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Sample records for building complex respiratory

  1. Supramolecular Organization of Respiratory Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the existence of superassemblies between mitochondrial respiratory complexes, such superassemblies have been the object of a passionate debate. It is accepted that respiratory supercomplexes are structures that occur in vivo, although which superstructures are naturally occurring and what could be their functional role remain open questions. The main difficulty is to make compatible the existence of superassemblies with the corpus of data that drove the field to abandon the early understanding of the physical arrangement of the mitochondrial respiratory chain as a compact physical entity (the solid model). This review provides a nonexhaustive overview of the evolution of our understanding of the structural organization of the electron transport chain from the original idea of a compact organization to a view of freely moving complexes connected by electron carriers. Today supercomplexes are viewed not as a revival of the old solid model but rather as a refined revision of the fluid model, which incorporates a new layer of structural and functional complexity. PMID:26734886

  2. Energy transduction by respiratory complex I

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Ana P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this dissertation was to provide a contribution to the understanding of the energy transducing mechanism of respiratory complex I. This enzyme is present in most bacteria and in all mitochondrial systems and it is characterized by its large number of subunits, its prosthetic groups (flavin and iron-sulfur centers), and its NADH:quinone oxidoreductase activity sensitive to specific inhibitors and coupled with charge translocation across the membrane.(...)

  3. Structure of bacterial respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrisford, John M; Baradaran, Rozbeh; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-07-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) plays a central role in cellular energy production, coupling electron transfer between NADH and quinone to proton translocation. It is the largest protein assembly of respiratory chains and one of the most elaborate redox membrane proteins known. Bacterial enzyme is about half the size of mitochondrial and thus provides its important "minimal" model. Dysfunction of mitochondrial complex I is implicated in many human neurodegenerative diseases. The L-shaped complex consists of a hydrophilic arm, where electron transfer occurs, and a membrane arm, where proton translocation takes place. We have solved the crystal structures of the hydrophilic domain of complex I from Thermus thermophilus, the membrane domain from Escherichia coli and recently of the intact, entire complex I from T. thermophilus (536 kDa, 16 subunits, 9 iron-sulphur clusters, 64 transmembrane helices). The 95Å long electron transfer pathway through the enzyme proceeds from the primary electron acceptor flavin mononucleotide through seven conserved Fe-S clusters to the unusual elongated quinone-binding site at the interface with the membrane domain. Four putative proton translocation channels are found in the membrane domain, all linked by the central flexible axis containing charged residues. The redox energy of electron transfer is coupled to proton translocation by the as yet undefined mechanism proposed to involve long-range conformational changes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26807915

  4. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings

  5. Investigating the complexity of respiratory patterns during the laryngeal chemoreflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Aidan K

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The laryngeal chemoreflex exists in infants as a primary sensory mechanism for defending the airway from the aspiration of liquids. Previous studies have hypothesized that prolonged apnea associated with this reflex may be life threatening and might be a cause of sudden infant death syndrome. Methods In this study we quantified the output of the respiratory neural network, the diaphragm EMG signal, during the laryngeal chemoreflex and eupnea in early postnatal (3–10 days piglets. We tested the hypothesis that diaphragm EMG activity corresponding to reflex-related events involved in clearance (restorative mechanisms such as cough and swallow exhibit lower complexity, suggesting that a synchronized homogeneous group of neurons in the central respiratory network are active during these events. Nonlinear dynamic analysis was performed using the approximate entropy to asses the complexity of respiratory patterns. Results Diaphragm EMG, genioglossal activity EMG, as well as other physiological signals (tracheal pressure, blood pressure and respiratory volume were recorded from 5 unanesthetized chronically instrumented intact piglets. Approximate entropy values of the EMG during cough and swallow were found significantly (p p Conclusion Reduced complexity values of the respiratory neural network output corresponding to coughs and swallows suggest synchronous neural activity of a homogeneous group of neurons. The higher complexity values exhibited by eupneic respiratory activity are the result of a more random behaviour, which is the outcome of the integrated action of several groups of neurons involved in the respiratory neural network.

  6. Structural studies on aerobic and anaerobic respiratory complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Törnroth, Susanna

    2002-01-01

    All respiratory pathways, whether aerobic or anaerobic, are based on formation of an electrochemical proton gradient called proton motive force (pmf) that drives ATP formation. Membrane-bound respiratory complexes translocate protons across the membrane from a region of low [H+] and negative electrical potential to a region of high [H+] and positive electrical potential. This establishes a proton gradient and a membrane potential that together form pmf. The crystal structures of the respirat...

  7. Hydrophilic Fungi and Ergosterol Associated with Respiratory Illness in a Water-Damaged Building

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ju-Hyeong; Cox-Ganser, Jean M.; Kreiss, Kathleen; White, Sandra K.; Rao, Carol Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background Damp building–related respiratory illnesses are an important public health issue. Objective We compared three respiratory case groups defined by questionnaire responses [200 respiratory cases, 123 of the respiratory cases who met the epidemiologic asthma definition, and 49 of the epidemiologic asthma cases who had current physician-diagnosed asthma with post-occupancy onset] to a comparison group of 152 asymptomatic employees in an office building with a history of water damage. Me...

  8. Alterations of complex I of the respiratory chain in tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many solid tumors exhibit a shift in the energy metabolism from aerobic oxidation in the mitochondria to anaerobic glycolysis, which was first observed by Otto Warburg. In accordance with the Warburg hypothesis, we assume that an irreversible damage to the respiratory chain is a fundamental property of cancer cells and can be a primary event in tumor formation. The aim of this PhD thesis was to elucidate deficiencies of the respiratory chain in mitochondria rich (oncocytic) tumors of the kidney, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the salivary gland, the parotid gland, the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland and the eyelid. Additionally Hashimoto's thyroiditis, an autoimmune disease of the thyroid containing oncocytic cells and non-oncocytic thyroid tumors (follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas, papillary carcinomas and anaplastic carcinomas) were investigated for alterations in the mitochondrial energy metabolism. In oncocytomas (n =57) a specific loss of respiratory chain complex I was detected in 97% of investigated cases by immunohistochemistry, enzymatic measurements and immunoblot analysis. Other complexes of the respiratory chain were compensatory upregulated. In half of the cases, complex I deficiency was caused by disruptive mutations, either frame shift or nonsense mutations in complex I subunits encoded on the mitochondrial genome. Oncocytic nodules in ten cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis also demonstrated a loss of complex I, whereas complex IV expression was very heterogenous. Thyroid cancers, especially papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas, exhibited in most cases a reduction or complete loss of complex I. In some cases oncocytic cells were found in a low percentage, all lacking complex I. Follicular thyroid adenomas are characterized by a general reduction of respiratory chain enzymes, compared to the mitochondrial marker protein porin. In anaplastic thyroid carcinomas neither a specific defect nor a general down regulation was found in this

  9. Respiratory complex I: A dual relation with H(+) and Na(+)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Paulo J; Silva, Andreia F; Marreiros, Bruno C; Batista, Ana P; Pereira, Manuela M

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory complex I couples NADH:quinone oxidoreduction to ion translocation across the membrane, contributing to the buildup of the transmembrane difference of electrochemical potential. H(+) is well recognized to be the coupling ion of this system but some studies suggested that this role could be also performed by Na(+). We have previously observed NADH-driven Na(+) transport opposite to H(+) translocation by menaquinone-reducing complexes I, which indicated a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter activity in these systems. Such activity was also observed for the ubiquinone-reducing mitochondrial complex I in its deactive form. The relation of Na(+) with complex I may not be surprising since the enzyme has three subunits structurally homologous to bona fide Na(+)/H(+) antiporters and translocation of H(+) and Na(+) ions has been described for members of most types of ion pumps and transporters. Moreover, no clearly distinguishable motifs for the binding of H(+) or Na(+) have been recognized yet. We noticed that in menaquinone-reducing complexes I, less energy is available for ion translocation, compared to ubiquinone-reducing complexes I. Therefore, we hypothesized that menaquinone-reducing complexes I perform Na(+)/H(+) antiporter activity in order to achieve the stoichiometry of 4H(+)/2e(-). In agreement, the organisms that use ubiquinone, a high potential quinone, would have kept such Na(+)/H(+) antiporter activity, only operative under determined conditions. This would imply a physiological role(s) of complex I besides a simple "coupling" of a redox reaction and ion transport, which could account for the sophistication of this enzyme. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26711319

  10. Self Assembly of Complex Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucke, David; Crespi, Vincent

    2004-03-01

    A genetic search algorithm for optimizing the packing density of self-assembled multicomponent crystals of nanoparticles applied to complex colloidal building blocks will be presented. The algorithm searches the complex multi-dimensional space to find preferred crystal structures where standard methods fail. Mixtures of colloidal molecules and the structures found to be preferred to phase separation for different species of coloidal molecule mixtures will be shown.

  11. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter conditions, or together, were hierarchically associated with the following: increased absence, increased presenteeism (presence at work but at reduced capacity), and increase in reported symptom-days, including symptoms not related to respiratory disease. We found that in buildings without unusual hazards and with environmental and air quality indicators within the range of acceptable indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely associated with host factors than with environmental conditions. We concluded from the experience of this study that building-related health complaints should be investigated at the work-area level and not at a building

  12. Inhibition of respiratory complex I by copper(ii)-bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoko, Karrera Y; Donnelly, Paul S; McEwan, Alastair G

    2014-12-01

    Several copper(ii) complexes of bis(thiosemicarbazones) [Cu(btsc)s] show promise as therapeutics for the treatment of neurological diseases, cancers and bacterial infections. These complexes are thought to act primarily as copper ionophores or "copper boosting" agents, whereby the Cu(II) centre is reduced by cytosolic reductants and Cu(I) is released as "free" or "bioavailable" ion. It is then assumed that the dissociated Cu(I) ion is the species responsible for many of the observed biological effects of Cu(btsc)s. We recently showed that Cu(btsc) complexes inhibited NADH dehydrogenases in the bacterial respiratory chain. In this work, we demonstrate that Cu(btsc) complexes also inhibit mitochondrial respiration and that Complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain is a specific target of inhibition. However, bioavailable Cu ions do not appear to contribute to the action of Cu(btsc) as a respiratory inhibitor. Instead, an intact Cu(btsc) molecule may bind reversibly and competitively to the site of ubiquinone binding in Complex I. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that the intact complex may be important in the overall cellular activity of Cu(btsc) complexes and further the understanding of their biological effects as a potential therapeutic. PMID:25366244

  13. An Investigation of the Pathology and Pathogens Associated with Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Jensen, H. E.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Bisgaard, M.; Flachs, E. M.; Nielsen, O. L.

    Respiratory infections are among the most important diseases of growing pigs. In order to elucidate the multifactorial aetiology of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in Denmark, lungs from 148 finishing pigs with cranioventral bronchopneumonia (case group) and 60 pigs without lung lesions......), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (both European and US type), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine respiratory coronavirus, porcine cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. All cases had cranioventral lobular bronchopneumonia consistent with PRDC. There...... than enzootic pneumonia among Danish finishing pigs and has complex and varied histopathology....

  14. Building phenomenological models of complex biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Bryan; Nemenman, Ilya

    2009-11-01

    A central goal of any modeling effort is to make predictions regarding experimental conditions that have not yet been observed. Overly simple models will not be able to fit the original data well, but overly complex models are likely to overfit the data and thus produce bad predictions. Modern quantitative biology modeling efforts often err on the complexity side of this balance, using myriads of microscopic biochemical reaction processes with a priori unknown kinetic parameters to model relatively simple biological phenomena. In this work, we show how Bayesian model selection (which is mathematically similar to low temperature expansion in statistical physics) can be used to build coarse-grained, phenomenological models of complex dynamical biological processes, which have better predictive powers than microscopically correct, but poorely constrained mechanistic molecular models. We illustrate this on the example of a multiply-modifiable protein molecule, which is a simplified description of multiple biological systems, such as an immune receptors and an RNA polymerase complex. Our approach is similar in spirit to the phenomenological Landau expansion for the free energy in the theory of critical phenomena.

  15. Study To Build Method For Analyzing Some Component Of Airborne Which Cause Respiratory Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol sampler is located at the top of the three floors building of INST. The amount of PM particle and components such as black carbon; chemical elements; violated organic compounds and microorganisms are analyzed by appropriate methods. Using the method of regression and analysis of variance ANOVA to find out correlation between there pollution components and patients treated at the Department of Respiratory in Hanoi E-Hospital. It shown that microorganisms, benzene, toluene, element sulfur and element silica have effects on monthly number of patients treated respiratory diseases at the E-Hospital. (author)

  16. Three viruses of the bovine respiratory disease complex apply different strategies to initiate infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchhoff, Jana; Uhlenbruck, Sabine; Goris, Katherina; Keil, Günther M.; Herrler, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the major cause of serious respiratory tract infections in calves. The disease is multifactorial, with either stress or reduced immunity allowing several pathogens to emerge. We investigated the susceptibility of bovine airway epithelial cells (BAEC) to infection by the three major viruses associated with the BRDC: bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) and bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). For this pu...

  17. PreBötzinger complex and pacemaker neurons: hypothesized site and kernel for respiratory rhythm generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Feldman, J L

    1998-01-01

    , progress has been made In particular, a site in the ventrolateral medulla, the preBötzinger Complex, is hypothesized to contain neuronal circuits generating respiratory rhythm. Lesions or disruption of synaptic transmission within the preBötzinger Complex, either in vivo or in vitro, can abolish...... respiratory activity. Furthermore, the persistence of respiratory rhythm following interference with postsynaptic inhibition and the subsequent discovery of neurons with endogenous bursting properties within the preBötzinger Complex have led to the hypothesis that rhythmogenesis results from synchronized...

  18. Complexity measures of the central respiratory networks during wakefulness and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Andrei; Akay, Yasemin; Curran, Aidan K.; Akay, Metin

    2008-06-01

    Since sleep is known to influence respiratory activity we studied whether the sleep state would affect the complexity value of the respiratory network output. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the complexity values of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) activity would be lower during REM compared to NREM. Furthermore, since REM is primarily generated by a homogeneous population of neurons in the medulla, the possibility that REM-related respiratory output would be less complex than that of the awake state was also considered. Additionally, in order to examine the influence of neuron vulnerabilities within the rostral ventral medulla (RVM) on the complexity of the respiratory network output, we inhibited respiratory neurons in the RVM by microdialysis of GABAA receptor agonist muscimol. Diaphragm EMG, nuchal EMG, EEG, EOG as well as other physiological signals (tracheal pressure, blood pressure and respiratory volume) were recorded from five unanesthetized chronically instrumented intact piglets (3-10 days old). Complexity of the diaphragm EMG (EMGdia) signal during wakefulness, NREM and REM was evaluated using the approximate entropy method (ApEn). ApEn values of the EMGdia during NREM and REM sleep were found significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) lower than those of awake EMGdia after muscimol inhibition. In the absence of muscimol, only the differences between REM and wakefulness ApEn values were found to be significantly different.

  19. Mitochondrial Respiratory Supercomplex Association Limits Production of Reactive Oxygen Species from Complex I

    OpenAIRE

    Maranzana, Evelina; Barbero, Giovanna; Falasca, Anna Ida; Lenaz, Giorgio; Genova, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The mitochondrial respiratory chain is recognized today to be arranged in supramolecular assemblies (supercomplexes). Besides conferring a kinetic advantage (substrate channeling) and being required for the assembly and stability of Complex I, indirect considerations support the view that supercomplexes may also prevent excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the respiratory chain. In the present study, we have directly addressed this issue by testing the ROS generatio...

  20. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Gershwin, LJ; Van Eenennaam, AL; Anderson, ML; McEligot, HA; Shao, MX; Toaff-Rosenstein, R; Taylor, JF; Neibergs, HL; Womack, J.; Complex, BRD

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella ...

  1. Susceptibility loci revealed for bovine respiratory disease complex in pre-weaned holstein calves

    OpenAIRE

    Neibergs, Holly L.; Seabury, Christopher M.; Wojtowicz, Andrzej J.; Wang, Zeping; Scraggs, Erik; Kiser, Jennifer N; Neupane, Mahesh; Womack, James E.; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Hagevoort, Gerald Robert; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Aly, Sharif; Davis, Jessica; Taylor, Jeremy F; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an infectious disease of cattle that is caused by a combination of viral and/or bacterial pathogens. Selection for cattle with reduced susceptibility to respiratory disease would provide a permanent tool for reducing the prevalence of BRDC. The objective of this study was to identify BRDC susceptibility loci in pre-weaned Holstein calves as a prerequisite to using genetic improvement as a tool for decreasing the prevalence of BRDC. High ...

  2. The Ins and Outs of Breath Holding: Simple Demonstrations of Complex Respiratory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skow, Rachel J.; Day, Trevor A.; Fuller, Jonathan E.; Bruce, Christina D.; Steinback, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of breath holding is complex, and voluntary breath-hold duration is affected by many factors, including practice, psychology, respiratory chemoreflexes, and lung stretch. In this activity, we outline a number of simple laboratory activities or classroom demonstrations that illustrate the complexity of the integrative physiology…

  3. Internal switches modulating electron tunneling currents in respiratory complex III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A

    2016-06-01

    In different X-ray crystal structures of bc1 complex, some of the key residues of electron tunneling pathways are observed in different conformations; here we examine their relative importance in modulating electron transfer and propose their possible gating function in the Q-cycle. The study includes inter-monomeric electron transfer; here we provide atomistic details of the reaction, and discuss the possible roles of inter-monomeric electronic communication in bc1 complex. Binding of natural ligands or inhibitors leads to local conformational changes which propagate through protein and control the conformation of key residues involved in the electron tunneling pathways. Aromatic-aromatic interactions are highly utilized in the communication network since the key residues are aromatic in nature. The calculations show that there is a substantial change of the electron transfer rates between different redox pairs depending on the different conformations acquired by the key residues of the complex. PMID:26874053

  4. Powerhouse down: Complex II dissociation in the respiratory chain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hwang, M.-S.; Rohlena, Jakub; Dong, L.-F.; Neužil, Jiří; Grimm, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, Part A SI (2014), 20-28. ISSN 1567-7249 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GAP301/12/1851 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Mitochondria * Apoptosis * Complex II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.249, year: 2014

  5. Activation of respiratory complex II by interferongamma and its inhibition by pyrimidine derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Zdeněk; Jansa, Petr; Kmoníčková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, Supplement 2 (2014), s. 141-148. ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/0172 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : respiratory complex II * WST-1 assay * LDH assay Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 0.799, year: 2014

  6. DOCUMENTATION OF HISTORICAL BUILDING VIA VIRTUAL TOUR: THE COMPLEX BUILDING OF BATHS IN STRASBOURG

    OpenAIRE

    Koehl, M.; Schneider, A.; Fritsch, E.; Fritsch, F.; Rachedi, A.; S. Guillemin

    2013-01-01

    The virtual visits exist for several years and rest on open source or professional software packages allowing to realize complete animations. The historic buildings are often fragile, sometimes difficultly and only partially accessible. It is the complex case of the building of the municipal baths of Strasbourg, France, object of this study. It is thus interesting to use the technologies of the virtual visits to document a historic building. If we content ourselves only of panoramic ...

  7. Mitochondrial respiratory supercomplex association limits production of reactive oxygen species from Complex I

    OpenAIRE

    Maranzana, Evelina Susana Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Evidence accumulated in the last ten years has demonstrated that a large proportion of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in a variety of organisms is arranged in supramolecular assemblies called supercomplexes or respirasomes. Besides conferring a kinetic advantage (substrate channeling) and being required for the assembly and stability of Complex I, indirect considerations support the view that supercomplexes may also prevent excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) f...

  8. The respiratory complexes I from the mitochondria of two Pichia species

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, Hannah R.; Grgic, Ljuban; Harbour, Michael E.; Hirst, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Abstract NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is an entry point for electrons into the respiratory chain in many eukaryotes. It couples NADH oxidation and ubiquinone reduction to proton translocation across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Because complex I deficiencies occur in a wide range of neuromuscular diseases, including Parkinson?s disease, there is a clear need for model eukaryotic systems to facilitate structural, functional and mutational studies. Here, we desc...

  9. High Molecular Weight Forms of Mammalian Respiratory Chain Complex II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Nikola; Mráček, Tomáš; Nůsková, Hana; Holzerová, Eliška; Vrbacký, Marek; Pecina, Petr; Hejzlarová, Kateřina; Klučková, Katarína; Rohlena, Jakub; Neužil, Jiří; Houštěk, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2013), e71869. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP303/10/P227; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204; GA MZd(CZ) NT12370; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/1937 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : supercomplexes * high molecular weihgt forms of complex II * native electrophoretic systems Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  10. A molecular link between mitochondrial preprotein transporters and respiratory chain complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Murcha, Monika W.; Wang, Yan; Whelan, James

    2012-01-01

    The TIM17:23 complex on the mitochondrial inner membrane is responsible for import of the majority of mitochondrial proteins in plants. In Arabidopsis, Tim17 and Tim23 belong to a large gene family consisting of 16 members termed the Preprotein and Amino acid transporters (PRAT). Recently, two members of this protein family, Tim23-2 and the Complex I subunit B14.7, have been shown to assemble into both Complex I of the respiratory chain and the TIM17:23 complex (Wang et al., 2012), adding to ...

  11. Respiratory chain complexes in dynamic mitochondria display a patchy distribution in life cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Muster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondria, the main suppliers of cellular energy, are dynamic organelles that fuse and divide frequently. Constraining these processes impairs mitochondrial is closely linked to certain neurodegenerative diseases. It is proposed that functional mitochondrial dynamics allows the exchange of compounds thereby providing a rescue mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The question discussed in this paper is whether fusion and fission of mitochondria in different cell lines result in re-localization of respiratory chain (RC complexes and of the ATP synthase. This was addressed by fusing cells containing mitochondria with respiratory complexes labelled with different fluorescent proteins and resolving their time dependent re-localization in living cells. We found a complete reshuffling of RC complexes throughout the entire chondriome in single HeLa cells within 2-3 h by organelle fusion and fission. Polykaryons of fused cells completely re-mixed their RC complexes in 10-24 h in a progressive way. In contrast to the recently described homogeneous mixing of matrix-targeted proteins or outer membrane proteins, the distribution of RC complexes and ATP synthase in fused hybrid mitochondria, however, was not homogeneous but patterned. Thus, complete equilibration of respiratory chain complexes as integral inner mitochondrial membrane complexes is a slow process compared with matrix proteins probably limited by complete fusion. In co-expressing cells, complex II is more homogenously distributed than complex I and V, resp. Indeed, this result argues for higher mobility and less integration in supercomplexes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics favours the re-mixing of all RC complexes within the chondriome. This permanent mixing avoids a static situation with a fixed composition of RC complexes per mitochondrion.

  12. Low-complexity Wireless Monitoring of Respiratory Movements Using Ultra-wideband Impulse Response Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh

    2014-03-01

    In this paper; we present a comprehensive scheme for wireless monitoring of the respiratory movements in humans. Our scheme overcomes the challenges low signal-to-noise ratio, background clutter and high sampling rates. It is based on the estimation of the ultra-wideband channel impulse response. We suggest techniques for dealing with background clutter in situations when it might be time variant. We also present a novel methodology for reducing the required sampling rate of the system significantly while achieving the accuracy offered by the Nyquist rate. Performance results from simulations conducted with pre-recorded respiratory signals demonstrate the robustness of our scheme for tackling the above challenges and providing a low-complexity solution for the monitoring of respiratory movements.

  13. Lack of Cytochrome c in Mouse Fibroblasts Disrupts Assembly/Stability of Respiratory Complexes I and IV*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Vempati, Uma D.; Han, Xianlin; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome c (cyt c) is a heme-containing protein that participates in electron transport in the respiratory chain and as a signaling molecule in the apoptotic cascade. Here we addressed the effect of removing mammalian cyt c on the integrity of the respiratory complexes in mammalian cells. Mitochondria from cyt c knockout mouse cells lacked fully assembled complexes I and IV and had reduced levels of complex III. A redox-deficient mutant of cyt c was unable to rescue ...

  14. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PMID:27256017

  15. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations and environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory building related symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, Christine A.; Apte, Michael G.

    2003-09-01

    Using the US EPA 100 office-building BASE Study dataset, they conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the relationship between indoor CO{sub 2} concentrations (dCO{sub 2}) and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (LResp) building related symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. In addition, they tested the hypothesis that certain environmentally-mediated health conditions (e.g., allergies and asthma) confer increased susceptibility to building related symptoms within office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependent associations (p < 0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100 ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average, reduce the prevalence of several building related symptoms by up to 70%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. Building occupants with certain environmentally-mediated health conditions are more likely to experience building related symptoms than those without these conditions (statistically significant ORs ranged from 2 to 11).

  16. Control of electron transport routes through redox-regulated redistribution of respiratory complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lu-Ning; Samantha J Bryan; Huang, Fang; Yu, Jianfeng; Nixon, Peter J.; Rich, Peter R.; Mullineaux, Conrad W.

    2012-01-01

    In cyanobacteria, respiratory electron transport takes place in close proximity to photosynthetic electron transport, because the complexes required for both processes are located within the thylakoid membranes. The balance of electron transport routes is crucial for cell physiology, yet the factors that control the predominance of particular pathways are poorly understood. Here we use a combination of tagging with green fluorescent protein and confocal fluorescence microscopy in live cells o...

  17. Surfactant-anti-surfactant immune complexes in infants with respiratory distress syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Strayer, D. S.; Merritt, T. A.; Lwebuga-Mukasa, J.; Hallman, M

    1986-01-01

    The authors sought to determine whether treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) with human surfactant resulted in the formation of detectable circulating immune complexes. Preterm infants with severe RDS were divided into two groups: one group received human surfactant by intratracheal instillation and the other group did not. Both groups received ventilatory management involving intermittent mandatory ventilation. Plasma samples were drawn from these babies prior to treatment and at...

  18. An Agent Based Software Approach towards Building Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latika Kharb

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agent-oriented techniques represent an exciting new means of analyzing, designing and building complex software systems. They have the potential to significantly improve current practice in software engineering and to extend the range of applications that can feasibly be tackled. Yet, to date, there have been few serious attempts to cast agent systems as a software engineering paradigm. This paper seeks to rectify this omission. Specifically, points to be argued include:firstly, the conceptual apparatus of agent-oriented systems is well-suited to building software solutions for complex systems and secondly, agent-oriented approaches represent a genuine advance over the current state of the art for engineering complex systems. Following on from this view, the major issues raised by adopting an agentoriented approach to software engineering are highlighted and discussed in this paper.

  19. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Laurel J; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Anderson, Mark L; McEligot, Heather A; Shao, Matt X; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Taylor, Jeremy F; Neibergs, Holly L; Womack, James

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described. PMID:26571015

  20. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  1. Advanced Benchmarking for Complex Building Types: Laboratories as an Exemplar

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Complex buildings such as laboratories, data centers and cleanrooms present particular challenges for energy benchmarking because it is difficult to normalize special requirements such as health and safety in laboratories and reliability (i.e., system redundancy to maintain uptime) in data centers which significantly impact energy use. For example, air change requirements vary widely based on the type of work being performed in each laboratory space. We present methods and tools for energy ...

  2. Advanced benchmarking for complex building types: laboratories as an exemplar.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Paul; Clear, Robert; Kircher, Kevin; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho; Hoyt, Tyler

    2010-01-01

    Complex buildings such as laboratories, data centers and cleanrooms present particular challenges for energy benchmarking because it is difficult to normalize special requirements such as health and safety in laboratories and reliability (i.e. system redundancy to maintain uptime) in data centers which significantly impact energy use. For example, air change requirements vary widely based on the type of work being performed in each laboratory space. We present methods and tools for e...

  3. Structural design of SBWR reactor building complex using microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design concept of Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) plant is based on simplicity and passive features to enhance safety and reliability, improve performance, and increase economic viability. The SBWR utilizes passive systems such as Gravity Driven Core-Cooling System (GDCS) and Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS). To suit these design features the Reactor Building (RB) complex of the SBWR is configured as an integrated structure consisting of a cylindrical Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) surrounded by square reinforced concrete safety envelope and outer box structures, all sharing a common reinforced concrete basemat. This paper describes the structural analysis and design aspects of the RB complex. A 3D STARDYNE finite element model has been developed for the structural analysis of the complex using a PC Compaq 486/33L microcomputer. The structural analysis is performed for service and factored load conditions for the applicable loading combinations. The dynamic responses of containment structures due to pool hydrodynamic loads have been calculated by an axisymmetric shell model using COSMOS/M program. The RCCV is designed in accordance with ASME Section 3, Division 2 Code. The rest of the RB which is classified as Seismic Category 1 structure is designed in accordance with the ACI 349 Code. This paper shows that microcomputers can be efficiently used for the analysis and design of large and complex structures such as RCCV and Reactor Building complex. The use of microcomputers can result in significant savings in the computational cost compared with that of mainframe computers

  4. Structure of subcomplex Iβ of mammalian respiratory complex I leads to new supernumerary subunit assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiapeng; King, Martin S; Yu, Minmin; Klipcan, Liron; Leslie, Andrew G W; Hirst, Judy

    2015-09-29

    Mitochondrial complex I (proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is an essential respiratory enzyme. Mammalian complex I contains 45 subunits: 14 conserved "core" subunits and 31 "supernumerary" subunits. The structure of Bos taurus complex I, determined to 5-Å resolution by electron cryomicroscopy, described the structure of the mammalian core enzyme and allowed the assignment of 14 supernumerary subunits. Here, we describe the 6.8-Å resolution X-ray crystallography structure of subcomplex Iβ, a large portion of the membrane domain of B. taurus complex I that contains two core subunits and a cohort of supernumerary subunits. By comparing the structures and composition of subcomplex Iβ and complex I, supported by comparisons with Yarrowia lipolytica complex I, we propose assignments for eight further supernumerary subunits in the structure. Our new assignments include two CHCH-domain containing subunits that contain disulfide bridges between CX9C motifs; they are processed by the Mia40 oxidative-folding pathway in the intermembrane space and probably stabilize the membrane domain. We also assign subunit B22, an LYR protein, to the matrix face of the membrane domain. We reveal that subunit B22 anchors an acyl carrier protein (ACP) to the complex, replicating the LYR protein-ACP structural module that was identified previously in the hydrophilic domain. Thus, we significantly extend knowledge of how the mammalian supernumerary subunits are arranged around the core enzyme, and provide insights into their roles in biogenesis and regulation. PMID:26371297

  5. The Role of Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase in Apoptosis Induction in Response to Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III

    OpenAIRE

    Khutornenko, A.; Dalina, A.; Chernyak, B.; Chumakov, P; Evstafieva, A.

    2014-01-01

    A mechanism for the induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis) upon dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain has been studied. Previously, we had found that inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome bc1, a component of the electron transport chain complex III, leads to activation of tumor suppressor p53, followed by apoptosis induction. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is coupled to the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway via the mitochondrial enzyme dihydroorotate dehydroge...

  6. The role of geochemistry and energetics in the evolution of modern respiratory complexes from a proton-reducing ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schut, Gerrit J; Zadvornyy, Oleg; Wu, Chang-Hao; Peters, John W; Boyd, Eric S; Adams, Michael W W

    2016-07-01

    Complex I or NADH quinone oxidoreductase (NUO) is an integral component of modern day respiratory chains and has a close evolutionary relationship with energy-conserving [NiFe]-hydrogenases of anaerobic microorganisms. Specifically, in all of biology, the quinone-binding subunit of Complex I, NuoD, is most closely related to the proton-reducing, H2-evolving [NiFe]-containing catalytic subunit, MbhL, of membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH), to the methanophenzine-reducing subunit of a methanogenic respiratory complex (FPO) and to the catalytic subunit of an archaeal respiratory complex (MBX) involved in reducing elemental sulfur (S°). These complexes also pump ions and have at least 10 homologous subunits in common. As electron donors, MBH and MBX use ferredoxin (Fd), FPO uses either Fd or cofactor F420, and NUO uses either Fd or NADH. In this review, we examine the evolutionary trajectory of these oxidoreductases from a proton-reducing ancestral respiratory complex (ARC). We hypothesize that the diversification of ARC to MBH, MBX, FPO and eventually NUO was driven by the larger energy yields associated with coupling Fd oxidation to the reduction of oxidants with increasing electrochemical potential, including protons, S° and membrane soluble organic compounds such as phenazines and quinone derivatives. Importantly, throughout Earth's history, the availability of these oxidants increased as the redox state of the atmosphere and oceans became progressively more oxidized as a result of the origin and ecological expansion of oxygenic photosynthesis. ARC-derived complexes are therefore remarkably stable respiratory systems with little diversity in core structure but whose general function appears to have co-evolved with the redox state of the biosphere. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory Complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26808919

  7. Energy conversion, redox catalysis and generation of reactive oxygen species by respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Judy; Roessler, Maxie M

    2016-07-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is critical for respiration in mammalian mitochondria. It oxidizes NADH produced by the Krebs' tricarboxylic acid cycle and β-oxidation of fatty acids, reduces ubiquinone, and transports protons to contribute to the proton-motive force across the inner membrane. Complex I is also a significant contributor to cellular oxidative stress. In complex I, NADH oxidation by a flavin mononucleotide, followed by intramolecular electron transfer along a chain of iron-sulfur clusters, delivers electrons and energy to bound ubiquinone. Either at cluster N2 (the terminal cluster in the chain) or upon the binding/reduction/dissociation of ubiquinone/ubiquinol, energy from the redox process is captured to initiate long-range energy transfer through the complex and drive proton translocation. This review focuses on current knowledge of how the redox reaction and proton transfer are coupled, with particular emphasis on the formation and role of semiquinone intermediates in both energy transduction and reactive oxygen species production. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26721206

  8. Network Motifs: Simple Building Blocks of Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milo, R.; Shen-Orr, S.; Itzkovitz, S.; Kashtan, N.; Chklovskii, D.; Alon, U.

    2002-10-01

    Complex networks are studied across many fields of science. To uncover their structural design principles, we defined ``network motifs,'' patterns of interconnections occurring in complex networks at numbers that are significantly higher than those in randomized networks. We found such motifs in networks from biochemistry, neurobiology, ecology, and engineering. The motifs shared by ecological food webs were distinct from the motifs shared by the genetic networks of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae or from those found in the World Wide Web. Similar motifs were found in networks that perform information processing, even though they describe elements as different as biomolecules within a cell and synaptic connections between neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans. Motifs may thus define universal classes of networks. This approach may uncover the basic building blocks of most networks.

  9. Documentation of Historical Building via Virtual Tour: the Complex Building of Baths in Strasbourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, M.; Schneider, A.; Fritsch, E.; Fritsch, F.; Rachedi, A.; Guillemin, S.

    2013-07-01

    The virtual visits exist for several years and rest on open source or professional software packages allowing to realize complete animations. The historic buildings are often fragile, sometimes difficultly and only partially accessible. It is the complex case of the building of the municipal baths of Strasbourg, France, object of this study. It is thus interesting to use the technologies of the virtual visits to document a historic building. If we content ourselves only of panoramic images, the visitor cannot take completely advantage of the site, especially if he does not know it in advance. It is a question of proposing to the visitor a guided tour, constrained, allowing him to move on to all the recommended places. Then to supply him further information on the most significant parts and to propose him images of archive to make comparisons. Of course, if he wants to walk alone in and around the building, he will have the leisure of it, but at his own risk. To realize such a visit, the paper shows the various necessary stages of elaboration, in particular by beginning with the writing of a scenario of the visit. This project written in several hands allowed to combine the knowledge of diverse actors working in the field of the inventory and of the heritage valorisation.

  10. Electrical coupling and excitatory synaptic transmission between rhythmogenic respiratory neurons in the preBötzinger complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Shao, X M; Feldman, J L

    2000-01-01

    Breathing pattern is postulated to be generated by brainstem neurons. However, determination of the underlying cellular mechanisms, and in particular the synaptic interactions between respiratory neurons, has been difficult. Here we used dual recordings from two distinct populations of brainstem...... respiratory neurons, hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons, and rhythmogenic (type-1) neurons in the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the hypothesized site for respiratory rhythm generation, to determine whether electrical and chemical transmission is present. Using an in vitro brainstem slice preparation from newborn...... recordings also demonstrated unidirectional excitatory chemical transmission (EPSPs of approximately 3 mV) between type-1 neurons. These data indicate that respiratory motor output from the brainstem involves gap junction-mediated current transfer between motoneurons. Furthermore, bidirectional electrical...

  11. Modulation of respiratory frequency by peptidergic input to rhythmogenic neurons in the preBötzinger complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, P A; Rekling, J C; Bocchiaro, C M;

    1999-01-01

    . The distribution of NK1R+ neurons anatomically defined the preBötC. Type 1 neurons in the preBötC, which have rhythmogenic properties, expressed both NK1Rs and muORs, whereas type 2 neurons expressed only NK1Rs. These findings suggest that the preBötC is a definable anatomic structure with unique......Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and mu-opioid receptor (muOR) agonists affected respiratory rhythm when injected directly into the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), the hypothesized site for respiratory rhythmogenesis in mammals. These effects were mediated by actions on preBötC rhythmogenic neurons...... physiological function and that a subpopulation of neurons expressing both NK1Rs and muORs generate respiratory rhythm and modulate respiratory frequency....

  12. Species of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria in respiratory specimens from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Irena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide the first comprehensive report into the local pattern of mycobacterial isolation. We used the GenoType MTBC and CM/AS assays (Hain Lifescience to perform speciation of 1 096 mycobacterial cultures isolated from respiratory specimens, one culture per patient, in Serbia over a 12-month period. The only species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC identified in our study was M. tuberculosis, with an isolation rate of 88.8%. Ten different species of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM were recognized, and the five most frequently isolated species were, in descending order, M. xenopi, M. peregrinum, M. gordonae, M. avium and M. chelonae. In total, NTM isolates accounted for 11.2% of all isolates of mycobacteria identified in pulmonary specimens. Our results suggest that routine differentiation among members of the MTBC is not necessary, while routine speciation of NTM is required. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175039

  13. Cysteine scanning reveals minor local rearrangements of the horizontal helix of respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimle, Stefan; Schnick, Christian; Burger, Eva-Maria; Nuber, Franziska; Krämer, Dorothée; Dawitz, Hannah; Brander, Sofia; Matlosz, Bartlomiej; Schäfer, Jacob; Maurer, Katharina; Glessner, Udo; Friedrich, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    The NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, respiratory complex I, couples electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone with the translocation of protons across the membrane. The complex consists of a peripheral arm catalyzing the redox reaction and a membrane arm catalyzing proton translocation. The membrane arm is almost completely aligned by a 110 Å unique horizontal helix that is discussed to transmit conformational changes induced by the redox reaction in a piston-like movement to the membrane arm driving proton translocation. Here, we analyzed such a proposed movement by cysteine-scanning of the helix of the Escherichia coli complex I. The accessibility of engineered cysteine residues and the flexibility of individual positions were determined by labeling the preparations with a fluorescent marker and a spin-probe, respectively, in the oxidized and reduced states. The differences in fluorescence labeling and the rotational flexibility of the spin probe between both redox states indicate only slight conformational changes at distinct positions of the helix but not a large movement. PMID:26115017

  14. Dry building mixture with complex dispersed mineral additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ina, Liliia; Mukhina, Irina; Teplov, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of the complex dispersed mineral additive consisting of diopside and limestone was provided by the following factors. Diopside, due to the high hardness, reinforces formed hardened cement paste and prevents the spread of micro-cracks in it under the action of loads. Furthermore, diopside due to the greater elastic modulus than cement paste causes redistribution of stress between the additive particles and the cement. Limestone, since it has chemical affinity with the clinker minerals and products of their hydration hardening, effects on the hydration process and the formation of the contact area between the additive particles and the cement. The optimum quantity of complex dispersed mineral additive is 7%. At the same time the strength of the solution, made of dry building mixture "rough leveler for floor", increased by 22.1%, and the strength of the solution, made of dry mortar "masonry mixture" increased by 32.7%. With the mineral additive introduction the offset of the endoeffect temperatures to higher temperatures on derivatograms is fixed. If there is a mineral additive in the hardened cement paste, which may act as substrate for the tumors crystallization, the hardened cement paste structure strengthening while the complex thermal analysis is seen.

  15. Procedural design of exterior lighting for buildings with complex constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Schwarz, Michael

    2014-09-23

    We present a system for the lighting design of procedurally modeled buildings. The design is procedurally specified as part of the ordinary modeling workflow by defining goals for the illumination that should be attained and locations where luminaires may be installed to realize these goals. Additionally, constraints can be modeled that make the arrangement of the installed luminaires respect certain aesthetic and structural considerations. From this specification, the system automatically generates a lighting solution for any concrete model instance. The underlying, intricate joint optimization and constraint satisfaction problem is approached with a stochastic scheme that operates directly in the complex subspace where all constraints are observed. To navigate this subspace efficaciously, the actual lighting situation is taken into account. We demonstrate our system on multiple examples spanning a variety of architectural structures and lighting designs. Copyright held by the Owner/Author.

  16. Automatic Building Extraction From LIDAR Data Covering Complex Urban Scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awrangjeb, M.; Lu, G.; Fraser, C.

    2014-08-01

    proposed method offers higher building detection and roof plane extraction rates than many existing methods, especially in complex urban scenes.

  17. Respiratory chain complex I deficiency due to NDUFA12 mutations as a new cause of Leigh syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Elsebet; Rodenburg, Richard J; van den Brand, Mariël;

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated a girl with Leigh syndrome born to first-cousin parents of Pakistani descent with an isolated respiratory chain complex I deficiency in muscle and fibroblasts. Her early development was delayed, and from age 2 years she started losing motor abilities. Cerebral MRI showed...

  18. The CA domain of the respiratory complex I is required for normal embryogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Juan Pablo; Marchetti, Fernanda; Soto, Débora; Martin, María Victoria; Pagnussat, Gabriela Carolina; Zabaleta, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    The NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase [complex I (CI), EC 1.6.5.3] of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is the principal entry point of electrons, and vital in maintaining metabolism and the redox balance. In a variety of eukaryotic organisms, except animal and fungi (Opisthokonta), it contains an extra domain composed of putative gamma carbonic anhydrases subunits, named the CA domain, which was proposed to be essential for complex I assembly. There are two kinds of carbonic anhydrase subunits: CAs (of which there are three) and carbonic anhydrase-like proteins (CALs) (of which there are two). In plants, the CA domain has been linked to photorespiration. In this work, we report that Arabidopsis mutant plants affected in two specific CA subunits show a lethal phenotype. Double homozygous knockouts ca1ca2 embryos show a significant developmental delay compared to the non-homozygous embryos, which show a wild-type (WT) phenotype in the same silique. Mutant embryos show impaired mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. The characteristic embryo greening does not take place and fewer but larger oil bodies are present. Although seeds look dark brown and wrinkled, they are able to germinate 12 d later than WT seeds. However, they die immediately, most likely due to oxidative stress.Since the CA domain is required for complex I biogenesis, it is predicted that in ca1ca2 mutants no complex I could be formed, triggering the lethal phenotype. The in vivo composition of a functional CA domain is proposed. PMID:26721503

  19. Knowledge Sharing Strategies for Large Complex Building Projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Bektas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is a project-based sector with a myriad of actors such as architects, construction companies, consultants, producers of building materials (Anumba et al., 2005. The interaction between the project partners is often quite limited, which leads to insufficient knowledge sharing during the project and knowledge being unavailable for reuse (Fruchter et al. 2002. The result can be a considerable amount of extra work, delays and cost overruns. Design outcomes that are supposed to function as boundary objects across different disciplines can lead to misinterpretation of requirements, project content and objectives. In this research, knowledge is seen as resulting from social interactions; knowledge resides in communities and it is generated through social relationships (Wenger 1998, Olsson et al. 2008. Knowledge is often tacit, intangible and context-dependent and it is articulated in the changing responsibilities, roles, attitudes and values that are present in the work environment (Bresnen et al., 2003. In a project environment, knowledge enables individuals to solve problems, take decisions, and apply these decisions to actions. In order to achieve a shared understanding and minimize the misunderstanding and misinterpretations among project actors, it is necessary to share knowledge (Fong 2003.Sharing knowledge is particularly crucial in large complex building projects (LCBPs in order to accelerate the building process, improve architectural quality and prevent mistakes or undesirable results. However, knowledge sharing is often hampered through professional or organizational boundaries or contractual concerns. When knowledge is seen as an organizational asset, there is little willingness among project organizations to share their knowledge. Individual people may recognize the need to promote knowledge sharing throughout the project, but typically there is no deliberate strategy agreed by all project partners to address

  20. Evolution of Respiratory Complex I: “SUPERNUMERARY” SUBUNITS ARE PRESENT IN THE α-PROTEOBACTERIAL ENZYME*

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Chui-ying; Harbour, Michael E; Jayawardena, Kamburapola; Fearnley, Ian M.; Sazanov, Leonid A.

