in a desert environment. (Author)

  8. Allegheny County Municipal Building Energy and Water Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains energy and water use information from 2010 to 2014 for 144 County-operated buildings. Metrics include: kBtu (thousand British thermal units),...

  9. UNDERSTANDING FLOW OF ENERGY IN BUILDINGS USING MODAL ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Gardner; Kevin Heglund; Kevin Van Den Wymelenberg; Craig Rieger

    2013-07-01

    It is widely understood that energy storage is the key to integrating variable generators into the grid. It has been proposed that the thermal mass of buildings could be used as a distributed energy storage solution and several researchers are making headway in this problem. However, the inability to easily determine the magnitude of the building’s effective thermal mass, and how the heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system exchanges thermal energy with it, is a significant challenge to designing systems which utilize this storage mechanism. In this paper we adapt modal analysis methods used in mechanical structures to identify the primary modes of energy transfer among thermal masses in a building. The paper describes the technique using data from an idealized building model. The approach is successfully applied to actual temperature data from a commercial building in downtown Boise, Idaho.

  10. Analysis of energy use at US institutional buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, E.; Trimble, J.; Goelitz, R.

    1981-11-01

    The Federal Institutional Conservation Program includes collection of energy use and energy related data from individual institutional buildings. Data were obtained from ten states (Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, New Jersey, Florida, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Texas, Kansas, and Oregon) on almost fifteen thousand schools, hospitals, local government buildings, and public care institutions. After the data were carefully examined, organized, and validated (i.e., outliers that might be errors were deleted), regression equations were developed for each of the four institutional building types. Because so many of the data elements were either missing or outliers, techniques were applied that allow incorporation of observations with missing data in the regression analysis. These equations explain annual energy use as functions of average energy price, floor area, year of construction, occupancy, air conditioning, primary heating fuel, owner, location, and building function.

  11. Thermal Energy Optimization of Building Integrated Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Thermal Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ekoe A Akata Aloys Martial; Donatien Njomo; Basant Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) : The concept where the photovoltaic element assumes the function of power generation and the role of the covering component element has the potential to become one of the principal sources of renewable energy for domestic purpose. In this paper, a Building integrated semitransparent photovoltaic thermal system (BISPVT) system having fins at the back sheet of the photovoltaic module has been simulated. It has been observed that this system produces high...

  12. Commercial and Multifamily Building Tenant Energy Usage Aggregation and Privacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Wang, Na

    2014-11-17

    In a number of cities and states, building owners are required to disclose and/or benchmark their building energy use. This requires the building owner to possess monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer data as a way to give building owners the whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. However, no utilities or regulators appear to have conducted a concerted statistical, cybersecurity, and privacy analysis to justify the level of aggregation selected. Therefore, the Tennant Data Aggregation Task was established to help utilities address these issues and provide recommendations as well as a theoretical justification of the aggregation threshold. This study is focused on the use case of submitting data for ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager (ESPM), but it also looks at other potential use cases for monthly energy consumption data.

  13. ECOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR LOW ENERGY BUILDING WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents constructive solutions for thermal insulation of the building walls, using recycled and biodegradable materials. The thermal insulatingcomposite materials are made of textile fibers obtained from waste of the textile industrial sector, wood fibers and wood chips from the wood industrial sector and mineral materials as binders: gypsum, cement, ceramic dust or industrial clay. For each type of compositematerial, the thermal conductivity coefficient has been determined and compared. The final results of thermal insulation of the walls were obtained after using the software of analyzing the thermal insulation property of various proposed composites. The main advantage of the proposed materials is their ecological characteristic compared with classical structures used today in buildings thermal insulation.

  14. Communication Capacity Building through Pharmacy Practice Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzic, Jasmina; Barker, Michelle; Hills, Ruth; Priddle, Alannah

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To examine the effectiveness of simulated learning modules (SLMs) encompassing EXcellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership (EXCELL) core competencies in enhancing pharmacy students' professional communication skills. Methods. Students completed three hours of preparatory lectures and eight hours of workshops comprising six SLMs themed around pharmacy practice and pharmacy placements. Each SLM comprised role-plays with actors, facilitation using EXCELL Social Interaction Maps (SIMs), and debriefing. Evaluations of SLMs included quantitative and qualitative survey responses collected before, during and after workshops, and after placements. Facilitators reflected on SLMs as a pedagogic modality. Results. Student feedback was positive about SLMs as an effective learning tool. The majority indicated areas of new learning and found SLMs enhanced their professional skills and confidence. Facilitator feedback was positive, and suggested SLM optimization strategies. Conclusion. Student and teaching team recommendations will inform future curriculum development including the optimization of SLMs in pharmacy education.

  15. Methods for implementing Building Information Modeling and Building Performance Simulation approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø

    In the present thesis, a number of studies into the adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Building Performance Simulation (BPS) are presented. The thesis has two main goals. The first is to explore the benefits and challenges of adopting (a) BIM as a platform for Architecture......, Engineering, Construction, and Facility Management (AEC/ FM) communication, and (b) BPS as a platform for early-stage building performance prediction. The second is to develop (a) relevant AEC/FM communication support instruments, and (b) standardized BIM and BPS execution guidelines and information exchange...... to improve early-stage building performance prediction. However, because of complex BPS information exchange structures, the BPS process is not always practical, highlighting the need for these structures to be simplified and more, clearly articulated. In this thesis, buildingSMART standard approaches...

