Sample records for building complex respiratory

  1. Brownie, a gene involved in building complex respiratory devices in insect eggshells.

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    Paula Irles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insect eggshells must combine protection for the yolk and embryo with provisions for respiration and for the entry of sperm, which are ensured by aeropyles and micropyles, respectively. Insects which oviposit the eggs in an egg-case have a double problem of respiration as gas exchange then involves two barriers. An example of this situation is found in the cockroach Blattella germanica, where the aeropyle and the micropyle are combined in a complex structure called the sponge-like body. The sponge-like body has been well described morphologically, but nothing is known about how it is built up. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a library designed to find genes expressed during late chorion formation in B. germanica, we isolated the novel sequence Bg30009 (now called Brownie, which was outstanding due to its high copy number. In the present work, we show that Brownie is expressed in the follicle cells localized in the anterior pole of the oocyte in late choriogenesis. RNA interference (RNAi of Brownie impaired correct formation of the sponge-like body and, as a result, the egg-case was also ill-formed and the eggs were not viable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results indicate that the novel gene Brownie plays a pivotal role in building up the sponge-like body. Brownie is the first reported gene involved in the construction of complex eggshell respiratory structures.

  2. Brownie, a Gene Involved in Building Complex Respiratory Devices in Insect Eggshells



    [Background]: Insect eggshells must combine protection for the yolk and embryo with provisions for respiration and for the entry of sperm, which are ensured by aeropyles and micropyles, respectively. Insects which oviposit the eggs in an egg-case have a double problem of respiration as gas exchange then involves two barriers. An example of this situation is found in the cockroach Blattella germanica, where the aeropyle and the micropyle are combined in a complex structure called the ...

  3. Structure of bacterial respiratory complex I. (United States)

    Berrisford, John M; Baradaran, Rozbeh; Sazanov, Leonid A


    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) plays a central role in cellular energy production, coupling electron transfer between NADH and quinone to proton translocation. It is the largest protein assembly of respiratory chains and one of the most elaborate redox membrane proteins known. Bacterial enzyme is about half the size of mitochondrial and thus provides its important "minimal" model. Dysfunction of mitochondrial complex I is implicated in many human neurodegenerative diseases. The L-shaped complex consists of a hydrophilic arm, where electron transfer occurs, and a membrane arm, where proton translocation takes place. We have solved the crystal structures of the hydrophilic domain of complex I from Thermus thermophilus, the membrane domain from Escherichia coli and recently of the intact, entire complex I from T. thermophilus (536 kDa, 16 subunits, 9 iron-sulphur clusters, 64 transmembrane helices). The 95Å long electron transfer pathway through the enzyme proceeds from the primary electron acceptor flavin mononucleotide through seven conserved Fe-S clusters to the unusual elongated quinone-binding site at the interface with the membrane domain. Four putative proton translocation channels are found in the membrane domain, all linked by the central flexible axis containing charged residues. The redox energy of electron transfer is coupled to proton translocation by the as yet undefined mechanism proposed to involve long-range conformational changes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  4. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

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    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.


    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  5. Investigating the complexity of respiratory patterns during the laryngeal chemoreflex

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    Curran Aidan K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The laryngeal chemoreflex exists in infants as a primary sensory mechanism for defending the airway from the aspiration of liquids. Previous studies have hypothesized that prolonged apnea associated with this reflex may be life threatening and might be a cause of sudden infant death syndrome. Methods In this study we quantified the output of the respiratory neural network, the diaphragm EMG signal, during the laryngeal chemoreflex and eupnea in early postnatal (3–10 days piglets. We tested the hypothesis that diaphragm EMG activity corresponding to reflex-related events involved in clearance (restorative mechanisms such as cough and swallow exhibit lower complexity, suggesting that a synchronized homogeneous group of neurons in the central respiratory network are active during these events. Nonlinear dynamic analysis was performed using the approximate entropy to asses the complexity of respiratory patterns. Results Diaphragm EMG, genioglossal activity EMG, as well as other physiological signals (tracheal pressure, blood pressure and respiratory volume were recorded from 5 unanesthetized chronically instrumented intact piglets. Approximate entropy values of the EMG during cough and swallow were found significantly (p p Conclusion Reduced complexity values of the respiratory neural network output corresponding to coughs and swallows suggest synchronous neural activity of a homogeneous group of neurons. The higher complexity values exhibited by eupneic respiratory activity are the result of a more random behaviour, which is the outcome of the integrated action of several groups of neurons involved in the respiratory neural network.

  6. Biogenesis of membrane bound respiratory complexes in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, Claire E.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.


    Escherichia colt is one of the preferred bacteria for studies on the energetics and regulation of respiration Respiratory chains consist of primary dehydrogenases and terminal reductases or oxidases linked by quinones. In order to assemble this complex arrangement of protein complexes, synthesis of

  7. Architecture of mammalian respiratory complex I. (United States)

    Vinothkumar, Kutti R; Zhu, Jiapeng; Hirst, Judy


    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is essential for oxidative phosphorylation in mammalian mitochondria. It couples electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone with proton translocation across the energy-transducing inner membrane, providing electrons for respiration and driving ATP synthesis. Mammalian complex I contains 44 different nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded subunits, with a combined mass of 1 MDa. The 14 conserved 'core' subunits have been structurally defined in the minimal, bacterial complex, but the structures and arrangement of the 30 'supernumerary' subunits are unknown. Here we describe a 5 Å resolution structure of complex I from Bos taurus heart mitochondria, a close relative of the human enzyme, determined by single-particle electron cryo-microscopy. We present the structures of the mammalian core subunits that contain eight iron-sulphur clusters and 60 transmembrane helices, identify 18 supernumerary transmembrane helices, and assign and model 14 supernumerary subunits. Thus, we considerably advance knowledge of the structure of mammalian complex I and the architecture of its supernumerary ensemble around the core domains. Our structure provides insights into the roles of the supernumerary subunits in regulation, assembly and homeostasis, and a basis for understanding the effects of mutations that cause a diverse range of human diseases.

  8. Deficiency of respiratory chain complex I in Hashimoto thyroiditis. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Franz A; Neureiter, Daniel; Feichtinger, René G; Trost, Andrea; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara; Mayr, Johannes A


    Oncocytic cells (OCs) are characterized by an accumulation of mitochondria and their occurrence in the thyroid gland of patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is well known. However, their properties and functional relevance are poorly understood. We investigated OC lesions (n=212) in the thyroid of 12 HT patients. Loss of complex I protein was observed in oncocytic lesions of each of the patients. In addition to isolated complex I deficiency, 25% of oncocytic lesions showed combined deficiency of complex I and IV. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time a defect of respiratory chain complex I in OCs of HT patients.

  9. Current topics on inhibitors of respiratory complex I. (United States)

    Murai, Masatoshi; Miyoshi, Hideto


    There are a variety of chemicals which regulate the functions of bacterial and mitochondrial complex I. Some of them, such as rotenone and piericidin A, have been indispensable molecular tools in mechanistic studies on complex I. A large amount of experimental data characterizing the actions of complex I inhibitors has been accumulated so far. Recent X-ray crystallographic structural models of entire complex I may be helpful to carefully interpret this data. We herein focused on recent hot topics on complex I inhibitors and the subjects closely connected to these inhibitors, which may provide useful information not only on the structural and functional aspects of complex I, but also on drug design targeting this enzyme. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt.

  10. Perceptions of Building-layout Complexity


    Dalton, Ruth; Wilbertz, Gregor; Hoelscher, Christoph


    This poster presents an experiment on judgments of design\\ud complexity, based on two modes of stimuli: the layouts of corridor systems in buildings shown in plan view and movies of simulated walkthroughs. Randomly selected stimuli were presented to 166 subjects: ‘experts’ (architects or students currently enrolled on an architectural course) and ‘lay people’ (all others). The aims were to investigate whether there were differences between these two groups in terms of their judgments of build...

  11. Aerosol phage therapy efficacy in Burkholderia cepacia complex respiratory infections. (United States)

    Semler, Diana D; Goudie, Amanda D; Finlay, Warren H; Dennis, Jonathan J


    Phage therapy has been suggested as a potential treatment for highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as the species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC). To address this hypothesis, experimental B. cenocepacia respiratory infections were established in mice using a nebulizer and a nose-only inhalation device. Following infection, the mice were treated with one of five B. cenocepacia-specific phages delivered as either an aerosol or intraperitoneal injection. The bacterial and phage titers within the lungs were assayed 2 days after treatment, and mice that received the aerosolized phage therapy demonstrated significant decreases in bacterial loads. Differences in phage activity were observed in vivo. Mice that received phage treatment by intraperitoneal injection did not demonstrate significantly reduced bacterial loads, although phage particles were isolated from their lung tissue. Based on these data, aerosol phage therapy appears to be an effective method for treating highly antibiotic-resistant bacterial respiratory infections, including those caused by BCC bacteria.

  12. Exploring the ubiquinone binding cavity of respiratory complex I. (United States)

    Tocilescu, Maja A; Fendel, Uta; Zwicker, Klaus; Kerscher, Stefan; Brandt, Ulrich


    Proton pumping respiratory complex I is a major player in mitochondrial energy conversion. Yet little is known about the molecular mechanism of this large membrane protein complex. Understanding the details of ubiquinone reduction will be prerequisite for elucidating this mechanism. Based on a recently published partial structure of the bacterial enzyme, we scanned the proposed ubiquinone binding cavity of complex I by site-directed mutagenesis in the strictly aerobic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The observed changes in catalytic activity and inhibitor sensitivity followed a consistent pattern and allowed us to define three functionally important regions near the ubiquinone-reducing iron-sulfur cluster N2. We identified a likely entry path for the substrate ubiquinone and defined a region involved in inhibitor binding within the cavity. Finally, we were able to highlight a functionally critical structural motif in the active site that consisted of Tyr-144 in the 49-kDa subunit, surrounded by three conserved hydrophobic residues.

  13. Exploring the inhibitor binding pocket of respiratory complex I. (United States)

    Fendel, Uta; Tocilescu, Maja A; Kerscher, Stefan; Brandt, Ulrich


    Numerous hydrophobic and amphipathic compounds including several detergents are known to inhibit the ubiquinone reductase reaction of respiratory chain complex I (proton pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase). Guided by the X-ray structure of the peripheral arm of complex I from Thermus thermophilus we have generated a large collection of site-directed mutants in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica targeting the proposed ubiquinone and inhibitor binding pocket of this huge multiprotein complex at the interface of the 49-kDa and PSST subunits. We could identify a number of residues where mutations changed I(50) values for representatives from all three groups of hydrophobic inhibitors. Many mutations around the domain of the 49-kDa subunit that is homologous to the [NiFe] centre binding region of hydrogenase conferred resistance to DQA (class I/type A) and rotenone (class II/type B) indicating a wider overlap of the binding sites for these two types of inhibitors. In contrast, a region near iron-sulfur cluster N2, where the binding of the n-alkyl-polyoxyethylene-ether detergent C(12)E(8) (type C) was exclusively affected, appeared comparably well separated. Taken together, our data provide structure-based support for the presence of distinct but overlapping binding sites for hydrophobic inhibitors possibly extending into the ubiquinone reduction site of mitochondrial complex I.

  14. An Investigation of the Pathology and Pathogens Associated with Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Jensen, H. E.;


    Respiratory infections are among the most important diseases of growing pigs. In order to elucidate the multifactorial aetiology of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in Denmark, lungs from 148 finishing pigs with cranioventral bronchopneumonia (case group) and 60 pigs without lung lesions......), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (both European and US type), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine respiratory coronavirus, porcine cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. All cases had cranioventral lobular bronchopneumonia consistent with PRDC...

  15. Significance of respirasomes for the assembly/stability of human respiratory chain complex I. (United States)

    Schägger, Hermann; de Coo, René; Bauer, Matthias F; Hofmann, Sabine; Godinot, Catherine; Brandt, Ulrich


    We showed that the human respiratory chain is organized in supramolecular assemblies of respiratory chain complexes, the respirasomes. The mitochondrial complexes I (NADH dehydrogenase) and III (cytochrome c reductase) form a stable core respirasome to which complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) can also bind. An analysis of the state of respirasomes in patients with an isolated deficiency of single complexes provided evidence that the formation of respirasomes is essential for the assembly/stability of complex I, the major entry point of respiratory chain substrates. Genetic alterations leading to a loss of complex III prevented respirasome formation and led to the secondary loss of complex I. Therefore, primary complex III assembly deficiencies presented as combined complex III/I defects. This dependence of complex I assembly/stability on respirasome formation has important implications for the diagnosis of mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders.

  16. Inhibition of respiratory complex I by copper(ii)-bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes. (United States)

    Djoko, Karrera Y; Donnelly, Paul S; McEwan, Alastair G


    Several copper(ii) complexes of bis(thiosemicarbazones) [Cu(btsc)s] show promise as therapeutics for the treatment of neurological diseases, cancers and bacterial infections. These complexes are thought to act primarily as copper ionophores or "copper boosting" agents, whereby the Cu(II) centre is reduced by cytosolic reductants and Cu(I) is released as "free" or "bioavailable" ion. It is then assumed that the dissociated Cu(I) ion is the species responsible for many of the observed biological effects of Cu(btsc)s. We recently showed that Cu(btsc) complexes inhibited NADH dehydrogenases in the bacterial respiratory chain. In this work, we demonstrate that Cu(btsc) complexes also inhibit mitochondrial respiration and that Complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain is a specific target of inhibition. However, bioavailable Cu ions do not appear to contribute to the action of Cu(btsc) as a respiratory inhibitor. Instead, an intact Cu(btsc) molecule may bind reversibly and competitively to the site of ubiquinone binding in Complex I. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that the intact complex may be important in the overall cellular activity of Cu(btsc) complexes and further the understanding of their biological effects as a potential therapeutic.

  17. Low RF Complexity Photonically Enabled Indoor and Building-to-Building W-Band Wireless Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Cavalcante, Lucas Costa Pereira; Vegas Olmos, Juan José;


    We demonstrate W-band wireless transmission over distances covering both indoor and building-to-building scenarios with a setup of reduced complexity in the RF domain, employing a passive wireless transmitter and envelope detection at the receiver......We demonstrate W-band wireless transmission over distances covering both indoor and building-to-building scenarios with a setup of reduced complexity in the RF domain, employing a passive wireless transmitter and envelope detection at the receiver...

  18. The building blocks of economic complexity. (United States)

    Hidalgo, César A; Hausmann, Ricardo


    For Adam Smith, wealth was related to the division of labor. As people and firms specialize in different activities, economic efficiency increases, suggesting that development is associated with an increase in the number of individual activities and with the complexity that emerges from the interactions between them. Here we develop a view of economic growth and development that gives a central role to the complexity of a country's economy by interpreting trade data as a bipartite network in which countries are connected to the products they export, and show that it is possible to quantify the complexity of a country's economy by characterizing the structure of this network. Furthermore, we show that the measures of complexity we derive are correlated with a country's level of income, and that deviations from this relationship are predictive of future growth. This suggests that countries tend to converge to the level of income dictated by the complexity of their productive structures, indicating that development efforts should focus on generating the conditions that would allow complexity to emerge to generate sustained growth and prosperity.

  19. The building blocks of economic complexity (United States)

    Hidalgo, César A.; Hausmann, Ricardo


    For Adam Smith, wealth was related to the division of labor. As people and firms specialize in different activities, economic efficiency increases, suggesting that development is associated with an increase in the number of individual activities and with the complexity that emerges from the interactions between them. Here we develop a view of economic growth and development that gives a central role to the complexity of a country's economy by interpreting trade data as a bipartite network in which countries are connected to the products they export, and show that it is possible to quantify the complexity of a country's economy by characterizing the structure of this network. Furthermore, we show that the measures of complexity we derive are correlated with a country's level of income, and that deviations from this relationship are predictive of future growth. This suggests that countries tend to converge to the level of income dictated by the complexity of their productive structures, indicating that development efforts should focus on generating the conditions that would allow complexity to emerge to generate sustained growth and prosperity. PMID:19549871

  20. Inhibitory activity of lipid fractions myobacterium avium complex against macrophage respiratory burst


    Shimizu, Toshiaki; 冨岡, 治明


    To explore possible mechanisms of the resistance of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) intracellular parasites to the antimicrobial activity of macrophages (MΦs), effects of the lipid components of these parasites on the MΦ respiratory burst were investigated. In this study, the MΦ respiratory burst was measured by luminoldependent chemiluminescence generated through the peroxidase-mediated halogenation reaction in murine peritoneal MΦs in response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) triggering...

  1. The Ins and Outs of Breath Holding: Simple Demonstrations of Complex Respiratory Physiology (United States)

    Skow, Rachel J.; Day, Trevor A.; Fuller, Jonathan E.; Bruce, Christina D.; Steinback, Craig D.


    The physiology of breath holding is complex, and voluntary breath-hold duration is affected by many factors, including practice, psychology, respiratory chemoreflexes, and lung stretch. In this activity, we outline a number of simple laboratory activities or classroom demonstrations that illustrate the complexity of the integrative physiology…

  2. Internal switches modulating electron tunneling currents in respiratory complex III. (United States)

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A


    In different X-ray crystal structures of bc1 complex, some of the key residues of electron tunneling pathways are observed in different conformations; here we examine their relative importance in modulating electron transfer and propose their possible gating function in the Q-cycle. The study includes inter-monomeric electron transfer; here we provide atomistic details of the reaction, and discuss the possible roles of inter-monomeric electronic communication in bc(1) complex. Binding of natural ligands or inhibitors leads to local conformational changes which propagate through protein and control the conformation of key residues involved in the electron tunneling pathways. Aromatic-aromatic interactions are highly utilized in the communication network since the key residues are aromatic in nature. The calculations show that there is a substantial change of the electron transfer rates between different redox pairs depending on the different conformations acquired by the key residues of the complex.

  3. Effects of mitochondrial complex III disruption in the respiratory chain of Neurospora crassa. (United States)

    Duarte, Margarida; Videira, Arnaldo


    In mitochondria from most organisms, including Neurospora crassa, dimeric complex III was found associated with complex I. Additional association of complex IV with this core structure leads to the formation of a respirasome. It was recently described for bacteria and mammals that complex III is needed for the assembly/stability of complex I. To elucidate the role of complex III in the organization of the respiratory chain of N. crassa, we analysed strains devoid of either the Rieske iron-sulphur or the COREII polypeptide subunits. The mutants display reduced growth, are female sterile and lack active complex III. The supramolecular organization of the oxidative phosphorylation system was characterized by electrophoretic analyses and the efficiency of the respiratory chain analysed by oxygen consumption measurements. The results obtained indicate that absence of complex III activity is not associated with the absence of complex I or complex IV, and leads to the induction of alternative oxidase. Complex III mutant mitochondria are devoid of respirasomes but contain significant amounts of dimeric complex I (I(2)) and of the supercomplex I(1)IV(1). Moreso, for the first time the alternative oxidase was found associated with dimeric complex IV and with supercomplex I(1)IV(1).

  4. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations and environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory building related symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, Christine A.; Apte, Michael G.


    Using the US EPA 100 office-building BASE Study dataset, they conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the relationship between indoor CO{sub 2} concentrations (dCO{sub 2}) and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (LResp) building related symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. In addition, they tested the hypothesis that certain environmentally-mediated health conditions (e.g., allergies and asthma) confer increased susceptibility to building related symptoms within office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependent associations (p < 0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100 ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average, reduce the prevalence of several building related symptoms by up to 70%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. Building occupants with certain environmentally-mediated health conditions are more likely to experience building related symptoms than those without these conditions (statistically significant ORs ranged from 2 to 11).

  5. Assembly of respiratory complexes I, III, and IV into NADH oxidase supercomplex stabilizes complex I in Paracoccus denitrificans. (United States)

    Stroh, Anke; Anderka, Oliver; Pfeiffer, Kathy; Yagi, Takao; Finel, Moshe; Ludwig, Bernd; Schägger, Hermann


    Stable supercomplexes of bacterial respiratory chain complexes III (ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase) and IV (cytochrome c oxidase) have been isolated as early as 1985 (Berry, E. A., and Trumpower, B. L. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 2458-2467). However, these assemblies did not comprise complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase). Using the mild detergent digitonin for solubilization of Paracoccus denitrificans membranes we could isolate NADH oxidase, assembled from complexes I, III, and IV in a 1:4:4 stoichiometry. This is the first chromatographic isolation of a complete "respirasome." Inactivation of the gene for tightly bound cytochrome c552 did not prevent formation of this supercomplex, indicating that this electron carrier protein is not essential for structurally linking complexes III and IV. Complex I activity was also found in the membranes of mutant strains lacking complexes III or IV. However, no assembled complex I but only dissociated subunits were observed following the same protocols used for electrophoretic separation or chromatographic isolation of the supercomplex from the wild-type strain. This indicates that the P. denitrificans complex I is stabilized by assembly into the NADH oxidase supercomplex. In addition to substrate channeling, structural stabilization of a membrane protein complex thus appears as one of the major functions of respiratory chain supercomplexes.

  6. An Agent Based Software Approach towards Building Complex Systems

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    Latika Kharb


    Full Text Available Agent-oriented techniques represent an exciting new means of analyzing, designing and building complex software systems. They have the potential to significantly improve current practice in software engineering and to extend the range of applications that can feasibly be tackled. Yet, to date, there have been few serious attempts to cast agent systems as a software engineering paradigm. This paper seeks to rectify this omission. Specifically, points to be argued include:firstly, the conceptual apparatus of agent-oriented systems is well-suited to building software solutions for complex systems and secondly, agent-oriented approaches represent a genuine advance over the current state of the art for engineering complex systems. Following on from this view, the major issues raised by adopting an agentoriented approach to software engineering are highlighted and discussed in this paper.

  7. Low-complexity Wireless Monitoring of Respiratory Movements Using Ultra-wideband Impulse Response Estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Sana, Furrukh


    In this paper; we present a comprehensive scheme for wireless monitoring of the respiratory movements in humans. Our scheme overcomes the challenges low signal-to-noise ratio, background clutter and high sampling rates. It is based on the estimation of the ultra-wideband channel impulse response. We suggest techniques for dealing with background clutter in situations when it might be time variant. We also present a novel methodology for reducing the required sampling rate of the system significantly while achieving the accuracy offered by the Nyquist rate. Performance results from simulations conducted with pre-recorded respiratory signals demonstrate the robustness of our scheme for tackling the above challenges and providing a low-complexity solution for the monitoring of respiratory movements.

  8. A Comprehensive Genomic Analysis Reveals the Genetic Landscape of Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex Deficiencies.

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    Masakazu Kohda


    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders have the highest incidence among congenital metabolic disorders characterized by biochemical respiratory chain complex deficiencies. It occurs at a rate of 1 in 5,000 births, and has phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Mutations in about 1,500 nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins may cause mitochondrial dysfunction of energy production and mitochondrial disorders. More than 250 genes that cause mitochondrial disorders have been reported to date. However exact genetic diagnosis for patients still remained largely unknown. To reveal this heterogeneity, we performed comprehensive genomic analyses for 142 patients with childhood-onset mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies. The approach includes whole mtDNA and exome analyses using high-throughput sequencing, and chromosomal aberration analyses using high-density oligonucleotide arrays. We identified 37 novel mutations in known mitochondrial disease genes and 3 mitochondria-related genes (MRPS23, QRSL1, and PNPLA4 as novel causative genes. We also identified 2 genes known to cause monogenic diseases (MECP2 and TNNI3 and 3 chromosomal aberrations (6q24.3-q25.1, 17p12, and 22q11.21 as causes in this cohort. Our approaches enhance the ability to identify pathogenic gene mutations in patients with biochemically defined mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies in clinical settings. They also underscore clinical and genetic heterogeneity and will improve patient care of this complex disorder.

  9. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee


    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens.

  10. Modulation of respiratory frequency by peptidergic input to rhythmogenic neurons in the preBötzinger complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, P A; Rekling, J C; Bocchiaro, C M;


    Neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) and mu-opioid receptor (muOR) agonists affected respiratory rhythm when injected directly into the preBötzinger Complex (preBötC), the hypothesized site for respiratory rhythmogenesis in mammals. These effects were mediated by actions on preBötC rhythmogenic neurons...

  11. The gross structure of the respiratory complex I: a Lego System. (United States)

    Friedrich, Thorsten; Böttcher, Bettina


    The proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, also called complex I, is the entry point for electrons into the respiratory chains of many bacteria and mitochondria of most eucaryotes. It couples electron transfer with the translocation of protons across the membrane, thus providing the proton motive force essential for energy-consuming processes. Electron microscopy revealed the 'L'-shaped structure of the bacterial and mitochondrial complex with two arms arranged perpendicular to each other. Recently, we showed that the Escherichia coli complex I takes on another stable conformation with the two arms arranged side by side resulting in a horseshoe-shaped structure. This model reflects the evolution of complex I from pre-existing modules for electron transfer and proton translocation.

  12. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (United States)

    Gershwin, Laurel J.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.; Anderson, Mark L.; McEligot, Heather A.; Toaff-Rosenstein, Rachel; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Neibergs, Holly L.; Womack, James


    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus), which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described. PMID:26571015

  13. Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex.

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    Laurel J Gershwin

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cattle; costing the dairy and beef industries millions of dollars annually, despite the use of vaccines and antibiotics. BRDC is caused by one or more of several viruses (bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpes type 1 also known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, which predispose animals to infection with one or more bacteria. These include: Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, and Histophilus somni. Some cattle appear to be more resistant to BRDC than others. We hypothesize that appropriate immune responses to these pathogens are subject to genetic control. To determine which genes are involved in the immune response to each of these pathogens it was first necessary to experimentally induce infection separately with each pathogen to document clinical and pathological responses in animals from which tissues were harvested for subsequent RNA sequencing. Herein these infections and animal responses are described.

  14. Cryo-EM structure of respiratory complex I reveals a link to mitochondrial sulfur metabolism. (United States)

    D'Imprima, Edoardo; Mills, Deryck J; Parey, Kristian; Brandt, Ulrich; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Zickermann, Volker; Vonck, Janet


    Mitochondrial complex I is a 1MDa membrane protein complex with a central role in aerobic energy metabolism. The bioenergetic core functions are executed by 14 central subunits that are conserved from bacteria to man. Despite recent progress in structure determination, our understanding of the function of the ~30 accessory subunits associated with the mitochondrial complex is still limited. We have investigated the structure of complex I from the aerobic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica by cryo-electron microscopy. Our density map at 7.9Å resolution closely matches the 3.6-3.9Å X-ray structure of the Yarrowia lipolytica complex. However, the cryo-EM map indicated an additional subunit on the side of the matrix arm above the membrane surface, pointing away from the membrane arm. The density, which is not present in any previously described complex I structure and occurs in about 20 % of the particles, was identified as the accessory sulfur transferase subunit ST1. The Yarrowia lipolytica complex I preparation is active in generating H2S from the cysteine derivative 3-mercaptopyruvate, catalyzed by ST1. We thus provide evidence for a link between respiratory complex I and mitochondrial sulfur metabolism.

  15. Consensus Building: the Democracy which Works Properly in Complex Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Susskind


    Full Text Available “Quality of life and governance are more and more related. The Consensus Building method is the “other” democracy, the one which works in complex societies. This approach has old roots, but its current success born in the last years due to two phenomenon’s; the great crisis in traditional governance in particular in western societies from 70’s until nowadays, and the inadequate local answers to this problems. On one hand some governments try to solve it with more restrict places of power, that take decisions on their own, on the other hand or they try to solve it with naïve participation, open new moments of decision without specific methods, thinking that differences could be solve with “good will” and  voting. (From the introduction“Confronto Creativo; dal diritto alla parola al diritto di essere ascoltati” Lawrence Susskind- Marianella Sclavi 2011On September 2011 Lawrence Susskind came to Italy in order to presents his book “Confronto Creativo, dal diritto di parola al diritto di essere ascoltati”, wrote with Marianella Sclavi. This book has been published in more than 20 countries, from China, to Japan. The authors underline the idea that globalization is, in certain way, helping the born of a different governance, which makes democracy and new ways of participation been closer than in the past. This interview tries to answer some questions of participatory urban planning in Italy nowadays. As for example; can consensus building help to deal with complex cities nowadays? Who should promote consensus building approach: governments, citizens, private entrepreneurships? Which are the obstacles, and the methodologies to solve them? Once urban planners finish their work, who implement the projects? What are the new languages that urban planning should find in order to create local processes?

  16. [Automated RNA amplification for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens]. (United States)

    Drouillon, V; Houriez, F; Buze, M; Lagrange, P; Herrmann, J-L


    Rapid and sensitive detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) directly on clinical respiratory specimens is essential for a correct management of patients suspected of tuberculosis. For this purpose PCR-based kits are available to detect MTB in respiratory specimen but most of them need at least 4 hours to be completed. New methods, based on TRC method (TRC: Transcription Reverse transcription Concerted--TRCRapid M. Tuberculosis--Tosoh Bioscience, Tokyo, Japon) and dedicated monitor have been developed. A new kit (TRC Rapid M. tuberculosis and Real-time monitor TRCRapid-160, Tosoh Corporation, Japan) enabling one step amplification and real-time detection of MTB 16S rRNA by a combination of intercalative dye oxazole yellow-linked DNA probe and isothermal RNA amplification directly on respiratory specimens has been tested in our laboratory. 319 respiratory specimens were tested in this preliminary study and results were compared to smear and culture. Fourteen had a positive culture for MTB. Among theses samples, smear was positive in 11 cases (78.6%) and TRC process was positive in 8 cases (57.1%). Overall sensitivity of TRC compared to smear positive samples is 73%. Theses first results demonstrated that a rapid identification of MTB was possible (less than 2 processing hours for 14 specimens and about 1 hour for 1 specimen) in most cases of smear positive samples using ready to use reagents for real time detection of MTB rRNA in clinical samples. New pretreatment and extraction reagents kits to increase the stability of the sputum RNA and the extraction efficiency are now tested in our laboratory.

  17. Assembly of the Escherichia coli NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (respiratory complex I). (United States)

    Friedrich, Thorsten; Dekovic, Doris Kreuzer; Burschel, Sabrina


    Energy-converting NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, respiratory complex I, couples the electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone with the translocation of four protons across the membrane. The Escherichia coli complex I is made up of 13 different subunits encoded by the so-called nuo-genes. The electron transfer is catalyzed by nine cofactors, a flavin mononucleotide and eight iron-sulfur (Fe/S)-clusters. The individual subunits and the cofactors have to be assembled together in a coordinated way to guarantee the biogenesis of the active holoenzyme. Only little is known about the assembly of the bacterial complex compared to the mitochondrial one. Due to the presence of so many Fe/S-clusters the assembly of complex I is intimately connected with the systems responsible for the biogenesis of these clusters. In addition, a few other proteins have been reported to be required for an effective assembly of the complex in other bacteria. The proposed role of known bacterial assembly factors is discussed and the information from other bacterial species is used in this review to draw an as complete as possible model of bacterial complex I assembly. In addition, the supramolecular organization of the complex in E. coli is briefly described. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Prof. Conrad Mullineaux.

  18. Genome Analysis of Structure-Function Relationships in Respiratory Complex I, an Ancient Bioenergetic Enzyme. (United States)

    Degli Esposti, Mauro


    Respiratory complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a ubiquitous bioenergetic enzyme formed by over 40 subunits in eukaryotes and a minimum of 11 subunits in bacteria. Recently, crystal structures have greatly advanced our knowledge of complex I but have not clarified the details of its reaction with ubiquinone (Q). This reaction is essential for bioenergy production and takes place in a large cavity embedded within a conserved module that is homologous to the catalytic core of Ni-Fe hydrogenases. However, how a hydrogenase core has evolved into the protonmotive Q reductase module of complex I has remained unclear. This work has exploited the abundant genomic information that is currently available to deduce structure-function relationships in complex I that indicate the evolutionary steps of Q reactivity and its adaptation to natural Q substrates. The results provide answers to fundamental questions regarding various aspects of complex I reaction with Q and help re-defining the old concept that this reaction may involve two Q or inhibitor sites. The re-definition leads to a simplified classification of the plethora of complex I inhibitors while throwing a new light on the evolution of the enzyme function.

  19. The multitude of iron-sulfur clusters in respiratory complex I. (United States)

    Gnandt, Emmanuel; Dörner, Katerina; Strampraad, Marc F J; de Vries, Simon; Friedrich, Thorsten


    Respiratory complex I couples the electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone with the translocation of protons across the membrane. Complex I contains one non-covalently bound flavin mononucleotide and, depending on the species, up to ten iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters as cofactors. The reason for the presence of the multitude of Fe/S clusters in complex I remained enigmatic for a long time. The question was partly answered by investigations on the evolution of the complex revealing the stepwise construction of the electron transfer domain from several modules. Extension of the ancestral to the modern electron input domain was associated with the acquisition of several Fe/S-proteins. The X-ray structure of the complex showed that the NADH oxidation-site is connected with the quinone-reduction site by a chain of seven Fe/S-clusters. Fast enzyme kinetics revealed that this chain of Fe/S-clusters is used to regulate electron-tunneling rates within the complex. A possible function of the off-pathway cluster N1a is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi.

  20. Dry building mixture with complex dispersed mineral additives (United States)

    Il'ina, Liliia; Mukhina, Irina; Teplov, Alexandr


    The effectiveness of the complex dispersed mineral additive consisting of diopside and limestone was provided by the following factors. Diopside, due to the high hardness, reinforces formed hardened cement paste and prevents the spread of micro-cracks in it under the action of loads. Furthermore, diopside due to the greater elastic modulus than cement paste causes redistribution of stress between the additive particles and the cement. Limestone, since it has chemical affinity with the clinker minerals and products of their hydration hardening, effects on the hydration process and the formation of the contact area between the additive particles and the cement. The optimum quantity of complex dispersed mineral additive is 7%. At the same time the strength of the solution, made of dry building mixture "rough leveler for floor", increased by 22.1%, and the strength of the solution, made of dry mortar "masonry mixture" increased by 32.7%. With the mineral additive introduction the offset of the endoeffect temperatures to higher temperatures on derivatograms is fixed. If there is a mineral additive in the hardened cement paste, which may act as substrate for the tumors crystallization, the hardened cement paste structure strengthening while the complex thermal analysis is seen.

  1. Procedural design of exterior lighting for buildings with complex constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Schwarz, Michael


    We present a system for the lighting design of procedurally modeled buildings. The design is procedurally specified as part of the ordinary modeling workflow by defining goals for the illumination that should be attained and locations where luminaires may be installed to realize these goals. Additionally, constraints can be modeled that make the arrangement of the installed luminaires respect certain aesthetic and structural considerations. From this specification, the system automatically generates a lighting solution for any concrete model instance. The underlying, intricate joint optimization and constraint satisfaction problem is approached with a stochastic scheme that operates directly in the complex subspace where all constraints are observed. To navigate this subspace efficaciously, the actual lighting situation is taken into account. We demonstrate our system on multiple examples spanning a variety of architectural structures and lighting designs. Copyright held by the Owner/Author.

  2. Knowledge Sharing Strategies for Large Complex Building Projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Bektas


    Full Text Available The construction industry is a project-based sector with a myriad of actors such as architects, construction companies, consultants, producers of building materials (Anumba et al., 2005. The interaction between the project partners is often quite limited, which leads to insufficient knowledge sharing during the project and knowledge being unavailable for reuse (Fruchter et al. 2002. The result can be a considerable amount of extra work, delays and cost overruns. Design outcomes that are supposed to function as boundary objects across different disciplines can lead to misinterpretation of requirements, project content and objectives. In this research, knowledge is seen as resulting from social interactions; knowledge resides in communities and it is generated through social relationships (Wenger 1998, Olsson et al. 2008. Knowledge is often tacit, intangible and context-dependent and it is articulated in the changing responsibilities, roles, attitudes and values that are present in the work environment (Bresnen et al., 2003. In a project environment, knowledge enables individuals to solve problems, take decisions, and apply these decisions to actions. In order to achieve a shared understanding and minimize the misunderstanding and misinterpretations among project actors, it is necessary to share knowledge (Fong 2003.Sharing knowledge is particularly crucial in large complex building projects (LCBPs in order to accelerate the building process, improve architectural quality and prevent mistakes or undesirable results. However, knowledge sharing is often hampered through professional or organizational boundaries or contractual concerns. When knowledge is seen as an organizational asset, there is little willingness among project organizations to share their knowledge. Individual people may recognize the need to promote knowledge sharing throughout the project, but typically there is no deliberate strategy agreed by all project partners to address

  3. Factors associated with development of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC) in dogs in 5 Canadian small animal clinics. (United States)

    Joffe, Daniel J; Lelewski, Roxana; Weese, J Scott; Mcgill-Worsley, Jamie; Shankel, Catharine; Mendonca, Sonia; Sager, Tara; Smith, Michael; Poljak, Zvonimir


    This study investigated the association between presence of respiratory pathogens and development of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC) in dogs in 5 Canadian small animal clinics. In total, 86 dogs were tested using a commercial PCR respiratory panel; 64 dogs were considered as cases and 22 were control dogs matched by veterinary clinic. No control animals (0/22) were positive for canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), whereas 27/64 (42%) CIRDC cases were positive. Furthermore, 81% of case dogs tested positive for Mycoplasma cynos, compared with 73% of control dogs. Canine respiratory corona virus (CRCoV) was detected in no control dogs compared with 9.4% of clinical dogs. No animals were positive for any influenza virus type A present in the diagnostic panel. Presence of CPIV was associated (P < 0.01) with the occurrence of CIRDC after adjustment for demographic factors and presence of CRCoV (P = 0.09).

  4. Building dialogue on complex conservation issues in a conference setting. (United States)

    Rock, Jenny; Sparrow, Andrew; Wass, Rob; Moller, Henrik


    Dialogue about complex science and society issues is important for contemporary conservation agendas. Conferences provide an appropriate space for such dialogue, but despite its recognized worth, best practices for facilitating active dialogue are still being explored. Face-to-face (FTF) and computer-mediated communication (CMC) are two approaches to facilitating dialogue that have different strengths. We assessed the use of these approaches to create dialogue on cultural perspectives of conservation and biodiversity at a national ecology conference. In particular, we aimed to evaluate their potential to enhance dialogue through their integrated application. We used an interactive blog to generate CMC on participant-sourced issues and to prime subsequent discussion in an FTF conference workshop. The quantity and quality of both CMC and FTF discussion indicated that both approaches were effective in building dialogue. Prior to the conference the blog averaged 126 views per day, and 44 different authors contributed a total of 127 comments. Twenty-five participants subsequently participated in active FTF discussion during a 3-h workshop. Postconference surveys confirmed that CMC had developed participants' thinking and deepened FTF dialogue; 88% indicated specifically that CMC helped facilitate the FTF discussion. A further 83% of respondents concluded that preliminary blog discussion would be useful for facilitating dialogue at future conferences.

  5. Localization of Pathology on Complex Architecture Building Surfaces (United States)

    Sidiropoulos, A. A.; Lakakis, K. N.; Mouza, V. K.


    The technology of 3D laser scanning is considered as one of the most common methods for heritage documentation. The point clouds that are being produced provide information of high detail, both geometric and thematic. There are various studies that examine techniques of the best exploitation of this information. In this study, an algorithm of pathology localization, such as cracks and fissures, on complex building surfaces is being tested. The algorithm makes use of the points' position in the point cloud and tries to distinguish them in two groups-patterns; pathology and non-pathology. The extraction of the geometric information that is being used for recognizing the pattern of the points is being accomplished via Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in user-specified neighborhoods in the whole point cloud. The implementation of PCA leads to the definition of the normal vector at each point of the cloud. Two tests that operate separately examine both local and global geometric criteria among the points and conclude which of them should be categorized as pathology. The proposed algorithm was tested on parts of the Gazi Evrenos Baths masonry, which are located at the city of Giannitsa at Northern Greece.

  6. Indicators of moisture and ventilation system contamination in U.S. office buildings as risk factors for respiratory and mucous membrane symptoms: analyses of the EPA BASE data. (United States)

    Mendell, Mark J; Cozen, Myrna; Lei-Gomez, Quanhong; Brightman, Howard S; Erdmann, Christine A; Girman, John R; Womble, Susan E


    We assessed associations between indicators for moisture in office buildings and weekly, building-related lower respiratory and mucous membrane symptoms in office workers, using the U.S. EPA BASE data, collected in a representative sample of 100 U.S. office buildings. We estimated the strength of associations between the symptom outcomes and moisture indicators in multivariate logistic regression models as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for potential confounding factors and adjusting for correlation among workers in buildings. This analysis identified associations between building-related symptoms and several indicators of moisture or contamination in office buildings. One set of models showed almost a tripling of weekly building-related lower respiratory symptoms in association with lack of cleaning of the drip pans under air-conditioning cooling coils (OR [CI] = 2.8 (1.2-6.5)). Other models found that lack of cleaning of either drip pans or cooling coils was associated with increased mucous membrane symptoms (OR [CI] = 1.4 (1.1-1.9)). Slightly increased symptoms were also associated with other moisture indicators, especially mucous membrane symptoms and past water damage to building mechanical rooms (OR [CI] = 1.3 (1.0-1.7)). Overall, these findings suggest that the presence of moisture or contamination in ventilation systems or occupied spaces in office buildings may have adverse respiratory or irritant effects on workers. The analysis, however, failed to confirm several risks identified in a previous study, such as condition of drain pans or outdoor air intakes, and other hypothesized moisture risks. Studies with more rigorous measurement of environmental risks and health outcomes will be necessary to define moisture-related risks in buildings.

  7. The CA domain of the respiratory complex I is required for normal embryogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Córdoba, Juan Pablo; Marchetti, Fernanda; Soto, Débora; Martin, María Victoria; Pagnussat, Gabriela Carolina; Zabaleta, Eduardo


    The NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase [complex I (CI), EC] of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is the principal entry point of electrons, and vital in maintaining metabolism and the redox balance. In a variety of eukaryotic organisms, except animal and fungi (Opisthokonta), it contains an extra domain composed of putative gamma carbonic anhydrases subunits, named the CA domain, which was proposed to be essential for complex I assembly. There are two kinds of carbonic anhydrase subunits: CAs (of which there are three) and carbonic anhydrase-like proteins (CALs) (of which there are two). In plants, the CA domain has been linked to photorespiration. In this work, we report that Arabidopsis mutant plants affected in two specific CA subunits show a lethal phenotype. Double homozygous knockouts ca1ca2 embryos show a significant developmental delay compared to the non-homozygous embryos, which show a wild-type (WT) phenotype in the same silique. Mutant embryos show impaired mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. The characteristic embryo greening does not take place and fewer but larger oil bodies are present. Although seeds look dark brown and wrinkled, they are able to germinate 12 d later than WT seeds. However, they die immediately, most likely due to oxidative stress.Since the CA domain is required for complex I biogenesis, it is predicted that in ca1ca2 mutants no complex I could be formed, triggering the lethal phenotype. The in vivo composition of a functional CA domain is proposed.

  8. Molecular features of biguanides required for targeting of mitochondrial respiratory complex I and activation of AMP-kinase



    Abstract Background The biguanides are a family of drugs with diverse clinical applications. Metformin, a widely used anti-hyperglycemic biguanide, suppresses mitochondrial respiration by inhibiting respiratory complex I. Phenformin, a related anti-hyperglycemic biguanide, also inhibits respiration, but proguanil, which is widely used for the prevention of malaria, does not. The molecular structures of phenformin and proguanil are closel...

  9. Respiratory chain complex I deficiency due to NDUFA12 mutations as a new cause of Leigh syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Elsebet; Rodenburg, Richard J; van den Brand, Mariël;


    This study investigated a girl with Leigh syndrome born to first-cousin parents of Pakistani descent with an isolated respiratory chain complex I deficiency in muscle and fibroblasts. Her early development was delayed, and from age 2 years she started losing motor abilities. Cerebral MRI showed...

  10. Molecular features of biguanides required for targeting of mitochondrial respiratory complex I and activation of AMP-kinase



    Background The biguanides are a family of drugs with diverse clinical applications. Metformin, a widely used anti-hyperglycemic biguanide, suppresses mitochondrial respiration by inhibiting respiratory complex I. Phenformin, a related anti-hyperglycemic biguanide, also inhibits respiration, but proguanil, which is widely used for the prevention of malaria, does not. The molecular structures of phenformin and proguanil are closely related and both inhibit isolated complex I. Proguanil does not...

  11. Crystallization of Mitochondrial Respiratory Complex II fromChicken Heart: A Membrane-Protein Complex Diffracting to 2.0Angstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-shar; Borders, Toni M.; Shen, John T.; Wang, Chung-Jen; Berry, Edward A.


    Procedure is presented for preparation of diffraction-quality crystals of a vertebrate mitochondrial respiratory Complex II. The crystals have the potential to diffract to at least 2.0 Angstrom with optimization of post-crystal-growth treatment and cryoprotection. This should allow determination of the structure of this important and medically relevant membrane protein complex at near-atomic resolution and provide great detail of the mode of binding of substrates and inhibitors at the two substrate-binding sites.

  12. Electrical coupling and excitatory synaptic transmission between rhythmogenic respiratory neurons in the preBötzinger complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Shao, X M; Feldman, J L


    mice, we found that intracellularly recorded pairs of XII motoneurons and pairs of preBötC inspiratory type-1 neurons showed bidirectional electrical coupling. Coupling strength was low (10 Hz). Dual......Breathing pattern is postulated to be generated by brainstem neurons. However, determination of the underlying cellular mechanisms, and in particular the synaptic interactions between respiratory neurons, has been difficult. Here we used dual recordings from two distinct populations of brainstem...... respiratory neurons, hypoglossal (XII) motoneurons, and rhythmogenic (type-1) neurons in the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the hypothesized site for respiratory rhythm generation, to determine whether electrical and chemical transmission is present. Using an in vitro brainstem slice preparation from newborn...

  13. Modern Approach to the Enigma of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Kurćubić


    Full Text Available Research on Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex (BRDC has strongly contributed to a better understanding of disease at both global and local levels. New agents have been identified and their nature has been better known since then, as well as all the factors that predispone the development of BRDC. Serious work in a number of researches has led to results that have proven significant synergistic interactions between viruses and bacteria that lead to the BRDC and complicate the prevention and treatment of the diseased cattle. Nowadays, it is necessary to apply the latest molecular and other techniques in order to examine in detail all of the specific causes, describe them accurately and provide effective prevention. This can primarily be accomplished by producing different types of vaccines, which are to be improved constantly. Serious progress has been made in researches on immunogenic properties and antimicrobial activity of various natural and synthetic substances in order to improve the production of more effective vaccines for control, as well as the development of a new generation of antibiotics to treat the disease. BRDC prevention programs have been successful, in which great importance was given to proper vaccinations and herd management practices. BRDC is still the most important disease of cattle from an economic point of view, since it causes great losses and expenses.

  14. Development and application of multiplex PCR assays for detection of virus-induced respiratory disease complex in dogs (United States)



    Canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) viruses have been detected in dogs with respiratory illness. Canine influenza virus (CIV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2) and canine herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1), are all associated with the CIRDC. To allow diagnosis, two conventional multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were developed to simultaneously identify four RNA and two DNA viruses associated with CIRDC. The two multiplex PCR assays were then validated on 102 respiratory samples collected from 51 dogs with respiratory illness by sensitivity and specificity determination in comparison to conventional simplex PCR and a rapid three-antigen test kit. All six viruses were detected in either individual or multiple infections. The developed multiplex PCR assays had a >87% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to their simplex counterpart. Compared to the three-antigen test kit, the multiplex PCR assays yielded 100% sensitivity and more than 83% specificity for detection of CAdV-2 and CDV, but not for CIV. Therefore, the developed multiplex PCR modalities were able to simultaneously diagnose a panel of CIRDC viruses and facilitated specimen collection through being suitable for use of nasal or oral samples. PMID:27628592

  15. Text Complexity: The Importance of Building the Right Staircase (United States)

    Papola-Ellis, Aimee L.


    As more districts begin implementing the Common Core State Standards, text complexity is receiving a lot of discussion. It is important for educators to understand the numerous factors involved with text complexity and to have a wide range of strategies to support students with challenging text. This paper shares data from three elementary…

  16. A method for evaluating the problem complex of choosing the ventilation system for a new building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend


    The application of a ventilation system in a new building is a multidimensional complex problem that involves quantifiable and non-quantifiable data like energy consump¬tion, indoor environment, building integration and architectural expression. This paper presents a structured method for evaluat...