    2010-01-01

    Modern α-proteobacteria are thought to be closely related to the ancient symbiont of eukaryotes, an ancestor of mitochondria. Respiratory complex I from α-proteobacteria and mitochondria is well conserved at the level of the 14 “core” subunits, consistent with that notion. Mitochondrial complex I contains the core subunits, present in all species, and up to 31 “supernumerary” subunits, generally thought to have originated only within eukaryotic lineages. However, the full protein composition ...

  1. Estimating the 4D Respiratory Lung Motion by Spatiotemporal Registration and Building Super-Resolution Image

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The estimation of lung motion in 4D-CT with respect to the respiratory phase becomes more and more important for radiation therapy of lung cancer. However, modern CT scanner can only scan a limited region of body at each couch table position. Thus, motion artifacts due to the patient’s free breathing during scan are often observable in 4D-CT, which could undermine the procedure of correspondence detection in the registration. Another challenge of motion estimation in 4D-CT is how to keep the ...

  2. Reactive oxygen species are generated by the respiratory complex II - evidence for lack of contribution of the reverse electron flow in complex I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moreno-Sanchez, R.; Hernandez-Esquivel, L.; Rivero-Segura, N.A.; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Neužil, Jiří; Ralph, S. J.; Rodriguez-Enriquez, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 3 (2013), s. 927-938. ISSN 1742-464X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : anti-cancer drugs * mitochondria * respiratory complex II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2013

  3. Copper deficiency decreases the protein expression of Complex IV but not Complex I, II, III, or V in mitochondrial respiratory chain in rat heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been documented that dietary copper (Cu) deficiency impairs mitochondrial respiratory function which is catalyzed by five membrane-bound multiple protein complexes. However, there are few reports on the simultaneous analysis of Cu effect on the subunit protein expression on all five protein c...

  4. Crystallization of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complex II fromChicken Heart: A Membrane-Protein Complex Diffracting to 2.0Angstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-shar; Borders, Toni M.; Shen, John T.; Wang, Chung-Jen; Berry, Edward A.

    2004-12-17

    Procedure is presented for preparation of diffraction-quality crystals of a vertebrate mitochondrial respiratory Complex II. The crystals have the potential to diffract to at least 2.0 Angstrom with optimization of post-crystal-growth treatment and cryoprotection. This should allow determination of the structure of this important and medically relevant membrane protein complex at near-atomic resolution and provide great detail of the mode of binding of substrates and inhibitors at the two substrate-binding sites.

  5. Respiratory complexes III and IV can each bind two molecules of cytochrome c at low ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Beltrán, Blas; Díaz-Moreno, Irene; González-Arzola, Katiuska; Guerra-Castellano, Alejandra; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio

    2015-02-13

    The transient interactions of respiratory cytochrome c with complexes III and IV is herein investigated by using heterologous proteins, namely human cytochrome c, the soluble domain of plant cytochrome c1 and bovine cytochrome c oxidase. The binding molecular mechanisms of the resulting cross-complexes have been analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. Our data reveal that the two cytochrome c-involving adducts possess a 2:1 stoichiometry - that is, two cytochrome c molecules per adduct - at low ionic strength. We conclude that such extra binding sites at the surfaces of complexes III and IV can facilitate the turnover and sliding of cytochrome c molecules and, therefore, the electron transfer within respiratory supercomplexes. PMID:25595453

  6. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates intestinal mitochondrial injury by increasing antioxidant effects and activity of respiratory complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhou, Lili; Ruan, Zheng; Mi, Shumei; Jiang, Min; Li, Xiaolan; Wu, Xin; Deng, Zeyuan; Yin, Yulong

    2016-05-01

    Dietary polyphenols are thought to be beneficial for human health by acting as antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is abundant in plant-based foods as an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of CGA on mitochondrial protection. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment with CGA ameliorated the intestinal mitochondrial injury induced by H2O2; membrane potential was increased, mitochondrial swelling, levels of reactive oxygen species, contents of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, and cytochrome c released were decreased. The beneficial effects of CGA were accompanied by an increase in antioxidant and respiratory-chain complex I, IV, and V activities. In trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid-induced colitic rats indicated that CGA supplementation improved mitochondria ultrastructure and decreased mitochondrial injury. Our results suggest a promising role for CGA as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant in combating intestinal oxidative injury. Daily intake of diets containing CGA, such as coffee and honeysuckle, may be useful for prevention of intestinal diseases. PMID:26824685

  7. Mycoplasma hyorhinis is a potential pathogen of porcine respiratory disease complex that aggravates pneumonia caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Ah; Oh, Yu-Ri; Hwang, Min-A; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Sang-Won

    2016-09-01

    The porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) caused by numerous bacterial and viral agents has a great impact on pig industry worldwide. Although Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) has been frequently isolated from lung lesions from pigs with PRDC, the pathological importance of Mhr may have been underestimated. In this study, 383 serum samples obtained from seven herds with a history of PRDC were tested for specific antibodies to Mhr, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Seropositive rates of PRRSV were significantly correlated with those of Mhr (correlation coefficient, 0.862; P-value, 0.013), but not with those of Mhp (correlation coefficient, -0.555; P-value, 0.196). In vivo experiments demonstrated that pigs co-infected with Mhr and PRRSV induced more severe lung lesions than pigs infected with Mhr or PRRSV alone. These findings suggest that Mhr is closely associated with pneumonia caused by PRRSV and provide important information on Mhr pathogenesis within PRDC. Therefore, effective PRDC control strategies should also consider the potential impact of Mhr in the pathogenesis of PRDC. PMID:27436444

  8. DIFFERENTIAL INHIBITION OF MITOCHONDRIAL RESPIRATORY COMPLEXES BY INHALATION OF COMBUSTION SMOKE AND CARBON MONOXIDE, IN VIVO, IN THE RAT BRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Heung M; Hallberg, Lance M.; Greeley, George H.; Englander, Ella W.

    2010-01-01

    Combustion smoke contains gases and particulates, which act via hypoxia and cytotoxicity producing mechanisms to injure cells and tissues. While carbon monoxide (CO) is the major toxicant in smoke, its toxicity is exacerbated in presence of other compounds. Here, we examined modulations of mitochondrial and cytosolic energy metabolism by inhalation of combustion smoke versus CO, in vivo, in the rat brain. Measurements revealed reduced activities of respiratory complexes, with greater inhibiti...

  9. The SFT-1 and OXA-1 respiratory chain complex assembly factors influence lifespan by distinct mechanisms in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Sara; Harding, Joanne; Brabin, Charles; Peter J. Appleford; Brown, Ruth; Delaney, Carol; Brown, Garry; Woollard, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background C. elegans mitochondrial (Mit) mutants have disrupted mitochondrial electron transport chain function, yet, surprisingly, they are often long-lived, a property that has offered unique insights into the molecular mechanisms of aging. In this study, we examine the phenotypic consequences of reducing the expression of the respiratory chain complex assembly factors sft-1 (homologous to human SURF1) and oxa-1 (homologous to human OXA1) by RNA interference (RNAi). Mutations in human SURF...

  10. Predicting cumulative risk of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) using feedlot arrival data and daily morbidity and mortality counts

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Abram H.; White, Brad J.; Renter, David G.; Dubnicka, Suzanne R.; Scott, H. Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Although bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is common in post-weaning cattle, BRDC prediction models are seldom analyzed. The objectives of this study were to assess the ability to predict cumulative cohort-level BRDC morbidity using on-arrival risk factors and to evaluate whether or not adding BRDC risk classification and daily BRDC morbidity and mortality data to the models enhanced their predictive ability. Retrospective cohort-level and individual animal health data were used to cr...

  11. Nitric Oxide-associated Protein 1 (NOA1) Is Necessary for Oxygen-dependent Regulation of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complexes*

    OpenAIRE

    Heidler, Juliana; Al-Furoukh, Natalie; Kukat, Christian; Salwig, Isabelle; Ingelmann, Marie-Elisabeth; Seibel, Peter; Krüger, Marcus; Holtz, Jürgen; Wittig, Ilka; Braun, Thomas; Szibor, Marten

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, maintenance of cellular ATP stores depends mainly on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), which in turn requires sufficient cellular oxygenation. The crucial role of proper oxygenation for cellular viability is reflected by involvement of several mechanisms, which sense hypoxia and regulate activities of respiratory complexes according to available oxygen concentrations. Here, we focus on mouse nitric oxide-associated protein 1 (mNOA1), which has been identif...

  12. Autism associated to a deficiency of complexes III and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Campos, José; González-Guevara, Lucía; Briones, Paz; López-Gallardo, Ester; Bulán, Nuria; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Ramnarine, Denisse; Montoya, Julio

    2010-09-01

    Autism is the prototype of generalized developmental disorders or what today are called autism spectrum disorders. In most cases it is impossible to detect a specific etiology. It is estimated that a causative diagnosis may be shown in approximately 10-37% of the cases, including, congenital rubella, tuberous sclerosis, chromosome abnormalities such as fragile X syndrome and 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, Angelman, Williams, Smith-Magenis, Sotos, Cornelia de Lange, Möbius, Joubert and Goldenhar syndromes, Ito's hypomelanosis, as well as certain cerebral malformations and several inherited metabolic disorders. The case of a 3-year old girl is described, who was considered as autistic according to the criteria established by the DSM-IV manual for psychiatric disorders. She showed a delay in psychomotor development since she was 18 months old; she pronounces very few words (10), points to some objects, does not look up and it is hard to establish eye contact with her. She has paradoxical deafness and therefore, does not respond when called or when she is given orders, she is beginning to walk. She has not convulsions. Laboratory tests showed an anion gap of 31.6 mEq/L, lactate: 2.55: mmol/L, pyruvate: 0.06 mmol/L, and elevated lactate to/pyruvate ratio: 42.5. Under optical microscopy a muscular biopsy showed a reduction of the diameter of muscular fibers. The study of energy metabolism showed a partial deficiency of complexes III and IV of the respiratory chain, which allowed us to conclude that this was a mitochondrial dysfunction with an autistic clinical spectrum. PMID:21302592

  13. Complexity in Designing Energy Efficient Buildings: Towards Understanding Decision Networks in Design

    OpenAIRE

    Pikas, Ergo; Koskela, Lauri; Thalfeldt, Martin; Dave, Bhargav; Kurnitski, Jarek

    2015-01-01

    Most important decisions for designing energy efficient buildings are made in the early stages of design. Designing is a complex interdisciplinary task, and energy efficiency requirements are pushing boundaries even further. This study analyzes the level of complexity for energy efficient building design and possible remedies for managing or reducing the complexity. Methodologically, we used the design structure matrix for mapping the current design tasks and hierarchical decomposition of lif...

  14. The aerobic respiratory chain of the acidophilic archaeon Ferroplasma acidiphilum: A membrane-bound complex oxidizing ferrous iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelle, Cindy J; Roger, Magali; Bauzan, Marielle; Brugna, Myriam; Lignon, Sabrina; Nimtz, Manfred; Golyshina, Olga V; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Guiral, Marianne

    2015-08-01

    The extremely acidophilic archaeon Ferroplasma acidiphilum is found in iron-rich biomining environments and is an important micro-organism in naturally occurring microbial communities in acid mine drainage. F. acidiphilum is an iron oxidizer that belongs to the order Thermoplasmatales (Euryarchaeota), which harbors the most extremely acidophilic micro-organisms known so far. At present, little is known about the nature or the structural and functional organization of the proteins in F. acidiphilum that impact the iron biogeochemical cycle. We combine here biochemical and biophysical techniques such as enzyme purification, activity measurements, proteomics and spectroscopy to characterize the iron oxidation pathway(s) in F. acidiphilum. We isolated two respiratory membrane protein complexes: a 850 kDa complex containing an aa3-type cytochrome oxidase and a blue copper protein, which directly oxidizes ferrous iron and reduces molecular oxygen, and a 150 kDa cytochrome ba complex likely composed of a di-heme cytochrome and a Rieske protein. We tentatively propose that both of these complexes are involved in iron oxidation respiratory chains, functioning in the so-called uphill and downhill electron flow pathways, consistent with autotrophic life. The cytochrome ba complex could possibly play a role in regenerating reducing equivalents by a reverse ('uphill') electron flow. This study constitutes the first detailed biochemical investigation of the metalloproteins that are potentially directly involved in iron-mediated energy conservation in a member of the acidophilic archaea of the genus Ferroplasma. PMID:25896560

  15. How to build segregation complexes in bacteria: Use bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Funnell, Barbara E.

    2014-01-01

    This perspective discusses the novel molecular mechanism of ParB spreading that is reported by Graham et al. (this issue). Using single-molecule analysis, Graham et al. found that Bacillus subtilis ParB proteins use a previously uncharacterized looping and bridging activity to assemble three-dimensional nucleoprotein complexes with DNA flanking the parS site. Formation of this higher-order ParB/parS complex is necessary for SMC condensin complex recruitment and chromosome segregation.

  16. Text Complexity: The Importance of Building the Right Staircase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papola-Ellis, Aimee L.

    2014-01-01

    As more districts begin implementing the Common Core State Standards, text complexity is receiving a lot of discussion. It is important for educators to understand the numerous factors involved with text complexity and to have a wide range of strategies to support students with challenging text. This paper shares data from three elementary…

  17. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations, VOCS, environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, M.G.; Erdmann, C.A.

    2002-10-01

    Using the 100 office-building Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study dataset, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the associations between indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} (dCO{sub 2}) concentrations and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (Lresp) Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Using principal components analysis we identified a number of possible sources of 73 measured volatile organic compounds in the office buildings, and assessed the impact of these VOCs on the probability of presenting the SBS symptoms. Additionally we included analysis adjusting for the risks for predisposition of having SBS symptoms associated with the allergic, asthmatic, and environmentally sensitive subpopulations within the office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependant associations (p<0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100-ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average significantly reduce the prevalence of several SBS symptoms, up to 80%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. VOC sources were observed to play an role in direct association with mucous membrane and lower respiratory irritation, and possibly to be indirectly involved in indoor chemical reactions with ozone that produce irritating compounds associated with SBS symptoms. O-xylene, possibly emitted from furniture coatings was associated with shortness of breath (OR at the maximum concentration = 8, p < 0.05). The environmental sensitivities of a large subset of the office building population add to the overall risk of SBS symptoms (ORs

  18. Knowledge Sharing Strategies for Large Complex Building Projects.

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Bektas

    2013-01-01

    The construction industry is a project-based sector with a myriad of actors such as architects, construction companies, consultants, producers of building materials (Anumba et al., 2005). The interaction between the project partners is often quite limited, which leads to insufficient knowledge sharing during the project and knowledge being unavailable for reuse (Fruchter et al. 2002). The result can be a considerable amount of extra work, delays and cost overruns. Design outcomes that are sup...

  19. Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC): Viral and bacterial pathogens in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Kurćubić V.; Đoković R.; Vidanović D.; Šekler M.; Matović K.; Ilić Z.; Stojković J.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens causing BRDC in Serbia were investigated. Two herds of beef cattle with bovine respiratory disease were included, with twenty diseased calves (10 from each farm) were chosen for isolation of bacteria on artificial culture media and determination by aerobic cultivation. The most common bacterial pathogen was isolated was Pasteurella multocida. Diffusion method of sensitivity to antibiotics (antibiogram), revealed that Enrofloxacin and Floron were m...

  20. Respiratory Disorders Associated with Occupational Inhalational Exposure to Bioaerosols among Wastewater Treatment Workers of Petrochemical Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangiri, M; Neghab, M; G Nasiri; M Aghabeigi; V Khademian; Rostami, R.; V Kargar; J Rasooli

    2015-01-01

    Background: Workers in wastewater treatment plants are exposed to a wide range of chemicals as well as biological contaminants.Objective: To ascertain whether exposure to bio-aerosols under the normal working conditions in wastewater treatment plants is associated with any significant changes in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function capacities.Methods: 198 employees of wastewater treatment plants and 99 unexposed persons were studied. American thoracic society (ATS) standar...

  1. Exploiting Shadow Evidence and Iterative Graph-Cuts for Efficient Detection of Buildings in Complex Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, A. O.; Senaras, C.; Yuksel, B.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an automated approach for efficient detection of building regions in complex environments. We investigate the shadow evidence to focus on building regions, and the shadow areas are detected by recently developed false colour shadow detector. The directional spatial relationship between buildings and their shadows in image space is modelled with the prior knowledge of illumination direction. To do that, an approach based on fuzzy landscapes is presented. Once all landscapes are collected, a pruning process is applied to eliminate the landscapes that may occur due to non-building objects. Thereafter, we benefit from a graph-theoretic approach to accurately detect building regions. We consider the building detection task as a binary partitioning problem where a building region has to be accurately separated from its background. To solve the two-class partitioning, an iterative binary graph-cut optimization is performed. In this paper, we redesign the input requirements of the iterative partitioning from the previously detected landscape regions, so that the approach gains an efficient fully automated behaviour for the detection of buildings. Experiments performed on 10 test images selected from QuickBird (0.6 m) and Geoeye-1 (0.5 m) high resolution datasets showed that the presented approach accurately localizes and detects buildings with arbitrary shapes and sizes in complex environments. The tests also reveal that even under challenging environmental and illumination conditions (e.g. low solar elevation angles, snow cover) reasonable building detection performances could be achieved by the proposed approach.

  2. Superhalogens as Building Blocks of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Superhalogens are species whose electron affinity (EA) or vertical detachment energy (VDE) exceed to those of halogen. These species typically consist of a central electropositive atom with electronegative ligands. The EA or VDE of species can be further increased by using superhalogen as ligands, which are termed as hyperhalogen. Having established BH4- as a superhalogen, we have studied BH4-x(BH4)x- (x = 1 to 4) hyperhalogen anions and their Li-complexes, LiBH4-x(BH4)x using density functional theory. The VDE of these anions is larger than that of BH4-, which increases with the increase in the number of peripheral BH4 moieties (x). The hydrogen storage capacity of LiBH4-x(BH4)x complexes is higher but binding energy is smaller than that of LiBH4, a typical complex hydride. The linear correlation between dehydrogenation energy of LiBH4-x(BH4)x complexes and VDE of BH4-x(BH4)x- anions is established. These complexes are found to be thermodynamically stable against dissociation into LiBH4 and borane. This stud...

  3. The effect of vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2 in pigs suffering from porcine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinger, Vicky; Bischoff, Ralf; Jedidia, Samir Ben; Saalmüller, Armin; Elbers, Knut

    2008-03-10

    A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in pigs suffering from porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). A total of 1542 pigs were allocated randomly into two treatment groups at approximately 20 days of age. Groups received either a Baculovirus-expressed recombinant PCV2 Open Reading Frame (ORF) 2 vaccine or placebo by single intramuscular injection. Median onset of PCV2 viraemia and respiratory signs occurred when animals were 18 weeks old. Vaccination reduced the mean PCV2 viral load by 55-83% (p < 0.0001) and the mean duration of viraemia by 50% (p < 0.0001). During the period of study (from 3 to 25 weeks of age) vaccinated animals exhibited a reduced mortality rate (6.63% vs. 8.67%, difference -2.04%; p = 0.1507), an improved average daily weight gain (649 g/day vs. 667 g/day; difference +18 g/day; p < 0.0001) and a reduced time to market (164.8 days vs. 170.4 days; difference -5.6 days; p < 0.0001). The effects on performance were greatest in the 8-week period between the onset of PCV2 viraemia and the end of finishing. These data demonstrate that vaccination against PCV2 alone can significantly improve the overall growth performance of pigs in a multi-factorial, late occurring disease complex such as PRDC. PMID:18304705

  4. The Build-Up of Diversity in Complex Ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Tacchella, Andrea; Gabrielli, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Diversity is a fundamental feature of ecosystems, even when the concept of ecosystem is extended to sociology or economics. Diversity can be intended as the count of different items, animals, or, more generally, interactions. There are two classes of stylized facts that emerge when diversity is taken into account. The first are Diversity explosions: evolutionary radiations in biology, or the process of escaping 'Poverty Traps' in economics are two well known examples. The second is nestedness: entities with a very diverse set of interactions are the only ones that interact with more specialized ones. In a single sentence: specialists interact with generalists. Nestedness is observed in a variety of bipartite networks of interactions: Biogeographic, macroeconomic and mutualistic to name a few. This indicates that entities diversify following a pattern. Since they appear in such very different systems, these two stylized facts point out that the build up of diversity is driven by a fundamental probabilistic mec...

  5. The detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in formalin fixed bovine lung with commercially available monoclonal antibodies and avidin biotin complex immunohistochemistry.

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, D M; Clark, E.G.; Chelack, B J

    1989-01-01

    Eight commercially available monoclonal antibodies directed against respiratory syncytial virus antigens were tested for ability to detect bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) antigen in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded bovine lung using avidin-biotin complex immunohistochemical staining. Monoclonal antibodies from clone 18B2 purchased from Biosoft, Paris, France and those from clone 8G12 purchased from the Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska sta...

  6. Interdisciplinarity : building bridges, and nurturing a complex ecology of ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2001-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Much discussion of interdisciplinarity shows one or more of the following defects: 1. conceptual confusion - lack of a refined and consistent set of terms for analysing interdisciplinarity and its variants; 2. utopianism - lack of realism about constraints and possibilities in the social organization of science; 3. monism - advocacy of a single simple organizational model, rather than a complex heterogeneous model with multiple niches, nodes and forms of interaction. ...

  7. Carbon footprint of building products and assembled constructional complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Klemen

    2015-01-01

    Greenhouse gases are becoming bigger and bigger polluter of our planet. Carbon dioxide represents the largest part of greenhouse gases (70 %), because of that we represent carbon footprint with CO2 equivalent (CO2-e). We will compare assembled construction complexes and their carbon footprint in this graduation thesis. At first we will explain what greenhouse gases are and how they are formed. Then we will present some of the studies that research field of materials in constructio...

  8. How to Build a Complex, Functional Propeller Protein, From Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Patricia L

    2016-04-01

    By combining ancestral sequence reconstruction and in vitro evolution, Smock et al. identified single motifs that assemble into a functional five-bladed β-propeller, and a likely route for conversion into the more complex, extant single chain fusion. Interestingly, although sequence diversification destabilized five-motif fusions, it also destabilized aggregation-prone intermediates, increasing the level of functional protein in vivo. PMID:26971075

  9. THE PRINCIPLES OF POWER-RISE BUILDINGS COMPLEXES FORMATION USING WIND ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEVGAMONNIY G. U.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The methodology of designing energy-efficient tower building should be based on systematic analysis of the building as a unified energy system. The prominent architect Norman Foster (Sir Norman Foster writes: "Architects cannot solve all the world's environmental problems, but we can design buildings that require only a fraction of current energy consumption, in addition, through proper urban planning we can affect traffic flows. The location and functionality of buildings, its structural flexibility and technological resources, orientation, shape and structure, heating and ventilation characteristics used in the construction materials - all these parameters affect the amount of energy required for the construction, operation and maintenance of the building, and as for transportation, moving to it and from it" [1]. Purpose. The purpose of the study is scientific justification principles of architectural formation decisions of the power-rise energy efficient complexes and developing methods of architectural design of PRBC using wind energy. To develop the science-based principles forming the architectural buildings with the use of alternative energy and determine the specific features of the architectural design of buildings. Conclusion. The principles of architectural forming in the use of wind power and identify possible trends for the development of buildings with integrated wind installations. Polyfunctional wind power plants are in special properties of certain material and structural elements of the building structure, improve aerodynamic performance of the outer shell and therefore wind energy devices. Thus, the power efficiency of energy active building depends on its space solutions.

  10. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-11-24

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire.

  11. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire

  12. Building complex carbon skeletons with ethynyl[2.2]paracyclophanes

    OpenAIRE

    Ina Dix; Lidija Bondarenko; Jones, Peter G; Thomas Oeser; Henning Hopf

    2014-01-01

    Ethynyl[2.2]paracyclophanes are shown to be useful substrates for the preparation of complex, highly unsaturated carbon frameworks. Thus both the pseudo-geminal- 2 and the pseudo-ortho-diethynylcyclophane 4 can be dimerized by Glaser coupling to the respective dimers 9/10 and 11/12. Whereas the former isomer pair could not be separated so far, the latter provided the pure diastereomers after extensive column chromatography/recrystallization. Isomer 11 is chiral and could be separated on a col...

  13. Gaining mass: the structure of respiratory complex I-from bacterial towards mitochondrial versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2015-08-01

    The 1MDa, 45-subunit proton-pumping NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The molecular mechanism of complex I is central to the metabolism of cells, but has yet to be fully characterized. The last two years have seen steady progress towards this goal with the first atomic-resolution structure of the entire bacterial complex I, a 5Å cryo-electron microscopy map of bovine mitochondrial complex I and a ∼3.8Å resolution X-ray crystallographic study of mitochondrial complex I from yeast Yarrowia lipotytica. In this review we will discuss what we have learned from these studies and what remains to be elucidated. PMID:26387075

  14. Allosteric nucleotide-binding site in the mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex I)

    OpenAIRE

    Grivennikova, Vera G.; Gladyshev, Grigory V.; Vinogradov, Andrei D.

    2011-01-01

    The rotenone-insensitive NADH:hexaammineruthenium III (HAR) oxidoreductase reactions catalyzed by bovine heart and Yarrowia lipolytica submitochondrial particles or purified bovine complex I are stimulated by ATP and other purine nucleotides. The soluble fraction of mammalian complex I (FP) and prokaryotic complex I homolog NDH-1 in Paracoccus denitrificans plasma membrane lack stimulation of their activities by ATP. The stimulation appears as a decrease in apparent Km values for NADH and HAR...

  15. A method for evaluating the problem complex of choosing the ventilation system for a new building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    The application of a ventilation system in a new building is a multidimensional complex problem that involves quantifiable and non-quantifiable data like energy consump¬tion, indoor environment, building integration and architectural expression. This paper presents a structured method for evaluat......’. Herein the designer may view multiple ventilation solutions and navigate between them, evaluate the differences and choose the best ventilation system scenario in terms of energy consumption, indoor environment and architectural quality.......The application of a ventilation system in a new building is a multidimensional complex problem that involves quantifiable and non-quantifiable data like energy consump¬tion, indoor environment, building integration and architectural expression. This paper presents a structured method for...

  16. Functional characterization of mutants affected in the carbonic anhydrase domain of the respiratory complex I in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Débora; Córdoba, Juan Pablo; Villarreal, Fernando; Bartoli, Carlos; Schmitz, Jessica; Maurino, Veronica G; Braun, Hans Peter; Pagnussat, Gabriela C; Zabaleta, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    The NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex (complex I) (EC 1.6.5.3) is the main entrance site of electrons into the respiratory chain. In a variety of eukaryotic organisms, except animals and fungi (Opisthokonta), it contains an extra domain comprising trimers of putative γ-carbonic anhydrases, named the CA domain, which has been proposed to be essential for assembly of complex I. However, its physiological role in plants is not fully understood. Here, we report that Arabidopsis mutants defective in two CA subunits show an altered photorespiratory phenotype. Mutants grown in ambient air show growth retardation compared to wild-type plants, a feature that is reversed by cultivating plants in a high-CO2 atmosphere. Moreover, under photorespiratory conditions, carbon assimilation is diminished and glycine accumulates, suggesting an imbalance with respect to photorespiration. Additionally, transcript levels of specific CA subunits are reduced in plants grown under non-photorespiratory conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that the CA domain of plant complex I contributes to sustaining efficient photosynthesis under ambient (photorespiratory) conditions. PMID:26148112

  17. Para-Functionalized NCN-Pincer Palladium and Platinum Complexes as Building Blocks in Organometallic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Slagt, Martijn Quico

    2002-01-01

    A rapidly evolving field in chemistry is the application of organometallic and coordination complexes as building blocks or active components for the construction of new materials exhibiting specific catalytic, redox, optical or sensor activities. A central theme in the construction of these inorganic building blocks is the targeted functionalization of ligands, either prior to or, less conventionally, after the metallation step. Ligand functionalization enables the immobilization of the tran...

  18. Decontamination and decommission of a radiochemical laboratory building complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Handling of unsealed radioactive substances for research and development purposes in chemical or pharmaceutical industries or research centres as well as production of radioactive substances (e.g. for applications in nuclear medicine or industry) requires operation of special radiochemical laboratories. In general, operation of radiochemical laboratories is strongly regulated by the government and national authorities. The operator needs a permit related to radiological protection. In general, technical requirements for such facilities are very high. To ensure high safety standards with respect to the employees and the environment, several radiological protection measures have to be taken. These measures (for example special shielding or ventilation and waste water systems) depend on various factors, e.g. activity in use, kind of nuclides, chemical properties and volatility of substances. In order to close-down such radiochemical laboratories some radiological protection measures have to be maintained to ensure protection of both humans and the environment induced by possible residual contaminations within the facility including technical inventory. However, a later reuse of the facility as a non-radioactive facility requires removal of all radioactive contamination with respect to national regulation. Resulting radioactive wastes have to be disposed of under control of competent authorities. Based on the experience of a decontamination and decommission project for a former radiochemical laboratory complex, the main steps necessary to release such a facility are discussed. Analytical aspects of initial conditions, necessary organisational structures within the project, resources needed estimation and exploration of the radiological situation in the laboratory, elaboration of a measuring strategy and decontamination methods as well as different waste disposal routes in relation to different waste types are reported. (author)

  19. Effects of adriamycin on respiratory chain activities in mitochondria from rat liver, rat heart and bovine heart. Evidence for a preferential inhibition of complex III and IV

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolay, K.; de Kruijff, B.

    1987-01-01

    The inhibition of respiratory chain activities in rat liver, rat heart and bovine heart mitochondria by the anthracycline antibiotic adriamycin was measured in order to determine the adriamycin-sensitive sites. It appeared that complex III and IV are efficiently affected such that their activities were reduced to 50% of control values at 175 ± 25 μM adriamycin. Complex I displayed a minor sensitivity to the drug. Of the complex-I-related activities tested, only duroquinone oxidation appeared ...

  20. A method for evaluating the problem complex of choosing the ventilation system for a new building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    The application of a ventilation system in a new building is a multidimensional complex problem that involves quantifiable and non-quantifiable data like energy consump¬tion, indoor environment, building integration and architectural expression. This paper presents a structured method for...... evaluating the performance of a ventilation system in the design proces by treating quantifiable and non-quantifiable datasets together. The method is based on general morphological analysis and applies cross-consistency assessment for reducing the problem complex, thus treating the multi-dimensionality, the...

  1. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete.

  2. Production of new amilorides as potent inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Masatoshi; Habu, Sayako; Murakami, Sonomi; Ito, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Amilorides, well-known inhibitors of Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, have also shown to inhibit bacterial and mitochondrial NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (complex I). Since the membrane subunits ND2, ND4, and ND5 of bovine mitochondrial complex I are homologous to Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, amilorides have been thought to bind to any or all of the antiporter-like subunits; however, there is no direct experimental evidence in support of this notion. Photoaffinity labeling is a powerful technique to identify the binding site of amilorides in bovine complex I. Commercially available amilorides such as 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride are not suitable as design templates to synthesize photoreactive amilorides because of their low binding affinities to bovine complex I. Thereby, we attempted to modify the structures of commercially available amilorides in order to obtain more potent derivatives. We successfully produced two photoreactive amilorides (PRA1 and PRA2) with a photolabile azido group at opposite ends of the molecule. PMID:25731956

  3. Para-Functionalized NCN-Pincer Palladium and Platinum Complexes as Building Blocks in Organometallic Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, Martijn Quico

    2002-01-01

    A rapidly evolving field in chemistry is the application of organometallic and coordination complexes as building blocks or active components for the construction of new materials exhibiting specific catalytic, redox, optical or sensor activities. A central theme in the construction of these inorgan

  4. [Bacteriological and virological status in upper respiratory tract infections of cats (cat common cold complex)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Kerstin; Radeloff, Isabel; Stephan, Bernd; Greife, Heinrich; Hellmann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2005,460 bacteriological samples from cats with an acute upper respiratory tract infection were analysed in clinical field studies in two accredited laboratories in Germany. Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from these cats and sent to the laboratories for routine diagnostics. In the swab samples of 460 cats 382 bacteria strains were isolated. The following bacteria were isolated most frequently: Pasteurella spp. (32.5 %), Staphylococcus spp. (18.5 %), Escherichia coli (17.0 %), Streptococcus spp. (9.1 %), Pseudomonas spp. (6.9 %) and Klebsiella spp. (3.0 %). Bordetella bronchiseptica was found in 0.4 % of the animals To evaluate possible regional and time influences, the animals were split into three populations: 1: Germany, laboratory A; 2: Germany, laboratory B; 3: France and Belgium, laboratory B. In population 1 an 2 Pasteurella spp. were found most frequently with 42.2 % and 36.5 %, respectively. The second most frequently isolated bacterial species were Staphylococcus spp. with 14.1 % and 21.4 % and E. coli with 13.6 % and 17.5 % respectively. In population 3 Staphylococcus spp., E. coli (20 % each) and Pasteurella spp. (18.5 %) were isolated at almost the same frequency. Virological parameter were additionally analysed in 328 cats (population 2 and 3). Serum samples were analysed for antibodies specific for Feline Calicivirus (FCV) and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and for Feline Leukaemia Virus (FeLV) antigen. Oropharyngeal swabs were analysed for Feline Herpesvirus (FHV) by using PCR. Calicivirus-specific antibodies were found in 99.6 % of the cats of population 2 and in 100 % of the animals in population 3. Herpesvirus was detected in 15.3 % and 23.3 % of the cats, respectively. FeLV-Antigen was found in 0.4 % of the animals in population 2 and in 10.1 % of the cats in population 3, while FIV-antibodies were identified in 8.7 % of the animals of population 2 and in 6.1 % of the cats of population 3. In total FHV was

  5. Swine Influenza Virus and Association with the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Pig Farms in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Cibulski, S P; Andrade, C P; Teixeira, T F; Varela, A P M; Scheffer, C M; Franco, A C; de Almeida, L L; Roehe, P M

    2016-05-01

    Despite the putative endemic status of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infections, data on the occurrence of swine influenza outbreaks are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to detect and subtype swIAVs from six outbreaks of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in southern Brazil. Nasal swabs were collected from 66 piglets with signs of respiratory disease in six herds. Lung tissue samples were collected from six necropsied animals. Virus detection was performed by PCR screening and confirmed by virus isolation and hemagglutination (HA). Influenza A subtyping was performed by a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect the A(H1N1)pdm09; other swIAV subtypes were determined by multiplex RT-PCR. In lung tissues, the major bacterial and viral pathogens associated with PRDC (Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and PCV2) were investigated. In some affected pigs, clinico-pathological evaluations were conducted. Influenza A was detected by screening PCR in 46 of 66 swab samples and from five of six lungs. Virus was recovered from pigs of all six herds. Subtype A(H1N1)pdm09 was detected in four of six herds and H1N2 in the other two herds. In lung tissues, further agents involved in PRDC were detected in all cases; Pasteurella multocida was identified in five of six samples and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in three of six. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (1/6), Haemophilus parasuis (1/6) and PCV2 (1/6) were also detected. These findings indicate that subtypes A(H1N1)pdm09 and H1N2 were present in pigs in southern Brazil and were associated with PRDC outbreaks. PMID:26302164

  6. Mammalian complex I: A regulable and vulnerable pacemaker in mitochlondrial respiratory function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papa, S.; De Rasmo, D.; Scacco, S.; Signorile, A.; Dobrová, Zuzana; Palmisano, G.; Sardanelli, A. M.; Papa, F.; Panelli, D.; Scaringi, R.; Santeramo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1777, 7-8 (2008), s. 719-728. ISSN 0005-2728 Grant ostatní: IT(IT) National Project on "Molecular Mechanisms, Physiology and Pathology of Membrane Bioenergetics System" 2005-Ministero dell Istruzione, Univ. Ricerca, Italy, Res. grant Univ. Bari, Research Foundation cassa di Risparmio di Puglia Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : complex I * proton pump * mitochondrial import Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.447, year: 2008

  7. Structure of a Major Antigenic Site on the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Glycoprotein in Complex with Neutralizing Antibody 101F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Man; Chang, Jung-San; Yang, Yongping; Kim, Albert; Graham, Barney S.; Kwong, Peter D. (NIH)

    2010-11-19

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants and elderly people. Currently there is no effective vaccine against RSV, but passive prophylaxis with neutralizing antibodies reduces hospitalizations. To investigate the mechanism of antibody-mediated RSV neutralization, we undertook structure-function studies of monoclonal antibody 101F, which binds a linear epitope in the RSV fusion glycoprotein. Crystal structures of the 101F antigen-binding fragment in complex with peptides from the fusion glycoprotein defined both the extent of the linear epitope and the interactions of residues that are mutated in antibody escape variants. The structure allowed for modeling of 101F in complex with trimers of the fusion glycoprotein, and the resulting models suggested that 101F may contact additional surfaces located outside the linear epitope. This hypothesis was supported by surface plasmon resonance experiments that demonstrated 101F bound the peptide epitope {approx}16,000-fold more weakly than the fusion glycoprotein. The modeling also showed no substantial clashes between 101F and the fusion glycoprotein in either the pre- or postfusion state, and cell-based assays indicated that 101F neutralization was not associated with blocking virus attachment. Collectively, these results provide a structural basis for RSV neutralization by antibodies that target a major antigenic site on the fusion glycoprotein.

  8. Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. The Respiratory System The respiratory system is made up of organs ... and the muscles that enable breathing. The Respiratory System Figure A shows the location of the respiratory ...

  9. The promise of bacteriophage therapy for Burkholderia cepacia complex respiratory infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Dawn Semler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, increased attention has been given to evaluating the efficacy of phage therapy, especially in scenarios where the bacterial infectious agent of interest is highly antibiotic resistant. In this regard, phage therapy is especially applicable to infections caused by the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC since members of the BCC are antibiotic pan-resistant. Current studies in BCC phage therapy are unique from many other avenues of phage therapy research in that the research is not only comprised of phage isolation, in vitro phage characterization and in vivo infection model efficacy, but also adapting aerosol drug delivery techniques to aerosol phage formulation delivery and storage.

  10. Characterization of the reaction of decoupling ubiquinone with bovine mitochondrial respiratory complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuya, Takahiro; Okuda, Kenji; Murai, Masatoshi; Miyoshi, Hideto

    2016-08-01

    We previously produced the unique ubiquinone QT ("decoupling" quinone), the catalytic reduction of which in NADH-quinone oxidoreduction with bovine heart mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is completely decoupled from proton translocation across the membrane domain. This feature is markedly distinct from those of typical short-chain quinones such as ubiquinone-1. To further characterize the features of the QT reaction with complex I, we herein synthesized three QT analogs, QT2-QT4, and characterized their electron transfer reactions. We found that all aspects of electron transfer (e.g. electron-accepting activity and membrane potential formation) vary significantly among these analogs. The features of QT2 as decoupling quinone were slightly superior to those of original QT. Based on these results, we conclude that the bound positions of QTs within the quinone binding cavity susceptibly change depending on their side-chain structures, and the positions, in turn, govern the behavior of QTs as electron acceptors. PMID:27140857

  11. Formation of competitive potential of the machine-building complex of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ivanovich Botkin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of competitive potential of regional machine-building complex in a globalized world economy. The purpose of the research is the development of theoretically reasonable economic basis of the machine-building complex considering  the  features of business in the conditions of the WTO. In the work, the hypothesis of a special role of the external economic factors locates in development of the enterprises of regional industrial complexes. The study of the theoretical provisions defining the development of the region revealed the factors determining influence of the international trade agreements on spatial localization of the industry. The main attention is paid to an analytical assessment of the current state and the trends, which have developed in the period of post-crisis economic recovery. Analysis of the main indicators of attractiveness has revealed the weak position of local industrial enterprises in the WTO. The directions of strengthening of the competitive capacity of the local industrial enterprises are defined. The obtained results allow us to increase the sustainability of the industry by means of effective management mechanism improvements and to create favorable operating conditions of a machine-building complex of the region

  12. Epistatic interactions modulate the evolution of mammalian mitochondrial respiratory complex components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moleirinho Ana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deleterious effect of a mutation can be reverted by a second-site interacting residue. This is an epistatic compensatory process explaining why mutations that are deleterious in some species are tolerated in phylogenetically related lineages, rendering evident that those mutations are, by all means, only deleterious in the species-specific context. Although an extensive and refined theoretical framework on compensatory evolution does exist, the supporting evidence remains limited, especially for protein models. In this current study, we focused on the molecular mechanism underlying the epistatic compensatory process in mammalian mitochondrial OXPHOS proteins using a combination of in-depth structural and sequence analyses. Results Modeled human structures were used in this study to predict the structural impairment and recovery of deleterious mutations alone and combined with an interacting compensatory partner, respectively. In two cases, COI and COIII, intramolecular interactions between spatially linked residues restore the folding pattern impaired by the deleterious mutation. In a third case, intermolecular contact between mitochondrial CYB and nuclear CYT1 encoded components of the cytochrome bc1 complex are likely to restore protein binding. Moreover, we observed different modes of compensatory evolution that have resulted in either a quasi-simultaneous occurrence of a mutation and corresponding compensatory partner, or in independent occurrences of mutations in distinct lineages that were always preceded by the compensatory site. Conclusion Epistatic interactions between individual replacements involving deleterious mutations seems to follow a parsimonious model of evolution in which genomes hold pre-compensating states that subsequently tolerate deleterious mutations. This phenomenon is likely to have been constraining the variability at coevolving sites and shaping the interaction between the mitochondrial and

  13. Basic building units, self-assembly and crystallization in the formation of complex inorganic open architectures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C N R Rao

    2001-10-01

    Careful investigations of open-framework metal phosphates reveal that the formation of these complex architectures is likely to involve a process wherein one-dimensional ladders or chains, and possibly zero-dimens ional monomers, transform to higher dimensional structures. The one-dimensional ladder appears to be the primary building unit of these structures. At one stage of the building-up process, spontaneous self-assembly of a low-dimensional structure such as the ladder seems to occur, followed by crys tallization of a two- or three-dimensional structure. Accordingly, many of the higher dimensional structures retain the structural features of the 1D structure, indicating the occurrence of self-assembly. These findings mark the beginnings of our understan ding of complex supramolecular inorganic materials.

  14. Celastrol targets mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I to induce reactive oxygen species-dependent cytotoxicity in tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celastrol is an active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Tripterygium Wilfordii, which exhibits significant antitumor activity in different cancer models in vitro and in vivo; however, the lack of information on the target and mechanism of action of this compound have impeded its clinical application. In this study, we sought to determine the mode of action of celastrol by focusing on the processes that mediate its anticancer activity. The downregulation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) client proteins, phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and cleavage of PARP, caspase 9 and caspase 3 were detected by western blotting. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Cell cycle progression, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complexes. Celastrol induced ROS accumulation, G2-M phase blockage, apoptosis and necrosis in H1299 and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidative agent, inhibited celastrol-induced ROS accumulation and cytotoxicity. JNK phosphorylation induced by celastrol was suppressed by NAC and JNK inhibitor SP600125 (SP). Moreover, SP significantly inhibited celastrol-induced loss of MMP, cleavage of PARP, caspase 9 and caspase 3, mitochondrial translocation of Bad, cytoplasmic release of cytochrome c, and cell death. However, SP did not inhibit celastrol-induced ROS accumulation. Celastrol downregulated HSP90 client proteins but did not disrupt the interaction between HSP90 and cdc37. NAC completely inhibited celastrol-induced decrease of HSP90 client proteins, catalase and thioredoxin. The activity of MRC complex I was completely inhibited in H1299 cells treated with 6 μM celastrol in the absence and presence of NAC. Moreover, the inhibition of MRC complex I activity

  15. Capacity building in complex environments: seeking meaningful methodology for social change

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores ways in which “capacity-building” might contribute to processes of social change in complex environments. This exploration emerged as part of a personal journey as a capacity-building practitioner to help make sense out of my prior work experience. In my experience, I learned first-hand how many of the “capacity” challenges that my colleagues and I were trying to address in different organizations were complex, “messy” and uncertain. At the same time, many of the ca...