  16. Energy renovation of multi-storey buildings with heritage value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria

    -supply mix for buildings including heating and electricity should be free of fossil fuels as early as 2035 including heating and electricity. Urgent action is therefore needed to meet these requirements for the future energy system. A balance needs to be found between saving energy in buildings and supplying......The EU has a goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption by 20% by 2020, by 40% in 2030 and by 80% in 2050 compared to 1990-levels, and Denmark has set the even more ambitious goal of being completely fossil-fuel-free by 2050. On the way to this goal, the aim is that the energy...... energy from district heating based on renewable energy resources and waste incineration. This research took a new approach combining heat savings in buildings with heat supply from district heating and seeing them as two segments that reinforce each other, instead of seeing them as two separate...

  17. Energy efficiency in public buildings; Eficiencia energetica em predios publicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiperstok, Asher; Garcia, Agenor Gomes Pinto; Vianna, Luis Gustavo; Freitas, Daniela; Oliveira, Braulio; Azevedo, Alexandre; Alves, Igor; Fagundes, Vitor Lacerda [Universidade Federal da Bahia (TECLIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Rede de Tecnologias Limpas

    2010-07-01

    The implementation process of a energy management system in buildings of the Bahia state administration is presented. Completed a first phase, with a prior knowledge of the characteristics of the energy use in buildings and the implementation of a daily consumption monitoring system (the Vianet), a second phase begins with the definition of consumption targets and mobilization actions of the people, both the whole of the users, and more strongly the 'eco team', group which shall be responsible for the management. This paper makes a theoretical consideration on the use of energy in buildings, showing the room for energy management in addition to the simple exchange by efficient equipment, estimates the reduction obtained by the energy efficiency program of the electric utility with the exchange of light fixtures and air conditioners, shows the targeting process and difficulties found and identifies measures that will be implemented to achieve increasingly efficient patterns of energy use. (author)

  18. Capacity of Building Energy Efficiency in Liepaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ābele

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ventilation with recuperation is a means of reducing heat consumption per square meter below 50 (kWh/m2 in Latvia through proper project design and trained personnel. The aim of this research is to show necessity for a ventilation system with recuperation.  This research would further permit preparing recommendations for responsible decision-makers. There are no regulatory enactments that would provide ventilations indispensability during the renovation process in Latvia. The recommendation for ventilation with recuperation should be incorporated during the renovation as a mandatory requirement in Latvia. Renovated buildings with European co-financing in Liepaja city have been used as a research basis. Different renovated building groups are compared: those without ventilation, with ventilation, ventilation with recuperation. Each one of these building groups will have more than one object. The obtained data will be heat consumption per square meter (kWh/m2. It is not possible to achieve good results with badly designed projects as well as with non-trained personnel, therefore this system is quite often either not used or ignored. Ventilation with recuperation is to be a mandatory requirement in renovated buildings. During the research it has been realized that the available information is not sufficient to compare renovation processes in other countries of comparable climatic conditions. It would be preferable to meet researchers working on similar themes to be able to share mutual experience and to promote co-operation in this field.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.5858

  19. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armesto, Julia; Sánchez-Villanueva, Claudio; Patiño-Cambeiro, Faustino; Patiño-Barbeito, Faustino

    2016-05-28

    Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU), given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building.

  20. Indoor Multi-Sensor Acquisition System for Projects on Energy Renovation of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Armesto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy rehabilitation actions in buildings have become a great economic opportunity for the construction sector. They also constitute a strategic goal in the European Union (EU, given the energy dependence and the compromises with climate change of its member states. About 75% of existing buildings in the EU were built when energy efficiency codes had not been developed. Approximately 75% to 90% of those standing buildings are expected to remain in use in 2050. Significant advances have been achieved in energy analysis, simulation tools, and computer fluid dynamics for building energy evaluation. However, the gap between predictions and real savings might still be improved. Geomatics and computer science disciplines can really help in modelling, inspection, and diagnosis procedures. This paper presents a multi-sensor acquisition system capable of automatically and simultaneously capturing the three-dimensional geometric information, thermographic, optical, and panoramic images, ambient temperature map, relative humidity map, and light level map. The system integrates a navigation system based on a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM approach that allows georeferencing every data to its position in the building. The described equipment optimizes the energy inspection and diagnosis steps and facilitates the energy modelling of the building.

  1. Modeling and optimization of energy generation and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings targeting conceptual building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahovac, Milica

    2012-11-29

    The thermal conditioning systems are responsible for almost half of the energy consump-tion by commercial buildings. In many European countries and in the USA, buildings account for around 40% of primary energy consumption and it is therefore vital to explore further ways to reduce the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system energy consumption. This thesis investigates the relationship between the energy genera-tion and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings (shorter: primary HVAC systems) and the conceptual building design. Certain building design decisions irreversibly influence a building's energy performance and, conversely, many generation and storage components impose restrictions on building design and, by their nature, cannot be introduced at a later design stage. The objective is, firstly, to develop a method to quantify this influence, in terms of primary HVAC system dimensions, its cost, emissions and energy consumption and, secondly, to enable the use of the developed method by architects during the conceptual design. In order to account for the non-stationary effects of the intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), thermal storage and for the component part load efficiencies, a time domain system simulation is required. An abstract system simulation method is proposed based on seven pre-configured primary HVAC system models, including components such as boil-ers, chillers and cooling towers, thermal storage, solar thermal collectors, and photovoltaic modules. A control strategy is developed for each of the models and their annual quasi-stationary simulation is performed. The performance profiles obtained are then used to calculate the energy consumption, carbon emissions and costs. The annuity method has been employed to calculate the cost. Optimization is used to automatically size the HVAC systems, based on their simulation performance. Its purpose is to identify the system component dimensions that provide

  2. Energy consumption quota management of Wanda commercial buildings in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D. B.; Xiao, H.; Wang, X.; Liu, J. J.; Wang, X.; Jin, X. Q.; Wang, J.; Xie, X. K.

    2016-08-01

    There is limited research of commercial buildings’ energy use data conducted b