  17. Complexities in building innovation systems : the case of radical medical technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukk, P.


    The main goal of this thesis is to facilitate a further understanding of how firms behind innovative technologies deal with different complexities in system-building strategies and the co-dependencies among different technologies, actors and system-building activities, while contributing to the buil

  18. How we are building a complex Angular 2 application at Inspire

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    In this talk, at first we will talk about some basic and advanced Angular 2 concepts, then we will share our experiences with Angular 2 that we had so far while building a complex library and web applications at Inspire.

  19. Associations of indoor carbon dioxide concentrations, VOCS, environmental susceptibilities with mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, M.G.; Erdmann, C.A.


    Using the 100 office-building Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study dataset, we performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to quantify the associations between indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} (dCO{sub 2}) concentrations and mucous membrane (MM) and lower respiratory system (Lresp) Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Using principal components analysis we identified a number of possible sources of 73 measured volatile organic compounds in the office buildings, and assessed the impact of these VOCs on the probability of presenting the SBS symptoms. Additionally we included analysis adjusting for the risks for predisposition of having SBS symptoms associated with the allergic, asthmatic, and environmentally sensitive subpopulations within the office buildings. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for statistically significant, dose-dependant associations (p<0.05) for dry eyes, sore throat, nose/sinus congestion, and wheeze symptoms with 100-ppm increases in dCO{sub 2} ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. These results suggest that increases in the ventilation rates per person among typical office buildings will, on average significantly reduce the prevalence of several SBS symptoms, up to 80%, even when these buildings meet the existing ASHRAE ventilation standards for office buildings. VOC sources were observed to play an role in direct association with mucous membrane and lower respiratory irritation, and possibly to be indirectly involved in indoor chemical reactions with ozone that produce irritating compounds associated with SBS symptoms. O-xylene, possibly emitted from furniture coatings was associated with shortness of breath (OR at the maximum concentration = 8, p < 0.05). The environmental sensitivities of a large subset of the office building population add to the overall risk of SBS symptoms (ORs

  20. Conclusion of the first eight building complex surveys; Oplegnotitie conclusies eerste acht complexonderzoeken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The TaskForce investigated eight building complexes on possibilities for improvement. These complexes are being analyzed in scenarios, varying in the future exploitation period of the complexes. Next to all the architectural, energetic and technical qualities of the 8 residential building complexes an urban planning analysis is carried out [Dutch] De Taskforce heeft 8 complexen onderzocht op hun integrale verbetermogelijkheden. Die complexen zijn steeds geanalyseerd in scenarios waarbij is gevarieerd in de toekomstige exploitatieperiode van de complexen. Naast alle bouwkundige, energetische en woontechnische kwaliteiten is van de 8 complexen een stedenbouwkundige analyse verricht.

  1. Information Entropy As a Basic Building Block of Complexity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hu


    Full Text Available What is information? What role does information entropy play in this information exploding age, especially in understanding emergent behaviors of complex systems? To answer these questions, we discuss the origin of information entropy, the difference between information entropy and thermodynamic entropy, the role of information entropy in complexity theories, including chaos theory and fractal theory, and speculate new fields in which information entropy may play important roles.

  2. Building complex brains--missing pieces in an evolutionary puzzle. (United States)

    Jaaro, Hanna; Fainzilber, Mike


    The mechanisms underlying evolution of complex nervous systems are not well understood. In recent years there have been a number of attempts to correlate specific gene families or evolutionary processes with increased brain complexity in the vertebrate lineage. Candidates for evocation of complexity include genes involved in regulating brain size, such as neurotrophic factors or microcephaly-related genes; or wider evolutionary processes, such as accelerated evolution of brain-expressed genes or enhanced RNA splicing or editing events in primates. An inherent weakness of these studies is that they are correlative by nature, and almost exclusively focused on the mammalian and specifically the primate lineage. Another problem with genomic analyses is that it is difficult to identify functionally similar yet non-homologous molecules such as different families of cysteine-rich neurotrophic factors in different phyla. As long as comprehensive experimental studies of these questions are not feasible, additional perspectives for evolutionary and genomic studies will be very helpful. Cephalopod mollusks represent the most complex nervous systems outside the vertebrate lineage, thus we suggest that genome sequencing of different mollusk models will provide useful insights into the evolution of complex brains.

  3. Superhalogens as Building Blocks of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar


    Superhalogens are species whose electron affinity (EA) or vertical detachment energy (VDE) exceed to those of halogen. These species typically consist of a central electropositive atom with electronegative ligands. The EA or VDE of species can be further increased by using superhalogen as ligands, which are termed as hyperhalogen. Having established BH4- as a superhalogen, we have studied BH4-x(BH4)x- (x = 1 to 4) hyperhalogen anions and their Li-complexes, LiBH4-x(BH4)x using density functional theory. The VDE of these anions is larger than that of BH4-, which increases with the increase in the number of peripheral BH4 moieties (x). The hydrogen storage capacity of LiBH4-x(BH4)x complexes is higher but binding energy is smaller than that of LiBH4, a typical complex hydride. The linear correlation between dehydrogenation energy of LiBH4-x(BH4)x complexes and VDE of BH4-x(BH4)x- anions is established. These complexes are found to be thermodynamically stable against dissociation into LiBH4 and borane. This stud...

  4. Respiratory Complex I in Bos taurus and Paracoccus denitrificans Pumps Four Protons across the Membrane for Every NADH Oxidized. (United States)

    Jones, Andrew J Y; Blaza, James N; Varghese, Febin; Hirst, Judy


    Respiratory complex I couples electron transfer between NADH and ubiquinone to proton translocation across an energy-transducing membrane to support the proton-motive force that drives ATP synthesis. The proton-pumping stoichiometry of complex I (i.e. the number of protons pumped for each two electrons transferred) underpins all mechanistic proposals. However, it remains controversial and has not been determined for any of the bacterial enzymes that are exploited as model systems for the mammalian enzyme. Here, we describe a simple method for determining the proton-pumping stoichiometry of complex I in inverted membrane vesicles under steady-state ADP-phosphorylating conditions. Our method exploits the rate of ATP synthesis, driven by oxidation of NADH or succinate with different sections of the respiratory chain engaged in catalysis as a proxy for the rate of proton translocation and determines the stoichiometry of complex I by reference to the known stoichiometries of complexes III and IV. Using vesicles prepared from mammalian mitochondria (from Bos taurus) and from the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans, we show that four protons are pumped for every two electrons transferred in both cases. By confirming the four-proton stoichiometry for mammalian complex I and, for the first time, demonstrating the same value for a bacterial complex, we establish the utility of P. denitrificans complex I as a model system for the mammalian enzyme. P. denitrificans is the first system described in which mutagenesis in any complex I core subunit may be combined with quantitative proton-pumping measurements for mechanistic studies.

  5. Acute Carnosine Administration Increases Respiratory Chain Complexes and Citric Acid Cycle Enzyme Activities in Cerebral Cortex of Young Rats. (United States)

    Macedo, Levy W; Cararo, José H; Maravai, Soliany G; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Bogo, Maurício R; Hipkiss, Alan R; Streck, Emilio L; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C


    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an imidazole dipeptide synthesized in excitable tissues of many animals, whose biochemical properties include carbonyl scavenger, anti-oxidant, bivalent metal ion chelator, proton buffer, and immunomodulating agent, although its precise physiological role(s) in skeletal muscle and brain tissues in vivo remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of acute carnosine administration on various aspects of brain bioenergetics of young Wistar rats. The activity of mitochondrial enzymes in cerebral cortex was assessed using a spectrophotometer, and it was found that there was an increase in the activities of complexes I-III and II-III and succinate dehydrogenase in carnosine-treated rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. However, quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) data on mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins (nuclear respiratory factor 1 (Nrf1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (Ppargc1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)) were not altered significantly and therefore suggest that short-term carnosine administration does not affect mitochondrial biogenesis. It was in agreement with the finding that immunocontent of respiratory chain complexes was not altered in animals receiving carnosine. These observations indicate that acute carnosine administration increases the respiratory chain and citric acid cycle enzyme activities in cerebral cortex of young rats, substantiating, at least in part, a neuroprotector effect assigned to carnosine against oxidative-driven disorders.

  6. How Students Combine Resources to Build Understanding of Complex Topics (United States)

    Richards, Alan J.


    The field of Physics Education Research (PER) seeks to investigate how students learn physics and how instructors can help students learn more effectively. The process by which learners create understanding about a complex physics concept is an active area of research. My study explores this process, using solar cells as the context. To understand…

  7. The Build-Up of Diversity in Complex Ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Tacchella, Andrea; Gabrielli, Andrea; Pietronero, Luciano


    Diversity is a fundamental feature of ecosystems, even when the concept of ecosystem is extended to sociology or economics. Diversity can be intended as the count of different items, animals, or, more generally, interactions. There are two classes of stylized facts that emerge when diversity is taken into account. The first are Diversity explosions: evolutionary radiations in biology, or the process of escaping 'Poverty Traps' in economics are two well known examples. The second is nestedness: entities with a very diverse set of interactions are the only ones that interact with more specialized ones. In a single sentence: specialists interact with generalists. Nestedness is observed in a variety of bipartite networks of interactions: Biogeographic, macroeconomic and mutualistic to name a few. This indicates that entities diversify following a pattern. Since they appear in such very different systems, these two stylized facts point out that the build up of diversity is driven by a fundamental probabilistic mec...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The methodology of designing energy-efficient tower building should be based on systematic analysis of the building as a unified energy system. The prominent architect Norman Foster (Sir Norman Foster writes: "Architects cannot solve all the world's environmental problems, but we can design buildings that require only a fraction of current energy consumption, in addition, through proper urban planning we can affect traffic flows. The location and functionality of buildings, its structural flexibility and technological resources, orientation, shape and structure, heating and ventilation characteristics used in the construction materials - all these parameters affect the amount of energy required for the construction, operation and maintenance of the building, and as for transportation, moving to it and from it" [1]. Purpose. The purpose of the study is scientific justification principles of architectural formation decisions of the power-rise energy efficient complexes and developing methods of architectural design of PRBC using wind energy. To develop the science-based principles forming the architectural buildings with the use of alternative energy and determine the specific features of the architectural design of buildings. Conclusion. The principles of architectural forming in the use of wind power and identify possible trends for the development of buildings with integrated wind installations. Polyfunctional wind power plants are in special properties of certain material and structural elements of the building structure, improve aerodynamic performance of the outer shell and therefore wind energy devices. Thus, the power efficiency of energy active building depends on its space solutions.

  9. Chapter 4 Electron transfer in respiratory complexes resolved by an ultra-fast freeze-quench approach. (United States)

    Belevich, Nikolai P; Verkhovskaya, Marina L; Verkhovsky, Michael I


    The investigation of the molecular mechanism of the respiratory chain complexes requires determination of the time-dependent evolution of the catalytic cycle intermediates. The ultra-fast freeze-quench approach makes possible trapping such intermediates with consequent analysis of their chemical structure by means of different physical spectroscopic methods (e.g., EPR, optic, and Mössbauer spectroscopies). This chapter presents the description of a setup that allows stopping the enzymatic reaction in the time range from 100 microsec to tens of msec. The construction and production technology of the mixer head, ultra-fast freezing device, and accessories required for collecting a sample are described. Ways of solving a number of problems emerging on freezing of the reaction mixture and preparing the samples for EPR spectroscopy are proposed. The kinetics of electron transfer reaction in the first enzyme of the respiratory chain, Complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase), is presented as an illustration of the freeze-quench approach. Time-resolved EPR spectra indicating the redox state of FeS clusters of the wild-type and mutant (R274A in subunit NuoCD) Complex I from Escherichia coli are shown.

  10. Time trend in hospitalised chronic lower respiratory diseases among Danish building and construction workers, 1981-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Hannerz, Harald; Mølgaard, Ellen Fisher;


    To show trends in age-standardised hospital admission ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases, estimated for Danish construction workers over three time periods (1981-1990, 1991-2000, 2001-2009).......To show trends in age-standardised hospital admission ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases, estimated for Danish construction workers over three time periods (1981-1990, 1991-2000, 2001-2009)....

  11. Building Better Ecological Machines: Complexity Theory and Alternative Economic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jess Bier


    Full Text Available Computer models of the economy are regularly used to predict economic phenomena and set financial policy. However, the conventional macroeconomic models are currently being reimagined after they failed to foresee the current economic crisis, the outlines of which began to be understood only in 2007-2008. In this article we analyze the most prominent of this reimagining: Agent-Based models (ABMs. ABMs are an influential alternative to standard economic models, and they are one focus of complexity theory, a discipline that is a more open successor to the conventional chaos and fractal modeling of the 1990s. The modelers who create ABMs claim that their models depict markets as ecologies, and that they are more responsive than conventional models that depict markets as machines. We challenge this presentation, arguing instead that recent modeling efforts amount to the creation of models as ecological machines. Our paper aims to contribute to an understanding of the organizing metaphors of macroeconomic models, which we argue is relevant conceptually and politically, e.g., when models are used for regulatory purposes.

  12. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation. (United States)

    Letts, James A; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A


    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies.

  13. Overview of the ITER Tokamak complex building and integration of plant systems toward construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordier, Jean-Jacques, E-mail: [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Bak, Joo-Shik [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Baudry, Alain [Engage Consortium, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Benchikhoune, Magali [Fusion For Energy (F4E), c/ Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Carafa, Leontin; Chiocchio, Stefano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Darbour, Romaric [Fusion For Energy (F4E), c/ Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Elbez, Joelle; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Jeannoutot, Thomas; Kotamaki, Miikka; Kuehn, Ingo; Lee, Andreas; Levesy, Bruno; Orlandi, Sergio [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Packer, Rachel [Engage Consortium, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Patisson, Laurent; Reich, Jens; Rigoni, Giuliano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); and others


    The ITER Tokamak complex consists of Tokamak, diagnostic and tritium buildings. The Tokamak machine is located in the bioshield pit of the Tokamak building. Plant systems are implemented in the three buildings and are strongly interfacing with the Tokamak. The reference baseline (3D) configuration is a set of over 1000 models that today defines in an exhaustive way the overall layout of Tokamak and plant systems, needed for fixing the interfaces and to complete the construction design of the buildings. During the last two years, one of the main ITER challenges was to improve the maturity of the plant systems layout in order to confirm their integration in the building final design and freeze the interface definitions in-between the systems and to the buildings. The propagation of safety requirements in the design of the nuclear building like confinement, fire zoning and radiation shielding is of first priority. A major effort was placed by ITER Organization together with the European Domestic Agency (F4E) and the Architect Engineer as a joint team to fix the interfaces and the loading conditions to buildings. The most demanding systems in terms of interface definition are water cooling, cryogenic, detritiation, vacuum, cable trays and building services. All penetrations through the walls for piping, cables and other equipment have been defined, as well as all temporary openings needed for the installation phase. Project change requests (PCR) impacting the Tokamak complex buildings have been implemented in a tight allocated time schedule. The most demanding change was to implement a new design of the Tokamak basic machine supporting system. The 18 supporting columns of the cryostat (2001 baseline) were replaced at the end of 2012 by a concrete crown and radial concrete ribs linked to the basemat and to the bioshield surrounding the Tokamak. The change was implemented successfully in the building construction design to allow basemat construction phase being performed

  14. Bilberry xyloglucan - novel building blocks containing ß-xylose within a complex structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.; Jong, de L.E.; Kabel, M.A.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.


    Bilberries are known to have one of the most complex xyloglucan structures described in the plant kingdom until now. To characterise this structure, xyloglucans were enzymatically degraded and the oligosaccharides obtained were analysed. More than 20 different building blocks were found to make up t

  15. Para-Functionalized NCN-Pincer Palladium and Platinum Complexes as Building Blocks in Organometallic Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, Martijn Quico


    A rapidly evolving field in chemistry is the application of organometallic and coordination complexes as building blocks or active components for the construction of new materials exhibiting specific catalytic, redox, optical or sensor activities. A central theme in the construction of these inorgan

  16. Flow around a Complex Building: Comparisons between Experiments and a Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes Approach. (United States)

    Calhoun, Ronald; Gouveia, Frank; Shinn, Joseph; Chan, Stevens; Stevens, Dave; Lee, Robert; Leone, John


    An experiment investigating flow around a single complex building was performed in 2000. Sonic anemometers were placed around the building, and two-dimensional wind velocities were recorded. An energy-budget and wind-measuring station was located upstream to provide stability and inflow conditions. In general, the sonic anemometers were located in a horizontal plane around the building at a height of 2.6 m above the ground. However, at the upwind wind station, two levels of the wind were measured. The resulting database can be sampled to produce mean wind fields associated with specific wind directions such as 210°, 225°, and 240°. The data are available generally and should be useful for testing computational fluid dynamical models for flow around a building. An in-house Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes approach was used to compare with the mean wind fields for the predominant wind directions. The numerical model assumed neutral flow and included effects from a complex array of trees in the vicinity of the building. Two kinds of comparisons are presented: 1) direct experimental versus modeled vector comparisons and 2) a numerical metric approach that focuses on wind magnitude and direction errors. The numerical evaluation generally corroborates the vector-to-vector inspection, showing reasonable agreement for the mean wind fields around the building. However, regions with special challenges for the model were identified. In particular, recirculation regions were especially difficult for the model to capture correctly. In the 240° case, there is a tendency for the model to exaggerate the turning effect in the wind caused by the effect of the building. Two different kinds of simulations were performed: 1) predictive calculations with a reasonable but not high-fidelity representation of the building's architectural complexity and 2) postexperiment calculations in which a large number of architectural features were well represented. Although qualitative evidence

  17. Development on systems configuration in ITER Tokamak Complex and Auxiliary Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Ingo, E-mail: [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Kotamaki, Miikka [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Schmieder, Laurent [Fusion for Energy (F4E), CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Cordier, Jean-Jacques; Chiocchio, Stefano; Carafa, Leontin; Klingsmith, James; Patisson, Laurent; Rigoni, Giuliano [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Tsedri, Thibault [AREVA CNIM KAH System Engineering Support, CS 50497, 13593 Aix en Provence Cedex 3 (France)


    The ITER site consists of almost 30 buildings to service the Tokamak machine which is located in the centre of the Tokamak Complex facility with the Tokamak-, Diagnostic- and Tritium building. The design of a large part of the ITER plant systems will be executed by the ITER Domestic Agencies or their industrial suppliers under functional specifications provided by the ITER Organization. At the same time, the detailed design of the building is carried out by the European Domestic Agency 'Fusion for Energy' (F4E). In order to allow an efficient identification of the ITER configuration as well as to manage the concurrent engineering activities and to simplify the identification and assessment of changes, the design of each ITER plant systems is described in the so-called Configuration Management Models (CMM). These are light CATIA 3D models that define the required space envelope and the physical interfaces in-between the systems and the buildings. The paper describes the procedure adopted for the control of the baseline configuration of the Tokamak Complex facility and Auxiliary Buildings with their associated plant systems and illustrates the current status as well as recent developments in the different systems.

  18. Management intensity and vegetation complexity affect web-building spiders and their prey. (United States)

    Diehl, Eva; Mader, Viktoria L; Wolters, Volkmar; Birkhofer, Klaus


    Agricultural management and vegetation complexity affect arthropod diversity and may alter trophic interactions between predators and their prey. Web-building spiders are abundant generalist predators and important natural enemies of pests. We analyzed how management intensity (tillage, cutting of the vegetation, grazing by cattle, and synthetic and organic inputs) and vegetation complexity (plant species richness, vegetation height, coverage, and density) affect rarefied richness and composition of web-building spiders and their prey with respect to prey availability and aphid predation in 12 habitats, ranging from an uncut fallow to a conventionally managed maize field. Spiders and prey from webs were collected manually and the potential prey were quantified using sticky traps. The species richness of web-building spiders and the order richness of prey increased with plant diversity and vegetation coverage. Prey order richness was lower at tilled compared to no-till sites. Hemipterans (primarily aphids) were overrepresented, while dipterans, hymenopterans, and thysanopterans were underrepresented in webs compared to sticky traps. The per spider capture efficiency for aphids was higher at tilled than at no-till sites and decreased with vegetation complexity. After accounting for local densities, 1.8 times more aphids were captured at uncut compared to cut sites. Our results emphasize the functional role of web-building spiders in aphid predation, but suggest negative effects of cutting or harvesting. We conclude that reduced management intensity and increased vegetation complexity help to conserve local invertebrate diversity, and that web-building spiders at sites under low management intensity (e.g., semi-natural habitats) contribute to aphid suppression at the landscape scale.

  19. Biocompatibility and Stability of Polysaccharide Polyelectrolyte Complexes Aimed at Respiratory Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Chitosan (CS and chondroitin sulfate (CHS are natural polymers with demonstrated applicability in drug delivery, while nanoparticles are one of the most explored carriers for transmucosal delivery of biopharmaceuticals. In this work we have prepared CS/CHS nanoparticles and associated for the first time the therapeutic protein insulin. Fluorescein isothiocyanate bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA was also used to enable comparison of behaviors regarding differences in molecular weight (5.7 kDa versus 67 kDa. Nanoparticles of approximately 200 nm and positive zeta potential around +20 mV were obtained. These parameters remained stable for up to 1 month at 4 °C. Proteins were associated with efficiencies of more than 50%. The release of FITC-BSA in PBS pH 7.4 was more sustained (50% in 24 h than that of insulin (85% in 24 h. The biocompatibility of nanoparticles was tested in Calu-3 and A549 cells by means of three different assays. The metabolic assay MTT, the determination of lactate dehydrogenase release, and the quantification of the inflammatory response generated by cell exposure to nanoparticles have indicated an absence of overt toxicity. Overall, the results suggest good indications on the application of CS/CHS nanoparticles in respiratory transmucosal protein delivery, but the set of assays should be widened to clarify obtained results.

  20. The respiratory syncytial virus nucleoprotein-RNA complex forms a left-handed helical nucleocapsid. (United States)

    Bakker, Saskia E; Duquerroy, Stéphane; Galloux, Marie; Loney, Colin; Conner, Edward; Eléouët, Jean-François; Rey, Félix A; Bhella, David


    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important human pathogen. Its nucleocapsid (NC), which comprises the negative sense RNA viral genome coated by the viral nucleoprotein N, is a critical assembly that serves as template for both mRNA synthesis and genome replication. We have previously described the X-ray structure of an NC-like structure: a decameric ring formed of N-RNA that mimics one turn of the helical NC. In the absence of experimental data we had hypothesized that the NC helix would be right-handed, as the N-N contacts in the ring appeared to more easily adapt to that conformation. We now unambiguously show that the RSV NC is a left-handed helix. We further show that the contacts in the ring can be distorted to maintain key N-N-protein interactions in a left-handed helix, and discuss the implications of the resulting atomic model of the helical NC for viral replication and transcription.

  1. Formation of competitive potential of the machine-building complex of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ivanovich Botkin


    Full Text Available The article describes the features of competitive potential of regional machine-building complex in a globalized world economy. The purpose of the research is the development of theoretically reasonable economic basis of the machine-building complex considering  the  features of business in the conditions of the WTO. In the work, the hypothesis of a special role of the external economic factors locates in development of the enterprises of regional industrial complexes. The study of the theoretical provisions defining the development of the region revealed the factors determining influence of the international trade agreements on spatial localization of the industry. The main attention is paid to an analytical assessment of the current state and the trends, which have developed in the period of post-crisis economic recovery. Analysis of the main indicators of attractiveness has revealed the weak position of local industrial enterprises in the WTO. The directions of strengthening of the competitive capacity of the local industrial enterprises are defined. The obtained results allow us to increase the sustainability of the industry by means of effective management mechanism improvements and to create favorable operating conditions of a machine-building complex of the region

  2. Molecular characterization and mutational analysis of the human B17 subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. (United States)

    Smeitink, J; Loeffen, J; Smeets, R; Triepels, R; Ruitenbeek, W; Trijbels, F; van den Heuvel, L


    Bovine NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex 1) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain consists of about 36 nuclear-encoded subunits. We review the current knowledge of the 15 human complex I subunits cloned so far, and report the 598-bp cDNA sequence, the chromosomal localization and the tissue expression of an additional subunit, the B17 subunit. The cDNA open reading frame of B17 comprises 387 bp and encodes a protein of 128 amino acids (calculated Mr 15.5 kDa). There is 82.7% and 78.1% homology, respectively, at the cDNA and amino acid level with the bovine counterpart. The gene of the B17 subunit has been mapped to chromosome 2. Multiple-tissue dot-blots showed ubiquitous expression of the mRNA with relatively higher expression in tissues known for their high energy demand. Of these, kidney showed the highest expression. Mutational analysis of the subunit revealed no mutations or polymorphisms in 20 patients with isolated enzymatic complex I deficiency in cultured skin fibroblasts.

  3. Evaluation of the In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Fructose on Respiratory Chain Complexes in Tissues of Young Rats. (United States)

    Macongonde, Ernesto António; Vilela, Thais Ceresér; Scaini, Giselli; Gonçalves, Cinara Ludvig; Ferreira, Bruna Klippel; Costa, Naithan Ludian Fernandes; de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Avila Junior, Silvio; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda


    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by fructose and fructose-1-phosphate accumulation in tissues and biological fluids of patients. This disease results from a deficiency of aldolase B, which metabolizes fructose in the liver, kidney, and small intestine. We here investigated the effect of acute fructose administration on the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) in cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle of male 30-day-old Wistar rats. The rats received subcutaneous injection of sodium chloride (0.9%; control group) or fructose solution (5 μmol/g; treated group). One hour later, the animals were euthanized and the cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle were isolated and homogenized for the investigations. Acute fructose administration increased complex I-III activity in liver. On the other hand, decreased complexes II and II-III activities in skeletal muscle and MDH in kidney were found. Interestingly, none of these parameters were affected in vitro. Our present data indicate that fructose administration elicits impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the HFI patients.

  4. Evaluation of the In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Fructose on Respiratory Chain Complexes in Tissues of Young Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto António Macongonde


    Full Text Available Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by fructose and fructose-1-phosphate accumulation in tissues and biological fluids of patients. This disease results from a deficiency of aldolase B, which metabolizes fructose in the liver, kidney, and small intestine. We here investigated the effect of acute fructose administration on the activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, and malate dehydrogenase (MDH in cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle of male 30-day-old Wistar rats. The rats received subcutaneous injection of sodium chloride (0.9%; control group or fructose solution (5 μmol/g; treated group. One hour later, the animals were euthanized and the cerebral cortex, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle were isolated and homogenized for the investigations. Acute fructose administration increased complex I-III activity in liver. On the other hand, decreased complexes II and II-III activities in skeletal muscle and MDH in kidney were found. Interestingly, none of these parameters were affected in vitro. Our present data indicate that fructose administration elicits impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of the HFI patients.

  5. Mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme assay and DNA analysis in peripheral blood leukocytes for the etiological study of Chinese children with Leigh syndrome due to complex I deficiency. (United States)

    Ma, Yan Yan; Wu, Tong Fei; Liu, Yu Peng; Wang, Qiao; Li, Xi Yuan; Zhang, Yao; Song, Jin Qing; Wang, Yu Jie; Yang, Yan Ling


    Mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I enzyme deficiency is the most commonly seen mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder. Although screening and diagnostic methods are available overseas, clinically feasible diagnostic methods have not yet been established in China. In this study, four Chinese boys with Leigh syndrome due to complex I deficiency were diagnosed by mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme assay and DNA analysis using peripheral blood leukocytes. Four patients were admitted at the age of 5-14 years because of unexplained progressive neuromuscular symptoms, including motor developmental delay or regression, weakness, and seizures. Their cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed typical finding as Leigh syndrome. Peripheral leukocyte mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I activities were found decreased to 9.6-33.1 nmol/min/mg mitochondrial protein(control 44.0 ± 5.4 nmol/min/mg). The ratios of complex I to citrate synthase activity were also decreased (8.9-19.8% in patients vs. control 48 ± 11%). Three mtDNA mutations were identified from three out of four patients, supporting the diagnosis of complex I deficiency. Point mutations m.10191T>C in mitochondrial ND3 gene, m.13513G>A in ND5 gene and m.14,453G>A in ND6 gene were detected in three patients.

  6. Organotypic slice cultures containing the preBötzinger complex generate respiratory-like rhythms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Wiktor S; Herly, Mikkel; Del Negro, Christopher A;


    containing the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the core inspiratory rhythm generator of the ventrolateral brainstem. We measured bilateral synchronous network oscillations, using calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes, in both ventrolateral (presumably the preBötC) and dorsomedial regions of 7-43 days in vitro...

  7. Basic building units, self-assembly and crystallization in the formation of complex inorganic open architectures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C N R Rao


    Careful investigations of open-framework metal phosphates reveal that the formation of these complex architectures is likely to involve a process wherein one-dimensional ladders or chains, and possibly zero-dimens ional monomers, transform to higher dimensional structures. The one-dimensional ladder appears to be the primary building unit of these structures. At one stage of the building-up process, spontaneous self-assembly of a low-dimensional structure such as the ladder seems to occur, followed by crys tallization of a two- or three-dimensional structure. Accordingly, many of the higher dimensional structures retain the structural features of the 1D structure, indicating the occurrence of self-assembly. These findings mark the beginnings of our understan ding of complex supramolecular inorganic materials.

  8. A comparative analysis of Indoor WiFi Positioning at a large building complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathisen, Andreas; Krogh, Søren; Stisen, Allan


    , to this end there is missing a unanimous evaluation methodology appropriately reflecting criteria relevant in real-world use. Assessing and advancing the state-of-the-art is often hindered by incomparable evaluation settings, and in many cases a missing rigor in describing evaluation methodology, metrics......, as only few experimental evaluations have been reported in such environments. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of several indoor positioning techniques set at a large university hospital spanning 160, 000m2—an environment where several location and context-aware logistic applications...... with implementing and using indoor positioning solutions in a highly diverse environment, in which building types and materials, as well as building use differ across the complex. Correspondingly, the evaluation data we use is gathered at different complex parts, days, and daytimes, and both at static locations...

  9. Building dampness and mold in European homes in relation to climate, building characteristics and socio-economic status: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey ECRHS II. (United States)

    Norbäck, D; Zock, J-P; Plana, E; Heinrich, J; Tischer, C; Jacobsen Bertelsen, R; Sunyer, J; Künzli, N; Villani, S; Olivieri, M; Verlato, G; Soon, A; Schlünssen, V; Gunnbjörnsdottir, M I; Jarvis, D


    We studied dampness and mold in homes in relation to climate, building characteristics and socio-economic status (SES) across Europe, for 7127 homes in 22 centers. A subsample of 3118 homes was inspected. Multilevel analysis was applied, including age, gender, center, SES, climate, and building factors. Self-reported water damage (10%), damp spots (21%), and mold (16%) in past year were similar as observed data (19% dampness and 14% mold). Ambient temperature was associated with self-reported water damage (OR=1.63 per 10°C; 95% CI 1.02-2.63), damp spots (OR=2.95; 95% CI 1.98-4.39), and mold (OR=2.28; 95% CI 1.04-4.67). Precipitation was associated with water damage (OR=1.12 per 100 mm; 95% CI 1.02-1.23) and damp spots (OR=1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.20). Ambient relative air humidity was not associated with indoor dampness and mold. Older buildings had more dampness and mold (Pmanagerial/professional workers. There were correlations between reported and observed data at center level (Spearman rho 0.61 for dampness and 0.73 for mold). In conclusion, high ambient temperature and precipitation and high building age can be risk factors for dampness and mold in homes in Europe.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lozan


    Full Text Available A series of novel tri-, tetra- and pentanuclear complexes composed of dinuclear LM units (M=Co, Ni, Zn; L=24-membered macrocyclic hexaaza-dithiophenolate ligand and ferrocenecarboxylate ([CpFeC5H4CO2]ˉ, 1,1’-ferrocenedicarboxy-late ([Fe(C5H4-CO22]2ˉ, acetylene-dicarboxylate, terephthalate, isophthalate, and naphthalene diimide dicarboxylate groups is reported. The complexes, have been synthesized and characterised by UV/Vis-, IR-, NMR-spectroscopy, Cyclovoltammetry, and X-ray crystallography. Each dicarboxylate dianion acts as a quadridentate bridging ligand linking two bioctahedral LM2 units via µ1,3-bridging carboxylate functions to generate discrete dications with a central LM2(O2C-R-CO2M2L core. The magnetic properties of these compounds reveal the presence of weak ferromagnetic exchange interactions between the NiII ions of the dinuclear subunits and negligible coupling across the dicarboxylate bridges.

  11. Studies on inhibition of respiratory cytochrome bc1 complex by the fungicide pyrimorph suggest a novel inhibitory mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Xiao

    Full Text Available The respiratory chain cytochrome bc1 complex (cyt bc1 is a major target of numerous antibiotics and fungicides. All cyt bc1 inhibitors act on either the ubiquinol oxidation (QP or ubiquinone reduction (QN site. The primary cause of resistance to bc1 inhibitors is target site mutations, creating a need for novel agents that act on alternative sites within the cyt bc1 to overcome resistance. Pyrimorph, a synthetic fungicide, inhibits the growth of a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi, though little is known concerning its mechanism of action. In this study, using isolated mitochondria from pathogenic fungus Phytophthora capsici, we show that pyrimorph blocks mitochondrial electron transport by affecting the function of cyt bc1. Indeed, pyrimorph inhibits the activities of both purified 11-subunit mitochondrial and 4-subunit bacterial bc1 with IC50 values of 85.0 μM and 69.2 μM, respectively, indicating that it targets the essential subunits of cyt bc1 complexes. Using an array of biochemical and spectral methods, we show that pyrimorph acts on an area near the QP site and falls into the category of a mixed-type, noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate ubiquinol. In silico molecular docking of pyrimorph to cyt b from mammalian and bacterial sources also suggests that pyrimorph binds in the vicinity of the quinol oxidation site.

  12. Studies on inhibition of respiratory cytochrome bc1 complex by the fungicide pyrimorph suggest a novel inhibitory mechanism. (United States)

    Xiao, Yu-Mei; Esser, Lothar; Zhou, Fei; Li, Chang; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Yu, Chang-An; Qin, Zhao-Hai; Xia, Di


    The respiratory chain cytochrome bc1 complex (cyt bc1) is a major target of numerous antibiotics and fungicides. All cyt bc1 inhibitors act on either the ubiquinol oxidation (QP) or ubiquinone reduction (QN) site. The primary cause of resistance to bc1 inhibitors is target site mutations, creating a need for novel agents that act on alternative sites within the cyt bc1 to overcome resistance. Pyrimorph, a synthetic fungicide, inhibits the growth of a broad range of plant pathogenic fungi, though little is known concerning its mechanism of action. In this study, using isolated mitochondria from pathogenic fungus Phytophthora capsici, we show that pyrimorph blocks mitochondrial electron transport by affecting the function of cyt bc1. Indeed, pyrimorph inhibits the activities of both purified 11-subunit mitochondrial and 4-subunit bacterial bc1 with IC50 values of 85.0 μM and 69.2 μM, respectively, indicating that it targets the essential subunits of cyt bc1 complexes. Using an array of biochemical and spectral methods, we show that pyrimorph acts on an area near the QP site and falls into the category of a mixed-type, noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate ubiquinol. In silico molecular docking of pyrimorph to cyt b from mammalian and bacterial sources also suggests that pyrimorph binds in the vicinity of the quinol oxidation site.

  13. Structure of a Major Antigenic Site on the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Glycoprotein in Complex with Neutralizing Antibody 101F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Man; Chang, Jung-San; Yang, Yongping; Kim, Albert; Graham, Barney S.; Kwong, Peter D. (NIH)


    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants and elderly people. Currently there is no effective vaccine against RSV, but passive prophylaxis with neutralizing antibodies reduces hospitalizations. To investigate the mechanism of antibody-mediated RSV neutralization, we undertook structure-function studies of monoclonal antibody 101F, which binds a linear epitope in the RSV fusion glycoprotein. Crystal structures of the 101F antigen-binding fragment in complex with peptides from the fusion glycoprotein defined both the extent of the linear epitope and the interactions of residues that are mutated in antibody escape variants. The structure allowed for modeling of 101F in complex with trimers of the fusion glycoprotein, and the resulting models suggested that 101F may contact additional surfaces located outside the linear epitope. This hypothesis was supported by surface plasmon resonance experiments that demonstrated 101F bound the peptide epitope {approx}16,000-fold more weakly than the fusion glycoprotein. The modeling also showed no substantial clashes between 101F and the fusion glycoprotein in either the pre- or postfusion state, and cell-based assays indicated that 101F neutralization was not associated with blocking virus attachment. Collectively, these results provide a structural basis for RSV neutralization by antibodies that target a major antigenic site on the fusion glycoprotein.

  14. Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasimman Rajendran


    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1lc.232A>G mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21 than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30, and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders.

  15. The promise of bacteriophage therapy for Burkholderia cepacia complex respiratory infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Dawn Semler


    Full Text Available In recent times, increased attention has been given to evaluating the efficacy of phage therapy, especially in scenarios where the bacterial infectious agent of interest is highly antibiotic resistant. In this regard, phage therapy is especially applicable to infections caused by the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC since members of the BCC are antibiotic pan-resistant. Current studies in BCC phage therapy are unique from many other avenues of phage therapy research in that the research is not only comprised of phage isolation, in vitro phage characterization and in vivo infection model efficacy, but also adapting aerosol drug delivery techniques to aerosol phage formulation delivery and storage.

  16. Evidence-based effectiveness of vaccination against Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni in feedlot cattle for mitigating the incidence and effect of bovine respiratory disease complex. (United States)

    Larson, R L; Step, D L


    Bovine respiratory disease complex is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. A number of vaccines against bacterial respiratory pathogens are commercially available and researchers have studied their impact on morbidity, mortality, and other disease outcome measures in feedlot cattle. A systematic review will provide veterinarians with a rigorous and transparent evaluation of the published literature to estimate the extent of vaccine effect. Unfortunately, the published body of evidence does not provide a consistent estimate of the direction and magnitude of effectiveness in feedlot cattle vaccination against Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, or Histophilus somni.

  17. BCNU-induced gR2 defect mediates S-glutathionylation of Complex I and respiratory uncoupling in myocardium. (United States)

    Kang, Patrick T; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Ren, Pei; Guarini, Giacinta; Chen, Yeong-Renn


    A deficiency of mitochondrial glutathione reductase (or GR2) is capable of adversely affecting the reduction of GSSG and increasing mitochondrial oxidative stress. BCNU [1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea] is an anticancer agent and known inhibitor of cytosolic GR ex vivo and in vivo. Here we tested the hypothesis that a BCNU-induced GR2 defect contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent impairment of heart function. Intraperitoneal administration of BCNU (40 mg/kg) specifically inhibited GR2 activity by 79.8 ± 2.7% in the mitochondria of rat heart. However, BCNU treatment modestly enhanced the activities of mitochondrial Complex I and other ETC components. The cardiac function of BCNU-treated rats was analyzed by echocardiography, revealing a systolic dysfunction associated with decreased ejection fraction, decreased cardiac output, and an increase in left ventricular internal dimension and left ventricular volume in systole. The respiratory control index of isolated mitochondria from the myocardium was moderately decreased after BCNU treatment, whereas NADH-linked uncoupling of oxygen consumption was significantly enhanced. Extracellular flux analysis to measure the fatty acid oxidation of myocytes indicated a 20% enhancement after BCNU treatment. When the mitochondria were immunoblotted with antibodies against GSH and UCP3, both protein S-glutathionylation of Complex I and expression of UCP3 were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of SOD2 in the myocardium significantly reversed BCNU-induced GR2 inhibition and mitochondrial impairment. In conclusion, BCNU-mediated cardiotoxicity is characterized by the GR2 deficiency that negatively regulates heart function by impairing mitochondrial integrity, increasing oxidative stress with Complex I S-glutathionylation, and enhancing uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration.

  18. [Complex therapy of occupational respiratory tract diseases using multifunctional massage device: clinical criteria of efficiency]. (United States)

    Artemova, L V; Sorkina, N S; Rumiantseva, O I; Komarova, S G; Rudyĭ, S S; Petrykina, M V


    Level of efficiency of CERAGEM MASTER CGM-M3500 treatment device applied for occupational patients suffering from bronchi and lung pathological states has been shown in the paper. Positive effects of treatment have been assessed as reliably high and were proved by improvement of clinical and functional indices, subjunctive self-evaluation of health by patients and positive signs in the clinical course of the diseases. Diagnostic complex has been analyzed, including hematological indicators of the peripheral blood, oxygenation of the capillary blood, immunology. Also dynamics of the clinical course has been studied along with the data on self-assessment of health by patients prior and after the therapy by the device. Prospects on treatment of occupational bronchi and lung pathologies with the help of multifunctional massage device are being discussed in the paper.

  19. Epistatic interactions modulate the evolution of mammalian mitochondrial respiratory complex components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moleirinho Ana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deleterious effect of a mutation can be reverted by a second-site interacting residue. This is an epistatic compensatory process explaining why mutations that are deleterious in some species are tolerated in phylogenetically related lineages, rendering evident that those mutations are, by all means, only deleterious in the species-specific context. Although an extensive and refined theoretical framework on compensatory evolution does exist, the supporting evidence remains limited, especially for protein models. In this current study, we focused on the molecular mechanism underlying the epistatic compensatory process in mammalian mitochondrial OXPHOS proteins using a combination of in-depth structural and sequence analyses. Results Modeled human structures were used in this study to predict the structural impairment and recovery of deleterious mutations alone and combined with an interacting compensatory partner, respectively. In two cases, COI and COIII, intramolecular interactions between spatially linked residues restore the folding pattern impaired by the deleterious mutation. In a third case, intermolecular contact between mitochondrial CYB and nuclear CYT1 encoded components of the cytochrome bc1 complex are likely to restore protein binding. Moreover, we observed different modes of compensatory evolution that have resulted in either a quasi-simultaneous occurrence of a mutation and corresponding compensatory partner, or in independent occurrences of mutations in distinct lineages that were always preceded by the compensatory site. Conclusion Epistatic interactions between individual replacements involving deleterious mutations seems to follow a parsimonious model of evolution in which genomes hold pre-compensating states that subsequently tolerate deleterious mutations. This phenomenon is likely to have been constraining the variability at coevolving sites and shaping the interaction between the mitochondrial and

  20. Building-block architecture of botulinum toxin complex: Conformational changes provide insights into the hemagglutination ability of the complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Suzuki


    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum produces the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT. Previously, we provided evidence for the “building-block” model of botulinum toxin complex (TC. In this model, a single BoNT is associated with a single nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA, yielding M-TC; three HA-70 molecules are attached and form M-TC/HA-70, and one to three “arms” of the HA-33/HA-17 trimer (two HA-33 and one HA-17 further bind to M-TC/HA-70 via HA-17 and HA-70 binding, yielding one-, two-, and three-arm L-TC. Of all TCs, only the three-arm L-TC caused hemagglutination. In this study, we determined the solution structures for the botulinum TCs using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS. The mature three-arm L-TC exhibited the shape of a “bird spreading its wings”, in contrast to the model having three “arms”, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. SAXS images indicated that one of the three arms of the HA-33/HA-17 trimer bound to both HA-70 and BoNT. Taken together, these findings regarding the conformational changes in the building-block architecture of TC may explain why only three-arm L-TC exhibited hemagglutination.

  1. Celastrol targets mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I to induce reactive oxygen species-dependent cytotoxicity in tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yuanji


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celastrol is an active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Tripterygium Wilfordii, which exhibits significant antitumor activity in different cancer models in vitro and in vivo; however, the lack of information on the target and mechanism of action of this compound have impeded its clinical application. In this study, we sought to determine the mode of action of celastrol by focusing on the processes that mediate its anticancer activity. Methods The downregulation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 client proteins, phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK, and cleavage of PARP, caspase 9 and caspase 3 were detected by western blotting. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS was analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Cell cycle progression, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC complexes. Results Celastrol induced ROS accumulation, G2-M phase blockage, apoptosis and necrosis in H1299 and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidative agent, inhibited celastrol-induced ROS accumulation and cytotoxicity. JNK phosphorylation induced by celastrol was suppressed by NAC and JNK inhibitor SP600125 (SP. Moreover, SP significantly inhibited celastrol-induced loss of MMP, cleavage of PARP, caspase 9 and caspase 3, mitochondrial translocation of Bad, cytoplasmic release of cytochrome c, and cell death. However, SP did not inhibit celastrol-induced ROS accumulation. Celastrol downregulated HSP90 client proteins but did not disrupt the interaction between HSP90 and cdc37. NAC completely inhibited celastrol-induced decrease of HSP90 client proteins, catalase and thioredoxin. The activity of MRC complex I was completely inhibited in H1299 cells treated with 6 μM celastrol in the absence and presence of NAC

  2. STS-47 crew leaves KSC's O and C Building on their way to Launch Complex 39 (United States)


    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), leave the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Operations and Checkout (O and C) Building to board a van headed for Launch Complex (LC) 39. Leading the crew is Commander Robert L. Gibson (front right). He is followed by Mission Specialist (MS) Jerome Apt (glasses, front center), Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr (front left), MS N. Jan Davis (center left), MS and Payload Commander Mark C. Lee (center right), Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri (waving back left), and MS Mae C. Jemison (back right). Mohri represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA).

  3. Respiratory chain complex I, a main regulatory target of the cAMP/PKA pathway is defective in different human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papa, S.; De Rasmo, D.; Technikova-Dobrova, Z.;


    In mammals, complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain has 31 supernumerary subunits in addition to the 14 conserved from prokaryotes to humans. Multiplicity of structural protein components, as well as of biogenesis factors, makes complex I a sensible pace...... to genetic and sporadic pathological factors. Complex I dysfunction has, indeed, been found, to be associated with several human diseases. Knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms of these diseases can help to develop new therapeutic strategies. (C) 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies...

  4. Axiomatic design in large systems complex products, buildings and manufacturing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Nam


    This book provides a synthesis of recent developments in Axiomatic Design theory and its application in large complex systems. Introductory chapters provide concise tutorial materials for graduate students and new practitioners, presenting the fundamentals of Axiomatic Design and relating its key concepts to those of model-based systems engineering. A mathematical exposition of design axioms is also provided. The main body of the book, which represents a concentrated treatment of several applications, is divided into three parts covering work on: complex products; buildings; and manufacturing systems. The book shows how design work in these areas can benefit from the scientific and systematic underpinning provided by Axiomatic Design, and in so doing effectively combines the state of the art in design research with practice. All contributions were written by an international group of leading proponents of Axiomatic Design. The book concludes with a call to action motivating further research into the engineeri...

  5. Density Functional Theory Study on La Complex with Schiff-base as Building Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Shu-Wei; XU Xiang; SUN Ya-Li; FAN Yu-Hua; BI Cai-Feng; ZHANG Dong-Mei; YANG Li-Rong


    Quantum density functional theory (DFT) results are reported for the building block [LaL1(NO3)]- of La complex [LaL1(NO3)]NO3·5H2O (L1 = (CH3)2CHCH2CH(NCHC4H3O)COO-). The structure was optimized and the calculation results show that the lanthanum ion is coordinated by one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms of L1 and two oxygen atoms of nitrate ion. The bond length of La-N is 0.2637 nm and the average length of La-O is 0.2526 nm, which are consistent with the literatures. In addition, the stabilities, electronic structural characteristics and IR spectra of the complex have been analyzed, which describe the coordination of lanthanum ion with other atoms in detail.

  6. Enhanced Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Positive BACTEC 12B Broth Cultures of Respiratory Specimens



    The reliability of the Gen-Probe enhanced Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) for identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in BACTEC 12B broth cultures of respiratory specimens was evaluated by testing aliquots from 268 bottles with a growth index of ≥50. MTD results were compared to those obtained by usual laboratory protocol, whereby MTBC was identified by DNA probe (Gen-Probe, Inc.) testing sediment from broth samples or colonies on a solid medium. For...

  7. 76 FR 28789 - Draft Alert Entitled “Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office... (United States)


    ... Occupational Respiratory Disease from Dampness in Office Buildings, Schools, and other Nonindustrial Buildings... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Alert Entitled ``Preventing Occupational Respiratory Disease From Dampness in Office Buildings, Schools, and Other Nonindustrial Buildings''...