  16. Evaluation of Peptide Nucleic Acid Probe-based Real-time PCR for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Respiratory Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Young Jin; Kim, Hwi Jun; Shin, Hee Bong; Nam, Hae Seon; Lee, Sang Han; Park, Joon Soo; Park, Kwi Sung; Baek, Kyoung Ah

    2012-01-01

    Background A peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe-based real-time PCR (PNAqPCR™ TB/NTM detection kit; PANAGENE, Korea) assay has been recently developed for the simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in clinical specimens. The study was aimed at evaluation of the performance of PNA probe-based real-time PCR in respiratory specimens. Methods To evaluate potential cross-reactivity, the extracted DNA specimens from Mycobacterium spec...

  17. Metabolic markers to distinguish between moniliformin and 3-bromopyruvate induced pyruvate dehydrogenase and rotenone-induced respiratory chain complex I deficiencies in HeLa cells / Lizette Meeding

    OpenAIRE

    Meeding, Lizette

    2009-01-01

    Deficiencies of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex enzyme and of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes in humans both result in similar metabolic profiles in blood and urine. It is therefore almost impossible to distinguish between the two conditions based on the metabolic profile alone. Definitive diagnosis can only be made by assessing enzyme function in muscle biopsies. The aim of this study was to attempt to identify a method that is easy, non-invasive and definitive to distinguish ...

  18. SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO CREATION OF COMPLEX CONTROL SYSTEM MODEL FOR THE STREAMS OF BUILDING WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tskhovrebov Eduard Stanislavovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 in Russia a Strategy of Production Development of Construction Materials and Industrial Housing Construction for the period up to 2020 was approved as one of strategic documents in the sphere of construction. In the process of this strategy development all the needs of construction complex were taken into account in all the spheres of economy, including transport system. The strategy also underlined, that the construction industry is a great basis for use and application in secondary economic turnover of dangerous waste from different production branches. This gives possibility to produce construction products of recycled materials and at the same time to solve the problem of environmental protection. The article considers and analyzes scientific methodological approaches to creation of a model of a complex control system for the streams of building waste in frames of organizing uniform ecologically safe and economically effective complex system of waste treatment in country regions.

  19. Axiomatic design in large systems complex products, buildings and manufacturing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Nam

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a synthesis of recent developments in Axiomatic Design theory and its application in large complex systems. Introductory chapters provide concise tutorial materials for graduate students and new practitioners, presenting the fundamentals of Axiomatic Design and relating its key concepts to those of model-based systems engineering. A mathematical exposition of design axioms is also provided. The main body of the book, which represents a concentrated treatment of several applications, is divided into three parts covering work on: complex products; buildings; and manufacturing systems. The book shows how design work in these areas can benefit from the scientific and systematic underpinning provided by Axiomatic Design, and in so doing effectively combines the state of the art in design research with practice. All contributions were written by an international group of leading proponents of Axiomatic Design. The book concludes with a call to action motivating further research into the engineeri...

  20. Cattle with increased severity of bovine respiratory disease complex exhibit decreased capacity to protect against histone cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, J A; Wilson, B K; Hernandez Gifford, J A; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R; Gifford, C A

    2015-04-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. Significant inflammation and lesions are often observed in lungs of infected cattle. During acute inflammatory responses, histones contribute to mortality in rodents and humans and serum proteins can protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that cattle experiencing chronic or fatal cases of BRDC have reduced ability to protect against cytotoxic effects of histones. Serum samples were collected from 66 bull calves at the time of normal feedlot processing procedures. Animals were retrospectively assigned to groups consisting of calves never treated for BRDC (control [CONT]; n = 10), calves treated with antimicrobials once for BRDC (1T; n = 16), calves treated twice for BRDC (2T; n = 13), calves treated 3 times for BRDC (3T; n = 14), or calves treated 4 times for BRDC (4T; n = 13). Samples were also collected each time animals received antimicrobial treatment; animals within a group were further sorted by calves that recovered and calves that died to test histone cytotoxicity. Bovine kidney cells were cultured in duplicate in 96-well plates and exposed to 0 or 50 μg/mL of total histones for 18 h with 1% serum from each animal. Cell viability was assessed by the addition of resazurin for 6 h followed by fluorescent quantification. Fluorescent values from serum alone were subtracted from values obtained for histone treatment for each animal. Serum from CONT, 1T, and 2T at initial processing all exhibited a similar (P > 0.10) response to histone treatment with fluorescent values of -312 ± 557, -1,059 ± 441, and -975 ± 489, respectively. However, 3T and 4T demonstrated an impaired capacity (P < 0.05) to protect against histones (-2,778 ± 471 and -3,026 ± 489) at initial processing when compared to the other groups. When sorted by mortality within group, calves that were treated twice and recovered (-847 ± 331) demonstrated a greater (P

  1. The cytochrome b p.278Y>C mutation causative of a multisystem disorder enhances superoxide production and alters supramolecular interactions of respiratory chain complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelli, Anna; Tropeano, Concetta V; Calvaruso, Maria Antonietta;

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome b is the only mtDNA-encoded subunit of the mitochondrial complex III (CIII), the functional bottleneck of the respiratory chain. Previously, the human cytochrome b missense mutation m.15579A>G, which substitutes the Tyr 278 with Cys (p.278Y>C), was identified in a patient with severe......, the CI, CI + CIII and CII + CIII activities and the rate of ATP synthesis driven by the CI or CII substrate were only partially reduced or unaffected. Consistent with these findings, mutated cybrids maintained the mitochondrial membrane potential in the presence of oligomycin, indicating...... that it originated from the respiratory electron transport chain. The p.278Y>C mutation enhanced superoxide production, as indicated by direct measurements in mitochondria and by the imbalance of glutathione homeostasis in intact cybrids. Remarkably, although the assembly of CI or CIII was not affected...

  2. The complex assessment of a thermal performance of the building envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Kornienko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex assessment of a thermal performance of the envelope on the basis of natural measurements and numerical modeling of the heat and moisture transport in building components was executed. On the basis of natural measurements it was shown that thermal performance qualities of a maintained building do not meet standard requirements. For the purpose of establishment of the reason of low level of a thermal performance numerical modeling of the heat and moisture transport in an external wall according to the computer program developed by the author, by two options — on the basis of the actual and design data was executed. It was shown that results of numerical modeling on the basis of actual data will well be coordinated with natural data that confirms reliability of the results received on the computer program. On the basis of numerical modeling with use of design data it was established that the design solution of external walls corresponded to standard requirements for a thermal performance, and, therefore, deterioration of a thermal performance can be caused by the violations allowed during construction and reconstruction of the building.

  3. HE Machining Complex and Support Buildings Deactivation and Decommissioning Project at the Pantex Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    have been replaced by other facilities. D and D is a series of actions that bring a facility from its condition and status at the time operations ceased, to demolition or conversion to another use. The structures associated with the High Explosive (HE) Machining Complex (HEMC) had been removed from service and selected for demolition. The Department of Energy has implemented a 'One up, One down' policy in which older, unusable buildings must be removed prior to the construction of new facilities. This concept ensures that the footprint of the DOE complex does not increase; therefore, reducing current maintenance costs in addition to reducing the backlog of deferred maintenance. This specific project included the demolition of 5 buildings, 3 ramps, 2 shade structures, 6 building slab remains, solvent transfer area structure, and overhead steam condensate and structure. Demolition work included removal of tanks, piping and utilities; asbestos abatement; decontamination of equipment; and revegetation of disturbed areas. The objectives of the project were to decontaminate and remove buildings, tanks, etc., and return the site to a natural state. This project involved three primary tasks: - Deactivate and re-route utilities; - Decontaminate and remove contaminated and non-contaminated equipment; - Demolish buildings and ramps, and remove slabs and footings. (authors)

  4. Isoflurane anesthetic hypersensitivity and progressive respiratory depression in a mouse model with isolated mitochondrial complex I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, S.; Manjeri, G.R.; Willems, P.H.G.M.; Scheffer, G.J.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Driessen, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with mitochondrial disorders are frequently anesthetized for a wide range of operations. These disorders may interfere with the response to surgery and anesthesia. We examined anesthetic sensitivity to and respiratory effects of isoflurane in the Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mouse model

  5. BINDING OF THE RESPIRATORY CHAIN INHIBITOR ANTIMYCIN TO THE MITOCHONDRIAL bc1 COMPLEX: A NEW CRYSTAL STRUCTURE REVEALS AN ALTERED INTRAMOLECULAR HYDROGEN-BONDING PATTERN.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Li-shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y.; Berry, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Structure-activity-relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Tw...

  6. Advances in Multi-Sensor Scanning and Visualization of Complex Plants: the Utmost Case of a Reactor Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullo, J.-F.; Thibault, G.; Boucheny, C.

    2015-02-01

    In a context of increased maintenance operations and workers generational renewal, a nuclear owner and operator like Electricité de France (EDF) is interested in the scaling up of tools and methods of "as-built virtual reality" for larger buildings and wider audiences. However, acquisition and sharing of as-built data on a large scale (large and complex multi-floored buildings) challenge current scientific and technical capacities. In this paper, we first present a state of the art of scanning tools and methods for industrial plants with very complex architecture. Then, we introduce the inner characteristics of the multi-sensor scanning and visualization of the interior of the most complex building of a power plant: a nuclear reactor building. We introduce several developments that made possible a first complete survey of such a large building, from acquisition, processing and fusion of multiple data sources (3D laser scans, total-station survey, RGB panoramic, 2D floor plans, 3D CAD as-built models). In addition, we present the concepts of a smart application developed for the painless exploration of the whole dataset. The goal of this application is to help professionals, unfamiliar with the manipulation of such datasets, to take into account spatial constraints induced by the building complexity while preparing maintenance operations. Finally, we discuss the main feedbacks of this large experiment, the remaining issues for the generalization of such large scale surveys and the future technical and scientific challenges in the field of industrial "virtual reality".

  7. Differential Contribution of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complexes to Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Redox Cycling Agents Implicated in Parkinsonism

    OpenAIRE

    Drechsel, Derek A.; Patel, Manisha

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to environmental pesticides can cause significant brain damage and has been linked with an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. Bipyridyl herbicides, such as paraquat (PQ), diquat (DQ), and benzyl viologen (BV), are redox cycling agents known to exert cellular damage through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We examined the involvement of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in ROS production by bipyridyl herbicides. I...

  8. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure. PMID:25929158

  9. Study by similarity of wind influence on mass transfers in complex buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residential and industrial buildings equipped with a ventilation system are complex facilities, where various heat and mass transfers could occur according to the operating conditions. In order to study these mass transfers, a methodology has been developed so as to carry out reduced-scale experiments for the study of isothermal flows, in steady or transient state. This methodology has been numerically and experimentally validated on simple configurations, and then applied to two standard configurations, representing nuclear facilities. The wind influence on mass transfers inside these configurations, in normal, damaged (stopping ventilation) or accidental (internal overpressure) situations, has been studied in the Jules Verne climatic wind tunnel of the CSTB. The wind effects, coupled or not with an internal overpressure, can lead to a partial or a total loss of the pollutant's containment inside buildings. Moreover, the wind turbulence can bring about instantaneous reversal leakage flow-rates, which cannot be identified in steady state. In addition, the study of transient phenomena has highlighted the low influence of the branch inertia on transient flows, for typical values of real facilities. Finally, tracer tests have been carried out in order to study the pollutant dispersion inside a standard configuration subjected to wind, mechanical ventilation and internal overpressure effects. The reliability of the zonal code SYLVIA, used notably to support safety assessment in nuclear buildings, has been analyzed from these experimental results. The modelling of the physical phenomena experimentally observed has been validated, in steady and transient states. However, limitations have been identified for the study of pollutant dispersion, due to hypothesis used in SYLVIA code, as in all zonal codes (homogenous concentration inside rooms, instantaneous propagation inside branches and rooms). (author)

  10. CarbBuilder: Software for building molecular models of complex oligo- and polysaccharide structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttel, Michelle M; Ståhle, Jonas; Widmalm, Göran

    2016-08-15

    CarbBuilder is a portable software tool for producing three-dimensional molecular models of carbohydrates from the simple text specification of a primary structure. CarbBuilder can generate a wide variety of carbohydrate structures, ranging from monosaccharides to large, branched polysaccharides. Version 2.0 of the software, described in this article, supports monosaccharides of both mammalian and bacterial origin and a range of substituents for derivatization of individual sugar residues. This improved version has a sophisticated building algorithm to explore the range of possible conformations for a specified carbohydrate molecule. Illustrative examples of models of complex polysaccharides produced by CarbBuilder demonstrate the capabilities of the software. CarbBuilder is freely available under the Artistic License 2.0 from https://people.cs.uct.ac.za/~mkuttel/Downloads.html. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27317625

  11. Dancing with Swarms: Utilizing Swarm Intelligence to Build, Investigate, and Control Complex Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Christian

    We are surrounded by a natural world of massively parallel, decentralized biological "information processing" systems, a world that exhibits fascinating emergent properties in many ways. In fact, our very own bodies are the result of emergent patterns, as the development of any multi-cellular organism is determined by localized interactions among an enormous number of cells, carefully orchestrated by enzymes, signalling proteins and other molecular "agents". What is particularly striking about these highly distributed developmental processes is that a centralized control agency is completely absent. This is also the case for many other biological systems, such as termites which build their nests—without an architect that draws a plan, or brain cells evolving into a complex `mind machine'—without an explicit blueprint of a network layout.

  12. Expanding the structural diversity of self-assembling dendrons and supramolecular dendrimers via complex building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percec, Virgil; Won, Betty C; Peterca, Mihai; Heiney, Paul A

    2007-09-12

    The design and synthesis of the first examples of AB4 and AB5 dendritic building blocks with complex architecture are reported. Structural and retrostructural analysis of supramolecular dendrimers self-assembled from hybrid dendrons based on different combinations of AB4 and AB5 building blocks with AB2 and AB3 benzyl ether dendrons demonstrated that none of these new hybrid dendrons exhibit the previously encountered conformations of libraries of benzyl ether dendrons. These hybrid dendrons enabled the discovery of some highly unusual tapered and conical dendrons generated by the intramolecular back-folding of their repeat units and of their apex. The new back-folded tapered dendrons have double thickness and self-assemble into pine-tree-like columns exhibiting a long-range 7/2 helical order. The back-folded conical dendrons self-assemble into spherical dendrimers. Non-back-folded truncated conical dendrons were also discovered. They self-assemble into spherical dendrimers with a less densely packed center. The discovery of dendrons displaying a novel crown-like conformation is also reported. Crown-like dendrons self-assemble into long-range 5/1 helical pyramidal columns. The long-range 7/2 and 5/1 helical structures were established by applying, for the first time, the helical diffraction theory to the analysis of X-ray patterns obtained from oriented fibers of supramolecular dendrimers. PMID:17705390

  13. Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, such ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can't ...

  14. ADVANCES IN MULTI-SENSOR SCANNING AND VISUALIZATION OF COMPLEX PLANTS: THE UTMOST CASE OF A REACTOR BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Hullo, J.-F.; Thibault, G.; Boucheny, C.

    2015-01-01

    In a context of increased maintenance operations and workers generational renewal, a nuclear owner and operator like Electricité de France (EDF) is interested in the scaling up of tools and methods of “as-built virtual reality” for larger buildings and wider audiences. However, acquisition and sharing of as-built data on a large scale (large and complex multi-floored buildings) challenge current scientific and technical capacities. In this paper, we first present a state of th...

  15. (+)α-Tocopheryl succinate inhibits the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I and is as effective as arsenic trioxide or ATRA against acute promyelocytic leukemia in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, G A S; Abreu e Lima, R S; Pestana, C R; Lima, A S G; Scheucher, P S; Thomé, C H; Gimenes-Teixeira, H L; Santana-Lemos, B A A; Lucena-Araujo, A R; Rodrigues, F P; Nasr, R; Uyemura, S A; Falcão, R P; de Thé, H; Pandolfi, P P; Curti, C; Rego, E M

    2012-03-01

    The vitamin E derivative (+)α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) exerts pro-apoptotic effects in a wide range of tumors and is well tolerated by normal tissues. Previous studies point to a mitochondrial involvement in the action mechanism; however, the early steps have not been fully elucidated. In a model of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) derived from hCG-PML-RARα transgenic mice, we demonstrated that α-TOS is as effective as arsenic trioxide or all-trans retinoic acid, the current gold standards of therapy. We also demonstrated that α-TOS induces an early dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential in APL cells and studies with isolated mitochondria revealed that this action may result from the inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. Moreover, α-TOS promoted accumulation of reactive oxygen species hours before mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspases activation. Therefore, an in vivo antileukemic action and a novel mitochondrial target were revealed for α-TOS, as well as mitochondrial respiratory complex I was highlighted as potential target for anticancer therapy. PMID:21869839

  16. Safety assessment document for the environmental test complex (Building 834) at Site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if accidents occurring at the 834 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. (However, there are a few recommendations to further enhance the structural integrity of these facilities). Additional lightning protection for these facilities is being installed. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. A criticality or a high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exceptions to this policy are that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, a planned or accidental actuation will not effect the safe containment of the fissile material within the assembly). Even though the possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium is remote, the off-site lung doses were calculated and found to be below the accepted standards. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls

  17. Sea Water Quality Modeling in the Frame of a Building First Turn of a Hydraulic Engineering Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Igor G. Kantargi; Lidia V. Prokhoda-Shumskikh

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with an application of developed system-dynamic model of the coastal waters quality for an assessment of sea water quality in the frame of building 1 turn of a hydraulic engineering complex "Object" the Island Federation». The attention is paid to a coast site with a coastal protection constructions.

  18. Respiratory Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Özyılmaz, Ezgi

    2014-01-01

    The main function of the lungs is to maintain the exchange between the pulmonary capillary and the air in the alveoli. By this way, the arteriel oxygen and carbondioxide tension remains constant. Respiratory failure is a syndrome which is defined as the loss of the ability of respiratory system to exchange oxygen and carbondioxide elimination function. The main pathophysiological causes of respiratory failure include ventilation-perfusion mismatch, alveolar hypoventilation, impaired diffusion...

  19. Binding of the Respiratory Chain Inhibitor Antimycin to theMitochondrial bc1 Complex: A New Crystal Structure Reveals an AlteredIntramolecular Hydrogen-Bonding Pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y.; Berry, Edward A.

    2005-05-10

    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex.Structure-activity-relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Two previous X-ray structures of antimycin bound to vertebrate bc1 complex gave conflicting results. A new structure reported here of the bovine mitochondrial bc1 complex at 2.28Angstrom resolution with antimycin bound, allows us for the first time to reliably describe the binding of antimycin and shows that the intramolecular hydrogen bond described in solution and in the small-molecule structure is replaced by one involving the NH rather than carbonyl O of the amide linkage, with rotation of the amide group relative to the aromatic ring. The phenolic OH and formylamino N form H-bonds with conserved Asp228 of cyt b, and the formylamino O H-bonds via a water molecule to Lys227. A strong density the right size and shape for a diatomic molecule is found between the other side of the dilactone ring and the alpha-A helix.

  20. THE RESPIRATORY SUBSTRATE RHODOQUINOL INDUCES Q-CYCLE BYPASS REACTIONS IN THE YEAST CYTOCHROME bc1 COMPLEX - MECHANISTIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cyt c, while generating a proton motive force for ATP synthesis, via the ''Qcycle'' mechanism. Under certain conditions, electron flow through the Q-cycle is blocked at the level of a reactive intermediate in the quinol oxidase site of the enzyme, resulting in ''bypass reactions'', some of which lead to superoxide production. Using analogs of the respiratory substrates, ubiquinol-3 and rhodoquinol-3, we show that the relative rates of Q-cycle bypass reactions in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cyt bc1 complex are highly dependent, by a factor of up to one hundred-fold, on the properties of the substrate quinol. Our results suggest that the rate of Q-cycle bypass reactions is dependent on the steady state concentration of reactive intermediates produced at the quinol oxidase site of the enzyme. We conclude that normal operation of the Q-cycle requires a fairly narrow window of redox potentials, with respect to the quinol substrate, to allow normal turnover of the complex while preventing potentially damaging bypass reactions

  1. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A

    2016-01-01

    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  2. Solar and Lighting Transmission through Complex Fenestration Systems of Office Buildings in a Warm and Dry Climate of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Bustamante

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Overheating, glare, and high-energy demand are recurrent problems in office buildings in Santiago, Chile (33°27'S; 70°42'W during cooling periods. Santiago climate is warm and dry, with high solar radiation and temperature during most of the year. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the thermal and daylighting performance of office buildings transparent façades composed of three different complex fenestration systems (CFS. Each CFS contains a different external shading device (ESD: (1 external roller, (2 vertical undulated and perforated screens, and (3 tilted undulated and perforated screens. The study was carried out by in situ monitoring in three office buildings in Santiago, Chile. Buildings were selected from a database of 103 buildings, representing those constructed between 2005 and 2011 in the city. The monitoring consisted of measuring the short wave solar and daylighting transmission through fenestration systemsby means of pyranometers and luxometers, respectively. This paper shows measurements that were carried out during summer period. A good performance is observed in a building with the external roller system. This system—applied to a northwest façade—shows a regular and high solar and daylighting control of incoming solar radiation. The other two ESD systems evidence a general good performance. However, some deficiencies at certain times of the day were detected, suggesting a non-appropriated design.

  3. From Laser Scanning to Finite Element Analysis of Complex Buildings by Using a Semi-Automatic Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Castellazzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new semi-automatic procedure to transform three-dimensional point clouds of complex objects to three-dimensional finite element models is presented and validated. The procedure conceives of the point cloud as a stacking of point sections. The complexity of the clouds is arbitrary, since the procedure is designed for terrestrial laser scanner surveys applied to buildings with irregular geometry, such as historical buildings. The procedure aims at solving the problems connected to the generation of finite element models of these complex structures by constructing a fine discretized geometry with a reduced amount of time and ready to be used with structural analysis. If the starting clouds represent the inner and outer surfaces of the structure, the resulting finite element model will accurately capture the whole three-dimensional structure, producing a complex solid made by voxel elements. A comparison analysis with a CAD-based model is carried out on a historical building damaged by a seismic event. The results indicate that the proposed procedure is effective and obtains comparable models in a shorter time, with an increased level of automation.

  4. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories. PMID:26071001

  5. Voltage-Dependent Rhythmogenic Property of Respiratory Pre-Bötzinger Complex Glutamatergic, Dbx1-Derived, and Somatostatin-Expressing Neuron Populations Revealed by Graded Optogenetic Inhibition123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hidehiko; Mosher, Bryan; Tariq, Mohammad F.; Zhang, Ruli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The rhythm of breathing in mammals, originating within the brainstem pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), is presumed to be generated by glutamatergic neurons, but this has not been directly demonstrated. Additionally, developmental expression of the transcription factor Dbx1 or expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin (Sst), has been proposed as a marker for the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons, but it is unknown whether these other two phenotypically defined neuronal populations are functionally equivalent to glutamatergic neurons with regard to rhythm generation. To address these problems, we comparatively investigated, by optogenetic approaches, the roles of pre-BötC glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, and Sst-expressing neurons in respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal transgenic mouse medullary slices in vitro and also more intact adult perfused brainstem-spinal cord preparations in situ. We established three different triple-transgenic mouse lines with Cre-driven Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) expression selectively in glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, or Sst-expressing neurons for targeted photoinhibition. In each line, we identified subpopulations of rhythmically active, Arch-expressing pre-BötC inspiratory neurons by whole-cell recordings in medullary slice preparations in vitro, and established that Arch-mediated hyperpolarization of these inspiratory neurons was laser power dependent with equal efficacy. By site- and population-specific graded photoinhibition, we then demonstrated that inspiratory frequency was reduced by each population with the same neuronal voltage-dependent frequency control mechanism in each state of the respiratory network examined. We infer that enough of the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons also have the Dbx1 and Sst expression phenotypes, and thus all three phenotypes share the same voltage-dependent frequency control property. PMID:27275007

  6. Elevated levels of mitochonrial respiratory complexes activities and ATP production in 17-β-estradiol-induced prolactin-secretory tumor cells in male rats are inhibited by melatonin in vivo and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-qiang; YANG Quan-hui; XU Rong-kun; XU Jian-ning

    2013-01-01

    Background Our earlier studies indicate that melatonin inhibits the proliferation of prolactinoma and induces apoptosis of pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor in rats.Melatonin has also been shown to induce apoptosis and to reduce the production of ATP in breast tumor cells.This study analyzed the levels of the four mitochondrial respiratory complexes and the production of ATP and also the effects of melatonin treatment of prolactinoma.Methods In the in vivo study,mitochondria were harvested from control pituitaries or prolactinoma collected from the pituitaries of melatonin-and 17-β-estradiol (E2)-treated male rats.In the in vitro study,prolactinoma cells mitochondria were harvested.Activities of the four mitochondrial respiratory complexes were assayed using fluorometer.ATP production of prolactinoma cells was estimated using bioluminescent methods.Results Elevated levels of four mitochondrial respiratory complexes activities and ATP production were recorded in prolactinoma cells.Moreover,in both in vivo and in vitro studies,melatonin inhibited the activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and the production of ATP in prolactinoma cells.Conclusions There is a link between mitochondrial function increase and tumorigenesis.Melatonin induces apoptosis of pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor of rats via the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of energy metabolism.

  7. Responding to complexity in socio-economic systems: How to build a smart and resilient society?

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The world is changing at an ever-increasing pace. And it has changed in a much more fundamental way than one would think, primarily because it has become more connected and interdependent than in our entire history. Every new product, every new invention can be combined with those that existed before, thereby creating an explosion of complexity: structural complexity, dynamic complexity, functional complexity, and algorithmic complexity. How to respond to this challenge? And what are the costs?

  8. Suppression of tumor growth in vivo by the mitocan alpha-tocopheryl succinate requires respiratory complex II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dong, L.F.; Freeman, R.; Liu, J.; Zobalová, Renata; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Stantic, M.; Rohlena, Jakub; Vališ, Karel; Rodriguez-Enriquez, S.; Butcher, B.; Goodwin, J.; Brunk, U.T.; Witting, P. K.; Moreno-Sanchez, R.; Scheffler, I.E.; Ralph, S.J.; Neužil, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 5 (2009), s. 1593-1600. ISSN 1078-0432 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/08/0811; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : SDHC-mutants * mitocans * mitochondrial complex II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.747, year: 2009

  9. Building a Complex Scorecard on the Basis of Assessment of Influence of Socio-economic Factors of Enterprise Development

    OpenAIRE

    Verbitska Tetiana V.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in building a complex scorecard used for assessment of influence of socio-economic factors of enterprise development. The article specifies such groups of socio-economic factors as factors of organisational and managerial impact; workers potential and their professional development; social protection of workers; labour protection and healthcare; and social infrastructure. Having analysed and compared concepts and approaches to assessment of enterprise activity, th...

  10. Independent Verification Of The Central Campus And Southeast Laboratory Complex Building Slabs At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities/Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORAU/ORISE) has completed the independent verification survey of the Central Campus and Southeast Lab Complex Building Slabs. The results of this effort are provided. The objective of this verification survey was to provide independent review and field assessment of remediation actions conducted by SEC, and to independently assess whether the final radiological condition of the slabs met the release guidelines

  11. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE CENTRAL CAMPUS AND SOUTHEAST LABORATORY COMPLEX BUILDING SLABS AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY, OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2012-07-24

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities/Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORAU/ORISE) has completed the independent verification survey of the Central Campus and Southeast Lab Complex Building Slabs. The results of this effort are provided. The objective of this verification survey was to provide independent review and field assessment of remediation actions conducted by SEC, and to independently assess whether the final radiological condition of the slabs met the release guidelines.

  12. Validation of a Simplified Building Cooling Load Model Using a Complex Computer Simulation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Morgan Eugene

    2001-01-01

    Building energy simulation has become a useful tool for predicting cooling, heating and electrical loads for facilities. Simulation models have been validated throughout the years by comparing simulation results to actual measured values. The simulations have become more accurate as approaches were changed to be more comprehensive in their ability to model building features. These simulation models tend to require considerable experience in determining input parameters and large amounts of...

  13. Effectiveness, safety and tolerability of a complex homeopathic medicinal product in the prevention of recurrent acute upper respiratory tract infections in children: a multicenter, open, comparative, randomized, controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, Miek C.; Buskin, Stephen L.; Ilyenko, Lydia; Kholodova, Irina; Burkart, Julia; Weber, Stephan; Keller, Thomas; Klement, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study was initiated to investigate the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of complex homeopathic CalSuli-4-02 tablets on prevention of recurrent acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in children, in comparison to another complex homeopathic product. Methods The study was designed as a prospective, multicenter, randomized, open, clinical trial with two parallel treatment groups at four outpatient pediatric clinics in Russia. Children aged ≤ 6 years with su...

  14. One-pot regio- and stereoselective synthesis of α'-methoxy-γ-pyrones: biological evaluation as mitochondrial respiratory complex inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Helena; De Paolis, Michaël; Collin, Valérie C; Dey, Sriloy; Hecht, Sidney M; Prandi, Cristina; Richard, Vincent; Maddaluno, Jacques

    2011-11-18

    The one-pot construction of functionalized α'-methoxy-γ-pyrones is detailed. Starting from α,α'-dimethoxy-γ-pyrone, molecular diversity is attained by a regio- and stereoselective desymmetrization using allyllithium followed by vinylogous aldol reaction. Mechanistic considerations including density functional theory calculations and insightful experiments have been gathered to shed light on this complex multistep process. To illustrate the versatility of this methodology, some of the molecules prepared were evaluated for their ability to inhibit NADH-oxidase and NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase. In the process, a potent new inihibitor of NADH-oxidase activity (IC(50) 44 nM) was identified. PMID:22011074

  15. Structural response of Paks NPP WWER-440 MW main building complex to blast input motion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Soviet standard design units WWER-440/213 type installed in Paks NPP were not originally designed for a Safe Shutdown Earthquake. At the time of selection of Paks site on the basis of historical earthquake data was supposed that the maximum earthquake is of grade V according MSK-64 scale. This seismicity level had not required any special measures to account for seismic event effects on the Main Building Complex Structure. Current site seismicity studies reveal that the seismic hazard for the site significantly exceeds the originally estimated. In addition the safety rules and seismic code requirements became more rugged. As a part of the activities to increase the seismic safety of the Paks NPP the study on dynamic behaviour of the Main Building Complex Structure has been performed with support of IAEA. The explosion full scale tests were carried out for determining the dynamic behaviour of the structure and for assessment of the Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) effects in the modelling and analysis procedures, used in the dynamic response analyses. The objective of the project was to evaluate the blast response of the WWER-440/213 Main Building Complex at Paks NPP, based on the data available for the soil properties, recorded free-field blast input motion, and structural design. The scope of EQE-Bulgaria study was to conduct a state-of-the-art SSI analysis with a multiple foundations supported model of the Main Building Complex to assess the structure blast response. The analysis was focused on a modelling technique that assess realistically the SSI effects on the dynamic response of a structure supported on multiple foundation instead of simplified, but more conservative techniques. The scope of research was covered splitting the study into the following steps: development of a twin units model for Main Building Complex structure; development of a Low Strain Soil Properties Model; development of SSI Parameters consisting of a Multiple Foundations System

  16. Modeling of longitudinal polytomous outcome from complex survey data - application to investigate an association between mental distress and non-malignant respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahwa Punam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The data from longitudinal complex surveys based on multi-stage sampling designs contain cross-sectional dependencies among units due to clustered nature of the data and within-subject dependencies due to repeated measurements. Special statistical methods are required to analyze longitudinal complex survey data. Methods Statistics Canada's longitudinal National Population Health Survey (NPHS dataset from the first five cycles (1994/1995 to 2002/2003 was used to investigate the effects of demographic, social, life-style, and health-related factors on the longitudinal changes of mental distress scores among the NPHS participants who self-reported physician diagnosed respiratory diseases, specifically asthma and chronic bronchitis. The NPHS longitudinal sample includes 17,276 persons of all ages. In this report, participants 15 years and older (n = 14,713 were considered for statistical analysis. Mental distress, an ordinal outcome variable (categories: no/low, moderate, and high was examined. Ordered logistic regression models based on the weighted generalized estimating equations approach were fitted to investigate the association between respiratory diseases and mental distress adjusting for other covariates of interest. Variance estimates of regression coefficients were computed by using bootstrap methods. The final model was used to predict the probabilities of prevalence of no/low, moderate or high mental distress scores. Results Accounting for design effects does not vary the significance of the coefficients of the model. Participants suffering with chronic bronchitis were significantly at a higher risk (ORadj = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.12-1.66 of reporting high levels of mental distress compared to those who did not self-report chronic bronchitis. There was no significant association between asthma and mental distress. There was a significant interaction between sex and self-perceived general health status indicating a dose

  17. Seismic response analysis of Sosnovy Bor NPP (RBMK-1000 MW main building complex)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of the seismic response analysis covers the assessment of the Main Building response to the seismic input excitation and the assess the effects of site-specific soil conditions on the dynamic structural response of the building structure. The study included development of 3-D stick model of main building structure; site-specific soil conditions (low-strain soil properties, median estimate, soil data) and seismic excitation time histories (acceleration time histories developed for Kozloduy NPP, scaled to 0.1 g). The Study performed includes: deconvolution of seismic free field surface motion; modeling of structure foundation and generation of impedance and scattering functions; fixed base frequencies and mode shapes extraction; soil-structure interaction analysis using CLASSI chain of computer programs; floor acceleration time histories generation and floor response spectra generation

  18. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  19. A program-level management system for the life cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan-Joong [Parsons Brinckerhoff, Seoul 135-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jimin; Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Jeong, Kwangbok; Park, Hyo Seon [Department of Architectural Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Climate change has become one of the most significant environmental issues, of which about 40% come from the building sector. In particular, complex building projects with various functions have increased, which should be managed from a program-level perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a program-level management system for the life-cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects. The developed system consists of three parts: (i) input part: database server and input data; (ii) analysis part: life cycle assessment and life cycle cost; and (iii) result part: microscopic analysis and macroscopic analysis. To analyze the applicability of the developed system, this study selected ‘U’ University, a complex building project consisting of research facility and residential facility. Through value engineering with experts, a total of 137 design alternatives were established. Based on these alternatives, the macroscopic analysis results were as follows: (i) at the program-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in ‘U’ University were reduced by 6.22% and 2.11%, respectively; (ii) at the project-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in research facility were reduced 6.01% and 1.87%, respectively; and those in residential facility, 12.01% and 3.83%, respective; and (iii) for the mechanical work at the work-type-level, the initial cost was increased 2.9%; but the operation and maintenance phase was reduced by 20.0%. As a result, the developed system can allow the facility managers to establish the operation and maintenance strategies for the environmental and economic aspects from a program-level perspective. - Highlights: • A program-level management system for complex building projects was developed. • Life-cycle environmental and economic assessment can be conducted using the system. • The design alternatives can be analyzed from the microscopic perspective. • The system can be used to

  20. A program-level management system for the life cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has become one of the most significant environmental issues, of which about 40% come from the building sector. In particular, complex building projects with various functions have increased, which should be managed from a program-level perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a program-level management system for the life-cycle environmental and economic assessment of complex building projects. The developed system consists of three parts: (i) input part: database server and input data; (ii) analysis part: life cycle assessment and life cycle cost; and (iii) result part: microscopic analysis and macroscopic analysis. To analyze the applicability of the developed system, this study selected ‘U’ University, a complex building project consisting of research facility and residential facility. Through value engineering with experts, a total of 137 design alternatives were established. Based on these alternatives, the macroscopic analysis results were as follows: (i) at the program-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in ‘U’ University were reduced by 6.22% and 2.11%, respectively; (ii) at the project-level, the life-cycle environmental and economic cost in research facility were reduced 6.01% and 1.87%, respectively; and those in residential facility, 12.01% and 3.83%, respective; and (iii) for the mechanical work at the work-type-level, the initial cost was increased 2.9%; but the operation and maintenance phase was reduced by 20.0%. As a result, the developed system can allow the facility managers to establish the operation and maintenance strategies for the environmental and economic aspects from a program-level perspective. - Highlights: • A program-level management system for complex building projects was developed. • Life-cycle environmental and economic assessment can be conducted using the system. • The design alternatives can be analyzed from the microscopic perspective. • The system can be used to

  1. Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Ozyilmaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main function of the lungs is to maintain the exchange between the pulmonary capillary and the air in the alveoli. By this way, the arteriel oxygen and carbondioxide tension remains constant. Respiratory failure is a syndrome which is defined as the loss of the ability of respiratory system to exchange oxygen and carbondioxide elimination function. The main pathophysiological causes of respiratory failure include ventilation-perfusion mismatch, alveolar hypoventilation, impaired diffusion capacity and increased shunt. A number of diseases may result in respiratory failure by different pathophysiological reasons. The most common causes are Type 1 (hypoxemic and Type 2 (hypercapnic respiratory failure. When suspected with clinical signs and symptoms, the diagnosis should be confirmed with arterial blood gases. At this step, other diagnostic interventions, which could be performed, may be used to enlighten the underlying pathophysiological cause. Although the main therapeutic approach is similar, specific treatment are also required based on the underlying cause. The basic pathophysiological points, diagnosis and basic treatment approach have been evaluated in this review article. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 428-442

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of on-farm scoring systems and nasal culture to detect bovine respiratory disease complex in preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, William J; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Drake, Christiana M; Kass, Philip H; Farver, Thomas B; Aly, Sharif S

    2016-03-01

    The California (CA) and Wisconsin (WI) clinical scoring systems have been proposed for bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) detection in preweaned dairy calves. The screening sensitivity (SSe), for estimating BRDC prevalence in a cohort of calves, diagnostic sensitivity (DSe), for confirming BRDC in ill calves, and specificity (Sp) were estimated for each of the scoring systems, as well as for nasal swab cultures for aerobic bacteria and mycoplasma species. Thoracic ultrasound and auscultation were used as the reference standard tests interpreted in parallel. A total of 536 calves (221 with BRDC and 315 healthy) were sampled from 5 premises in California. The SSe of 46.8%, DSe of 72.6%, and Sp of 87.4% was determined for the CA system. The SSe of 46.0%, DSe of 71.1%, and Sp of 91.2% was determined for the WI system. For aerobic culture, the SSe was 43.4%, DSe was 52.6%, and Sp was 71.3%; for Mycoplasma spp. culture, the SSe was 57.5%, DSe was 68.9%, and Sp was 59.7%. The screening and diagnostic sensitivities of the scoring systems were not significantly different but the Sp of the WI system was greater by 3.8%. Scoring systems can serve as rapid on-farm tools to determine the burden of BRDC in preweaned dairy calves. However, users may expect the SSe to be less than the DSe when confirming BRDC in an ill calf. PMID:26796957

  3. Curcumin Pretreatment Prevents Potassium Dichromate-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, Decreased Respiratory Complex I Activity, and Membrane Permeability Transition Pore Opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wylly Ramsés García-Niño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from turmeric with recognized antioxidant properties. Hexavalent chromium is an environmental toxic and carcinogen compound that induces oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of curcumin on the hepatic damage generated by potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 in rats. Animals were pretreated daily by 9-10 days with curcumin (400 mg/kg b.w. before the injection of a single intraperitoneal of K2Cr2O7 (15 mg/kg b.w.. Groups of animals were sacrificed 24 and 48 h later. K2Cr2O7-induced damage to the liver was evident by histological alterations and increase in the liver weight and in the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase in plasma. In addition, K2Cr2O7 induced oxidative damage in liver and isolated mitochondria, which was evident by the increase in the content of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl and decrease in the glutathione content and in the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, K2Cr2O7 induced decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption, in the activity of respiratory complex I, and permeability transition pore opening. All the above-mentioned alterations were prevented by curcumin pretreatment. The beneficial effects of curcumin against K2Cr2O7-induced liver oxidative damage were associated with prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. The M/GP(5 glycoprotein complex of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus binds the sialoadhesin receptor in a sialic acid-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wander Van Breedam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is a major threat to swine health worldwide and is considered the most significant viral disease in the swine industry today. In past years, studies on the entry of the virus into its host cell have led to the identification of a number of essential virus receptors and entry mediators. However, viral counterparts for these molecules have remained elusive and this has made rational development of new generation vaccines impossible. The main objective of this study was to identify the viral counterparts for sialoadhesin, a crucial PRRSV receptor on macrophages. For this purpose, a soluble form of sialoadhesin was constructed and validated. The soluble sialoadhesin could bind PRRSV in a sialic acid-dependent manner and could neutralize PRRSV infection of macrophages, thereby confirming the role of sialoadhesin as an essential PRRSV receptor on macrophages. Although sialic acids are present on the GP(3, GP(4 and GP(5 envelope glycoproteins, only the M/GP(5 glycoprotein complex of PRRSV was identified as a ligand for sialoadhesin. The interaction was found to be dependent on the sialic acid binding capacity of sialoadhesin and on the presence of sialic acids on GP(5. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of PRRSV biology, but the knowledge and tools generated in this study also hold the key to the development of a new generation of PRRSV vaccines.

  5. Dive into the Deep End: Anchor Texts Build Understanding of Complex Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Diane P.; Litzau, Katrina M.; Murray, Vicki L.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, instructional coaches Katrina Litzau and Vicki Murray designed professional learning to support teachers and principals in developing a deeper understanding of the cognitive processes of leadership. Steeped in the Common Core State Standards and building on quality literacy instruction, they designed the professional learning based on…

  6. Experiments in Making History Personal: Public Discourse, Complexity, and Community Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This article is about two initiatives at the Brooklyn Historical Society that extend our efforts to build community and create a platform for ongoing public engagement, in the face of emotionally charged topics. The first project is a powerful oral history program and exhibition that promotes conversation about the war in Vietnam, the war's…

  7. Application of the Software as a Service Model to the Control of Complex Building Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Donadee, Jon; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Mendes, Goncalo; Appen, Jan von; M& #233; gel, Oliver; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; DeForest, Nicholas; Lai, Judy

    2011-03-18

    In an effort to create broad access to its optimization software, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in collaboration with the University of California at Davis (UC Davis) and OSISoft, has recently developed a Software as a Service (SaaS) Model for reducing energy costs, cutting peak power demand, and reducing carbon emissions for multipurpose buildings. UC Davis currently collects and stores energy usage data from buildings on its campus. Researchers at LBNL sought to demonstrate that a SaaS application architecture could be built on top of this data system to optimize the scheduling of electricity and heat delivery in the building. The SaaS interface, known as WebOpt, consists of two major parts: a) the investment& planning and b) the operations module, which builds on the investment& planning module. The operational scheduling and load shifting optimization models within the operations module use data from load prediction and electrical grid emissions models to create an optimal operating schedule for the next week, reducing peak electricity consumption while maintaining quality of energy services. LBNL's application also provides facility managers with suggested energy infrastructure investments for achieving their energy cost and emission goals based on historical data collected with OSISoft's system. This paper describes these models as well as the SaaS architecture employed by LBNL researchers to provide asset scheduling services to UC Davis. The peak demand, emissions, and cost implications of the asset operation schedule and investments suggested by this optimization model are analyzed.

  8. Low-Power Wearable Respiratory Sound Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinko Oletic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Building upon the findings from the field of automated recognition of respiratory sound patterns, we propose a wearable wireless sensor implementing on-board respiratory sound acquisition and classification, to enable continuous monitoring of symptoms, such as asthmatic wheezing. Low-power consumption of such a sensor is required in order to achieve long autonomy. Considering that the power consumption of its radio is kept minimal if transmitting only upon (rare occurrences of wheezing, we focus on optimizing the power consumption of the digital signal processor (DSP. Based on a comprehensive review of asthmatic wheeze detection algorithms, we analyze the computational complexity of common features drawn from short-time Fourier transform (STFT and decision tree classification. Four algorithms were implemented on a low-power TMS320C5505 DSP. Their classification accuracies were evaluated on a dataset of prerecorded respiratory sounds in two operating scenarios of different detection fidelities. The execution times of all algorithms were measured. The best classification accuracy of over 92%, while occupying only 2.6% of the DSP’s processing time, is obtained for the algorithm featuring the time-frequency tracking of shapes of crests originating from wheezing, with spectral features modeled using energy.