  8. Quantum Computational Studies of Electron Transfer in Respiratory Complex III and its Application for Designing New Mitocan Drugs (United States)

    Hagras, Muhammad Ahmed

    Electron transfer occurs in many biological systems which are imperative to sustain life; oxidative phosphorylation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and photophosphorylation in photosynthetic and plant cells are well-balanced and complementary processes. Investigating electron transfer in those natural systems provides detailed knowledge of the atomistic events that lead eventually to production of ATP, or harvesting light energy. Ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase complex (also known as bc 1 complex, or respiratory complex III) is a middle player in the electron transport proton pumping orchestra, located in the inner-mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes or plasma membrane in prokaryotes, which converts the free energy of redox reactions to electrochemical proton gradient across the membrane, following the fundamental chemiosmotic principle discovered by Peter Mitchell 1. In humans, the malfunctioned bc1 complex plays a major role in many neurodegenerative diseases, stress-induced aging, and cancer development, because it produces most of the reactive oxygen species, which are also involved in cellular signaling 2. The mitochondrial bc1 complex has an intertwined dimeric structure comprised of 11 subunits in each monomer, but only three of them have catalytic function, and those are the only domains found in bacterial bc1 complex. The core subunits include: Rieske domain, which incorporates iron-sulfur cluster [2Fe-2S]; trans-membrane cytochrome b domain, incorporating low-potential heme group (heme b L) and high-potential heme group (heme b H); and cytochrome c1 domain, containing heme c1 group and two separate binding sites, Qo (or QP) site where the hydrophobic electron carrier ubihydroquinol QH2 is oxidized, and Qi (or QN) site where ubiquinone molecule Q is reduced 3. Electrons and protons in the bc1 complex flow according to the proton-motive Q-cycle proposed by Mitchell, which includes a unique electron flow bifurcation at the Qo site. At this site, one

  9. Advances in Multi-Sensor Scanning and Visualization of Complex Plants: the Utmost Case of a Reactor Building (United States)

    Hullo, J.-F.; Thibault, G.; Boucheny, C.


    In a context of increased maintenance operations and workers generational renewal, a nuclear owner and operator like Electricité de France (EDF) is interested in the scaling up of tools and methods of "as-built virtual reality" for larger buildings and wider audiences. However, acquisition and sharing of as-built data on a large scale (large and complex multi-floored buildings) challenge current scientific and technical capacities. In this paper, we first present a state of the art of scanning tools and methods for industrial plants with very complex architecture. Then, we introduce the inner characteristics of the multi-sensor scanning and visualization of the interior of the most complex building of a power plant: a nuclear reactor building. We introduce several developments that made possible a first complete survey of such a large building, from acquisition, processing and fusion of multiple data sources (3D laser scans, total-station survey, RGB panoramic, 2D floor plans, 3D CAD as-built models). In addition, we present the concepts of a smart application developed for the painless exploration of the whole dataset. The goal of this application is to help professionals, unfamiliar with the manipulation of such datasets, to take into account spatial constraints induced by the building complexity while preparing maintenance operations. Finally, we discuss the main feedbacks of this large experiment, the remaining issues for the generalization of such large scale surveys and the future technical and scientific challenges in the field of industrial "virtual reality".

  10. Isolated respiratory chain enzyme deficiency in patients with a mitochondrial (encephalo-) myopathy: Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial complex and IV genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, D. de; Coo, I. de; Buddiger, P. [University Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [and others


    The mitochondrial respiratory chain consists of four enzyme complexes. Deficiencies of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) and complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) are frequently found in muscle biopsies from patients with a mitochondrial (encephalo-)myopathy. Mutations in the mitochondrial-encoded subunits have been observed in a number of different mitochondrial (encephalo-)myophathies. We screened eight mitochondrial (encephalo-)myopathy patients with an isolated complex I deficiency for mutations in the ND genes by direct sequencing. No abnormality was detected. We also studied 9 mitochondrial (encephalo-)myopathy patients and an isolated complex IV deficiency. In the muscle biopsy of one patient a novel heteroplasmic mutation (T {r_arrow} C) at nucleotide position 6681 was found in the mitochondrial COX I gene. This mutation led to the substitution of a conserved Tyr for His. As this mutation changed the secondary structure of the protein and was not found in the healthy mother, we consider it likely that this mutation is pathological. In the other patients no abnormality was detected. Therefore, mutations in the mitochondrially-encoded subunits are not a frequent cause of isolated respiratory chain enzyme deficiency.

  11. How the strengths of Lisp-family languages facilitate building complex and flexible bioinformatics applications. (United States)

    Khomtchouk, Bohdan B; Weitz, Edmund; Karp, Peter D; Wahlestedt, Claes


    We present a rationale for expanding the presence of the Lisp family of programming languages in bioinformatics and computational biology research. Put simply, Lisp-family languages enable programmers to more quickly write programs that run faster than in other languages. Languages such as Common Lisp, Scheme and Clojure facilitate the creation of powerful and flexible software that is required for complex and rapidly evolving domains like biology. We will point out several important key features that distinguish languages of the Lisp family from other programming languages, and we will explain how these features can aid researchers in becoming more productive and creating better code. We will also show how these features make these languages ideal tools for artificial intelligence and machine learning applications. We will specifically stress the advantages of domain-specific languages (DSLs): languages that are specialized to a particular area, and thus not only facilitate easier research problem formulation, but also aid in the establishment of standards and best programming practices as applied to the specific research field at hand. DSLs are particularly easy to build in Common Lisp, the most comprehensive Lisp dialect, which is commonly referred to as the 'programmable programming language'. We are convinced that Lisp grants programmers unprecedented power to build increasingly sophisticated artificial intelligence systems that may ultimately transform machine learning and artificial intelligence research in bioinformatics and computational biology.

  12. Cattle with increased severity of bovine respiratory disease complex exhibit decreased capacity to protect against histone cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Matera, J A; Wilson, B K; Hernandez Gifford, J A; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R; Gifford, C A


    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. Significant inflammation and lesions are often observed in lungs of infected cattle. During acute inflammatory responses, histones contribute to mortality in rodents and humans and serum proteins can protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that cattle experiencing chronic or fatal cases of BRDC have reduced ability to protect against cytotoxic effects of histones. Serum samples were collected from 66 bull calves at the time of normal feedlot processing procedures. Animals were retrospectively assigned to groups consisting of calves never treated for BRDC (control [CONT]; n = 10), calves treated with antimicrobials once for BRDC (1T; n = 16), calves treated twice for BRDC (2T; n = 13), calves treated 3 times for BRDC (3T; n = 14), or calves treated 4 times for BRDC (4T; n = 13). Samples were also collected each time animals received antimicrobial treatment; animals within a group were further sorted by calves that recovered and calves that died to test histone cytotoxicity. Bovine kidney cells were cultured in duplicate in 96-well plates and exposed to 0 or 50 μg/mL of total histones for 18 h with 1% serum from each animal. Cell viability was assessed by the addition of resazurin for 6 h followed by fluorescent quantification. Fluorescent values from serum alone were subtracted from values obtained for histone treatment for each animal. Serum from CONT, 1T, and 2T at initial processing all exhibited a similar (P > 0.10) response to histone treatment with fluorescent values of -312 ± 557, -1,059 ± 441, and -975 ± 489, respectively. However, 3T and 4T demonstrated an impaired capacity (P < 0.05) to protect against histones (-2,778 ± 471 and -3,026 ± 489) at initial processing when compared to the other groups. When sorted by mortality within group, calves that were treated twice and recovered (-847 ± 331) demonstrated a greater (P

  13. Isoflurane anesthetic hypersensitivity and progressive respiratory depression in a mouse model with isolated mitochondrial complex I deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, S.; Manjeri, G.R.; Willems, P.H.G.M.; Scheffer, G.J.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Driessen, J.J.


    BACKGROUND: Children with mitochondrial disorders are frequently anesthetized for a wide range of operations. These disorders may interfere with the response to surgery and anesthesia. We examined anesthetic sensitivity to and respiratory effects of isoflurane in the Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mouse model

  14. Safety assessment document for the environmental test complex (Building 834) at Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.


    A safety assessment was performed to determine if accidents occurring at the 834 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. (However, there are a few recommendations to further enhance the structural integrity of these facilities). Additional lightning protection for these facilities is being installed. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. A criticality or a high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exceptions to this policy are that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, a planned or accidental actuation will not effect the safe containment of the fissile material within the assembly). Even though the possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium is remote, the off-site lung doses were calculated and found to be below the accepted standards. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls.

  15. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex. (United States)

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L


    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure.

  16. Sea Water Quality Modeling in the Frame of a Building First Turn of a Hydraulic Engineering Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor G. Kantargi


    Full Text Available The article deals with an application of developed system-dynamic model of the coastal waters quality for an assessment of sea water quality in the frame of building 1 turn of a hydraulic engineering complex "Object" the Island Federation». The attention is paid to a coast site with a coastal protection constructions.

  17. Cells lacking Rieske iron-sulfur protein have a reactive oxygen species-associated decrease in respiratory complexes I and IV. (United States)

    Diaz, Francisca; Enríquez, José Antonio; Moraes, Carlos T


    Mitochondrial respiratory complexes of the electron transport chain (CI, CIII, and CIV) can be assembled into larger structures forming supercomplexes. We analyzed the assembly/stability of respiratory complexes in mouse lung fibroblasts lacking the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP knockout [KO]cells), one of the catalytic subunits of CIII. In the absence of RISP, most of the remaining CIII subunits were able to assemble into a large precomplex that lacked enzymatic activity. CI, CIV, and supercomplexes were decreased in the RISP-deficient cells. Reintroduction of RISP into KO cells restored CIII activity and increased the levels of active CI, CIV, and supercomplexes. We found that hypoxia (1% O(2)) resulted in increased levels of CI, CIV, and supercomplex assembly in RISP KO cells. In addition, treatment of control cells with different oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) inhibitors showed that compounds known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) (e.g., antimycin A and oligomycin) had a negative impact on CI and supercomplex levels. Accordingly, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic compound and SOD2 overexpression provided a partial increase in supercomplex levels in the RISP KO cells. Our data suggest that the stability of CI, CIV, and supercomplexes is regulated by ROS in the context of defective oxidative phosphorylation.

  18. From Laser Scanning to Finite Element Analysis of Complex Buildings by Using a Semi-Automatic Procedure. (United States)

    Castellazzi, Giovanni; D'Altri, Antonio Maria; Bitelli, Gabriele; Selvaggi, Ilenia; Lambertini, Alessandro


    In this paper, a new semi-automatic procedure to transform three-dimensional point clouds of complex objects to three-dimensional finite element models is presented and validated. The procedure conceives of the point cloud as a stacking of point sections. The complexity of the clouds is arbitrary, since the procedure is designed for terrestrial laser scanner surveys applied to buildings with irregular geometry, such as historical buildings. The procedure aims at solving the problems connected to the generation of finite element models of these complex structures by constructing a fine discretized geometry with a reduced amount of time and ready to be used with structural analysis. If the starting clouds represent the inner and outer surfaces of the structure, the resulting finite element model will accurately capture the whole three-dimensional structure, producing a complex solid made by voxel elements. A comparison analysis with a CAD-based model is carried out on a historical building damaged by a seismic event. The results indicate that the proposed procedure is effective and obtains comparable models in a shorter time, with an increased level of automation.

  19. Accuracy Assessment of a Complex Building 3d Model Reconstructed from Images Acquired with a Low-Cost Uas (United States)

    Oniga, E.; Chirilă, C.; Stătescu, F.


    Nowadays, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) are a wide used technique for acquisition in order to create buildings 3D models, providing the acquisition of a high number of images at very high resolution or video sequences, in a very short time. Since low-cost UASs are preferred, the accuracy of a building 3D model created using this platforms must be evaluated. To achieve results, the dean's office building from the Faculty of "Hydrotechnical Engineering, Geodesy and Environmental Engineering" of Iasi, Romania, has been chosen, which is a complex shape building with the roof formed of two hyperbolic paraboloids. Seven points were placed on the ground around the building, three of them being used as GCPs, while the remaining four as Check points (CPs) for accuracy assessment. Additionally, the coordinates of 10 natural CPs representing the building characteristic points were measured with a Leica TCR 405 total station. The building 3D model was created as a point cloud which was automatically generated based on digital images acquired with the low-cost UASs, using the image matching algorithm and different software like 3DF Zephyr, Visual SfM, PhotoModeler Scanner and Drone2Map for ArcGIS. Except for the PhotoModeler Scanner software, the interior and exterior orientation parameters were determined simultaneously by solving a self-calibrating bundle adjustment. Based on the UAS point clouds, automatically generated by using the above mentioned software and GNSS data respectively, the parameters of the east side hyperbolic paraboloid were calculated using the least squares method and a statistical blunder detection. Then, in order to assess the accuracy of the building 3D model, several comparisons were made for the facades and the roof with reference data, considered with minimum errors: TLS mesh for the facades and GNSS mesh for the roof. Finally, the front facade of the building was created in 3D based on its characteristic points using the PhotoModeler Scanner


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    10.1 Respiratory failure2003068 Evaluation of non-invasive ventilation in a-cute respiratory failure with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. GU Jianyong(顾俭勇), et al. Dept E-mergen, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Shanghai J Med 2002; 25 (12): 741 - 743.Objective:To observe the effect of non-invasive venti-lation(NIV) in acute respiratory failure with chronic

  1. Responding to complexity in socio-economic systems: How to build a smart and resilient society?

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk


    The world is changing at an ever-increasing pace. And it has changed in a much more fundamental way than one would think, primarily because it has become more connected and interdependent than in our entire history. Every new product, every new invention can be combined with those that existed before, thereby creating an explosion of complexity: structural complexity, dynamic complexity, functional complexity, and algorithmic complexity. How to respond to this challenge? And what are the costs?

  2. Building a Complex Scorecard on the Basis of Assessment of Influence of Socio-economic Factors of Enterprise Development


    Verbitska Tetiana V.


    The goal of the article lies in building a complex scorecard used for assessment of influence of socio-economic factors of enterprise development. The article specifies such groups of socio-economic factors as factors of organisational and managerial impact; workers potential and their professional development; social protection of workers; labour protection and healthcare; and social infrastructure. Having analysed and compared concepts and approaches to assessment of enterprise activity, th...

  3. Curcumin prevents maleate-induced nephrotoxicity: relation to hemodynamic alterations, oxidative stress, mitochondrial oxygen consumption and activity of respiratory complex I. (United States)

    Tapia, E; Sánchez-Lozada, L G; García-Niño, W R; García, E; Cerecedo, A; García-Arroyo, F E; Osorio, H; Arellano, A; Cristóbal-García, M; Loredo, M L; Molina-Jijón, E; Hernández-Damián, J; Negrette-Guzmán, M; Zazueta, C; Huerta-Yepez, S; Reyes, J L; Madero, M; Pedraza-Chaverrí, J


    The potential protective effect of the dietary antioxidant curcumin (120 mg/Kg/day for 6 days) against the renal injury induced by maleate was evaluated. Tubular proteinuria and oxidative stress were induced by a single injection of maleate (400 mg/kg) in rats. Maleate-induced renal injury included increase in renal vascular resistance and in the urinary excretion of total protein, glucose, sodium, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and N-acetyl β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), upregulation of kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, decrease in renal blood flow and claudin-2 expression besides of necrosis and apoptosis of tubular cells on 24 h. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring the oxidation of lipids and proteins and diminution in renal Nrf2 levels. Studies were also conducted in renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells and in mitochondria isolated from kidneys of all the experimental groups. Maleate induced cell damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in LLC-PK1 cells in culture. In addition, maleate treatment reduced oxygen consumption in ADP-stimulated mitochondria and diminished respiratory control index when using malate/glutamate as substrate. The activities of both complex I and aconitase were also diminished. All the above-described alterations were prevented by curcumin. It is concluded that curcumin is able to attenuate in vivo maleate-induced nephropathy and in vitro cell damage. The in vivo protection was associated to the prevention of oxidative stress and preservation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption and activity of respiratory complex I, and the in vitro protection was associated to the prevention of ROS production.

  4. Binding of the Respiratory Chain Inhibitor Antimycin to theMitochondrial bc1 Complex: A New Crystal Structure Reveals an AlteredIntramolecular Hydrogen-Bonding Pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y.; Berry, Edward A.


    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex.Structure-activity-relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Two previous X-ray structures of antimycin bound to vertebrate bc1 complex gave conflicting results. A new structure reported here of the bovine mitochondrial bc1 complex at 2.28Angstrom resolution with antimycin bound, allows us for the first time to reliably describe the binding of antimycin and shows that the intramolecular hydrogen bond described in solution and in the small-molecule structure is replaced by one involving the NH rather than carbonyl O of the amide linkage, with rotation of the amide group relative to the aromatic ring. The phenolic OH and formylamino N form H-bonds with conserved Asp228 of cyt b, and the formylamino O H-bonds via a water molecule to Lys227. A strong density the right size and shape for a diatomic molecule is found between the other side of the dilactone ring and the alpha-A helix.

  5. Respiratory mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Theodore A


    This book thoroughly covers each subfield of respiratory mechanics: pulmonary mechanics, the respiratory pump, and flow. It presents the current understanding of the field and serves as a guide to the scientific literature from the golden age of respiratory mechanics, 1960 - 2010. Specific topics covered include the contributions of surface tension and tissue forces to lung recoil, the gravitational deformation of the lung, and the interdependence forces that act on pulmonary airways and blood vessels. The geometry and kinematics of the ribs is also covered in detail, as well as the respiratory action of the external and internal intercostal muscles, the mechanics of the diaphragm, and the quantitative compartmental models of the chest wall is also described. Additionally, flow in the airways is covered thoroughly, including the wave-speed and viscous expiratory flow-limiting mechanisms; convection, diffusion and the stationary front; and the distribution of ventilation. This is an ideal book for respiratory ...

  6. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.


    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  7. Dive into the Deep End: Anchor Texts Build Understanding of Complex Ideas (United States)

    Zimmerman, Diane P.; Litzau, Katrina M.; Murray, Vicki L.


    In 2014, instructional coaches Katrina Litzau and Vicki Murray designed professional learning to support teachers and principals in developing a deeper understanding of the cognitive processes of leadership. Steeped in the Common Core State Standards and building on quality literacy instruction, they designed the professional learning based on…

  8. The Improvement of Organizational and Functional Approaches of Implementation of Complex Energy Renovation of Odessa Historic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posternak Irina


    Full Text Available Different systems act as one of the most promising forms of integration in the urban planning structure. In the process of formation of plans for social and economic development of major cities more often, there is a situation, when the improvement of resources efficiency needs not just a concentration of effort, but also some new and innovative forms of building production organization. It is proposed to establish in Odessa the "Corporate Scientific and Technical Complex of urban planning energy renovation" as an innovative organizational structure which practically uses the accumulated scientific and technical potential for the reconstruction of historic buildings in Odessa in 1820–920 using energy efficiency standards. It is necessary to organize courses in the form of accelerated training for workers of the occupation "master of finishing construction work" specialty "plasterer" for "KNTK GERek" effective functioning.

  9. Palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex formulation enhances activities of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases and respiratory complexes I-IV in the heart of aged rats. (United States)

    Sudheesh, N P; Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K; Krishnan, C V


    Age-related decline in the capacity to withstand stress, such as ischemia and reperfusion, results in congestive heart failure. Though the mechanisms underlying cardiac decay are not clear, age dependent somatic damages to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), loss of mitochondrial function, and a resultant increase in oxidative stress in heart muscle cells may be responsible for the increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The effect of a safe nutritional supplement, POLY-MVA, containing the active ingredient palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex, was evaluated on the activities of the Krebs cycle enzymes such as isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase as well as mitochondrial complexes I, II, III, and IV in heart mitochondria of aged male albino rats of Wistar strain. Administration of 0.05 ml/kg of POLY-MVA (which is equivalent to 0.38 mg complexed alpha-lipoic acid/kg, p.o), once daily for 30 days, was significantly (pKrebs cycle dehydrogenases, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. The unique electronic and redox properties of palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex appear to be a key to this physiological effectiveness. The results strongly suggest that this formulation might be effective to protect the aging associated risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens. (United States)

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C


    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories.

  11. Elevated levels of mitochonrial respiratory complexes activities and ATP production in 17-β-estradiol-induced prolactin-secretory tumor cells in male rats are inhibited by melatonin in vivo and in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-qiang; YANG Quan-hui; XU Rong-kun; XU Jian-ning


    Background Our earlier studies indicate that melatonin inhibits the proliferation of prolactinoma and induces apoptosis of pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor in rats.Melatonin has also been shown to induce apoptosis and to reduce the production of ATP in breast tumor cells.This study analyzed the levels of the four mitochondrial respiratory complexes and the production of ATP and also the effects of melatonin treatment of prolactinoma.Methods In the in vivo study,mitochondria were harvested from control pituitaries or prolactinoma collected from the pituitaries of melatonin-and 17-β-estradiol (E2)-treated male rats.In the in vitro study,prolactinoma cells mitochondria were harvested.Activities of the four mitochondrial respiratory complexes were assayed using fluorometer.ATP production of prolactinoma cells was estimated using bioluminescent methods.Results Elevated levels of four mitochondrial respiratory complexes activities and ATP production were recorded in prolactinoma cells.Moreover,in both in vivo and in vitro studies,melatonin inhibited the activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and the production of ATP in prolactinoma cells.Conclusions There is a link between mitochondrial function increase and tumorigenesis.Melatonin induces apoptosis of pituitary prolactin-secreting tumor of rats via the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of energy metabolism.

  12. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Municipal Building complex, Abbeville, South Carolina (United States)


    Information on the solar energy system installed at the new municipal building for the City of Abbeville, SC is presented, including a description of solar energy system and buildings, lessons learned, and recommendations. The solar space heating system is a direct air heating system. The flat roof collector panel was sized to provide 75% of the heating requirement based on an average day in January. The collectors used are job-built with two layers of filon corrugated fiberglass FRP panels cross lapped make up the cover. The storage consists of a pit filled with washed 3/4 in - 1 1/2 in diameter crushed granite stone. The air handler includes the air handling mechanism, motorized dampers, air circulating blower, sensors, control relays and mode control unit. Solar heating of water is provided only those times when the hot air in the collector is exhausted to the outside.

  13. Respiratory active mitochondrial supercomplexes. (United States)

    Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Peleato, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Enriquez, Jose Antonio


    The structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory complexes as four big independently moving entities connected by the mobile carriers CoQ and cytochrome c has been challenged recently. Blue native gel electrophoresis reveals the presence of high-molecular-weight bands containing several respiratory complexes and suggesting an in vivo assembly status of these structures (respirasomes). However, no functional evidence of the activity of supercomplexes as true respirasomes has been provided yet. We have observed that (1) supercomplexes are not formed when one of their component complexes is absent; (2) there is a temporal gap between the formation of the individual complexes and that of the supercomplexes; (3) some putative respirasomes contain CoQ and cytochrome c; (4) isolated respirasomes can transfer electrons from NADH to O(2), that is, they respire. Therefore, we have demonstrated the existence of a functional respirasome and propose a structural organization model that accommodates these findings.

  14. Complex analysis of energy efficiency of public buildings: case study of VGTU


    Rynkun G.; Valancius K.; Motuziene V.


    The purpose of this work was to make analysis of energy efficiency of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) buildings. The survey was performed within the frame of the Intelligent Energy – Europe (IEE) project “Use Efficiency” – Universities and Students for Energy Efficiency.The methodology of the detailed auditing proves that energy audits must be performed with the maximum use of measurements. When having main parameters measured, it is much exact and easier to form energy balance ...

  15. BIM-Based Indoor-Emergency-Navigation-System for Complex Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uwe Rueppel; Kai Marcus Stuebbe


    The imminence of terrorist activities and the necessity of the maximum possible disaster prepar-edness in the sense of indoor-navigation support have been brought to evidence by several catastrophes,e.g., the fire at Istanbul Airport in May 2006 or the terror attacks on the London Underground on July 7,2005. Since 2001 ten terror attacks have been thwarted only in Great Britain. For that reason the aim of the presented research project is to develop a solution for response and recovery to support rescuers in finding the shortest way within a public building and provide them with important information in their particular spa-tial context. Existing building information models (BIM) are used for displaying plans on mobile devices and for routing purposes. The indoor navigation system is based on wireless I_AN (WLAN), ultra-wide-band (UWB), and radio frequency identification (RFID). These technologies are described in detail and an over-view on data formats which are used to retrieve building data out of the BIM for generating routing networks is given.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    2004494 Respiratory control in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. WANG Wei (王玮), et al. Instit Respir Dis, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Limy, Shenyang 110001. Chin J Intern Med 2004; 43 (9): 647-650.

  17. Evidence for an early evolutionary emergence of γ-type carbonic anhydrases as components of mitochondrial respiratory complex I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Michael W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complexity of mitochondrial complex I (CI; NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase has increased considerably relative to the homologous complex in bacteria. Comparative analyses of CI composition in animals, fungi and land plants/green algae suggest that novel components of mitochondrial CI include a set of 18 proteins common to all eukaryotes and a variable number of lineage-specific subunits. In plants and green algae, several purportedly plant-specific proteins homologous to γ-type carbonic anhydrases (γCA have been identified as components of CI. However, relatively little is known about CI composition in the unicellular protists, the characterizations of which are essential to our understanding of CI evolution. Results We have performed a tandem mass spectrometric characterization of CI from the amoeboid protozoon Acanthamoeba castellanii. Among the proteins identified were two γCA homologs, AcCa1 and AcCa2, demonstrating that γCA proteins are not specific to plants/green algae. In fact, through bioinformatics searches we detected γCA homologs in diverse protist lineages, and several of these homologs are predicted to possess N-terminal mitochondrial targeting peptides. Conclusions The detection of γCAs in CI of Acanthamoeba, considered to be a closer relative of animals and fungi than plants, suggests that γCA proteins may have been an ancestral feature of mitochondrial CI, rather than a novel, plant-specific addition. This assertion is supported by the presence of genes encoding γCAs in the nuclear genomes of a wide variety of eukaryotes. Together, these findings emphasize the importance of a phylogenetically broad characterization of CI for elucidating CI evolution in eukaryotes.

  18. [Respiratory distress]. (United States)

    Galili, D; Garfunkel, A; Elad, S; Zusman, S P; Malamed, S F; Findler, M; Kaufman, E


    Dental treatment is usually conducted in the oral cavity and in very close proximity to the upper respiratory airway. The possibility of unintentionally compromising this airway is high in the dental environment. The accumulation of fluid (water or blood) near to the upper respiratory airway or the loosening of teeth fragmentations and fallen dental instruments can occur. Also, some of the drugs prescribed in the dental practice are central nervous system depressants and some are direct respiratory drive depressors. For this reason, awareness of the respiratory status of the dental patient is of paramount importance. This article focuses on several of the more common causes of respiratory distress, including airway obstruction, hyperventilation, asthma, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolism and cardiac insufficiency. The common denominator to all these conditions described here is that in most instances the patient is conscious. Therefore, on the one hand, valuable information can be retrieved from the patient making diagnosis easier than when the patient is unconscious. On the other hand, the conscious patient is under extreme apprehension and stress under such situations. Respiratory depression which occurs during conscious sedation or following narcotic analgesic medication will not be dealt with in this article. Advanced pain and anxiety control techniques such as conscious sedation and general anesthesia should be confined only to operators who undergo special extended training.

  19. [Chronic respiratory insufficiency and the elderly patient]. (United States)

    Cobarzan, Daniel


    Chronic respiratory failure is a complex entity of varied etiology and physio-pathological mechanisms. It is mainly characterised by the respiratory system's difficulty in ensuring correct aeration at rest, resulting initially in insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood. Treatment is adapted to each etiology and aims to compensate for respiratory failure and to ensure the oxygenation of the organism.

  20. Mutations in NDUFB11, encoding a complex I component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, cause microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome. (United States)

    van Rahden, Vanessa A; Fernandez-Vizarra, Erika; Alawi, Malik; Brand, Kristina; Fellmann, Florence; Horn, Denise; Zeviani, Massimo; Kutsche, Kerstin


    Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is an X-linked male-lethal disorder also known as MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea). Additional clinical features include neurological and cardiac abnormalities. MLS syndrome is genetically heterogeneous given that heterozygous mutations in HCCS or COX7B have been identified in MLS-affected females. Both genes encode proteins involved in the structure and function of complexes III and IV, which form the terminal segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC). However, not all individuals with MLS syndrome carry a mutation in either HCCS or COX7B. The majority of MLS-affected females have severe skewing of X chromosome inactivation, suggesting that mutations in HCCS, COX7B, and other as-yet-unidentified X-linked gene(s) cause selective loss of cells in which the mutated X chromosome is active. By applying whole-exome sequencing and filtering for X-chromosomal variants, we identified a de novo nonsense mutation in NDUFB11 (Xp11.23) in one female individual and a heterozygous 1-bp deletion in a second individual, her asymptomatic mother, and an affected aborted fetus of the subject's mother. NDUFB11 encodes one of 30 poorly characterized supernumerary subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, known as complex I (cI), the first and largest enzyme of the MRC. By shRNA-mediated NDUFB11 knockdown in HeLa cells, we demonstrate that NDUFB11 is essential for cI assembly and activity as well as cell growth and survival. These results demonstrate that X-linked genetic defects leading to the complete inactivation of complex I, III, or IV underlie MLS syndrome. Our data reveal an unexpected role of cI dysfunction in a developmental phenotype, further underscoring the existence of a group of mitochondrial diseases associated with neurocutaneous manifestations.

  1. Design and construction of self-assembling supramolecular protein complexes using artificial and fusion proteins as nanoscale building blocks. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Arai, Ryoichi


    The central goal of nanobiotechnology is to design and construct novel biomaterials of nanometer sizes. In this short review, we describe recent progress of several approaches for designing and creating artificial self-assembling protein complexes and primarily focus on the following biotechnological strategies for using artificial and fusion proteins as nanoscale building blocks: fusion proteins designed for symmetrical self-assembly; three-dimensional domain-swapped oligomers; self-assembling designed coiled-coil peptide modules; metal-directed self-assembling engineered proteins; computationally designed self-assembling de novo proteins; and self-assembling protein nanobuilding blocks (PN-Blocks) using an intermolecularly folded dimeric de novo protein. These state-of-the-art nanobiotechnologies for designing supramolecular protein complexes will facilitate the development of novel functional nanobiomaterials.

  2. Inactivation of renal mitochondrial respiratory complexes and manganese superoxide dismutase during sepsis: mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitigates injury. (United States)

    Patil, Naeem K; Parajuli, Nirmala; MacMillan-Crow, Lee Ann; Mayeux, Philip R


    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication of sepsis and leads to a high mortality rate. Human and animal studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in sepsis-induced multi-organ failure; however, the specific mitochondrial targets damaged during sepsis remain elusive. We used a clinically relevant cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) murine model of sepsis and assessed renal mitochondrial function using high-resolution respirometry, renal microcirculation using intravital microscopy, and renal function. CLP caused a time-dependent decrease in mitochondrial complex I and II/III respiration and reduced ATP. By 4 h after CLP, activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was decreased by 50% and inhibition was sustained through 36 h. These events were associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide generation. We then evaluated whether the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant Mito-TEMPO could reverse renal mitochondrial dysfunction and attenuate sepsis-induced AKI. Mito-TEMPO (10 mg/kg) given at 6 h post-CLP decreased mitochondrial superoxide levels, protected complex I and II/III respiration, and restored MnSOD activity by 18 h. Mito-TEMPO also improved renal microcirculation and glomerular filtration rate. Importantly, even delayed therapy with a single dose of Mito-TEMPO significantly increased 96-h survival rate from 40% in untreated septic mice to 80%. Thus, sepsis causes sustained inactivation of three mitochondrial targets that can lead to increased mitochondrial superoxide. Importantly, even delayed therapy with Mito-TEMPO alleviated kidney injury, suggesting that it may be a promising approach to treat septic AKI.

  3. Building a pseudo-atomic model of the anaphase-promoting complex. (United States)

    Kulkarni, Kiran; Zhang, Ziguo; Chang, Leifu; Yang, Jing; da Fonseca, Paula C A; Barford, David


    The anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates progression through specific stages of the cell cycle by coordinating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cell-cycle regulatory proteins. Depending on the species, the active form of the APC/C consists of 14-15 different proteins that assemble into a 20-subunit complex with a mass of approximately 1.3 MDa. A hybrid approach of single-particle electron microscopy and protein crystallography of individual APC/C subunits has been applied to generate pseudo-atomic models of various functional states of the complex. Three approaches for assigning regions of the EM-derived APC/C density map to specific APC/C subunits are described. This information was used to dock atomic models of APC/C subunits, determined either by protein crystallography or homology modelling, to specific regions of the APC/C EM map, allowing the generation of a pseudo-atomic model corresponding to 80% of the entire complex.

  4. The LOCI-method : Collaboration building in complex endeavors based on analysis of interdependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Essens, P.J.M.D.


    In complex endeavors, characterized by multiple interdependent participants with different functions and objectives, it is difficult for an entity to determine how to cooperate with other entities. Simply striving to cooperate at the highest level possible comes at high costs. But how should an enti

  5. Low-Power Wearable Respiratory Sound Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinko Oletic


    Full Text Available Building upon the findings from the field of automated recognition of respiratory sound patterns, we propose a wearable wireless sensor implementing on-board respiratory sound acquisition and classification, to enable continuous monitoring of symptoms, such as asthmatic wheezing. Low-power consumption of such a sensor is required in order to achieve long autonomy. Considering that the power consumption of its radio is kept minimal if transmitting only upon (rare occurrences of wheezing, we focus on optimizing the power consumption of the digital signal processor (DSP. Based on a comprehensive review of asthmatic wheeze detection algorithms, we analyze the computational complexity of common features drawn from short-time Fourier transform (STFT and decision tree classification. Four algorithms were implemented on a low-power TMS320C5505 DSP. Their classification accuracies were evaluated on a dataset of prerecorded respiratory sounds in two operating scenarios of different detection fidelities. The execution times of all algorithms were measured. The best classification accuracy of over 92%, while occupying only 2.6% of the DSP’s processing time, is obtained for the algorithm featuring the time-frequency tracking of shapes of crests originating from wheezing, with spectral features modeled using energy.

  6. A new disease-related mutation for mitochondrial encephalopathy lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS) syndrome affects the ND4 subunit of the respiratory complex I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lertrit, P.; Noer, A.S.; Kapsa, R.; Marzuki, S. (Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia)); Jean-Francois, M.J.B.; Thyagarajan, D.; Byrne, E. (St. Vincent' s Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia)); Dennett, X. (Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)); Lethlean, K. (Prince Henry Hospital, Sydney (Australia))


    The molecular lesions in two patients exhibiting classical clinical manifestations of MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes) syndrome have been investigated. A recently reported disease-related A[yields]G base substitution at nt 3243 of the mtDNA, in the DHU loop of tRNA[sup Leu], was detected by restriction-enzyme analysis of the relevant PCR-amplified segment of the mtDNA of one patient but was not observed, by either restriction-enzyme analysis or nucleotide sequencing, in the other. To define the molecular lesion in the patient who does not have the A[yields]G base substitution at nt 3243, the total mitochondrial genome of the patient has been sequenced. An A[yields]G base substitution at nt 11084, leading to a Thr-to-Ala amino acid replacement in the ND4 subunit of the respiratory complex I, is suggested to be a disease-related mutation. 49 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Curcumin Pretreatment Prevents Potassium Dichromate-Induced Hepatotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, Decreased Respiratory Complex I Activity, and Membrane Permeability Transition Pore Opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wylly Ramsés García-Niño


    Full Text Available Curcumin is a polyphenol derived from turmeric with recognized antioxidant properties. Hexavalent chromium is an environmental toxic and carcinogen compound that induces oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of curcumin on the hepatic damage generated by potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 in rats. Animals were pretreated daily by 9-10 days with curcumin (400 mg/kg b.w. before the injection of a single intraperitoneal of K2Cr2O7 (15 mg/kg b.w.. Groups of animals were sacrificed 24 and 48 h later. K2Cr2O7-induced damage to the liver was evident by histological alterations and increase in the liver weight and in the activity of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase in plasma. In addition, K2Cr2O7 induced oxidative damage in liver and isolated mitochondria, which was evident by the increase in the content of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl and decrease in the glutathione content and in the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, K2Cr2O7 induced decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption, in the activity of respiratory complex I, and permeability transition pore opening. All the above-mentioned alterations were prevented by curcumin pretreatment. The beneficial effects of curcumin against K2Cr2O7-induced liver oxidative damage were associated with prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction.

  8. Learning from simple ebooks, online cases or classroom teaching when acquiring complex knowledge. A randomized controlled trial in respiratory physiology and pulmonology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Skjødt Worm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective as classroom teaching methods, but little is known about its value in relaying contents of different levels of complexity to students. We set out to investigate e-learning effects on simple recall and complex problem-solving compared to classroom teaching. METHODS: 63 nurses specializing in anesthesiology were evenly randomized into three groups. They were given internet-based knowledge tests before and after attending a teaching module about respiratory physiology and pulmonology. The three groups was either an e-learning group with eBook teaching material, an e-learning group with case-based teaching or a group with face-to-face case-based classroom teaching. After the module the students were required to answer a post-test. Time spent and the number of logged into the system was also measured. RESULTS: For simple recall, all methods were equally effective. For problem-solving, the eCase group achieved a comparable knowledge level to classroom teaching, while textbook learning was inferior to both (p<0.01. The textbook group also spent the least amount of time on acquiring knowledge (33 minutes, p<0.001, while the eCase group spent significantly more time on the subject (53 minutes, p<0.001 and logged into the system significantly more (2.8 vs 1.6, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: E-learning based cases are an effective tool for teaching complex knowledge and problem-solving ability, but future studies using higher-level e-learning are encouraged.Simple recall skills, however, do not require any particular learning method.

  9. Restoration and conversion to re-use of historic buildings incorporating increased energy efficiency: A case study - the Haybarn complex, Hilandar Monastery, Mount Athos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Šekularac Jelena A.


    Full Text Available A proper approach to restoration of historic buildings is crucial for monumental heritage protection. The objective of the paper is to define a methodology for historic buildings restoration in order to increase energy efficiency and re-usability in accordance with modern standards. The main method used in the paper is the observation of historic buildings during their restoration and exploitation, analysis and evaluation of achieved results regarding energy efficiency and energy saving, through the examples of the buildings belonging to Hilandar Monastery, Mount Athos, in Greece. Mount Athos was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for its cultural and natural values. This case study discusses the abandoned and dilapidated historic buildings of the Haybarn Complex (Stable, Mulekeepers’ House and Haybarn, the achieved results regarding the restoration of these buildings, their energy efficiency and turning into the premises for occasional stays. The research results are recommendations for increasing energy efficiency while performing the restoration of historic buildings, so that these buildings could be re-used in a new way. The most significant contribution of the paper is the practical test of energy refurbishment of these historic buildings conducted using the principles and methods of energy efficiency, in compliance with conservation requirements and authenticity of historic buildings.

  10. Ferrocenyl(trihydro)borates: building blocks for the synthesis of heterooligonuclear metallocene complexes. (United States)

    Reichert, Adelina; Bolte, Michael; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Wagner, Matthias


    The reaction of [Cp(2)ZrCl(2)] with the lithium salt Li[FcBH(3)] in stoichiometric ratios of 1.5 : 1 or 0.4 : 1 furnishes the mixed-metallocene complexes [Cp(2)(Cl)Zr(H(3)BFc)] (1) and [Cp(2)Zr(H(3)BFc)(2)] (3), respectively (Cp = cyclopentadienyl; Fc = ferrocenyl). When the two reagents are combined in a ratio of 0.6 : 1, complex 1 is formed together with the zirconium hydride species [Cp(2)(H)Zr(H(3)BFc)] (2). Compound 2 can be obtained in pure form from [Cp(2)Zr(H)Cl] and Li[FcBH(3)]. Treatment of the half-sandwich complexes [(C(5)R(5))ZrCl(3)] with 3 equivalents of Li[FcBH(3)] leads to the heterotetranuclear aggregates [(C(5)R(5))Zr(H(3)BFc)(3)] (4: R = H; 5: R = CH(3)). Li(2)[fc(BH(3))(2)] and 3 equivalents of [Cp(2)ZrCl(2)] give the heterotrinuclear compound [fc(BH(3)Zr(Cl)Cp(2))(2)] (6) with bridging ferrocenylene core (fc = 1,1'-ferrocenylene). According to X-ray crystallography, the trihydroborate ions are coordinated in a [Zr(μ-H)(2)B(H)-] fashion in 1, 2, 3 and 6, whereas 4 and 5 are carrying tridentate trihydroborate ligands.

  11. Environment-friendly building complex of the BBVA bank in Madrid, Spain. Sustainable and healthy indoor climate in a new office building; Spaans BBVA-cornplex milieuvriendelijk gebouwd. Duurzaam en gezond binnenklimaat nieuw hoofdkantoor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G. [Swegon, Capelle aan den IJssel (Netherlands)


    In the design and construction of the new office building of the Spanish bank BBVA (Madrid) sustainability and environmental effects were important aspects. The office building complex will certified by the American company Leed Gold. The energy efficient installations are made possible by Eurovent-certified heat recovery units and comfort units. [Dutch] Bij de bouw van het nieuwe hoofdkantoor van de Spaanse bank BBVA in Madrid staan duurzaamheid en milieuvriendelijkheid hoog in het vaandel. Het complex zal na de oplevering worden gecertificeerd conform het Amerikaanse Leed Gold. De energiezuinige installatie wordt mede mogelijk gemaakt door Eurovent-gecertificeerde wtw-units en comfortunits.

  12. Respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    970318 A study on evoked potentials in cor pul-monale patients with chronic respiratory failure.QIAO Hui(乔慧), et al. Beijing Neurosurg Instit,Beijing, 100050. Chin J Geriatr 1997; 16(1): 43-45. Objective: Evoked protential was used to detect thechange of brain function in cor pulmonale patients with


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    6.1 Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchial asthma2004073 A study on the heterogenous apoptosis of lymphocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils from peripheral blood of asthmatic patients. LIU Chuntao (刘春涛), et al. West China Hosp, Sichuan Univ, Chengdu 610041. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2003; 26(10):610 - 614.

  14. Building the System Interface Management Environment for the Development of Complex System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Gyun Oh


    Full Text Available Advanced systems have common characteristics of complexity as the level of their demanded emergent capability and the resulting interfaces among their components increase. These characteristics make it difficult to manage the interfaces and the failure of the management can lead to the failure of development projects. This study proposes a model-based systems engineering approach to facilitate the interface management for an IPT environment. A demonstration of the proposed approach to the magnetic levitation railway development project is provided to identify and control interfaces.

  15. Sunlight-initiated chemistry of aqueous pyruvic acid: building complexity in the origin of life. (United States)

    Griffith, Elizabeth C; Shoemaker, Richard K; Vaida, Veronica


    Coupling chemical reactions to an energy source is a necessary step in the origin of life. Here, we utilize UV photons provided by a simulated sun to activate aqueous pyruvic acid and subsequently prompt chemical reactions mimicking some of the functions of modern metabolism. Pyruvic acid is interesting in a prebiotic context due to its prevalence in modern metabolism and its abiotic availability on early Earth. Here, pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH, a C3 molecule) photochemically reacts to produce more complex molecules containing four or more carbon atoms. Acetoin (CH3CHOHCOCH3), a C4 molecule and a modern bacterial metabolite, is produced in this chemistry as well as lactic acid (CH3CHOHCOOH), a molecule which, when coupled with other abiotic chemical reaction pathways, can provide a regeneration pathway for pyruvic acid. This chemistry is discussed in the context of plausible environments on early Earth such as near the ocean surface and atmospheric aerosol particles. These environments allow for combination and exchange of reactants and products of other reaction environments (such as shallow hydrothermal vents). The result could be a contribution to the steady increase in chemical complexity requisite in the origin of life.

  16. The Fluka Linebuilder and Element Database: Tools for Building Complex Models of Accelerators Beam Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Mereghetti, A; Cerutti, F; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V


    Extended FLUKA models of accelerator beam lines can be extremely complex: heavy to manipulate, poorly versatile and prone to mismatched positioning. We developed a framework capable of creating the FLUKA model of an arbitrary portion of a given accelerator, starting from the optics configuration and a few other information provided by the user. The framework includes a builder (LineBuilder), an element database and a series of configuration and analysis scripts. The LineBuilder is a Python program aimed at dynamically assembling complex FLUKA models of accelerator beam lines: positions, magnetic fields and scorings are automatically set up, and geometry details such as apertures of collimators, tilting and misalignment of elements, beam pipes and tunnel geometries can be entered at user’s will. The element database (FEDB) is a collection of detailed FLUKA geometry models of machine elements. This framework has been widely used for recent LHC and SPS beam-machine interaction studies at CERN, and led to a dra...

  17. Tackling complex problems, building evidence for practice, and educating doctoral nursing students to manage the tension. (United States)

    Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C


    The mandate for evidence-based practice (EBP) arose in response to, among other catalysts, several Institute of Medicine reports beginning in the late 1990s. At the same time, the National Institutes of Health and others have recognized that the most complex, important, and challenging problems, termed "wicked problems," are inherently transdisciplinary and require thinking beyond the limits of existing theories. When nursing students are prepared for EBP, they operate within a fairly stable set of assumptions and they exercise a past orientation. Wicked problem-solving occurs within a context that is characterized as dynamic and ambiguous and requires a future orientation to imagine potential solutions to questions of "what if?" Both skills, EBP, and wicked problem-solving, are essential within the discipline of nursing. Students at all levels need to understand when each scientific approach is required. PhD students must be prepared to participate in wicked problem-solving.

  18. Mitochondrial Cristae Shape Determines Respiratory Chain Supercomplexes Assembly and Respiratory Efficiency


    Cogliati, Sara; Frezza, Christian; Soriano, Maria Eugenia; Varanita, Tatiana; Quintana-Cabrera, Ruben; Corrado, Mauro; Cipolat, Sara; Costa, Veronica; Casarin, Alberto; Gomes, Ligia C.; Perales-Clemente, Ester; Salviati, Leonardo; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose A.; Scorrano, Luca


    Summary Respiratory chain complexes assemble into functional quaternary structures called supercomplexes (RCS) within the folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane, or cristae. Here, we investigate the relationship between respiratory function and mitochondrial ultrastructure and provide evidence that cristae shape determines the assembly and stability of RCS and hence mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Genetic and apoptotic manipulations of cristae structure affect assembly and activity o...

  19. Major Histocompatibility Complex-Dependent Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Repertoire and Functional Avidity Contribute to Strain-Specific Disease Susceptibility after Murine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection ▿ (United States)

    Jessen, Birthe; Faller, Simone; Krempl, Christine D.; Ehl, Stephan


    Susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in mice is genetically determined. While RSV causes little pathology in C57BL/6 mice, pulmonary inflammation and weight loss occur in BALB/c mice. Using major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-congenic mice, we observed that the H-2d allele can partially transfer disease susceptibility to C57BL/6 mice. This was not explained by altered viral elimination or differences in the magnitude of the overall virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. However, H-2d mice showed a more focused response, with 70% of virus-specific CTL representing Vβ8.2+ CTL directed against the immunodominant epitope M2-1 82, while in H-2b mice only 20% of antiviral CTL were Vβ9+ CTL specific for the immunodominant epitope M187. The immunodominant H-2d-restricted CTL lysed target cells less efficiently than the immunodominant H-2b CTL, probably contributing to prolonged CTL stimulation and cytokine-mediated immunopathology. Accordingly, reduction of dominance of the M2-1 82-specific CTL population by introduction of an M187 response in the F1 generation of a C57BL/6N × C57BL/6-H-2d mating (C57BL/6-H-2dxb mice) attenuated disease. Moreover, disease in H-2d mice was less pronounced after infection with an RSV mutant failing to activate M2-1 82-specific CTL or after depletion of Vβ8.2+ cells. These data illustrate how the MHC-determined diversity and functional avidity of CTL responses contribute to disease susceptibility after viral infection. PMID:21795345

  20. Relationship between rectal temperature at first treatment for bovine respiratory disease complex in feedlot calves and the probability of not finishing the production cycle. (United States)

    Theurer, Miles E; White, Brad J; Larson, Robert L; Holstein, Krista K; Amrine, David E


    OBJECTIVE-To determine the relationship between rectal temperature at first treatment for bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in feedlot calves and the probability of not finishing the production cycle. DESIGN-Retrospective data analysis. ANIMALS-344,982 calves identified as having BRDC from 19 US feedlots from 2000 to 2009. PROCEDURES-For each calf, data for rectal temperature at initial treatment for BRDC and various performance and outcome variables were analyzed. A binary variable was created to identify calves that did not finish (DNF) the production cycle (died or culled prior to cohort slaughter). A mixed general linear model and receiver operating characteristic curve were created to evaluate associations of rectal temperature, number of days in the feedlot at time of BRDC diagnosis, body weight, quarter of year at feedlot arrival, sex, and all 2-way interactions with rectal temperature with the probability that calves DNF. RESULTS-27,495 of 344,982 (7.97%) calves DNF. Mean rectal temperature at first treatment for BRDC was 40.0°C (104°F). As rectal temperature increased, the probability that a calf DNF increased; however, that relationship was not linear and was influenced by quarter of year at feedlot arrival, sex, and number of days in the feedlot at time of BRDC diagnosis. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for correct identification of a calf that DNF was 0.646. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Rectal temperature of feedlot calves at first treatment for BRDC had limited value as a prognostic indicator of whether those calves would finish the production cycle.