  9. Main building complex WWER 440/213 upper range design response spectra for soft soil site conditions (Paks)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Benchmark studies parallel investigation were prepared for the main building complex of the WWER-440/213 Paks NPP by several participating institutions. The investigations were based on various mathematical models and procedures but all had the same seismological data as input. The calculation methods as well as software tools were different. This report covers the enveloped response results which were the basis for the benchmark studies and which should be used for upgrading of mechanical and electrical components and systems which will follow. These response spectra which consider a certain conservatism namely neglecting the frequency independence of the stiffness and the cut-off of damping values are named 'Upper Range design Benchmark Response Spectra' for the main building of Paks NPP

  10. Complex analysis of energy efficiency of public buildings: case study of VGTU

    OpenAIRE

    Rynkun G.; Valancius K.; Motuziene V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to make analysis of energy efficiency of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) buildings. The survey was performed within the frame of the Intelligent Energy – Europe (IEE) project “Use Efficiency” – Universities and Students for Energy Efficiency.The methodology of the detailed auditing proves that energy audits must be performed with the maximum use of measurements. When having main parameters measured, it is much exact and easier to form energy balance ...

  11. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    9. 1 Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchial asthma2004223 Inhibitive effect on airway mucus overproduction of DNA vaccine based on xenogeneic homologous calcium-activated chloride channel in asthmatic mice. SONG Liqiang (宋立强), et al. Dept Respir Med, Xijing Hosp , 4th Milit Med Univ, Xi’an 710032. Natl Med J China 2004;84(4):329-333.

  12. MANAGEMENT OF DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF THE MACHINE-BUILDING COMPLEX OF REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Romanova, O.; E. Starikov

    2009-01-01

    In the article it was offered the author's definition specifying concept "economic potential" from the point of view of principles of marketing and strategic management, and there was concretized multi-component structure of economic potential of an industrial complex. The concept "strategic monitoring" is filled by the new meaning, and it was offered the author's model of management by strategic development of economic potential of an industrial complex on the basis of use of the approach of...

  13. The association between calfhood bovine respiratory disease complex and subsequent departure from the herd, milk production, and reproduction in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Aaron P; Larson, Robert L; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Bartle, Steven J; Thomson, Daniel U

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency of calfhood producer-identified bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in Holstein replacement heifers on 1 large farm and determine associations between development of BRDC at ≤ 120 days of age (BRDC120) with milk production estimate, calving interval, and risk of departure from the herd (DFH). DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. ANIMALS 14,024 Holstein heifer calves born on 1 farm. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from herd management records. Cox proportional hazard and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations for variables of interest (BRDC120 status, demographic data, and management factors) with DFH, milk production estimate, and calving interval. RESULTS Except for the year 2007, animals identified as having BRDC120 were 1.62 to 4.98 times as likely to leave the herd before first calving, compared with those that did not have this designation. Calves identified as having BRDC prior to weaning were 2.62 times as likely to have DFH before first calving as those classified as developing BRDC after weaning. Cows identified as having BRDC120 were 1.28 times as likely to have DFH between the first and second calving as were other cows. The BRDC120 designation was associated with a 233-kg (513-lb) lower 305-day mature equivalent value for first lactation milk production, but was not associated with longer or shorter calving intervals at maturity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dairy cattle identified as having BRDC120 had increased risk of DFH before the first or second calving and lower first-lactation milk production estimates, compared with results for cattle without this finding. Further investigation of these associations is warranted. PMID:27135672

  14. Hexavalent chromium targets mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I to induce reactive oxygen species-dependent caspase-3 activation in L-02 hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fang; Li, Yanhong; Dai, Lu; Deng, Yuanyuan; Zou, Yue; Li, Peng; Yang, Yuan; Zhong, Caigao

    2012-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which is used for various industrial applications, such as leather tanning and chroming, can cause a number of human diseases including inflammation and cancer. Cr(VI) exposure leads to severe damage to the liver, but the mechanisms involved in Cr(VI)-mediated toxicity in the liver are unclear. The present study provides evidence that Cr(VI) enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation by inhibiting the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex (MRCC) I. Cr(VI) did not affect the expression levels of antioxidative proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and thioredoxin (Trx), indicating that the antioxidative system was not involved in Cr(VI)-induced ROS accumulation. We found that ROS mediated caspase-3 activation partially depends on the downregulation of the heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and 90. In order to confirm our hypothesis that ROS plays a key role in Cr(VI)-mediated cytotoxicity, we used N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to inhibit the accumulation of ROS. NAC successfully blocked the inhibition of HSP70 and HSP90 as well as the activation of caspase-3, suggesting that ROS is essential in Cr(VI)-induced caspase-3 activation. By applying different MRCC substrates as electron donors, we also confirmed that Cr(VI) could accept the electrons leaked from MRCC I and the reduction occurs at MRCC I. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Cr(VI) induces ROS-dependent caspase-3 activation by inhibiting MRCC I activity, and MRCC I has been identified as a new target and a new mechanism for the apoptosis-inducing activity displayed by Cr(VI). PMID:22710416

  15. Planning design and construction of infra-red free electron laser (IR-FEL) building complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An infrared free-electron laser (IR-FEL) that will be tunable at around 50μm wavelength is currently being developed at the RRCAT, Indore. The Accelerator Technology development in the field of IRFEL requires specific infrastructure facilities for component development, testing and commissioning. The IRFEL complex has been designed with integrated approach to enable the technology development ensuring fulfillment of specific requirements of Radiation shielding, precision alignment, environmental conditions, man and material transport arrangement, provision for supporting arrangement for heavy undulator, electron beam transport system, optical cavity system and electrical power etc. The paper highlights salient features of planning design and construction of IRFEL complex

  16. Building a pseudo-atomic model of the anaphase-promoting complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes an example of molecular replacement in which atomic models are used to interpret electron-density maps determined using single-particle electron-microscopy data. The anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates progression through specific stages of the cell cycle by coordinating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cell-cycle regulatory proteins. Depending on the species, the active form of the APC/C consists of 14–15 different proteins that assemble into a 20-subunit complex with a mass of approximately 1.3 MDa. A hybrid approach of single-particle electron microscopy and protein crystallography of individual APC/C subunits has been applied to generate pseudo-atomic models of various functional states of the complex. Three approaches for assigning regions of the EM-derived APC/C density map to specific APC/C subunits are described. This information was used to dock atomic models of APC/C subunits, determined either by protein crystallography or homology modelling, to specific regions of the APC/C EM map, allowing the generation of a pseudo-atomic model corresponding to 80% of the entire complex

  17. Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in outbreaks of respiratory disease in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Klem, Thea; Rimstad, Espen; Stokstad, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the major pathogens involved in the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex. The seroprevalence to BRSV in Norwegian cattle herds is high, but its role in epidemics of respiratory disease is unclear. The aims of the study were to investigate the etiological role of BRSV and other respiratory viruses in epidemics of BRD and to perform phylogenetic analysis of Norwegian BRSV strains. Results BRSV infection was detected either serol...

  18. Respiratory Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  19. The Different Phases of a Complex Building: the so called Ninfeo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Facchini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The so called Ninfeo of Nora, roman city nearby Cagliari, was discovered in the Fifties. During the 10 years of archaeological excavation very few documentation was collected. The excavation and the restoration towards the end of the Sixties have been carried out to make the site accessible as a resource for tourism: works have been made to search for scenographyc structures, without caring about their stratigraphic value and to give the mosaics visibility in situ. This is the reason why the pavements were risen, restored and recollocated or the lacunas were filled with cement. To get round to this loss of information, the Università degli Studi of Milan have tried to rebuilt the evolution of the Ninfeo life, searching strips of pavement and plaster that haven’t been touched by the works for the conservation, and  mapping the building in the context of the area, using total station and CAD.

  20. Relative significance of heat transfer processes to quantify tradeoffs between complexity and accuracy of energy simulations with a building energy use patterns classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarinejad, Mohammad

    This dissertation develops rapid and accurate building energy simulations based on a building classification that identifies and focuses modeling efforts on most significant heat transfer processes. The building classification identifies energy use patterns and their contributing parameters for a portfolio of buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is "Building classification can provide minimal required inputs for rapid and accurate energy simulations for a large number of buildings". The critical literature review indicated there is lack of studies to (1) Consider synoptic point of view rather than the case study approach, (2) Analyze influence of different granularities of energy use, (3) Identify key variables based on the heat transfer processes, and (4) Automate the procedure to quantify model complexity with accuracy. Therefore, three dissertation objectives are designed to test out the dissertation hypothesis: (1) Develop different classes of buildings based on their energy use patterns, (2) Develop different building energy simulation approaches for the identified classes of buildings to quantify tradeoffs between model accuracy and complexity, (3) Demonstrate building simulation approaches for case studies. Penn State's and Harvard's campus buildings as well as high performance LEED NC office buildings are test beds for this study to develop different classes of buildings. The campus buildings include detailed chilled water, electricity, and steam data, enabling to classify buildings into externally-load, internally-load, or mixed-load dominated. The energy use of the internally-load buildings is primarily a function of the internal loads and their schedules. Externally-load dominated buildings tend to have an energy use pattern that is a function of building construction materials and outdoor weather conditions. However, most of the commercial medium-sized office buildings have a mixed-load pattern, meaning the HVAC system and operation schedule dictate

  1. Building Damage-Resilient Dominating Sets in Complex Networks against Random and Targeted Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Molnar, F; Szymanski, B K; Korniss, G

    2014-01-01

    We study the vulnerability of dominating sets against random and targeted node removals in complex networks. While small, cost-efficient dominating sets play a significant role in controllability and observability of these networks, a fixed and intact network structure is always implicitly assumed. We find that cost-efficiency of dominating sets optimized for small size alone comes at a price of being vulnerable to damage; domination in the remaining network can be severely disrupted, even if a small fraction of dominator nodes are lost. We develop two new methods for finding flexible dominating sets, allowing either adjustable overall resilience, or dominating set size, while maximizing the dominated fraction of the remaining network after the attack. We analyze the efficiency of each method on synthetic scale-free networks, as well as real complex networks.

  2. Optimization of the pricing mechanism in the system of innovative development of investment-building complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajfullina Farida Maratovna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the existing system of pricing allows only describe costs in the production process, it is based on technological standards, which are not all perfect. In a basis of system must be the complex of interrelated normative-methodical and information-reference documents, allowing to determine the cost of construction at three main stages of the investment-construction process: at the stage of budget planning, design and implementation stages of construction and calculations for the executed works.

  3. SCIENTIFIC METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO CREATION OF COMPLEX CONTROL SYSTEM MODEL FOR THE STREAMS OF BUILDING WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Tskhovrebov Eduard Stanislavovich; Velichko Evgeniy Georgievich

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 in Russia a Strategy of Production Development of Construction Materials and Industrial Housing Construction for the period up to 2020 was approved as one of strategic documents in the sphere of construction. In the process of this strategy development all the needs of construction complex were taken into account in all the spheres of economy, including transport system. The strategy also underlined, that the construction industry is a great basis for use and application in secondary ...

  4. Building of a conceptual model at UE25-c hole complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Geological Survey and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are attempting to construct a conceptual model of the UE25-c hole complex. An interdisciplinary approach is discussed where all the available data are integrated. Site geology, borehole geophysics and hydraulic test results at UE25-c hole complex suggest that groundwater flow may be controlled by fractures and faults. Significant clusters of fractures in the C-holes are perpendicular to bedding and may be cooling cracks or may be tectonically induced. Unresolved evidence indicates that a fault may intersect the C-holes. For these reasons a porous medium approximation of the rock in the saturated zone at the scale of a well test may be inappropriate. Instead, an Equivalent Discontinuum Model is proposed to model the UE25-c complex hydrology. EDM does not reproduce every geometrical detail of the real system, but instead, attempts to reproduce the observed behavior of the fracture system while preserving the inherent discontinuous nature of the system. 6 refs., 7 figs

  5. Models, methods and software tools for building complex adaptive traffic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper studies the modern methods and tools to simulate the behavior of complex adaptive systems (CAS), the existing systems of traffic modeling in simulators and their characteristics; proposes requirements for assessing the suitability of the system to simulate the CAS behavior in simulators. The author has developed a model of adaptive agent representation and its functioning environment to meet certain requirements set above, and has presented methods of agents' interactions and methods of conflict resolution in simulated traffic situations. A simulation system realizing computer modeling for simulating the behavior of CAS in traffic situations has been created

  6. Building the System Interface Management Environment for the Development of Complex System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Gyun Oh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced systems have common characteristics of complexity as the level of their demanded emergent capability and the resulting interfaces among their components increase. These characteristics make it difficult to manage the interfaces and the failure of the management can lead to the failure of development projects. This study proposes a model-based systems engineering approach to facilitate the interface management for an IPT environment. A demonstration of the proposed approach to the magnetic levitation railway development project is provided to identify and control interfaces.

  7. Using McStas for modelling complex optics, using simple building bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willendrup, Peter Kjær; Udby, Linda; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    The McStas neutron ray-tracing simulation package is a versatile tool for producing accurate neutron simulations, extensively used for design and optimization of instruments, virtual experiments, data analysis and user training. In McStas, component organization and simulation flow is intrinsically...... allow scattering between the mirrors. For quite a while, users have requested the ability to allow “components inside components” or meta-components, allowing to combine functionality of several simple components to achieve more complex behaviour, i.e. four single mirror plates together defining a guide...

  8. Unexpected complexity of the Reef-Building Coral Acropora millepora transcription factor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravasi Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral reefs are disturbed on a global scale by environmental changes including rising sea surface temperatures and ocean acidification. Little is known about how corals respond or adapt to these environmental changes especially at the molecular level. This is mostly because of the paucity of genome-wide studies on corals and the application of systems approaches that incorporate the latter. Like in any other organism, the response of corals to stress is tightly controlled by the coordinated interplay of many transcription factors. Results Here, we develop and apply a new system-wide approach in order to infer combinatorial transcription factor networks of the reef-building coral Acropora millepora. By integrating sequencing-derived transcriptome measurements, a network of physically interacting transcription factors, and phylogenetic network footprinting we were able to infer such a network. Analysis of the network across a phylogenetically broad sample of five species, including human, reveals that despite the apparent simplicity of corals, their transcription factors repertoire and interaction networks seem to be largely conserved. In addition, we were able to identify interactions among transcription factors that appear to be species-specific lending strength to the novel concept of "Taxonomically Restricted Interactions". Conclusions This study provides the first look at transcription factor networks in corals. We identified a transcription factor repertoire encoded by the coral genome and found consistencies of the domain architectures of transcription factors and conserved regulatory subnetworks across eumetazoan species, providing insight into how regulatory networks have evolved.

  9. The Fluka Linebuilder and Element Database: Tools for Building Complex Models of Accelerators Beam Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Mereghetti, A; Cerutti, F; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V

    2012-01-01

    Extended FLUKA models of accelerator beam lines can be extremely complex: heavy to manipulate, poorly versatile and prone to mismatched positioning. We developed a framework capable of creating the FLUKA model of an arbitrary portion of a given accelerator, starting from the optics configuration and a few other information provided by the user. The framework includes a builder (LineBuilder), an element database and a series of configuration and analysis scripts. The LineBuilder is a Python program aimed at dynamically assembling complex FLUKA models of accelerator beam lines: positions, magnetic fields and scorings are automatically set up, and geometry details such as apertures of collimators, tilting and misalignment of elements, beam pipes and tunnel geometries can be entered at user’s will. The element database (FEDB) is a collection of detailed FLUKA geometry models of machine elements. This framework has been widely used for recent LHC and SPS beam-machine interaction studies at CERN, and led to a dra...

  10. Environment-friendly building complex of the BBVA bank in Madrid, Spain. Sustainable and healthy indoor climate in a new office building; Spaans BBVA-cornplex milieuvriendelijk gebouwd. Duurzaam en gezond binnenklimaat nieuw hoofdkantoor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G. [Swegon, Capelle aan den IJssel (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    In the design and construction of the new office building of the Spanish bank BBVA (Madrid) sustainability and environmental effects were important aspects. The office building complex will certified by the American company Leed Gold. The energy efficient installations are made possible by Eurovent-certified heat recovery units and comfort units. [Dutch] Bij de bouw van het nieuwe hoofdkantoor van de Spaanse bank BBVA in Madrid staan duurzaamheid en milieuvriendelijkheid hoog in het vaandel. Het complex zal na de oplevering worden gecertificeerd conform het Amerikaanse Leed Gold. De energiezuinige installatie wordt mede mogelijk gemaakt door Eurovent-gecertificeerde wtw-units en comfortunits.

  11. Building a Complex Scorecard on the Basis of Assessment of Influence of Socio-economic Factors of Enterprise Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbitska Tetiana V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in building a complex scorecard used for assessment of influence of socio-economic factors of enterprise development. The article specifies such groups of socio-economic factors as factors of organisational and managerial impact; workers potential and their professional development; social protection of workers; labour protection and healthcare; and social infrastructure. Having analysed and compared concepts and approaches to assessment of enterprise activity, the article identifies that insufficient attention is paid to socio-economic indicators. That is why a scorecard is developed in the context of the said groups of factors, which gives a possibility to identify weaknesses in enterprise development and to direct measures on their elimination or minimisation on the basis of it. The proposed scorecard of assessment of socio-economic factors of enterprise development gives a possibility to, objectively and timely, monitor the socio-economic state of an enterprise, which allows maintaining the development trajectory.

  12. The Rise of Complexity: Do the Pavilion Lake Microbialites Suggest a Way to Build a Macroorganism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, D.; Laval, B.; Lim, D. S.; Irwin, L. N.

    2005-12-01

    The distinctive assemblage of freshwater calcite microbialites discovered at Pavilion Lake, BC, has been associated with organisms such as Epiphyton and Girvanella, fossils from just before the Cambrian explosion about 550 million years ago (Laval et al., 2000). The presence of the microbialite structures in a dimictic mid-latitude lake and their establishment after the last ice age about 10,000 years ago is puzzling. Their distinctive morphologies include cone-shaped seepage structures 2 m or more in height with hollow internal conduits that open at the top of the cones, and dense artichoke-like structures with calcite "leaves" greater than 1 m in height. These structures are astounding as they imply functional properties. In principle, this is not unlike the interaction of individual cells in a macroorganism, in which many different types of specialized cells interact with each other to the benefit of the whole organism (e.g. interaction of blood, integument, and organ cells within animals). Certainly, the complex interaction of these microbial cells is not equivalent to the collaboration of cells within an individual multicellular organism, where each cell has the same genetic information but differential gene expression provides well-defined cellular specializations. However, the microbialites raise the question of how much complexity and structure can be achieved by a high degree of communication within a multitude of microbial cells. Our findings indicate a complex and interacting microbial consortium associated with the structures at Pavilion Lake, and revealed biomarkers for proteobacteria, sulphur reducing bacteria, and firmicutes (possibly photosynthetic heliobacteria), among others. Types of genetic exchange among these microbial cells may include lateral gene transfer via conjugation, transformation, and transduction, or other mechanisms. This finding may have significant implications for the evolution of life on Earth and possible life on other planets

  13. Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    8.1 Respiratory failure2007204 Comparison of the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers and low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. WANG Xiaozhi(王晓芝),et al. Dept Respir & Intensive Care Unit, Binzhou Med Coll, Binzhou 256603. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(1):44-47. Objective To compare the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(LRM) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods A prospective, randomized comparison of BiPAP mechanical ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(test group) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation (control group) was conducted in 28 patients with ARDS. FiO2/PaO2 ratio, respiratory system compliance(Cs), central venous pressure (CVP), duration of ventilation support were recorded at 0 h, 48 h and 72 h separately. The ventilation associated lung injury and mortality at 28 d were also recorded. Results The FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (298±16) and (309±16) cm H2O, Cs were (38.4±2.2) and (42.0±1.3) ml/cm H2O, CVP were (13.8±0.8) and (11.6±0.7) cm H2O in the test group at 48 h and 72 h separately. In the control group, FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (212±12) and (246±17) cm H2O, Cs were (29.5±1.3) and (29.0±1.0) ml/cm H2O, CVP were 18.6±1.1 and (16.8±1.0) cm H2O. The results were better in the test group as compared with the control group (t=10.03-29. 68, all P<0.01). The duration of ventilation support in the test group was shorter than the control group [(14±3) d vs (19±3)d, t=4.80, P<0.01]. The mortality in 28 d and ventilation associated lung injury were similar in the two groups. Conclusion The results show that combination of LRM with BiPAP mode ventilation, as compared with the control group, contributes to the improved FiO2/PaO2 ratio, pulmonary compliance, stable homodynamic and shorter duration of ventilation support in patients with ARDs.

  14. Niche divergence builds the case for ecological speciation in skinks of the Plestiodon skiltonianus species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogan, Guinevere O.U.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to different thermal environments has the potential to cause evolutionary changes that are sufficient to drive ecological speciation. Here, we examine whether climate-based niche divergence in lizards of the Plestiodon skiltonianus species complex is consistent with the outcomes of such a process. Previous work on this group shows that a mechanical sexual barrier has evolved between species that differ mainly in body size and that the barrier may be a by-product of selection for increased body size in lineages that have invaded xeric environments; however, baseline information on niche divergence among members of the group is lacking. We quantified the climatic niche using mechanistic physiological and correlative niche models and then estimated niche differences among species using ordination techniques and tests of niche overlap and equivalency. Our results show that the thermal niches of size-divergent, reproductively isolated morphospecies are significantly differentiated and that precipitation may have been as important as temperature in causing increased shifts in body size in xeric habitats. While these findings alone do not demonstrate thermal adaptation or identify the cause of speciation, their integration with earlier genetic and behavioral studies provides a useful test of phenotype–environment associations that further support the case for ecological speciation in these lizards.

  15. Complexity, rhizome and magma, three key elements in pattern building in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following reading synthesizes the rur-urban-agrary environmental research pattern that appear from the research Caldas Agrary Environmental Profile (IDEA, National University, Manizales - Colciencias, 1998 - 2000). This pattern is constructed from three ideas of the contemporary philosophy: complexity, rhizome and magma that comes from another disciplines: the mathematics, botanic, and geology. The genetics-historical method that follows this article, starts with a critical analysis to the relation forms between society and nature that belongs to the modernity, to do then, a presentation of the influence of the ecology in the construction of new relations between society and nature, culture and nature, and the influence of the theory of systems in a systemic view of society, culture, and nature. Finish with a presentation of the pattern ecosystem-culture made for Augusto Angel Maya and the critical-development that becomes form this pattern, that we had named rur-urban-agrary rhizoma. For example we show how this research pattern let us to amplify the methodology of river basins that we use inside the Agrary Environmental Profile

  16. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Parents > Lungs and Respiratory System Print ... have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't happen ...

  17. Respiratory Issues in OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivery, and other respiratory disorders may lead to respiratory failure and death particularly in people with OI Type ... have OI. It is a sobering fact that respiratory failure is the leading cause of death for people ...

  18. SU-E-J-261: Statistical Analysis and Chaotic Dynamics of Respiratory Signal of Patients in BodyFix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, D; Huq, M; Bednarz, G; Lalonde, R; Yang, Y; Heron, D [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify respiratory signal of patients in BodyFix undergoing 4DCT scan with and without immobilization cover. Methods: 20 pairs of respiratory tracks recorded with RPM system during 4DCT scan were analyzed. Descriptive statistic was applied to selected parameters of exhale-inhale decomposition. Standardized signals were used with the delay method to build orbits in embedded space. Nonlinear behavior was tested with surrogate data. Sample entropy SE, Lempel-Ziv complexity LZC and the largest Lyapunov exponents LLE were compared. Results: Statistical tests show difference between scans for inspiration time and its variability, which is bigger for scans without cover. The same is for variability of the end of exhalation and inhalation. Other parameters fail to show the difference. For both scans respiratory signals show determinism and nonlinear stationarity. Statistical test on surrogate data reveals their nonlinearity. LLEs show signals chaotic nature and its correlation with breathing period and its embedding delay time. SE, LZC and LLE measure respiratory signal complexity. Nonlinear characteristics do not differ between scans. Conclusion: Contrary to expectation cover applied to patients in BodyFix appears to have limited effect on signal parameters. Analysis based on trajectories of delay vectors shows respiratory system nonlinear character and its sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Reproducibility of respiratory signal can be evaluated with measures of signal complexity and its predictability window. Longer respiratory period is conducive for signal reproducibility as shown by these gauges. Statistical independence of the exhale and inhale times is also supported by the magnitude of LLE. The nonlinear parameters seem more appropriate to gauge respiratory signal complexity since its deterministic chaotic nature. It contrasts with measures based on harmonic analysis that are blind for nonlinear features. Dynamics of breathing, so crucial for

  19. SU-E-J-261: Statistical Analysis and Chaotic Dynamics of Respiratory Signal of Patients in BodyFix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To quantify respiratory signal of patients in BodyFix undergoing 4DCT scan with and without immobilization cover. Methods: 20 pairs of respiratory tracks recorded with RPM system during 4DCT scan were analyzed. Descriptive statistic was applied to selected parameters of exhale-inhale decomposition. Standardized signals were used with the delay method to build orbits in embedded space. Nonlinear behavior was tested with surrogate data. Sample entropy SE, Lempel-Ziv complexity LZC and the largest Lyapunov exponents LLE were compared. Results: Statistical tests show difference between scans for inspiration time and its variability, which is bigger for scans without cover. The same is for variability of the end of exhalation and inhalation. Other parameters fail to show the difference. For both scans respiratory signals show determinism and nonlinear stationarity. Statistical test on surrogate data reveals their nonlinearity. LLEs show signals chaotic nature and its correlation with breathing period and its embedding delay time. SE, LZC and LLE measure respiratory signal complexity. Nonlinear characteristics do not differ between scans. Conclusion: Contrary to expectation cover applied to patients in BodyFix appears to have limited effect on signal parameters. Analysis based on trajectories of delay vectors shows respiratory system nonlinear character and its sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Reproducibility of respiratory signal can be evaluated with measures of signal complexity and its predictability window. Longer respiratory period is conducive for signal reproducibility as shown by these gauges. Statistical independence of the exhale and inhale times is also supported by the magnitude of LLE. The nonlinear parameters seem more appropriate to gauge respiratory signal complexity since its deterministic chaotic nature. It contrasts with measures based on harmonic analysis that are blind for nonlinear features. Dynamics of breathing, so crucial for

  20. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which......, which gives the book a challenging contribution to the existing body of knowledge....

  1. Matching response to context in complex political emergencies: 'relief', 'development', 'peace-building' or something in-between?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P; Cliffe, L

    2000-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate over the value and pitfalls of the policy and practice of 'linking relief and development' or 'developmental relief' in aid responses to complex political emergencies (CPEs). Driven by concerns about relief creating dependence, sometimes doing harm and failing to address root causes of emergencies despite its high cost, pursuit of both relief and development has become a dominant paradigm among international aid agencies in CPEs as in 'natural' disasters. In CPEs a third objective of 'peace-building' has emerged, along with the logic that development can itself help prevent or resolve conflict and sustain peace. However, this broadening of relief objectives in ongoing CPEs has recently been criticised on a number of counts, central concerns being that it leads to a dilution of commitment to core humanitarian principles and is overly optimistic. This paper addresses these issues in the light of two of the CPEs studied by the COPE project: Eritrea and Somalia/Somaliland. It is argued that the debate has so far suffered from lack of clarity about what we mean by 'relief', 'development' and, for that matter, 'rehabilitation' and 'peace-building'. The wide spectrum of possible aid outcomes does not divide neatly into these categories. The relief-development divide is not always as clear-cut, technically or politically, as the critics claim. Moreover such distinctions, constructed from the point of view of aid programmers, are often of little relevance to the concerns of intended beneficiaries. Second, there has been insufficient attention to context: rather than attempting to generalise within and across CPE cases, a more productive approach would be to examine more closely the conditions under which forms of aid other than basic life support can fruitfully be pursued. This leads to consideration of collective agency capacity to respond effectively to diverse needs in different and changing circumstances. PMID:11138369

  2. Paediatric respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Everard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of infant and child mortality worldwide and are responsible for a substantial burden of morbidity. During the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, some of the main findings from peer-reviewed articles addressing this topic that were published in the preceding 12 months were reviewed in a Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session. The following article highlights some of the insights provided by these articles into the complex interactions of the human host with the extensive and dynamic populations of microorganisms that call an individual “home”.

  3. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Tizioto, Polyana C; Kim, JaeWoo; Seabury, Christopher M.; Schnabel, Robert D; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Neibergs, Holly L.; ,; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and gene...

  4. The effect of down-regulation of mitochondrial RNA-binding proteins MRP1 and MRP2 on respiratory complexes in procyclic Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zíková, Alena; Horáková, Eva; Jirků, Milan; Dunajčíková, P.; Lukeš, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 1 (2006), s. 65-73. ISSN 0166-6851 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5022302; GA ČR GA204/06/1558 Grant ostatní: National Institutes of Health(US) 5R03TW6445-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : RNA -binding protein * RNA interference * mitochondrial respiratory chain Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.641, year: 2006

  5. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2000-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  6. Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Based Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy with Respiratory Guidance System: Analysis of Respiratory Signals and Dosimetric Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effectiveness of respiratory guidance system in 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) based respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) by comparing respiratory signals and dosimetric analysis of treatment plans. Methods. The respiratory amplitude and period of the free, the audio device-guided, and the complex system-guided breathing were evaluated in eleven patients with lung or liver cancers. The dosimetric parameters were assessed by comparing free breathing ...

  7. Documenting a Complex Modern Heritage Building Using Multi Image Close Range Photogrammetry and 3d Laser Scanned Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna Baptista, M. L.

    2013-07-01

    Integrating different technologies and expertises help fill gaps when optimizing documentation of complex buildings. Described below is the process used in the first part of a restoration project, the architectural survey of Theatre Guaira Cultural Centre in Curitiba, Brazil. To diminish time on fieldwork, the two-person-field-survey team had to juggle, during three days, the continuous artistic activities and performers' intense schedule. Both technologies (high definition laser scanning and close-range photogrammetry) were used to record all details in the least amount of time without disturbing the artists' rehearsals and performances. Laser Scanning was ideal to record the monumental stage structure with all of its existing platforms, light fixtures, scenery walls and curtains. Although scanned with high-definition, parts of the exterior façades were also recorded using Close Range Photogrammetry. Tiny cracks on the marble plaques and mosaic tiles, not visible in the point clouds, were then able to be precisely documented in order to create the exterior façades textures and damages mapping drawings. The combination of technologies and the expertise of service providers, knowing how and what to document, and what to deliver to the client, enabled maximum benefits to the following restoration project.

  8. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  9. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  10. Hydrothermal formation of Co complex oxide and 58Co radioactivity build-up on zircaloy in simulated BWR primary coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explicate deposition and release of Co on fuel cladding in BWR, the hydrothermal formation of spinel type oxide from hydroxide and oxide and Co-58 radioactivity build-up on zircaly has been investigated experimentary in a simulated BWR primary coolant system. (1) The order of reactivity in formation of Co complex oxide from Co(OH)2 was CrO3 > Fe(OH)2 ≥ Cr(OH)3. (2) Compared with Co complex oxide, Ni complex oxide was hard to form. (3) Co-58 radioactivity build-up was practically unaffected by zircaloys with the prior treatment condition. (4) Cr ion was selectively deposited among Fe, Cr, Ni and Co ion on zircaloy test pieces. (author)

  11. Environmental geophysics: Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489 decommissioning - the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489, referred to informally as the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, are potentially contaminated sites in the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted to assist a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the buildings. The buildings are located on a marginal wetland bordering the west branch of Canal Creek. The dominant geophysical signature in the open-quotes Ghost Town close quotes complex is a pattern of northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast anomalies that appear to be associated with a trench/pipe/sewer system, documented by the presence of a manhole. Combinations of anomalies suggest that line sources include nonmetallic and ferromagnetic materials in trenches. On the basis of anomaly associations, the sewer lines probably rest in a trench, back-filled with conductive, amphibolitic, crushed rock. Where the sewer lines connect manholes or junctions with other lines, ferromagnetic materials are present. Isolated, unidentified magnetic anomalies litter the area around Building E5487, particularly to the north. Three small magnetic sources are located east of Building E5487

  12. Building a measurement framework of burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eton DT

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available David T Eton,1 Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira,2,3 Jason S Egginton,1 Jennifer L Ridgeway,1 Laura Odell,4 Carl R May,5 Victor M Montori1,61Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2College of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 3Medication Therapy Management Program, Fairview Pharmacy Services LLC, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 4Pharmacy Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 5Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 6Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: Burden of treatment refers to the workload of health care as well as its impact on patient functioning and well-being. We set out to build a conceptual framework of issues descriptive of burden of treatment from the perspective of the complex patient, as a first step in the development of a new patient-reported measure.Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with patients seeking medication therapy management services at a large, academic medical center. All patients had a complex regimen of self-care (including polypharmacy, and were coping with one or more chronic health conditions. We used framework analysis to identify and code themes and subthemes. A conceptual framework of burden of treatment was outlined from emergent themes and subthemes.Results: Thirty-two patients (20 female, 12 male, age 26–85 years were interviewed. Three broad themes of burden of treatment emerged including: the work patients must do to care for their health; problem-focused strategies and tools to facilitate the work of self-care; and factors that exacerbate the burden felt. The latter theme encompasses six subthemes including challenges with taking medication, emotional problems with others, role and activity limitations, financial challenges, confusion about medical information, and health care delivery obstacles

  13. Identification of the Mitochondrial ND3 Subunit as a Structural Component Involved in the Active/Deactive Enzyme Transition of Respiratory Complex I*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Galkin, Alexander; Meyer, Björn; Wittig, Ilka; Karas, Michael; Schägger, Hermann; Vinogradov, Andrei; Brandt, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) undergoes reversible deactivation upon incubation at 30–37 °C. The active/deactive transition could play an important role in the regulation of complex I activity. It has been suggested recently that complex I may become modified by S-nitrosation under pathological conditions during hypoxia or when the nitric oxide:oxygen ratio increases. Apparently, a specific cysteine becomes accessible to chemical modification...

  14. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  15. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, Polyana C; Kim, JaeWoo; Seabury, Christopher M; Schnabel, Robert D; Gershwin, Laurel J; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Neibergs, Holly L; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent. PMID:26121276

  16. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana C Tizioto

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent.

  17. The NDUFB6 subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I is required for electron transfer activity: A proof of principle study on stable and controlled RNA interference in human cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → NDUFB6 is required for activity of mitochondrial complex I in human cell lines. → Lentivirus based RNA interference results in frequent off target insertions. → Flp-In recombinase mediated miRNA insertion allows gene-specific extinction. -- Abstract: Molecular bases of inherited deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I are still unknown in a high proportion of patients. Among 45 subunits making up this large complex, more than half has unknown function(s). Understanding the function of these subunits would contribute to our knowledge on mitochondrial physiology but might also reveal that some of these subunits are not required for the catalytic activity of the complex. A direct consequence of this finding would be the reduction of the number of candidate genes to be sequenced in patients with decreased complex I activity. In this study, we tested two different methods to stably extinct complex I subunits in cultured cells. We first found that lentivirus-mediated shRNA expression frequently resulted in the unpredicted extinction of additional gene(s) beside targeted ones. This can be ascribed to uncontrolled genetic material insertions in the genome of the host cell. This approach thus appeared inappropriate to study unknown functions of a gene. Next, we found it possible to specifically extinct a CI subunit gene by direct insertion of a miR targeting CI subunits in a Flp site (HEK293 Flp-In cells). By using this strategy we unambiguously demonstrated that the NDUFB6 subunit is required for complex I activity, and defined conditions suitable to undertake a systematic and stable extinction of the different supernumerary subunits in human cells.

  18. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which...... evolves from a simple establishment of a contractual relationship to a central and strategic part of construction. The authors relate to cultural, ethical and social and behavioural sciences as the fundamental basis for analysis and understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the procurement system...

  19. Differential labeling of the subunits of respiratory complex III with [3H]succinic anhydride, [14C]succinic anhydride, and p-diazobenzene-[35S]sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of antimycin-treated Complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) purified from bovine heart mitochondria to [3H]succinic anhydride plus [35S]p-diazobenzenesulfonate (DABS) resulted in somewhat uniform relative labeling of the eight measured subunits of the complex by [3H]succinic anhydride. In contrast, relative labeling by [35S]DABS was similar to [3H]succinic anhydride for the subunits of high molecular mass, i.e., core proteins, cytochromes, and the iron-sulfur protein, but greatly reduced for the polypeptides of molecular mass below 15 kDa. With Complex II depleted in the iron-sulfur protein the relative labeling of core protein I by exposure of the complex to [3H]succinic anhydride was significantly enhanced, whereas labeling of the polypeptides represented by SDS-PAGE bands 7 and 8 was significantly inhibited. Dual labeling of the subunits of Complex III by 14C- and 3H-labeled succinic anhydride before and after dissociation of the complex by sodium dodecyl sulfate, respectively, was measured with the complex in its oxidized, reduced, and antimycin-inhibited states. Subunits observed to be most accessible or reactive to succinic anhydride were core protein II, the iron-sulfur protein, and polypeptides of SDS-PAGE bands 7,8, and 9. Two additional polypeptides of molecular masses 23 and 12kDa, not normally resolved by gel-electrophoresis, were detected. Reduction of the complex resulted in a significant change of 14C/3H labeling ratio of core protein only, whereas treatment of the complex with antimycin resulted in decreases in 14C/3H labeling ratios of core proteins I and II, cytochrome c1, and a polypeptide of molecular mass 13kDa identified as an antimycin-binding protein

  20. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  2. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Respiratory Failure? Diseases and conditions that impair breathing can cause ... injure your lungs. Normal Lungs and Conditions Causing Respiratory Failure Figure A shows the location of the lungs, ...

  3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Respiratory Failure Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  4. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Teens > Lungs and ... you didn't breathe, you couldn't live. Lungs & Respiratory System Basics Each day we breathe about ...

  5. Learning from simple ebooks, online cases or classroom teaching when acquiring complex knowledge. A randomized controlled trial in respiratory physiology and pulmonology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt

    2013-01-01

    E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective as...... classroom teaching methods, but little is known about its value in relaying contents of different levels of complexity to students. We set out to investigate e-learning effects on simple recall and complex problem-solving compared to classroom teaching....

  6. Modeling of longitudinal polytomous outcome from complex survey data - application to investigate an association between mental distress and non-malignant respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Pahwa Punam; Karunanayake Chandima P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The data from longitudinal complex surveys based on multi-stage sampling designs contain cross-sectional dependencies among units due to clustered nature of the data and within-subject dependencies due to repeated measurements. Special statistical methods are required to analyze longitudinal complex survey data. Methods Statistics Canada's longitudinal National Population Health Survey (NPHS) dataset from the first five cycles (1994/1995 to 2002/2003) was used to investiga...

  7. Characterization of clinically identified mutations in NDUFV1, the flavin-binding subunit of respiratory complex I, using a yeast model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Febin; Atcheson, Erwan; Bridges, Hannah R; Hirst, Judy

    2015-11-15

    Dysfunctions in mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) are both genetically and clinically highly diverse and a major cause of human mitochondrial diseases. The genetic determinants of individual clinical cases are increasingly being described, but how these genetic defects affect complex I on the molecular and cellular level, and have different clinical consequences in different individuals, is little understood. Furthermore, without molecular-level information innocent genetic variants may be misassigned as pathogenic. Here, we have used a yeast model system (Yarrowia lipolytica) to study the molecular consequences of 16 single amino acid substitutions, classified as pathogenic, in the NDUFV1 subunit of complex I. NDUFV1 binds the flavin cofactor that oxidizes NADH and is the site of complex I-mediated reactive oxygen species production. Seven mutations caused loss of complex I expression, suggesting they are detrimental but precluding further study. In two variants complex I was fully assembled but did not contain any flavin, and four mutations led to functionally compromised enzymes. Our study provides a molecular rationale for assignment of all these variants as pathogenic. However, three variants provided complex I that was functionally equivalent to the wild-type enzyme, challenging their assignment as pathogenic. By combining structural, bioinformatic and functional data, a simple scoring system for the initial evaluation of future NDUFV1 variants is proposed. Overall, our results broaden understanding of how mutations in this centrally important core subunit of complex I affect its function and provide a basis for understanding the role of NDUFV1 mutations in mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26345448

  8. Pathological examination and pathogen detection of porcine respiratory disease complex in a finisher swine herd%育肥猪呼吸道疾病综合征病理学观察和病原学检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘捷; 李玉峰; 王先炜; 李文良; 姜平

    2011-01-01

    猪呼吸道疾病综合征是一种由病毒、细菌、环境应激和猪体免疫力低下等多因素相互作用引起的呼吸道疾病.2009年2~4月,上海农场某猪场一批育肥猪出现疑似病例,表现为食欲下降,咳嗽,呼吸困难,生长缓慢和料肉比降低.本研究在流行病学调查的基础上,剖检8头病猪观察其病理变化,主要表现为肺脏弥慢性实变,弹性降低,间质增宽,有的水肿、气肿,或纤维素性胸膜肺炎.病原检测结果显示,该发病猪群主要病原为猪繁殖与呼吸综合征病毒、猪圆环病毒2型和副猪嗜血杆菌.本研究为猪呼吸道疾病综合征的防治提供了依据.%The porcine respiratory disease complex ( PRDC) is a complex disease caused by many factors , including virus, bacteria, environmental stress and low immunity. Some cases susceptive of PRDC were found in a swine farm of Shanghai in April 2009. The pigs showed anorexia, cough, dyspnea. slow growth and reduction of feed efficiency. After epidemiological investigation, eight fattening pigs with respiratory syndrome were selected for gross pathological analysis. The lungs showed mainly diffused consolidation, reduced flexibility , interstitial thicking, emphysema or fibrinous pleuropneumonia. The results of pathogen detection showed that these pigs were mainly infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ( PRRSV) , porcine circovirus cype 2 ( PCV2) and Haemophilus parasuis ( Hps) . This study would be useful for the prevention and control of PRDC.

  9. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Respiratory Syncytial Virus KidsHealth > For Parents > Respiratory Syncytial Virus Print A A A Text Size What's in ... RSV When to Call the Doctor en español Virus respiratorio sincitial About RSV Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH- ...

  10. Software concepts for the build-up of complex systems - selection and realization taking as example a program system for calculation of hypothetical core meltdown accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development and application of simulation systems for the analysis of complex processes require on the one hand and detailed engineering knowledge of the plant and the processes to be simulated and on the other hand a detailled knowledge about software engineering, numerics and data structures. The cooperation of specialists of both areas will become easier if it is possible to reduce the complexicity of the problems to be solved in a way that the analyses will not be disturbed and the communication between different disciplines will not become unnecessarily complicated. One solution to reduce the complexity is to consider computer science as an engineering discipline which provides mainly abstract elements and to allow engineers to build application systems based on these abstract elements. The principle of abstraction leads through the processes of modularisation and the solution of the interface problem to an almost problem independent system architecture where the elements of the system (modules, model components and models) operate only on those data assigned to them. In addition the development of abstract data types allows the formal description of the relations and interactions between system elements. This work describes how these ideas can be concretized to build complex systems which allow reliable and effective problem solutions. These ideas were applied successfully during the design, realization and application of the code system KESS, which allows the analysis of core melt down accidents in pressurized water reactors. (orig.)

  11. Learning from Simple Ebooks, Online Cases or Classroom Teaching When Acquiring Complex Knowledge. A Randomized Controlled Trial in Respiratory Physiology and Pulmonology

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarne Skjødt Worm

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective as classroom teaching methods, but little is known about its value in relaying contents of different levels of complexity to students. We set out to investigate e-learning effects on ...