  1. Malfunctioning of the Iron–Sulfur Cluster Assembly Machinery in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Produces Oxidative Stress via an Iron-Dependent Mechanism, Causing Dysfunction in Respiratory Complexes (United States)

    Gomez, Mauricio; Pérez-Gallardo, Rocío V.; Sánchez, Luis A.; Díaz-Pérez, Alma L.; Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Meza Carmen, Victor; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Lara-Romero, Javier; Jiménez-Sandoval, Sergio; Rodríguez, Francisco; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S.; Campos-García, Jesús


    Biogenesis and recycling of iron–sulfur (Fe–S) clusters play important roles in the iron homeostasis mechanisms involved in mitochondrial function. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Fe–S clusters are assembled into apoproteins by the iron–sulfur cluster machinery (ISC). The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ISC gene deletion and consequent iron release under oxidative stress conditions on mitochondrial functionality in S. cerevisiae. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caused by H2O2, menadione, or ethanol, was associated with a loss of iron homeostasis and exacerbated by ISC system dysfunction. ISC mutants showed increased free Fe2+ content, exacerbated by ROS-inducers, causing an increase in ROS, which was decreased by the addition of an iron chelator. Our study suggests that the increment in free Fe2+ associated with ROS generation may have originated from mitochondria, probably Fe–S cluster proteins, under both normal and oxidative stress conditions, suggesting that Fe–S cluster anabolism is affected. Raman spectroscopy analysis and immunoblotting indicated that in mitochondria from SSQ1 and ISA1 mutants, the content of [Fe–S] centers was decreased, as was formation of Rieske protein-dependent supercomplex III2IV2, but this was not observed in the iron-deficient ATX1 and MRS4 mutants. In addition, the activity of complexes II and IV from the electron transport chain (ETC) was impaired or totally abolished in SSQ1 and ISA1 mutants. These results confirm that the ISC system plays important roles in iron homeostasis, ROS stress, and in assembly of supercomplexes III2IV2 and III2IV1, thus affecting the functionality of the respiratory chain. PMID:25356756

  2. Integration of Point Clouds Originated from Laser Scaner and Photogrammetric Images for Visualization of Complex Details of Historical Buildings (United States)

    Altuntas, C.


    Three-dimensional (3D) models of historical buildings are created for documentation and virtual realization of them. Laser scanning and photogrammetry are extensively used to perform for these aims. The selection of the method that will be used in threedimensional modelling study depends on the scale and shape of the object, and also applicability of the method. Laser scanners are high cost instruments. However, the cameras are low cost instruments. The off-the-shelf cameras are used for taking the photogrammetric images. The camera is imaging the object details by carrying on hand while the laser scanner makes ground based measurement. Laser scanner collect high density spatial data in a short time from the measurement area. On the other hand, image based 3D (IB3D) measurement uses images to create 3D point cloud data. The image matching and the creation of the point cloud can be done automatically. Historical buildings include more complex details. Thus, all details cannot be measured by terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) due to the blocking the details with each others. Especially, the artefacts which have complex shapes cannot be measured in full details. They cause occlusion on the point cloud model. However it is possible to record photogrammetric images and creation IB3D point cloud for these areas. Thus the occlusion free 3D model is created by the integration of point clouds originated from the TLS and photogrammetric images. In this study, usability of laser scanning in conjunction with image based modelling for creation occlusion free three-dimensional point cloud model of historical building was evaluated. The IB3D point cloud was created in the areas that could not been measured by TLS. Then laser scanning and IB3D point clouds were integrated in the common coordinate system. The registration point clouds were performed with the iterative closest point (ICP) and georeferencing methods. Accuracy of the registration was evaluated by convergency and its

  3. Niche divergence builds the case for ecological speciation in skinks of the Plestiodon skiltonianus species complex (United States)

    Wogan, Guinevere O.U.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.


    Adaptation to different thermal environments has the potential to cause evolutionary changes that are sufficient to drive ecological speciation. Here, we examine whether climate-based niche divergence in lizards of the Plestiodon skiltonianus species complex is consistent with the outcomes of such a process. Previous work on this group shows that a mechanical sexual barrier has evolved between species that differ mainly in body size and that the barrier may be a by-product of selection for increased body size in lineages that have invaded xeric environments; however, baseline information on niche divergence among members of the group is lacking. We quantified the climatic niche using mechanistic physiological and correlative niche models and then estimated niche differences among species using ordination techniques and tests of niche overlap and equivalency. Our results show that the thermal niches of size-divergent, reproductively isolated morphospecies are significantly differentiated and that precipitation may have been as important as temperature in causing increased shifts in body size in xeric habitats. While these findings alone do not demonstrate thermal adaptation or identify the cause of speciation, their integration with earlier genetic and behavioral studies provides a useful test of phenotype–environment associations that further support the case for ecological speciation in these lizards.

  4. Using McStas for modelling complex optics, using simple building bricks (United States)

    Willendrup, Peter K.; Udby, Linda; Knudsen, Erik; Farhi, Emmanuel; Lefmann, Kim


    The McStas neutron ray-tracing simulation package is a versatile tool for producing accurate neutron simulations, extensively used for design and optimization of instruments, virtual experiments, data analysis and user training.In McStas, component organization and simulation flow is intrinsically linear: the neutron interacts with the beamline components in a sequential order, one by one. Historically, a beamline component with several parts had to be implemented with a complete, internal description of all these parts, e.g. a guide component including all four mirror plates and required logic to allow scattering between the mirrors.For quite a while, users have requested the ability to allow “components inside components” or meta-components, allowing to combine functionality of several simple components to achieve more complex behaviour, i.e. four single mirror plates together defining a guide.We will here show that it is now possible to define meta-components in McStas, and present a set of detailed, validated examples including a guide with an embedded, wedged, polarizing mirror system of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin type.

  5. Using McStas for modelling complex optics, using simple building bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willendrup, Peter K., E-mail: pkwi@risoe.dtu.d [Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Materials Research Division, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 (Denmark); Udby, Linda [University of Copenhagen, Nanoscience and Escience Centers, Niels Bohr Institute, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 (Denmark); Knudsen, Erik [Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Materials Research Division, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 (Denmark); Farhi, Emmanuel [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), 6 rue J. Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Lefmann, Kim [University of Copenhagen, Nanoscience and Escience Centers, Niels Bohr Institute, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 (Denmark); ESS, University of Lund, St. Algatan 4 (Sweden)


    The McStas neutron ray-tracing simulation package is a versatile tool for producing accurate neutron simulations, extensively used for design and optimization of instruments, virtual experiments, data analysis and user training. In McStas, component organization and simulation flow is intrinsically linear: the neutron interacts with the beamline components in a sequential order, one by one. Historically, a beamline component with several parts had to be implemented with a complete, internal description of all these parts, e.g. a guide component including all four mirror plates and required logic to allow scattering between the mirrors. For quite a while, users have requested the ability to allow 'components inside components' or meta-components, allowing to combine functionality of several simple components to achieve more complex behaviour, i.e. four single mirror plates together defining a guide. We will here show that it is now possible to define meta-components in McStas, and present a set of detailed, validated examples including a guide with an embedded, wedged, polarizing mirror system of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin type.

  6. Respiratory Distress (United States)


    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    7.1 Upper respiratory tract disease and bronchial asthma2003306 Effects of vaccae on airway contraction and inflammation in asthmatic guinea pigs. ZHAO Xiao(赵晓燕), et al. Zhejiang Respir Drug Res Lab Med Sch, Zhejiang Univ, Hangzhou 310031. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2003;26(4):218-222.Objective: To study the effects of Mycobacterium vaccae(M. vaccae)on the lung function, airway hyper-

  8. Structural organization of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. (United States)

    Genova, Maria Luisa; Bianchi, Cristina; Lenaz, Giorgio


    Two models exist of the mitochondrial respiratory chain: the model of a random organization of the individual respiratory enzyme complexes and that of a super-complex assembly formed by stable association between the individual complexes. Recently Schägger, using digitonin solubilization and Blue Native PAGE produced new evidence of preferential associations, in particular a Complex I monomer with a Complex III dimer, and suggested a model of the respiratory chain (the respirasome) based on direct electron channelling between complexes. Discrimination between the two models is amenable to kinetic testing using flux control analysis. Experimental evidence obtained in beef heart SMP, according to the extension of the Metabolic Control Theory for pathways with metabolic channelling, showed that enzyme associations involving Complex I and Complex III take place in the respiratory chain while Complex IV seems to be randomly distributed, with cytochrome c behaving as a mobile component. Flux control analysis at anyone of the respiratory complexes involved in aerobic succinate oxidation indicated that Complex II and III are not functionally associated in a stable supercomplex. A critical appraisal of the solid-state model of the mitochondrial respiratory chain requires its reconciliation with previous biophysical and kinetic evidence that CoQ behaves as a homogeneous diffusible pool between all reducing enzyme and all oxidizing enzymes: the hypothesis can be advanced that both models (CoQ pool and supercomplexes) are true, by postulating that supercomplexes physiologically exist in equilibrium with isolated complexes depending on metabolic conditions of the cell.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    7.1 Upper Respiratory Tract Diesase And Bronchial Asthma 2007072 Dysfunction of releasing adrenaline in asthmatic adrenaline medullary chromaffin cells due to functional redundancy primed by nerve growth factor. WANG Jun(汪俊), et al. Dept Resp Dis Xiangya Hosp Central South Univ, Changsha 410008. Chin J Tuberc Dis 2006;29(12):812-815. Objective To investigate the possible causes of the dysfunction of adrenaline release in asthma rats and to identify the role of nerve growth factor(NGF) in this process.

  10. Respiratory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    8.1 Respiratory failure2007204 Comparison of the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers and low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. WANG Xiaozhi(王晓芝),et al. Dept Respir & Intensive Care Unit, Binzhou Med Coll, Binzhou 256603. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2007;30(1):44-47. Objective To compare the effects of BiPAP ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(LRM) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods A prospective, randomized comparison of BiPAP mechanical ventilation combined with lung recruitment maneuvers(test group) with low tidal volume A/C ventilation (control group) was conducted in 28 patients with ARDS. FiO2/PaO2 ratio, respiratory system compliance(Cs), central venous pressure (CVP), duration of ventilation support were recorded at 0 h, 48 h and 72 h separately. The ventilation associated lung injury and mortality at 28 d were also recorded. Results The FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (298±16) and (309±16) cm H2O, Cs were (38.4±2.2) and (42.0±1.3) ml/cm H2O, CVP were (13.8±0.8) and (11.6±0.7) cm H2O in the test group at 48 h and 72 h separately. In the control group, FiO2/PaO2 ratio were (212±12) and (246±17) cm H2O, Cs were (29.5±1.3) and (29.0±1.0) ml/cm H2O, CVP were 18.6±1.1 and (16.8±1.0) cm H2O. The results were better in the test group as compared with the control group (t=10.03-29. 68, all P<0.01). The duration of ventilation support in the test group was shorter than the control group [(14±3) d vs (19±3)d, t=4.80, P<0.01]. The mortality in 28 d and ventilation associated lung injury were similar in the two groups. Conclusion The results show that combination of LRM with BiPAP mode ventilation, as compared with the control group, contributes to the improved FiO2/PaO2 ratio, pulmonary compliance, stable homodynamic and shorter duration of ventilation support in patients with ARDs.

  11. Megacomplex organization of the oxidative phosphorylation system by structural analysis of respiratory supercomplexes from potato. (United States)

    Bultema, Jelle B; Braun, Hans-Peter; Boekema, Egbert J; Kouril, Roman


    The individual protein complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS complexes I to V) specifically interact and form defined supramolecular structures, the so-called "respiratory supercomplexes". Some supercomplexes appear to associate into larger structures, or megacomplexes, such as a string of dimeric ATP synthase (complex V(2)). A row-like organization of OXPHOS complexes I, III and IV into respiratory strings has also been proposed. These transient strings cannot be purified after detergent solubilization. Hence the shape and composition of the respiratory string was approached by an extensive structural characterization of all its possible building blocks, which are the supercomplexes. About 400,000 molecular projections of supercomplexes from potato mitochondria were processed by single particle electron microscopy. We obtained two-dimensional projection maps of at least five different supercomplexes, including the supercomplex I+III(2), III(2)+IV(1), V(2), I+III(2)+IV(1) and I(2)+III(2) in different types of position. From these maps the relative position of the individual complexes in the largest unit, the I(2)+III(2)+IV(2) supercomplex, could be determined in a coherent way. The maps also show that the I+III(2)+IV(1) supercomplex, or respirasome, differs from its counterpart in bovine mitochondria. The new structural features allow us to propose a consistent model of the respiratory string, composed of repeating I(2)+III(2)+IV(2) units, which is in agreement with dimensions observed in former freeze-fracture electron microscopy data.

  12. Respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    930118 Facial or nasal mask pressure supportventilation in managing acute exacerbation ofchronic respiratory failure in COPD patients.CHEN Rongchang(陈荣昌),et al.GuangzhouInstit Respir Dis,Guangzhou 510120.Chin Tu-berc & Respir Dis 1992;15(5)285-287.Eleven COPD patients(age:65±9 yrs)withacute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure(PaCO2 11.3±1.1kPa)were treated with maskpressure support ventilation,another 10 similarpatients(age:68±12yrs)served as controls.Bi-PAP ventilator was used with the followingmodifications:(1)Non-rehreathing valve set-in proximal to mask;(2)5 LPM oxygen flow de-livered into mask to reduce the dead space ef-fect.Mask ventilation was given 2-3 hours ev-ery time and 1-2 times daily for 7 days.Syn-

  13. Documenting a Complex Modern Heritage Building Using Multi Image Close Range Photogrammetry and 3d Laser Scanned Point Clouds (United States)

    Vianna Baptista, M. L.


    Integrating different technologies and expertises help fill gaps when optimizing documentation of complex buildings. Described below is the process used in the first part of a restoration project, the architectural survey of Theatre Guaira Cultural Centre in Curitiba, Brazil. To diminish time on fieldwork, the two-person-field-survey team had to juggle, during three days, the continuous artistic activities and performers' intense schedule. Both technologies (high definition laser scanning and close-range photogrammetry) were used to record all details in the least amount of time without disturbing the artists' rehearsals and performances. Laser Scanning was ideal to record the monumental stage structure with all of its existing platforms, light fixtures, scenery walls and curtains. Although scanned with high-definition, parts of the exterior façades were also recorded using Close Range Photogrammetry. Tiny cracks on the marble plaques and mosaic tiles, not visible in the point clouds, were then able to be precisely documented in order to create the exterior façades textures and damages mapping drawings. The combination of technologies and the expertise of service providers, knowing how and what to document, and what to deliver to the client, enabled maximum benefits to the following restoration project.

  14. The cytochrome b p.278Y>C mutation causative of a multisystem disorder enhances superoxide production and alters supramolecular interactions of respiratory chain complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghelli, Anna; Tropeano, Concetta V; Calvaruso, Maria Antonietta


    that it originated from the respiratory electron transport chain. The p.278Y>C mutation enhanced superoxide production, as indicated by direct measurements in mitochondria and by the imbalance of glutathione homeostasis in intact cybrids. Remarkably, although the assembly of CI or CIII was not affected...

  15. Dynamics of the North American Ice Sheet Complex during its inception and build-up to the Last Glacial Maximum (United States)

    Stokes, Chris R.; Tarasov, Lev; Dyke, Arthur S.


    The North American Ice Sheet Complex played a major role in global sea level fluctuations during the Late Quaternary but our knowledge of its dynamics is based mostly on its demise from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), a period characterised by non-linear behaviour in the form of punctuated ice margin recession, episodic ice streaming and major shifts in the location of ice divides. In comparison, knowledge of the pre-LGM ice complex is poorly constrained, largely because of the fragmentary nature of the evidence relating to ice sheet build-up. In this paper, we explore the inception and growth of ice (120-20 ka) using a glacial systems model which has been calibrated against a large and diverse set of data relating to the deglacial interval. We make use of calibration data prior to the LGM but its scarcity introduces greater uncertainty, which is partly alleviated by our large ensemble analysis. Results suggest that, following the last interglaciation (Oxygen Isotope Stage: OIS 5e), the ice complex initiated over the north-eastern Canadian Arctic and in the Cordillera within a few thousand years. It then underwent rapid growth to an OIS 5 maximum at ˜110 ka (5d) and covered ˜70% of the area occupied by the LGM ice cover (although only 30% by volume). An OIS 5 minimum is modelled at ˜80 ka (5a), before a second phase of rapid growth at the start of OIS 4, which culminated in a large ice complex at ˜65 ka (almost as large as at the LGM). Subsequent deglaciation was rapid (maximum modelled sea level contribution of >16 cm per century) and resulted in an OIS 3 minimum between ca 55-60 ka. Thereafter, the ice complex grew towards its LGM configuration, interrupted by several phases of successively less significant mass loss. Our results support and extend previous inferences based on geological evidence and reinforce the notion of a highly dynamic pre-LGM ice complex (e.g. with episodes of ±10 s m of eustatic sea level equivalent in ice increases towards the LGM

  16. SU-E-J-261: Statistical Analysis and Chaotic Dynamics of Respiratory Signal of Patients in BodyFix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, D; Huq, M; Bednarz, G; Lalonde, R; Yang, Y; Heron, D [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    Purpose: To quantify respiratory signal of patients in BodyFix undergoing 4DCT scan with and without immobilization cover. Methods: 20 pairs of respiratory tracks recorded with RPM system during 4DCT scan were analyzed. Descriptive statistic was applied to selected parameters of exhale-inhale decomposition. Standardized signals were used with the delay method to build orbits in embedded space. Nonlinear behavior was tested with surrogate data. Sample entropy SE, Lempel-Ziv complexity LZC and the largest Lyapunov exponents LLE were compared. Results: Statistical tests show difference between scans for inspiration time and its variability, which is bigger for scans without cover. The same is for variability of the end of exhalation and inhalation. Other parameters fail to show the difference. For both scans respiratory signals show determinism and nonlinear stationarity. Statistical test on surrogate data reveals their nonlinearity. LLEs show signals chaotic nature and its correlation with breathing period and its embedding delay time. SE, LZC and LLE measure respiratory signal complexity. Nonlinear characteristics do not differ between scans. Conclusion: Contrary to expectation cover applied to patients in BodyFix appears to have limited effect on signal parameters. Analysis based on trajectories of delay vectors shows respiratory system nonlinear character and its sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Reproducibility of respiratory signal can be evaluated with measures of signal complexity and its predictability window. Longer respiratory period is conducive for signal reproducibility as shown by these gauges. Statistical independence of the exhale and inhale times is also supported by the magnitude of LLE. The nonlinear parameters seem more appropriate to gauge respiratory signal complexity since its deterministic chaotic nature. It contrasts with measures based on harmonic analysis that are blind for nonlinear features. Dynamics of breathing, so crucial for

  17. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (United States)

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs between days ...

  18. Occupational Respiratory Disease (United States)

    ... Shortfall Questionnaire Home Diseases and Conditions Occupational Respiratory Disease Occupational Respiratory Disease Condition Occupational HealthPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share ...

  19. Building a measurement framework of burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eton DT


    Full Text Available David T Eton,1 Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira,2,3 Jason S Egginton,1 Jennifer L Ridgeway,1 Laura Odell,4 Carl R May,5 Victor M Montori1,61Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2College of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 3Medication Therapy Management Program, Fairview Pharmacy Services LLC, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 4Pharmacy Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 5Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 6Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: Burden of treatment refers to the workload of health care as well as its impact on patient functioning and well-being. We set out to build a conceptual framework of issues descriptive of burden of treatment from the perspective of the complex patient, as a first step in the development of a new patient-reported measure.Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with patients seeking medication therapy management services at a large, academic medical center. All patients had a complex regimen of self-care (including polypharmacy, and were coping with one or more chronic health conditions. We used framework analysis to identify and code themes and subthemes. A conceptual framework of burden of treatment was outlined from emergent themes and subthemes.Results: Thirty-two patients (20 female, 12 male, age 26–85 years were interviewed. Three broad themes of burden of treatment emerged including: the work patients must do to care for their health; problem-focused strategies and tools to facilitate the work of self-care; and factors that exacerbate the burden felt. The latter theme encompasses six subthemes including challenges with taking medication, emotional problems with others, role and activity limitations, financial challenges, confusion about medical information, and health care delivery obstacles

  20. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV): A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik


    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection is the major cause of respiratory disease in calves during the first year of life. The study of the virus has been difficult because of its lability and very poor growth in cell culture. However, during the last decade, the introduction of new...... complex and unpredictable which makes the diagnosis and subsequent therapy very difficult. BRSV is closely related to human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) which is an important cause of respiratory disease in young children. In contrast to BRSV, the recent knowledge of HRSV is regularly extensively...

  1. Age Modulates Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Liver Toxicity: Dose-Dependent Decrease in Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complexes Activities and Coupling in Middle-Aged as Compared to Young Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosra Baratli


    Full Text Available We examined the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs on mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activities and mitochondrial coupling in young (3 months and middle-aged (18 months rat liver, organ largely involved in body iron detoxification. Isolated liver mitochondria were extracted using differential centrifugations. Maximal oxidative capacities (Vmax, complexes I, III, and IV activities, Vsucc (complexes II, III, and IV activities, and Vtmpd, (complex IV activity, together with mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0 were determined in controls conditions and after exposure to 250, 300, and 350 μg/ml Fe3O4 in young and middle-aged rats. In young liver mitochondria, exposure to IONPs did not alter mitochondrial function. In contrast, IONPs dose-dependently impaired all complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in middle-aged rat liver: Vmax (from 30 ± 1.6 to 17.9 ± 1.5; P<0.001, Vsucc (from 33.9 ± 1.7 to 24.3 ± 1.0; P<0.01, Vtmpd (from 43.0 ± 1.6 to 26.3 ± 2.2 µmol O2/min/g protein; P<0.001 using Fe3O4 350 µg/ml. Mitochondrial coupling also decreased. Interestingly, 350 μg/ml Fe3O4 in the form of Fe3+ solution did not impair liver mitochondrial function in middle-aged rats. Thus, IONPs showed a specific toxicity in middle-aged rats suggesting caution when using it in old age.

  2. 关于城市综合体建筑的可持续性设计分析%Analysis of Sustainable Design about Urban Complex Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    城市综合体建筑的可持续性设计就是集约化利用有限的自然资源,这对于节约能源、传承延续城市文脉以及改善人类生存环境具有重要作用。本研究主要对城市综合体建筑的可持续性设计进行了分析与探讨。%The sustainable design of urban complex building is to intensively use the limited natural resources, which plays an important role in energy saving, the continuation of city heritage context and the improvement of the living environm- ent of mankind. This paper mainly analyzed and discussed the sustainable design of city complex building.

  3. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  4. Non lineal respiratory systems mechanics simulation of acute respiratory distress syndrome during mechanical ventilation. (United States)

    Madorno, Matias; Rodriguez, Pablo O


    Model and simulation of biological systems help to better understand these systems. In ICUs patients often reach a complex situation where supportive maneuvers require special expertise. Among them, mechanical ventilation in patients suffering from acuter respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is specially challenging. This work presents a model which can be simulated and use to help in training of physicians and respiratory therapists to analyze the respiratory mechanics in this kind of patients. We validated the model in 2 ARDS patients.

  5. Multiple Functional Domains and Complexes of the Two Nonstructural Proteins of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Contribute to Interferon Suppression and Cellular Location▿ (United States)

    Swedan, Samer; Andrews, Joel; Majumdar, Tanmay; Musiyenko, Alla; Barik, Sailen


    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major cause of severe respiratory diseases, efficiently suppresses cellular innate immunity, represented by type I interferon (IFN), using its two unique nonstructural proteins, NS1 and NS2. In a search for their mechanism, NS1 was previously shown to decrease levels of TRAF3 and IKKε, whereas NS2 interacted with RIG-I and decreased TRAF3 and STAT2. Here, we report on the interaction, cellular localization, and functional domains of these two proteins. We show that recombinant NS1 and NS2, expressed in lung epithelial A549 cells, can form homo- as well as heteromers. Interestingly, when expressed alone, substantial amounts of NS1 and NS2 localized to the nuclei and to the mitochondria, respectively. However, when coexpressed with NS2, as in RSV infection, NS1 could be detected in the mitochondria as well, suggesting that the NS1-NS2 heteromer localizes to the mitochondria. The C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence, DLNP, common to both NS1 and NS2, was required for some functions, but not all, whereas only the NS1 N-terminal region was important for IKKε reduction. Finally, NS1 and NS2 both interacted specifically with host microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B). The contribution of MAP1B in NS1 function was not tested, but in NS2 it was essential for STAT2 destruction, suggesting a role of the novel DLNP motif in protein-protein interaction and IFN suppression. PMID:21795342

  6. Immunological Response to Single Pathogen Challenge with Agents of the Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: An RNA-Sequence Analysis of the Bronchial Lymph Node Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana C Tizioto

    Full Text Available Susceptibility to bovine respiratory disease (BRD is multi-factorial and is influenced by stress in conjunction with infection by both bacterial and viral pathogens. While vaccination is broadly used in an effort to prevent BRD, it is far from being fully protective and cases diagnosed from a combination of observed clinical signs without any attempt at identifying the causal pathogens are usually treated with antibiotics. Dairy and beef cattle losses from BRD are profound worldwide and genetic studies have now been initiated to elucidate host loci which underlie susceptibility with the objective of enabling molecular breeding to reduce disease prevalence. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to examine the bronchial lymph node transcriptomes of controls and beef cattle which had individually been experimentally challenged with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica or Mycoplasma bovis to identify the genes that are involved in the bovine immune response to infection. We found that 142 differentially expressed genes were located in previously described quantitative trait locus regions associated with risk of BRD. Mutations affecting the expression or amino acid composition of these genes may affect disease susceptibility and could be incorporated into molecular breeding programs. Genes involved in innate immunity were generally found to be differentially expressed between the control and pathogen-challenged animals suggesting that variation in these genes may lead to a heritability of susceptibility that is pathogen independent. However, we also found pathogen-specific expression profiles which suggest that host genetic variation for BRD susceptibility is pathogen dependent.

  7. Green building technique application to a commercial complex%商业综合体绿色建筑技术应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏春海; 刘鹏


    Studies the object building which was awarded China's two-star, green building design certification. The complex involves some green building techniques such as performance simulation verification, roof greening, water permeable pavement, extract air heat recovery, natural ventilation, daylighting, CO2 gas concentration monitoring, etc. According to the characteristics of commercial complex such as large volume, multi-function and high energy consumption, proposes adopting passive energy-saving measures, designing stereoscopic landscape, optimizing HVAC system design, energy consumption monitoring.%对获得国家二星级绿色建筑设计标识认证的某商业综合体进行了研究,该项目采用了性能模拟验证、屋顶绿化、透水地面、排风热回收、自然通风、自然采光、CO2浓度监测等绿色建筑技术.针对商业综合体体量大、功能多、能耗高的特点,提出采用被动式节能措施、立体景观设计、优化空调系统设计、实施能耗监测等对策.

  8. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos


    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  9. The NDUFB6 subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I is required for electron transfer activity: A proof of principle study on stable and controlled RNA interference in human cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loublier, Sandrine; Bayot, Aurelien; Rak, Malgorzata; El-Khoury, Riyad; Benit, Paule [Inserm U676, Hopital Robert Debre, F-75019 Paris (France); Universite Paris 7, Faculte de medecine Denis Diderot, IFR02 Paris (France); Rustin, Pierre, E-mail: [Inserm U676, Hopital Robert Debre, F-75019 Paris (France); Universite Paris 7, Faculte de medecine Denis Diderot, IFR02 Paris (France)


    Highlights: {yields} NDUFB6 is required for activity of mitochondrial complex I in human cell lines. {yields} Lentivirus based RNA interference results in frequent off target insertions. {yields} Flp-In recombinase mediated miRNA insertion allows gene-specific extinction. -- Abstract: Molecular bases of inherited deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I are still unknown in a high proportion of patients. Among 45 subunits making up this large complex, more than half has unknown function(s). Understanding the function of these subunits would contribute to our knowledge on mitochondrial physiology but might also reveal that some of these subunits are not required for the catalytic activity of the complex. A direct consequence of this finding would be the reduction of the number of candidate genes to be sequenced in patients with decreased complex I activity. In this study, we tested two different methods to stably extinct complex I subunits in cultured cells. We first found that lentivirus-mediated shRNA expression frequently resulted in the unpredicted extinction of additional gene(s) beside targeted ones. This can be ascribed to uncontrolled genetic material insertions in the genome of the host cell. This approach thus appeared inappropriate to study unknown functions of a gene. Next, we found it possible to specifically extinct a CI subunit gene by direct insertion of a miR targeting CI subunits in a Flp site (HEK293 Flp-In cells). By using this strategy we unambiguously demonstrated that the NDUFB6 subunit is required for complex I activity, and defined conditions suitable to undertake a systematic and stable extinction of the different supernumerary subunits in human cells.

  10. Respiratory Development and Respiratory Distress Syndrome. (United States)

    Rubarth, Lori Baas; Quinn, Jenny


    Respiratory development is crucial for all newborn infants. Premature infants may be born at an early stage of development and lack sufficient surfactant production. This results in respiratory distress syndrome. This article reviews the normal fetal development of the lung as well as the disorder that develops because of an early birth.

  11. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (United States)

    ... page: // Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung condition that ...

  12. When Richard Branson wants to build his own facility; Quand Richard Branson veut construire son propre complexe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosnard, D


    The capacity of petroleum refineries is today insufficient to meet the demand. In front of this shortage, Sir Richard Branson, the owner of Virgin Atlantic Airways, has decided to invest in the building of a refinery in Europe or in Canada. His new company, Virgin Oil, is already launched. However, the setting up of a new facility is very expensive and raises important problems of permits and public contestation which remain to be solved. Short paper. (J.S.)

  13. Wine-growing establishment. A building complex serving an industrial model for a century (1870 – 1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Manzini


    Full Text Available The wine industry in the province of Mendoza, Argentina as modern industrial was developed from the late nineteenth century. The decline starting in the 1970s, and triggered the second modernization wine since the 1980s. The functional requirements of the first modernization wine required both housing construction and production, giving rise to so-called wine-growing establishment. The wineries of these establishment, are the buildings used to make wine. The rest of the constructions are used as support for such activity. The functional units required in establishments, have varied over time, were adapted according to the different production needs of the moment. The wine-growing establishment that were built in this period can be found now adapted to the new requirements in production and operation, as well as in a complete abandonment. The group of buildings with various implements that are integrated testimonies, traces of other realities and knowledge that occurred in them before. Therefore, the aim to the present work is to perform a historical analysis of the evolution from architectural materiality 1870-1970; focused on understanding its growth and the distribution and location of the buildings, that they are closely integrated into the contextual framework belonging

  14. Pathological examination and pathogen detection of porcine respiratory disease complex in a finisher swine herd%育肥猪呼吸道疾病综合征病理学观察和病原学检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘捷; 李玉峰; 王先炜; 李文良; 姜平


    猪呼吸道疾病综合征是一种由病毒、细菌、环境应激和猪体免疫力低下等多因素相互作用引起的呼吸道疾病.2009年2~4月,上海农场某猪场一批育肥猪出现疑似病例,表现为食欲下降,咳嗽,呼吸困难,生长缓慢和料肉比降低.本研究在流行病学调查的基础上,剖检8头病猪观察其病理变化,主要表现为肺脏弥慢性实变,弹性降低,间质增宽,有的水肿、气肿,或纤维素性胸膜肺炎.病原检测结果显示,该发病猪群主要病原为猪繁殖与呼吸综合征病毒、猪圆环病毒2型和副猪嗜血杆菌.本研究为猪呼吸道疾病综合征的防治提供了依据.%The porcine respiratory disease complex ( PRDC) is a complex disease caused by many factors , including virus, bacteria, environmental stress and low immunity. Some cases susceptive of PRDC were found in a swine farm of Shanghai in April 2009. The pigs showed anorexia, cough, dyspnea. slow growth and reduction of feed efficiency. After epidemiological investigation, eight fattening pigs with respiratory syndrome were selected for gross pathological analysis. The lungs showed mainly diffused consolidation, reduced flexibility , interstitial thicking, emphysema or fibrinous pleuropneumonia. The results of pathogen detection showed that these pigs were mainly infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ( PRRSV) , porcine circovirus cype 2 ( PCV2) and Haemophilus parasuis ( Hps) . This study would be useful for the prevention and control of PRDC.

  15. Evolution and cell physiology. 4. Why invent yet another protein complex to build junctions in epithelial cells? (United States)

    Le Bivic, André


    The formation of the first epithelium was an essential step for animal evolution, since it has allowed coordination of the behavior of a cell layer and creation of a selective barrier between the internal medium and the outside world. The possibility of coupling the cells in a single layer has allowed morphogenetic events, such as tube formation, or gastrulation, to form more complex animal morphologies. The invention of sealed junctions between cells has allowed, on the other hand, creation of an asymmetry of nutrients or salts between the apical and the basal side of the epithelial layer. Creation of an internal medium has led to homeostasis, allowing the evolution of more complex physiological functions and the emergence of sophisticated animal shapes. During evolution, the origins of the first animals coincided with the invention of several protein complexes, including true cadherins and the polarity protein complexes. How these complexes regulate formation of the apicolateral border and the adherens junctions is still not fully understood. This review focuses on the role of these apical polarity complexes and, in particular, the Crumbs complex, which is essential for proper organization of epithelial layers from Drosophila to humans.

  16. Learning from Simple Ebooks, Online Cases or Classroom Teaching When Acquiring Complex Knowledge. A Randomized Controlled Trial in Respiratory Physiology and Pulmonology



    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective as classroom teaching methods, but little is known about its value in relaying contents of different levels of complexity to students. We set out to investigate e-learning effects on ...

  17. Characterization of organic air emissions from the Certification and Segregation Building and Air Support Weather Shield II at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoop, D.S.; Jackson, J.M.; Jolley, J.G.; Izbicki, K.J.


    During the latter part of Fiscal Year (FY-92), a task was initiated to characterize the organic air emissions from the Certification and Segregation (C and S) Building [Waste Management Facility (WMF) 612] and the Air Support Weather Shield II (ASWS II or ASB II) (WMF 711) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The purpose of this task, titled the RWMC Organic Air Emissions Evaluation Task, was to identify and quantify the volatile organic compounds (VOCS) present in the ambient air in these two facilities and to estimate the organic air emissions. The VOCs were identified and quantified by implementing a dual method approach using two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and SUMMA canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14. The data gathered were used in conjunction with the building`s ventilation rate to calculate an estimated organic air emissions rate. This report presents the data gathered during the performance of this task and relates the data to the relevant regulatory requirements.

  18. The Prevalence and Control of Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex%牛呼吸疾病综合征及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Bovine respiratory disease complex(BRD) is a most costly disease in beef industry.It is a multifactor disease caused by pathogens such as Mycoplasma,viruses and bacteria,transport stress,etc.The developed countries such as America began to study this disease in early 1980's,and the research and control for BRD have reached a high level of platform.However,BRD is still thought to be the most important disease for cattle in the next 10 to 20 years.China just began to realize the impact of BRD to the cattle industry in recent years and study the prevalence and control.To learn the experience and knowledge from the developed countries would help China to improve the control of BRD in cattle.%牛呼吸疾病综合征是严重危害国内外肉牛养殖业的一种重要传染病,该病的致病因素复杂,包括支原体、病毒和细菌等特异性病原以及运输应激等多种因素。美国等发达国家对该病的攻关研究开始于上世纪80年代初,其研究和临床防控均已达到较高水平,但仍认为该病将是未来10~20年养牛业所面临的主要疾病。我国对该病的认识和研究尚处于起步阶段,借鉴世界上发达国家的先进经验将有助于提升我国对该病的防控水平。

  19. A redox-active porous coordination network film based on a Ru complex as a building block on an ITO electrode. (United States)

    Shinomiya, Takuya; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Mutoh, Yuichiro; Haga, Masa-Aki


    The combination of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and layer-by-layer (LbL) growth methods for the construction of a surface porous film has the potential to incorporate a wide range of chemical functionalities on a solid surface. A novel redox-active Ru complex with 2,6-bis(N-pyridylbenzimidazolyl)-pyridine ligands (Ru complex 1), in which four peripheral pyridine groups act as coordination sites, was used as a building block for a porous coordination network film. By using (4-pyridyl)phenylphosphonic acid as a SAM primer layer on an ITO surface, the Ru complex 1 was immobilized by the successive reaction of PdCl2 on the ITO electrode in the LbL growth method. Multilayer growth was monitored by UV-vis spectra and cyclic voltammetry, in which the linear increases of both absorbance and the peak current were observed. This result indicated that the regular accumulation of Ru complex 1 onto the ITO surface took place. The permselectivity of the present porous coordination network structure was examined using redox-active molecular probes with different sizes and charges such as ferrocene, trimethylaminomethylferrocene, the Os bis(2,6-bis(N-methylbenzimidazolyl)-pyridine) complex, and tetrathiofulvarene (TTF). With the Os complex and cationic ferrocene, only the catalytic peak was observed as a prewave of the adsorbed Ru(II/III) peak at +0.73 V. On the other hand, the oxidation peak of ferrocene was observed around 0 V vs. Fc(+)/Fc even for nine-layered films in addition to the adsorbed Ru(II/III) peak. From these results, not only molecular size but also electrostatic interaction plays an important role in the permeation into the Ru complex 1 porous network film.

  20. Particle complexation of mitochondrial iron produces superoxide generation and activates MAP kinases, NF-kappa B, nrf-2 in human respiratory epithelial cell (United States)

    The biological effect of particles is associated with a disruption in cell iron homeostasis. We tested the postulate that complexation of cell iron by silica (Si02) results in both an oxidative stress and biological effect. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to either media or 100 ug/ml....

  1. Learning from simple ebooks, online cases or classroom teaching when acquiring complex knowledge. A randomized controlled trial in respiratory physiology and pulmonology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt


    E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective...

  2. 一种Web服务复杂网络的构建方法%Approach for Building Complex Network of Web Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱志良; 邱媛源; 李丹程; 刘国奇; 宋杰


    Web service becomes another hot topic following SOA, the massive Web services definitely will be organized as a complex network with the complex structures, numerous nodes and mutual influence. In research area, there is few work in both the proposing models and studying characteristics for complex network of Web service. In this paper, the approach of building complex network of web service is proposed, which treating the Web services as nodes of the complex network and the functional similarity of Web services as the edges of the complex network, the characteristics of network are also well studied. Based on the massive Web services, a prototype system is implemented which using the matches of service information for building network model, and further proving the the small world and scale-free properties of network. The proposed approach is helpful to shifting the research of Web services from the traditional SOA model to a complex network model, it is also has a certain instruction in promoting the application of Web service composition and discovery.%Web服务是继SOA后的又一研究热点,存在于Internet上大量的Web服务必然会形成一个结构复杂、节点繁多,具有相互影响的复杂网络,目前国内外并没有提出完善的关于Web服务的复杂网络模型,对Web服务复杂网络特性的研究也处于发展阶段.提出以Web服务为节点,服务功能相似关系为边,构建复杂网络的模型和算法,并对构建的网络的特性展开研究.本文设计并实现了一个原型系统,利用Web服务的匹配关系构建了网络模型,并且证明该网络具有小世界特性和无标度特性.该方法的提出把对Web服务的研究从传统的SOA模型中引领到复杂网络模型中,对推动Web服务组合和发现等应用具有一定的指导意义.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo de Jesus Carvalho Lima


    Full Text Available This article discusses the profile of the remaining textile industry workforce as a strategic factor for the building of competencies in the companies of the sector. It investigates the impact of the cultural and identitarian traits developed by the workforce within century-old organizations on productive dynamics. The discussion is justified in a precarious working context seeking competitive differentials. The theoretical framework is supported by a reflexive axis that gives first priority to the combination of complementary topics. This article is based on exploratory and qualitative research developed through a multiple case methodology (Yin, 2005 covering textile factions and cotton mills from the micro-regions of Curvelo and Diamantina, Minas Gerais State. The body of the work included fifty-one operating and directive-level respondents and the data were collected through interviews between October 2009 and March 2010. The NVIVO software and Content Analysis were used for data processing based on categories and frequency counting (Bardin, 1979. The results indicate that from a structural viewpoint, the retention of a qualified workforce, both technically and skillfully, was an alternative to the shaping of the workforce and the stabilization of the productive process. Concerning the relational and formative dimensions, the study concluded that learning developed fundamentally by means of experienced tutors. Competence building resulted from some deliberate strategy consisting of social and historical aspects within the work environment.

  4. Building a Theoretical Model of Metacognitive Processes in Complex Modeling Activities: A Window into the Development of Students' Metacognitive Abilities (United States)

    Kim, Young Rae


    A theoretical model of metacognition in complex modeling activities has been developed based on existing frameworks, by synthesizing the re-conceptualization of metacognition at multiple levels by looking at the three sources that trigger metacognition. Using the theoretical model as a framework, this study was designed to explore how students'…

  5. Rational serendipity: "undirected" synthesis of a large {MnCu} complex from pre-formed Mn(II) building blocks. (United States)

    Frost, Jamie M; Kettles, Fraser J; Wilson, Claire; Murrie, Mark


    Use of an aminopolyalcohol-based Mn(II) complex in solvothermal Cu(II) chemistry leads to a rare example of a high nuclearity heterometallic {MnCu} system, in which four Cu(II)(H1Edte) units trap an inner {MnCu(II)} oxide core.

  6. Association of swine influenza H1N1 pandemic virus (SIV-H1N1p) with porcine respiratory disease complex in sows from commercial pig farms in Colombia. (United States)

    Jiménez, Luisa Fernanda Mancipe; Ramírez Nieto, Gloria; Alfonso, Victor Vera; Correa, Jairo Jaime


    Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a serious health problem that mainly affects growing and finishing pigs. PRDC is caused by a combination of viral and bacterial agents, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Myh), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP), Pasteurella multocida and Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). To characterize the specific role of swine influenza virus in PRDC presentation in Colombia, 11 farms from three major production regions in Colombia were examined in this study. Nasal swabs, bronchial lavage and lung tissue samples were obtained from animals displaying symptoms compatible with SIV. Isolation of SIV was performed in 9-day embryonated chicken eggs or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. Positive isolates, identified via the hemagglutination inhibition test, were further analyzed using PCR. Overall, 7 of the 11 farms were positive for SIV. Notably, sequencing of the gene encoding the hemagglutinin (HA) protein led to grouping of strains into circulating viruses identified during the human outbreak of 2009, classified as pandemic H1N1-2009. Serum samples from 198 gilts and multiparous sows between 2008 and 2009 were obtained to determine antibody presence of APP, Myh, PCV2 and PRRSV in both SIV-H1N1p-negative and -positive farms, but higher levels were recorded for SIV-H1N1p-positive farms. Odds ratio (OR) and P values revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in PRDC presentation in gilts and multiparous sows of farms positive for SIV-H1N1p. Our findings indicate that positive farms have increased risk of PRDC presentation, in particular, PCV2, APP and Myh.

  7. Provenance of granites used to build the Santa Maria de Valdeiglesias Monastery, Pelayos de la Presa (Madrid, Spain), and conservation state of the monumental complex (United States)

    Fort, R.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.; Perez-Monserrat, E. M.; Varas-Muriel, M. J.; Lopez-Arce, P.


    The construction of the Cistercian Monastery began at 1180, in an initial Late Romanesque style in which the Church was erected; later on, in 1258, the church underwent a severe fire, only the apse stood standing. The church was reconstructed at the end of the 13th century in Mudejar style. Gothic style was used later on, in the 16th century, for the reconstruction of the funerary chapel, and Renaissance style for the Plateresque door in between the church and the sacristy. At the end of the 16th century, the main door to access the church was built in Baroque style. In 1836, the Ecclesiastical Confiscations resulted on transfer the Monastery into particular owners. This fact favoured its abandon and ruin state until 1979, when architect Mariano Garcia Benito purchased the property and started the conservation and consolidation of the complex, beginning with the Bell Tower. Natural stone materials used in the Monastery are igneous (granite) and metamorphic rocks (gneiss and schist), and artificial stone materials are bricks and mortars, both joint and rendering ones. Granite is the most abundant material used in the complex, with a structural/reinforcing role in elements such as lintels, jambs, buttresses, or bottom areas of the walls with greater sizes and better dimensioned. Some pillars are granite built, from the large ashlars of the sacristy, to the rubble-work of the Mozarab chapel. Two types of monzogranite can be differentiated in relation to distinct constructive stages: the coarse texture monzogranite is used in the first building stages, while the fine texture monzogranite was employed mainly from 17th century on. Petrophysical characteristics of these granites are different but show a good quality to be used in construction. Nevertheless, the abandon and partial ruin of the complex, the devastating fire events (the second one in 1743) leaded to the decay acceleration of the monumental complex, being nowadays the church in ruin, with no roofs and walls

  8. New genes encoding subunits of a cytochrome bc1-analogous complex in the respiratory chain of the hyperthermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. (United States)

    Hiller, A; Henninger, T; Schäfer, G; Schmidt, C L


    The soxL gene from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius (DSM 639) encodes a Rieske iron-sulfur protein. In this study we report the identification of two open reading frames in its downstream region. The first one, named soxN, codes for a membrane protein bearing a resemblance to the b-type cytochromes of the cytochrome bc1 and b6f complexes. The protein is predicted to contain at least 10 transmembrane helices and features the two conserved histidine pairs coordinating the heme groups of these cytochromes. The second open reading frame, named odsN, encodes a soluble protein of unknown function. The genomic region displays a complex transcription pattern. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses revealed the presence of mono- and bi-cistronic transcripts as well as a tri-cistronic transcript of soxL and cbsAB, encoding the mono-heme cytochrome b558/566. Phylogenetic analyses of the genes of the soxLN pair and of other archaeal gene pairs encoding Rieske iron-sulfur proteins and b-type cytochromes revealed an identical branching patterns for both protein families, suggesting an evolutionary link of these genes provided by the functional interaction of the proteins. On the basis of the findings of this study and the previously studied properties of the soxL and cbsA proteins, we propose the occurrence of a novel cytochrome bc1-analogous complex in the membranes of Sulfolobus, consisting of the cytochrome b homolog soxN, the Rieske protein soxL, the high potential cytochrome cbsA, as well as the non-redox-active subunits cbsB and odsN.

  9. Planning and Building Qualifiable Embedded Systems: Safety and Risk Properties Assessment for a Large and Complex System with Embedded Subsystems (United States)

    Silva, N.; Lopes, R.; Barbosa, R.


    Systems based on embedded components and applications are today used in all markets. They are planned and developed by all types of institutions with different types of background experience, multidisciplinary teams and all types of capability and maturity levels. Organisational/engineering maturity has an impact on all aspects of the engineering of large and complex systems. An embedded system is a specific computer system designed to perform one or more dedicated functions, usually with real-time constraints. It is generally integrated as part of a more complex device typically composed of specific hardware such as sensors and actuators. This article presents an experimented technique to evaluate the organisation, processes, system and software engineering practices, methods, tools and the planned/produced artefacts themselves, leading towards certification/qualification. The safety and risk assessment of such core and complex systems is explained, described on a step-by- step manner, while presenting the main results and conclusions of the application of the technique to a real case study.