  12. SERCA, complex I of the respiratory chain and ATP-synthase inhibition are involved in pleiotropic effects of NS1619 on endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiak, Agnieszka; Skup, Agata; Chlopicki, Stefan; Łomnicka, Magdalena; Kaczara, Patrycja; Proniewski, Bartosz; Szewczyk, Adam; Wrzosek, Antoni

    2016-09-01

    A large conductance potassium (BKCa) channel opener, NS1619 (1,3-dihydro-1- [2-hydroxy-5-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl]-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-benzimidazole-2-one), is well known for its protective effects against ischemia-reperfusion injury; however, the exact mode of its action remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of NS1619 on endothelial cells. The endothelial cell line EA.hy926, guinea pig hearts and submitochondrial particles isolated from the heart were used. In the isolated guinea pig hearts, which were perfused using the Langendorff technique, NS1619 caused a dose-dependent increase in coronary flow that was inhibited by L-NAME. In EA.hy926 cells, NS1619 also caused a dose-dependent increase in the intracellular calcium ion concentration [Ca(2+)]i, as measured using the FURA-2 fluorescent probe. Moreover, NS1619 decreased the oxygen consumption rate in EA.hy926 cells, as assessed using a Clark-type oxygen electrode. However, when NS1619 was applied in the presence of oligomycin, the oxygen consumption increased. NS1619 also decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, as measured using a JC-1 fluorescent probe in the presence and absence of oligomycin. Additionally, the application of NS1619 to submitochondrial particles inhibited ATP synthase. In summary, NS1619 has pleiotropic actions on EA.hy926 cells and acts not only as an opener of the BKCa channel in EA.hy926 cells but also as an inhibitor of the respiratory chain component, sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase, which leads to the release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, NS1619 has the oligomycin-like property of inhibiting mitochondrial ATP synthase. PMID:27262382

  13. Respiratory chain complex I, a main regulatory target of the cAMP/PKA pathway is defective in different human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papa, S.; De Rasmo, D.; Technikova-Dobrova, Z.;

    2012-01-01

    vulnerable to genetic and sporadic pathological factors. Complex I dysfunction has, indeed, been found, to be associated with several human diseases. Knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms of these diseases can help to develop new therapeutic strategies. (C) 2011 Federation of European Biochemical...... Societies. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved....

  14. Association of swine influenza H1N1 pandemic virus (SIV-H1N1p) with porcine respiratory disease complex in sows from commercial pig farms in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Luisa Fernanda Mancipe; Ramírez Nieto, Gloria; Alfonso, Victor Vera; Correa, Jairo Jaime

    2014-08-01

    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a serious health problem that mainly affects growing and finishing pigs. PRDC is caused by a combination of viral and bacterial agents, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Myh), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), Pasteurella multocida and Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). To characterize the specific role of swine influenza virus in PRDC presentation in Colombia, 11 farms from three major production regions in Colombia were examined in this study. Nasal swabs, bronchial lavage and lung tissue samples were obtained from animals displaying symptoms compatible with SIV. Isolation of SIV was performed in 9-day embryonated chicken eggs or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. Positive isolates, identified via the hemagglutination inhibition test, were further analyzed using PCR. Overall, 7 of the 11 farms were positive for SIV. Notably, sequencing of the gene encoding the hemagglutinin (HA) protein led to grouping of strains into circulating viruses identified during the human outbreak of 2009, classified as pandemic H1N1-2009. Serum samples from 198 gilts and multiparous sows between 2008 and 2009 were obtained to determine antibody presence of APP, Myh, PCV2 and PRRSV in both SIV-H1N1p-negative and -positive farms, but higher levels were recorded for SIV-H1N1p-positive farms. Odds ratio (OR) and P values revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in PRDC presentation in gilts and multiparous sows of farms positive for SIV-H1N1p. Our findings indicate that positive farms have increased risk of PRDC presentation, in particular, PCV2, APP and Myh. PMID:25160760

  15. Ridge based decomposition of complex buildings for 3D model generation from high resolution digital surface models

    OpenAIRE

    Arefi, Hossein; Hahn, Michael; Reinartz, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    3D city models have a wide range of applications such as mobile navigation, urban planning, telecommunication, and tourism. The generation of high resolution Digital Surface Models (DSMs), in particular from airborne LIDAR data have found a major attraction of researchers in this field due to their high accuracy and high density of points. In this paper, a new approach is proposed for the generation of 3D models of buildings that are extracted from a high resolution DSM. Particularly the comp...

  16. Contributions of the Pre-Bötzinger Complex and the Kölliker-Fuse Nuclei to Respiratory Rhythm and Pattern Generation in Awake and Sleeping Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Hubert; Bonis, Josh; Krause, Katie; Wenninger, Julie; Neumueller, Suzanne; Hodges, Matthew; Pan, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    We investigated in three groups of awake and sleeping goats whether there are differences in ventilatory responses after injections of Ibotenic acid (IA, glutamate receptor agonist and neurotoxin) into the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC), lateral parabrachial (LPBN), medial (MPBN) parabrachial, or Kölliker-Fuse nuclei (KFN). In one group, within minutes after bilateral injection of 10 µl IA (50 mM) into the preBötC, there was a 10-fold increase in breathing frequency, but 1.5 h later, the goa...

  17. Wine-growing establishment. A building complex serving an industrial model for a century (1870 – 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Manzini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry in the province of Mendoza, Argentina as modern industrial was developed from the late nineteenth century. The decline starting in the 1970s, and triggered the second modernization wine since the 1980s. The functional requirements of the first modernization wine required both housing construction and production, giving rise to so-called wine-growing establishment. The wineries of these establishment, are the buildings used to make wine. The rest of the constructions are used as support for such activity. The functional units required in establishments, have varied over time, were adapted according to the different production needs of the moment. The wine-growing establishment that were built in this period can be found now adapted to the new requirements in production and operation, as well as in a complete abandonment. The group of buildings with various implements that are integrated testimonies, traces of other realities and knowledge that occurred in them before. Therefore, the aim to the present work is to perform a historical analysis of the evolution from architectural materiality 1870-1970; focused on understanding its growth and the distribution and location of the buildings, that they are closely integrated into the contextual framework belonging

  18. Characterization of an Experimental Vaccine for Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hägglund, Sara; Hu, Kefei; Blodörn, Krister; Makabi-Panzu, Boby; Gaillard, Anne-Laure; Ellencrona, Karin; Chevret, Didier; Hellman, Lars; Bengtsson, Karin Lövgren; Riffault, Sabine; Taylor, Geraldine; Valarcher, Jean François; Eléouët, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) are major causes of respiratory disease in calves and children, respectively, and are priorities for vaccine development. We previously demonstrated that an experimental vaccine, BRSV-immunostimulating complex (ISCOM), is effective in calves with maternal antibodies. The present study focuses on the antigenic characterization of this vaccine for the design of new-generation subunit vaccines. The results of ...

  19. Approaches to the control of respiratory virus diseases*

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrrell, D. A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Viruses of various biological types are known to cause a wide range of acute respiratory infections, ranging from mild colds and catarrh to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Bacteria also cause respiratory diseases including serious conditions such as otitis media and pneumonia. The whole situation is complex and to understand the epidemiology we also need to consider nutrition, environment, climate, and chronic diseases. Acute respiratory viral diseases are very common in all areas of the ...

  20. COMPETENCE BUILDING STRATEGY IN THE TEXTILE COMPLEX: A STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF CULTURAL AND IDENTITARIAN ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo de Jesus Carvalho Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the profile of the remaining textile industry workforce as a strategic factor for the building of competencies in the companies of the sector. It investigates the impact of the cultural and identitarian traits developed by the workforce within century-old organizations on productive dynamics. The discussion is justified in a precarious working context seeking competitive differentials. The theoretical framework is supported by a reflexive axis that gives first priority to the combination of complementary topics. This article is based on exploratory and qualitative research developed through a multiple case methodology (Yin, 2005 covering textile factions and cotton mills from the micro-regions of Curvelo and Diamantina, Minas Gerais State. The body of the work included fifty-one operating and directive-level respondents and the data were collected through interviews between October 2009 and March 2010. The NVIVO software and Content Analysis were used for data processing based on categories and frequency counting (Bardin, 1979. The results indicate that from a structural viewpoint, the retention of a qualified workforce, both technically and skillfully, was an alternative to the shaping of the workforce and the stabilization of the productive process. Concerning the relational and formative dimensions, the study concluded that learning developed fundamentally by means of experienced tutors. Competence building resulted from some deliberate strategy consisting of social and historical aspects within the work environment.

  1. The salience and complexity of building, regulating, and governing the smart grid: Lessons from a statewide public–private partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart grid deployment unfolds within a diverse array of multi-institutional arrangements that may be too fragmented and decentralized to allow for the kind of large-scale and coordinated investments needed to properly deploy the smart grid. This case study provides an account of how one state arranged for and eventually deployed smart grid technology to over 85 percent of its resident. The study asks: does the deployment of the smart grid introduce new socio-political variables into the electricity distribution industry? To make sense of the socio-political variables shaping the industry and regulators, the Salience–Complexity Model is used to assess whether the smart grid raises or lowers the level of public scrutiny caste upon the industry (issue salience) and the level of technical capacity needed to execute and utilize the smart grid (technical complexity). The conclusions to be drawn from this study include: smart grid technology heightens the issue salience and the technical complexity of electricity distribution, but that the smart grid will likely not have a significant impact on the restructuring of electricity regulation. - Highlights: • Smart grid introduces new socio-political variables into the electricity distribution industry. • Smart grid technology engenders high degrees of issue salience and technical complexity. • Smart grid deployment requires extensive industry-regulator collaboration. • Smart grid will likely not have a significant impact on the restructuring of electricity regulation

  2. Building a Theoretical Model of Metacognitive Processes in Complex Modeling Activities: A Window into the Development of Students' Metacognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Rae

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical model of metacognition in complex modeling activities has been developed based on existing frameworks, by synthesizing the re-conceptualization of metacognition at multiple levels by looking at the three sources that trigger metacognition. Using the theoretical model as a framework, this study was designed to explore how students'…

  3. ERS statement on the multidisciplinary respiratory management of ataxia telangiectasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatt, J.M.; Bush, A.; Gerven, M.; Nissenkorn, A.; Renke, M.; Yarlett, L.; Taylor, M.; Tonia, T.; Warris, A.; Zielen, S.; Zinna, S.; Merkus, P.J.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare, progressive, multisystem disease that has a large number of complex and diverse manifestations which vary with age. Patients with A-T die prematurely with the leading causes of death being respiratory diseases and cancer. Respiratory manifestations include immu

  4. Newborn Respiratory Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Christian L; Mahajan, Anand

    2015-12-01

    Newborn respiratory distress presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Newborns with respiratory distress commonly exhibit tachypnea with a respiratory rate of more than 60 respirations per minute. They may present with grunting, retractions, nasal flaring, and cyanosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, sepsis, pneumothorax, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and delayed transition. Congenital heart defects, airway malformations, and inborn errors of metabolism are less common etiologies. Clinicians should be familiar with updated neonatal resuscitation guidelines. Initial evaluation includes a detailed history and physical examination. The clinician should monitor vital signs and measure oxygen saturation with pulse oximetry, and blood gas measurement may be considered. Chest radiography is helpful in the diagnosis. Blood cultures, serial complete blood counts, and C-reactive protein measurement are useful for the evaluation of sepsis. Most neonates with respiratory distress can be treated with respiratory support and noninvasive methods. Oxygen can be provided via bag/mask, nasal cannula, oxygen hood, and nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Ventilator support may be used in more severe cases. Surfactant is increasingly used for respiratory distress syndrome. Using the INSURE technique, the newborn is intubated, given surfactant, and quickly extubated to nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Newborns should be screened for critical congenital heart defects via pulse oximetry after 24 hours but before hospital discharge. Neonatology consultation is recommended if the illness exceeds the clinician's expertise and comfort level or when the diagnosis is unclear in a critically ill newborn. PMID:26760414

  5. Triflate-functionalized calix[6]arenes as versatile building-blocks: application to the synthesis of an inherently chiral Zn(ii) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahim, Sara; Lavendomme, Roy; Reinaud, Olivia; Luhmer, Michel; Evano, Gwilherm; Jabin, Ivan

    2016-02-14

    Cavity-based metal complexes can find many applications notably in the fields of catalysis and biomimicry. In this context, it was shown that metal complexes of calix[6]arenes bearing three aza-coordinating arms at the small rim provide excellent structural models of the poly-imidazole sites found in the active site of many metallo-enzymes. All these N-donor ligands were synthesized from the 1,3,5-tris-methoxy-p-tBu-calix[6]arene platform, which presents some limitations in terms of functionalization. Therefore, there is a need for the development of new calix[6]arene-based building-blocks selectively protected at the small rim. Herein we describe the regioselective one step synthesis of two calix[6]arenes decorated with triflate groups, i.e. X6H4Tf2 and X6H3Tf3, from the parent calix[6]arene X6H6. It is shown that the triflate groups can either act as protecting or deactivating groups, allowing the elaboration of sophisticated calixarene-based systems selectively functionalized at the large and/or at the small rim. In addition, X6H3Tf3 is functionalized on the A, B, and D rings and thus gives access to inherently chiral compounds, as demonstrated by the synthesis of a rare example of inherently chiral cavity-based metal complex. PMID:26751614

  6. Towards building artificial light harvesting complexes: enhanced singlet-singlet energy transfer between donor and acceptor pairs bound to albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Challa V; Duff, Michael R

    2008-12-01

    Specific donor and acceptor pairs have been assembled in bovine serum albumin (BSA), at neutral pH and room temperature, and these dye-protein complexes indicated efficient donor to acceptor singlet-singlet energy transfer. For example, pyrene-1-butyric acid served as the donor and Coumarin 540A served as the acceptor. Both the donor and the acceptor bind to BSA with affinity constants in excess of 2x10(5) M(-1), as measured in absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectral titrations. Simultaneous binding of both the donor and the acceptor chromophores was supported by CD spectra and one chromophore did not displace the other from the protein host, even when limited concentrations of the host were used. For example, a 1:1:1 complex between the donor, acceptor and the host can be readily formed, and spectral data clearly show that the binding sites are mutually exclusive. The ternary complexes (two different ligands bound to the same protein molecule) provided opportunities to examine singlet-singlet energy transfer between the protein-bound chromophores. Donor emission was quenched by the addition of the acceptor, in the presence of limited amounts of BSA, while no energy transfer was observed in the absence of the protein host, under the same conditions. The excitation spectra of the donor-acceptor-host complexes clearly show the sensitization of acceptor emission by the donor. Protein denaturation, as induced by the addition of urea or increasing the temperature to 360 K, inhibited energy transfer, which indicate that protein structure plays an important role. Sensitization also proceeded at low temperature (77 K) and diffusion of the donor or the acceptor is not required for energy transfer. Stern-Volmer quenching plots show that the quenching constant is (3.1+/-0.2)x10(4) M(-1), at low acceptor concentrations (hosts for the above experiments. For the first time, non-natural systems have been self-assembled which can capture donor-acceptor pairs and facilitate

  7. Characterization of organic air emissions from the Certification and Segregation Building and Air Support Weather Shield II at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the latter part of Fiscal Year (FY-92), a task was initiated to characterize the organic air emissions from the Certification and Segregation (C and S) Building [Waste Management Facility (WMF) 612] and the Air Support Weather Shield II (ASWS II or ASB II) (WMF 711) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The purpose of this task, titled the RWMC Organic Air Emissions Evaluation Task, was to identify and quantify the volatile organic compounds (VOCS) present in the ambient air in these two facilities and to estimate the organic air emissions. The VOCs were identified and quantified by implementing a dual method approach using two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and SUMMA canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14. The data gathered were used in conjunction with the building's ventilation rate to calculate an estimated organic air emissions rate. This report presents the data gathered during the performance of this task and relates the data to the relevant regulatory requirements

  8. Crystal engineered acid–base complexes with 2D and 3D hydrogen bonding systems using p-hydroxybenzoic acid as the building block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PU SU ZHAO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HOBA was selected as the building block for self-assembly with five bases, i.e., diethylamine, tert-butylamine, cyclohexylamine, imidazole and piperazine, and generation of the corresponding acid–base complexes 1–5. Crystal structure analyses suggest that proton-transfer from the carboxyl hydrogen to the nitrogen atom of the bases can be observed in 1–4, while only in 5 does a solvent water molecule co-exist with p--HOBA and piperazine. With the presence of O–H···O hydrogen bonds in 1–4, the deprotonated p-hydroxybenzoate anions (p-HOBAA– are simply connected each other in a head-to-tail motif to form one-dimensional (1D arrays, which are further extended to distinct two-dimensional (2D (for 1 and 4 and three-dimensional (3D (for 2 and 3 networks via N–H···O interactions. While in 5, neutral acid and base are combined pair-wise by O–H···N and N–H···O bonds to form a 1D tape and then the 1D tapes are sequentially combined by water molecules to create a 3D network. Some interlayer or intralayer C–H···O, C–H···p and p×××p interactions help to stabilize the supramolecular buildings. Melting point determination analyses indicate that the five acid–base complexes are not the ordinary superposition of the reactants and they are more stable than the original reactants.

  9. Noninvasive respiratory monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Transcutaneous Monitoring of Respiratory Gases; Computed Tomography of the Chest; Measurement and Monitoring of Exhaled Carbon Dioxide; Oximetry; and Ultrasonic Evaluation of the Chest Wall and Pleura

  10. Noninvasive respiratory monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nochomovitz, M.L.; Cherniack, N.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Transcutaneous Monitoring of Respiratory Gases; Computed Tomography of the Chest; Measurement and Monitoring of Exhaled Carbon Dioxide; Oximetry; and Ultrasonic Evaluation of the Chest Wall and Pleura.

  11. Upper respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grief, Samuel N

    2013-09-01

    Upper respiratory infections (URIs) are infections of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx (voice box), and trachea (windpipe). This article outlines the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of URIs, including nasopharyngitis (common cold), sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and laryngotracheitis. PMID:23958368

  12. Living with Respiratory Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tips below. Ongoing Care If you have respiratory failure, see your doctor for ongoing medical care. Your doctor may refer you to pulmonary rehabilitation (rehab). Rehab can involve exercise training, education, and counseling. Your rehab team might include doctors, ...

  13. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Zammit; Helen Liddicoat; Ian Moonsie; et al

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

  14. Microspectrophotometry of respiratory pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Karen Yvonne, (Thesis)

    2003-01-01

    This research thesis describes the design, construction and optical testing of three fibre-optic microspectrophotometer systems to monitor the reduction of mitochondrial respiratory pigments. The optical and biochemical characteristics of mitochondrial respiration are discussed and the current optical techniques employed in the biochemical analysis of respiratory enzymes are presented. The primary focus of this study is the system parameters surrounding the spectrophotometric determination of...

  15. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  16. HERMES European Accreditation of Training Centres in Adult Respiratory Medicine: criteria validation and revision

    OpenAIRE

    Sandy Sutter; Daiana Stolz; Ortrud Karg; Sharon Mitchell; Alexandra Niculescu; Julie-Lyn Noël; Pippa Powell; Szymon Skoczyński; Johan Verbraecken; Gernot Rohde

    2016-01-01

    Four respiratory medicine disease categories appear in the global top 10 causes of mortality [1], resulting in 600 000 people dying from respiratory disease in Europe each year. The economic burden of respiratory diseases in Europe exceeds 380 billion euros. In a fast-developing environment, new clinical challenges have arisen for pulmonary specialists; techniques and procedures have evolved and become more complex.

  17. Study by similarity of wind influence on mass transfers in complex buildings; Etude par similitude de l'influence du vent sur les transferts de masse dans les batiments complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, Nicolas

    2011-12-05

    Residential and industrial buildings equipped with a ventilation system are complex facilities, where various heat and mass transfers could occur according to the operating conditions. In order to study these mass transfers, a methodology has been developed so as to carry out reduced-scale experiments for the study of isothermal flows, in steady or transient state. This methodology has been numerically and experimentally validated on simple configurations, and then applied to two standard configurations, representing nuclear facilities. The wind influence on mass transfers inside these configurations, in normal, damaged (stopping ventilation) or accidental (internal overpressure) situations, has been studied in the Jules Verne climatic wind tunnel of the CSTB. The wind effects, coupled or not with an internal overpressure, can lead to a partial or a total loss of the pollutant's containment inside buildings. Moreover, the wind turbulence can bring about instantaneous reversal leakage flow-rates, which cannot be identified in steady state. In addition, the study of transient phenomena has highlighted the low influence of the branch inertia on transient flows, for typical values of real facilities. Finally, tracer tests have been carried out in order to study the pollutant dispersion inside a standard configuration subjected to wind, mechanical ventilation and internal overpressure effects. The reliability of the zonal code SYLVIA, used notably to support safety assessment in nuclear buildings, has been analyzed from these experimental results. The modelling of the physical phenomena experimentally observed has been validated, in steady and transient states. However, limitations have been identified for the study of pollutant dispersion, due to hypothesis used in SYLVIA code, as in all zonal codes (homogenous concentration inside rooms, instantaneous propagation inside branches and rooms). (author)

  18. Homologous Solar Events on 2011 January 27: Build-up and Propagation in a Complex Coronal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, M.; Stenborg, G.; Démoulin, P.; Zucca, P.; Lecacheux, A.

    2016-05-01

    In spite of the wealth of imaging observations at the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV), X-ray, and radio wavelengths, there are still relatively few cases where all of the imagery is available to study the full development of a coronal mass ejection (CME) event and its associated shock. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the role of the coronal environment in the development of CMEs and the formation of shocks, and their propagation. We have analyzed the interactions of a couple of homologous CME events with ambient coronal structures. Both events were launched in a direction far from the local vertical, and exhibited a radical change in their direction of propagation during their progression from the low corona into higher altitudes. Observations at EUV wavelengths from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory were used to track the events in the low corona. The development of the events at higher altitudes was followed by the white-light coronagraphs on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Radio emissions produced during the development of the events were well recorded by the Nançay solar instruments. Thanks to their detection of accelerated electrons, the radio observations are an important complement to the EUV imaging. They allowed us to characterize the development of the associated shocks, and helped to unveil the physical processes behind the complex interactions between the CMEs and ambient medium (e.g., compression, reconnection).

  19. Chemical interactions in complex matrices: Determination of polar impurities in biofuels and fuel contaminants in building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglayeva, Ganna

    The solutions to several real-life analytical and physical chemistry problems, which involve chemical interactions in complex matrices are presented. The possible interferences due to the analyte-analyte and analyte-matrix chemical interactions were minimized on each step of the performed chemical analysis. Concrete and wood, as major construction materials, typically become contaminated with fuel oil hydrocarbons during their spillage. In the catastrophic scenarios (e.g., during floods), fuel oil mixes with water and then becomes entrained within the porous structure of wood or concrete. A strategy was proposed for the efficient extraction of fuel oil hydrocarbons from concrete to enable their monitoring. The impacts of sample aging and inundation with water on the extraction efficiency were investigated to elucidate the nature of analytematrix interactions. Two extraction methods, 4-days cold solvent extraction with shaking and 24-hours Soxhlet extraction with ethylacetate, methanol or acetonitrile yielded 95-100 % recovery of fuel oil hydrocarbons from concrete. A method of concrete remediation after contamination with fuel oil hydrocarbons using activated carbon as an adsorbent was developed. The 14 days remediation was able to achieve ca. 90 % of the contaminant removal even from aged water-submerged concrete samples. The degree of contamination can be qualitatively assessed using transport rates of the contaminants. Two models were developed, Fickian and empirical, to predict long-term transport behavior of fuel oil hydrocarbons under flood representative scenarios into wood. Various sorption parameters, including sorption rate, penetration degree and diffusion coefficients were obtained. The explanations to the observed three sorption phases are provided in terms of analyte-matrix interactions. The detailed simultaneous analysis of intermediate products of the cracking of triacylglycerol oils, namely monocarboxylic acids, triacyl-, diacyl- and

  20. Medical Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of the Medical Complex. This project covers the construction of a new Hong Kong University Medical Complex on Sassoon Road, Pokfulam. The complex will comprise two buildings, one will house laboratories and a car park, while the other will contain lecture halls

  1. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  2. Microglia modulate respiratory rhythm generation and autoresuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorea-Hernández, Jonathan-Julio; Morales, Teresa; Rivera-Angulo, Ana-Julia; Alcantara-Gonzalez, David; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation has been linked to the induction of apneas and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, whereas proinflammatory mediators inhibit breathing when applied peripherally or directly into the CNS. Considering that peripheral inflammation can activate microglia in the CNS and that this cell type can directly release all proinflammatory mediators that modulate breathing, it is likely that microglia can modulate breathing generation. It might do so also in hypoxia, since microglia are sensitive to hypoxia, and peripheral proinflammatory conditions affect gasping generation and autoresuscitation. Here, we tested whether microglial activation or inhibition affected respiratory rhythm generation. By measuring breathing as well as the activity of the respiratory rhythm generator (the preBötzinger complex), we found that several microglial activators or inhibitors, applied intracisternally in vivo or in the recording bath in vitro, affect the generation of the respiratory rhythms both in normoxia and hypoxia. Furthermore, microglial activation with lipopolysaccharide affected the ability of the animals to autoresuscitate after hypoxic conditions, an effect that is blocked when lipopolysaccharide is co-applied with the microglial inhibitor minocycline. Moreover, we found that the modulation of respiratory rhythm generation induced in vitro by microglial inhibitors was reproduced by microglial depletion. In conclusion, our data show that microglia can modulate respiratory rhythm generation and autoresuscitation. PMID:26678570

  3. Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia KP Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Question: After stroke, does respiratory muscle training increase respiratory muscle strength and/or endurance? Are any benefits carried over to activity and/or participation? Does it reduce respiratory complications? Design: Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants: Adults with respiratory muscle weakness following stroke. Intervention: Respiratory muscle training aimed at increasing inspiratory and/or expiratory muscle strength. Outcome measures: Five outcomes were of interest: respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle endurance, activity, participation and respiratory complications. Results: Five trials involving 263 participants were included. The mean PEDro score was 6.4 (range 3 to 8, showing moderate methodological quality. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that respiratory muscle training increased maximal inspiratory pressure by 7 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 14 and maximal expiratory pressure by 13 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 25; it also decreased the risk of respiratory complications (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.96 compared with no/sham respiratory intervention. Whether these effects carry over to activity and participation remains uncertain. Conclusion: This systematic review provided evidence that respiratory muscle training is effective after stroke. Meta-analyses based on five trials indicated that 30 minutes of respiratory muscle training, five times per week, for 5 weeks can be expected to increase respiratory muscle strength in very weak individuals after stroke. In addition, respiratory muscle training is expected to reduce the risk of respiratory complications after stroke. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the benefits are carried over to activity and participation. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42015020683. [Menezes KKP, Nascimento LR, Ada L, Polese JC, Avelino PR, Teixeira-Salmela LF (2016 Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory

  4. Geoarchaeological research of the mid-age Ilyas Bey complex buildings with ground penetrating radar in Miletus, Aydin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioğlu, S.; Kadioğlu, Y. K.; Akyol, A. A.

    2008-07-01

    The ancient Miletus which were one of the most important city of ancient Iona, are today of great value from cultural standpoint of Turkey. Miletus, situated near the village of Balat in the present district of Soke was founded on a peninsula, approximately 2.5 km long. In the Byzantine period, the city boundaries were quite reduced. In 1424 Miletus was taken inside of the Ottoman Empire and was completely abandoned in the 17th century. Ancient Miletus excavation studies were first begun in 1899 by in Berlin Museum and interrupted during the World War I. At present, the extensive restoration works in Ilyas Bey Complex has applied as a project since 2006. Ilyas Bey Complex that includes Mosque, Medresah and baths situated on the archaeological area in ancient Miletus. Impressive Mosque built in 1404 by Ilyas Bey, Emir of Menteseogullari founded in 1279 and the complex was named after him, is one of the most remarkable buildings of mid-age Miletus. There are two main purposes of the study are (1) to determine archaeological remains of the study area underneath Ilyas Bey Complex and (2) to define the nature of main rock unit and their sources in the vicinity or Aegean region. After preliminary archaeometrical studies, acquired GPR profile data paralleled each other in Ilyas Bey Mosque and its around, Medresah Courtyard and inner Courtyard of the Mosque. After processing 2D parallel GPR profiles, we constructed 3D data volume by lining processed 2D profiles up to correlate remain signatures from each profile for each studied area. It was obtained transparent 3D visualisation of GPR data by assigning a new colour scale for the amplitude range and by constructing a new opacity function instead of the linear opacity function. Therefore we could successfully image the archaeological remains in an interactive transparent 3D volume and its sub-volumes, starting at different depth levels or limited profiles. The archaeometrical (geological and mineralogical, petrographical

  5. Respiratory Health Effects Associated with Restoration Work in Post-Hurricane Katrina New Orleans

    OpenAIRE

    Rando, Roy J.; Lefante, John J.; Freyder, Laurie M.; Robert N. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Background. This study examines prevalence of respiratory conditions in New Orleans-area restoration workers after Hurricane Katrina. Methods. Between 2007 and 2010, spirometry and respiratory health and occupational questionnaire were administered to 791 New Orleans-area adults who mostly worked in the building construction and maintenance trades or custodial services. The associations between restoration work hours and lung function and prevalence of respiratory symptoms were examined by mu...

  6. Blind pre-analysis of the main building complex WWER-440/213 Paks for comparison of analytical and experimental results obtained by explosive testing (task 7a of workplan 95/96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the research programme on Benchmark studies of seismic analysis of WWER type reactors the blind pre-analysis must be prepared for the main building complex of Paks NPP, based on given excitations derived from explosion tests. The aim of the investigation was to validate different idealization concepts (mathematical models for the idealization of the structures and the soil) as well as investigation procedures (time domain and frequency domain analysis) and finally the software tools by comparing dynamic properties (eigenfrequencies, eigenmodes, modal values) and structural response results (time histories and response spectra). This report contains results of the blind pre-analysis performed by using three dimensional idealization of the main building complex (reactor building, turbine house, galleries) by means of time and frequency domian calculation procedures

  7. Build-up of an antimicrobial multilayer coating on a textile support based on a methylene blue–poly(cyclodextrin) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to develop an antibacterial multilayer coating activated with methylene blue (MB) and based on chitosan (CHT) and cyclodextrin polyelectrolyte (polyCD) onto a non-woven polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile support. The MB-free and MB-loaded systems were built-up by applying the dip-coating technique, alternating soak cycles of the PET textile preliminarily modified with carboxylate groups in CHT and in polyCD or polyCD/MB complex solutions. The layer-by-layer assembly build-up was followed by optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy on the one hand and by gravimetry once it was applied on the textile substrate on the other hand. Two chitosan grades were used, low molecular weight (CHT-L) and medium molecular weight (CHT-M). The influence of the molar ratio CD/MB in the polyCD solutions was varied and finally the system underwent a post reticulation with genipin. Such parameters influences were investigated with regard to the loading capacity in MB of the systems, the release kinetics profiles of MB in pure water, phosphate buffer and MEM media, and the degradation of the self-assembled coating in the same media. Finally, biological and microbiological tests were performed to demonstrate the cytocompatibility of the systems and their ability to display a sustained antibacterial effect of the device through the MB prolonged release. (paper)

  8. Three-dimensional techniques for capturing and building virtual models of complex objects for use in scientific and industrial applications, data archiving, and the entertainment industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Arthur; Chapman, Ralph E.; Wilcox, Brian

    2003-05-01

    The past 10 years have seen remarkable improvements in the capture of 3-dimesional data. Both scanning speeds and accuracy have increased by a magnitude. Software and increasingly more powerful computers allow larger data bases and faster post processing. CT, laser and optical scanners are finding increased use in the medical, manufacturing, scientific and entertainment industries. CT (Computerized Tomography) is generally used to capture internal as well as external surfaces. Medical (hospital) scanners are the most common and can be of service in industrial applications. But true industrial scanners service a much wider range of sizes and materials. Laser and optical scanners are line-of-sight, and are available in portable and permanent CMM mounting arrangements. Scanners are available to capture a wide range of objects; from entire buildings to fingernail sized parts. Solid objects requiring multiple scans, must register each scan to another for part completion. The collected data is exported as a "point cloud." The data can be used to digitally inspect complex parts, surface them for tooling and reverse engineering, or export surfaces to animation software.

  9. Dampness and mould in schools and respiratory symptoms in children: the HITEA study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borràs-Santos, A.; Jacobs, J.H.; Täubel, M.; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U.; Krop, E.J.M.; Huttunen, K.; Hirvonen, M.R.; Pekkanen, J.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Zock, J.P.; Hyvärinen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background:The adverse respiratory health effects of dampness and mould in the home have been extensively reported, but few studies have evaluated the health effects of such exposures in schools. Objectives: To assess the associations between dampness and mould in school buildings and respiratory sy

  10. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...

  11. Your Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Your Lungs & Respiratory System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Lungs & Respiratory System Print A A A Text Size What's in ... your body, and they work with your respiratory system to allow you to take in fresh air, ...

  12. Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, J G; Forsberg, B; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dey, R; Ebi, K L; Helms, P J; Medina-Ramón, M; Windt, M; Forastiere, F

    2009-08-01

    Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following a 2-day workshop held in Leuven (Belgium) in March 2008. Key areas of concern for the respiratory community arising from climate change are discussed and recommendations made to address gaps in knowledge. The most important recommendation was the development of more accurate predictive models for predicting the impact of climate change on respiratory health. Respiratory healthcare workers also have an advocatory role in persuading governments and the European Union to maintain awareness and appropriate actions with respect to climate change, and these areas are also discussed in the position statement. PMID:19251790

  13. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide is intended to inform designers, contractors, householders and other building owners about radon in buildings and to provide guidance where it has been decided to take action to reduce radon levels. It gives some pointers to good practice insofar as it relates to non complex buildings of normal design and construction. Reference is made to the usual ways of reducing l;levels of radon and guidance is given on sources of further information. I

  14. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of mechan

  15. Detection of respiratory motion in fluoroscopic images for adaptive radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, T.; Biederer, J.; Nill, S.; Remmert, G.; Bendl, R.

    2008-06-01

    Respiratory motion limits the potential of modern high-precision radiotherapy techniques such as IMRT and particle therapy. Due to the uncertainty of tumour localization, the ability of achieving dose conformation often cannot be exploited sufficiently, especially in the case of lung tumours. Various methods have been proposed to track the position of tumours using external signals, e.g. with the help of a respiratory belt or by observing external markers. Retrospectively gated time-resolved x-ray computed tomography (4D CT) studies prior to therapy can be used to register the external signals with the tumour motion. However, during treatment the actual motion of internal structures may be different. Direct control of tissue motion by online imaging during treatment promises more precise information. On the other hand, it is more complex, since a larger amount of data must be processed in order to determine the motion. Three major questions arise from this issue. Firstly, can the motion that has occurred be precisely determined in the images? Secondly, how large must, respectively how small can, the observed region be chosen to get a reliable signal? Finally, is it possible to predict the proximate tumour location within sufficiently short acquisition times to make this information available for gating irradiation? Based on multiple studies on a porcine lung phantom, we have tried to examine these questions carefully. We found a basic characteristic of the breathing cycle in images using the image similarity method normalized mutual information. Moreover, we examined the performance of the calculations and proposed an image-based gating technique. In this paper, we present the results and validation performed with a real patient data set. This allows for the conclusion that it is possible to build up a gating system based on image data, solely, or (at least in avoidance of an exceeding exposure dose) to verify gates proposed by the various external systems.

  16. Cardiolipin-Dependent Formation of Mitochondrial Respiratory Supercomplexes

    OpenAIRE

    Mileykovskaya, Eugenia; Dowhan, William

    2013-01-01

    The organization of individual respiratory Complexes I, III, and IV (mammalian cells) or III and IV (yeast) of the mitochondria into higher order supercomplexes (SCs) is generally accepted. However, the factors that regulate SC formation and the functional significance of SCs are not well understood. The mitochondrial signature phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) plays a central role in formation and stability of respiratory SCs from yeast to man. Studies in yeast mutants in which the CL level can ...

  17. Divergent mitochondrial respiratory chains in phototrophic relatives of apicomplexan parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Flegontov, Pavel

    2015-02-06

    Four respiratory complexes and ATP-synthase represent central functional units in mitochondria. In some mitochondria and derived anaerobic organelles, a few or all of these respiratory complexes have been lost during evolution. We show that the respiratory chain of Chromera velia, a phototrophic relative of parasitic apicomplexans, lacks complexes I and III, making it a uniquely reduced aerobic mitochondrion. In Chromera, putative lactate:cytochrome c oxidoreductases are predicted to transfer electrons from lactate to cytochrome c, rendering complex III unnecessary. The mitochondrial genome of Chromera has the smallest known protein-coding capacity of all mitochondria, encoding just cox1 and cox3 on heterogeneous linear molecules. In contrast, another photosynthetic relative of apicomplexans, Vitrella brassicaformis, retains the same set of genes as apicomplexans and dinoflagellates (cox1, cox3, and cob). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Building Support Vector Machine with Reduced Feature Complexity%构造特征复杂性减低的支持向量机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宇缨

    2007-01-01

    支持向量机(SVM)较一般的机器学习方法显示出更好的泛化能力.然而,在实际的数据中经常存在着大量冗余、噪声或者不可靠的特征,这严重影响到SVM的性能.因此,有必要减低特征复杂性以获取更好的SVM结果.本文提出了一种基于遗传算法(GA)的嵌入式框架下的特征优化算法,以构造改进SVM.针对选择的UCI成人数据库的实验表明,与原始的SVM相比,提出的改进SVM方法获得了更少的支持向量数目和更好的分类精度.%Support Vector Machine (SVM) has revealed better generalization than conventional machine learning methods. However, in the real data there often exist a large number of redundant, noisy or unreliable features to deteriorate the function of SVM strongly. So to reduce the feature complexity, it is necessary to improve the performance of SVM for better results. A method to build modified SVM, which is based on embedded methods for feature optimization using Genetic Algorithm (GA),is proposed in this paper. The experimental results on selected UCI Adult data base show that compared with original SVM classifier, the number of support vector decreases and better classification results are achieved based on our modified SVM.

  19. Respiratory risks in broiler production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M do CB de Alencar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many situations that involve health risks to the Brazilian rural worker, and animal production is just one of them. Inhalation of organic dust, which has many microorganisms, leads in general to respiratory allergic reactions in some individuals, "asthma-like syndrome", and mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, that is a complex of nasal, eye, and throat complaints. Furthermore, workers might have farmer's hypersensitivity pneumonia, that is a respiratory health risk along the years. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential pulmonary health risks in poultry production workers in the region of Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Interviews using a pre-elaborated questionnaire with 40 questions were made with 37 broiler production workers, which were submitted to a pulmonary function test. Results of restrictive function with lower FEV1 (the maximum respiratory potential, the forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation and FVC (forced vital capacity represented 24.32% of the total of workers, and severe obstruction represented 2.70%. Other symptoms were found in 67.57% of the workers as well. The results showed that those who work more than 4 years and within more than one poultry house, exceeding 5 hours per day of work, presented higher pulmonary health risks. It is concluded that the activities within broiler houses may induce allergic respiratory reaction in workers. The use of IPE (individual protection equipment besides special attention to the air quality inside the housing may be advised in a preventive way.

  20. Mechanisms of infection in the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, A

    1981-12-01

    Related to its potential vulnerability the respiratory tract has a very complex and effective defence apparatus. The interaction between these defence mechanisms and certain characteristics of aetiological agents results in a pattern in which initial infections by these agents tend to occur at specific sites in the tract. Infections in which the primary portal of entry is in the upper respiratory tract include Bordetella bronchiseptica and Haemophilus spp in pigs; Pasteurella spp in cattle, sheep, pigs; Mycoplasma spp in cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry; equine herpesvirus 1 in horses; infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in cattle; parainfluenza 3 in cattle and sheep; infectious laryngo-tracheitis and infectious bronchitis in poultry; feline viral rhinotracheitis and calicivirus in cats; Aujeszky's disease virus and swine influenza in pigs; and equine influenza in horses. Infections in which the primary portal of entry is in the lower respiratory tract include Aspergillus fumigatus in poultry and mammals, respiratory syncytial virus in cattle, distemper virus in dogs and adenovirus in cattle and dogs. A fuller understanding of the interactions between an agent and the host at the point of entry would make it much easier to develop effective vaccines and therapeutic agents. PMID:16030806

  1. Participation in a randomised controlled feasibility study of a complex intervention for the management of the Respiratory Symptom Distress Cluster in lung cancer: patient, carer and research staff views

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis J, Warden J, Molassiotis A, Mackereth P, Bailey C, Burns K, Yorke J

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a nested qualitative study designed to elicit the views and perceptions of those who participated in a randomised controlled feasibility trial testing a novel non-pharmacological intervention, Respiratory Distress Symptom Intervention (RDSI), for the management of the breathlessness-cough-fatigue symptom cluster in lung cancer. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 lung cancer patients, three caregivers and seven researchers involved in recruitment, consent, RDSI t...

  2. Adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to improved emergency resuscitation procedures, and with advancing medical technology in the field of critical care, an increasing number of patients survive the acute phase of shock and catastrophic trauma. Patients who previously died of massive sepsis, hypovolemic or hypotensive shock, multiple fractures, aspiration, toxic inhalation, and massive embolism are now surviving long enough to develop previously unsuspected and unrecognized secondary effects. With increasing frequency, clinicians are recognizing the clinical and radiographic manifestations of pathologic changes in the lungs occurring secondary to various types of massive insult. This paper gives a list of diseases that have been shown to precipitate or predispose to diffuse lung damage. Various terms have been used to describe the lung damage and respiratory failure secondary to these conditions. The term adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is applied to several cases of sudden respiratory failure in patients with previously healthy lungs following various types of trauma or shock. Numerous investigations and experiments have studied the pathologic changes in ARDS, and, while there is still no clear indication of why it develops, there is now some correlation of the sequential pathologic developments with the clinical and radiographic changes

  3. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-01-01

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task. PMID:26021823

  4. Megacomplex organization of the oxidative phosphorylation system by structural analysis of respiratory supercomplexes from potato

    OpenAIRE

    Bultema, Jelle B.; Braun, Hans-Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Kouril, Roman; Kouřil, Roman

    2009-01-01

    The individual protein complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS complexes 1 to V) specifically interact and form defined supramolecular structures, the so-called "respiratory supercomplexes". Some supercomplexes appear to associate into larger structures, or megacomplexes, such as a string of dimeric ATP synthase (complex V(2)). A row-like organization of OXPHOS complexes 1, III and IV into respiratory strings has also been proposed. These transient strings cannot be purified...

  5. [Respiratory preparation before surgery in patients with chronic respiratory failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Jean-Marc; Jaber, Samir

    2012-03-01

    Scheduled and/or thoracic, abdominal surgeries increase the risk of respiratory postoperative complications. In patients with chronic respiratory failure, preoperative evaluation should be performed to evaluate respiratory function in aim to optimize perioperative management. Preoperative gas exchange abnormalities (hypoxemia or hypercapnia) are associated with respiratory postoperative complications. Respiratory physiotherapy and prophylactic non-invasive ventilation should be integrated in a global rehabilitation management for cardiothoracic or abdominal surgery procedures, which are at high risk of postoperative respiratory dysfunction. Stopping tobacco consummation should be benefit, but decease risk of postoperative complications is relevant only after a period for 6 to 8 weeks of cessation. Bronchodilatator aerosol therapy (beta-agonists and atropinics) and inhaled corticotherapy allow a rapid preparation for 24 to 48 h. Systematic preoperative antibiotherapy should not be recommended. PMID:22004791

  6. Environmental Assessment for the U-233 Disposition, Medical Isotope Production, and Building 3019 Complex Shutdown at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the proposed action evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA) is the processing of uranium-233 (233U) stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and other small quantities of similar material currently stored at other U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in order to render it suitable for safe, long-term, economical storage. The 233U is stored within Bldg. 3019A, which is part of the Bldg. 3019 Complex. The location of the Bldg. 3019 Complex is shown on Fig. 1.1. Additionally, the proposed action would increase the availability of medical isotopes needed for research and treatment and place the Bldg. 3019 Complex in safe and stable shutdown for transfer to the DOE program for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). DOE has determined that there is no programmatic use for the 233U currently in storage at ORNL other than as a possible source of medical isotopes. Since 233U is a special nuclear material, continued long-term storage of the ORNL inventory in its current configuration represents a significant financial liability for DOE. Continued long-term storage in Bldg. 3019A would require major capital upgrades and retrofits to critical facility systems that have deteriorated due to aging or that may not meet current standards. Storing the material in its current form requires significant annual operating expenses to meet the material-handling requirements and to provide protection against nuclear criticality accidents or theft of the material. The ORNL inventory of 233U represents most of the readily available source of thorium-229 (229Th) in the Western Hemisphere. Actinum-225 (225Ac) and its daughter product, bismuth-213 (213Bi), are isotopes in the decay chain of 233U/229Th that are showing significant promise for ongoing cancer research, including clinical trials for treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia. These isotopes are also being explored for treatment of other cancers of the lungs, pancreas, and kidneys. Figure 1

  7. Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Chakravarti; Bineeta Kashyap

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Acute lower respiratory infections lead to high morbidity and mortality rates in children from developing countries. The aim of this study was to look into the extent of respiratory syncytial virus infections in children with special reference to the role of specific immunoglobulins in protection against infection as well as the association with bacterial pathogens. Material & Methods: Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for respiratory syncytial virus antigen by enzyme immunoassa...

  8. Conference summary: computers in respiratory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Steven B

    2004-05-01

    Computers and data management in respiratory care reflect the larger practices of hospital information systems: the diversity of conference topics provides evidence. Respiratory care computing has shown a steady, slow progression from writing programs that calculate shunt equations to departmental management systems. Wider acceptance and utilization have been stifled by costs, both initial and on-going. Several authors pointed out the savings that were realized from information systems exceeded the costs of implementation and maintenance. The most significant finding from one of the presentations was that no other structure or skilled personnel could provide respiratory care more efficiently or cost-effectively than respiratory therapists. Online information resources have increased, in forms ranging from peer-reviewed journals to corporate-sponsored advertising posing as authoritative treatment regimens. Practitioners and patients need to know how to use these resources as well as how to judge the value of information they present. Departments are using computers for training on a schedule that is more convenient for the staff, providing information in a timely manner and potentially in more useful formats. Portable devices, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) have improved the ability not only to share data to dispersed locations, but also to collect data at the point of care, thus greatly improving data capture. Ventilators are changing from simple automated bellows to complex systems collecting numerous respiratory parameters and offering feedback to improve ventilation. Clinical databases routinely collect information from a wide variety of resources and can be used for analysis to improve patient outcomes. What could possibly go wrong? PMID:15107142

  9. Excavation of the Foundations of a Large-sized Building Complex on the Yin Ruin in Anyang,Henan%河南安阳殷墟大型建筑基址的发掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国社会科学院考古研究所安阳工作队

    2001-01-01

    In 1989-1991, a large-sized complex of buildings was excavated northeast of Xiaotunvillage, Anyang, Henan. It consists of three rows of houses, of which two extend from west to east inthe north and south respectively, and the other is in the west and links up with the former two. In planthe whole complex is laid out in the shape of the character “凹” with the east bordering on the HuanshuiRiver. The northern row is the main buildings, measuring 62m in length and 7.5m in width. The post-holesare neatly arranged, and mostly contain base-stones in the lower part. To the south of thehouse-foundations are the remains of three gate-ways in a good condition, which are separated by a spaceof about 4.3m between each two and measure 2m in width each. The paths are compactly paved withpebbles along both sides, and the gates are all flanked by sacrificial pits containing human victims andtheir heads chopped off, as well as broken pottery. A bronze he tripod was discovered to the west of themiddle gate, in a damaged pottery jar. It bears the inscription “武父乙”, which together with the features of the pottery indicates that the buildings were made in the early Wu Ding reign. The discovery of the buildings is of great importance. It expanded the recorded scope of the YinRuin palace area southward by 130 meters.

  10. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabeticketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidityand mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requiresfocused clinical monitoring, careful interpretationof arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditionsthat can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions thatcompromise respiratory function caused by DKA can bedetected at presentation but are usually more prevalentduring treatment. These conditions include deficits ofpotassium, magnesium and phosphate and hydrostatic ornon-hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Conditions not causedby DKA that can worsen respiratory function under theadded stress of DKA include infections of the respiratorysystem, pre-existing respiratory or neuromuscular diseaseand miscellaneous other conditions. Prompt recognitionand management of the conditions that can lead torespiratory failure in DKA may prevent respiratory failureand improve mortality from DKA.

  11. Mould growth in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Holme, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    Many studies around the world have reported that moisture-related problems in buildings (i.e., dampness) increase the risk of health effects such as respiratory symptoms, asthma and allergy in both adults and children. However, there is only limited knowledge about which agents in indoor air or dust cause the reported health effects. Biological pollutants such as moulds is one of the explanations that has been suggested. The principal objective of this PhD study has been to increase the knowl...

  12. Respiratory System Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Danielle M; Singh, Shipra

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory system involvement in cystic fibrosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene throughout the sinopulmonary tract result in recurrent infections with a variety of organisms including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Lung disease occurs earlier in life than once thought and ideal methods of monitoring lung function, decline, or improvement with therapy are debated. Treatment of sinopulmonary disease may include physiotherapy, mucus-modifying and antiinflammatory agents, antimicrobials, and surgery. In the new era of personalized medicine, CFTR correctors and potentiators may change the course of disease. PMID:27469180

  13. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Naren N; Pine, Harold S; Underbrink, Michael P

    2012-06-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare, benign disease with no known cure. RRP is caused by infection of the upper aerodigestive tract with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Passage through the birth canal is thought to be the initial transmission event, but infection may occur in utero. HPV vaccines have helped to provide protection from cervical cancer; however, their role in the prevention of RRP is undetermined. Clinical presentation of initial symptoms of RRP may be subtle. RRP course varies, and current management focuses on surgical debulking of papillomatous lesions with or without concurrent adjuvant therapy. PMID:22588043

  14. Respiratory tract and mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory tract problems originating in attempts to diagnose and treat illness are commonplace. They range from pharyngeal trauma during intubation to radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma. Occasionally, as with pulmonary hypervolemia accompanying drug-induced renal failure, they originate at a distance. Their actual number far exceeds those brought to clinical attention. Familiarity with the procedures which give rise to these complications is helpful in detecting and remedying them. It is important, therefore, to discuss their pathogenesis as well as their clinical and radiological findings

  15. Current devices of respiratory physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hristara-Papadopoulou, A; Tsanakas, J; Diomou, G; Papadopoulou, O.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years patients with respiratory diseases use various devices, which help the removal of mucus from the airways and the improvement of pulmonary function. The aim of the present study is to determine the effectiveness of the current devices of respiratory physiotherapy, as it comes from the review of literature. The current devices of physiotherapy for patients with respiratory diseases, are presented as an alternative therapy method or a supplemental therapy and they can motivate pa...

  16. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease proc...

  17. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Rohrscheib, Mark; Agaba, Emmanuel I.; Dorin, Richard I.; Murata, Glen H.; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requires focused clinical monitoring, careful interpretation of arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditions that can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions that compromise respiratory function caused by DKA can be detected at presentation but are usually more prevalent during treatment. These conditions include de...

  18. Management of Postoperative Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Michael S; Berfield, Kathleen S; Abbaszadeh, Ryan V

    2015-11-01

    Despite best efforts, postoperative complications such as postoperative respiratory failure may occur and prompt recognition of the process and management is required. Postoperative respiratory failure, such as postoperative pneumonia, postpneumonectomy pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress-like syndromes, and pulmonary embolism, are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The causes of these complications are multifactorial and depend on preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, some of which are modifiable. The article identifies some of the risk factors, causes, and treatment strategies for successful management of the patient with postoperative respiratory failure. PMID:26515943

  19. Submersion and acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jang Su

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Submersion patients who are hypothermic on arrival of emergency department (ED are risky to respiratory failure and older, more hypothermic, longer hospital stay in suicidal submersion patients.

  20. Computational Fluid and Particle Dynamics in the Human Respiratory System

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Jiyuan; Ahmadi, Goodarz

    2013-01-01

    Traditional research methodologies in the human respiratory system have always been challenging due to their invasive nature. Recent advances in medical imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have accelerated this research. This book compiles and details recent advances in the modelling of the respiratory system for researchers, engineers, scientists, and health practitioners. It breaks down the complexities of this field and provides both students and scientists with an introduction and starting point to the physiology of the respiratory system, fluid dynamics and advanced CFD modeling tools. In addition to a brief introduction to the physics of the respiratory system and an overview of computational methods, the book contains best-practice guidelines for establishing high-quality computational models and simulations. Inspiration for new simulations can be gained through innovative case studies as well as hands-on practice using pre-made computational code. Last but not least, students and researcher...

  1. Respiratory symptoms of megaesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Di Stefano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Megaesophagus as the end result of achalasia is the consequence of disordered peristalsis and the slow decompensation of the esophageal muscular layer. The main symptoms of achalasia are dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain and weight loss, but respiratory symptoms, such as coughing, particularly when patients lie in a horizontal position, may also be common due to microaspiration. A 70-year old woman suffered from a nocturnal cough and shortness of breath with stridor. She reported difficulty in swallowing food over the past ten years, but had adapted by eating a semi-liquid diet. Chest X-ray showed right hemithorax patchy opacities projecting from the posterior mediastinum. Chest computed tomography scan showed a marked dilatation of the esophagus with abundant food residues. Endoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of megaesophagus due to esophageal achalasia, excluding other causes of obstruction, such as secondary esophagitis, polyps, leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. In the elderly population, swallowing difficulties due to esophageal achalasia are often underestimated and less troublesome than the respiratory symptoms that are caused by microaspiration. The diagnosis of esophageal achalasia, although uncommon, should be considered in patients with nocturnal chronic coughs and shortness of breath with stridor when concomitant swallowing difficulties are present.

  2. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    OpenAIRE

    Kneijber, M.C.J.; Heerde, van, H.J.W; Twisk, J W R; Plotz, F.; Markhorst, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of mechanical ventilation with heliox in these patients is unclear. The objective of this prospective cross-over study was to determine the effects of mechanical ventilation with heliox 60/40 versus convent...

  3. HERMES European Accreditation of Training Centres in Adult Respiratory Medicine: criteria validation and revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Sandy; Stolz, Daiana; Karg, Ortrud; Mitchell, Sharon; Niculescu, Alexandra; Noël, Julie-Lyn; Powell, Pippa; Skoczyński, Szymon; Verbraecken, Johan; Rohde, Gernot

    2016-03-01

    Four respiratory medicine disease categories appear in the global top 10 causes of mortality [1], resulting in 600 000 people dying from respiratory disease in Europe each year. The economic burden of respiratory diseases in Europe exceeds 380 billion euros. In a fast-developing environment, new clinical challenges have arisen for pulmonary specialists; techniques and procedures have evolved and become more complex. PMID:27066135

  4. Neonatal Calf Infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Drawing Parallels to the Disease in Human Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, Timothy A.; Nonnecke, Brian J.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Lippolis, John D.; Jodi L McGill; Sacco, Randy E.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that RSV infections result in more than 100,000 deaths annually worldwide. Bovine RSV is a cause of enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bovine RSV plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex, the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among feedlot cattle. Infection of ...

  5. The mammalian respiratory system and critical windows of exposure for children's health.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkerton, K. E.; Joad, J P

    2000-01-01

    The respiratory system is a complex organ system composed of multiple cell types involved in a variety of functions. The development of the respiratory system occurs from embryogenesis to adult life, passing through several distinct stages of maturation and growth. We review embryonic, fetal, and postnatal phases of lung development. We also discuss branching morphogenesis and cellular differentiation of the respiratory system, as well as the postnatal development of xenobiotic metabolizing s...

  6. Respiratory activity in medulla oblongata and its modulation by adenosine and opioids

    OpenAIRE

    Herlenius, Eric

    1998-01-01

    From the moment of birth the complex neuronal networks generating breathing has to function continuously and adapt to the new postnatal environmental demands. This thesis aims at studying the perinatal development of respiratory control and its modulation by adenosine and opioids. Respiratory activity was studied in vitro using brainstem spinal cord preparations and in vivo with a barometric plethysmograph. In vitro whole-cell patch clamp recordings of respiratory related ne...

  7. Implementing change in respiratory care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, James K

    2010-06-01

    Though people are generally averse to change, change and innovation are critically important in respiratory care to maintain scientific and clinical progress. This paper reviews the issue of change in respiratory care. I summarize several available models of organizational and personal change (ie, those of Kotter and of Silversin and Kornacki, and the Intentional Change Theory of Boyatzis), review the characteristics of change-avid respiratory therapy departments, offer an example of a change effort in respiratory care (implementation of respiratory care protocols) and then analyze this change effort as it took place at one institution, the Cleveland Clinic, using these models. Finally, I present the results of an analysis of change-avid respiratory therapy departments and offer some suggestions regarding change management for the profession and for individual respiratory care clinicians. Common features of theories of organizational change include developing a sense of urgency, overcoming resistance, developing a guiding coalition, and involving key stakeholders early. With the understanding that change efforts may seem unduly "clean" and orderly in retrospect, the models help explain the sustainable success of efforts to implement the Respiratory Therapy Consult Service at the Cleveland Clinic. By implication, these models offer value in planning change efforts prospectively. Further analysis of features of change-avid respiratory therapy departments indicates 11 highly desired features, of which four that especially characterize change-avid departments include: having an up-to-date leadership team; employee involvement in change; celebrating wins; and an overall sense of progressiveness in the department. This analysis suggests that understanding and embracing change is important. To anchor change in our profession, greater attention should be given to developing a pipeline of respiratory care clinicians who, by virtue of their advanced training, have the skills

  8. Berger Engineering Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Engineering laboratory The Berger Lab Complex is a multi-purpose building with professional office, 100 seat auditorium, general purpose labs,...

  9. [Residency training of European respiratory medicine specialists: The HERMES project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Conde, Gema; Miravitlles, Marc; Alvarez-Sala, José Luis; de Castro, Felipe Rodríguez; Ancochea, Julio

    2009-02-01

    Given the movement of medical specialists across borders in recent years, and the changes in legislation affecting the structure and operation of boards responsible for the various medical specialties, the task of harmonizing the training of respiratory medicine residents across the European Union has become crucial. The project for Harmonized Education in Respiratory Medicine for European Specialists (HERMES) is a collective response to this need. After 3 years of work toward building consensus, HERMES is entering its second phase. The Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) has the aim of informing our resident trainees, their instructors, and others concerned with postgraduate education in respiratory medicine in Spain about this undeniably difficult task of harmonization. PMID:19232271

  10. Unsuspected myasthenia gravis presenting as respiratory failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Mier, A; Laroche, C; Green, M

    1990-01-01

    A patient developed respiratory failure after surgical removal of a recurrent thymoma, which necessitated removal of part of the diaphragm. The respiratory failure was due to previously undiagnosed myasthenia gravis, which had selectively affected the respiratory muscles.

  11. Facilities Management Service Delivery in Public and Private High Rise Residential Buildings in Nigeria: A case study of Eko Court Complex and Niger Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrele O. O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and compared the delivery of Facilities Management (FM services in public and private high rise residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. While some facilities or services may not be available in some public estates, the efficiency of the available ones is inadequate in comparison with the adequacy and efficiency of services provided in private estates. The objectives set for the study include identification of services that are provided in the case studies, service delivery method, and an assessment of the residents’ satisfaction of the services. This study adopted questionnaire survey for collection of data. 127 questionnaires were distributed to the residents of the case studies and 93 were returned. Three of which were discarded for incompleteness, thus 90 were analysed. The study found that most but not all of the facilities services expected in high rise buildings are available in the case studies and the services are outsourced under a standard Service Level Agreement. The service delivery in private high rise residential building is better than the public residential high rise buildings as revealed by the study. The study recommends improved standardization of services, customized services and meeting customer’s expectation for improved service delivery.

  12. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  13. Dampness in buildings and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Blomquist, G.; Gyntelberg, F.;

    2001-01-01

    epidemiological literature. A literature search identified 590 peer-reviewed articles of which 61 have been the foundation for this review. The review shows that "dampness" in buildings appears to increase the risk for health effects in the airways, such as cough, wheeze and asthma. Relative risks are in the......Several epidemiological investigations concerning indoor environments have indicated that "dampness" in buildings is associated to health effects such as respiratory symptoms, asthma and allergy The aim of the present interdisciplinary review is to evaluate this association as shown in the...

  14. Effect of Hexavalent Chromium on Electron Leakage of Respiratory Chain in Mitochondria Isolated from Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In the present study, we explored reactive axygen species (ROS production in mitochondria, the mechanism of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI hepatotoxicity, and the role of protection by GSH. Methods: Intact mitochondria were isolated from rat liver tissues and mitochondrial basal respiratory rates of NADH and FADH2 respiratory chains were determined. Mitochondria were treated with Cr(VI, GSH and several complex inhibitors. Mitochondria energized by glutamate/malate were separately or jointly treated with Rotenone (Rot, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI and antimycinA (Ant, while mitochondria energized by succinate were separately or jointly treated with Rot, DPI ‚ thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA and Ant. Results: Cr(VI concentration-dependently induced ROS production in the NADH and FADH2 respiratory chain in liver mitochondria. Basal respiratory rate of the mitochondrial FADH2 respiratory chain was significantly higher than that of NADH respiratory chain. Hepatic mitochondrial electron leakage induced by Cr(VI from NADH respiratory chain were mainly from ubiquinone binding sites of complex I and complex III. Conclusion: Treatment with 50µM Cr(VI enhances forward movement of electrons through FADH2 respiratory chain and leaking through the ubiquinone binding site of complex III. Moreover, the protective effect of GSH on liver mitochondria electron leakage is through removing excess H2O2 and reducing total ROS.

  15. Numerical simulation study of the effect of buildings and complex terrain on the low-level winds at an airport in typhoon situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lei [Shenzhen Meteorological Bureau, Shenzhen (China). Shenzhen National Climate Observatory; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key of Lab. of Atmospheric Boundary Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry; Chan, P.W. [Hong Kong Observatory, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-04-15

    Apart from terrain-induced airflow disturbances and thunderstorms, buildings and artificial structures at airports may bring about sudden wind changes to aircraft in certain weather conditions. In the typhoon situation in the morning of 22 August 2008 under a generally crosswind situation, two aircraft landing at the Hong Kong International Airport reported encountering significant wind changes, which were considered to affect the operation of the aircraft. At the same time, a wind speed difference in the order of 10-15 knots was observed between the anemometers at the north and the south parallel runways of the airport. The cause of the wind changes experienced by the aircraft is studied in this paper by using numerical simulation, namely, using mesoscale meteorological models to provide the background wind fields, and nesting them with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the effect of buildings and terrain on the airflow along the glide path of the landing aircraft. It is found that the complete set of simulation (i.e. including both buildings and terrain) successfully captures the wind speed difference between the north and the south runways, and gives the drop of the crosswind along the glide path exceeding the 7-knot criterion as adopted for building-induced wind changes affecting the normal operation of the aircraft. The results of the present study suggest that, for the timely warning of wind changes to be encountered by the landing aircraft, it may be necessary to consider examining the low-level wind effects of the buildings on the airfield by performing numerical simulations by mesoscale meteorological models as nested with a CFD model. (orig.)

  16. The Flow Line Design of Commercial Buildings-- Take Yufa Real Estate Commercial Complex as an Example%商业建筑中的人流动线设计--以豫发置业商业综合体为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玉

    2014-01-01

    本文以豫发置业商业综合体为实例,对商业建筑中的人流动线设计进行了分析,研究了外部人流的规划引导、内部人流动线的组织设计以及商业业态分布对人流动线的影响。并提出了设计策略,以期最大限度地提高商业建筑的商业价值。%This article takes Yufa real estate commercial complex as an instance, analyzes the flow line design of co-mmercial buildings, and studies the planning guidance of external traffic, insiders flow line organization design and the flow line influence of commercial distribution. And the author put forward the design strategy in order to maximize the business building of commercial value.

  17. Viral and bacterial interactions in the upper respiratory tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid A T M Bosch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory infectious diseases are mainly caused by viruses or bacteria that often interact with one another. Although their presence is a prerequisite for subsequent infections, viruses and bacteria may be present in the nasopharynx without causing any respiratory symptoms. The upper respiratory tract hosts a vast range of commensals and potential pathogenic bacteria, which form a complex microbial community. This community is assumed to be constantly subject to synergistic and competitive interspecies interactions. Disturbances in the equilibrium, for instance due to the acquisition of new bacteria or viruses, may lead to overgrowth and invasion. A better understanding of the dynamics between commensals and pathogens in the upper respiratory tract may provide better insight into the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases. Here we review the current knowledge regarding specific bacterial-bacterial and viral-bacterial interactions that occur in the upper respiratory niche, and discuss mechanisms by which these interactions might be mediated. Finally, we propose a theoretical model to summarize and illustrate these mechanisms.

  18. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  19. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  20. A mononuclear organoruthenium complex of a polydentate thiosemicarbazone ligand and its utilization as a building block for the synthesis of heterodinuclear Ru-Pd and Ru-Pt complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaction of 2, 6-diacetylpyridine thiosemic arbazone with (Ru (CO)2 (PPh3)2Cl 2) in refluxing ethanol affords a mononuclear ruthenium complex (Ru), in which the thiosemicarbazone is coordinated to ruthenium as dianionic CNS- donor, along with two triphenylphosphines and a carbonyl. Using the unutilized donor atoms in the free wing of the thiosemicarbazone in the (Ru) complex two hetero-bimetallic (Ru-Pd) and (Ru-Pt ) complexes have been synthesized via re act ion of the (Ru) complex with (Pd (PPh3)2Cl 2 ) and (Pt (PPh3)2Cl 2 ) respectively. Structures of the (Ru) and (Ru-Pt ) complexes have been determined by X- ray crystallography. Structure of the (Ru-Pd) complex has been optimized by DFT method. The free wing of the thiosemicarbazone i n the (Ru) complex is utilized in binding to the second metal center in di anionic CNS-mode in the (Ru-Pd) and (Ru-Pt ) complexes, and a triphenylphosphine has occupied the fourth coordination site on the second metal center. All the three complexes show characteristic IR and 1H NMR spectra. They also display intense absorptions in the visible and ultraviolet regions. (author)

  1. Multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Mary (Brentwood, CA); Slezak, Thomas (Livermore, CA); Birch, James M. (Albany, CA)

    2012-07-31

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of respiratory pathogens (influenza A (including subtyping capability for H1, H3, H5 and H7 subtypes) influenza B, parainfluenza (type 2), respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from the respiratory pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  2. Veterinary college's researchers receive grant to explore bovine respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Christy

    2008-01-01

    Dr. Thomas J. Inzana of Blacksburg, Va., the Tyler J. and Frances F. Young Professor of Bacteriology in the Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology in the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech, has been awarded a grant from the United States Department of Agriculture to study the role biofilm plays in the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

  3. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadam, Suman; Bihler, Eric; Balaan, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious inflammatory disorder with high mortality. Its main pathologic mechanism seems to result from increased alveolar permeability. Its definition has also changed since first being described according to the Berlin definition, which now classifies ARDS on a severity scale based on PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen, arterial)/FIO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen) ratio. The cornerstone of therapy was found to be a low tidal volume strategy featuring volumes of 6 to 8 mL per kg of ideal body weight that has been shown to have decreased mortality as proven by the ARDSnet trials. There are other areas of treatment right now that include extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, as well for severe refractory hypoxemia. Other methods that include prone positioning for ventilation have also shown improvements in oxygenation. Positive end-expiratory pressure with lung recruitment maneuvers has also been found to be helpful. Other therapies that include vasodilators and neuromuscular agents are still being explored and need further studies to define their role in ARDS. PMID:26919679

  4. Achromobacter respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Colin E; Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2015-02-01

    Achromobacteria are ubiquitous environmental organisms that may also become opportunistic pathogens in certain conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, hematologic and solid organ malignancies, renal failure, and certain immune deficiencies. Some members of this genus, such as xylosoxidans, cause primarily nosocomially acquired infections affecting multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and, less commonly, the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Despite an increasing number of published case reports and literature reviews suggesting a global increase in achromobacterial disease, most clinicians remain uncertain of the organism's significance when clinically isolated. Moreover, effective treatment can be challenging due to the organism's inherent and acquired multidrug resistance patterns. We reviewed all published cases to date of non-cystic fibrosis achromobacterial lung infections to better understand the organism's pathogenic potential and drug susceptibilities. We found that the majority of these cases were community acquired, typically presenting as pneumonias (88%), and were most frequent in individuals with hematologic and solid organ malignancies. Our findings also suggest that achromobacterial lung infections are difficult to treat, but respond well to extended-spectrum penicillins and cephalosporins, such as ticarcillin, piperacillin, and cefoperazone. PMID:25706494

  5. [Vaccinations in respiratory medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lode, H M; Stahlmann, R

    2015-09-01

    Vaccinations are the most successful and cost-effective measures for prevention of infections. Important pathogens of respiratory tract infections (e.g. influenza viruses and pneumococci) can be effectively treated by vaccinations. The seasonal trivalent and recently now quadrivalent influenza vaccines include antigens from influenza A and B type viruses, which have to be modified annually oriented to the circulating strains. The effective protection by influenza vaccination varies considerably (too short protection time, mismatch); therefore, administration late in the year is the best approach (November/December). Two pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for adults: the over 30-year-old 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 4-year-old 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The immunological and clinical efficacy of PPV23 is controversially discussed; however, a moderate reduction of invasive pneumococcal infections is widely accepted. The PCV13 stimulates a T-cell response and has currently demonstrated its clinical efficacy in an impressive study (CAPiTA). The problem of PCV13 is the relatively limited coverage of only 47% of the currently circulating invasive pneumococcal serotypes. PMID:26330051

  6. Sports Complexes, Part of our City of Hutchinson polygon building footprint layer, Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sports Complexes dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described as 'Part...

  7. Acute respiratory infections in young Ethiopian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris RA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Arden HarrisDepartment of Family and Social Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAThe identification of risk factors for acute respiratory infections (ARI is crucial for designing interventions to both minimize transmission and augment the immune response, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where poverty-related ARI is still a major cause of preventable death in young children.1 I therefore read with interest Geberetsadik et al’s recent study of the factors associated with ARI in Ethiopian children.2 Their study uses nationally representative data on households and individuals to build a model of the social, demographic, and anthropometric determinants of ARI. A precise understanding of their model, however, requires clarification of several items in their paper.View original paper by Geberetsadik et al.

  8. How Is Respiratory Failure Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Once your doctor figures out what's causing your respiratory failure, he or she will plan how to treat that disease or condition. Treatments may include medicines, procedures, and other therapies. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: December 19, 2011 Twitter ...

  9. Research outputs in respiratory medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Rippon, I; Lewison, G; Partridge, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is currently little information regarding how much the distribution of research activity in respiratory medicine reflects the interests of its clinicians and scientists, the disease burden in any country, or the availability of funding.

  10. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East ... 2, 2015. www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/faq.html . Accessed April ...

  11. Macrophage Heterogeneity in Respiratory Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Boorsma, Carian E.; Christina Draijer; Barbro N. Melgert

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are among the most abundant cells in the respiratory tract, and they can have strikingly different phenotypes within this environment. Our knowledge of the different phenotypes and their functions in the lung is sketchy at best, but they appear to be linked to the protection of gas exchange against microbial threats and excessive tissue responses. Phenotypical changes of macrophages within the lung are found in many respiratory diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmon...

  12. The acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Modrykamien, Ariel M.; Gupta, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of acute respiratory failure. Its development leads to high rates of mortality, as well as short- and long-term complications, such as physical and cognitive impairment. Therefore, early recognition of this syndrome and application of demonstrated therapeutic interventions are essential to change the natural course of this devastating entity. In this review article, we describe updated concepts in ARDS. Specifically, we discuss t...

  13. Virion packaging of multiple cleavage isoforms of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the cause of a complex disease often resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, highly pathogenic isolates have emerged which have proven to be devastatingly effective pathogens, resulting in rapid systemic deterioration...

  14. Climate Change and Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Motahari, Hooman; Taghizadeh Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sharifi, Arash; Campos, Michael; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2016-08-01

    The rate of global warming has accelerated over the past 50 years. Increasing surface temperature is melting glaciers and raising the sea level. More flooding, droughts, hurricanes, and heat waves are being reported. Accelerated changes in climate are already affecting human health, in part by altering the epidemiology of climate-sensitive pathogens. In particular, climate change may alter the incidence and severity of respiratory infections by affecting vectors and host immune responses. Certain respiratory infections, such as avian influenza and coccidioidomycosis, are occurring in locations previously unaffected, apparently because of global warming. Young children and older adults appear to be particularly vulnerable to rapid fluctuations in ambient temperature. For example, an increase in the incidence in childhood pneumonia in Australia has been associated with sharp temperature drops from one day to the next. Extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, major storms, drought, and wildfires, are also believed to change the incidence of respiratory infections. An outbreak of aspergillosis among Japanese survivors of the 2011 tsunami is one such well-documented example. Changes in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and air pollution influence viral activity and transmission. For example, in early 2000, an outbreak of Hantavirus respiratory disease was linked to a local increase in the rodent population, which in turn was attributed to a two- to threefold increase in rainfall before the outbreak. Climate-sensitive respiratory pathogens present challenges to respiratory health that may be far greater in the foreseeable future. PMID:27300144

  15. Urgencias respiratorias Respiratory emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martínez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las urgencias respiratorias en un paciente con cáncer pueden tener su origen en patologías de la vía aérea, del parénquima pulmonar o de los grandes vasos. La causa puede ser el propio tumor o complicaciones concomitantes. La obstrucción de la vía aérea debería ser inicialmente evaluada con procedimientos endoscópicos. En situaciones severas, la cirugía raramente es posible. El emplazamiento endobronquial de stents e isótopos radiactivos (braquiterapia, la ablación tumoral por láser o la terapia fotodinámica, pueden aliviar de forma rápida los síntomas y reestablecer el flujo aéreo. El manejo de la hemoptisis depende de la causa que la provoque y de la cuantía de la misma. La broncoscopia sigue siendo el procedimiento de primera línea en la mayor parte de los casos; aporta información diagnóstica y puede interrumpir el sangrado mediante lavados con suero helado, taponamiento endobronquial o inyecciones tópicas de adrenalina o trombina. La radioterapia externa sigue siendo un procedimiento extraordinariamente útil para tratar la hemoptisis de causa tumoral y en situaciones bien seleccionadas la terapia endobronquial con láser o braquiterapia y la embolización arterial bronquial pueden proporcionar un gran rendimiento paliativo. Las urgencias respiratorias por enfermedad del parénquima pulmonar en un paciente oncológico, pueden tener causa tumoral, iatrogénica o infecciosa. El reconocimiento precoz de cada una de ellas determina la administración del tratamiento específico y las posibilidades de éxito.Respiratory emergencies in a patient with cancer can have their origin in pathologies of the airway, of the pulmonary parenchyma or the large vessels. The cause can be the tumour itself or concomitant complications. Obstruction of the airway should be initially evaluated with endoscopic procedures. Surgery is rarely possible in serious situations. The endobronchial placement of stents or radioactive isotopes

  16. Pacemakers handshake synchronization mechanism of mammalian respiratory rhythmogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmeier, Steffen; Song, Gang; Duffin, James; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2008-01-01

    Inspiratory and expiratory rhythms in mammals are thought to be generated by pacemaker-like neurons in 2 discrete brainstem regions: pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) and parafacial respiratory group (pFRG). How these putative pacemakers or pacemaker networks may interact to set the overall respiratory rhythm in synchrony remains unclear. Here, we show that a pacemakers 2-way “handshake” process comprising pFRG excitation of the preBötC, followed by reverse inhibition and postinhibitory rebound...

  17. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this second rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In the first volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: schools, laboratories and universities, and sports and educational centres. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (11 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  18. Rigid spine syndrome with respiratory failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Morita, H.; Kondo, K.; Hoshino, K; Maruyama, K; Yanagisawa, N

    1990-01-01

    The pathogenesis and therapy of respiratory failure in the rigid spine syndrome are discussed in two cases who improved with respiratory assistance. In both cases, the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide were reversed in arterial blood gas analysis and %VC was less than 30%. Remission from respiratory failure has been obtained by the use of a ventilator during the night. The cause of the respiratory failure in both cases was severe restrictive respiratory dysfunction due to extreme...

  19. The evolutionary history of the Arabidopsis lyrata complex: a hybrid in the amphi-Beringian area closes a large distribution gap and builds up a genetic barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Marcus A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of higher plants are, on the majority, polyploid, and hybridisation is more frequent in plants than in animals. Both polyploidisation and hybridisation contribute to increased variability within species, and may transfer adaptations between species in a changing environment. Studying these aspects of evolution within a diversified species complex could help to clarify overall spatial and temporal patterns of plant speciation. The Arabidopsis lyrata complex, which is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, is a perennial, outcrossing, herbaceous species complex with a circumpolar distribution in the Northern Hemisphere as well as a disjunct Central European distribution in relictual habitats. This species complex comprises three species and four subspecies, mainly diploids but also several tetraploids, including one natural hybrid. The complex is ecologically, but not fully geographically, separated from members of the closely related species complex of Arabidopsis halleri, and the evolutionary histories of both species compexes have largely been influenced by Pleistocene climate oscillations. Results Using DNA sequence data from the nuclear encoded cytosolic phosphoglucoisomerase and Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 of the ribosomal DNA, as well as the trnL/F region from the chloroplast genome, we unravelled the phylogeography of the various taxonomic units of the A. lyrata complex. We demonstrate the existence of two major gene pools in Central Europe and Northern America. These two major gene pools are constructed from different taxonomic units. We also confirmed that A. kamchatica is the allotetraploid hybrid between A. lyrata and A. halleri, occupying the amphi-Beringian area in Eastern Asia and Northern America. This species closes the large distribution gap of the various other A. lyrata segregates. Furthermore, we revealed a threefold independent allopolyploid origin of this hybrid

  20. Quantum chemical study of the 1:1 complex between ferrocene and zinc porphyrin, a building-block of charge-transfer molecular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular and electronic structure of the 1:1 charge-transfer complex between ferrocene (Fc) and zinc porphyrin (ZnP) are investigated with the aid of dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Four stable configurations were obtained, two with the Fc molecule laying on the ZnP plane and the other two where Fc interacts with the porphyrin's perimeter. The dipole moment vectors of these Fc:ZnP complexes indicate that they are stabilized by the transfer of electronic charge density from Fc to ZnP or vice versa. (author)

  1. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  2. Building Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Koukkari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end.

  3. Building Software with Gradle

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Studer, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will give an overview of the key concepts and main features of Gradle, the innovative build system that has become the de-facto standard in the enterprise. We will cover task declaration and task graph execution, incremental builds, multi-project builds, dependency management, applying plugins, extracting reusable build logic, bootstrapping a build, and using the Gradle daemon. By the end of this talk, you will have a good understanding of what makes Gradle so powerful yet easy to use. You will also understand why companies like Pivotal, LinkedIn, Google, and other giants with complex builds count on Gradle. About the speakers Etienne is leading the Tooling Team at Gradleware. He has been working as a developer, architect, project manager, and CTO over the past 15 years. He has spent most of his time building software products from the ground up and successfully shipping them to happy customers. He had ...

  4. ERS statement on the multidisciplinary respiratory management of ataxia telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jayesh M; Bush, Andrew; van Gerven, Marjo; Nissenkorn, Andreea; Renke, Michael; Yarlett, Lian; Taylor, Malcolm; Tonia, Thomy; Warris, Adilia; Zielen, Stefan; Zinna, Shairbanu; Merkus, Peter J F M

    2015-12-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare, progressive, multisystem disease that has a large number of complex and diverse manifestations which vary with age. Patients with A-T die prematurely with the leading causes of death being respiratory diseases and cancer. Respiratory manifestations include immune dysfunction leading to recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections; aspiration resulting from dysfunctional swallowing due to neurodegenerative deficits; inefficient cough; and interstitial lung disease/pulmonary fibrosis. Malnutrition is a significant comorbidity. The increased radiosensitivity and increased risk of cancer should be borne in mind when requesting radiological investigations. Aggressive proactive monitoring and treatment of these various aspects of lung disease under multidisciplinary expertise in the experience of national multidisciplinary clinics internationally forms the basis of this statement on the management of lung disease in A-T. Neurological management is outwith the scope of this document. PMID:26621971

  5. ERS statement on the multidisciplinary respiratory management of ataxia telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh M. Bhatt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T is a rare, progressive, multisystem disease that has a large number of complex and diverse manifestations which vary with age. Patients with A-T die prematurely with the leading causes of death being respiratory diseases and cancer. Respiratory manifestations include immune dysfunction leading to recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections; aspiration resulting from dysfunctional swallowing due to neurodegenerative deficits; inefficient cough; and interstitial lung disease/pulmonary fibrosis. Malnutrition is a significant comorbidity. The increased radiosensitivity and increased risk of cancer should be borne in mind when requesting radiological investigations. Aggressive proactive monitoring and treatment of these various aspects of lung disease under multidisciplinary expertise in the experience of national multidisciplinary clinics internationally forms the basis of this statement on the management of lung disease in A-T. Neurological management is outwith the scope of this document.

  6. Building Evacuation with Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population and increasingly dense settlements demand ever-larger and more complex buildings from today's engineers. In comparison to this technological progress, a building's equipment for emergency evacuation has been hardly developed further. This work presents a concept for a building evacuation system based on mobile devices. Furthermore, various algorithms for route planning with mobile devices and for indoor localization of mobile devices are addressed.

  7. Voltage-Dependent Rhythmogenic Property of Respiratory Pre-Bötzinger Complex Glutamatergic, Dbx1-Derived, and Somatostatin-Expressing Neuron Populations Revealed by Graded Optogenetic Inhibition1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, Hidehiko; Mosher, Bryan; Tariq, Mohammad F.; Zhang, Ruli; Koshiya, Naohiro; Smith, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The rhythm of breathing in mammals, originating within the brainstem pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), is presumed to be generated by glutamatergic neurons, but this has not been directly demonstrated. Additionally, developmental expression of the transcription factor Dbx1 or expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin (Sst), has been proposed as a marker for the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons, but it is unknown whether these other two phenotypically defined neuronal pop...

  8. Characterization of the respiratory chain of Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Andersen, L P; Zhai, L; Kharazmi, A

    1999-01-01

    The respiratory chain of Helicobacter pylori has been investigated. The total insensitivity of activities of NADH dehydrogenase to rotenone and of NADH-cytochrome c reductase to antimycin is indicative of the absence of the classical complex I of the electron transfer chain in this bacterium. NADPH......-dependent respiration was significantly stronger than NADH-dependent respiration, indicating that this is a major respiratory electron donor in H. pylori. Fumarate and malonate exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the activity of succinate dehydrogenase. The activity of succinate-cytochrome c...... reductase was inhibited by antimycin, implying the presence of a classical pathway from complex II to complex III in this bacterium. The presence of NADH-fumarate reductase (FRD) was demonstrated in H. pylori and fumarate could reduce H2O2 production from NADH, indicating fumarate to be an endogenous...

  9. Altered Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Parameswaran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The major respiratory complications of obesity include a heightened demand for ventilation, elevated work of breathing, respiratory muscle inefficiency and diminished respiratory compliance. The decreased functional residual capacity and expiratory reserve volume, with a high closing volume to functional residual capacity ratio of obesity, are associated with the closure of peripheral lung units, ventilation to perfusion ratio abnormalities and hypoxemia, especially in the supine position. Conventional respiratory function tests are only mildly affected by obesity except in extreme cases. The major circulatory complications are increased total and pulmonary blood volume, high cardiac output and elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Patients with obesity commonly develop hypoventilation and sleep apnea syndromes with attenuated hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responsiveness. The final result is hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension and progressively worsening disability. Obese patients have increased dyspnea and decreased exercise capacity, which are vital to quality of life. Decreased muscle, increased joint pain and skin friction are important determinants of decreased exercise capacity, in addition to the cardiopulmonary effects of obesity. The effects of obesity on mortality in heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not been definitively resolved. Whether obesity contributes to asthma and airway hyper-responsiveness is uncertain. Weight reduction and physical activity are effective means of reversing the respiratory complications of obesity.

  10. Somatostatin 2a receptors are not expressed on functionally identified respiratory neurons in the ventral respiratory column of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Sheng; Turner, Anita J; Parker, Lindsay M; Burke, Peter G; Kumar, Natasha N; Goodchild, Ann K; McMullan, Simon

    2016-05-01

    Microinjection of somatostatin (SST) causes site-specific effects on respiratory phase transition, frequency, and amplitude when microinjected into the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) of the anesthetized rat, suggesting selective expression of SST receptors on different functional classes of respiratory neurons. Of the six subtypes of SST receptor, somatostatin 2a (sst2a ) is the most prevalent in the VLM, and other investigators have suggested that glutamatergic neurons in the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) that coexpress neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R), SST, and sst2a are critical for the generation of respiratory rhythm. However, quantitative data describing the distribution of sst2a in respiratory compartments other than preBötC, or on functionally identified respiratory neurons, is absent. Here we examine the medullary expression of sst2a with particular reference to glycinergic/expiratory neurons in the Bötzinger Complex (BötC) and NK1R-immunoreactive/inspiratory neurons in the preBötC. We found robust sst2a expression at all rostrocaudal levels of the VLM, including a large proportion of catecholaminergic neurons, but no colocalization of sst2a and glycine transporter 2 mRNA in the BötC. In the preBötC 54% of sst2a -immunoreactive neurons were also positive for NK1R. sst2a was not observed in any of 52 dye-labeled respiratory interneurons, including seven BötC expiratory-decrementing and 11 preBötC preinspiratory neurons. We conclude that sst2a is not expressed on BötC respiratory neurons and that phasic respiratory activity is a poor predictor of sst2a expression in the preBötC. Therefore, sst2a is unlikely to underlie responses to BötC SST injection, and is sparse or absent on respiratory neurons identified by classical functional criteria. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1384-1398, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26470751

  11. Pontine respiratory activity involved in inspiratory/expiratory phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörschel, Michael; Dutschmann, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Control of the timing of the inspiratory/expiratory (IE) phase transition is a hallmark of respiratory pattern formation. In principle, sensory feedback from pulmonary stretch receptors (Breuer–Hering reflex, BHR) is seen as the major controller for the IE phase transition, while pontine-based control of IE phase transition by both the pontine Kölliker–Fuse nucleus (KF) and parabrachial complex is seen as a secondary or backup mechanism. However, previous studies have shown that the BHR can habituate in vivo. Thus, habituation reduces sensory feedback, so the role of the pons, and specifically the KF, for IE phase transition may increase dramatically. Pontine-mediated control of the IE phase transition is not completely understood. In the present review, we discuss existing models for ponto-medullary interaction that may be involved in the control of inspiratory duration and IE transition. We also present intracellular recordings of pontine respiratory units derived from an in situ intra-arterially perfused brainstem preparation of rats. With the absence of lung inflation, this preparation generates a normal respiratory pattern and many of the recorded pontine units demonstrated phasic respiratory-related activity. The analysis of changes in membrane potentials of pontine respiratory neurons has allowed us to propose a number of pontine-medullary interactions not considered before. The involvement of these putative interactions in pontine-mediated control of IE phase transitions is discussed. PMID:19651653

  12. A respiratory alert model for the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, David M; Davis, Robert E; Knight, David B; Sitka, Luke J; Enfield, Kyle; Gawtry, Stephen B; Stenger, Phillip J; Deaton, Michael L; Normile, Caroline P; Lee, Temple R

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory morbidity (particularly COPD and asthma) can be influenced by short-term weather fluctuations that affect air quality and lung function. We developed a model to evaluate meteorological conditions associated with respiratory hospital admissions in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, USA. We generated ensembles of classification trees based on six years of respiratory-related hospital admissions (64,620 cases) and a suite of 83 potential environmental predictor variables. As our goal was to identify short-term weather linkages to high admission periods, the dependent variable was formulated as a binary classification of five-day moving average respiratory admission departures from the seasonal mean value. Accounting for seasonality removed the long-term apparent inverse relationship between temperature and admissions. We generated eight total models specific to the northern and southern portions of the valley for each season. All eight models demonstrate predictive skill (mean odds ratio = 3.635) when evaluated using a randomization procedure. The predictor variables selected by the ensembling algorithm vary across models, and both meteorological and air quality variables are included. In general, the models indicate complex linkages between respiratory health and environmental conditions that may be difficult to identify using more traditional approaches. PMID:22438053

  13. Thalamic mediation of hypoxic respiratory depression in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo; Ibe, Basil; Guerra, Catalina; Kruger, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    Immaturity of respiratory controllers in preterm infants dispose to recurrent apnea and oxygen deprivation. Accompanying reductions in brain oxygen tensions evoke respiratory depression, potentially exacerbating hypoxemia. Central respiratory depression during moderate hypoxia is revealed in the ventilatory decline following initial augmentation. This study determined whether the thalamic parafascicular nuclear (Pf) complex involved in adult nociception and sensorimotor regulation (Bentivoglio M, Balerecia G, Kruger L.Prog Brain Res87: 53-80, 1991) also becomes a postnatal controller of hypoxic ventilatory decline. Respiratory responses to moderate isocapnic hypoxia were studied in conscious lambs. Hypoxic ventilatory decline was compared with peak augmentation. Pf and/or adjacent thalamic structures were destroyed by the neuron-specific toxin ibotenic acid (IB). IB lesions involving the thalamic Pf abolished hypoxic ventilatory decline. Lesions of adjacent thalamic nuclei that spared Pf and control injections of vehicle failed to blunt hypoxic respiratory depression. Our findings reveal that the thalamic Pf region is a critical controller of hypoxic ventilatory depression and thus a key target for exploring molecular concomitants of forebrain pathways regulating hypoxic ventilatory depression in early development. PMID:26818057

  14. Weighted Interaction SNP Hub (WISH) network method for building genetic networks for complex diseases and traits using whole genome genotype data

    OpenAIRE

    Kogelman, Lisette; Kadarmideen, Haja

    2014-01-01

    Background High-throughput genotype (HTG) data has been used primarily in genome-wide association (GWA) studies; however, GWA results explain only a limited part of the complete genetic variation of traits. In systems genetics, network approaches have been shown to be able to identify pathways and their underlying causal genes to unravel the biological and genetic background of complex diseases and traits, e.g., the Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) method based on microarr...