  10. Respiratory Protection against Pesticides


    Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin


    Although the respiratory (breathing) system tolerates exposure to a limited degree, some chemicals can impair or destroy portions of it. For many pesticides, the respiratory system is the quickest and most direct route into the circulatory system, allowing rapid transport throughout the body. Thus, it is important to follow the pesticide label and follow directions for control of exposure, especially when respiratory protection is specified. A respirator is a safety device covering at least t...

  11. Towards building artificial light harvesting complexes: enhanced singlet-singlet energy transfer between donor and acceptor pairs bound to albumins. (United States)

    Kumar, Challa V; Duff, Michael R


    Specific donor and acceptor pairs have been assembled in bovine serum albumin (BSA), at neutral pH and room temperature, and these dye-protein complexes indicated efficient donor to acceptor singlet-singlet energy transfer. For example, pyrene-1-butyric acid served as the donor and Coumarin 540A served as the acceptor. Both the donor and the acceptor bind to BSA with affinity constants in excess of 2x10(5) M(-1), as measured in absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectral titrations. Simultaneous binding of both the donor and the acceptor chromophores was supported by CD spectra and one chromophore did not displace the other from the protein host, even when limited concentrations of the host were used. For example, a 1:1:1 complex between the donor, acceptor and the host can be readily formed, and spectral data clearly show that the binding sites are mutually exclusive. The ternary complexes (two different ligands bound to the same protein molecule) provided opportunities to examine singlet-singlet energy transfer between the protein-bound chromophores. Donor emission was quenched by the addition of the acceptor, in the presence of limited amounts of BSA, while no energy transfer was observed in the absence of the protein host, under the same conditions. The excitation spectra of the donor-acceptor-host complexes clearly show the sensitization of acceptor emission by the donor. Protein denaturation, as induced by the addition of urea or increasing the temperature to 360 K, inhibited energy transfer, which indicate that protein structure plays an important role. Sensitization also proceeded at low temperature (77 K) and diffusion of the donor or the acceptor is not required for energy transfer. Stern-Volmer quenching plots show that the quenching constant is (3.1+/-0.2)x10(4) M(-1), at low acceptor concentrations (albumins such as human and porcine proteins also served as good hosts for the above experiments. For the first time, non-natural systems have been self

  12. Respiratory chain supercomplexes in plant mitochondria. (United States)

    Eubel, Holger; Heinemeyer, Jesco; Sunderhaus, Stephanie; Braun, Hans-Peter


    Supercomplexes are defined associations of protein complexes, which are important for several cellular functions. This "quintenary" organization level of protein structure recently was also described for the respiratory chain of plant mitochondria. Except succinate dehydrogenase (complex II), all complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPOS) system (complexes I, III, IV and V) were found to form part of supercomplexes. Compositions of these supramolecular structures were systematically investigated using digitonin solubilizations of mitochondrial fractions and two-dimensional Blue-native (BN) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The most abundant supercomplex of plant mitochondria includes complexes I and III at a 1:2 ratio (I1 + III2 supercomplex). Furthermore, some supercomplexes of lower abundance could be described, which have I2 + III4, V2, III2 + IV(1-2), and I1 + III2 + IV(1-4) compositions. Supercomplexes consisting of complexes I plus III plus IV were proposed to be called "respirasome", because they autonomously can carry out respiration in the presence of ubiquinone and cytochrome c. Plant specific alternative oxidoreductases of the respiratory chain were not associated with supercomplexes under all experimental conditions tested. However, formation of supercomplexes possibly indirectly regulates alternative respiratory pathways in plant mitochondria on the basis of electron channeling. In this review, procedures to characterize the supermolecular organization of the plant respiratory chain and results concerning supercomplex structure and function are summarized and discussed.

  13. Study of Methods to Build Drawing Features on Complex Curved Surface%复杂曲面上构建图样特征的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    基于CAXA制造工程师软件中线面映射的功能,从实际应用出发,探讨了在复杂曲面上构建图样特征的方法,以便为在复杂曲面上加工图样打下基础,为后续刀具轨迹的生成做好准备。%Based on the function of line side mapping in the software of CAM manufacturing engineers, this paper starts from reality, and discusses the methods for building drawing feature on complex curved surface, so that it can lay the basis for processing drawmg g& prepared for the generation of the subsequent tool path.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA variants of respiratory complex I that uniquely characterize haplogroup T2 are associated with increased risk of age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul SanGiovanni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD, a chronic neurodegenerative and neovascular retinal disease, is the leading cause of blindness in elderly people of western European origin. While structural and functional alterations in mitochondria (mt and their metabolites have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative and vascular diseases, the relationship of inherited variants in the mitochondrial genome and mt haplogroup subtypes with advanced AMD has not been reported in large prospective cohorts. METHODOLOGY/PRINICIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the relationship of inherited mtDNA variants with advanced AMD in 1168 people using a three-stage design on samples from 12-year and 10-year prospective studies on the natural history of age-related eye disease. In Stage I we resequenced the entire genome in 99 elderly AMD-free controls and 215 people with advanced AMD from the 12-year study. A consistent association with AMD in 14 of 17 SNPs characterizing the mtDNA T haplogroup emerged. Further analysis revealed these associations were driven entirely by the T2 haplogroup, and characterized by two variants in Complex I genes (A11812G of MT-ND4 and A14233G of MT-ND6. We genotyped T haplogroups in an independent sample of 490 cases and 61 controls from the same study (Stage II and in 56 cases and 246 controls from the 10-year study (Stage III. People in the T2 haplogroup were approximately 2.5 times more likely to have advanced AMD than their peers (odds ratio [OR] = 2.54, 95%CI 1.36-4.80, PComplex I are reasonable targets for novel functional analyses and therapeutic research in AMD.

  15. Crystal engineered acid–base complexes with 2D and 3D hydrogen bonding systems using p-hydroxybenzoic acid as the building block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available p-Hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HOBA was selected as the building block for self-assembly with five bases, i.e., diethylamine, tert-butylamine, cyclohexylamine, imidazole and piperazine, and generation of the corresponding acid–base complexes 1–5. Crystal structure analyses suggest that proton-transfer from the carboxyl hydrogen to the nitrogen atom of the bases can be observed in 1–4, while only in 5 does a solvent water molecule co-exist with p--HOBA and piperazine. With the presence of O–H···O hydrogen bonds in 1–4, the deprotonated p-hydroxybenzoate anions (p-HOBAA– are simply connected each other in a head-to-tail motif to form one-dimensional (1D arrays, which are further extended to distinct two-dimensional (2D (for 1 and 4 and three-dimensional (3D (for 2 and 3 networks via N–H···O interactions. While in 5, neutral acid and base are combined pair-wise by O–H···N and N–H···O bonds to form a 1D tape and then the 1D tapes are sequentially combined by water molecules to create a 3D network. Some interlayer or intralayer C–H···O, C–H···p and p×××p interactions help to stabilize the supramolecular buildings. Melting point determination analyses indicate that the five acid–base complexes are not the ordinary superposition of the reactants and they are more stable than the original reactants.

  16. Iron-oxygen interaction in silicon: A combined XBIC/XRF-EBIC-DLTS study of precipitation and complex building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trushin, M., E-mail: trushmax@tu-cottbus.d [IHP/BTU Jointlab, Konrad-Wachsmann Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Vyvenko, O. [V.A.Fok Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya 1, 108594 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Seifert, W. [IHP/BTU Jointlab, Konrad-Wachsmann Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); IHP microelectronics, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Jia, G. [IHP/BTU Jointlab, Konrad-Wachsmann Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Kittler, M. [IHP/BTU Jointlab, Konrad-Wachsmann Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); IHP microelectronics, Im Technologiepark 25, D-15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)


    Iron-oxygen interaction in the Czochralski-grown silicon (CZ-Si) giving rise to their final precipitated state was investigated by means of a combination of electrical and element-sensitive techniques. The samples studied were intentionally contaminated with iron at 1150 deg. C and then they were annealed at temperatures of 850 and 950 deg. C to stimulate precipitate formation. Fe-related defect levels in silicon band gap and spatial distributions of iron-related precipitates were monitored after each annealing step. It was found that FeB-pairs being the dominant defects in as-contaminated sample transformed completely to the stable FeO-related complexes that served as precursors for further iron-oxygen co-precipitation.

  17. Iron-oxygen interaction in silicon: A combined XBIC/XRF-EBIC-DLTS study of precipitation and complex building (United States)

    Trushin, M.; Vyvenko, O.; Seifert, W.; Jia, G.; Kittler, M.


    Iron-oxygen interaction in the Czochralski-grown silicon (CZ-Si) giving rise to their final precipitated state was investigated by means of a combination of electrical and element-sensitive techniques. The samples studied were intentionally contaminated with iron at 1150 °C and then they were annealed at temperatures of 850 and 950 °C to stimulate precipitate formation. Fe-related defect levels in silicon band gap and spatial distributions of iron-related precipitates were monitored after each annealing step. It was found that FeB-pairs being the dominant defects in as-contaminated sample transformed completely to the stable FeO-related complexes that served as precursors for further iron-oxygen co-precipitation.

  18. mCSF1, a nucleus-encoded CRM protein required for the processing of many mitochondrial introns, is involved in the biogenesis of respiratory complexes I and IV in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Zmudjak, Michal; Colas des Francs-Small, Catherine; Keren, Ido; Shaya, Felix; Belausov, Eduard; Small, Ian; Ostersetzer-Biran, Oren


    The coding regions of many mitochondrial genes in plants are interrupted by intervening sequences that are classified as group II introns. Their splicing is essential for the expression of the genes they interrupt and hence for respiratory function, and is facilitated by various protein cofactors. Despite the importance of these cofactors, only a few of them have been characterized. CRS1-YhbY domain (CRM) is a recently recognized RNA-binding domain that is present in several characterized splicing factors in plant chloroplasts. The Arabidopsis genome encodes 16 CRM proteins, but these are largely uncharacterized. Here, we analyzed the intracellular location of one of these hypothetical proteins in Arabidopsis, mitochondrial CAF-like splicing factor 1 (mCSF1; At4 g31010), and analyzed the growth phenotypes and organellar activities associated with mcsf1 mutants in plants. Our data indicated that mCSF1 resides within mitochondria and its functions are essential during embryogenesis. Mutant plants with reduced mCSF1 displayed inhibited germination and retarded growth phenotypes that were tightly associated with reduced complex I and IV activities. Analogously to the functions of plastid-localized CRM proteins, analysis of the RNA profiles in wildtype and mcsf1 plants showed that mCSF1 acts in the splicing of many of the group II intron RNAs in Arabidopsis mitochondria.

  19. Study by similarity of wind influence on mass transfers in complex buildings; Etude par similitude de l'influence du vent sur les transferts de masse dans les batiments complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, Nicolas


    Residential and industrial buildings equipped with a ventilation system are complex facilities, where various heat and mass transfers could occur according to the operating conditions. In order to study these mass transfers, a methodology has been developed so as to carry out reduced-scale experiments for the study of isothermal flows, in steady or transient state. This methodology has been numerically and experimentally validated on simple configurations, and then applied to two standard configurations, representing nuclear facilities. The wind influence on mass transfers inside these configurations, in normal, damaged (stopping ventilation) or accidental (internal overpressure) situations, has been studied in the Jules Verne climatic wind tunnel of the CSTB. The wind effects, coupled or not with an internal overpressure, can lead to a partial or a total loss of the pollutant's containment inside buildings. Moreover, the wind turbulence can bring about instantaneous reversal leakage flow-rates, which cannot be identified in steady state. In addition, the study of transient phenomena has highlighted the low influence of the branch inertia on transient flows, for typical values of real facilities. Finally, tracer tests have been carried out in order to study the pollutant dispersion inside a standard configuration subjected to wind, mechanical ventilation and internal overpressure effects. The reliability of the zonal code SYLVIA, used notably to support safety assessment in nuclear buildings, has been analyzed from these experimental results. The modelling of the physical phenomena experimentally observed has been validated, in steady and transient states. However, limitations have been identified for the study of pollutant dispersion, due to hypothesis used in SYLVIA code, as in all zonal codes (homogenous concentration inside rooms, instantaneous propagation inside branches and rooms). (author)

  20. Chemical interactions in complex matrices: Determination of polar impurities in biofuels and fuel contaminants in building materials (United States)

    Baglayeva, Ganna

    The solutions to several real-life analytical and physical chemistry problems, which involve chemical interactions in complex matrices are presented. The possible interferences due to the analyte-analyte and analyte-matrix chemical interactions were minimized on each step of the performed chemical analysis. Concrete and wood, as major construction materials, typically become contaminated with fuel oil hydrocarbons during their spillage. In the catastrophic scenarios (e.g., during floods), fuel oil mixes with water and then becomes entrained within the porous structure of wood or concrete. A strategy was proposed for the efficient extraction of fuel oil hydrocarbons from concrete to enable their monitoring. The impacts of sample aging and inundation with water on the extraction efficiency were investigated to elucidate the nature of analytematrix interactions. Two extraction methods, 4-days cold solvent extraction with shaking and 24-hours Soxhlet extraction with ethylacetate, methanol or acetonitrile yielded 95-100 % recovery of fuel oil hydrocarbons from concrete. A method of concrete remediation after contamination with fuel oil hydrocarbons using activated carbon as an adsorbent was developed. The 14 days remediation was able to achieve ca. 90 % of the contaminant removal even from aged water-submerged concrete samples. The degree of contamination can be qualitatively assessed using transport rates of the contaminants. Two models were developed, Fickian and empirical, to predict long-term transport behavior of fuel oil hydrocarbons under flood representative scenarios into wood. Various sorption parameters, including sorption rate, penetration degree and diffusion coefficients were obtained. The explanations to the observed three sorption phases are provided in terms of analyte-matrix interactions. The detailed simultaneous analysis of intermediate products of the cracking of triacylglycerol oils, namely monocarboxylic acids, triacyl-, diacyl- and

  1. The build-up, configuration, and dynamical sensitivity of the Eurasian ice-sheet complex to Late Weichselian climatic and oceanic forcing (United States)

    Patton, Henry; Hubbard, Alun; Andreassen, Karin; Winsborrow, Monica; Stroeven, Arjen P.


    The Eurasian ice-sheet complex (EISC) was the third largest ice mass during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), after the Antarctic and North American ice sheets. Despite its global significance, a comprehensive account of its evolution from independent nucleation centres to its maximum extent is conspicuously lacking. Here, a first-order, thermomechanical model, robustly constrained by empirical evidence, is used to investigate the dynamics of the EISC throughout its build-up to its maximum configuration. The ice flow model is coupled to a reference climate and applied at 10 km spatial resolution across a domain that includes the three main spreading centres of the Celtic, Fennoscandian and Barents Sea ice sheets. The model is forced with the NGRIP palaeo-isotope curve from 37 ka BP onwards and model skill is assessed against collated flowsets, marginal moraines, exposure ages and relative sea-level history. The evolution of the EISC to its LGM configuration was complex and asynchronous; the western, maritime margins of the Fennoscandian and Celtic ice sheets responded rapidly and advanced across their continental shelves by 29 ka BP, yet the maximum aerial extent (5.48 × 106 km2) and volume (7.18 × 106 km3) of the ice complex was attained some 6 ka later at c. 22.7 ka BP. This maximum stand was short-lived as the North Sea and Atlantic margins were already in retreat whilst eastern margins were still advancing up until c. 20 ka BP. High rates of basal erosion are modelled beneath ice streams and outlet glaciers draining the Celtic and Fennoscandian ice sheets with extensive preservation elsewhere due to frozen subglacial conditions, including much of the Barents and Kara seas. Here, and elsewhere across the Norwegian shelf and North Sea, high pressure subglacial conditions would have promoted localised gas hydrate formation.

  2. Respiratory medicine of reptiles. (United States)

    Schumacher, Juergen


    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen.

  3. Recent advances in theoretical models of respiratory mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Huo; Rui-Rong Fu


    As an important branch of biomedical engineering,respiratory mechanics helps to understand the physiology of the respiratory system and provides fundamental data for developing such clinical technologies as ventilators.To solve different clinical problems,researchers have developed numerous models at various scales that describe biological and mechanical properties of the respiratory system.During the past decade,benefiting from the continuous accumulation of clinical data and the dramatic progress of biomedical technologies (e.g.biomedical imaging),the theoretical modeling of respiratory mechanics has made remarkable progress regarding the macroscopic properties of the respiratory process,complexities of the respiratory system,gas exchange within the lungs,and the coupling interaction between lung and heart.The present paper reviews the advances in the above fields and proposes potential future projects.

  4. Geoarchaeological research of the mid-age Ilyas Bey complex buildings with ground penetrating radar in Miletus, Aydin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadioglu, S [Ankara University, Eng. Fac. Geophysical Engineering Department, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Kadioglu, Y K [Ankara University, Eng. Fac. Geological Engineering Department, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akyol, A A [Ankara University, Baskent Vac. High Sch. Prog. of Restoration and Cons., Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    The ancient Miletus which were one of the most important city of ancient Iona, are today of great value from cultural standpoint of Turkey. Miletus, situated near the village of Balat in the present district of Soke was founded on a peninsula, approximately 2.5 km long. In the Byzantine period, the city boundaries were quite reduced. In 1424 Miletus was taken inside of the Ottoman Empire and was completely abandoned in the 17th century. Ancient Miletus excavation studies were first begun in 1899 by in Berlin Museum and interrupted during the World War I. At present, the extensive restoration works in Ilyas Bey Complex has applied as a project since 2006. Ilyas Bey Complex that includes Mosque, Medresah and baths situated on the archaeological area in ancient Miletus. Impressive Mosque built in 1404 by Ilyas Bey, Emir of Menteseogullari founded in 1279 and the complex was named after him, is one of the most remarkable buildings of mid-age Miletus. There are two main purposes of the study are (1) to determine archaeological remains of the study area underneath Ilyas Bey Complex and (2) to define the nature of main rock unit and their sources in the vicinity or Aegean region. After preliminary archaeometrical studies, acquired GPR profile data paralleled each other in Ilyas Bey Mosque and its around, Medresah Courtyard and inner Courtyard of the Mosque. After processing 2D parallel GPR profiles, we constructed 3D data volume by lining processed 2D profiles up to correlate remain signatures from each profile for each studied area. It was obtained transparent 3D visualisation of GPR data by assigning a new colour scale for the amplitude range and by constructing a new opacity function instead of the linear opacity function. Therefore we could successfully image the archaeological remains in an interactive transparent 3D volume and its sub-volumes, starting at different depth levels or limited profiles. The archaeometrical (geological and mineralogical, petrographical

  5. Advances in respiratory therapy. (United States)

    Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Bach, Jonathan F; Shaw, Scott P


    Effective respiratory therapy depends on obtaining a definitive diagnosis and following established recommendations for treatment. Unfortunately, many respiratory conditions are idiopathic in origin or are attributable to nonspecific inflammation. In some situations, disorders are controlled rather than cured. Recent advances in pulmonary therapeutics include the use of new agents to treat common diseases and application of local delivery of drugs to enhance drug effect and minimize side effects.

  6. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  7. HERMES European Accreditation of Training Centres in Adult Respiratory Medicine: criteria validation and revision. (United States)

    Sutter, Sandy; Stolz, Daiana; Karg, Ortrud; Mitchell, Sharon; Niculescu, Alexandra; Noël, Julie-Lyn; Powell, Pippa; Skoczyński, Szymon; Verbraecken, Johan; Rohde, Gernot


    Four respiratory medicine disease categories appear in the global top 10 causes of mortality [1], resulting in 600 000 people dying from respiratory disease in Europe each year. The economic burden of respiratory diseases in Europe exceeds 380 billion euros. In a fast-developing environment, new clinical challenges have arisen for pulmonary specialists; techniques and procedures have evolved and become more complex.

  8. Biological Characteristics and Etiological Significance of Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus(PRCV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiuping; FENG Li; SHI Hongyan; CHEN Jianfei


    Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), a spike (S) gene natural deletion mutant of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), causes porcine respiratory disease complex. Research advances on porcine respiratory coronavirus were reviewed from four aspects of biological character, the model function for SARS-CoV research, contribution of the immunity to PRCV to protection against TGEV challenge exposure and other etiological significance.

  9. Learning Drupal 8 create complex websites quickly and easily using the building blocks of Drupal 8, the most powerful version of Drupal yet

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Nick


    About This Book : Build complete, complex websites with no prior knowledge of web development entirely using the intuitive Drupal user interface ; Follow a practical case study chapter-by-chapter to construct a complete website as you progress ; Ensure your sites are modern, responsive and mobile-friendly through utilizing the full features available in Drupal 8. Who This Book Is For : If you want to learn to use Drupal 8 for the first time, or you are transitioning over from a previous version of Drupal, this is the book for you. No knowledge of PHP, MySQL, or HTML is assumed or required. What You Will Learn : Set up a local “stack” development environment and install your first Drupal 8 site ; Find out what is available in Drupal 8 core Define content types and taxonomies―and find out when you should do so ; Use the powerful Views module ; Get hands-on with image and media handling ; Extend Drupal using custom community modules ; Develop the look and feel of your website using Drupal themes ; M...

  10. Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Building Materials Sub-council of CCPIT is the other sub-council in construction field. CCPIT Building Materials Sub-council (CCPITBM), as well as CCOIC Build-ing Materials Chamber of Commerce, is au-thorized by CCPIT and state administration of building materials industry in 1992. CCPITBM is a sub-organization of CCPIT and CCOIC.

  11. Upper and lower respiratory diseases after occupational and environmental disasters. (United States)

    Prezant, David J; Levin, Stephen; Kelly, Kerry J; Aldrich, Thomas K


    Respiratory consequences from occupational and environmental disasters are the result of inhalation exposures to chemicals, particulate matter (dusts and fibers) and/or the incomplete products of combustion that are often liberated during disasters such as fires, building collapses, explosions and volcanoes. Unfortunately, experience has shown that environmental controls and effective respiratory protection are often unavailable during the first days to week after a large-scale disaster. The English literature was reviewed using the key words-disaster and any of the following: respiratory disease, pulmonary, asthma, bronchitis, sinusitis, pulmonary fibrosis, or sarcoidosis. Respiratory health consequences after aerosolized exposures to high-concentrations of particulates and chemicals can be grouped into 4 major categories: 1) upper respiratory disease (chronic rhinosinusitis and reactive upper airways dysfunction syndrome), 2) lower respiratory diseases (reactive [lower] airways dysfunction syndrome, irritant-induced asthma, and chronic obstructive airways diseases), 3) parenchymal or interstitial lung diseases (sarcoidosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and bronchiolitis obliterans, and 4) cancers of the lung and pleura. This review describes several respiratory consequences of occupational and environmental disasters and uses the World Trade Center disaster to illustrate in detail the consequences of chronic upper and lower respiratory inflammation.

  12. The Respiratory Chain of Alkaliphilic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Ann Krulwich


    Alkaliphilic bacteria that grow at extremely high pH are confronted by particular bioenergetic problems in carrying out oxidative phosphorylation. This project focused on the properties and adaptations of the respiratory chain. The respiratory chain as a whole, the redox poises of its components and several individual complexes of the respiratory chain of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 have been characterized as part of this project and, importantly, this project has helped support the development of genetic tools that make B. pseudofirmus OF4 the most genetically tractable and, hence, most bioenergetically characterized extreme alkaliphile. Evidence has been obtained for a pivotal role of the cca3-type terminal oxidase in oxidative phosphorylation, especially at high pH and motifs that may be relevant to that special role have been identified.

  13. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit


    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  14. 复杂高层箱筏基础沉降变形预测方法研究%Prediction of complex tall building box raft foundation settlement deformation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟巍; 张会娟


    以某复杂高层工程为例,采用灰色理论,系统研究了复杂高层箱筏基础沉降变形特性,结果表明沉降随建筑结构高程增加而增大,建筑完工后沉降基本趋稳,指出灰色理论能较好地反映复杂高层箱筏基础沉降变形预测,其预测沉降变形与实测较为吻合。%In this paper,taking a complex high-rise building project as an example,the application of gray theory,the system of complex tall building box raft foundation settlement deformation characteristics,the results show that settlement with the building height increases,the settle-ment after construction is completed the basic stabilization. Gray theory can reflect the deformation prediction of complex tall building box raft foundation settlement,the settlement deformation agree well with the measured.

  15. Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia KP Menezes


    Full Text Available Question: After stroke, does respiratory muscle training increase respiratory muscle strength and/or endurance? Are any benefits carried over to activity and/or participation? Does it reduce respiratory complications? Design: Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants: Adults with respiratory muscle weakness following stroke. Intervention: Respiratory muscle training aimed at increasing inspiratory and/or expiratory muscle strength. Outcome measures: Five outcomes were of interest: respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle endurance, activity, participation and respiratory complications. Results: Five trials involving 263 participants were included. The mean PEDro score was 6.4 (range 3 to 8, showing moderate methodological quality. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that respiratory muscle training increased maximal inspiratory pressure by 7 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 14 and maximal expiratory pressure by 13 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 25; it also decreased the risk of respiratory complications (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.96 compared with no/sham respiratory intervention. Whether these effects carry over to activity and participation remains uncertain. Conclusion: This systematic review provided evidence that respiratory muscle training is effective after stroke. Meta-analyses based on five trials indicated that 30 minutes of respiratory muscle training, five times per week, for 5 weeks can be expected to increase respiratory muscle strength in very weak individuals after stroke. In addition, respiratory muscle training is expected to reduce the risk of respiratory complications after stroke. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the benefits are carried over to activity and participation. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42015020683. [Menezes KKP, Nascimento LR, Ada L, Polese JC, Avelino PR, Teixeira-Salmela LF (2016 Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory

  16. Building Support Vector Machine with Reduced Feature Complexity%构造特征复杂性减低的支持向量机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    支持向量机(SVM)较一般的机器学习方法显示出更好的泛化能力.然而,在实际的数据中经常存在着大量冗余、噪声或者不可靠的特征,这严重影响到SVM的性能.因此,有必要减低特征复杂性以获取更好的SVM结果.本文提出了一种基于遗传算法(GA)的嵌入式框架下的特征优化算法,以构造改进SVM.针对选择的UCI成人数据库的实验表明,与原始的SVM相比,提出的改进SVM方法获得了更少的支持向量数目和更好的分类精度.%Support Vector Machine (SVM) has revealed better generalization than conventional machine learning methods. However, in the real data there often exist a large number of redundant, noisy or unreliable features to deteriorate the function of SVM strongly. So to reduce the feature complexity, it is necessary to improve the performance of SVM for better results. A method to build modified SVM, which is based on embedded methods for feature optimization using Genetic Algorithm (GA),is proposed in this paper. The experimental results on selected UCI Adult data base show that compared with original SVM classifier, the number of support vector decreases and better classification results are achieved based on our modified SVM.

  17. The respiratory proteins of insects. (United States)

    Burmester, Thorsten; Hankeln, Thomas


    For a long time, respiratory proteins have been considered unnecessary in most insects because the tracheal system was thought to be sufficient for oxygen supply. Only a few species that survive under hypoxic conditions were known exceptions. However, recently it has become evident that (1) intracellular hemoglobins belong to the standard repertoire of insects and (2) that hemocyanin is present in many "lower" insects. Intracellular hemoglobins have been identified in Drosophila, Anopheles, Apis and many other insects. In all investigated species, hemoglobin is mainly expressed in the fat body and the tracheal system. The major Drosophila hemoglobin binds oxygen with high affinity. This hemoglobin type possibly functions as a buffer system for oxygen supply at low partial pressures and/or for the protection from an excess of oxygen. Similar hemoglobins, present in much higher concentrations, store oxygen in specialized tracheal organs of the botfly and some backswimmers. The extracellular hemoglobins in the hemolymph of chironomid midges are evolutionary derivatives of the intracellular insect hemoglobins, which emerged in response to the hypoxic environment of the larvae. In addition, several hemoglobin variants of unknown functions have been discovered in insect genomes. Hemocyanins transport oxygen in the hemolymph of stoneflies, but also in the Entognatha and most hemimetabolan taxa. Apparently, hemocyanin has been lost in Holometabola. At present, no physiological or morphological character is known that could explain the presence or loss of hemocyanins in distinct taxa. Nevertheless, the occurrence of respiratory proteins in insects adds further complexity to our view on insect respiration.

  18. Respiratory Issues in OI (United States)

    Respiratory Issues in Osteogenesis Imperfecta 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981-2663 (301) 947-0083 Fax: (301) 947-0456 ... Email: The Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation, Inc. is the only voluntary national health ...

  19. Obesity and respiratory diseases. (United States)

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender


    The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.

  20. Respiratory Diseases of Poultry (United States)

    A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...

  1. [Respiratory complications after transfusion]. (United States)

    Bernasinski, M; Mertes, P-M; Carlier, M; Dupont, H; Girard, M; Gette, S; Just, B; Malinovsky, J-M


    Respiratory complications of blood transfusion have several possible causes. Transfusion-Associated Circulatory Overload (TACO) is often the first mentioned. Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), better defined since the consensus conference of Toronto in 2004, is rarely mentioned. French incidence is low. Non-hemolytic febrile reactions, allergies, infections and pulmonary embolism are also reported. The objective of this work was to determine the statistical importance of the different respiratory complications of blood transfusion. This work was conducted retrospectively on transfusion accidents in six health centers in Champagne-Ardenne, reported to Hemovigilance between 2000 and 2009 and having respiratory symptoms. The analysis of data was conducted by an expert committee. Eighty-three cases of respiratory complications are found (316,864 blood products). We have counted 26 TACO, 12 TRALI (only 6 cases were identified in the original investigation of Hemovigilance), 18 non-hemolytic febrile reactions, 16 cases of allergies, 5 transfusions transmitted bacterial infections and 2 pulmonary embolisms. Six new TRALI were diagnosed previously labeled TACO for 2 of them, allergy and infection in 2 other cases and diagnosis considered unknown for the last 2. Our study found an incidence of TRALI 2 times higher than that reported previously. Interpretation of the data by a multidisciplinary committee amended 20% of diagnoses. This study shows the imperfections of our system for reporting accidents of blood transfusion when a single observer analyses the medical records.

  2. Respiratory Resistance In Family Therapy (United States)

    Beck, Michael J.


    Patients' respiratory problems may interfere with their talking in therapy sessions. Interventions by the therapist must be based on an understanding of the underlying dynamics which produced the respiratory problem. (Author)

  3. American Association for Respiratory Care (United States)

    ... NBRC Credentials Congress News & Highlights Clinician Training on Tobacco Dependence for Respiratory Therapists Increase your skill with ... 12 Dad’s Struggle with ALS Inspires Respiratory Therapy Student Read More Oct 12 RSV Experience Leads Member ...

  4. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E


    of our study was to compare the resulting imaging quality by the use of a time-based respiratory gating system in two groups administered either adenosine or dipyridamole as the pharmacological stress agent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were randomized to adenosine or dipyridamole cardiac...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4......BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...

  5. Respiratory manifestations in amyloidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ling; CAI Bai-qiang; ZHONG Xu; ZHU Yuan-jue


    Background Amyloidosis is a collection of diseases in which different proteins are deposited. Amyloid deposits occur in systemic and organ-limited forms. In both systemic and localized forms of the disease, lung can be involved. The aim of this study was to explore the different respiratory manifestations of amyloidosis. Methods Chest radiology, clinical presentations, bronchoscopic/laryngoscopic findings and lung function data of 59 patients with amyloidosis involving respiratory tract collected during January 1986 to March 2005, were analysed.Results Of the 16 cases with localized respiratory tract amyloidosis, 8 had the lesions in the trachea and the bronchi, 2 in the larynx and the trachea, 5 in the larynx and/or the pharynx, and 1 in the lung parenchyma. Of 43 systemic amyloidosis with respiratory tract involvement, 3 had the lesions in bronchi, 13 in lung parenchyma, 33 in pleura, 8 in mediastina, 1 in nose and 1 in pharynx. Chest X-rays were normal in most cases of tracheobronchial amyloidosis. CT, unlike chest X-rays, showed irregular luminal narrowing, airway wall thickening with calcifications and soft tissue shadows in airway lumen. Localized lung parenchymal amyloidosis presented as multiple nodules. Multiple nodular opacities, patch shadows and reticular opacities were the main radiological findings in systemic amyloidosis with lung parenchymal involvement. In pleural amyloidosis, pleural effusions and pleural thickening were detected. Mediastinal and/or hilar adenopathy were also a form of lung involvement in systemic amyloidosis. The major bronchoscopic findings of tracheobronchial amyloidosis were narrowing of airway lumen, while nodular, 'tumour like' or 'bubble like' masses, with missing or vague cartilaginous rings, were detected in about half of the patients.Conclusions Localized respiratory tract amyloidosis mostly affects the trachea and the bronchi. Chest X-rays are not sensitive to detect these lesions. Systemic amyloidosis often involves

  6. Detection of respiratory motion in fluoroscopic images for adaptive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, T; Nill, S; Remmert, G; Bendl, R [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Biederer, J [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany)], E-mail:


    Respiratory motion limits the potential of modern high-precision radiotherapy techniques such as IMRT and particle therapy. Due to the uncertainty of tumour localization, the ability of achieving dose conformation often cannot be exploited sufficiently, especially in the case of lung tumours. Various methods have been proposed to track the position of tumours using external signals, e.g. with the help of a respiratory belt or by observing external markers. Retrospectively gated time-resolved x-ray computed tomography (4D CT) studies prior to therapy can be used to register the external signals with the tumour motion. However, during treatment the actual motion of internal structures may be different. Direct control of tissue motion by online imaging during treatment promises more precise information. On the other hand, it is more complex, since a larger amount of data must be processed in order to determine the motion. Three major questions arise from this issue. Firstly, can the motion that has occurred be precisely determined in the images? Secondly, how large must, respectively how small can, the observed region be chosen to get a reliable signal? Finally, is it possible to predict the proximate tumour location within sufficiently short acquisition times to make this information available for gating irradiation? Based on multiple studies on a porcine lung phantom, we have tried to examine these questions carefully. We found a basic characteristic of the breathing cycle in images using the image similarity method normalized mutual information. Moreover, we examined the performance of the calculations and proposed an image-based gating technique. In this paper, we present the results and validation performed with a real patient data set. This allows for the conclusion that it is possible to build up a gating system based on image data, solely, or (at least in avoidance of an exceeding exposure dose) to verify gates proposed by the various external systems.

  7. Heliox reduces respiratory system resistance in respiratory syncytial virus induced respiratory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneyber, Martin C. J.; van Heerde, Marc; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Plotz, Frans B.; Markhors, Dick G.


    Introduction Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease is characterised by narrowing of the airways resulting in increased airway resistance, air-trapping and respiratory acidosis. These problems might be overcome using helium-oxygen gas mixture. However, the effect of mechan

  8. Respiratory manifestations of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop


    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. We conducted a systematic review to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were...... searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; Adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; Intervention, observational or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. We followed the PRISMA statement......% of newly diagnosed patients with overt hypothyroidism, and demonstrated reversibility following treatment. The evidence for or against a direct effect on pulmonary function was ambiguous. However, each of the above mentioned areas were only dealt with in a limited number of studies. Therefore, we refrain...

  9. Respiratory fluid mechanics. (United States)

    Grotberg, James B


    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  10. [Asbestos and respiratory diseases]. (United States)

    Scherpereel, Arnaud


    Previous occupational asbestos exposure (more rarely environmental or domestic exposure) may induce various pleural and/or pulmonary, benign or malignant diseases, sometimes with a very long latency for malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos has been widely extracted and used in Western countries and in emerging or developing countries, resulting in a peak of MM incidence in France around 2020 and likely in a world pandemic of asbestos-induced diseases. These patients have mostly benign respiratory diseases (pleural plugs) but may also be diagnosed with lung cancer or malignant pleural mesothelioma, and have a global poor outcome. New therapeutic tools (targeted therapies, immunotherapy…) with first promising results are developed. However, it is crucial to obtain a full ban of asbestos use worldwide, and to do a regular follow-up of asbestos-exposed subjects, mostly if they are already diagnosed with benign respiratory diseases. Finally, new cancers (larynx and ovary) were recently added to the list of asbestos-induced tumors.

  11. Divergent mitochondrial respiratory chains in phototrophic relatives of apicomplexan parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Flegontov, Pavel


    Four respiratory complexes and ATP-synthase represent central functional units in mitochondria. In some mitochondria and derived anaerobic organelles, a few or all of these respiratory complexes have been lost during evolution. We show that the respiratory chain of Chromera velia, a phototrophic relative of parasitic apicomplexans, lacks complexes I and III, making it a uniquely reduced aerobic mitochondrion. In Chromera, putative lactate:cytochrome c oxidoreductases are predicted to transfer electrons from lactate to cytochrome c, rendering complex III unnecessary. The mitochondrial genome of Chromera has the smallest known protein-coding capacity of all mitochondria, encoding just cox1 and cox3 on heterogeneous linear molecules. In contrast, another photosynthetic relative of apicomplexans, Vitrella brassicaformis, retains the same set of genes as apicomplexans and dinoflagellates (cox1, cox3, and cob). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Direct Application of the INNO-LiPA Rif.TB Line-Probe Assay for Rapid Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains and Detection of Rifampin Resistance in 360 Smear-Positive Respiratory Specimens from an Area of High Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (United States)

    Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Rodrigues, Liliana; Almeida, Josefina; Bettencourt, Rosário; Couto, Isabel; Carrilho, Lurdes; Diogo, José; Fonseca, Ana; Lito, Luís; Lopes, João; Pacheco, Teresa; Pessanha, Mariana; Quirim, Judite; Sancho, Luísa; Salfinger, Max; Amaral, Leonard


    The INNO-LiPA Rif.TB assay for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains and the detection of rifampin (RIF) resistance has been evaluated with 360 smear-positive respiratory specimens from an area of high incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The sensitivity when compared to conventional identification/culture methods was 82.2%, and the specificity was 66.7%; the sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 96.9%, respectively, for the detection of RIF resistance. This assay has the potential to provide rapid information that is essential for the effective management of MDR-TB. PMID:16145166

  13. Respiratory diseases in pregnancy



    Pulmonary diseases are one of the major indirect causes of maternal deaths. Pregnancy is a unique physiological state during which changes occur in all systems of the body to meet metabolic needs of both the mother and growing foetus. Enlarging uterus and increasing hormonal levels cause changes in volumes and mechanics of lungs. Understanding the basic physiology of the cardiovascular and respiratory changes during pregnancy along with the pathology of disease processes are vital in makin...

  14. Megacomplex organization of the oxidative phosphorylation system by structural analysis of respiratory supercomplexes from potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultema, Jelle B.; Braun, Hans-Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Kouril, Roman; Kouřil, Roman


    The individual protein complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS complexes 1 to V) specifically interact and form defined supramolecular structures, the so-called "respiratory supercomplexes". Some supercomplexes appear to associate into larger structures, or megacomplexes, such as a

  15. Mitochondrial Cristae Shape Determines Respiratory Chain Supercomplexes Assembly and Respiratory Efficiency (United States)

    Cogliati, Sara; Frezza, Christian; Soriano, Maria Eugenia; Varanita, Tatiana; Quintana-Cabrera, Ruben; Corrado, Mauro; Cipolat, Sara; Costa, Veronica; Casarin, Alberto; Gomes, Ligia C.; Perales-Clemente, Ester; Salviati, Leonardo; Fernandez-Silva, Patricio; Enriquez, Jose A.; Scorrano, Luca


    Summary Respiratory chain complexes assemble into functional quaternary structures called supercomplexes (RCS) within the folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane, or cristae. Here, we investigate the relationship between respiratory function and mitochondrial ultrastructure and provide evidence that cristae shape determines the assembly and stability of RCS and hence mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Genetic and apoptotic manipulations of cristae structure affect assembly and activity of RCS in vitro and in vivo, independently of changes to mitochondrial protein synthesis or apoptotic outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. We demonstrate that, accordingly, the efficiency of mitochondria-dependent cell growth depends on cristae shape. Thus, RCS assembly emerges as a link between membrane morphology and function. PMID:24055366

  16. Assessment of building sustainability


    Bragança, L.; Mateus, Ricardo; Koukkari, Heli


    The concept of sustainable building is usually related to environmental characteristics although the social, economics and cultural indicators of the life-cycle impacts are of substancial importance. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects; emphasizing the qualitative criteria only increases confusion. The R&D and standardization is thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the enviromental methods. Other directions of research are aiming at...

  17. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine. (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai


    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  18. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg


    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  19. Solar building


    Zhang, Luxin


    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  20. Facilities Management Service Delivery in Public and Private High Rise Residential Buildings in Nigeria: A case study of Eko Court Complex and Niger Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrele O. O.


    Full Text Available This study assessed and compared the delivery of Facilities Management (FM services in public and private high rise residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. While some facilities or services may not be available in some public estates, the efficiency of the available ones is inadequate in comparison with the adequacy and efficiency of services provided in private estates. The objectives set for the study include identification of services that are provided in the case studies, service delivery method, and an assessment of the residents’ satisfaction of the services. This study adopted questionnaire survey for collection of data. 127 questionnaires were distributed to the residents of the case studies and 93 were returned. Three of which were discarded for incompleteness, thus 90 were analysed. The study found that most but not all of the facilities services expected in high rise buildings are available in the case studies and the services are outsourced under a standard Service Level Agreement. The service delivery in private high rise residential building is better than the public residential high rise buildings as revealed by the study. The study recommends improved standardization of services, customized services and meeting customer’s expectation for improved service delivery.

  1. Numerical simulation study of the effect of buildings and complex terrain on the low-level winds at an airport in typhoon situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lei [Shenzhen Meteorological Bureau, Shenzhen (China). Shenzhen National Climate Observatory; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key of Lab. of Atmospheric Boundary Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry; Chan, P.W. [Hong Kong Observatory, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)


    Apart from terrain-induced airflow disturbances and thunderstorms, buildings and artificial structures at airports may bring about sudden wind changes to aircraft in certain weather conditions. In the typhoon situation in the morning of 22 August 2008 under a generally crosswind situation, two aircraft landing at the Hong Kong International Airport reported encountering significant wind changes, which were considered to affect the operation of the aircraft. At the same time, a wind speed difference in the order of 10-15 knots was observed between the anemometers at the north and the south parallel runways of the airport. The cause of the wind changes experienced by the aircraft is studied in this paper by using numerical simulation, namely, using mesoscale meteorological models to provide the background wind fields, and nesting them with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to study the effect of buildings and terrain on the airflow along the glide path of the landing aircraft. It is found that the complete set of simulation (i.e. including both buildings and terrain) successfully captures the wind speed difference between the north and the south runways, and gives the drop of the crosswind along the glide path exceeding the 7-knot criterion as adopted for building-induced wind changes affecting the normal operation of the aircraft. The results of the present study suggest that, for the timely warning of wind changes to be encountered by the landing aircraft, it may be necessary to consider examining the low-level wind effects of the buildings on the airfield by performing numerical simulations by mesoscale meteorological models as nested with a CFD model. (orig.)

  2. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabeticketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidityand mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requiresfocused clinical monitoring, careful interpretationof arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditionsthat can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions thatcompromise respiratory function caused by DKA can bedetected at presentation but are usually more prevalentduring treatment. These conditions include deficits ofpotassium, magnesium and phosphate and hydrostatic ornon-hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Conditions not causedby DKA that can worsen respiratory function under theadded stress of DKA include infections of the respiratorysystem, pre-existing respiratory or neuromuscular diseaseand miscellaneous other conditions. Prompt recognitionand management of the conditions that can lead torespiratory failure in DKA may prevent respiratory failureand improve mortality from DKA.

  3. Adult respiratory distress syndrome. (United States)

    Cutts, S; Talboys, R; Paspula, C; Prempeh, E M; Fanous, R; Ail, D


    Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has now been described as a sequela to such diverse conditions as burns, amniotic fluid embolism, acute pancreatitis, trauma, sepsis and damage as a result of elective surgery in general. Patients with ARDS require immediate intubation, with the average patient now being ventilated for between 8 and 11 days. While the acute management of ARDS is conducted by the critical care team, almost any surgical patient can be affected by the condition and we believe that it is important that a broader spectrum of hospital doctors gain an understanding of the nature of the pathology and its current treatment.

  4. Respiratory muscle strenght and functional capacity in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pesce de Souza


    Full Text Available Background: Fibromyalgia (FM is a complex syndrome with skeletal muscle impairment. However, respiratory muscles responses are unknown. Purpose: we aimed to study strength resistance in both respiratory and skeletal muscles in FM and healthy controls. Methods: fifteen women with FM - FG group - (50 ± 11 years and 10 healthy controls - CG - (48 ± 11 years underwent clinical evaluation, skeletal muscle strength and resistance tests, respiratory tests, six-minute walk test and step test. Results: both groups were similar in demographic and anthropometric variables. Respiratory muscle strength was significantly lower in FG (46 ± 6 cm HO compared to CG (80 ± 8 cm HO; p < 0.05. Similarly, 22 skeletal muscle (71 ± 8 vs 167 ± 24 repetitions, p < 0.05 and respiratory muscle strength (29 ± 4 vs 56 ± 6 repetitions, p < 0.05 were lower in FG compared to CG. Moreover, CG showed greater distance on 6 - minute walk test (551 ± 36 vs 460 ± 86 m; p < 0.05 and higher number of steps (102 ± 9 vs 76 ± 13 steps; p < 0.05. Only FG showed significantly correlation between skeletal muscle and respiratory muscle strength (r = 0.64; p < 0.001. Conclusion: FM syndrome showed an impairment in both respiratory muscle strength and resistance, which could impair exercise tolerance in these patients.

  5. Supramolecular organization of the respiratory chain in Neurospora crassa mitochondria. (United States)

    Marques, Isabel; Dencher, Norbert A; Videira, Arnaldo; Krause, Frank


    The existence of specific respiratory supercomplexes in mitochondria of most organisms has gained much momentum. However, its functional significance is still poorly understood. The availability of many deletion mutants in complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of Neurospora crassa, distinctly affected in the assembly process, offers unique opportunities to analyze the biogenesis of respiratory supercomplexes. Herein, we describe the role of complex I in assembly of respiratory complexes and supercomplexes as suggested by blue and colorless native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses of mildly solubilized mitochondria from the wild type and eight deletion mutants. As an important refinement of the fungal respirasome model, we found that the standard respiratory chain of N. crassa comprises putative complex I dimers in addition to I-III-IV and III-IV supercomplexes. Three Neurospora mutants able to assemble a complete complex I, lacking only the disrupted subunit, have respiratory supercomplexes, in particular I-III-IV supercomplexes and complex I dimers, like the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we were able to detect the I-III-IV supercomplexes in the nuo51 mutant with no overall enzymatic activity, representing the first example of inactive respirasomes. In addition, III-IV supercomplexes were also present in strains lacking an assembled complex I, namely, in four membrane arm subunit mutants as well as in the peripheral arm nuo30.4 mutant. In membrane arm mutants, high-molecular-mass species of the 30.4-kDa peripheral arm subunit comigrating with III-IV supercomplexes and/or the prohibitin complex were detected. The data presented herein suggest that the biogenesis of complex I is linked with its assembly into supercomplexes.

  6. Berger Engineering Complex (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Engineering laboratory The Berger Lab Complex is a multi-purpose building with professional office, 100 seat auditorium, general purpose labs,...

  7. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Valente Barbas


    Full Text Available This paper, based on relevant literature articles and the authors' clinical experience, presents a goal-oriented respiratory management for critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS that can help improve clinicians' ability to care for these patients. Early recognition of ARDS modified risk factors and avoidance of aggravating factors during hospital stay such as nonprotective mechanical ventilation, multiple blood products transfusions, positive fluid balance, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and gastric aspiration can help decrease its incidence. An early extensive clinical, laboratory, and imaging evaluation of “at risk patients” allows a correct diagnosis of ARDS, assessment of comorbidities, and calculation of prognostic indices, so that a careful treatment can be planned. Rapid administration of antibiotics and resuscitative measures in case of sepsis and septic shock associated with protective ventilatory strategies and early short-term paralysis associated with differential ventilatory techniques (recruitment maneuvers with adequate positive end-expiratory pressure titration, prone position, and new extracorporeal membrane oxygenation techniques in severe ARDS can help improve its prognosis. Revaluation of ARDS patients on the third day of evolution (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, biomarkers and response to infection therapy allows changes in the initial treatment plans and can help decrease ARDS mortality.

  8. Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography Based Respiratory-Gated Radiotherapy with Respiratory Guidance System: Analysis of Respiratory Signals and Dosimetric Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ae Lee


    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effectiveness of respiratory guidance system in 4-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT based respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT by comparing respiratory signals and dosimetric analysis of treatment plans. Methods. The respiratory amplitude and period of the free, the audio device-guided, and the complex system-guided breathing were evaluated in eleven patients with lung or liver cancers. The dosimetric parameters were assessed by comparing free breathing CT plan and 4DCT-based 30–70% maximal intensity projection (MIP plan. Results. The use of complex system-guided breathing showed significantly less variation in respiratory amplitude and period compared to the free or audio-guided breathing regarding the root mean square errors (RMSE of full inspiration (P=0.031, full expiration (P=0.007, and period (P=0.007. The dosimetric parameters including V5 Gy, V10 Gy, V20 Gy, V30 Gy, V40 Gy, and V50 Gy of normal liver or lung in 4DCT MIP plan were superior over free breathing CT plan. Conclusions. The reproducibility and regularity of respiratory amplitude and period were significantly improved with the complex system-guided breathing compared to the free or the audio-guided breathing. In addition, the treatment plan based on the 4D CT-based MIP images acquired with the complex system guided breathing showed better normal tissue sparing than that on the free breathing CT.

  9. Finding of No Significant Impact: Repair and Renovate Airborne Warning and Control System Maintenance Group Complex, Building 230 Tinker Air Force Base Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States)


    automatic fire protection sprinkler systems installed, as required by NFPA 13 1-6.1. • The sprinkler alarm valve...replaced with an automatic wet-pipe fire sprinkler system capable of suppressing potential fire spread throughout the building; the new fire suppression... fire suppression system does not meet code. • The wet-pipe fire suppression sprinkler heads installed in the 1950s also no longer meet

  10. Computational Fluid and Particle Dynamics in the Human Respiratory System

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Jiyuan; Ahmadi, Goodarz


    Traditional research methodologies in the human respiratory system have always been challenging due to their invasive nature. Recent advances in medical imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have accelerated this research. This book compiles and details recent advances in the modelling of the respiratory system for researchers, engineers, scientists, and health practitioners. It breaks down the complexities of this field and provides both students and scientists with an introduction and starting point to the physiology of the respiratory system, fluid dynamics and advanced CFD modeling tools. In addition to a brief introduction to the physics of the respiratory system and an overview of computational methods, the book contains best-practice guidelines for establishing high-quality computational models and simulations. Inspiration for new simulations can be gained through innovative case studies as well as hands-on practice using pre-made computational code. Last but not least, students and researcher...

  11. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  12. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  13. Respiratory Therapy and Respiratory Therapy Technician. Florida Vocational Program Guide. (United States)

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This program guide identifies primary considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of respiratory therapy and respiratory therapy technician programs. An occupational description and program content are presented. The curriculum framework specifies the exact course title, course number, levels of instruction, major course content,…

  14. Building Software with Gradle

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Studer, Etienne


    In this presentation, we will give an overview of the key concepts and main features of Gradle, the innovative build system that has become the de-facto standard in the enterprise. We will cover task declaration and task graph execution, incremental builds, multi-project builds, dependency management, applying plugins, extracting reusable build logic, bootstrapping a build, and using the Gradle daemon. By the end of this talk, you will have a good understanding of what makes Gradle so powerful yet easy to use. You will also understand why companies like Pivotal, LinkedIn, Google, and other giants with complex builds count on Gradle. About the speakers Etienne is leading the Tooling Team at Gradleware. He has been working as a developer, architect, project manager, and CTO over the past 15 years. He has spent most of his time building software products from the ground up and successfully shipping them to happy customers. He had ...

  15. Building Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Koukkari


    Full Text Available Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end.

  16. [Hardware and software for EMG recording and analysis of respiratory muscles of human]. (United States)

    Solnushkin, S D; Chakhman, V N; Segizbaeva, M O; Pogodin, M A; Aleksandrov, V G


    This paper presents a new hardware and software system that allows to not only record the EMG of different groups of the respiratory muscles, but also hold its amplitude-frequency analysis, which allows to determine the change in the contribution to the work of breathing of a respiratory muscles and detect early signs of fatigue of the respiratory muscles. Presented complex can be used for functional diagnostics of breath in patients and healthy people and sportsmen.

  17. Sports Complexes, Part of our City of Hutchinson polygon building footprint layer, Published in 2006, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, City of Hutchinson. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sports Complexes dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described as 'Part...

  18. Respiratory diseases of global consequence (United States)

    Respiratory diseases are one of the two major categories of poultry diseases that cause the most severe economic losses globally (the other being enteric disease). The economic impact of respiratory disease is both direct, from the production losses caused by primary disease and indirect from preve...

  19. Building Evacuation with Mobile Devices


    Merkel, Sabrina


    The rapidly growing world population and increasingly dense settlements demand ever-larger and more complex buildings from today's engineers. In comparison to this technological progress, a building's equipment for emergency evacuation has been hardly developed further. This work presents a concept for a building evacuation system based on mobile devices. Furthermore, various algorithms for route planning with mobile devices and for indoor localization of mobile devices are addressed.

  20. Building Languages (United States)

    ... Training Manually Coded English (MCE) Natural Gestures Speech Speech Reading (Lip Reading) Even though American Sign Language (ASL) is not a building block, it is sometimes used together with one or more building blocks. Close Information For... Media Policy Makers File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  1. Ventilation and respiratory mechanics. (United States)

    Sheel, Andrew William; Romer, Lee M


    During dynamic exercise, the healthy pulmonary system faces several major challenges, including decreases in mixed venous oxygen content and increases in mixed venous carbon dioxide. As such, the ventilatory demand is increased, while the rising cardiac output means that blood will have considerably less time in the pulmonary capillaries to accomplish gas exchange. Blood gas homeostasis must be accomplished by precise regulation of alveolar ventilation via medullary neural networks and sensory reflex mechanisms. It is equally important that cardiovascular and pulmonary system responses to exercise be precisely matched to the increase in metabolic requirements, and that the substantial gas transport needs of both respiratory and locomotor muscles be considered. Our article addresses each of these topics with emphasis on the healthy, young adult exercising in normoxia. We review recent evidence concerning how exercise hyperpnea influences sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow and the effect this might have on the ability to perform muscular work. We also review sex-based differences in lung mechanics.

  2. A biophysical model of the mitochondrial respiratory system and oxidative phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Beard


    Full Text Available A computational model for the mitochondrial respiratory chain that appropriately balances mass, charge, and free energy transduction is introduced and analyzed based on a previously published set of data measured on isolated cardiac mitochondria. The basic components included in the model are the reactions at complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport system, ATP synthesis at F1F0 ATPase, substrate transporters including adenine nucleotide translocase and the phosphate-hydrogen co-transporter, and cation fluxes across the inner membrane including fluxes through the K+/H+ antiporter and passive H+ and K+ permeation. Estimation of 16 adjustable parameter values is based on fitting model simulations to nine independent data curves. The identified model is further validated by comparison to additional datasets measured from mitochondria isolated from rat heart and liver and observed at low oxygen concentration. To obtain reasonable fits to the available data, it is necessary to incorporate inorganic-phosphate-dependent activation of the dehydrogenase activity and the electron transport system. Specifically, it is shown that a model incorporating phosphate-dependent activation of complex III is able to reasonably reproduce the observed data. The resulting validated and verified model provides a foundation for building larger and more complex systems models and investigating complex physiological and pathophysiological interactions in cardiac energetics.

  3. A Biophysical Model of the Mitochondrial Respiratory System and Oxidative Phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available A computational model for the mitochondrial respiratory chain that appropriately balances mass, charge, and free energy transduction is introduced and analyzed based on a previously published set of data measured on isolated cardiac mitochondria. The basic components included in the model are the reactions at complexes I, III, and IV of the electron transport system, ATP synthesis at F(1F(0 ATPase, substrate transporters including adenine nucleotide translocase and the phosphate-hydrogen co-transporter, and cation fluxes across the inner membrane including fluxes through the K/H antiporter and passive H and K permeation. Estimation of 16 adjustable parameter values is based on fitting model simulations to nine independent data curves. The identified model is further validated by comparison to additional datasets measured from mitochondria isolated from rat heart and liver and observed at low oxygen concentration. To obtain reasonable fits to the available data, it is necessary to incorporate inorganic-phosphate-dependent activation of the dehydrogenase activity and the electron transport system. Specifically, it is shown that a model incorporating phosphate-dependent activation of complex III is able to reasonably reproduce the observed data. The resulting validated and verified model provides a foundation for building larger and more complex systems models and investigating complex physiological and pathophysiological interactions in cardiac energetics.

  4. mer-[Fe(pcq)(CN)3]-: a novel cyanide-containing building block and its application to assembling cyanide-bridged trinuclear FeIII2MnII complexes [pcq- = 8-(pyridine-2-carboxamido)quinoline anion]. (United States)

    Ni, Zhong-Hai; Kou, Hui-Zhong; Zhang, Li-Fang; Ni, Wei-Wei; Jiang, Yun-Bo; Cui, Ai-Li; Ribas, Joan; Sato, Osamu


    A new cyanide-containing building block K[Fe(pcq)(CN)(3)] [1; pcq(-) = 8-(pyridine-2-carboxamido)quinoline anion] containing a low-spin Fe(III) center with three cyanide groups in a meridional arrangement has been successfully designed and synthesized. Three cyanide-bridged trinuclear Fe(III)(2)Mn(II) complexes, [Fe(pcq)(CN)(3)](2)[Mn(CH(3)OH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)].2H(2)O (2), [Fe(pcq)(CN)(3)](2)[Mn(bipy)(2)].CH(3)OH.2H(2)O (3), and [Fe(pcq)(CN)(3)](2)[Mn(phen)(2)].CH(3)OH.2H(2)O (4), have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The magnetic susceptibilities of the three heterometallic complexes have been investigated.

  5. 肺复张联合DuoPAP治疗早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征%A combined DuoPAP in the treatment of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome complex lung

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of lung recruitment and Duo syndrome PAP in treatment of premature res-piratory distress.Methods From June 1, 2013 to June 30, 2014 in our hospital NICU room income of premature infants with respi-ratory distress syndrome in patients with 68 cases, were randomly divided into 2 groups, the experimental group were given DuoPAP respiratory support immediately after admission, respiratory support within 24 hours to lung recruitment maneuver (LRM), interval of 8 h to 1 RM, 3 d. The control group was given tube intubation and mechanical ventilation in the treatment. Results The experimental group of lung recruitment and DuoPAP treatment, the total effective rate was 91.1% higher than that of the control group was 70.5%, there was statistical significance (P<0.05); control group after the treatment of 12h combined arterial partial pressure of oxygen were (149.2±19.7)mmHg and (162.3±18.1)mmHg; tidal volume ventilation after 72 h of ventilator parameters in control group and observation group is(427.2±78.5)mL and(503.6±93.2) mL respectively; compared with control effect of hos-pitalization and treatment group and observation group, including hospitalization days were the control group (32.2±6.8) days and the lung recruitment and DuoPAP treatment group,(25.9±5.1) and the number of deaths were 2 cases and 0 cases of. The above data was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion Lung recruitment and Duo PAP in the treatment of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome can effectively improve oxygenation function of patients, significantly improve patient compliance of the lung, greatly reduce the use of respirator, significantly improve the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in the successful res-cue rate, decrease the incidence rate of intubation, weaning failure rate, BPD, gas leakage and ventilator pneumonia rate, shorten the exposure time, reduce ventilator time and hospitalization expenses. Clinicians

  6. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.


    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  7. [Moisture and mold damages of buildings in relation to health]. (United States)

    Pekkanen, Juha; Lampi, Jussi


    Moisture damages of buildings increase respiratory symptoms and the risk of development of new cases of asthma. Scientific evidence of possible other health effects of moisture damages is scanty but they cause plenty of concern. The management of indoor air problems is further hampered by the lack of health-based limit values. Patients having symptoms from indoor air present a challenge to the doctor, because our ability to apply scientific data to an individual building or patient is very limited Although the factors increasing asthma and respiratory symptoms in buildings with moisture damage are not known in detail, every attempt should be made to prevent and correct the moisture damages.

  8. Respiratory function in handicapped children. (United States)

    Ishida, C; Fujita, M; Umemoto, H; Taneda, M; Sanae, N; Tazaki, T


    The aim of this study was to evaluate respiratory function of severely handicapped children. Tidal volumes and respiratory rates were determined in a total of 130 children with different clinical motor abilities. Tidal volume of non-sitters (n = 39) was significantly lower than ambulators (n = 49) or sitters (n = 42) (p less than 0.01). There was no difference in respiratory rate among the three groups. Among 45 children whose vital capacity could be determined, the tidal volumes showed a significant correlation with vital capacity (r = 0.56, p less than 0.001). Among four children whose tidal volume was less than 200 ml and respiratory rate was more than 30 cpm, blood gas analysis revealed hypoxia in three of them. The tidal volumes, therefore, would be a useful guide to estimate respiratory functions. It was concluded that the respiratory function in a non-sitter with reduced tidal volume is impaired, and that preventive measures must be taken against respiratory infection.

  9. Building the rationale and structure for a complex physical therapy intervention within the context of a clinical trial: a multimodal individualized treatment for patients with hip osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Bennell, Kim L; Egerton, Thorlene; Pua, Yong-Hao; Abbott, J Haxby; Sims, Kevin; Buchbinder, Rachelle


    Evaluating the efficacy of complex interventions such as multimodal, impairment-based physical therapy treatments in randomized controlled trials is essential to inform practice and compare relative benefits of available treatment options. Studies of physical therapy interventions using highly standardized intervention protocols, although methodologically rigorous, do not necessarily reflect "real-world" clinical practice, and in many cases results have been disappointing. Development of a complex intervention that includes multiple treatment modalities and individualized treatment technique selection requires a systematic approach to designing all aspects of the intervention based on theory, evidence, and practical constraints. This perspective article outlines the development of the rationale and structure of a multimodal physical therapy program for painful hip osteoarthritis to be assessed in a clinical trial. The resulting intervention protocol comprises a semi-structured program of exercises and manual therapy, advice, physical activity, and optional prescription of a gait aid that is standardized, yet can be individualized according to physical assessment and radiographic findings. The program is evidence based and reflects contemporary physical therapist practice, while also being reproducible and reportable. This perspective article aims to encourage physical therapy researchers involved in evaluation of complex interventions to better document their own intervention development, as well as the outcomes, thus generating a body of knowledge about the development processes and protocols that is generalizable to the real-world complexity of providing physical therapy to individual patients.

  10. Architecture Building Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Leading architectural design and engineering firm, Skidmore,Owings, & Merrill (SOM), is renowned for pushing the envelope, masterminding some of the world's most cutting edge and enduring structural masterpieces - America's tallest building, the Sears Tower,in the firm's home city of Chicago, the 88-story Jinmao Tower in Shanghai, and the Freedom Tower in New York City, successor to the fallen World Trade Center complex,are among the well known projects in its building portfolio. SOM's next high profile assignment, the Pearl River Tower, in Guangzhou is one no less worthy of this tradition.

  11. Ecology Beyond Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri


    As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers t...... to put on the dwindling supply of raw materials rather than the immidiate problems of energy consumption for which there are solutions within reach. With the emphasis on a more far-reaching approach, he places buildings in a wider context of ecological thinking and systems....

  12. Revealing various coupling of electron transfer and proton pumping in mitochondrial respiratory chain. (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Zhou, Qiangjun; Pang, Xiaoyun; Xu, Yingzhi; Rao, Zihe


    Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy from food and supplies energy for life processes. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is the final and most important step for cellular respiration and is located on the inner membrane of mitochondrion and comprises four large trans-membrane protein complexes (respiratory chain Complexes I, II, III and IV) as well as ubiquinone between Complexes I/II and III and cytochrome c between Complexes III and IV. The function of mitochondrial respiratory chain is biological oxidation by transferring electrons from NADH and succinate to oxygen and then generating proton gradient across the inner membrane. Such proton gradient is utilized by ATP synthase (ATPase, also called as Complex V) to produce energy molecules ATP. Structural studies of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complexes are important to understand the mechanism of electron transfer and the redox-coupled proton translocation across the inner membrane. Here, according to the time line, we reviewed the great achievements on structural studies of mitochondrial respiratory complexes in the past twenty years as well as the recent research progresses on the structures of mitochondrial respiratory supra-complexes.

  13. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow


    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  14. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings....

  15. Template Synthesis of a Tetraaza Macrocycle Which Involves Benzaldehyde Rather Than Formaldehyde as a Building Block. Isolation and Structure Determination of the Open-Chain Schiff Base Intermediate Complex. (United States)

    Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Manotti Lanfredi, Anna Maria; Vassalli, Omar; Ugozzoli, Franco


    The classical formaldehyde building block has been replaced by the bulkier benzaldehyde in the Cu(II) template synthesis of the cyclam-like tetraaza macrocycle of type 1, in which nitroethane operated as locking fragment. The synthetic pathway involves three distinct steps: (i) Schiff base condensation of the metal-free open-chain tetramine; (ii) Cu(II) coordination and preorientation of the Schiff base; (iii) nucleophilic attack by the deprotonated nitroethane fragment and formation of the macrocyclic complex. Both the Schiff base Cu(II) complex and the Cu(II) macrocyclic complex were isolated in a crystalline form and their molecular structures were determined: {N-[2-((E)-benzylideneamino)ethyl]-N'-[2-((Z)-benzylideneamino)ethyl]propane-1,3-diamine}copper(II) nitrate: triclinic, space group P&onemacr;, with a = 12.296(5) Å, b = 10.787(6) Å, c = 10.547(7) Å, V = 1161(1) Å(3), and Z = 2 (R = 0.055, R(w) = 0.061); [(5R,6S,7S)-6-methyl-6-nitro-5,7-diphenyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane]copper(II) perchlorate: monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n, with a = 15.246(5) Å, b = 23240(7) Å, c = 8.540(4) Å, V = 2980(2) Å(3), and Z = 4 (R = 0.095, R(w) = 0.095). This allowed us to define mechanistic details of the macrocyclization process. It is suggested that the same three-step pathway takes place in the much easier and faster one-pot template syntheses of cyclam-like macrocyles, which involve formaldehyde as a building block.

  16. Characterization of the respiratory chain of Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Andersen, L P; Zhai, L


    The respiratory chain of Helicobacter pylori has been investigated. The total insensitivity of activities of NADH dehydrogenase to rotenone and of NADH-cytochrome c reductase to antimycin is indicative of the absence of the classical complex I of the electron transfer chain in this bacterium. NADPH...

  17. Mononuclear, trinuclear, and hetero-trinuclear supramolecular complexes containing a new tri-sulfonate ligand and cobalt(II)/copper(II)-(1, 10-phenanthroline)(2) building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yunfang; Wei, Yongqin; Broer, Ria; Sa, Rongjian; Wu, Kechen


    Novel mononuclear, trinuclear, and hetero-trinuclear supermolecular complexes, [Co(phen)(2)(H2O)(HTST)] center dot 2H(2)O (1), [CO3(phen)(6) (H2O)(2)(TST)(2)]center dot 7H(2)O (2), and [CO2Cu(phen)(6)(H2O)(2)(TST)(2)]center dot 10H(2)O (3), have been synthesized by the reactions of a new tri-sulfona

  18. Building tasks from verbal instructions: an EEG study on practice trial exposure and task structure complexity during novel sequences of behavior. (United States)

    Roberts, Gareth; Jones, Timothy W; Davis, Elizabeth A; Ly, Trang T; Anderson, Mike


    Configuring the mind to perform a novel task is an effortful process and one that is related to differences in general intelligence. Previous research has suggested that when participants are given instructions for a future task, representations of the rules contained in the instructions can influence subsequent behavior, even when the rules are not necessary to perform the upcoming task. One hypothesis for the continued activation of rule representations suggests that the practice trials participants perform before the experimental trials may instantiate the unnecessary task rules into participants' mental model of the task (i.e., the task space). To test this hypothesis, EEGs were recorded as participants (N = 66) completed a multirule task designed to contrast the effects of increasing task structure complexity and practice trial exposure. The results showed that, as was predicted, performance is significantly poorer when more task rules are specified in the task instructions. Practice trials with the extra rule did not affect task performance, indicating that an unacted verbal instruction is sufficient to incorporate the rule into participants' mental model of the task. The EEG results showed that instruction complexity was linked to a phasic increase in frontal theta synchronization but reduced posterior alpha and beta desynchronization. These changes in synchronization occurred during a time period of low intertrial phase coherence and suggest that participants were "checking the task rules" amidst a trial. This transient neural activity may reflect compensatory mechanisms for dealing with increased mind-wandering that is more likely to occur in complex tasks.

  19. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  20. Our Buildings, Ourselves. (United States)

    Roodman, David Malin; Lenssen, Nicholas


    Reviews in detail environmental impacts associated with buildings. Discusses building construction, internal environments, building life spans, building materials, protection from climate, and amenities. (LZ)

  1. Respiratory Therapy Technology Program Standards. (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the respiratory therapy technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation; Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning);…

  2. Multiple defects in the respiratory chain lead to the repression of genes encoding components of the respiratory chain and TCA cycle enzymes. (United States)

    Bourges, Ingrid; Mucchielli, Marie-Helene; Herbert, Christopher J; Guiard, Bernard; Dujardin, Geneviève; Meunier, Brigitte


    Respiratory complexes III, IV and V are formed by components of both nuclear and mitochondrial origin and are embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Their assembly requires the auxiliary factor Oxa1, and the absence of this protein has severe consequences on these three major respiratory chain enzymes. We have studied, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the effect of the loss of Oxa1 function and of other respiratory defects on the expression of nuclear genes encoding components of the respiratory complexes and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. We observed that the concomitant decrease in the level of two respiratory enzymes, complexes III and IV, led to their repression. These genes are known targets of the transcriptional activator complex Hap2/3/4/5 that plays a central role in the reprogramming of yeast metabolism when cells switch from a fermenting, glucose-repressed state to a respiring, derepressed state. We found that the Hap4 protein, the regulatory subunit of the transcriptional complex, was present at a lower level in the oxa1 mutants whereas no change in HAP4 transcript level was observed, suggesting a posttranscriptional modulation. In addition, an altered mitochondrial morphology was observed in mutants with decreased expression of Hap2/3/4/5 target genes. We suggest that the aberrant mitochondrial morphology, presumably caused by the severely decreased level of at least two respiratory enzymes, might be part of the signalling pathway linking the mitochondrial defect and Hap2/3/4/5.

  3. Building of Virtual Imaging Earth Evolution Complex Laboratory%实景虚拟地球演化综合实验室的建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秀梅; 赵庆英; 贺金鑫; 王玉芬


    利用Web 2.0、全景VR技术将地学标本实验室搬至网络上,以吉林大学地球演化综合实验室为教学示范区,设计并开发了基于实景的3维虚拟网络实验室,用户可以通过网络漫游,对实验室中陈列的丰富的化石与地层标本以及各类古生物薄片进行参观研究.对改善地质信息的可视性起到了巨大的促进作用,为今后的实践教学打下了良好的基础.%Specimen laboratory in geological science is removed to network by the utilization of Web 2.0, panoramic VR technology.Earth evolution laboratory in Jilin university is used as demonstration plot of teaching,3D virtual network laboratory is designed and developed based on actual location, users can browse abundant fossils bed samples and various sorts of paleontological slices by net surfing, which performs enormous promotion in improving the visibility of geology information and establishes strong building for afterward teaching.

  4. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford


    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures.    This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...

  5. Urgencias respiratorias Respiratory emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martínez


    Full Text Available Las urgencias respiratorias en un paciente con cáncer pueden tener su origen en patologías de la vía aérea, del parénquima pulmonar o de los grandes vasos. La causa puede ser el propio tumor o complicaciones concomitantes. La obstrucción de la vía aérea debería ser inicialmente evaluada con procedimientos endoscópicos. En situaciones severas, la cirugía raramente es posible. El emplazamiento endobronquial de stents e isótopos radiactivos (braquiterapia, la ablación tumoral por láser o la terapia fotodinámica, pueden aliviar de forma rápida los síntomas y reestablecer el flujo aéreo. El manejo de la hemoptisis depende de la causa que la provoque y de la cuantía de la misma. La broncoscopia sigue siendo el procedimiento de primera línea en la mayor parte de los casos; aporta información diagnóstica y puede interrumpir el sangrado mediante lavados con suero helado, taponamiento endobronquial o inyecciones tópicas de adrenalina o trombina. La radioterapia externa sigue siendo un procedimiento extraordinariamente útil para tratar la hemoptisis de causa tumoral y en situaciones bien seleccionadas la terapia endobronquial con láser o braquiterapia y la embolización arterial bronquial pueden proporcionar un gran rendimiento paliativo. Las urgencias respiratorias por enfermedad del parénquima pulmonar en un paciente oncológico, pueden tener causa tumoral, iatrogénica o infecciosa. El reconocimiento precoz de cada una de ellas determina la administración del tratamiento específico y las posibilidades de éxito.Respiratory emergencies in a patient with cancer can have their origin in pathologies of the airway, of the pulmonary parenchyma or the large vessels. The cause can be the tumour itself or concomitant complications. Obstruction of the airway should be initially evaluated with endoscopic procedures. Surgery is rarely possible in serious situations. The endobronchial placement of stents or radioactive isotopes

  6. Regulatory mechanisms of the phasic respiratory activity in cricothyroid muscle. (United States)

    Dejonckere, P H; Lebacq, J


    Phasic respiratory activity of the cricothyroid muscle has been investigated with electromyography in 15 normal subjects, and in 19 pathological cases with well defined neurological troubles. It appears that phasic respiratory activity in the cricothyroid muscle, probably centrally generated, is under control of a complex and intricate mechanisms, in which the nervus laryngeus superior, the nervus laryngeus inferior, the vagus nerve and cross connections all together intervene. Furthermore, a peripheral modulation related somehow to the resistance of the airways is present. Despite differences between animal species, it seems that qualitatively the same contributing elements are present in animals and humans.

  7. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  8. Probiotics in respiratory virus infections. (United States)

    Lehtoranta, L; Pitkäranta, A; Korpela, R


    Viral respiratory infections are the most common diseases in humans. A large range of etiologic agents challenge the development of efficient therapies. Research suggests that probiotics are able to decrease the risk or duration of respiratory infection symptoms. However, the antiviral mechanisms of probiotics are unclear. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics on respiratory virus infections and to provide insights on the possible antiviral mechanisms of probiotics. A PubMed and Scopus database search was performed up to January 2014 using appropriate search terms on probiotic and respiratory virus infections in cell models, in animal models, and in humans, and reviewed for their relevance. Altogether, thirty-three clinical trials were reviewed. The studies varied highly in study design, outcome measures, probiotics, dose, and matrices used. Twenty-eight trials reported that probiotics had beneficial effects in the outcome of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and five showed no clear benefit. Only eight studies reported investigating viral etiology from the respiratory tract, and one of these reported a significant decrease in viral load. Based on experimental studies, probiotics may exert antiviral effects directly in probiotic-virus interaction or via stimulation of the immune system. Although probiotics seem to be beneficial in respiratory illnesses, the role of probiotics on specific viruses has not been investigated sufficiently. Due to the lack of confirmatory studies and varied data available, more randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trials in different age populations investigating probiotic dose response, comparing probiotic strains/genera, and elucidating the antiviral effect mechanisms are necessary.

  9. The role of leptin in the respiratory system: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos I


    Full Text Available Abstract Since its cloning in 1994, leptin has emerged in the literature as a pleiotropic hormone whose actions extend from immune system homeostasis to reproduction and angiogenesis. Recent investigations have identified the lung as a leptin responsive and producing organ, while extensive research has been published concerning the role of leptin in the respiratory system. Animal studies have provided evidence indicating that leptin is a stimulant of ventilation, whereas researchers have proposed an important role for leptin in lung maturation and development. Studies further suggest a significant impact of leptin on specific respiratory diseases, including obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome, asthma, COPD and lung cancer. However, as new investigations are under way, the picture is becoming more complex. The scope of this review is to decode the existing data concerning the actions of leptin in the lung and provide a detailed description of leptin's involvement in the most common disorders of the respiratory system.

  10. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas


    despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which......, which gives the book a challenging contribution to the existing body of knowledge....

  11. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...

  12. Building Partnerships. (United States)

    Kisner, Mary J.; And Others


    Defines school-business partnerships and reviews changes in such partnerships over the past 25 years. Provides steps to building effective partnerships for school-to-work activities: review the school's mission; select partners that will bring strength to the relationship; set clearly defined, realistic goals; maintain the partnership; and…

  13. A sustained deficiency of mitochondrial respiratory complex III induces an apoptotic cell death through the p53-mediated inhibition of pro-survival activities of the activating transcription factor 4. (United States)

    Evstafieva, A G; Garaeva, A A; Khutornenko, A A; Klepikova, A V; Logacheva, M D; Penin, A A; Novakovsky, G E; Kovaleva, I E; Chumakov, P M


    Generation of energy in mitochondria is subjected to physiological regulation at many levels, and its malfunction may result in mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with different environmental influences or certain genetic conditions, and can be artificially induced by inhibitors acting at different steps of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). We found that a short-term (5 h) inhibition of ETC complex III with myxothiazol results in the phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α and upregulation of mRNA for the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and several ATF4-regulated genes. The changes are characteristic for the adaptive integrated stress response (ISR), which is known to be triggered by unfolded proteins, nutrient and metabolic deficiency, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. However, after a prolonged incubation with myxothiazol (13-17 h), levels of ATF4 mRNA and ATF4-regulated transcripts were found substantially suppressed. The suppression was dependent on the p53 response, which is triggered by the impairment of the complex III-dependent de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines by mitochondrial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. The initial adaptive induction of ATF4/ISR acted to promote viability of cells by attenuating apoptosis. In contrast, the induction of p53 upon a sustained inhibition of ETC complex III produced a pro-apoptotic effect, which was additionally stimulated by the p53-mediated abrogation of the pro-survival activities of the ISR. Interestingly, a sustained inhibition of ETC complex I by piericidine did not induce the p53 response and stably maintained the pro-survival activation of ATF4/ISR. We conclude that a downregulation of mitochondrial ETC generally induces adaptive pro-survival responses, which are specifically abrogated by the suicidal p53 response triggered by the genetic risks of the pyrimidine nucleotide deficiency.

  14. Early respiratory microbiota composition determines bacterial succession patterns and respiratory health in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.; Tsivtsivadze, E.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Montijn, R.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Bogaert, D.


    Rationale: Many bacterial pathogens causing respiratory infections in children are common residents of the respiratory tract. Insight into bacterial colonization patterns and microbiota stability at a young age might elucidate healthy or susceptible conditions for development of respiratory disease.

  15. Gene therapy and respiratory neuroplasticity. (United States)

    Mantilla, Carlos B


    Breathing is a life-sustaining behavior that in mammals is accomplished by activation of dedicated muscles responsible for inspiratory and expiratory forces acting on the lung and chest wall. Motor control is exerted by specialized pools of motoneurons in the medulla and spinal cord innervated by projections from multiple centers primarily in the brainstem that act in concert to generate both the rhythm and pattern of ventilation. Perturbations that prevent the accomplishment of the full range of motor behaviors by respiratory muscles commonly result in significant morbidity and increased mortality. Recent developments in gene therapy and novel targeting strategies have contributed to deeper understanding of the organization of respiratory motor systems. Gene therapy has received widespread attention and substantial progress has been made in recent years with the advent of improved tools for vector design. Genes can be delivered via a variety of plasmids, synthetic or viral vectors and cell therapies. In recent years, adeno-associated viruses (AAV) have become one of the most commonly used vector systems, primarily because of the extensive characterization conducted to date and the versatility in targeting strategies. Recent studies highlight the power of using AAV to selectively and effectively transduce respiratory motoneurons and muscle fibers with promising therapeutic effects. This brief review summarizes current evidence for the use of gene therapy in respiratory disorders with a primary focus on interventions that address motor control and neuroplasticity, including regeneration, in the respiratory system.

  16. Altered Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Parameswaran


    Full Text Available The major respiratory complications of obesity include a heightened demand for ventilation, elevated work of breathing, respiratory muscle inefficiency and diminished respiratory compliance. The decreased functional residual capacity and expiratory reserve volume, with a high closing volume to functional residual capacity ratio of obesity, are associated with the closure of peripheral lung units, ventilation to perfusion ratio abnormalities and hypoxemia, especially in the supine position. Conventional respiratory function tests are only mildly affected by obesity except in extreme cases. The major circulatory complications are increased total and pulmonary blood volume, high cardiac output and elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Patients with obesity commonly develop hypoventilation and sleep apnea syndromes with attenuated hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responsiveness. The final result is hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension and progressively worsening disability. Obese patients have increased dyspnea and decreased exercise capacity, which are vital to quality of life. Decreased muscle, increased joint pain and skin friction are important determinants of decreased exercise capacity, in addition to the cardiopulmonary effects of obesity. The effects of obesity on mortality in heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not been definitively resolved. Whether obesity contributes to asthma and airway hyper-responsiveness is uncertain. Weight reduction and physical activity are effective means of reversing the respiratory complications of obesity.

  17. Neural mechanisms underlying breathing complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Hess

    Full Text Available Breathing is maintained and controlled by a network of automatic neurons in the brainstem that generate respiratory rhythm and receive regulatory inputs. Breathing complexity therefore arises from respiratory central pattern generators modulated by peripheral and supra-spinal inputs. Very little is known on the brainstem neural substrates underlying breathing complexity in humans. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher these mechanisms in healthy humans and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. COPD is the most frequent chronic lung disease in the general population mainly due to tobacco smoke. In patients, airflow obstruction associated with hyperinflation and respiratory muscles weakness are key factors contributing to load-capacity imbalance and hence increased respiratory drive. Unexpectedly, we found that the patients breathed with a higher level of complexity during inspiration and expiration than controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we scanned the brain of the participants to analyze the activity of two small regions involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis, the rostral ventro-lateral (VL medulla (pre-Bötzinger complex and the caudal VL pons (parafacial group. fMRI revealed in controls higher activity of the VL medulla suggesting active inspiration, while in patients higher activity of the VL pons suggesting active expiration. COPD patients reactivate the parafacial to sustain ventilation. These findings may be involved in the onset of respiratory failure when the neural network becomes overwhelmed by respiratory overload We show that central neural activity correlates with airflow complexity in healthy subjects and COPD patients, at rest and during inspiratory loading. We finally used a theoretical approach of respiratory rhythmogenesis that reproduces the kernel activity of neurons involved in the automatic breathing. The model reveals how a chaotic activity in

  18. Thalamic mediation of hypoxic respiratory depression in lambs. (United States)

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo; Ibe, Basil; Guerra, Catalina; Kruger, Lawrence


    Immaturity of respiratory controllers in preterm infants dispose to recurrent apnea and oxygen deprivation. Accompanying reductions in brain oxygen tensions evoke respiratory depression, potentially exacerbating hypoxemia. Central respiratory depression during moderate hypoxia is revealed in the ventilatory decline following initial augmentation. This study determined whether the thalamic parafascicular nuclear (Pf) complex involved in adult nociception and sensorimotor regulation (Bentivoglio M, Balerecia G, Kruger L. Prog Brain Res 87: 53-80, 1991) also becomes a postnatal controller of hypoxic ventilatory decline. Respiratory responses to moderate isocapnic hypoxia were studied in conscious lambs. Hypoxic ventilatory decline was compared with peak augmentation. Pf and/or adjacent thalamic structures were destroyed by the neuron-specific toxin ibotenic acid (IB). IB lesions involving the thalamic Pf abolished hypoxic ventilatory decline. Lesions of adjacent thalamic nuclei that spared Pf and control injections of vehicle failed to blunt hypoxic respiratory depression. Our findings reveal that the thalamic Pf region is a critical controller of hypoxic ventilatory depression and thus a key target for exploring molecular concomitants of forebrain pathways regulating hypoxic ventilatory depression in early development.

  19. Respiratory psychophysiology and behavior modification. (United States)

    Ley, R


    This article was written as an introduction to a special issue of Behavior Modification dedicated to studies in the field of respiratory psychophysiology. Although the invited articles that constitute this special issue cover a fairly broad range of topics, priority was given to articles that focus on the role of respiration in panic disorder. Attention is directed to the fundamental role of breathing in applied psychophysiology and to the encouragement of research in the modification of breathing behavior. The connection between respiratory psychophysiology and behavior modification is explained by reference to (a) a recent article on Pavlovian and operant control of breathing behavior and (b) four published volumes of selected articles dedicated exclusively to the field of respiratory psychophysiology. The present special issue of Behavior Modification marks the fifth volume.

  20. Neck pain causes respiratory dysfunction. (United States)

    Kapreli, Eleni; Vourazanis, Evangelos; Strimpakos, Nikolaos


    This paper describes a presumptive mechanism for the development of changes in respiratory function due to chronic neck pain. The patient with neck pain presents a number of factors that could constitute a predisposition of leading to a respiratory dysfunction: (a) the decreased strength of deep neck flexors and extensors, (b) the hyperactivity and increased fatigability of superficial neck flexors, (c) the limitation of range of motion, (d) the decrease in proprioception and disturbances in neuromuscular control, (e) the existence of pain and (f) the psychosocial influence of dysfunction. The possible connection of neck pain and respiratory function could have a great impact on various clinical aspects notably patient assessment, rehabilitation and pharmacological prescription.

  1. COMPLEX METHOD OF INSPECTION OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS AT TEAMWORK BY COMMUNICATION TOWERS Комплексный метод обследования зданий и сооружений при совместной работе с вышками связи

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhenko N. V.


    Full Text Available In this article we developed and improved the algorithm for complex inspection of buildings and constructions at teamwork with communication towers. The inspection of a building which was made using the described algorithm is presented

  2. Respiratory distress in the newborn. (United States)

    Reuter, Suzanne; Moser, Chuanpit; Baack, Michelle


    Respiratory distress presents as tachypnea, nasal flaring, retractions, and grunting and may progress to respiratory failure if not readily recognized and managed. Causes of respiratory distress vary and may not lie within the lung. A thorough history, physical examination, and radiographic and laboratory findings will aid in the differential diagnosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, neonatal pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Strong evidence reveals an inverse relationship between gestational age and respiratory morbidity. (1)(2)(9)(25)(26) Expert opinion recommends careful consideration about elective delivery without labor at less than 39 weeks’ gestation. Extensive evidence, including randomized control trials, cohort studies, and expert opinion, supports maternal group B streptococcus screening, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, and appropriate followup of high-risk newborns according to guidelines established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (4)(29)(31)(32)(34) Following these best-practice strategies is effective in preventing neonatal pneumonia and its complications. (31)(32)(34). On the basis of strong evidence, including randomized control trials and Cochrane Reviews, administration of antenatal corticosteroids (5) and postnatal surfactant (6) decrease respiratory morbidity associated with RDS. Trends in perinatal management strategies to prevent MAS have changed. There is strong evidence that amnioinfusion, (49) oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal suctioning at the perineum, (45) or intubation and endotracheal suctioning of vigorous infants (46)(47) do not decrease MAS or its complications. Some research and expert opinion supports endotracheal suctioning of nonvigorous meconium-stained infants (8) and induction of labor at 41 weeks’ gestation (7) to prevent MAS.

  3. Building Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Cabinet是种十分吸引人却很简单的衬线字体,是由一名匿名字体设计师专门为Building Letters最新的资金筹集活动所设计的。这个Building Letters包中包含一个CDROM,有32种字体,以及一本专门设计的杂志和两张由Eboy和Emigre所设计的海报。字体光盘样例是由世界顶级的字体设计师们设计的.

  4. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...... Belgrade), Leo Pekkala (Finnish Centre for Media Education and Audiovisual Media/MEKU), Julie Uldam (Network on Civic Engagement and Social Innovation) and Gabriella Velics (Community Media Forum Europe)....

  5. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Soraia Carvalho; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Garcia, Cristiane Sousa Nascimento Baez; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Investigacao]. E-mail:


    Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases. (author)

  6. Quartz as votive and building material within the megalithic funerary complex of Palacio III (Almadén de la Plata, Seville: contextual and mineralogical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forteza González, Matilde


    Full Text Available This paper examines an assemblage of quartz objects, such as crystals (rock crystal and prase and pebbles, that were found in two spatially and chronologically different contexts of the Palacio III megalithic complex (Almadén de la Plata, Seville, Spain excavated by the universities of Seville and Southampton between 2001 and 2002. Firstly, these objects are described macroscopically from a mineralogical and crystallographic point of view. When possible, samples are studied by X-ray diffraction and SEM in order to determine their mineralogical and chemical composition. Secondly, other similar instances, in which quartz and rock crystal objects have been found among the grave goods of funerary contexts of southern Iberian, are described. Finally, we propose a series of interpretations for these objects, both from a functional as well as a symbolical perspective, assessing the significance of their presence in spatially discrete and chrono-culturally distant contexts.

    Este trabajo examina un conjunto de objetos de cuarzo, tales como monocristales (variedades cristal de roca y prasio y cantos rodados, encontrados en dos contextos arqueológicos espacial y cronológicamente distintos del complejo megalítico de Palacio III (Almadén de la Plata, Sevilla, excavado por las universidades de Sevilla y Southampton entre 2001 y 2002. Estos objetos se describen, en primer lugar, desde un punto de vista macroscópico atendiendo a sus características mineralógicas y cristalográficas. Se han utilizado técnicas difractométricas y de microscopía electrónica de barrido sobre las muestras inalteradas para determinar su composición mineralógica y química. A continuación se listan y describen casos de ítems semejantes registrados en contextos funerarios de la Prehistoria Reciente del Sur de la Península Ibérica. Finalmente se valoran distintas interpretaciones para los mismos, desde un punto de vista tanto funcional como simbólico, discuti

  7. Pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ding-mei; LU Jia-hai; ZHONG Nan-shan


    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) first emerged in Guangdong province,China in November2002.During the following 3 months,it spread rapidly across the world,resulting in approximately 800 deaths.In 2004,subsequent sporadic cases emerged in Singapore and China.A novel coronavims,SARS-CoV,was identified as the etiological agent of SARS.1,2 This virus belongs to a family of large,positive,single-stranded RNA viruses.Nevertheless,genomic characterization shows that the SARS-CoV is only moderately related to other known coronaviruses.3 In contrast with previously described coronaviruses,SARS-CoV infection typically causes severe symptoms related to the lower respiratory tract.The SARS-CoV genome includes 14 putative open reading frames encoding 28 potential proteins,and the functions of many of these proteins are not known.4 A number of complete and partial autopsies of SARS patients have been reported since the first outbreak in 2003.The predominant pathological finding in these cases was diffuse alveolar damage (DAD).This severe pulmonary injury of SARS patients is caused both by direct viral effects and immunopathogenetic factors.5 Many important aspects of the pathogenesis of SARS have not yet been fully clarified.In this article,we summarize the most important mechanisms involved in the complex pathogenesis of SARS,including clinical characters,host and receptors,immune system response and genetic factors.

  8. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  9. Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anita Lewis


    This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

  10. Defining inhibitory neurone function in respiratory circuits: opportunities with optogenetics? (United States)

    Abdala, Ana Paula; Paton, Julian F R; Smith, Jeffrey C


    Pharmacological and mathematical modelling studies support the view that synaptic inhibition in mammalian brainstem respiratory circuits is essential for generating normal and stable breathing movements. GABAergic and glycinergic neurones are known components of these circuits but their precise functional roles have not been established, especially within key microcircuits of the respiratory pre-Bötzinger (pre-BötC) and Bötzinger (BötC) complexes involved in phasic control of respiratory pump and airway muscles. Here, we review briefly current concepts of relevant complexities of inhibitory synapses and the importance of synaptic inhibition in the operation of these microcircuits. We highlight results and limitations of classical pharmacological studies that have suggested critical functions of synaptic inhibition. We then explore the potential opportunities for optogenetic strategies that represent a promising new approach for interrogating function of inhibitory circuits, including a hypothetical wish list for optogenetic approaches to allow expedient application of this technology. We conclude that recent technical advances in optogenetics should provide a means to understand the role of functionally select and regionally confined subsets of inhibitory neurones in key respiratory circuits such as those in the pre-BötC and BötC.

  11. 带转换层退台式高层建筑模型抗震性能分析%Seismic Behavior Analysis of a Complex High-rise Buildings with Transfer Floor and Stepped-shape Stiffness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩富平; 马玉宏; 王练


    近年来转换层在高层建筑中广泛应用,并且由于建筑功能的多样化使得结构体型越来越复杂,因此对复杂高层建筑结构的抗震设计提出了新要求.本文以某新区一大型公共建筑振动台试验模型为例,对其进行了动力时程分析,探究带转换层退台式高层建筑结构体系在各级地震作用下的抗震性能.首先根据相似比换算截面尺寸和材料的属性,用ETABS来模拟振动台模型.通过模态分析和小震时程分析结果跟试验结果对比证明了有限元模型的正确性,分析了该结构模型在地震作用下的动力反应和变形特征,然后对该结构进行了罕遇地震作用下的动力响应分析,具体研究了该结构的最大位移和层间位移角分布,从整体上对该结构的抗震性能做出评价.%In recent years, the transfer floor structure is used ever more extensively in modern high - rise building with the increase of structure height, and the configuration is also becoming more and more complex for the diversity of building fuction. As result, new requirements are come up with for the seismic design of the high - rise buildings. Dynamical time - history analysis of a shaking table test - model of the luge public building is carried out in this paper to study the seismic behavior of the stepped - shape structure with the transfer floor under different earthquake levels. First of all, the cross - sectional dimensions and the material properties are defined according to the similarity ratio, then the shaking table test model is studied using the ETABS program. Comparisons of the modal analysis and time - history analysis results under small earthquake between the experimental results and the calculation result proves that the finite element model is correct. Then the deformation characteristics and dynamic responses of the model structure under the small are analysed. And the dynamic responses of the model structure under the rarelly

  12. Respiratory Therapy Technology Program Guide. (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a respiratory therapy technology program. The guide contains four sections. The General Information section contains an introduction giving an overview and defining the purpose and objectives, a program…

  13. Health Instruction Packages: Respiratory Therapy. (United States)

    Lavich, Margot; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to teach respiratory therapy students a variety of job-related skills. The first module, "Anatomy and Physiology of the Central Controls of Respiration" by Margot Lavich, describes the functions of the five centers of the brain that control respiration and…

  14. Respiratory Therapy Assistant. Student's Manual. (United States)

    Jones, Judy A.

    This manual is one in a new series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in training with the allied health field. It includes competencies that are associated with the performance of skills by students beginning the study of respiratory therapy assistance. Intended to be used for individualized instruction under the supervision of an…

  15. [Respiratory function in glass blowers]. (United States)

    Zuskin, E; Butković, D; Mustajbegović, J


    The prevalence of chronic and acute respiratory symptoms and diseases and changes in lung function in a group of 80 glass blowers have been investigated. In addition a group of 80 not exposed workers was used as a control group for respiratory symptoms and diseases. In glass blowers, there was significant increase in prevalence of chronic bronchitis, nasal catarrh, and sinusitis than in the controls. Glass blowers exposed for more and less than 10 years had similar prevalences of respiratory symptoms. A large number of glass blowers complained of acute across-shift symptoms. Significant increase in FVC, FEF50 and FEF25 was documented at the end of the work shift. Comparison with predicted normal values showed that glass blowers had FVC and FEF25 significantly lower than predicted. RV and RV/TLC were significantly increased compared with the predicted normal values. DLCO was within the normal values in most glass blowers. It is concluded that work in the glass blower industry is likely to lead the development of chronic respiratory disorders.

  16. Nasopharyngeal colonization with respiratory pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, M.R.


    Respiratory (otitis media, pneumonia) and invasive (sepsis, meningitis) infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that every year one million children under the age of five die of pneumonia, mainly in developing countries. Elderly are ano

  17. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COAL WORKERS' HEALTH SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases Coal mining-related respiratory ...

  18. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers]. (United States)

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A


    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  19. Molecular detection of respiratory viruses: clinical impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, A.C.


    Viral respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) cause major morbidity in infants and children. Traditionally, respiratory viruses are detected with conventional tests (viral culture and direct immunofluorescence (DIF)), however nowadays viral diagnostics are being revolutionized by the increased implemen



    Jondelius, Olof


    This work is looking in to what possibilites and restrictions comes with using mycelium as a building material for a small house. It includes reasoning around solutions for some of the problems and presenting some ideas of how to use some of the materials properties in your favor. A general background of why we need to start look in to alternative materials for all petroleum materials are presented. Det här arbetet har varit inriktat på att se vilka möjligheter samt begränsningar det skul...