  15. Turning the Shelves: Empirical Findings and Space Syntax Analyses of Two Virtual Supermarket Variations Judgements of Building Complexity and Navigability in Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Kalff, Christopher; Keuhner, David; Senk, Martin; Dalton, Ruth; Strube, Gerhard; Hoelscher, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Finding a product in a new supermarket is a complex, cognitive process. Earlier studies (Kalff & Strube, 2009, Gil et al., 2009)indicate that shopper’s path choice decisions in such environments are strongly influenced by their background knowledge: the placement of products in a store, especially the collocation of semantically similar types of products (e.g., tinned sweetcorn found with tinned goods rather then fresh corn‐on‐the‐cob). Supermarkets provide an apparently spatially homogenous ...

  16. Macrophage Heterogeneity in Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carian E. Boorsma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are among the most abundant cells in the respiratory tract, and they can have strikingly different phenotypes within this environment. Our knowledge of the different phenotypes and their functions in the lung is sketchy at best, but they appear to be linked to the protection of gas exchange against microbial threats and excessive tissue responses. Phenotypical changes of macrophages within the lung are found in many respiratory diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and pulmonary fibrosis. This paper will give an overview of what macrophage phenotypes have been described, what their known functions are, what is known about their presence in the different obstructive and restrictive respiratory diseases (asthma, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis, and how they are thought to contribute to the etiology and resolution of these diseases.

  17. Submersion and acute respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Jang Su

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To know the relationship between hypothermia, etiology, respiratory failure and prognosis of submersion in environmental emergency medicine.Methods:FromDecember1, 2002 toSeptember30,2007, there were52 hospitalized near- drowning cases in a medical center at northernTaiwan.Retrospective study of52 submersion patients who were hospitalized during the duration was analyzed.Results:The hypothermic groups are more commonly seen in acute respiratory failure after submersion,36%vs.21%,P<0.05.The hypothermic submersion patients who are older in age than normothermic submersion patients(44vs.27 years old,P<0.05).The suicidal submersion patients are older, hypothermic and longer length of stay than accidental submersion patients.Conclusions:Submersion patients who are hypothermic on arrival of emergency department(ED) are risky to respiratory failure and older, more hypothermic, longer hospital stay in suicidal submersion patients.

  18. Respiratory disease surveillance in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agocs, M.M.; Rudnai, P.; Etzel, R.A. (Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Centers for Disease Control, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-08-28

    In October 1989, the Hungarian National Institute of Hygiene initiated the Children's Acute Respiratory Morbidity (CHARM) Surveillance System to assess the association between nine reportable respiratory diseases and air pollution. The weekly number of physician-diagnosed, reportable respiratory diseases among four age groups of children (less than 1, 1-2, 3-5, and 6-14 years) was tabulated for Sopron, a city with 60,000 residents. We calculated the proportion of diseases occurring during weeks with low, moderate, and high sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations. The weekly averages of the 24-hour median SO2 concentrations were divided into thirds at less than or equal to 17.6, greater than 17.6 to less than or equal to 26.3, and greater than 26.3 micrograms/m3 (range: 0.9-79.6 micrograms/m3), and the NO2 concentrations at less than or equal to 29.8, greater than 29.8 to less than or equal to 44.1, and greater than 44.1 micrograms/m3 (range: 4.2-90.1 micrograms/m3). During 1990, 11,474 respiratory disease cases occurred among the 4,020 children less than 15 years of age living in Sopron and monitored by the CHARM system. The two most frequently reported disease categories were rhinitis/tonsillitis/pharyngitis (71.5%) and acute bronchitis (8.5%). Sixty-seven percent of pneumonia cases occurred when SO2 concentrations were highest. We found no association between levels of NO2 and respiratory diseases. The CHARM Surveillance System may characterize more fully which groups of children develop particular respiratory diseases following exposure to air pollution.

  19. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  20. Pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ding-mei; LU Jia-hai; ZHONG Nan-shan

    2008-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) first emerged in Guangdong province,China in November2002.During the following 3 months,it spread rapidly across the world,resulting in approximately 800 deaths.In 2004,subsequent sporadic cases emerged in Singapore and China.A novel coronavims,SARS-CoV,was identified as the etiological agent of SARS.1,2 This virus belongs to a family of large,positive,single-stranded RNA viruses.Nevertheless,genomic characterization shows that the SARS-CoV is only moderately related to other known coronaviruses.3 In contrast with previously described coronaviruses,SARS-CoV infection typically causes severe symptoms related to the lower respiratory tract.The SARS-CoV genome includes 14 putative open reading frames encoding 28 potential proteins,and the functions of many of these proteins are not known.4 A number of complete and partial autopsies of SARS patients have been reported since the first outbreak in 2003.The predominant pathological finding in these cases was diffuse alveolar damage (DAD).This severe pulmonary injury of SARS patients is caused both by direct viral effects and immunopathogenetic factors.5 Many important aspects of the pathogenesis of SARS have not yet been fully clarified.In this article,we summarize the most important mechanisms involved in the complex pathogenesis of SARS,including clinical characters,host and receptors,immune system response and genetic factors.

  1. Identifying structural building blocks in CuO 6 clusters: CuO 2 complexes vs CuO 3 ozonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillon, Y.; Massobrio, C.

    2002-04-01

    Structural minima of neutral and negatively charged CuO 6 clusters have been investigated within density functional theory and a plane-wave approach. Among the lower energy structures, three isomers made of CuO 2 complexes and two isomers featuring a double ozonide Cu(O 3) unit lie within a few hundredths of eV. Isomers containing CuOOO chains are higher in energy. Formation of Cu(O 3) units is accompanied by hybridization between O 2p- and Cu 3d-like states. We highlight analogies and differences between our results and the structural identification proposed in the framework of photoelectron spectroscopy experiments.

  2. Route complexity and simulated physical ageing negatively influence wayfinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, Emma; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Mobach, Mark P

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this age-simulation field experiment was to assess the influence of route complexity and physical ageing on wayfinding. Seventy-five people (aged 18-28) performed a total of 108 wayfinding tasks (i.e., 42 participants performed two wayfinding tasks and 33 performed one wayfinding task), of which 59 tasks were performed wearing gerontologic ageing suits. Outcome variables were wayfinding performance (i.e., efficiency and walking speed) and physiological outcomes (i.e., heart and respiratory rates). Analysis of covariance showed that persons on more complex routes (i.e., more floor and building changes) walked less efficiently than persons on less complex routes. In addition, simulated elderly participants perform worse in wayfinding than young participants in terms of speed (p < 0.001). Moreover, a linear mixed model showed that simulated elderly persons had higher heart rates and respiratory rates compared to young people during a wayfinding task, suggesting that simulated elderly consumed more energy during this task. PMID:27184311

  3. Defining inhibitory neurone function in respiratory circuits: opportunities with optogenetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Ana Paula; Paton, Julian F R; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2015-07-15

    Pharmacological and mathematical modelling studies support the view that synaptic inhibition in mammalian brainstem respiratory circuits is essential for generating normal and stable breathing movements. GABAergic and glycinergic neurones are known components of these circuits but their precise functional roles have not been established, especially within key microcircuits of the respiratory pre-Bötzinger (pre-BötC) and Bötzinger (BötC) complexes involved in phasic control of respiratory pump and airway muscles. Here, we review briefly current concepts of relevant complexities of inhibitory synapses and the importance of synaptic inhibition in the operation of these microcircuits. We highlight results and limitations of classical pharmacological studies that have suggested critical functions of synaptic inhibition. We then explore the potential opportunities for optogenetic strategies that represent a promising new approach for interrogating function of inhibitory circuits, including a hypothetical wish list for optogenetic approaches to allow expedient application of this technology. We conclude that recent technical advances in optogenetics should provide a means to understand the role of functionally select and regionally confined subsets of inhibitory neurones in key respiratory circuits such as those in the pre-BötC and BötC. PMID:25384785

  4. Architecture Building Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ Leading architectural design and engineering firm, Skidmore,Owings, & Merrill (SOM), is renowned for pushing the envelope, masterminding some of the world's most cutting edge and enduring structural masterpieces - America's tallest building, the Sears Tower,in the firm's home city of Chicago, the 88-story Jinmao Tower in Shanghai, and the Freedom Tower in New York City, successor to the fallen World Trade Center complex,are among the well known projects in its building portfolio. SOM's next high profile assignment, the Pearl River Tower, in Guangzhou is one no less worthy of this tradition.

  5. Ecology Beyond Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers to...... put on the dwindling supply of raw materials rather than the immidiate problems of energy consumption for which there are solutions within reach. With the emphasis on a more far-reaching approach, he places buildings in a wider context of ecological thinking and systems....

  6. Building characteristics associated with moisture related problems in 8,918 Swedish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagerhed-Engman, L.; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Moisture problems in buildings have in a number of studies been shown to increase the risk for respiratory symptoms. The study Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) was initiated with the aim to identify health relevant exposures related to dampness in buildings. A questionnaire study about home...

  7. Hypoventilatory respiratory failure in generalised scleroderma

    OpenAIRE

    Iliffe, Gerald D; Pettigrew, Norman M

    1983-01-01

    A patient with generalised cutaneous and gastrointestinal scleroderma subsequently died from respiratory failure secondary to hyperventilation. At necropsy changes consistent with scleroderma of the diaphragm were found; these were thought to have contributed appreciably to the terminal respiratory failure.

  8. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum Print A A A ...

  9. Molecular detection of respiratory viruses: clinical impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Viral respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) cause major morbidity in infants and children. Traditionally, respiratory viruses are detected with conventional tests (viral culture and direct immunofluorescence (DIF)), however nowadays viral diagnostics are being revolutionized by the increased implemen

  10. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan;

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the...

  11. Health Instruction Packages: Respiratory Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavich, Margot; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to teach respiratory therapy students a variety of job-related skills. The first module, "Anatomy and Physiology of the Central Controls of Respiration" by Margot Lavich, describes the functions of the five centers of the brain that control respiration and identifies…

  12. Guide to industrial respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 has increased the emphasis on proper selection and use of respirators in situations where engineering controls are not feasible or are being implemented. Although a great deal of information on respiratory protection has been published, most of it is more technical than necessary for the average user faced with day-to-day problems of respiratory protection in industrial environments. This Guide is to provide the industrial user a single reference source containing enough information for establishing and maintaining a respirator program that meets the OSHA requirements outlined in 29 CFR Part 1910.134. It includes chapters on respirator selection, use, maintenance, and inspection, a complete description of all types of respirators and their advantages and limitations, and chapters on respirator fitting and wearer training, respiratory physiology, respiratory hazards, and physiological and psychological limitations. Also included are samples of the decision logic used in respirator selection, guidance on setting up an adequate respirator program through formulation of written standard operating procedures, and discussion of the meaning of the approved respirator

  13. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a structure of ABWR-type reactor buildings, which can increase the capacity of a spent fuel storage area at a low cost and improved earthquake proofness. In the reactor building, the floor of a spent fuel pool is made flat, and a depth of the pool water satisfying requirement for shielding is ensured. In addition, a depth of pool water is also maintained for a equipment provisionally storing pool for storing spent fuels, and a capacity for a spent fuel storage area is increased by utilizing surplus space of the equipment provisionally storing pool. Since the flattened floor of the spent fuel pool is flushed with the floor of the equipment provisionally storing pool, transfer of horizontal loads applied to the building upon occurrence of earthquakes is made smooth, to improve earthquake proofness of the building. (T.M.)

  14. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family's native language) is taught as the child's second language through reading, writing, speech, and use of residual ... that parents can use to help their child learn language. There are many types of building blocks, and ...

  15. Detection of Respiratory Viruses by Molecular Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mahony, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Clinical laboratories historically diagnose seven or eight respiratory virus infections using a combination of techniques including enzyme immunoassay, direct fluorescent antibody staining, cell culture, and nucleic acid amplification tests. With the discovery of six new respiratory viruses since 2000, laboratories are faced with the challenge of detecting up to 19 different viruses that cause acute respiratory disease of both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. The application o...

  16. Introduction to circulatory and respiratory system modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Gianfranco; Darowski, Marek; Golczewski, Tomasz; Gorczynska, Krystyna; Kozarski, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is focused on circulatory and respiratory system modeling. It includes a brief history of circulatory and respiratory system modeling development and a short description of the state of art. In the chapter also basic classification of mechanical circulatory and respiratory assistance is presented. The last part of the chapter deals with innovative approaches to modeling of both circulatory and respiratory system which concern hybrid models and virtual organs. Hybrid modeling cons...

  17. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  18. Atypical respiratory complications of dengue fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveen Kumar; AK Gadpayle; Deepshikha Trisal

    2013-01-01

    In last decade, dengue has emerged as one of the most important vector born disease.With increasing cases, uncommon presentations and complications are now commonly recognized. Here, we report two cases of rare pattern of respiratory involvement in dengue: acute respiratory distress syndrome and bronchiolitis with respiratory failure.

  19. Pontine respiratory activity involved in inspiratory/expiratory phase transition

    OpenAIRE

    Mörschel, Michael; Dutschmann, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Control of the timing of the inspiratory/expiratory (IE) phase transition is a hallmark of respiratory pattern formation. In principle, sensory feedback from pulmonary stretch receptors (Breuer–Hering reflex, BHR) is seen as the major controller for the IE phase transition, while pontine-based control of IE phase transition by both the pontine Kölliker–Fuse nucleus (KF) and parabrachial complex is seen as a secondary or backup mechanism. However, previous studies have shown that the BHR can h...

  20. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Aswathy N.; William B. Epperson; Bindu Nanduri

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional ge...

  1. Postperfusion lung syndrome: Respiratory mechanics, respiratory indices and biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Postperfusion lung syndrome is rare but lethal. Secondary inflammatory response was the popularly accepted theory for the underlying etiology. Respiratory index (RI) and arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen can be reliable indices for the diagnosis of this syndrome as X-ray appearance is always insignificant at the early stage of the onset. Evaluations of extravascular lung water content and pulmonary compliance are also helpful in the definite diagnosis. Multiorgan failure and ...

  2. Habituation in neural processing and subjective perception of respiratory sensations

    OpenAIRE

    von Leupoldt, Andreas; Vovk, Andrea; Bradley, Margaret M.; Lang, Peter J.; Davenport, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced perception of respiratory sensations is associated with negative treatment outcome in asthma. We examined whether habituation in the neural processing of repeatedly experienced respiratory sensations may underlie subjective reports of reduced respiratory perception. Respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREP) elicited by inspiratory occlusions and reports of respiratory perception were compared between early and late experimental periods in healthy subjects. Reports of respiratory pe...

  3. COMPLEX METHOD OF INSPECTION OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS AT TEAMWORK BY COMMUNICATION TOWERS Комплексный метод обследования зданий и сооружений при совместной работе с вышками связи

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhenko N. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we developed and improved the algorithm for complex inspection of buildings and constructions at teamwork with communication towers. The inspection of a building which was made using the described algorithm is presented

  4. Quartz as votive and building material within the megalithic funerary complex of Palacio III (Almadén de la Plata, Seville: contextual and mineralogical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forteza González, Matilde

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines an assemblage of quartz objects, such as crystals (rock crystal and prase and pebbles, that were found in two spatially and chronologically different contexts of the Palacio III megalithic complex (Almadén de la Plata, Seville, Spain excavated by the universities of Seville and Southampton between 2001 and 2002. Firstly, these objects are described macroscopically from a mineralogical and crystallographic point of view. When possible, samples are studied by X-ray diffraction and SEM in order to determine their mineralogical and chemical composition. Secondly, other similar instances, in which quartz and rock crystal objects have been found among the grave goods of funerary contexts of southern Iberian, are described. Finally, we propose a series of interpretations for these objects, both from a functional as well as a symbolical perspective, assessing the significance of their presence in spatially discrete and chrono-culturally distant contexts.

    Este trabajo examina un conjunto de objetos de cuarzo, tales como monocristales (variedades cristal de roca y prasio y cantos rodados, encontrados en dos contextos arqueológicos espacial y cronológicamente distintos del complejo megalítico de Palacio III (Almadén de la Plata, Sevilla, excavado por las universidades de Sevilla y Southampton entre 2001 y 2002. Estos objetos se describen, en primer lugar, desde un punto de vista macroscópico atendiendo a sus características mineralógicas y cristalográficas. Se han utilizado técnicas difractométricas y de microscopía electrónica de barrido sobre las muestras inalteradas para determinar su composición mineralógica y química. A continuación se listan y describen casos de ítems semejantes registrados en contextos funerarios de la Prehistoria Reciente del Sur de la Península Ibérica. Finalmente se valoran distintas interpretaciones para los mismos, desde un punto de vista tanto funcional como simbólico, discuti

  5. Pulmonary surfactant proteins B and C : molecular organisation and involvement in respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zaltash, Shahparak

    2000-01-01

    Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins with the main function to reduce the surface tension at the alveolar air/liquid interface. Surfactant protein B (SP-B) and C (SP-C) are hydrophobic but unrelated in structure, and probably have unique functional roles in the formation of the surface-active monolayer. SP-B deficiency causes lethal respiratory failure, but SP-C null mice show no respiratory dysfunction. This thesis is focused on the molecular ...

  6. Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) ...

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells - a promising therapy for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes M; Curley G; Laffey JG.

    2012-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) constitutes a spectrum of severe acute respiratory failure in response to a variety of inciting stimuli that is the leading cause of death and disability in the critically ill. Despite decades of research, there are no therapies for ARDS, and management remains supportive. A growing understanding of the complexity of the pathophysiology of ARDS, coupled with advances in stem cell biology, has lead to a renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of...

  8. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences on the...... one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking...

  9. NON-SKELETON BUILDING OF MULTIPURPOSE DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.М. Першаков

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available  The non-skeleton structure of multipurpose destination is developed from typical reinforce-concrete slabs and intended for building of objects of agroindustrial complex. Fixed building is under the test loadings. After researches was established, that a construction has sufficient bearing capacity. Non-skeleton building is urgent for storage of agricultural production and storage of eguipment, placing of markets and sport complexes.

  10. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Louise C

    2016-05-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging infectious disease that can present with flu-like symptoms. In individuals with comorbidities or who are immunosuppressed, it can be deadly. The disease is transmitted through contact with someone who has MERS-CoV. The occupational health nurse must be cognizant of and educate the workforce about MERS-CoV transmission, prevention, and treatment. PMID:26407596

  11. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu; Tatiana Maron-Gutierrez; Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez Garcia; Marcelo Marcos Morales; Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions ne...

  12. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...

  13. Respiratory analysis system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the respiratory process in which the gas flow rate and the frequency of respiration and expiration cycles can be determined on a real time basis. A face mask is provided with one-way inlet and outlet valves where the gas flow is through independent flowmeters and through a mass spectrometer. The opening and closing of a valve operates an electrical switch, and the combination of the two switches produces a low frequency electrical signal of the respiratory inhalation and exhalation cycles. During the time a switch is operated, the corresponsing flowmeter produces electric pulses representative of the flow rate; the electrical pulses being at a higher frequency than that of the breathing cycle and combined with the low frequency signal. The high frequency pulses are supplied to conventional analyzer computer which also receives temperature and pressure inputs and computes mass flow rate and totalized mass flow of gas. From the mass spectrometer, components of the gas are separately computed as to flow rate. The electrical switches cause operation of up-down inputs of a reversible counter. The respective up and down cycles can be individually monitored and combined for various respiratory measurements.

  14. Incidence of respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in hospital born babies. Subjects and Methods: All live born infants delivered at the hospital and who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were included in the study. Results: Ninety-four neonates developed RDS. Out of these, 88 (93.61%) were preterm and 06 (6.38%) were term infants. There was a male preponderance (65.95%). RDS was documented in 1.72% of total live births. 37.28% of preterm and 0.11% of term neonates born at the hospital. The incidence of RDS was 100% at 26 or less weeks of gestation, 57.14% at 32 weeks, and 3.70% at 36 weeks. The mortality with RDS was 41 (43.61%). Conclusion: RDS is the commonest cause of respiratory distress in the newborn, particularly, in preterm infants. It carries a high mortality rate and the incidence is more than that documented in the Western world. (author)

  15. Defense mechanisms of the respiratory membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G M; Jakab, G J; Low, R B; Davis, G S

    1977-03-01

    The success or failure of pulmonary defense mechanisms largely determines the appearance of clinical lung disease. The lung is protected by interlucking systems of nonspecific and specific defenses. Inhaled substrances can be isolated by mechanical barriers or can be physically removed from the lung either by transport up the bronchial mucociliary escalator or by transport through interstitial and lymphatic channels leading to lymph nodes. Substances can be locally detoxified within the lung by interaction with secretory proteins, such as antibodies, or by neutralization and dissolution within phagocytic cells. The pulmonary alveolar macrophage is the central figure in the protection of the respiratory membrane, operating in all 3 of the nonspecific modes of defense and augmented by specific immunologic mechanisms as well. Alterations in macrophage function and physiology may be crucial in determining the effectiveness of pulmonary defense. Recent advances in the cell biology of the alveolar macrophage have led to a greater understanding of its complex funcition. The multiple origins of macrophages from local and circulating cell pools and the variability in their fate and lifespan reflect the multi-faceted role of this cell type. The importance of the interactions between macrophages, orther lung cells, and other defense mechanisms has become increasingly clear. As well as functioning as resident defender of the alveolus, the macrophage is an important effector of the pulmonary immune response and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of inflammatory, destructive, and fibrotic lung diseases. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses amplify and direct lung defenses against infection and may also participate in protection against other agents. Immunoglobulin A and G, microbial neutralizing and opsonizing anti-bodies, and macrophage-stimulating T lymphocytes are the major immunospecific forms of lung defense. Infectious agents, cigarette smoke, air

  16. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems that...

  17. Spatial organization and state-dependent mechanisms for respiratory rhythm and pattern generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Ilya A; Abdala, Ana P L; Markin, Sergey N; Paton, Julian F R; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2007-01-01

    The brainstem respiratory network can operate in multiple functional states engaging different state-dependent neural mechanisms. These mechanisms were studied in the in situ perfused rat brainstem-spinal cord preparation using sequential brainstem transections and administration of riluzole, a pharmacological blocker of persistent sodium current (INaP). Dramatic transformations in the rhythmogenic mechanisms and respiratory motor pattern were observed after removal of the pons and subsequent medullary transactions down to the rostral end of pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC). A computational model of the brainstem respiratory network was developed to reproduce and explain these experimental findings. The model incorporates several interacting neuronal compartments, including the ventral respiratory group (VRG), pre-BötC, Bötzinger complex (BötC), and pons. Simulations mimicking the removal of circuit components following transections closely reproduce the respiratory motor output patterns recorded from the intact and sequentially reduced brainstem preparations. The model suggests that both the operating rhythmogenic mechanism (i.e., network-based or pacemaker-driven) and the respiratory pattern generated (e.g., three-phase, two-phase, or one-phase) depend on the state of the pre-BötC (expression of INaP-dependent intrinsic rhythmogenic mechanisms) and the BötC (providing expiratory inhibition in the network). At the same time, tonic drives from pons and multiple medullary chemoreceptive sites appear to control the state of these compartments and hence the operating rhythmogenic mechanism and motor pattern. Our results suggest that the brainstem respiratory network has a spatial (rostral-to-caudal) organization extending from the rostral pons to the VRG, in which each functional compartment is controlled by more rostral compartments. The model predicts a continuum of respiratory network states relying on different contributions of intrinsic cellular properties

  18. Neonatal respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) referrals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Khuffash, A

    2011-03-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a complex technique for providing life support in neonatal respiratory failure. T UK Collaborative ECMO trial demonstrated cost-effectiveness and substantial improvements in neurological morbidity and mortality. Currently, infants requiring ECMO in Ireland are referred to one of various centres in the UK and Scandinavia. We aimed to review the number of infants referred from Ireland for respiratory ECMO. All infants with a non-cardiac condition referred from Ireland for ECMO were reviewed for diagnosis and outcomes. Eleven infants required ECMO between June 2006 and January 2009 and were referred to the Scandinavian team for ECMO transport although one infant improved and did not require ECMO following the arrival of the team. Four infants died: one infant died prior to arrival of the ECMO team, 3 infants had fatal diagnoses and one infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia received pre-op ECMO. The median (inter-quartile range) gestational age was 39.7 (38.3-40.7) weeks and birth weight of 3.7 (3.2-4.0) kg. The median age at the decision to transfer for ECMO was 13h (4-123) and the team arrived at 23 h (12-132). All infants had a normal cranial ultrasound and echo prior to ECMO and 2 infants had an abnormal MRI post-ECMO. The time on ECMO was 9 days (3-17) and total length of hospital stay was 32 d (23-36). There were no pre-ECMO clinical or biochemical

  19. The obligate respiratory supercomplex from Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Wei-Chun; Kleinschroth, Thomas; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Baymann, Frauke; Neehaul, Yashvin; Hellwig, Petra; Richers, Sebastian; Vonck, Janet; Bott, Michael; Hunte, Carola

    2016-10-01

    Actinobacteria are closely linked to human life as industrial producers of bioactive molecules and as human pathogens. Respiratory cytochrome bcc complex and cytochrome aa3 oxidase are key components of their aerobic energy metabolism. They form a supercomplex in the actinobacterial species Corynebacterium glutamicum. With comprehensive bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis we show that genes for cyt bcc-aa3 supercomplex are characteristic for Actinobacteria (Actinobacteria and Acidimicrobiia, except the anaerobic orders Actinomycetales and Bifidobacteriales). An obligatory supercomplex is likely, due to the lack of genes encoding alternative electron transfer partners such as mono-heme cyt c. Instead, subunit QcrC of bcc complex, here classified as short di-heme cyt c, will provide the exclusive electron transfer link between the complexes as in C. glutamicum. Purified to high homogeneity, the C. glutamicum bcc-aa3 supercomplex contained all subunits and cofactors as analyzed by SDS-PAGE, BN-PAGE, absorption and EPR spectroscopy. Highly uniform supercomplex particles in electron microscopy analysis support a distinct structural composition. The supercomplex possesses a dimeric stoichiometry with a ratio of a-type, b-type and c-type hemes close to 1:1:1. Redox titrations revealed a low potential bcc complex (Em(ISP)=+160mV, Em(bL)=-291mV, Em(bH)=-163mV, Em(cc)=+100mV) fined-tuned for oxidation of menaquinol and a mixed potential aa3 oxidase (Em(CuA)=+150mV, Em(a/a3)=+143/+317mV) mediating between low and high redox potential to accomplish dioxygen reduction. The generated molecular model supports a stable assembled supercomplex with defined architecture which permits energetically efficient coupling of menaquinol oxidation and dioxygen reduction in one supramolecular entity. PMID:27472998

  20. Modeling as Theory-Building

    OpenAIRE

    Schwaninger, Markus; Grösser, Stefan N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to make the idea of modeling as theory-building operational. We conceive the modeling process as a theory-building process, thereby opening up a new perspective on the methodology of modeling in the social sciences. By reconceptualizing the notion of modeling, we hope to convey the advantages of more conceptual thinking in management. Practitioners could gain effectiveness in dealing with external complexity if they would espouse the modeling task as a disc...

  1. Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anita Lewis

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

  2. Crystal Structure of Mitochondrial Respiratory Membrane Protein Complex Ⅱ Determined

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Scientists at the CAS Institute of Biophysics (IBP) and Tsinghua University have gained new insights into the mechanism of mitochondria, the subcellular structures which generate energy for living cells.

  3. Administrative building

    OpenAIRE

    Vokatá, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    The task of my master´s thesis was to work up a project and a check of a bearing steel construction the multi-storey office building with a garage in Brno. The building is composed of five storey office section and two storey of garage. Ground dimension of administrative part is 38,8m x 35m with distance of pillars 7m,6m and 6,4m. The structural height of floor is 3,5m.Garage is designed with dimensions 36m x 24,8m with structural height of floor 3,5m. Distance of pillars is 5,6m, 6,4m and 7,...

  4. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambaudi, L R [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Rossi, E [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Mantaras, M C [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Perrone, M S [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Siri, L Nicola [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display.

  5. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display

  6. Respiratory Distress Syndrome and its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Kale Cekinmez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies is one of the most common and most important health problems in newborns. Respiratory distress syndrome of newborn is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. Respiratory distress syndrome begins shortly after birth and is manifest by tachypnea, tachycardia, chest wall retractions, expiratory grunting, nasal flaring and cyanosis during breathing efforts. Respiratory distress syndrome or complications caused by respiratory distress syndrome are the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in premature infants. This article briefly reviews respiratory distress syndrome and its complications. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 615-630

  7. Respiratory consequences of late preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Katharine C; Lucas, Jane S A

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries most preterm births occur between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Deliveries during this 'late preterm' period are increasing and, since even mild prematurity is now recognised to be associated with adverse health outcomes, this presents healthcare challenges. Respiratory problems associated with late preterm birth include neonatal respiratory distress, severe RSV infection and childhood wheezing. Late preterm birth prematurely interrupts in utero lung development and is associated with maternal and early life factors which adversely affect the developing respiratory system. This review considers 1) mechanisms underlying the association between late preterm birth and impaired respiratory development, 2) respiratory morbidity associated with late preterm birth, particularly long-term outcomes, and 3) interventions which might protect respiratory development by addressing risk factors affecting the late preterm population, including maternal smoking, early life growth restriction and vulnerability to viral infection. PMID:25554628

  8. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  9. Model Building

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, Paul H.

    1997-01-01

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light leptoquarks possibly...

  10. Building Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion project, sponsored by the European Commission, enables EU member states to exchange experiences relating to the social inclusion of vulnerable groups. Its special focus is on housing access and housing ...

  11. Do chimpanzees build comfortable nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Fiona A; Pruetz, Jill D; Hansell, Mike H

    2007-08-01

    Nests built by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) were studied at the Fongoli research site in southeastern Senegal from January 2004-May 2004 to investigate the role of comfort in nest building behavior by relating measures of nest comfort and building effort. Nest comfort across zones of the nest surface were compared with construction effort for 25 nests. Several variables of nest comfort were assessed: (1) physical discomfort, (2) visible discomfort, and (3) softness. Physical discomfort was used as a representative measure of nest discomfort. Building effort was measured by (1) construction force, (2) complexity, and (3) added material. Spearman rank correlations compared Effort and Comfort measures for both whole nests and central versus edge zones. The results show that construction force and complexity do not influence comfort of the nest as a whole. Greater Construction force correlates with more nest edge discomfort, yet the central area shows no difference. More complex nests do result in a more comfortable central area in the nest. Nests built with greater force may result in more discomfort, whereas complexity may allow chimpanzees to maintain comfort in a central area for sleep. Chimpanzees may place additional leaves or twigs over hard branches, protruding from the nest surface after construction, to increase comfort of the central nest area. Functions of chimpanzee nest building are likely to be several, but these results suggest comfort is a factor in nest building behavior. PMID:17358021

  12. Respiratory Health among Cement Workers in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zeleke, Zeyede K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known on dust exposure and respiratory health among cement cleaners. There are only a few follow-up studies on respiratory health among cement factory workers and also studies on acute effects of cement dust exposure are limited in numbers. Objective: This study aimed at assessing cement dust exposure and adverse respiratory health effects among Ethiopian cement production workers, with particular focus on cement cleaners. Method: The first paper was...

  13. Viral respiratory infections : Diagnosis and epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Rotzén Östlund, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Background. Respiratory viral infections are common causes of human morbidity and mortality in children as well as in adults. Adenovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have been recognized for many years. During recent years two main events have influenced both the diagnosis and our knowledge of respiratory virus epidemiology: (1) Five new viruses have been described; (2) the use of molecular methods for the diagnosis of respirato...

  14. Respiratory Microbiome of New-Born Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Gallacher, David J.; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory tract, once believed to be sterile, harbors diverse bacterial communities. The role of microorganisms within health and disease is slowly being unraveled. Evidence points to the neonatal period as a critical time for establishing stable bacterial communities and influencing immune responses important for long-term respiratory health. This review summarizes the evidence of early airway and lung bacterial colonization and the role the microbiome has on respiratory health in the ...

  15. Small animal disease surveillance: respiratory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M.; Philip H Jones; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J.; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J.M.; Radford, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    This second Small Animal Disease Surveillance report focuses on syndromic surveillance of i) respiratory disease in veterinary practice and ii) feline calicivirus (FCV) based on laboratory diagnosis, in a large veterinary-visiting pet population of the UK between January 2014 and December 2015. Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7%, 2.3% and 2.5% of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively. In dogs, the most frequent respiratory sign reported was coughing (71.1% of ...

  16. Respiratory system involvement in Costello syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ospina, Natalia; Kuo, Christin; Ananth, Amitha Lakshmi; Myers, Angela; Brennan, Marie-Luise; Stevenson, David A; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Hudgins, Louanne

    2016-07-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a multisystem disorder caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the HRAS proto-oncogene. Respiratory system complications have been reported in individuals with CS, but a comprehensive description of the full spectrum and incidence of respiratory symptoms in these patients is not available. Here, we report the clinical course of four CS patients with respiratory complications as a major cause of morbidity. Review of the literature identified 56 CS patients with descriptions of their neonatal course and 17 patients in childhood/adulthood. We found that in the neonatal period, respiratory complications are seen in approximately 78% of patients with transient respiratory distress reported in 45% of neonates. Other more specific respiratory diagnoses were reported in 62% of patients, the majority of which comprised disorders of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Symptoms of upper airway obstruction were reported in CS neonates but were more commonly diagnosed in childhood/adulthood (71%). Analysis of HRAS mutations and their respiratory phenotype revealed that the common p.Gly12Ser mutation is more often associated with transient respiratory distress and other respiratory diagnoses. Respiratory failure and dependence on mechanical ventilation occurs almost exclusively with rare mutations. In cases of prenatally diagnosed CS, the high incidence of respiratory complications in the neonatal period should prompt anticipatory guidance and development of a postnatal management plan. This may be important in cases involving rarer mutations. Furthermore, the high frequency of airway obstruction in CS patients suggests that otorhinolaryngological evaluation and sleep studies should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27102959

  17. Pathophysiology and Classification of Respiratory Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Tejpreet Singh; Sharara, Rihab Saeed; Singh, Anil C; Balaan, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory failure is a condition in which the respiratory system fails in one or both of its gas exchange functions. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to intensive care units. It is a result of either lung failure, resulting in hypoxemia, or pump failure, resulting in alveolar hypoventilation and hypercapnia. This article covers the basic lung anatomy, pathophysiology, and classification of respiratory failure. PMID:26919670

  18. Central Neurogenic Respiratory Failure: A Challenging Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Flávio A.; Bernardino, Tenille; Maciel, Ricardo O.H.; Felizola, Sérgio F.A.; Costa, Eduardo L.V.; Silva, Gisele S

    2011-01-01

    Background Central nervous system lesions are rare causes of respiratory failure. Simple observation of the breathing pattern can help localize the lesion, but the examiner needs to be aware of potential pitfalls such as metabolic or pulmonary alterations. Methods We describe 3 cases in which central neurogenic respiratory failure occurred simultaneously with other alterations or in an unusual presentation. Results All patients were diagnosed with central neurogenic respiratory failure and tr...

  19. The respiratory neuromuscular system in Pompe disease☆

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, David D.; Mai K. ElMallah; Barbara K Smith; Corti, Manuela; Lawson, Lee Ann; Falk, Darin J.; Byrne, Barry J

    2013-01-01

    Pompe disease is due to mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase (GAA). Absence of functional GAA typically results in cardiorespiratory failure in the first year; reduced GAA activity is associated with progressive respiratory failure later in life. While skeletal muscle pathology contributes to respiratory insufficiency in Pompe disease, emerging evidence indicates that respiratory neuron dysfunction is also a significant part of dysfunction in motor units. Ani...

  20. Respiratory Distress Syndrome and its Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Eren Kale Cekinmez; Hacer Yapicioglu Yildizdas; Ferda Ozlu

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies is one of the most common and most important health problems in newborns. Respiratory distress syndrome of newborn is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. Respiratory distress syndrome begins shortly after birth and is manifest by tachypnea, tachycardia, chest wall retractions, expiratory grunting, nasal flaring and cyanosis during breathing effor...

  1. Respiratory Dysfunction in Chronic Neck Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitriadis, Zacharias

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic neck pain have a number of factors that could constitute a predisposition for respiratory dysfunction. However, the existing evidence is limited and not well established, and many questions such as the association of neck pain deficits with respiratory function remain unanswered. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with chronic neck have accompanying respiratory dysfunction and which are the neck pain deficits which principally pre...

  2. Live-Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Karron, Ruth A.; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Collins, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Live-attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines offer several advantages for immunization of infants and young children: (1) they do not cause vaccine-associated enhanced RSV disease; (2) they broadly stimulate innate, humoral, and cellular immunity, both systemically and locally in the respiratory tract; (3) they are delivered intranasally; and (4) they replicate in the upper respiratory tract of young infants despite the presence of passively acquired maternally derived RSV neutr...

  3. Henipavirus Pathogenesis in Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Carmical, J. Russ; Prusak, Deborah; Prescott, Joseph; Feldmann, Heinz; Rockx, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are deadly zoonotic viruses for which no vaccines or therapeutics are licensed for human use. Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis. Although the exact route of transmission in human is unknown, epidemiological studies and in vivo studies suggest that the respiratory tract is important for virus replication. However, the target cells in the respiratory tract are unknown, as are the mechanisms by which henipaviruses ca...

  4. Parallel Hierarchical Radiosity for Complex Building Interiors

    OpenAIRE

    Meneveaux, Daniel; Bouatouch, Kadi

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we propose a SPMD parallel hierarchical radiosity algorithm relying on a novel partitioning method which may apply to any kind of architectural scene, not necessarly axial. This algorithm is based on a public domain software called MPI (Message Passing Interface) which allows the use of either a heterogeneous set of concurrent computers or a parallel computer or both. The database is stored on a single disk and accessed by all the processors (through NFS in case of a network of ...

  5. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ray Surveillance Program (CWXSP) Frequently Asked Questions Coal Miner Health Surveillance Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases CWHSP Data Query System CWHSP Public Data Digital Imaging Activity ...

  6. The effect of anxiety on respiratory sensory gating measured by respiratory-related evoked potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Pei-Ying S.; von Leupoldt, Andreas; Bradley, Margaret M.; Lang, Peter J.; Davenport, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory sensory gating is evidenced by decreased amplitudes of the respiratory-related evoked poten-Received 24 September 2011 tials (RREP) N1 peak for the second (S2) compared to the first occlusion (S1) when two paired occlusions Accepted 2 July 2012 are presented with a 500-millisecond (ms) inter-stimulus-interval during one inspiration. Because anxiety is prevalent in respiratory diseases and associated with altered respiratory perception, we tested whether anxiety can modulate indivi...

  7. CASE STUDY OF KRESGE FOUNDATION OFFICE COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    Goins, John

    2011-01-01

    Most building performance evaluations only describe whether a building meets certain criteria. In contrast, this report describes the performance of the Kresge Foundation Complex (Complex) in relation to industry‐standard design and operations performance criteria while examining the appropriateness of these criteria for the Complex and similar high‐performance buildings. More specifically, this study examines the Complex's performance in 20 areas. It also highlights potential flaws in human ...

  8. Case study of Kresge Foundation office complex.

    OpenAIRE

    Goins, John

    2011-01-01

    Most building performance evaluations only describe whether a building meets certain criteria. In contrast, this report describes the performance of the Kresge Foundation Complex (Complex) in relation to industry‐standard design and operations performance criteria while examining the appropriateness of these criteria for the Complex and similar high‐performance buildings. More specifically, this study examines the Complex's performance in 20 areas. It also highlights potential flaws in human ...

  9. [Phytotherapy of respiratory tract diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylka, Wiesława; Witkowska-Banaszczak, Ewa; Studzińska-Sroka, Elzbieta; Matławska, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been used in cough due to their antitussive and expectorant activity. Antitussives act either centrally on the cough center of the brain or peripherally on the cough receptors in the respiratory passages. The antitussive effect of many herbs results from the content of mucilage, which exerts protective and demulcent activity. The activity of expectorant herbs results primarily from their influence on the gastric mucose (saponins and ipec alkaloids). This proves reflex stimulation which leads to an increase in the secretion of bronchial glands. Volatile-oil type expectorant herbs exert a direct stimulatory effect on the bronchial glands by means of local irritation with antibacterial activity. In colds and flu, herbs containing volatile oil can be used; also, volatile oils are ingredients of syrups and liquids as well as external phytomedicines in the form of liniments, ointments, and inhalations. The paper shows the herbs and phytomedicines present on the Polish market used for the treatment of respiratory tract diseases. PMID:23289257

  10. Assessing the health and hygiene performance of apartment buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, AKC; Lau, SSY; Wong, WS; Lung, DPY; Chau, KW; Ho, DCW; Wong, SK; Leung, HF

    2004-01-01

    The recent global outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome has aroused public concern on environmental health and hygiene. Develops a practical assessment scheme for assessing the health and hygiene performance of apartment buildings in Hong Kong. The scheme involves assessing a hierarchy of building factors that have a bearing on environmental qualities, and thus occupants' health. Proposes an index method to integrate the assessment outcomes into a simple and user- friendly performance...

  11. Postperfusion lung syndrome: Respiratory mechanics, respiratory indices and biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postperfusion lung syndrome is rare but lethal. Secondary inflammatory response was the popularly accepted theory for the underlying etiology. Respiratory index (RI and arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen can be reliable indices for the diagnosis of this syndrome as X-ray appearance is always insignificant at the early stage of the onset. Evaluations of extravascular lung water content and pulmonary compliance are also helpful in the definite diagnosis. Multiorgan failure and triple acid-base disturbances that might develop secondary to postperfusion lung syndrome are responsible for the poor prognosis and increased mortality rather than postperfusion lung syndrome itself. Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume (TV and proper positive end-expiratory pressure can be an effective treatment strategy. Use of ulinastatin and propofol may benefit the patients through different mechanisms.

  12. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.

    2010-11-15

    bias was evident. Estimated attributable risk proportions ranged from 8% to 20%. Residential dampness and mold are associated with substantial and statistically significant increases in both respiratory infections and bronchitis. If these associations were confirmed as causal, effective control of dampness and mold in buildings would prevent a substantial proportion of respiratory infections.