  1. Atypical respiratory complications of dengue fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveen Kumar; AK Gadpayle; Deepshikha Trisal


    In last decade, dengue has emerged as one of the most important vector born disease.With increasing cases, uncommon presentations and complications are now commonly recognized. Here, we report two cases of rare pattern of respiratory involvement in dengue: acute respiratory distress syndrome and bronchiolitis with respiratory failure.

  2. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System. (United States)

    Levitzky, Michael G.


    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  3. Control methods for bovine respiratory disease for feedlot cattle. (United States)

    Edwards, T A


    Vaccines and antibiotics are still relied upon as the standard methods of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) prevention, control, and therapy. Success in building disease resistance begins with genetic selection and continues with colostrum management and reducing pathogen exposure. Purchasing single-source cattle with a history of pre- and post-weaning procedures will minimize pathogen exposure and enhance immunity. Using cattle-handling techniques and facilities that promote low stress will allow host immune defenses to remain effective against bacterial and viral colonization. Lastly, controlling BRD must be managed through a comprehensive herd health immunization and management program that effectively addresses disease challenges common to the operation.

  4. The Revised International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, W.J.


    The new respiratory tract model is based on the premise that the large differences in radiation sensitivity of respiratory tract tissues, and the wide range of doses they receive, argue for calculating specific tissue doses rather than average lung doses for radiation protection purposes. The new model is more complex than the current lung model because it describes deposition of inhaled radioactive material in the clearance from several tissues and regions of the respiratory tract and is applicable to the worldwide population of both workers and the public. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten


    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement......This paper deals with the energy consumption of existing owner-occupied detached houses and the question of how they can be energy renovated. Data on the age of the Danish housing stock, and its energy consumption is presented. Research on the potential for energy reductions in the Danish housing...... sector is discussed, and it is shown that there is a huge potential for reductions. It is a well-known problem that even if there are relevant technical means and even if it is economically feasible, the majority of house owners do not energy renovate their homes. This paper intends to address what can...

  6. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine. (United States)

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D


    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  7. Immunoprophylaxis of bovine respiratory syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogan Dragan


    Full Text Available Bovine Respiratory Syndrome (BRS is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of infective agents, the environment and the individual immunological response of animals in the herd. Despite five decades of research on BRS, no clear understanding of how environmental factors influence pathogenic outcomes of the disease has been defined. As such, the development of immunoprophylaxis and vaccine programmes to prevent outbreaks of BRS in cattle has not been successful. The current paper discusses vaccination programmes for all categories of cattle and presents a review of existing vaccines being used for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syndrome in cattle and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the currently used vaccines and vaccination programmes. Lastly, a discussion detailing the design of future perfect vaccines is presented.

  8. High-fat feeding inhibits exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial respiratory flux in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbro, Mette; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard


    -62%) were seen in HFD and ND, but only in HFD was an elevated (P respiratory rate seen at recovery. With HFD complex I and IV protein expression decreased (P system protein content......) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content did not change with the intervention in either group. Indexes of mitochondrial density were similar across the groups and intervention. Mitochondrial respiratory rates, measured in permeabilized muscle fibers, showed a 31 ± 11 and 26 ± 9% exercise-induced increase (P

  9. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and respiratory insufficiency]. (United States)

    Siirala, Waltteri; Korpela, Jaana; Vuori, Arno; Saaresranta, Tarja; Olkkola, Klaus T; Aantaa, Riku


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease causing degeneration of motor neurons, without any curative treatment. The most common cause of death is respiratory arrest due to atrophy of the respiratory musculature. ALS-associated respiratory insufficiency differs in mechanism from the more common causes of dyspnea, such as diseases of pulmonary or cardiac origin. Recognizing the respiratory insufficiency can be challenging for a clinician. It should be possible to predict the development of respiratory insufficiency in order to avoid leaving the treatment decisions concerning respiratory insufficiency to emergency services. Noninvasive ventilatory support can be used to alleviate the patient's dyspnea. It is actually recommended as the first-line treatment of ALS-associated respiratory insufficiency.

  10. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per


    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...

  11. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis. (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe


    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea.

  12. Mannheimia haemolytica biofilm formation on bovine respiratory epithelial cells. (United States)

    Boukahil, Ismail; Czuprynski, Charles J


    Mannheimia haemolytica is the most important bacterial agent associated with the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), which causes worldwide economic losses to the cattle industry. M. haemolytica cells initially colonize the tonsillar crypts in the upper respiratory tract of cattle, from where they can subsequently descend into the lungs to cause disease. Many bacteria exist as biofilms inside their hosts. We hypothesize that M. haemolytica colonization of cattle during its commensal state may include biofilm formation. To begin to assess this possibility, we developed an in vitro system to study biofilm formation directly on bovine respiratory epithelial cells. Using fixed primary bovine bronchial epithelial cells, we observed M. haemolytica biofilm formation after a 48h incubation period at 37°C. Addition of mucin, the main component of mucus present in the upper respiratory tract, decreased M. haemolytica biofilm formation on bovine epithelial cells. We investigated the effects of prior viral infection of the epithelial cells on subsequent biofilm formation by M. haemolytica and found negligible effects. Utilization of this model system will provide new insights into the potential role of biofilm formation by M. haemolytica in the pathogenesis of BRDC.

  13. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan


    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e......Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence...... of specific IgE testing, but availability is limited. Treatment options for HDM allergy are limited and include HDM avoidance, which is widely recommended as a strategy, although evidence for its efficacy is variable. Clinical efficacy of pharmacotherapy is well documented; however, symptom relief does...... not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease...

  14. Deployment-related Respiratory Issues. (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Rawlins, Frederic A; Forbes, Damon A; Skabelund, Andrew J; Lucero, Pedro F


    Military deployment to Southwest Asia since 2003 in support of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn has presented unique challenges from a pulmonary perspective. Various airborne hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents. These exposures may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and in some instances development of chronic lung disease. While increased respiratory symptoms during deployment are well documented, there is limited data on whether inhalation of airborne particulate matter is causally related to an increase in either common or unique pulmonary diseases. While disease processes such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia and exacerbation of preexisting asthma have been adequately documented, there is significant controversy surrounding the potential effects of deployment exposures and development of rare pulmonary disorders such as constrictive bronchiolitis. The role of smoking and related disorders has yet to be defined. This article presents the current evidence for deployment-related respiratory symptoms and ongoing Department of Defense studies. Further, it also provides general recommendations for evaluating pulmonary health in the deployed military population.

  15. Adenosine improves cardiomyocyte respiratory efficiency. (United States)

    Babsky, A M; Doliba, M M; Doliba, N M; Osbakken, M D


    The role of adenosine on the regulation of mitochondrial function has been studied. In order to evaluate this the following experiments were done in isolated rat cardiomyocites and mitochondria using polarographic techniques. Cardiomyocyte oxygen consumption (MVO2) and mitochondrial respiratory function (State 3 and State 4, respiratory control index, and ADP/O ratio) were evaluated after exposure to adenosine. Cardiomyocyte MVO2 was significantly lower in cells previously exposed to adenosine (10 microM, 15 min or 30 min cell incubation) than in cells not exposed to adenosine (control). Addition of dipyridamole (10 microM) or 8-(p-Sulfophenyl) theophylline (50 microM) to cardiomyocytes before adenosine incubation prevented the adenosine-induced changes in MVO2. Mitochondria obtained from isolated perfused beating heart previously perfused with adenosine (10 microM, 30 min heart perfusion) also resulted in significant increases in ADP/O and respiratory control index compared to matching control. Mitochondria isolated from cardiomyocytes previously exposed to adenosine (10 microM, 15 min or 30 min cell incubation) resulted in a significant increase in mitochondrial ADP/O ratio compared to control. Adenosine-induced decrease in cardiomyocyte MVO2 may be related to an increase in efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and more economical use of oxygen, which is necessary for survival under ischemic stress.

  16. Neonatal respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) referrals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Khuffash, A


    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a complex technique for providing life support in neonatal respiratory failure. T UK Collaborative ECMO trial demonstrated cost-effectiveness and substantial improvements in neurological morbidity and mortality. Currently, infants requiring ECMO in Ireland are referred to one of various centres in the UK and Scandinavia. We aimed to review the number of infants referred from Ireland for respiratory ECMO. All infants with a non-cardiac condition referred from Ireland for ECMO were reviewed for diagnosis and outcomes. Eleven infants required ECMO between June 2006 and January 2009 and were referred to the Scandinavian team for ECMO transport although one infant improved and did not require ECMO following the arrival of the team. Four infants died: one infant died prior to arrival of the ECMO team, 3 infants had fatal diagnoses and one infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia received pre-op ECMO. The median (inter-quartile range) gestational age was 39.7 (38.3-40.7) weeks and birth weight of 3.7 (3.2-4.0) kg. The median age at the decision to transfer for ECMO was 13h (4-123) and the team arrived at 23 h (12-132). All infants had a normal cranial ultrasound and echo prior to ECMO and 2 infants had an abnormal MRI post-ECMO. The time on ECMO was 9 days (3-17) and total length of hospital stay was 32 d (23-36). There were no pre-ECMO clinical or biochemical

  17. Respiratory failure in elderly patients. (United States)

    Sevransky, Jonathan E; Haponik, Edward F


    Elderly individuals comprise an increasing proportion of the population and represent a progressively expanding number of patients admitted to the ICU. Because of underlying pulmonary disease, loss of muscle mass, and other comorbid conditions, older persons are at increased risk of developing respiratory failure. Recognition of this vulnerability and the adoption of proactive measures to prevent decompensation requiring intrusive support are major priorities together with clear delineation of patients' wishes regarding the extent of support desired should clinical deterioration occur. Further, the development of coordinated approaches to identify patients at risk for respiratory failure and strategies to prevent the need for intubation, such as the use of NIV in appropriate patients, are crucial. As soon as endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are implemented strategies that facilitate the liberation of elderly patients from the ventilator are especially important. The emphasis on a team approach, which characterizes geriatric medicine, is essential in coordinating the skills of multiple health care professionals in this setting. Respiratory failure can neither be effectively diagnosed nor managed in isolation. Integration with all other aspects of care is essential. Patient vulnerability to nosocomial complications and the "cascade effect" of these problems such as the effects of medications and invasive supportive procedures all impact on respiratory care of elderly patients. For example, prolonged mechanical ventilation may be required long after resolution of the underlying cause of respiratory failure because of unrecognized and untreated delirium or residual effects of small doses of sedative and/or analgesic agents or other medications in elderly patients with altered drug metabolism. The deleterious impact of the foreign and sometimes threatening ICU environment and/or sleep deprivation on the patient's course are too often overlooked because

  18. Building effectiveness communication ratios for improved building life cycle management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, E.; Keane, M.; McCarthy, J. [Ireland National Univ., Cork (Ireland). IRUSE; O' Donnell, J. [Lawrence Berkely National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Ireland National Univ., Cork (Ireland). IRUSE


    The construction and operation of buildings consumes 35 per cent of total U.S. energy production. Although the application of building energy simulation models in early design stages can significantly increase performance throughout the building life cycle, energy simulation modeling has not been widely adopted by the design community. The complexity and length of time needed to prepare energy models are considered to be barriers, as well as the lack of energy appraisal tools capable of modeling a wide spectrum of hybrid heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. A performance-based strategy using building effectiveness communication ratios stored in Building Information Models (BIM) was presented in this paper. The strategy aimed to link currently fragmented stages within the building life cycle. It was suggested that the ability to share and exchange information will reduce the amount of user time required for building simulation models. The proposed Building Energy Monitoring Analyzing and Communication (BEMAC) framework is an integrated environment that allows users to share data with other applications through an integrated data model. The data models allow each participant to employ tools specific to their needs without compromising or corrupting project data. Data values elicited from the model act as best-possible values. It was anticipated that by assigning spaces within the simulation model with proposed HVAC systems, reproductions of the energy use by these mechanical systems can contribute to overall energy data representation and analysis. Idealized Effectiveness Ratios and Performance Effectiveness Ratios were discussed in relation to a case study of the Glucksman Art Gallery at the National University of Ireland. Results indicated that the Idealized Effectiveness Ratio is applicable across the entire building life cycle, while the Performance Effectiveness Ratio allows facility managers to investigate the energy saving potential of the

  19. Building energy analysis tool (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars


    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  20. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg


    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  1. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes. (United States)

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco


    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  2. Molecular base of biochemical complex I deficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefs, S.J.G.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den


    The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, consisting of five enzyme complexes (I-V) together with 2 electron carriers, has an important role in the energy metabolism of the cell. With 45 subunits, complex I is the first and largest complex of the respiratory chain. It is under bigenomic control

  3. STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARU Trichothecene Mycotoxins and Damp Building-Related Illness: New Insights into a Public Health Enigma (United States)

    Damp building-related illnesses (DBRI) include a myriad of respiratory, immunologic, and neurologic symptoms that are sometimes etiologically linked to aberrant indoor growth of the toxic black mold, Stachybotrys chartarum. Although supportive evidence for such linkages is limite...

  4. Crystal Structure of Mitochondrial Respiratory Membrane Protein Complex Ⅱ Determined

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Scientists at the CAS Institute of Biophysics (IBP) and Tsinghua University have gained new insights into the mechanism of mitochondria, the subcellular structures which generate energy for living cells.

  5. Supercomplexes in the respiratory chains of yeast and mammalian mitochondria. (United States)

    Schägger, H; Pfeiffer, K


    Around 30-40 years after the first isolation of the five complexes of oxidative phosphorylation from mammalian mitochondria, we present data that fundamentally change the paradigm of how the yeast and mammalian system of oxidative phosphorylation is organized. The complexes are not randomly distributed within the inner mitochondrial membrane, but assemble into supramolecular structures. We show that all cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is bound to cytochrome c reductase (complex III), which exists in three forms: the free dimer, and two supercomplexes comprising an additional one or two complex IV monomers. The distribution between these forms varies with growth conditions. In mammalian mitochondria, almost all complex I is assembled into supercomplexes comprising complexes I and III and up to four copies of complex IV, which guided us to present a model for a network of respiratory chain complexes: a 'respirasome'. A fraction of total bovine ATP synthase (complex V) was isolated in dimeric form, suggesting that a dimeric state is not limited to S.cerevisiae, but also exists in mammalian mitochondria.

  6. Improvement in the accuracy of respiratory-gated radiation therapy using a respiratory guiding system (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Hee; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Tae-Ho; Suh, Tae-Suk; Yoon, Jai-Woong


    The accuracy of respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT) depends on the respiratory regularity because external respiratory signals are used for gating the radiation beam at particular phases. Many studies have applied a respiratory guiding system to improve the respiratory regularity. This study aims to evaluate the effect of an in-house-developed respiratory guiding system to improve the respiratory regularity for RGRT. To verify the effectiveness of this system, we acquired respiratory signals from five volunteers. The improvement in respiratory regularity was analyzed by comparing the standard deviations of the amplitudes and the periods between free and guided breathing. The reduction in residual motion at each phase was analyzed by comparing the standard deviations of sorted data within each corresponding phase bin as obtained from free and guided breathing. The results indicate that the respiratory guiding system improves the respiratory regularity, and that most of the volunteers showed significantly less average residual motion at each phase. The average residual motion measured at phases of 40, 50, and 60%, which showed lower variation than other phases, were, respectively, reduced by 41, 45, and 44% during guided breathing. The results show that the accuracy of RGRT can be improved by using the in-house-developed respiratory guiding system. Furthermore, this system should reduce artifacts caused by respiratory motion in 4D CT imaging.

  7. Respiratory muscle weakness in peripheral neuropathies. (United States)

    Burakgazi, Ahmet Z; Höke, Ahmet


    Common peripheral neuropathies do not usually cause diaphragmatic weakness and subsequent respiratory compromise. However, respiratory involvement is relatively common in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Experience in GBS has led to a standardized approach to manage respiratory problems in peripheral neuropathies. Diaphragmatic weakness is not common in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and extremely rare in multifocal motor neuropathy. The linkage has been described between certain subtypes of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease such as CMT2C and CMT4B1 and diaphragmatic weakness. A correlation usually has not been found between electrophysiologic findings and clinical respiratory signs or spirometric abnormalities in peripheral neuropathies except in amplitudes of evoked phrenic nerve responses. Careful and frequent assessment of respiratory function by a qualified team of healthcare professionals and physicians is essential. Criteria established for mechanical ventilation in GBS cases may be applied to other peripheral neuropathies with respiratory compromise as necessary.

  8. Respiratory Distress Syndrome and its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Kale Cekinmez


    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies is one of the most common and most important health problems in newborns. Respiratory distress syndrome of newborn is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. Respiratory distress syndrome begins shortly after birth and is manifest by tachypnea, tachycardia, chest wall retractions, expiratory grunting, nasal flaring and cyanosis during breathing efforts. Respiratory distress syndrome or complications caused by respiratory distress syndrome are the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in premature infants. This article briefly reviews respiratory distress syndrome and its complications. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 615-630

  9. Respiratory distress of the term newborn infant. (United States)

    Edwards, Martin O; Kotecha, Sarah J; Kotecha, Sailesh


    Respiratory distress is recognised as any signs of breathing difficulties in neonates. In the early neonatal period respiratory distress is common, occurring in up to 7% of newborn infants, resulting in significant numbers of term-born infants being admitted to neonatal units. Many risk factors are involved; the increasing number of term infants delivered by elective caesarean section has also increased the incidence. Additionally the risk decreases with each advancing week of gestation. At 37 weeks, the chances are three times greater than at 39-40 weeks gestation. Multiple conditions can present with features of respiratory distress. Common causes in term newborn infants include transient tachypnoea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and pneumothorax. Early recognition of respiratory distress and initiation of appropriate treatment is important to ensure optimal outcomes. This review will discuss these common causes of respiratory distress in term-born infants.

  10. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambaudi, L R [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Rossi, E [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Mantaras, M C [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina); Perrone, M S [Laboratorio de Biofisica y Fisiologia ' Antonio Sadi Frumento' (Argentina); Siri, L Nicola [Catedra de Bioingenieria II (Argentina)


    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display.

  11. DHA 联合5-FU 对人胃癌细胞增殖的抑制及线粒体呼吸链膜蛋白复合体的表达变化%The effect of combination of docosahexaenoic acid and 5-fluorouracil on the proliferation of human gastric cancer cell line AGS and the expression of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曙逢; 赵志浩; 刘竹君; 高琨; 李幼芬


    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)in combination on human gastric cancer cell line AGS in vitro .Methods Human gastric cancer line AGS was treated with different concentrations of DHA and 5-FU alone or in combination.The inhibition of cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay.Dose of median (IC50 )of drugs (alone or in combination)and the combination index (CI)were calculated using the median-effect equation and the combination index equation of Chou-Talalay.Flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle distribution.The expression of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complex in AGS cells was analyzed with Western blot.Results DHA and 5-FU alone or in combination could markedly suppress the proliferation of AGS in significantly time-dependent and dose-dependent manners (P <0.05).IC50 values with DHA or 5-FU administered for 24 h and 48 h were 5 1.60 μg/mL (DHA:24 h),34.82 μg/mL (DHA:48 h),45.90 μg/mL (5-FU:24 h),and 1 6.86 μg/mL (5-FU:48 h), respectively.DHA remarkably strengthened the inhibitory effect of 5-FU and decreased IC50 of 5-FU by 3.56 -2.1 5 folds.The combination of DHA and 5-FU showed synergism.Flow cytometry showed that AGS cells treated with DHA and 5-FU were arrested in G0/G1 phase and the proportion of AGS cells in G0/G1 phase increased compared with that in the control group,DHA group and 5-FU group,while the proportion of the cells in S phase decreased significantly (P < 0.05 ).Western blot showed after treatment with DHA and 5-FU for 48 h,the expression of mitochondrial respiratory membrane protein complex was significantly decreased compared with control group,DHA group and 5-FU group (P <0.05).Conclusion DHA could act synergistically with 5-FU in inhibiting the growth of gastric carcinoma cells,and meanwhile decrease the dose of 5-FU.The mechanism may be associated with cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and interference in the energy metabolism of AGS cells

  12. Dental considerations in patients with respiratory problems.


    Claramunt Lozano, Ariadna; Sarrión Pérez, María Gracia; Gavaldá Esteve, Carmen


    Many respiratory disorders can compromise routine dental care and require special treatment for the affected patients. Patients often visit the dental clinic with respiratory problems already diagnosed by other specialists. The dental professional therefore must provide correct dental care in the context of such a diagnosis. The present study offers a literature review of those respiratory disorders which can have implications for dental care. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (CO...

  13. Respiratory Disease: Diagnostic Approaches in the Horse. (United States)

    Hewson, Joanne; Arroyo, Luis G


    Evaluation of the upper and lower respiratory tract of horses requires strategic selection of possible diagnostic tests based on location of suspected pathologic lesions and purpose of testing and must also include consideration of patient status. This article discusses the various diagnostic modalities that may be applied to the respiratory system of horses under field conditions, indications for use, and aspects of sample collection, handling, and laboratory processing that can impact test results and ultimately a successful diagnosis in cases of respiratory disease.

  14. Respiratory Distress Syndrome and its Complications



    Respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies is one of the most common and most important health problems in newborns. Respiratory distress syndrome of newborn is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs. Respiratory distress syndrome begins shortly after birth and is manifest by tachypnea, tachycardia, chest wall retractions, expiratory grunting, nasal flaring and cyanosis during breathing effor...

  15. Advances in environmental and occupational respiratory disease in 2007. (United States)

    Bush, Robert K; Peden, David


    This review of key articles appearing in the Journal in 2008 represents significant advances in the understanding of the interrelationships between the environment and allergic respiratory diseases. New allergens have been identified and characterized. Improvements in diagnostic techniques and methods to assess environmental allergen exposure have been developed. The novel therapeutics and refinements of allergen avoidance approaches will improve patient care. A fuller appreciation of the complexities of environmental factors in allergic diseases can lead to better preventative measures. Lastly, the increasingly important role of pollutants on inflammatory processes is evolving. The articles discussed will add to our increasing knowledge base and advance the ability to more effectively treat patients with allergic respiratory diseases and expand research opportunities.

  16. Preoperative respiratory physiotherapy for a patient with severe respiratory dysfunction and annuloaortic ectasia. (United States)

    Sogawa, Masakazu; Ohzeki, Hajime; Namura, Osamu; Hayashi, Jun-ichi


    A 23-year-old man with Marfan syndrome, who had undergone surgery for pectus excavatum and scoliosis and who had severe respiratory dysfunction, was referred for surgical repair of annuloaortic ectasia. The preoperative pulmonary function test revealed severe obstructive and restrictive respiratory dysfunction, with forced expiratory volume in one second of 650 ml and vital capacity of 1,220 ml. These parameters improved after 4 months respiratory physiotherapy. A modified Bentall's procedure was performed after respiratory physiotherapy. A tracheostomy made on the 7th postoperative day (POD) appeared to improve respiratory condition and he was weaned off mechanical ventilation on the 14th POD. The lower limits of pulmonary function for open heart surgery have not been established clearly; however, our case will help elucidate these limits of respiratory function for open heart surgery. Preoperative respiratory physiotherapy improved parameters of pulmonary function test and may decrease the morbidity of postoperative pulmonary complications in a patient with severe respiratory dysfunction.

  17. Emergency thyroidectomy: Due to acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfu Bayhan


    CONCLUSION: Respiratory failure due to giant nodular goiter is a life-threatening situation and should be treated immediately by performing awake endotracheal intubation following emergency total thyroidectomy.

  18. Respiratory monitoring with an acceleration sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Tomohiro; Takegawa, Hideki; Ageishi, Tatsuya; Takashina, Masaaki; Numasaki, Hodaka; Matsumoto, Masao; Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 1-7, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)


    Respiratory gating radiotherapy is used to irradiate a local area and to reduce normal tissue toxicity. There are certain methods for the detection of tumor motions, for example, using internal markers or an external respiration signal. However, because some of these respiratory monitoring systems require special or expensive equipment, respiratory monitoring can usually be performed only in limited facilities. In this study, the feasibility of using an acceleration sensor for respiratory monitoring was evaluated. The respiratory motion was represented by means of a platform and measured five times with the iPod touch (registered) at 3, 4 and 5 s periods of five breathing cycles. For these three periods of the reference waveform, the absolute means {+-} standard deviation (SD) of displacement were 0.45 {+-} 0.34 mm, 0.33 {+-} 0.24 mm and 0.31 {+-} 0.23 mm, respectively. On the other hand, the corresponding absolute means {+-} SD for the periods were 0.04 {+-} 0.09 s, 0.04 {+-} 0.02 s and 0.06 {+-} 0.04 s. The accuracy of respiratory monitoring using the acceleration sensor was satisfactory in terms of the absolute means {+-} SD. Using the iPod touch (registered) for respiratory monitoring does not need special equipment and makes respiratory monitoring easier. For these reasons, this system is a viable alternative to other respiratory monitoring systems.

  19. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.


    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  20. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  1. Tribal Green Building Toolkit (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  2. Dermoid cyst with respiratory manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calle-Cabanillas MI, Ibañez-Muñoz C, Pérez-Sáez J, Navazo-Eguía AI, Clemente-García A, Sánchez-Hernández JM.


    Full Text Available Introduction: Dermoid cysts are congenital tumors caused by entrapment of ectoderm during embryogenesis. The most common localization are the gonads and less than 10% are in the head and neck. They are slow growing and generally observed between the second and third decades of life, being unusual in chilhood. Description: We report a case of a 5 year old male with recurrent respiratory infections, mouth breathing and snoring with apneas and daytime sleepiness. On physical examination tonsillar hypertrophy and a 4 cm sublingual tumor are detected. As complementary tests are performed overnight polysomnography with AHI of 18.3 / h and ultrasonography, reported as cystic mass with multiple rounded echogenic structures inside. Results: The patient was diagnosed with severe OSA and tonsillectomy and intraorally enucleation of tumor (as diagnosis and treatment were performed; with histopathological diagnosis of dermoid cyst. In the postoperative control we check the resolution of respiratory events and snoring. Discussion: Dermoid cysts of the oral cavity (where sublingual localization is the most common represent only 0,01% of all cysts and 1,6% of all dermoid cysts. Usually present as slow-growing asymptomatic mass, even if they reach large size can compromise swallowing, speech or breathing and eventually cause, as in our case, a severe OSA. The surgical treatment allows to confirm the diagnosis an avoid the risk of infectious complications and eventual malignant transformation.

  3. Equal virulence of rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in infants hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.C.; Goossens, L.K.; Hendrix, R.; Palen, van der J.A.M.; Lusthusz, A.; Thio, B.J.


    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) are predominant viruses associated with lower respiratory tract infection in infants. We compared the symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV and RV in hospitalized infants. RV showed the same symptoms as RSV, so on clinical g

  4. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders;


    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...

  5. Green building: sustainable building quality; Green Building: nachhaltige Gebaeudequalitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, R.


    This article takes a look at the 'Portikon' office building near Zurich, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie-P' very low energy consumption requirements. The author is of the opinion that the project can be seen as a reference project for sustainable building technology. The structure of the seven-storey building with a central atrium is described and discussed. The 'Minergie-P' energy concept is discussed, as are the 1,100 square meters of photovoltaic panels on the roof of the building. Heating energy is provided by Zurich's waste incineration plant nearby. Electro-biological aspects in the building are taken care of by appropriate earthing and shielding of cables. The building's facility management system and the installations used are briefly discussed.

  6. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  7. Danish building typologies and building stock analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    enough to meet the government’s plan to make Danish buildings free from use of fossil fuels by 2035. This will probably require around 50 % energy savings in the Danish building stock as a whole. However, the project has proven that dedicated engagement of locals can speed up market penetration...... energy savings in residential buildings. The intension with this analysis was to investigate the possible energy reduction in Denmark if the same approach had been taken for the entire Danish building stock. The report concludes that the ZeroHome initiative clearly results in energy savings, but far from...... for energy savings in the existing Building stock....

  8. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity in skeletal muscle from rats with streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Whitesell, Thomas


    expression and integrated mitochondrial respiratory function. Mitochondrial capacity for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) was found to be higher in the slow (more oxidative) soleus muscle from STZ rats when evaluating lipid and complex I linked OXPHOS capacity, whereas no difference was detected between...... the groups when evaluating the more physiol. complex I and II linked OXPHOS capacity. These findings indicate that chronic hyperglycemia results in an elevated intrinsic mitochondrial respiratory capacity in both soleus and, at varying degree, plantaris muscle, findings that are consistent with human T1DM...

  9. Postperfusion lung syndrome: Respiratory mechanics, respiratory indices and biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan


    Full Text Available Postperfusion lung syndrome is rare but lethal. Secondary inflammatory response was the popularly accepted theory for the underlying etiology. Respiratory index (RI and arterial oxygen tension/fractional inspired oxygen can be reliable indices for the diagnosis of this syndrome as X-ray appearance is always insignificant at the early stage of the onset. Evaluations of extravascular lung water content and pulmonary compliance are also helpful in the definite diagnosis. Multiorgan failure and triple acid-base disturbances that might develop secondary to postperfusion lung syndrome are responsible for the poor prognosis and increased mortality rather than postperfusion lung syndrome itself. Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume (TV and proper positive end-expiratory pressure can be an effective treatment strategy. Use of ulinastatin and propofol may benefit the patients through different mechanisms.

  10. Association of residential dampness and mold with respiratory tract infections and bronchitis: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Eliseeva, Ekaterina A.; Mendell, Mark J.


    bias was evident. Estimated attributable risk proportions ranged from 8% to 20%. Residential dampness and mold are associated with substantial and statistically significant increases in both respiratory infections and bronchitis. If these associations were confirmed as causal, effective control of dampness and mold in buildings would prevent a substantial proportion of respiratory infections.

  11. Extensive Renovation of Heritage Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Møller, Eva B.; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius


    In the debate on whether or not heritage buildings should be included in work to mitigate climate change impacts, it is important to assess the impact of these buildings. Therefore the results of an extensive energy upgrading of a listed complex was studied. Climate change and measures to mitigate...... its effects have been a global priority for more than a decade. Efforts to mitigate climate change have focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2. As a consequence, there is an increased interest in reducing the energy consumption and increase the indoor climate standard of many...... feasible energy-upgrading measures for implementation including measures to provide an acceptable indoor climate. The energy savings as well as the reduction of CO2 emissions are calculated. Furthermore, it is discussed how measures can affect the durability of a heritage building, as measures may create...

  12. Building in a Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Levring, Peter

    This book offers a "state of the art" introduction to the "Danish way" of building. It presents a source of information and inspiration to the complex transitional process of rearranging the construction sectors in Central and Eastern European countries. The text gives a historical presentation...... of the development in the built environment since the second world war. Subsequently the different current regulative systems on state and on building industry level are revised. The more practical managerial methods are then elaborated and associated with the common organisational frameworks, indicating the roles...... and functions of the main actors in the building process. During these passages and in a final section important future developments are highlighted, and characteristic research and development projects are presented....

  13. A Guide for Respiratory Therapy Curriculum Design. (United States)

    American Association for Respiratory Therapy, Dallas, TX.

    The document presents educational criterion upon which curriculum builders can create a competency-based program of respiratory therapy education. The 11 modules presented supplement and compliment the document Delineation of Roles and Functions of Respiratory Therapy Personnel (CE 005 945) which is listed as appendix D but not included as such.…

  14. Expanding the Respiratory Therapy Curriculum. Final Report. (United States)

    Burnett, Mary; Allenbaugh, Patricia

    This project was conducted to upgrade Seattle Central Community College's four-quarter respiratory care program to a two-year associate degree program in respiratory therapy. The program needed to include a developmental pathway for entry of nontraditional students and also a college-level prerequisite entry pathway for traditional students. In…

  15. Respiratory health effects in pig farmers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.


    This thesis describes a cross-sectional study of risk factors of chronic respiratory health effects in pig farmers working in the South of the Netherlands. The study population comprised 100 pig farmers with and 100 pig farmers without chronic respiratory symptoms. Base-line lung function, non-speci

  16. Maximal respiratory pressure in healthy Japanese children (United States)

    Tagami, Miki; Okuno, Yukako; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Kawamura, Kenta; Shoji, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kazuhide


    [Purpose] Normal values for respiratory muscle pressures during development in Japanese children have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory muscle pressures in Japanese children aged 3–12 years. [Subjects and Methods] We measured respiratory muscle pressure values using a manovacuometer without a nose clip, with subjects in a sitting position. Data were collected for ages 3–6 (Group I: 68 subjects), 7–9 (Group II: 86 subjects), and 10–12 (Group III: 64 subjects) years. [Results] The values for respiratory muscle pressures in children were significantly higher with age in both sexes, and were higher in boys than in girls. Correlation coefficients were significant at values of 0.279 to 0.471 for each gender relationship between maximal respiratory pressure and age, height, and weight, respectively. [Conclusion] In this study, we showed pediatric respiratory muscle pressure reference value for each age. In the present study, values for respiratory muscle pressures were lower than Brazilian studies. This suggests that differences in respiratory muscle pressures vary with ethnicity. PMID:28356644


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vakili-Ardebili


    Full Text Available The sustainable building design process is driven on the basis of a range of design eco-indicators. Consideration of a multitude of eco-determinants, such as environment, economy, resources, energy consumption and society values in addition to design characteristics and contexts, makes the process of ecological design even more complex. A large number of eco-drivers are extracted from the literature and current design practices. To gain a better insight on eco-design determinants, a survey focusing on the use of eco-design drivers has been conducted with various architects in the UK. The factor analysis method was used to remove redundant data from the survey. Through the factor analysis approach, 115 eco-determinants are grouped into six main clusters. This article presents the process, analysis and findings of this work. The extracted eco-indicators and their associated clusters can be used to improve the process of ecological building design. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0096 Source: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, Volume 6, Number 2, 2010 , pp. 111-131(21

  18. [Hot topics in respiratory infections]. (United States)

    de Souza-Galvao, M Luiza; García-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Sanz, Francisco; Blanquer, José


    We review the most interesting articles on respiratory infections published in the last trimester of 2009 and in 2010. Notable publications in bronchiectasis were the Guidelines of the British Thoracic Society, as well as several articles on the natural course of the process, the impact of exacerbations on the course of the disease, and treatment with inhaled antibiotics. Other notable publications were the SEPAR-SEIMC consensus document for the management of tuberculosis and articles on the use of interferon-gamma in the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection. The new recommendations of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery on community-acquired pneumonia have recently been published. Equally important are studies on the viral etiology of community-acquired pneumonia, the impact of corticosteroid treatment in pneumonia, the duration of antibiotic therapy and preventive measures in both community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia.

  19. The respiratory system in equations

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, Bertrand


    The book proposes an introduction to the mathematical modeling of the respiratory system. A detailed introduction on the physiological aspects makes it accessible to a large audience without any prior knowledge on the lung. Different levels of description are proposed, from the lumped models with a small number of parameters (Ordinary Differential Equations), up to infinite dimensional models based on Partial Differential Equations. Besides these two types of differential equations, two chapters are dedicated to resistive networks, and to the way they can be used to investigate the dependence of the resistance of the lung upon geometrical characteristics. The theoretical analysis of the various models is provided, together with state-of-the-art techniques to compute approximate solutions, allowing comparisons with experimental measurements. The book contains several exercises, most of which are accessible to advanced undergraduate students.

  20. Perioperative modifications of respiratory function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, Michelle


    Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control.

  1. Pulmonary agenesis and respiratory failure in childhood. (United States)

    Dinamarco, Paula Vanessa Valverde; Ponce, Cesar Cilento


    Pulmonary agenesis (PA) is a rare congenital anomaly, which may be unilateral or bilateral. Unilateral PA may be associated with nonspecific respiratory symptoms. We report the case of 5-month-old infant who presented a normal development until the age of 4 months when a respiratory infection caused an acute respiratory distress syndrome with a fatal outcome. The autopsy findings depicted the right lung agenesis without any other concomitant malformation. Although respiratory symptoms represent frequent complaints in pediatrics, the aim of this study is not only to draw attention to the unilateral pulmonary agenesis as a possible underlying malformation in children who present recurrent and severe respiratory symptoms, but also to report a case diagnosed at autopsy.

  2. Pulmonary agenesis and respiratory failure in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Vanessa Valverde Dinamarco


    Full Text Available Pulmonary agenesis (PA is a rare congenital anomaly, which may be unilateral or bilateral. Unilateral PA may be associated with nonspecific respiratory symptoms. We report the case of 5-month-old infant who presented a normal development until the age of 4 months when a respiratory infection caused an acute respiratory distress syndrome with a fatal outcome. The autopsy findings depicted the right lung agenesis without any other concomitant malformation. Although respiratory symptoms represent frequent complaints in pediatrics, the aim of this study is not only to draw attention to the unilateral pulmonary agenesis as a possible underlying malformation in children who present recurrent and severe respiratory symptoms, but also to report a case diagnosed at autopsy.

  3. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions. (United States)

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S


    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort.

  4. Stem cells and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu


    Full Text Available Stem cells have a multitude of clinical implications in the lung. This article is a critical review that includes clinical and experimental studies of MedLine and SciElo database in the last 10 years, where we highlight the effects of stem cell therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome or more chronic disorders such as lung fibrosis and emphysema. Although, many studies have shown the beneficial effects of stem cells in lung development, repair and remodeling; some important questions need to be answered to better understand the mechanisms that control cell division and differentiation, therefore enabling the use of cell therapy in human respiratory diseases.As células-tronco têm uma infinidade de implicações clínicas no pulmão. Este artigo é uma revisão crítica que inclui estudos clínicos e experimentais advindos do banco de dados do MEDLINE e SciElo nos últimos 10 anos, onde foram destacados os efeitos da terapia celular na síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo ou doenças mais crônicas, como fibrose pulmonar e enfisema. Apesar de muitos estudos demonstrarem os efeitos benéficos das células-tronco no desenvolvimento, reparo e remodelamento pulmonar; algumas questões ainda precisam ser respondidas para um melhor entendimento dos mecanismos que controlam a divisão celular e diferenciação, permitindo o uso da terapia celular nas doenças respiratórias.

  5. Challenges in the data collection for diagnostics of smart buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Mohamed, Nader


    The rise of smart buildings, i.e. buildings equipped with latest technology and built according to cutting-edge architectural advances, implies increased buildings’ complexity. For this reason, both new and retrofitted buildings are often susceptible to new and unforeseen faults, whose timely det...

  6. Detection of respiratory viruses and the associated chemokine responses in serious acute respiratory illness (United States)

    Sumino, Kaharu C.; Walter, Michael J.; Mikols, Cassandra L.; Thompson, Samantha A.; Gaudreault-Keener, Monique; Arens, Max. Q.; Agapov, Eugene; Hormozdi, David; Gaynor, Anne M.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Storch, Gregory A.


    Background A specific diagnosis of a lower respiratory viral infection is often difficult despite frequent clinical suspicion. This low diagnostic yield may be improved by use of sensitive detection methods and biomarkers. Methods We investigated the prevalence, clinical predictors and inflammatory mediator profile of respiratory viral infection in serious acute respiratory illness. Sequential bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from all patients hospitalized with acute respiratory illness over 12 months (n=283) were tested for the presence of 17 respiratory viruses by multiplex PCR assay and for newly-discovered respiratory viruses (bocavirus, WU and KI polyomaviruses) by single-target PCR. BAL samples also underwent conventional testing (direct immunoflorescence and viral culture) for respiratory virus at the clinician’s discretion. 27 inflammatory mediators were measured in subset of the patients (n=64) using a multiplex immunoassay. Results We detected 39 respiratory viruses in 37 (13.1% of total) patients by molecular testing, including rhinovirus (n=13), influenza virus (n=8), respiratory syncytial virus (n=6), human metapneumovirus (n=3), coronavirus NL63 (n=2), parainfluenza virus (n=2), adenovirus (n=1), and newly-discovered viruses (n=4). Molecular methods were 3.8-fold more sensitive than conventional methods. Clinical characteristics alone were insufficient to separate patients with and without respiratory virus. The presence of respiratory virus was associated with increased levels of interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP -10)(p<0.001) and eotaxin-1 (p=0.017) in BAL. Conclusions Respiratory viruses can be found in patients with serious acute respiratory illness by use of PCR assays more frequently than previously appreciated. IP-10 may be a useful biomarker for respiratory viral infection. PMID:20627924

  7. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten


    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...... lecture and illustrates global relations to highlight some of the challenges that we see today....

  8. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten


    aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper......High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktavi Elok Hapsari


    Full Text Available Since 1980 the development of Indonesian architecture design start to leads into sustainable architectural design which as it was expected to became a solution regarding the environmental problems. The implementation of sustainable design in buildings can be applied from the buildings typologi, renewable resources on materials untill the reduction of the negative impact againts the buildings surrounding environment. As the main object for this study was 2006 The Woods Awardee, Savill Building. A literature study was conducted related to sustainable concept design and the implementation in Savill Buildings. Savill Building is a transparance walls buildings with steel and wooden as main materials on it complex curve gridshell structures. Located in a countoured site Savill Building show it assertive appearance. Due to the good landscape processing and design the Savill Building stood out and yet still shown continuity and harmony with the surrounding environment. The buildings not only has a eco-friendly public facility function, but also has the capability on attracting visitors. In the end this study is expected able expand the knowledges on sustainable design and become a design references in Indonesia architectural design.

  10. Approaches to systems biology. Four methods to study single-cell gene expression, cell motility, antibody reactivity, and respiratory metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Peter

    are developed that can distinguish between different surfaces; a method for selecting repertoires of antigens thatseparate mice based on their response to treatment is developed; and the observed concentrations of free and bound NADH is used to build and test a basic model of respiratory metabolism...

  11. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per


    The paper describes and gives example on how Information and Communication, ICT, can and will enhance and support the building functional systems defined from client and end-user needs and requirements. The building systems may be derived from functional requirements on buildings such as usability...... and security on highest level with sub-systems definitions on lever levels. Building functional sub-systems may be defined for user comfort, indoor-climate, evacuation, space configuration, aesthetics, O&M etc. These building systems are supported by Information and Communication Technology, ICT, and building...... component systems that are accessed and integrated in the real world of building use in different contexts. The ICT systems may be physically or virtually embedded in the building. Already in 1982 AT&T established the 'intelligent buildings', IB, concept due to marketing reasons and the Informart building...

  12. Retrofitting Listed Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn


    The paper presents a case study where the energy demand for a listed building constructed in 1900 is reduced. Many older buildings are listed and have restrictions that include the entire building or that include only its exterior. For the building presented, only its exterior facade is listed...... of the local urban environment and therefore listed. The reduced energy demand, related to individual measures, is estimated and building physics requirements are addressed together with the economic options for evaluating the profitability....

  13. Antiviral therapy and prophylaxis of acute respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Osidak


    Full Text Available Thearticle presents the results of years of studies (including biochemical and immunological of the effectiveness of application and prophylaxis (in relation to nosocomial infections and the safety of antiviral chemical preparation Arbidol in 694 children with influenza and influenza-like illness, including the coronavirus infection (43 children and combined lesions of respiratory tract (150, indicating the possible inclusion of the drug in the complex therapy for children with the listed diseases, regardless of the severity and nature of their course. The studies were conducted according to the regulated standard of test conditions and randomized clinical trials.

  14. [Effects of indoor exposures on respiratory and allergic disorders]. (United States)

    Simoni, Marzia; Lombardi, Enrico; Berti, Giovanna; Rusconi, Franca; La Grutta, Stefania; Piffer, Silvano; Petronio, Maria Grazia; Galassi, Claudia; Forastiere, Francesco; Viegi, Giovanni


    Several studies have shown that indoor pollution increases the risk for chronic pulmonary diseases and acute respiratory symptoms in children/adolescents. Some associations have been confirmed by studies. Other relations are still unclear, such as those regarding dog and cat ownership. In this study we assessed the relationships of the exposure to mould and dog/cat ownership with respiratory/allergic symptoms/diagnoses, such as wheezing, asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, eczema, and cough/phlegm in 20,016 children (6-7 yrs old) and 13,266 adolescents (13-14 yrs old) from 12 Italian areas. Early mould exposure (in the first year of life) was positively related to all considered symptoms/diagnoses (significantly for wheezing, asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis in both children and adolescents, and for cough/phlegm among children); current exposure (in the last year) was a significant risk factor for wheeze, among children. In the latter, dog exposure only in the first year of life increased the risk for wheezing and cough/phlegm, whereas the presence of a dog lifetime seemed a protective factor (though not significant) for all symptoms/diagnoses; negative relations (but not significant) suggested a protective effect by the cat for asthma, independently of exposure period. Among adolescents, the presence of a dog both lifetime and only in the first year of life was significantly related to cough/phlegm; except for rhino-conjunctivitis, all symptoms/diagnoses were negatively related to the presence of a cat lifetime (though not significantly). In conclusion, our results confirmed the effects of mould exposure, especially when it occurs early, on the prevalence of respiratory disorders such as asthma, rhinitis and cough in the pediatric age. The complex relations between keeping a dog or cat at home and respiratory/allergic symptoms/diseases in childhood warrants further studies.

  15. Functional and histopathological identification of the respiratory failure in a DMSXL transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy. (United States)

    Panaite, Petrica-Adrian; Kuntzer, Thierry; Gourdon, Geneviève; Lobrinus, Johannes Alexander; Barakat-Walter, Ibtissam


    Acute and chronic respiratory failure is one of the major and potentially life-threatening features in individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Despite several clinical demonstrations showing respiratory problems in DM1 patients, the mechanisms are still not completely understood. This study was designed to investigate whether the DMSXL transgenic mouse model for DM1 exhibits respiratory disorders and, if so, to identify the pathological changes underlying these respiratory problems. Using pressure plethysmography, we assessed the breathing function in control mice and DMSXL mice generated after large expansions of the CTG repeat in successive generations of DM1 transgenic mice. Statistical analysis of breathing function measurements revealed a significant decrease in the most relevant respiratory parameters in DMSXL mice, indicating impaired respiratory function. Histological and morphometric analysis showed pathological changes in diaphragmatic muscle of DMSXL mice, characterized by an increase in the percentage of type I muscle fibers, the presence of central nuclei, partial denervation of end-plates (EPs) and a significant reduction in their size, shape complexity and density of acetylcholine receptors, all of which reflect a possible breakdown in communication between the diaphragmatic muscles fibers and the nerve terminals. Diaphragm muscle abnormalities were accompanied by an accumulation of mutant DMPK RNA foci in muscle fiber nuclei. Moreover, in DMSXL mice, the unmyelinated phrenic afferents are significantly lower. Also in these mice, significant neuronopathy was not detected in either cervical phrenic motor neurons or brainstem respiratory neurons. Because EPs are involved in the transmission of action potentials and the unmyelinated phrenic afferents exert a modulating influence on the respiratory drive, the pathological alterations affecting these structures might underlie the respiratory impairment detected in DMSXL mice. Understanding

  16. Functional and histopathological identification of the respiratory failure in a DMSXL transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrica-Adrian Panaite


    Acute and chronic respiratory failure is one of the major and potentially life-threatening features in individuals with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1. Despite several clinical demonstrations showing respiratory problems in DM1 patients, the mechanisms are still not completely understood. This study was designed to investigate whether the DMSXL transgenic mouse model for DM1 exhibits respiratory disorders and, if so, to identify the pathological changes underlying these respiratory problems. Using pressure plethysmography, we assessed the breathing function in control mice and DMSXL mice generated after large expansions of the CTG repeat in successive generations of DM1 transgenic mice. Statistical analysis of breathing function measurements revealed a significant decrease in the most relevant respiratory parameters in DMSXL mice, indicating impaired respiratory function. Histological and morphometric analysis showed pathological changes in diaphragmatic muscle of DMSXL mice, characterized by an increase in the percentage of type I muscle fibers, the presence of central nuclei, partial denervation of end-plates (EPs and a significant reduction in their size, shape complexity and density of acetylcholine receptors, all of which reflect a possible breakdown in communication between the diaphragmatic muscles fibers and the nerve terminals. Diaphragm muscle abnormalities were accompanied by an accumulation of mutant DMPK RNA foci in muscle fiber nuclei. Moreover, in DMSXL mice, the unmyelinated phrenic afferents are significantly lower. Also in these mice, significant neuronopathy was not detected in either cervical phrenic motor neurons or brainstem respiratory neurons. Because EPs are involved in the transmission of action potentials and the unmyelinated phrenic afferents exert a modulating influence on the respiratory drive, the pathological alterations affecting these structures might underlie the respiratory impairment detected in DMSXL mice. Understanding

  17. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla


    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  18. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla


    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  19. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, L


    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  20. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient. (United States)

    Gleeson, L; Alam, J; Lane, S


    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  1. Acute otitis media and respiratory virus infections. (United States)

    Ruuskanen, O; Arola, M; Putto-Laurila, A; Mertsola, J; Meurman, O; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P


    We studied the association of acute otitis media with different respiratory virus infections in a pediatric department on the basis of epidemics between 1980 and 1985. Altogether 4524 cases of acute otitis media were diagnosed. The diagnosis was confirmed by tympanocentesis in 3332 ears. Respiratory virus infection was diagnosed during the same period in 989 patients by detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal mucus. There was a significant correlation between acute otitis media and respiratory virus epidemics, especially respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. There was no significant correlation between outbreaks of other respiratory viruses and acute otitis media. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 57% of respiratory syncytial virus, 35% of influenza A virus, 33% of parainfluenza type 3 virus, 30% of adenovirus, 28% of parainfluenza type 1 virus, 18% of influenza B virus and 10% of parainfluenza type 2 virus infections. These observations show a clear association of respiratory virus infections with acute otitis media. In this study on hospitalized children Haemophilus influenzae strains were the most common bacteriologic pathogens in middle ear fluid, occurring in 19% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae was present in 16% and Branhamella catarrhalis in 7% of cases. There was no association between specific viruses and bacteria observed in this study.