  13. Respiratory rate assessment from photoplethysmographic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlen, Walter; Garde, Ainara; Myers, Dorothy; Scheffer, Cornie; Ansermino, J Mark; Dumont, Guy A

    2014-01-01

    We present a study investigating the suitability of a respiratory rate estimation algorithm applied to photoplethysmographic imaging on a mobile phone. The algorithm consists of a cascade of previously developed signal processing methods to detect features and extract respiratory induced variations in photoplethysmogram signals to estimate respiratory rate. With custom-built software on an Android phone (Camera Oximeter), contact photoplethysmographic imaging videos were recorded using the integrated camera from 19 healthy adults breathing spontaneously at respiratory rates between 6 and 40 breaths/min. Capnometry was simultaneously recorded to obtain reference respiratory rates. Two hundred and ninety-eight Camera Oximeter recordings were available for analysis. The algorithm detected 22 recordings with poor photoplethysmogram quality and 46 recordings with insufficient respiratory information. Of the 232 remaining recordings, a root mean square error of 5.9 breaths/min and a median absolute error of 2.3 breaths/min was obtained. The study showed that it is feasible to estimate respiratory rates by placing a finger on a mobile phone camera, but that it becomes increasingly challenging at respiratory rates higher than 20 breaths/min. PMID:25571214

  14. Diagnosing and treating respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierkowski, Daria B

    2016-09-22

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes of respiratory tract illness in children and can lead to significant infection and death. This article discusses the incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis, current treatment, and prevention options to successfully diagnose and treat infections caused by RSV. PMID:27552683

  15. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  16. Abnormal lung lymphatics and respiratory failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, S F; Currie, D C; Sheffield, E A; M. Baxter; Corrin, B.; Evans, T. W.

    1989-01-01

    A 65 year old man presented with respiratory failure, pleural effusions, fine reticulonodular shadowing on a chest radiograph, and severe impairment of carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (transfer factor). Open lung biopsy showed only dilated pleural and subpleural lymphatic channels. Hypoplastic deep pulmonary lymphatics may have led to respiratory failure.

  17. STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARU Trichothecene Mycotoxins and Damp Building-Related Illness: New Insights into a Public Health Enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damp building-related illnesses (DBRI) include a myriad of respiratory, immunologic, and neurologic symptoms that are sometimes etiologically linked to aberrant indoor growth of the toxic black mold, Stachybotrys chartarum. Although supportive evidence for such linkages is limite...

  18. Detection of respiratory pathogens in aerosols from acutely infected pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious agents that cause respiratory disease in pigs include porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine respiratory corona virus (PRCV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. The objective of...

  19. Perioperative modifications of respiratory function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, Michelle

    2012-01-31

    Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control.

  20. The respiratory system in equations

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The book proposes an introduction to the mathematical modeling of the respiratory system. A detailed introduction on the physiological aspects makes it accessible to a large audience without any prior knowledge on the lung. Different levels of description are proposed, from the lumped models with a small number of parameters (Ordinary Differential Equations), up to infinite dimensional models based on Partial Differential Equations. Besides these two types of differential equations, two chapters are dedicated to resistive networks, and to the way they can be used to investigate the dependence of the resistance of the lung upon geometrical characteristics. The theoretical analysis of the various models is provided, together with state-of-the-art techniques to compute approximate solutions, allowing comparisons with experimental measurements. The book contains several exercises, most of which are accessible to advanced undergraduate students.

  1. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases.As células-tronco têm uma infinidade de implicações clínicas no pulmão. Este artigo é uma revisão crítica que inclui estudos clínicos e experimentais advindos do banco de dados do MEDLINE e SciElo nos últimos 10 anos, onde foram destacados os efeitos da terapia celular na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo ou doenças mais crônicas, como fibrose pulmonar e enfisema. Apesar de muitos estudos demonstrarem os efeitos benéficos das células-tronco no desenvolvimento, reparo e remodelamento pulmonar; algumas questões ainda precisam ser respondidas para um melhor entendimento dos mecanismos que controlam a divisão celular e diferenciação, permitindo o uso da terapia celular nas doenças respiratórias.

  2. Respiratory load compensation in uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzmann, H G; Kassabian, J; Naqui, M N; Lavietes, M H

    1981-01-01

    The clinical significance of respiratory-system load-compensation is unknown. We have measured the responses to random presentation of single, elastic inspiratory loads in 36 subjects: 8 normal personnel (N), 9 with obesity (O), 10 with chronic renal failure under hemodialysis (H), 5 with pneumonia (P), and 4 with interstitial lung disease (CILD). We have expressed these responses as: (1) the ratio of elastance (or rigidity) of the system during loaded breathing to the elastance without loading (E'RS/ERS); (2) the ratio of tidal volume (VT) achieved when breathing from an inspiratory load to the VT predicted in the absence of load compensation (VTL/VTP); (3) the ratio of inspiratory flow rates during loaded and unloaded breaths; (4) the ratio of inspiratory time of loaded and unloaded breaths. We found E'RS/ERS in the O, H and P groups less than that of either CILD patients or N controls (F = 6.79; p less than 0.001). Passive elastance (ERS) although greater in groups O and H than in N (F = 3.88; p less than 0.025) did not account for the difference i E'RS in all groups. When expressed as VTL/VTP, the response to a 37-cm H2O/l load for groups H, O and P was less than that for N (F = 5.51; p less than 0.05). Diminished inspiratory time was observed in H, O and P patients when inspiring from this load. In contrast, inspiratory flow did not differ from that of normal subjects. Nerve conduction velocity was slightly reduced or normal in the H patients. Respiratory load compensation is deficient in H, O and P patients. The mechanism, which does not involve peripheral neuropathy, is unclear. PMID:7244394

  3. Impairment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatomas: possible involvement of oxygen free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitier, E; Merad-Boudia, M; Guguen-Guillouzo, C; Defer, N; Ceballos-Picot, I; Leroux, J P; Marsac, C

    1995-07-15

    Alterations in the energy metabolism of cancer cells have been reported for many years. However, the deleterious mechanisms involved in these deficiencies have not yet been clearly proved. The main goal of this study was to decipher the harmful mechanisms responsible for the respiratory chain deficiencies in the course of diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis, where mitochondrial DNA abnormalities had been previously reported. The respiratory activity of freshly isolated hepatoma mitochondria, assessed by oxygen consumption experiments and enzymatic assays, presented a severe complex I deficiency 19 months after DENA treatment, and later on, in addition, a defective complex III activity. Since respiratory complex subunits are encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, we checked whether the respiratory chain defects were due to impaired synthesis processes. The specific immunodetection of complex I failed to show any alterations in the steady-state levels of both nuclear and mitochondrial encoded subunits in the hepatomas. Moreover, in vitro protein synthesis experiments carried out on freshly isolated hepatoma mitochondria did not bring to light any modifications in the synthesis of the mitochondrial subunits of the respiratory complexes, whatever the degree of tumor progression. Finally, Southern blot analysis of mitochondrial DNA did not show any major mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in DENA-induced hepatomas. Because the synthetic processes of respiratory complexes did not seem to be implicated in the respiratory chain impairment, these deficiencies could be partly ascribed to a direct toxic impact of highly reactive molecules on these complexes, thus impairing their function. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is an important generator of noxious, reactive oxygen free radicals such as superoxide and H2O2, which are normally catabolized by powerful antioxidant scavengers. Nineteen months after DENA treatment, a general collapse of

  4. Simulation of respiratory motion during IMRT dose delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. When intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is realised with dynamic multi-leaf collimators (MLC) and given under respiratory motion, dosimetric errors may occur. These errors are a consequence of the dose blurring and the interplay between the organ motion and the leaf motion. In the present study, a model for evaluating these dosimetric effects for patient-specific cases has been developed and tested. Material and methods. In the purpose written software, three dimensional (3D) dose distributions can be calculated both with and without a generated breathing cycle. To validate the presented model and illustrate its application, periodic breathing cycles were generated, where the starting phase was set randomly for each field during the calculations. Respiration in the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI) and left-right (LR) direction was tested and verified. To illustrate the application of the presented model, two 5-fields IMRT plans with different complexity were calculated with a 2 cm peak-to-peak motion in the AP direction for one fraction and for 25 fractions. Results. The results showed that the calculation method is of good accuracy, in particular for IMRT plans consisting of several fields, where 97% of the pixels within the body fulfilled a tolerance set to 4% dose difference and 4 mm distance to agreement (DTA). For the two IMRT plans with different complexity, pronounced respiratory induced dose errors, which increased with increasing complexity, were found for both one fraction and 25 fractions, but due to the random stating phase the interplay effect was considerably reduced for the plans consisting of 25 fractions. This illustrates how the dosimetric effects will vary depending on the dose plan and on the number of fractions investigated. Conclusion. For patient specific cases, the model can with good accuracy calculate 3D dose distributions both with and without respiratory motion, and evaluate the dosimetric effects

  5. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency......This paper deals with the energy consumption of existing owner-occupied detached houses and the question of how they can be energy renovated. Data on the age of the Danish housing stock, and its energy consumption is presented. Research on the potential for energy reductions in the Danish housing...... sector is discussed, and it is shown that there is a huge potential for reductions. It is a well-known problem that even if there are relevant technical means and even if it is economically feasible, the majority of house owners do not energy renovate their homes. This paper intends to address what can...

  6. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review of...... responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put on the...

  7. Evaluation of a single-tube fluorogenic RT-PCR assay for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in clinical samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil; Hägglund, Sara; Larsen, Lars Erik;

    2005-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) causes severe disease in naive cattle of all ages and is a common pathogen in the respiratory disease complex of calves. Simplified methods for rapid BRSV diagnosis would encourage sampling during outbreaks and would consequently lead to an extended...

  8. Building environmental assessment according to BEAS

    OpenAIRE

    Krídlová Burdová, E.; Vilčeková, S.

    2011-01-01

    Building environmental assessment is a specific complex of proceedings oriented towards systematic and objective evaluation of a building’s performance. These processes lead to the design, construction and operation of buildings with respect to criteria for sustainable development. In the recent years the evaluation of building performance in terms of environmental, social and economic aspects is a discussed topic in the Slovak republic. The purposes ...

  9. Adaptive fuzzy logic control for solar buildings

    OpenAIRE

    El-Deen, M. M. G. Naser

    2002-01-01

    Significant progress has been made on maximising passive solar heating loads through the careful selection of glazing, orientation and internal mass within building spaces. Control of space heating in buildings of this type has become a complex problem. Additionally, and in common with most building control applications, there is a need to develop control solutions that permit simple and transparent set up and commissioning procedures. This work concerns the development and testing of an adap...

  10. Functional and histopathological identification of the respiratory failure in a DMSXL transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrica-Adrian Panaite

    2013-05-01

    Acute and chronic respiratory failure is one of the major and potentially life-threatening features in individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1. Despite several clinical demonstrations showing respiratory problems in DM1 patients, the mechanisms are still not completely understood. This study was designed to investigate whether the DMSXL transgenic mouse model for DM1 exhibits respiratory disorders and, if so, to identify the pathological changes underlying these respiratory problems. Using pressure plethysmography, we assessed the breathing function in control mice and DMSXL mice generated after large expansions of the CTG repeat in successive generations of DM1 transgenic mice. Statistical analysis of breathing function measurements revealed a significant decrease in the most relevant respiratory parameters in DMSXL mice, indicating impaired respiratory function. Histological and morphometric analysis showed pathological changes in diaphragmatic muscle of DMSXL mice, characterized by an increase in the percentage of type I muscle fibers, the presence of central nuclei, partial denervation of end-plates (EPs and a significant reduction in their size, shape complexity and density of acetylcholine receptors, all of which reflect a possible breakdown in communication between the diaphragmatic muscles fibers and the nerve terminals. Diaphragm muscle abnormalities were accompanied by an accumulation of mutant DMPK RNA foci in muscle fiber nuclei. Moreover, in DMSXL mice, the unmyelinated phrenic afferents are significantly lower. Also in these mice, significant neuronopathy was not detected in either cervical phrenic motor neurons or brainstem respiratory neurons. Because EPs are involved in the transmission of action potentials and the unmyelinated phrenic afferents exert a modulating influence on the respiratory drive, the pathological alterations affecting these structures might underlie the respiratory impairment detected in DMSXL mice. Understanding

  11. Respiratory and olfactory turbinal size in canid and arctoid carnivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Patrick A; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Pang, Benison; Bird, Deborah; Rowe, Timothy; Curtis, Abigail

    2012-12-01

    Within the nasal cavity of mammals is a complex scaffold of paper-thin bones that function in respiration and olfaction. Known as turbinals, the bones greatly enlarge the surface area available for conditioning inspired air, reducing water loss, and improving olfaction. Given their functional significance, the relative development of turbinal bones might be expected to differ among species with distinct olfactory, thermoregulatory and/or water conservation requirements. Here we explore the surface area of olfactory and respiratory turbinals relative to latitude and diet in terrestrial Caniformia, a group that includes the canid and arctoid carnivorans (mustelids, ursids, procyonids, mephitids, ailurids). Using high-resolution computed tomography x-ray scans, we estimated respiratory and olfactory turbinal surface area and nasal chamber volume from three-dimensional virtual models of skulls. Across the Caniformia, respiratory surface area scaled isometrically with estimates of body size and there was no significant association with climate, as estimated by latitude. Nevertheless, one-on-one comparisons of sister taxa suggest that arctic species may have expanded respiratory turbinals. Olfactory surface area scaled isometrically among arctoids, but showed positive allometry in canids, reflecting the fact that larger canids, all of which are carnivorous, had relatively greater olfactory surface areas. In addition, among the arctoids, large carnivorous species such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and wolverine (Gulo gulo) also displayed enlarged olfactory turbinals. More omnivorous caniform species that feed on substantial quantities of non-vertebrate foods had less expansive olfactory turbinals. Because large carnivorous species hunt widely dispersed prey, an expanded olfactory turbinal surface area may improve a carnivore's ability to detect prey over great distances using olfactory cues. PMID:23035637

  12. The host immune response in respiratory virus infection: balancing virus clearance and immunopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Amy H; Cardani, Amber; Braciale, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    The respiratory tract is constantly exposed to the external environment, and therefore, must be equipped to respond to and eliminate pathogens. Viral clearance and resolution of infection requires a complex, multi-faceted response initiated by resident respiratory tract cells and innate immune cells and ultimately resolved by adaptive immune cells. Although an effective immune response to eliminate viral pathogens is essential, a prolonged or exaggerated response can damage the respiratory tract. Immune-mediated pulmonary damage is manifested clinically in a variety of ways depending on location and extent of injury. Thus, the antiviral immune response represents a balancing act between the elimination of virus and immune-mediated pulmonary injury. In this review, we highlight major components of the host response to acute viral infection and their role in contributing to mitigating respiratory damage. We also briefly describe common clinical manifestations of respiratory viral infection and morphological correlates. The continuing threat posed by pandemic influenza as well as the emergence of novel respiratory viruses also capable of producing severe acute lung injury such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and enterovirus D68, highlights the need for an understanding of the immune mechanisms that contribute to virus elimination and immune-mediated injury. PMID:26965109

  13. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  14. Endothelin involvement in respiratory centre activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, M; Lafortuna, C L; Ciminaghi, B; Mazzola, S; Clement, M G

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate the role of endothelin (ET) in respiratory homeostasis we studied the effects of the ET(A) and ET(B) receptor blocking agent bosentan on respiratory mechanics and control in seven anaesthetised spontaneously breathing pigs, for 180 min after single bolus administration (20 mg/kg i.v.). The results show that the block of ET receptors induced a significant increase in compliance and decrease in resistance of the respiratory system, entailing a significant reduction of diaphragmatic electromyographic activity, without affecting the centroid frequency of the power spectrum. Bosentan administration induced a significant increase in tidal volume (V(T)), accompanied by a significant decrease in respiratory frequency, without any significant change in pulmonary ventilation, CO(2) arterial blood gas pressure or pH. Since the relationship between V(T) and inspiratory time remained substantially constant after bosentan administration, the changes in respiratory pattern appear to be the result of an upward shift in inspiratory off-switch threshold. Both inspiratory and expiratory times during occluded breathing were increased by block of ET receptors, suggesting also a central respiratory neuromodulator effect of ET. In conclusion the present results suggest that the block of ET receptors in spontaneously breathing pigs exerts a role on mechanical properties of the respiratory system as well as on peripheral and central mechanisms of breathing control. PMID:11728166

  15. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, L

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  16. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  17. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  18. Pesticides and respiratory symptoms among farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Neice Müller Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the intensive use of pesticides in agriculture there are few studies assessing the risk of respiratory conditions from this exposure. The study aimed at quantifying the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among farmers and evaluating its relationship with occupational use of pesticides and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,379 farmers from two municipalities of Southern Brazil in 1996. Frequency and type of chemical exposure and pesticide poisoning were recorded for both sexes. All subjects aged 15 years or older with at least 15 weekly hours of agricultural activity were interviewed. An adapted questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society was used for the assessment of respiratory symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out. RESULTS: More than half (55% of interviewees were male. The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 12% and chronic respiratory disease symptoms was 22%. Higher odds ratios for both asthma (OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.07-2.14 and chronic respiratory disease (OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.81 symptoms were found in women. Logistic regression analysis identified associations between many forms of exposure to pesticides and increased respiratory symptoms. Occurrence of pesticide poisoning was associated with higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.04-2.58 and chronic respiratory disease symptoms (OR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.08-2.28. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of causality limitations, the study results provide evidence that farming exposure to pesticides is associated with higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, especially when the exposure is above two days per month.

  19. An integrated bioimpedance—ECG gating technique for respiratory and cardiac motion compensation in cardiac PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivumäki, Tuomas; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Fürst, Sebastian; Loher, Simone; Vauhkonen, Marko; Schwaiger, Markus; Hakulinen, Mikko A.

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory motion may degrade image quality in cardiac PET imaging. Since cardiac PET studies often involve cardiac gating by ECG, a separate respiratory monitoring system is required increasing the logistic complexity of the examination, in case respiratory gating is also needed. Thus, we investigated the simultaneous acquisition of both respiratory and cardiac gating signals using II limb lead mimicking electrode configuration during cardiac PET scans of 11 patients. In addition to conventional static and ECG-gated images, bioimpedance technique was utilized to generate respiratory- and dual-gated images. The ability of the bioimpedance technique to monitor intrathoracic respiratory motion was assessed estimating cardiac displacement between end-inspiration and -expiration. The relevance of dual gating was evaluated in left ventricular volume and myocardial wall thickness measurements. An average 7.6  ±  3.3 mm respiratory motion was observed in the study population. Dual gating showed a small but significant increase (4 ml, p = 0.042) in left ventricular myocardial volume compared to plain cardiac gating. In addition, a thinner myocardial wall was observed in dual-gated images (9.3  ±  1.3 mm) compared to cardiac-gated images (11.3  ±  1.3 mm, p = 0.003). This study shows the feasibility of bioimpedance measurements for dual gating in a clinical setting. The method enables simultaneous acquisition of respiratory and cardiac gating signals using a single device with standard ECG electrodes.

  20. An integrated bioimpedance—ECG gating technique for respiratory and cardiac motion compensation in cardiac PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory motion may degrade image quality in cardiac PET imaging. Since cardiac PET studies often involve cardiac gating by ECG, a separate respiratory monitoring system is required increasing the logistic complexity of the examination, in case respiratory gating is also needed. Thus, we investigated the simultaneous acquisition of both respiratory and cardiac gating signals using II limb lead mimicking electrode configuration during cardiac PET scans of 11 patients. In addition to conventional static and ECG-gated images, bioimpedance technique was utilized to generate respiratory- and dual-gated images. The ability of the bioimpedance technique to monitor intrathoracic respiratory motion was assessed estimating cardiac displacement between end-inspiration and -expiration. The relevance of dual gating was evaluated in left ventricular volume and myocardial wall thickness measurements. An average 7.6  ±  3.3 mm respiratory motion was observed in the study population. Dual gating showed a small but significant increase (4 ml, p = 0.042) in left ventricular myocardial volume compared to plain cardiac gating. In addition, a thinner myocardial wall was observed in dual-gated images (9.3  ±  1.3 mm) compared to cardiac-gated images (11.3  ±  1.3 mm, p = 0.003). This study shows the feasibility of bioimpedance measurements for dual gating in a clinical setting. The method enables simultaneous acquisition of respiratory and cardiac gating signals using a single device with standard ECG electrodes. (paper)

  1. Respiratory Depression Caused by Heroin Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Hakan Cansiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Heroin is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic and heroin abuse is common due to its pleasure-inducing effect. For the last 30 years heroin abuse has become an important worldwide public health problem. Heroin can be administered in many different ways as preferred. Heroin affects many systems including respiratory system, cardiovascular system and particulary the central nervous system. Overdose use of heroin intravenously can be fatal due to respiratory depression. In this letter, we wanted to engage attention to respiratory depression caused by heroin abuse and potential benefits of using naloxone. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 248-250

  2. Respiratory Disease: Diagnostic Approaches in the Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Joanne; Arroyo, Luis G

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of the upper and lower respiratory tract of horses requires strategic selection of possible diagnostic tests based on location of suspected pathologic lesions and purpose of testing and must also include consideration of patient status. This article discusses the various diagnostic modalities that may be applied to the respiratory system of horses under field conditions, indications for use, and aspects of sample collection, handling, and laboratory processing that can impact test results and ultimately a successful diagnosis in cases of respiratory disease. PMID:26037608

  3. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Mannheimia haemolytica Strain 42548 from a Case of Bovine Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Eidam, Christopher; Poehlein, Anja; Brenner Michael, Geovana; Kadlec, Kristina; Liesegang, Heiko; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta; Daniel, Rolf; Sweeney, Michael T.; Murray, Robert W.; Watts, Jeffrey L.; Schwarz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the major bacterial component in the bovine respiratory disease complex, which accounts for considerable economic losses to the cattle industry worldwide. The complete genome sequence of M. haemolytica strain 42548 was determined. It has a size of 2.73 Mb and contains 2,888 genes, including several antibiotic resistance genes.

  5. Hypoglossal motoneurons in newborn mice receive respiratory drive from both sides of the medulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarras-Wahlberg, S; Rekling, J C

    2009-01-01

    fibers from the pre-Bötzinger complex cross in the mid-1/3 of the midline, and that dendrites of hypoglossal motoneurons project into the contralateral XII nucleus. In conclusion, commissural fibers crossing in the mid-1/3 of the midline are required for synchronization of respiratory activity in...

  6. Aerodynamic characteristics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Chul; Schmechel, Detlef; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Reponen, Tiina

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of fungal fragments and to estimate their respiratory deposition. Fragments and spores of three different fungal species ( Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Stachybotrys chartarum) were aerosolized by the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST). An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measured the size distribution in real-time and collected the aerosolized fungal particles simultaneously onto 12 impactor stages in the size range of 0.3-10 μm utilizing water-soluble ZEF-X10 coating of the impaction stages to prevent spore bounce. For S. chartarum, the average concentration of released fungal fragments was 380 particles cm -3, which was about 514 times higher than that of spores. A. versicolor was found to release comparable amount of spores and fragments. Microscopic analysis confirmed that S. chartarum and A. versicolor did not show any significant spore bounce, whereas the size distribution of P. melinii fragments was masked by spore bounce. Respiratory deposition was calculated using a computer-based model, LUDEP 2.07, for an adult male and a 3-month-old infant utilizing the database on the concentration and size distribution of S. chartarum and A. versicolor aerosols measured by the ELPI. Total deposition fractions for fragments and spores were 27-46% and 84-95%, respectively, showing slightly higher values in an infant than in an adult. For S. chartarum, fragments demonstrated 230-250 fold higher respiratory deposition than spores, while the number of deposited fragments and spores of A. versicolor were comparable. It was revealed that the deposition ratio (the number of deposited fragments divided by that of deposited spores) in the lower airways for an infant was 4-5 times higher than that for an adult. As fungal fragments have been shown to contain mycotoxins and antigens, further exposure assessment should include the measurement of fungal fragments for

  7. Impacts of highway traffic exhaust in alpine valleys on the respiratory health in adults: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Künzli Nino; Ragettli Martina S; Schindler Christian; Hazenkamp-von Arx Marianne E; Braun-Fahrländer Charlotte; Liu Lee-Jane S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Most studies having shown respiratory health effects from traffic exhaust were conducted in urban areas with a complex mixture of air pollution sources. This study has investigated the potential impact of traffic exhaust on respiratory symptoms among adults living along a Swiss alpine highway corridor, where traffic exhaust from the respective trans-Alpine highway is the predominate source of air pollution. Methods In summer 2005, we recruited 1839 adults aged 15 to 70 fro...

  8. Candidate genes and pathogenesis investigation for sepsis-related acute respiratory distress syndrome based on gene expression profile

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Min; Yan, Jingjun; He, Xingxing; Zhong, Qiang; Zhan, Chengye; Li, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a potentially devastating form of acute inflammatory lung injury as well as a major cause of acute respiratory failure. Although researchers have made significant progresses in elucidating the pathophysiology of this complex syndrome over the years, the absence of a universal detail disease mechanism up until now has led to a series of practical problems for a definitive treatment. This study aimed to predict some genes or pathways asso...

  9. Acute viral infections with combined involvement of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts in children. Therapy with interferon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondurei, E A; Osidak, L V; Golovacheva, E G; Golovanova, A K; Amosova, I V; Gladchenko, L N

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated the percent of acute respiratory viral infections with gastrointestinal syndrome in the structure of morbidity in babies aging 6 months and elder. Therapeutic efficiency and safety of anaferon (pediatric formuation) as a component of complex therapy of acute respiratory viral infections with involvement of the gastrointestinal tract were proven; more rapid disappearance of all symptoms and improvement of the immune status parameters were demonstrated. PMID:20027348

  10. Government Campuses, Feature class of building footprints of the Rock County Complex. Includes 911 Comm Center, Health Care Center, and Rock Haven., Published in 2005, Rock County Planning, Economic, and Community Development Agency.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Campuses dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as 'Feature class of building footprints of the...

  11. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D 2) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D KY) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data

  12. Chaotic dynamics of respiratory sounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)]. E-mail: christer@imt.liu.se; Johansson, A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hult, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden); Ask, P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoepings Universitet, IMT/LIU, Universitetssjukhuset, S-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Biomedical Engineering, Orebro University Hospital, S-70185 Orebro (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    There is a growing interest in nonlinear analysis of respiratory sounds (RS), but little has been done to justify the use of nonlinear tools on such data. The aim of this paper is to investigate the stationarity, linearity and chaotic dynamics of recorded RS. Two independent data sets from 8 + 8 healthy subjects were recorded and investigated. The first set consisted of lung sounds (LS) recorded with an electronic stethoscope and the other of tracheal sounds (TS) recorded with a contact accelerometer. Recurrence plot analysis revealed that both LS and TS are quasistationary, with the parts corresponding to inspiratory and expiratory flow plateaus being stationary. Surrogate data tests could not provide statistically sufficient evidence regarding the nonlinearity of the data. The null hypothesis could not be rejected in 4 out of 32 LS cases and in 15 out of 32 TS cases. However, the Lyapunov spectra, the correlation dimension (D {sub 2}) and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension (D {sub KY}) all indicate chaotic behavior. The Lyapunov analysis showed that the sum of the exponents was negative in all cases and that the largest exponent was found to be positive. The results are partly ambiguous, but provide some evidence of chaotic dynamics of RS, both concerning LS and TS. The results motivate continuous use of nonlinear tools for analysing RS data.

  13. Sexual intercourse and respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverino, Francesca; Santoriello, Carlo; De Sio, Vittorio; Andò, Filippo; de Blasio, Francesco; Polverino, Mario

    2008-06-01

    Sexual activity is an important component of quality of life in patients suffering from chronic illnesses. To our knowledge, the effects of sexual activity on gas exchange in patients with respiratory failure have not been yet studied. To such an extent, we evaluated the oxygen saturation (SaO2), by a pulse oxymeter, during three different sexual performances in a 63-yr-old patient affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT). The sexual performances were divided in four periods: basal, sex, 10 min after sex and relax. In each performance during sex, we observed a significant increase of either heart rate (HR) or SaO2, with the highest value of the latter achieved within the 10 min of the post-sex period. SaO2 returned to basal value (pre-sex) by the end of the relax period. We conclude that the observed improvement of SaO2 during sexual activity might be due to a better ventilation/perfusion ratio (V/Q) obtained for either an increase of ventilation (hyperventilation) and perfusion (tachycardia), without significant muscle expenditure. PMID:18394872

  14. [Respiratory mechanics in professional flautists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossette, I

    2002-04-01

    Oesophageal, gastric, mouth, transdiaphragmatic, transpulmonary pressures, diaphragmatic EMG, sound and chest wall excursion were measured directly in 3 professional flautists whilst playing their instruments to determine: - what respiratory muscles and percent vital capacity were being used; - how mouth pressure, embouchure resistance, embouchure aperture, airflow and velocity affect sound loudness and frequency. Lung volume was estimated from transpulmonary pressure during playing and the static deflation pressure-volume curve was measured separately; flow was calculated from delta volume/delta time; embouchure resistance was calculated from mouth pressure/flow; velocity was calculated using Bernouilli's equation and mouth pressure. Staccati and sustained tones at different frequency and intensity were performed. Sound loudness was mainly related to airflow whilst sound frequency was determined by velocity. Flow and velocity were independently controlled by mouth pressure and embouchure aperture. Mean mouth pressures varied little from individual to an other (6-11 cm H(2)O) but the flautists used between 72-83% of their vital capacity suggesting inspiratory muscle activity while playing. However, rib cage and abdominal motion were different for each subject. Although different flautists use different strategies to control mouth pressure, their individual mastery of the instrument permits control of airflow and velocity to produce the desired intensity and frequency of sound. PMID:12040320

  15. Building trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Activate' is the energy magazine for secondary schools and is part of the Education Programme which is managed on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum by AEA Technology. activate is the flagship communication device between the British Nuclear Industry Forum's Education Programme and secondary schools in the UK. It was developed from a previous publication, Nuclear Bulletin. There is a need for the nuclear industry to build trust with teachers and students in the UK, where for a long time, everything that the industry has said, written or printed has been disregarded by school teachers as propaganda. Over the last few years the industry has put in a great deal of effort to position itself as a provider of educationally sound and socially acceptable information. 'Activate' was an evolution of this idea and there was a hole in the market for a lively, activity and article based magazine that could be used in the classroom. The target audience is principally teachers of science, mathematics and geography, but also includes teachers of art,, English and history with students of between 11 and 18. The results were very positive in that teachers appreciated the colourful and lively nature of activate and they felt that it provided information and opinions in an un biased and non-propagandist way. Their comments about layout, number of activities style of presentation were taken into account and during the summer of 1994 activate was remodelled ready for re launch in September. The feedback so far is good with more teachers signing up every week to receive their own free copy

  16. RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Milani, M

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants,and also an important factor for hospitalization during the winter months. To determine the prevalence and importance of RSV as a cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection, we carried out a prospective study during 5 months period from November to March 1998 in 6 pediatric hospitals. A nasopharyngeal aspirate was obtained for detection of RSV in all cases. Sociodemographic data, clinic...

  17. Efficient and Cost-effective Estimation of the Influence of Respiratory Variables on Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia

    OpenAIRE

    Egizio, Victoria B.; Eddy, Michael; Robinson, Matthew; Jennings, J. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Researchers are interested in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as an index of cardiac vagal activity. Yet, debate exists about how to account for respiratory influences on quantitative indices of RSA. Ritz and colleagues (2001) developed a within-individual correction procedure by which the effects of respiration on RSA may be estimated using regression models. We replicated their procedure substituting a spectral high-frequency measure of RSA for a time-domain statistic and a respiratory b...

  18. Diagnosis of influenza from lower respiratory tract sampling after negative upper respiratory tract sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Zachary, Kimon C; Hohmann, Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    In this retrospective cohort study, we demonstrate that PCR-confirmed diagnoses of influenza were made solely by lower respiratory sampling in 6.9% of cases, as traditional upper respiratory tract tests were negative, indeterminate or not performed. Clinical features of these cases are presented. Clinicians should consider lower respiratory tract sampling in select cases of influenza-like illness for diagnosis. PMID:23135351

  19. Diagnosis of influenza from lower respiratory tract sampling after negative upper respiratory tract sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I.; Andrews, Jason R.; Zachary, Kimon C.; Hohmann, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    In this retrospective cohort study, we demonstrate that PCR-confirmed diagnoses of influenza were made solely by lower respiratory sampling in 6.9% of cases, as traditional upper respiratory tract tests were negative, indeterminate or not performed. Clinical features of these cases are presented. Clinicians should consider lower respiratory tract sampling in select cases of influenza-like illness for diagnosis. PMID:23135351

  20. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Respiratory Failure Patients: A Respiratory Therapist Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, V.; Giugliano-Jaramillo, C; Pérez, R.; Cerpa, F; Budini, H; Cáceres, D.; Gutiérrez, T.; Molina, J; Keymer, J; Romero-Dapueto, C

    2015-01-01

    Physiotherapist in Chile and Respiratory Therapist worldwide are the professionals who are experts in respiratory care, in mechanical ventilation (MV), pathophysiology and connection and disconnection criteria. They should be experts in every aspect of the acute respiratory failure and its management, they and are the ones who in medical units are able to resolve doubts about ventilation and the setting of the ventilator. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation should be the first-line of treatmen...

  1. Increased fatigue resistance of respiratory muscles during exercise after respiratory muscle endurance training

    OpenAIRE

    Verges, S; Lenherr, O; Haner, A C; Schulz, C.; Spengler, C M

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue develops during exhaustive exercise and can limit exercise performance. Respiratory muscle training, in turn, can increase exercise performance. We investigated whether respiratory muscle endurance training (RMT) reduces exercise-induced inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue. Twenty-one healthy, male volunteers performed twenty 30-min sessions of either normocapnic hyperpnoea (n = 13) or sham training (CON, n = 8) over 4-5 wk. Before and after training, subjects...

  2. Respiratory system impedance from 4 to 40 Hz in paralyzed intubated infants with respiratory disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Dorkin, H L; Stark, A. R.; Werthammer, J W; Strieder, D J; Fredberg, J.J.; Frantz, I D

    1983-01-01

    To describe the mechanical characteristics of the respiratory system in intubated neonates with respiratory disease, we measured impedance and resistance in six paralyzed intubated infants with respiratory distress syndrome, three of whom also had pulmonary interstitial emphysema. We subtracted the effects of the endotracheal tube after showing that such subtraction was valid. Oscillatory flow was generated from 4 to 40 Hz by a loudspeaker, airway pressure was measured, and flow was calculate...

  3. Investigations of respiratory control systems simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The Grodins' respiratory control model was investigated and it was determined that the following modifications were necessary before the model would be adaptable for current research efforts: (1) the controller equation must be modified to allow for integration of the respiratory system model with other physiological systems; (2) the system must be more closely correlated to the salient physiological functionings; (3) the respiratory frequency and the heart rate should be expanded to illustrate other physiological relationships and dependencies; and (4) the model should be adapted to particular individuals through a better defined set of initial parameter values in addition to relating these parameter values to the desired environmental conditions. Several of Milhorn's respiratory control models were also investigated in hopes of using some of their features as modifications for Grodins' model.

  4. Respiratory acoustic impedance in left ventricular failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depeursinge, F B; Feihl, F; Depeursinge, C; Perret, C H

    1989-12-01

    The measurement of respiratory acoustic impedance (Zrs) by forced pseudorandom noise provides a simple means of assessing respiratory mechanics in nonintubated intensive care patients. To characterize the lung mechanical alterations induced by acute vascular congestion of the lung, Zrs was measured in 14 spontaneously breathing patients hospitalized for acute left ventricular failure. The Zrs data in the cardiac patients were compared with those of 48 semirecumbent normal subjects and those of 23 sitting asthmatic patients during allergen-induced bronchospasm. In the patients with acute left ventricular failure, the Zrs abnormalities noted were an excessive frequency dependence of resistance from 10 to 20 Hz and an abnormally low reactance at all frequencies, abnormalities qualitatively similar to those observed in the asthmatic patients but of lesser magnitude. Acute lung vascular congestion modifies the acoustic impedance of the respiratory system. Reflex-induced bronchospasm might be the main mechanism altering respiratory acoustic impedance in acute left ventricular failure. PMID:2582846

  5. Retrotrapezoid nucleus, respiratory chemosensitivity and breathing automaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Fortuna, Michal G.; Abbott, Stephen B.; Depuy, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Breathing automaticity and CO2 regulation are inseparable neural processes. The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a group of glutamatergic neurons that express the transcription factor Phox2b, may be a crucial nodal point through which breathing automaticity is regulated to maintain CO2 constant. This review updates the analysis presented in prior publications. Additional evidence that RTN neurons have central respiratory chemoreceptor properties is presented but this is only one of many factors that determine their activity. The RTN is also regulated by powerful inputs from the carotid bodies and, at least in the adult, by many other synaptic inputs. We also analyze how RTN neurons may control the activity of the downstream central respiratory pattern generator. Specifically, we review the evidence which suggests that RTN neurons a) innervate the entire ventral respiratory column, and b) control both inspiration and expiration. Finally, we argue that the RTN neurons are the adult form of the parafacial respiratory group in neonate rats. PMID:19712903

  6. National prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, R; Andersen, PS; Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; De Monchy, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have assessed the prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders in confined geographical locations. However, no study has yet established nationally prevalence data in a uniform manner representing whole countries and, thus, enabling cross-national comparisons

  7. CAUSES OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Karambin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nThere is a lack of large, prospective epidemiologic studies concerning acute lung injury (ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in pediatric population. To determine the different causes of respiratory distress in children, we prepared a retrospective study and included the whole 567 children with respiratory distress referred to 17-Shahrivar Hospital, Rasht, Guilan. Using their medical files, data including age, sex, and causes of respiratory distress were collected. SPSS 13.0 (statistical software applied for statistical analysis. Pneumonia, asthma, and croup were the major causes of ARDS in children with a rate of 38.4, 19.04, and 16.5 percent, respectively. It seems that infectious factors are at the top of the list of ARDS causing factors which can be helpful to approach and manage such patients. We suggest vaccinating these at risk groups against common infectious factors such as H. Influenza and RSV which can cause either pneumonia or inducing asthma.

  8. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. The first......The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and...

  9. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  10. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mamane; Isabelle Baldi; Jean-François Tessier; Chantal Raherison; Ghislaine Bouvier

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspno...

  11. Clowns Benefit Children Hospitalized for Respiratory Pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Curcio; Elena Isola; Giuseppe Paolone; Mario Bertini

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at evaluating health-generating function of humor therapy in a hospital ward hosting children suffering from respiratory pathologies. The main scope of this study is to investigate possible positive effects of the presence of a clown on both the clinical evolution of the on-going disease, and on some physiological and pain parameters. Forty-three children with respiratory pathologies participated in the study: 21 of them belonged to the experimental group (EG) and 22 children t...

  12. Respiratory Depression Caused by Heroin Use

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir Hakan Cansiz; Gokhan Inangil; Murat Kuyumcu; Ahmet Erturk Yedekci; Huseyin Sen; Sezai Ozkan; Guner Dagli

    2012-01-01

    Summary Heroin is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic and heroin abuse is common due to its pleasure-inducing effect. For the last 30 years heroin abuse has become an important worldwide public health problem. Heroin can be administered in many different ways as preferred. Heroin affects many systems including respiratory system, cardiovascular system and particulary the central nervous system. Overdose use of heroin intravenously can be fatal due to respiratory depression. In this letter, we ...

  13. Respiratory health of cigar factory workers

    OpenAIRE

    Uitti, J; Nordman, H.; Huuskonen, M. S.; Roto, P.; Husman, K.; Reiman, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether occupational exposure to raw tobacco causes respiratory or allergic diseases, an excess of respiratory symptoms, a decrease in lung function, or parenchymal changes in chest radiography among Finnish cigar workers. METHODS: This cross sectional study included all Finnish cigar workers (n = 106) exposed to raw tobacco and also a group of unexposed matched referents. Data were collected with a self administered questionnaire, flow volume spirometry, measur...

  14. Respiratory System Model Take into Account Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    He Zhonghai; Ma Zhenhe

    2013-01-01

    In this study, nonlinear phenomenon of respiratory system is analyzed. Airway is partitioned into four parts by different morphology which causes different fluid dynamic character. Reasons that cause nonlinear phenomenon for different parts are given. To simplify the representation, corresponding parameters are selected to compromise the complicity and precision. Then, the suggested representation of respiratory system is summarized so that the model can be used easily in lung simulator.

  15. Effects of Pleural Effusion on Respiratory Function

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrouska, I; M Klimathianaki; NM Siafakas

    2004-01-01

    The accumulation of pleural effusion has important effects on respiratory system function. It changes the elastic equilibrium volumes of the lung and chest wall, resulting in a restrictive ventilatory effect, chest wall expansion and reduced efficiency of the inspiratory muscles. The magnitude of these alterations depends on the pleural fluid volume and the underlying disease of the respiratory system. The decrease in lung volume is associated with hypoxemia mainly due to an increase in right...

  16. Emergency thyroidectomy: Due to acute respiratory failure

    OpenAIRE

    Zulfu Bayhan; Sezgin Zeren; Bercis Imge Ucar; Isa Ozbay; Yalcin Sonmez; Metin Mestan; Onur Balaban; Nilufer Araz Bayhan; Mehmet Fatih Ekici

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Giant cervical and mediastinal goiter may lead to acute respiratory failure caused by laryngotracheal compression and airway obstruction. Here, we present a case admitted to the emergency service with a giant goiter along with respiratory failure and poor general health status, which required urgent surgical intervention. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 71-year-old female admitted to the emergency room with shortness of breath and poor general health status resulting from a giant cer...

  17. Airway Reflux, Cough and Respiratory Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneux, Ian D.; Morice, Alyn H.

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly accepted that the effects of gastro-oesophageal reflux are not limited to the gastrointestinal tract. The adjacent respiratory structures are also at risk from material ejected from the proximal oesophagus as a result of the failure of anatomical and physiological barriers. There is evidence of the influence of reflux on several respiratory and otorhinological conditions and although in many cases the precise mechanism has yet to be elucidated, the association alone opens p...

  18. Degeneracy as a Substrate for Respiratory Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mellen, Nicholas M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in vivo and in vitro suggest that both respiratory rhythmogenesis and its central chemosensory modulation arise from multiple, mechanistically and/or anatomically distinct networks whose outputs are similar. These observations are consistent with degeneracy, defined as the ability of structurally distinct elements to generate similar function. This review argues that degeneracy is an essential feature of respiratory networks, ensuring the survival of the individual organism ove...

  19. Amyloid myopathy presenting with respiratory failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Ashe, J.; Borel, C O; Hart, G.; Humphrey, R L; Derrick, D A; Kuncl, R W

    1992-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a rare cause of myopathy. Its prominent or presenting feature may be respiratory failure. Physiological measurement of transdiaphragmatic pressure and biopsy specimens of muscle show the pathological mechanism to be diaphragm weakness due to amyloid infiltration of the diaphragm rather than parenchymal lung involvement. Thus amyloid myopathy even without the typical macroglossia and muscle pseudohypertrophy should be considered as one of the neurological causes of respiratory f...

  20. Treatment of respiratory failure in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Budweiser

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Budweiser1, Rudolf A Jörres2, Michael Pfeifer1,31Center for Pneumology, Hospital Donaustauf, Donaustauf, Germany; 2Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Respirology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, GermanyAbstract: Patients with advanced COPD and acute or chronic respiratory failure are at high risk for death. Beyond pharmacological treatment, supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation are major treatment options. This review describes the physiological concepts underlying respiratory failure and its therapy, as well as important treatment outcomes. The rationale for the controlled supply of oxygen in acute hypoxic respiratory failure is undisputed. There is also a clear survival benefit from long-term oxygen therapy in patients with chronic hypoxia, while in mild, nocturnal, or exercise-induced hypoxemia such long-term benefits appear questionable. Furthermore, much evidence supports the use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. It application reduces intubation and mortality rates, and the duration of intensive care unit or hospital stays, particularly in the presence of mild to moderate respiratory acidosis. COPD with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure became a major indication for domiciliary mechanical ventilation, based on pathophysiological reasoning and on data regarding symptoms and quality of life. Still, however, its relevance for long-term survival has to be substantiated in prospective controlled studies. Such studies might preferentially recruit patients with repeated hypercapnic decompensation or a high risk for death, while ensuring effective ventilation and the patients’ adherence to therapy.Keywords: respiratory failure, COPD, mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation long-term oxygen therapy, chronic