  2. Biomarker as a Research Tool in Linking Exposure to Air Particles and Respiratory Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Faseeha Suhaimi


    Full Text Available Some of the environmental toxicants from air pollution include particulate matter (PM10, fine particulate matter (PM2.5, and ultrafine particles (UFP. Both short- and long-term exposure could result in various degrees of respiratory health outcomes among exposed persons, which rely on the individuals’ health status. Methods. In this paper, we highlight a review of the studies that have used biomarkers to understand the association between air particles exposure and the development of respiratory problems resulting from the damage in the respiratory system. Data from previous epidemiological studies relevant to the application of biomarkers in respiratory system damage reported from exposure to air particles are also summarized. Results. Based on these analyses, the findings agree with the hypothesis that biomarkers are relevant in linking harmful air particles concentrations to increased respiratory health effects. Biomarkers are used in epidemiological studies to provide an understanding of the mechanisms that follow airborne particles exposure in the airway. However, application of biomarkers in epidemiological studies of health effects caused by air particles in both environmental and occupational health is inchoate. Conclusion. Biomarkers unravel the complexity of the connection between exposure to air particles and respiratory health.

  3. Pesticides and respiratory symptoms among farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Neice Müller Xavier


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the intensive use of pesticides in agriculture there are few studies assessing the risk of respiratory conditions from this exposure. The study aimed at quantifying the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among farmers and evaluating its relationship with occupational use of pesticides and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,379 farmers from two municipalities of Southern Brazil in 1996. Frequency and type of chemical exposure and pesticide poisoning were recorded for both sexes. All subjects aged 15 years or older with at least 15 weekly hours of agricultural activity were interviewed. An adapted questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society was used for the assessment of respiratory symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out. RESULTS: More than half (55% of interviewees were male. The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 12% and chronic respiratory disease symptoms was 22%. Higher odds ratios for both asthma (OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.07-2.14 and chronic respiratory disease (OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.81 symptoms were found in women. Logistic regression analysis identified associations between many forms of exposure to pesticides and increased respiratory symptoms. Occurrence of pesticide poisoning was associated with higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.04-2.58 and chronic respiratory disease symptoms (OR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.08-2.28. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of causality limitations, the study results provide evidence that farming exposure to pesticides is associated with higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, especially when the exposure is above two days per month.

  4. Measurement of ventilatory threshold by respiratory frequency. (United States)

    Nabetani, Teru; Ueda, Takeshi; Teramoto, Keisuke


    This study was conducted to assess whether respiratory frequency can be used as a valid parameter for estimating ventilatory threshold and for examining differences in exercise modes such as a cycle ergometer and a treadmill. 24 men and 12 women performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer and on a treadmill. Oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, pulmonary ventilation, ventilatory frequency, and heart rate were measured continuously every 30 sec. during the test. Three different and independent reviewers detected the ventilatory threshold point and break point of respiratory rate, which were then compared. Analysis indicated that (1) ventilatory threshold was well correlated with break point of respiratory rate for both cycle (r=.88, pcycle) or 88% (treadmill) of break point of respiratory rate. (2) The regression equation for treadmill exercise was more accurate than that for cycling, but the detected data samples were smaller. The break point of respiratory rate was more easily detected for the cycle ergometer test 33 of 36 subjects) than for the treadmill test (only 15 of 36). The cycle ergometer test identified the break point of respiratory rate more easily than did the treadmill test. (3) There was an association between physical fitness and whether the break point of respiratory rate was detectable, and the more fit the subject (above average), the more likely the break point was to be undetected. Our study demonstrates that the break point of respiratory rate is closely associated with ventilatory threshold and that the cycle ergometer test is more conducive than the treadmill test to the detectability of break point of respiratory rate.

  5. Aerodynamic characteristics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments (United States)

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Chul; Schmechel, Detlef; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Reponen, Tiina

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of fungal fragments and to estimate their respiratory deposition. Fragments and spores of three different fungal species ( Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Stachybotrys chartarum) were aerosolized by the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST). An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measured the size distribution in real-time and collected the aerosolized fungal particles simultaneously onto 12 impactor stages in the size range of 0.3-10 μm utilizing water-soluble ZEF-X10 coating of the impaction stages to prevent spore bounce. For S. chartarum, the average concentration of released fungal fragments was 380 particles cm -3, which was about 514 times higher than that of spores. A. versicolor was found to release comparable amount of spores and fragments. Microscopic analysis confirmed that S. chartarum and A. versicolor did not show any significant spore bounce, whereas the size distribution of P. melinii fragments was masked by spore bounce. Respiratory deposition was calculated using a computer-based model, LUDEP 2.07, for an adult male and a 3-month-old infant utilizing the database on the concentration and size distribution of S. chartarum and A. versicolor aerosols measured by the ELPI. Total deposition fractions for fragments and spores were 27-46% and 84-95%, respectively, showing slightly higher values in an infant than in an adult. For S. chartarum, fragments demonstrated 230-250 fold higher respiratory deposition than spores, while the number of deposited fragments and spores of A. versicolor were comparable. It was revealed that the deposition ratio (the number of deposited fragments divided by that of deposited spores) in the lower airways for an infant was 4-5 times higher than that for an adult. As fungal fragments have been shown to contain mycotoxins and antigens, further exposure assessment should include the measurement of fungal fragments for

  6. Respiratory Depression Caused by Heroin Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Hakan Cansiz


    Full Text Available Summary Heroin is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic and heroin abuse is common due to its pleasure-inducing effect. For the last 30 years heroin abuse has become an important worldwide public health problem. Heroin can be administered in many different ways as preferred. Heroin affects many systems including respiratory system, cardiovascular system and particulary the central nervous system. Overdose use of heroin intravenously can be fatal due to respiratory depression. In this letter, we wanted to engage attention to respiratory depression caused by heroin abuse and potential benefits of using naloxone. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 248-250

  7. Cardiac and Respiratory Disease in Aged Horses. (United States)

    Marr, Celia M


    Respiratory and cardiac diseases are common in older horses. Advancing age is a specific risk factor for cardiac murmurs and these are more likely in males and small horses. Airway inflammation is the most common respiratory diagnosis. Recurrent airway obstruction can lead to irreversible structural change and bronchiectasis; with chronic hypoxia, right heart dysfunction and failure can develop. Valvular heart disease most often affects the aortic and/or the mitral valve. Management of comorbidity is an essential element of the therapeutic approach to cardiac and respiratory disease in older equids.

  8. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten


    The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is essential...

  9. Importance of Building Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Banerjee


    Full Text Available A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non building structures. The main purpose of building codes are to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Building codes are generally intended to be applied by architects, engineers, constructors and regulators but are also used for various purposes by safety inspectors, environmental scientists, real estate developers, subcontractors, manufacturers of building products and materials, insurance companies, facility managers, tenants and others.

  10. An integrated bioimpedance—ECG gating technique for respiratory and cardiac motion compensation in cardiac PET (United States)

    Koivumäki, Tuomas; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Fürst, Sebastian; Loher, Simone; Vauhkonen, Marko; Schwaiger, Markus; Hakulinen, Mikko A.


    Respiratory motion may degrade image quality in cardiac PET imaging. Since cardiac PET studies often involve cardiac gating by ECG, a separate respiratory monitoring system is required increasing the logistic complexity of the examination, in case respiratory gating is also needed. Thus, we investigated the simultaneous acquisition of both respiratory and cardiac gating signals using II limb lead mimicking electrode configuration during cardiac PET scans of 11 patients. In addition to conventional static and ECG-gated images, bioimpedance technique was utilized to generate respiratory- and dual-gated images. The ability of the bioimpedance technique to monitor intrathoracic respiratory motion was assessed estimating cardiac displacement between end-inspiration and -expiration. The relevance of dual gating was evaluated in left ventricular volume and myocardial wall thickness measurements. An average 7.6  ±  3.3 mm respiratory motion was observed in the study population. Dual gating showed a small but significant increase (4 ml, p = 0.042) in left ventricular myocardial volume compared to plain cardiac gating. In addition, a thinner myocardial wall was observed in dual-gated images (9.3  ±  1.3 mm) compared to cardiac-gated images (11.3  ±  1.3 mm, p = 0.003). This study shows the feasibility of bioimpedance measurements for dual gating in a clinical setting. The method enables simultaneous acquisition of respiratory and cardiac gating signals using a single device with standard ECG electrodes.

  11. Respiratory signal analysis of liver cancer patients with respiratory-gated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Im; Jung, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chul Jong; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Byung Ki [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    External markers respiratory movement measuring device (RPM; Real-time Position Management, Varian Medical System, USA) Liver Cancer Radiation Therapy Respiratory gated with respiratory signal with irradiation time and the actual research by analyzing the respiratory phase with the breathing motion measurement device respiratory tuning evaluate the accuracy of radiation therapy May-September 2014 Novalis Tx. (Varian Medical System, USA) and liver cancer radiotherapy using respiratory gated RPM (Duty Cycle 20%, Gating window 40%-60%) of 16 patients who underwent total when recording the analyzed respiratory movement. After the breathing motion of the external markers recorded on the RPM was reconstructed by breathing through the acts phase analysis, for Beam-on Time and Duty Cycle recorded by using the reconstructed phase breathing breathing with RPM gated the prediction accuracy of the radiation treatment analysis and analyzed the correlation between prediction accuracy and Duty Cycle in accordance with the reproducibility of the respiratory movement. Treatment of 16 patients with respiratory cycle during the actual treatment plan was analyzed with an average difference -0.03 seconds (range -0.50 seconds to 0.09 seconds) could not be confirmed statistically significant difference between the two breathing (p = 0.472). The average respiratory period when treatment is 4.02 sec (0.71 sec), the average value of the respiratory cycle of the treatment was characterized by a standard deviation 7.43% (range 2.57 to 19.20%). Duty Cycle is that the actual average 16.05% (range 13.78 to 17.41%), average 56.05 got through the acts of the show and then analyzed% (range 39.23 to 75.10%) is planned in respiratory research phase (40% to 60%) in was confirmed. The investigation on the correlation between the ratio Duty Cycle and planned respiratory phase and the standard deviation of the respiratory cycle was analyzed in each -0.156 (p = 0.282) and -0.385 (p = 0.070). This study is

  12. Applied building physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hens, Hugo S L C


    The energy crises of the 1970s, persisting moisture problems, complaints about sick buildings, thermal, visual and olfactory discomfort, and the move towards more sustainability in building construction have pushed Building Physics to the forefront of building innovation. The societal pressure to diminish energy consumption in buildings without impairing usability acted as a trigger to activate the whole notion of performance based design and construction. As with all engineering sciences, Building Physics is oriented towards application, which is why, after a first book on fundamentals this s

  13. The respiratory chain supercomplex organization is independent of COX7a2l isoforms. (United States)

    Mourier, Arnaud; Matic, Stanka; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Milenkovic, Dusanka


    The organization of individual respiratory chain complexes into supercomplexes or respirasomes has attracted great interest because of the implications for cellular energy conversion. Recently, it was reported that commonly used mouse strains harbor a short COX7a2l (SCAFI) gene isoform that supposedly precludes the formation of complex IV-containing supercomplexes. This claim potentially has serious implications for numerous mouse studies addressing important topics in metabolism, including adaptation to space flights. Using several complementary experimental approaches, we show that mice with the short COX7a2l isoform have normal biogenesis and steady-state levels of complex IV-containing supercomplexes and consequently have normal respiratory chain function. Furthermore, we use a mouse knockout of Lrpprc and show that loss of complex IV compromises respirasome formation. We conclude that the presence of the short COX7a2l isoform in the commonly used C57BL/6 mouse strains does not prevent their use in metabolism research.

  14. Coenzyme q and the respiratory chain: coenzyme q pool and mitochondrial supercomplexes. (United States)

    Enriquez, José Antonio; Lenaz, Giorgio


    Two alternative models of organization of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) have been alternatively favored or questioned by the accumulation evidences of different sources, the solid model or the random collision model. Both agree in the number of respiratory complexes (I-IV) that participate in the mETC, but while the random collision model proposes that Complexes I-IV do not interact physically and that electrons are transferred between them by coenzyme Q and cytochrome c, the solid model proposes that all complexes super-assemble in the so-called respirasome. Recently, the plasticity model has been developed to incorporate the solid and the random collision model as extreme situations of a dynamic organization, allowing super-assembly free movement of the respiratory complexes. In this review, we evaluate the supporting evidences of each model and the implications of the super-assembly in the physiological role of coenzyme Q.

  15. Computational modeling of aerosol deposition in respiratory tract: a review. (United States)

    Rostami, Ali A


    This review article is intended to serve as an overview of the current status of the computational tools and approaches available for predicting respiratory-tract dosimetry of inhaled particulate matter. There are two groups of computational models available, depending on the intended use. The whole-lung models are designed to provide deposition prediction for the whole lung, from the oronasal cavities to the pulmonary region. The whole-lung models are generally semi-empirical and hence provide more reliable results but within the range of parameters used for empirical correlations. The local deposition or computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based models, on the other hand, utilize comprehensive theoretical and computational approaches but are often limited to upper respiratory tracts. They are based on theoretical principles and are applicable to a wider range of parameters, but less accurate. One of the difficulties with modeling of aerosol deposition in human lung is related to the complexity of the airways geometry and the limited morphometric data available. Another difficulty corresponds to simulation of the realistic physiological conditions of lung environment. Furthermore, complex physical and chemical phenomena associated with dense and multicomponent aerosols complicate the modeling tasks. All of these issues are addressed in this review. The progress made in each area in the last three decades and the challenges ahead are discussed along with some suggestions for future direction. The following subjects are covered in this review: introduction, aerosol deposition mechanisms, elements of a computational model, respiratory-tract geometry models, whole-lung models, CFD based models, cigarette smoke deposition models, and conclusion.

  16. Bubble CPAP - a primary respiratory support for respiratory distress syndrome in newborns. (United States)

    Urs, Prashanth S; Khan, Firdose; Maiya, P P


    In preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is associated with benefits in terms of reduced respiratory failure and reduced mortality. We conducted this prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of bubble-CPAP as primary mode of respiratory support. Bubble CPAP was found to be safe and effective means of treating mild and moderate grade RDS, it was also observed to be more successful in babies born to mothers who had received antenatal steroids.

  17. Increased fatigue resistance of respiratory muscles during exercise after respiratory muscle endurance training


    Verges, S; Lenherr, O; Haner, A C; Schulz, C.; Spengler, C M


    Respiratory muscle fatigue develops during exhaustive exercise and can limit exercise performance. Respiratory muscle training, in turn, can increase exercise performance. We investigated whether respiratory muscle endurance training (RMT) reduces exercise-induced inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue. Twenty-one healthy, male volunteers performed twenty 30-min sessions of either normocapnic hyperpnoea (n = 13) or sham training (CON, n = 8) over 4-5 wk. Before and after training, subjects...

  18. Respiratory bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Hansen, Christine R; Høiby, Niels


    Bacterial respiratory infections are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains the main pathogen in adults, but other Gram-negative bacteria such as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as well...

  19. Respiratory epithelial cysts of the orbit. (United States)

    Goh, Rachel L Z; Hardy, Thomas G; Williams, Richard A; McNab, Alan A


    To describe post-traumatic and congenital respiratory epithelial cysts in the orbit, which are rare lesions with only 5 and 13 published cases, respectively. We reviewed all cases of respiratory epithelial cysts diagnosed at three institutions (two tertiary referral hospitals, one private clinic) between 1995 and 2015. We describe 10 cases of post-traumatic respiratory epithelial cyst (age range 23 - 82), presenting a mean of 17.4 years after their original trauma; and 3 congenital cases (age range 17-34). All but one case underwent surgical excision of the cyst and its lining, along with any surgical implant within the cyst. Two were recurrent after incomplete excision. Three presented with acute infection within the cyst. Respiratory epithelial orbital cysts are probably commoner than the paucity of published reports would suggest. Post-traumatic cysts often present many years after trauma, and may become secondarily infected. Complete surgical removal is recommended to prevent future recurrence.

  20. National prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, R; Andersen, PS; Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; De Monchy, J


    Background: Many epidemiological studies have assessed the prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders in confined geographical locations. However, no study has yet established nationally prevalence data in a uniform manner representing whole countries and, thus, enabling cross-national comparisons

  1. Treatment of respiratory failure in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Budweiser


    Full Text Available Stephan Budweiser1, Rudolf A Jörres2, Michael Pfeifer1,31Center for Pneumology, Hospital Donaustauf, Donaustauf, Germany; 2Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Department of Internal Medicine II, Division of Respirology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, GermanyAbstract: Patients with advanced COPD and acute or chronic respiratory failure are at high risk for death. Beyond pharmacological treatment, supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation are major treatment options. This review describes the physiological concepts underlying respiratory failure and its therapy, as well as important treatment outcomes. The rationale for the controlled supply of oxygen in acute hypoxic respiratory failure is undisputed. There is also a clear survival benefit from long-term oxygen therapy in patients with chronic hypoxia, while in mild, nocturnal, or exercise-induced hypoxemia such long-term benefits appear questionable. Furthermore, much evidence supports the use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. It application reduces intubation and mortality rates, and the duration of intensive care unit or hospital stays, particularly in the presence of mild to moderate respiratory acidosis. COPD with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure became a major indication for domiciliary mechanical ventilation, based on pathophysiological reasoning and on data regarding symptoms and quality of life. Still, however, its relevance for long-term survival has to be substantiated in prospective controlled studies. Such studies might preferentially recruit patients with repeated hypercapnic decompensation or a high risk for death, while ensuring effective ventilation and the patients’ adherence to therapy.Keywords: respiratory failure, COPD, mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation long-term oxygen therapy, chronic


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Richard Coast


    Full Text Available Prolonged bouts of hyperpnea or resisted breathing are known to result in respiratory muscle fatigue, as are primarily non respiratory exercises such as maximal running and cycling. These exercises have a large ventilatory component, though, and can still be argued to be respiratory activities. Sit-up training has been used to increase respiratory muscle strength, but no studies have been done to determine whether this type of non-respiratory activity can lead to respiratory fatigue. The purpose of the study was to test the effect of sit-ups on various respiratory muscle strength and endurance parameters. Eight subjects performed pulmonary function, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP measurements, and an incremental breathing test before and after completing a one-time fatiguing exercise bout of sit-ups. Each subject acted as their own control performing the same measurements 3-5 days following the exercise bout, substituting rest for exercise. Following sit-up induced fatigue, significant decreases were measured in MIP [121.6 ± 26 to 113.8 ± 23 cmH2O (P <0.025], and incremental breathing test duration [9.6 ± 1.5 to 8.5 ± 0.7 minutes (P <0.05]. No significant decreases were observed from control pre-test to control post-test measurements. We conclude that after a one-time fatiguing sit-up exercise bout there is a reduction in respiratory muscle strength (MIP, MEP and endurance (incremental breathing test duration but not spirometric pulmonary function

  3. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;


    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  4. Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with acute respiratory syndrome. (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Zhang, Ying; Li, Long-Yun


    Current perspectives for management of acute respiratory insufficiency in premature infants with acute respiratory syndrome and the pathology of acute respiratory insufficiency in the preterm infant, including the current therapy modalities on disposition are presented. Since the therapeutical challenge and primary clinical goal are to normalize ventilation ratio and lung perfusion, when respiratory insufficiency occurs, it is very important to introduce the respiratory support as soon possible, in order to reduce development of pulmonary cyanosis and edema, and intrapulmonary or intracardial shunts. A characteristic respiratory instability that reflects through fluctuations in gas exchange and ventilation is often present in premature infants. Adapting the respiratory support on a continuous basis to the infant's needs is challenging and not always effective. Although a large number of ventilation strategies for the neonate are available, there is a need for additional consensus on management of acute respiratory distress syndrome in pediatric population lately redefined by Berlin definition criteria, in order to efficiently apply various modes of respiratory support in daily pediatrician clinical use.

  5. Building-block selectivity of polyketide synthases. (United States)

    Liou, Grace F; Khosla, Chaitan


    For the past decade, polyketide synthases have presented an exciting paradigm for the controlled manipulation of complex natural product structure. These multifunctional enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products by stepwise condensation and modification of metabolically derived building blocks. In particular, regioselective modification of polyketide structure is possible by alterations in either intracellular acyl-CoA pools or, more commonly, by manipulation of acyl transferases that act as the primary gatekeepers for building blocks.

  6. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  7. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  8. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  9. Integrated Building Health Management (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go undetected...

  10. Building Services Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinzi, Michele; Romeo, Carlo; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund


    This guideline on Building Services Systems is one of four guidelines produced by the School of the Future project. The other three guidelines cover: Building Construction Elements, Improved Indoor Environmental Quality and Concepts for Zero Emission Schools. This guideline consists...

  11. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.


    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically supp

  12. State Capitol Buildings (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This shapefile will display the locations of the fifty state capitol buildings as well as the territorial capitol buildings for the US Virgin Islands, Guam, Northern...

  13. Comfort control in buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Maria del Mar; Rodriguez, Francisco de Asis


    This book describes both concepts and development of advanced comfort control systems in buildings, with significant energy saving, and attention to thermal, visual and indoor air quality. The concepts are proven through real tests in a bioclimatic building.

  14. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne


    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  15. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  16. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane


    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  17. Acute respiratory failure in scrub typhus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Narayan Sahoo


    Full Text Available Respiratory failure is a serious complication of scrub typhus. In this prospective study, all patients with a diagnosis of scrub typhus were included from a single center Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory, and imaging parameters of these patients at the time of ICU admission were compared. Of the 55 scrub typhus patients, 27 (49% had an acute respiratory failure. Seventeen patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and ten had cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Respiratory supported patients were older had significant chronic lungs disease and high severity illness scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. At ICU admission, these patients presented with more deranged laboratory markers, including high bilirubin, high creatine kinase, high lactate, metabolic acidosis, low serum albumin, and presence of ascites. The average ICU and hospital stay were 4.27 ± 2.74 and 6.53 ± 3.52 days, respectively, in the respiratory supported group. Three patients died in respiratory failure group, while only one patient died in nonrespiratory failure group.

  18. Application of combined SMRT and long-read pyrosequencing to produce reference genome sequences of bacteria associated with respiratory disease outbreaks in beef cattle (United States)

    The effectiveness of comparing complete genomes for elucidating mechanisms of virulence in pathogenic organisms has been demonstrated recently in foodborne and waterborne human disease outbreaks. We built upon this concept to investigate virulence mechanisms in bovine respiratory disease complex (B...

  19. Building a case for building performance


    Lehrer, David


    You have seen the facts before. Americans make up less than 5% of the world’s population, yet consume 25% of the earth’s resources and create 25% of the world’s greenhouse gases. We are also told that the construction and operation of buildings are major contributors to this problem, and that as building industry professionals we have a major responsibility to improve the performance of the buildings and environments that we create. Although a growing number of states and municipalit...

  20. Model for Refurbishment of Heritage Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn


    A model intended for the selection of feasible refurbishment measures for heritage buildings was developed. The model showed how to choose, evaluate and implement measures that create synergy between the interests in preserving heritage values and creating cost efficient refurbishment that complies...... with the requirements for the use of the building. The model focuses on the cooperation and dialogue between authorities and owners, who refurbish heritage buildings. The developed model was used for the refurbishment of the listed complex, Fæstningens Materialgård. Fæstningens Materialgård is a case study where...

  1. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)


    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  2. Future Green Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, David; Lund, Henrik

    Efficient buildings are essential for an affordable Danish energy supply in 2050. The purpose of this report is to describe the contribution and role of the building sector in a 100% renewable energy future, as well as the transitions that are necessary in the building sector to support this chan...

  3. Building the ISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石继忠; 李秀霞


    Have you seen people building houses?To build a house,you need workers.They use their hands,tools and machines to put everything together. Building the ISS is almost the same.The difference is that the workers are astronauts.They

  4. Building with Straw. (United States)

    Di Santo, Gilbert


    Discusses the early use of straw in Africa and Europe as a building material. Provides background information and a basic framework for the straw bale project, and recommends supervision for young students. Lists objectives for building a straw bale bench and provides the building instructions which consist of three sessions. Includes four…

  5. Making Smart Building Decisions. (United States)

    Coburn, Janet


    Discusses how a positive partnership with the architect can help one who is inexperienced in building design and construction make smart building decisions. Tips address how to prevent change orders, what red flags to look for in a building project, what the administrator should expect from the architect to make the project run smoothly, and what…

  6. Functional status of respiratory system of the students engaged in taekwondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamakha O.Y.


    Full Text Available Influence of systematic lessons is certain taekwondo on functional possibilities of the respirator system of students. 40 students of the first course took part in research. Trainings were conducted two times in a week during a school year. The program included 140 educational hours. The complex of respiratory exercises is developed. The changes of the functional state of the respirator system of students are resulted under influence of systematic employments taekwondo. It is set that effective application of receptions of base technique of taekwondo, implementation of the special respiratory exercises is a condition increase of functional possibilities of all links of the system of the external breathing of students.

  7. The pragmatics of feeding the pediatric patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome. (United States)

    Verger, Judy T; Bradshaw, Darla J; Henry, Elizabeth; Roberts, Kathryn E


    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represents the ultimate pulmonary response to a wide range of injuries, from septicemia to trauma. Optimal nutrition is vital to enhancing oxygen delivery, supporting adequate cardiac contractility and respiratory musculature, eliminating fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and supporting the proinflammatory response. Research is providing a better understanding of nutrients that specifically address the complex physiologic changes in ARDS. This article highlights the pathophysiology of ARDS as it relates to nutrition, relevant nutritional assessment, and important enteral and parenteral considerations for the pediatric patient who has ARDS.

  8. Cold stress decreases the capacity for respiratory NADH oxidation in potato leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Å.S.; Johansson, F.I.; Møller, I.M.


    Cold stress effects on the expression of genes for respiratory chain enzymes were investigated in potato (Solarium tuberosum L., cv. Desiree) leaves. The nda1 and ndb1 genes, homologues to genes encoding the non-proton-pumping respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenases of Escherichia coli and yeast......, were compared to genes encoding catalytic subunits of the proton-pumping NADH dehydrogenase (complex I). Using a real-time PCR system, we demonstrate a specific and gradual decrease of the NDA1 transcript after exposing the plants to 5 C. After 6 days of cold treatment the NDA1 transcript abundance...

  9. Asthma and Respiratory Allergic Disease (United States)

    The pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases such as allergy is complex and poorly understood. The causes of chronic allergic diseases including asthma involve to a large extent, immunomodulation of the adaptive and particularly the innate immune systems and are markedly influen...

  10. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sun Myung; Do, Gyeong Min; Park, Geun Yong; Kim, Gun Oh; Kim, Young Bum [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Guro Hospital, Korea Univeristy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The respiration is one of the most important factors in respiratory gating radiation therapy (RGRT). We have developed an unique respiratory guidance system using an audio-visual system in order to support and stabilize individual patient's respiration and evaluated the usefulness of this system. Seven patients received the RGRT at our clinic from June 2011 to April 2012. After breathing exercise standard deviations by the superficial contents of respiratory cycles and functions, and analyzed them to examine changes in their breathing before and with the audio-visual system, we measured their spontaneous respiration and their respiration with the audio-visual system respectively. With the measured data, we yielded after the therapy. The PTP (peak to peak) of the standard deviations of the free breathing, the audio guidance system, and the respiratory guidance system were 0.343, 0.148, and 0.078 respectively. The respiratory cycles were 0.645, 0.345, and 0.171 respectively and the superficial contents of the respiratory functions were 2.591, 1.008, and 0.877 respectively. The average values of the differences in the standard deviations among the whole patients at the CT room and therapy room were 0.425 for the PTP, 1.566 for the respiratory cycles, and 3.671 for the respiratory superficial contents. As for the standard deviations before and after the application of the PTP respiratory guidance system, that of the PTP was 0.265, that of the respiratory cycles was 0.474, and that of the respiratory superficial contents. The results of t-test of the values before and after free breathing and the audio-visual guidance system showed that the P-value of the PTP was 0.035, that of the cycles 0.009, and that of the respiratory superficial contents 0.010. The respiratory control could be one of the most important factors in the RGRT which determines the success or failure of a treatment. We were able to get more stable breathing with the audio-visual respiratory

  11. The role of image guidance in respiratory gated radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Juhler-Nøttrup, Trine; Fredberg Persson, Gitte


    cycle, and thereby enable dose escalation and/or reduction of dose to organs at risk. Without adequate use of respiratory correlated image guidance on a regular basis, respiratory beam gating may however have a detrimental effect on target coverage. Image guidance of tumour respiratory motion...... is therefore of utmost importance for the safe introduction of respiratory gating. In this short overview, suitable image guidance strategies for respiratory gated radiotherapy are reviewed for two cancer sites; breast cancer and lung tumours....

  12. [Research progress of adventitious respiratory sound signal processing]. (United States)

    Li, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaoming


    Adventitious respiratory sound signal processing has been an important researching topic in the field of computerized respiratory sound analysis system. In recent years, new progress has been achieved in adventitious respiratory sound signal analysis due to the applications of techniques of non-stationary random signal processing. Algorithm progress of adventitious respiratory sound detections is discussed in detail in this paper. Then the state of art of adventitious respiratory sound analysis is reviewed, and development directions of next phase are pointed out.

  13. Indigenous knowledge of pastoralists on respiratory diseases of camels in northern Kenya. (United States)

    Wako, D D; Younan, M; Tessema, T S; Glücks, I V; Baumann, M P O


    The camel disease terminology of pastoralists in northern Kenya differentiates between two respiratory disease complexes of camels. Participatory epidemiology data were collected in 2011 in three camel keeping communities (Gabra, Garri, and Somali) and analysed to assess the validity of this differentiation. Further queries assessed recurrence of the disease in the same animal, most affected age group, relative frequency of occurrence, morbidity rates, mortality rates and response to antibiotic treatment. Based on matrix scoring the cardinal symptom nasal discharge was significantly correlated with Respiratory Disease Complex 1 (RDC1; Somali Hergeb, Gabra & Garri Furri) while cough was correlated with Respiratory Disease Complex 2 (RDC2; Somali Dhuguta, Gabra Qufa, Garri Dhugud). RDC1 appears to occur regularly every year and does not respond to antibiotic treatments while outbreaks of RDC2 are only observed at intervals of several years and treated cases do generally respond to antibiotics. While RDC1 is more severe in calves, RDC 2 is mostly associated with respiratory disease in adults. Elements of this differentiation appear to be in agreement with other authors who differentiate between camel influenza (PI3 virus) and bacterial camel pneumonia, respectively.

  14. Controlling the intelligent building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, R.J.


    Companies will be able to locate in intelligent buildings that offer access to a variety of sophisticated communications equipment, at the heart of which are building controls that ensure a comfortable and safe working environment for the occupants. Future buildings will include advanced telephones or workstations with built-in building control sensors for temperature, light level, and security. Advanced telecommunication systems may have telephone cabinets with built-in control functions which eliminate the need for discrete control systems. The owners and tenants will both enjoy benefits if the controls are carefully selected and designed so that they integrate into a single building package.

  15. SmartBuildings. Implementation of demand-side-management systems; SmartBuildings. Implementierung von Lastmanagementsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungwirth, Johannes; Saenger, Florian; Grahovac, Milica [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik; Roessel, Timm; Schneegans, Jakob; Herzog, Simon [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bauklimatik und Haustechnik; Mikulovic, Vesna [Siemens Building Technologies Headquarters, Zug (Switzerland)


    A transition to flexible consumer load can contribute significantly to the integration of renewable energies. Precisely controllable electrical consumers from the building sector (heating, ventilation, air conditioning) are applicable for demand-side-management by using the thermal inertia of the building. In order to incentivize a load shift scenarios of flexible electricity rates are developed. Flexible users can shift their operation to times of lower prices and therefore minimize their electricity costs. Within a simulation of the building and the building services the impact of modified operation mode on thermal comfort of the room is analyzed and times of operation are optimized. The implementation of resulting theoretical potential of a load shift in a real building necessitates a simulation model of the building. Since the creation of these models is very complex, universally applicable adaptive models of the buildings are developed. After a training process those adaptive models have acquired the skill to predict the building behaviour. Now they are able to forecast effects of various modes of operation and provide a cost-optimized operation schedule for building technology. Neural networks used to build adaptive models deliver promising results. However, initial measurements and training periods are to be optimized. (orig.)

  16. Pathobiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. (United States)

    Sapru, Anil; Flori, Heidi; Quasney, Michael W; Dahmer, Mary K


    The unique characteristics of pulmonary circulation and alveolar-epithelial capillary-endothelial barrier allow for maintenance of the air-filled, fluid-free status of the alveoli essential for facilitating gas exchange, maintaining alveolar stability, and defending the lung against inhaled pathogens. The hallmark of pathophysiology in acute respiratory distress syndrome is the loss of the alveolar capillary permeability barrier and the presence of protein-rich edema fluid in the alveoli. This alteration in permeability and accumulation of fluid in the alveoli accompanies damage to the lung epithelium and vascular endothelium along with dysregulated inflammation and inappropriate activity of leukocytes and platelets. In addition, there is uncontrolled activation of coagulation along with suppression of fibrinolysis and loss of surfactant. These pathophysiological changes result in the clinical manifestations of acute respiratory distress syndrome, which include hypoxemia, radiographic opacities, decreased functional residual capacity, increased physiologic deadspace, and decreased lung compliance. Resolution of acute respiratory distress syndrome involves the migration of cells to the site of injury and re-establishment of the epithelium and endothelium with or without the development of fibrosis. Most of the data related to acute respiratory distress syndrome, however, originate from studies in adults or in mature animals with very few studies performed in children or juvenile animals. The lack of studies in children is particularly problematic because the lungs and immune system are still developing during childhood and consequently the pathophysiology of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome may differ in significant ways from that seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. This article describes what is known of the pathophysiologic processes of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome as we know it today while also presenting the much

  17. Respiratory infections precede adult-onset asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of asthma (n = 521 during a 2.5-year study period and randomly selected controls (n = 932 in a geographically defined area in South Finland. Information on respiratory infections was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The diagnosis of asthma was based on symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction in lung function measurements. The risk of asthma onset was strongly increased in subjects who had experienced in the preceding 12 months lower respiratory tract infections (including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted odds ratio (OR 7.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.16-9.99, or upper respiratory tract infections (including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.72-2.97. Individuals with personal atopy and/or parental atopy were more susceptible to the effects of respiratory infections on asthma onset than non-atopic persons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new evidence that recently experienced respiratory infections are a strong determinant for adult-onset asthma. Reducing such infections might prevent onset of asthma in adulthood, especially in individuals with atopy or hereditary propensity to it.

  18. Green Buildings and Health. (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D


    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  19. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele


    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. The first......, results, and analysis are presented (Chapters 5-7). The major findings are discussed (Chapter 8), before the final conclusion (Chapter 9). The Appendices include the material parameters used, some additional results and the description of the simulation models....

  20. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  1. Energy Efficiency Approach to Intelligent Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Birangal


    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has nowadays become one of the most challenging tasks and this has boosted research on fresh fields, such as Ambient Intelligence. Energy consumption in the housing and tertiary sectors is especially high in developed countries. There is a great potential for energy savings in these sectors. Energy conservation measures are developed for newly constructed buildings and for buildings under restoration. However, to achieve a significant diminution in energy consumption apart from the standard energy-efficiency methods, pioneering technologies should be implemented, including renewable energy. Now, buildings are increasingly anticipated to meet higher and more complex performance requirements. Among these requirements, energy efficiency is renowned as an international goal to promote energy sustainability. Different approaches have been adapted to concentrate on this goal, the most up to date relating consumption patterns with human occupancy. Energy efficiency is keywords that can be originate these days in all domains in which energy demand exists. A significant aspect that can improve the energy efficiency in buildings is the use of building automation systems. Alternatively, building automation systems are usually not considered for energy conservation, as they are mostly used for comfort and safety. This consistently causes immense problems due to an fruitless use of these systems and unawareness of energy consumption. It is therefore essential that the existing system solutions are adapted to focus on energy conservation. Our research approach in developing an intelligent system to improve energy efficiency in intelligent buildings, which takes into account the different technical infrastructures of building

  2. Respiratory sensitization : Advances in assessing the risk of respiratory inflammation and irritation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandebriel, R.; Callant Cransveld, C.; Crommelin, D.; Diamant, Z.; Glazenburg, B.; Joos, G.; Kuper, F.; Natsch, A.; Nijkamp, F.; Noteborn, H.; Pieters, R.; Roberts, D.; Roggen, E.; Rorije, E.; Seed, M.; Sewald, K.; Heuvel, R. van den; Engelen, J. van; Verstraelen, S.; Loveren, H. van


    Respiratory sensitization provides a case study for a new approach to chemical safety evaluation, as the prevalence of respiratory sensitization has increased considerably over the last decades, but animal and/or human experimental/predictive models are not currently available. Therefore, the goal o

  3. Lower respiratory tract infection caused by respiratory syncytial virus : current management and new therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazur, Natalie; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Baraldi, Eugenio; Fauroux, Brigitte; Greenough, Anne; Heikkinen, Terho; Manzoni, Paolo; Mejias, Asuncion; Nair, Harish; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Polack, Fernando P.; Ramilo, Octavio; Sharland, Mike; Stein, Renato; Madhi, Shabir A.; Bont, Louis


    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Evidence-based management guidelines suggest that there is no effective treatment for RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and that supportive care, ie, hydration and

  4. Non-invasive versus invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loretta YC Yam; Alfred YF Chan; Thomas MT Cheung; Eva LH Tsui; Jane CK Chan; Vivian CW Wong


    Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome is frequently complicated by respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. We aimed to compare the efficacy of non-invasive ventilation against invasive mechanical ventilation treating respiratory failure in this disease. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on all respiratory failure patients identified from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Database. Intubation rate, mortality and secondary outcome of a hospital utilizing non-invasive ventilation under standard infection control conditions (NIV Hospital) were compared against 13 hospitals using solely invasive ventilation (IMV Hospitals). Multiple logistic regression analyses with adjustments for confounding variables were performed to test for association between outcomes and hospital groups. Results Both hospital groups had comparable demographics and clinical profiles, but NIV Hospital (42 patients) had higher lactate dehydrogenase ratio and worse radiographic score on admission and ribavirin-corticosteroid commencement. Compared to IMV Hospitals (451 patients), NIV Hospital had lower adjusted odds ratios for intubation (0.36, 95% CI 0.164-0.791, P=0.011) and death (0.235, 95% CI 0.077-0.716, P=0.011), and improved earlier after pulsed steroid rescue. There were no instances of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome among health care workers due to the use of non-invasive ventilation.Conclusion Compared to invasive mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation as initial ventilatory support for acute respiratory failure in the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome appeared to be associated with reduced intubation need and mortality.

  5. Seasonality of long term wheezing following respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, L; Steijn, M; van Aalderen, WMC; Brus, F; Draaisma, JMT; Van Diemen-Steenvoorde, RAAM; Pekelharing-Berghuis, M; Kimpen, JLL


    Background: It is well known that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is associated with subsequent wheezing episodes, but the precise natural course of wheezing following RSV LRTI is not known. This study aimed to determine the continuous development of wheezi

  6. N, N′-Olefin functionalized Bis-Imidazolium Pd(II) chloride N-Heterocyclic carbene complex builds a supramolecular framework and shows catalytic efficacy for `C–C' coupling reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gourisankar Roymahapatra; Tapastaru Samanta; Saikat Kumar Seth; Ambikesh Mahapatra; Shyamal Kumar Chattopadhyay; Joydev Dinda


    The ligand 3,3′-(-phenylenedimethylene)bis{1-(2-methylallyl)} imidazolium bromide (1) and its Palladium(II) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex (3) has been synthesized and characterized by several spectroscopic techniques and the solid-state structure of 3 has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The Pd(II) complex possesses ring head to tail – stacking interactions (3.767 A°) through imidazole rings. Complex 3 catalyzes Suzuki-Miyaura `C–C' coupling reaction. DFT calculations have been used to understand the HOMO/LUMO energy and hence the stability and reactivity of Pd(II) complex in syn and anti-configuration.

  7. Decentralized Building of Complex Software Systems-an eCommerce Case Study%复杂软件系统的分散式构造:一个电子商务案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KASSEL Stephan; WINKELMANN Sabine; TITTMANN Claudia


    Software development skills are only partially trained with traditional programming languages and software engineering courses. To achieve practical skills needed in software industry, complex examples are necessary which have to be generated in a project-like setting. This includes common solution finding, intensive communication and structured programming tasks. Here, a case study from the domain of eCommerce is presented, showing the complexity needed for these learning processes.

  8. Acute Stridor and Respiratory Failure due to Retrosternal Subglottic Stenosis of Unknown Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharindu Vithanage


    Full Text Available Respiratory failure due to subglottic stenosis is a rare but serious condition. A 22-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED with shortness of breath, stridor, and change in tone of voice. The patient did not complain of B-symptoms (fever, weight loss, and night sweats. In the week before this presentation, he was diagnosed with an upper respiratory tract infection with associated bronchospasm and discharged on oral antibiotics and inhaled salbutamol without effect. He developed hypercapnic respiratory failure in the ED after a coughing episode. A normal nasopharyngoscopic examination and a subtle mediastinal abnormality on chest radiograph lead to a working diagnosis of retrosternal subglottic obstruction. The complexities of his airway management and suggestions for multidisciplinary approach are discussed.


    Kapustina, T A; Markina, A N; Parilova, O V; Belova, E V; Kin, T I


    Medical and social state of health in family persons was assessed on the basis of a questionnaire. Developed by the author's questionnaire included two sections, reflecting the state of health, health risk factors and social characteristics of the family members of ENT patients. In the article there is presented an analysis of the medical and social state of 44 families of patients with diseases of the upper respiratory tract associated with chlamydial infection. The comparison was performed with 43 families of ENT patients with unconfirmed respiratory chlamydia. Diagnosis of Chlamydia infection complex was carried out with the use of laboratory methods (direct immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, polymerase chain reaction). The health and social status of families with hearth respiratory chlamydia were shown to be significantly worse compared with families with the lack of the latter

  10. Respiratory support for severe acute respiratory syndrome: integration of efficacy and safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chen; CAO Zhi-xin


    @@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory illness caused by infection with the SARS virus. The most obvious clinical characteristic of SARS is rapidly progressive pneumonia, and about 20% patients need intensive care due to acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).1-3 In the absence of effective drugs for SARS, supportive care, especially respiratory support techniques (RSTs), is of primary importance. On the other hand, offering RSTs to SARS patients may carry a high-risk of infection to healthcare workers because of the high infectivity of SARS. Therefore, the strategy of RSTs for SARS should be the integration of efficacy and safety. In this issue of the Chinese Medical Journal, an article from Hong Kong has retrospectively compared both the safety and efficacy of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) with that of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in the treatment of respiratory failure in SARS.

  11. The mitochondrial respiratory chain of the secondary green alga Euglena gracilis shares many additional subunits with parasitic Trypanosomatidae. (United States)

    Perez, Emilie; Lapaille, Marie; Degand, Hervé; Cilibrasi, Laura; Villavicencio-Queijeiro, Alexa; Morsomme, Pierre; González-Halphen, Diego; Field, Mark C; Remacle, Claire; Baurain, Denis; Cardol, Pierre


    The mitochondrion is an essential organelle for the production of cellular ATP in most eukaryotic cells. It is extensively studied, including in parasitic organisms such as trypanosomes, as a potential therapeutic target. Recently, numerous additional subunits of the respiratory-chain complexes have been described in Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi. Since these subunits had apparently no counterparts in other organisms, they were interpreted as potentially associated with the parasitic trypanosome lifestyle. Here we used two complementary approaches to characterise the subunit composition of respiratory complexes in Euglena gracilis, a non-parasitic secondary green alga related to trypanosomes. First, we developed a phylogenetic pipeline aimed at mining sequence databases for identifying homologues to known respiratory-complex subunits with high confidence. Second, we used MS/MS proteomics after two-dimensional separation of the respiratory complexes by Blue Native- and SDS-PAGE both to confirm in silico predictions and to identify further additional subunits. Altogether, we identified 41 subunits that are restricted to E. gracilis, T. brucei and T. cruzi, along with 48 classical subunits described in other eukaryotes (i.e. plants, mammals and fungi). This moreover demonstrates that at least half of the subunits recently reported in T. brucei and T. cruzi are actually not specific to Trypanosomatidae, but extend at least to other Euglenozoa, and that their origin and function are thus not specifically associated with the parasitic lifestyle. Furthermore, preliminary biochemical analyses suggest that some of these additional subunits underlie the peculiarities of the respiratory chain observed in Euglenozoa.

  12. Physiological and pathophysiological interactions between the respiratory central pattern generator and the sympathetic nervous system. (United States)

    Molkov, Yaroslav I; Zoccal, Daniel B; Baekey, David M; Abdala, Ana P L; Machado, Benedito H; Dick, Thomas E; Paton, Julian F R; Rybak, Ilya A


    Respiratory modulation seen in the sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) implies that the respiratory and sympathetic networks interact. During hypertension elicited by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the SNA displays an enhanced respiratory modulation reflecting strengthened interactions between the networks. In this chapter, we review a series of experimental and modeling studies that help elucidate possible mechanisms of sympatho-respiratory coupling. We conclude that this coupling significantly contributes to both the sympathetic baroreflex and the augmented sympathetic activity after exposure to CIH. This conclusion is based on the following findings. (1) Baroreceptor activation results in perturbation of the respiratory pattern via transient activation of postinspiratory neurons in the Bötzinger complex (BötC). The same BötC neurons are involved in the respiratory modulation of SNA, and hence provide an additional pathway for the sympathetic baroreflex. (2) Under hypercapnia, phasic activation of abdominal motor nerves (AbN) is accompanied by synchronous discharges in SNA due to the common source of this rhythmic activity in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN). CIH conditioning increases the CO2 sensitivity of central chemoreceptors in the RTN which results in the emergence of AbN and SNA discharges under normocapnic conditions similar to those observed during hypercapnia in naïve animals. Thus, respiratory-sympathetic interactions play an important role in defining sympathetic output and significantly contribute to the sympathetic activity and hypertension under certain physiological or pathophysiological conditions, and the theoretical framework presented may be instrumental in understanding of malfunctioning control of sympathetic activity in a variety of disease states.

  13. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane


    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  14. Biomarkers for Gastroesophageal Reflux in Respiratory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Össur Ingi Emilsson


    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER is commonly associated with respiratory symptoms, either through a vagal bronchoconstrictive reflex or through microaspiration of gastric contents. No diagnostic test is available, however, to diagnose when respiratory illnesses are caused by GER and when not, but research in this field has been moving forward. Various biomarkers in different types of biosamples have been studied in this context. The aim of this review is to summarize the present knowledge in this field. GER patients with respiratory diseases seem to have a different biochemical profile from similar patients without GER. Inflammatory biomarkers differ in asthmatics based on GER status, tachykinins are elevated in patients with GER-related cough, and bile acids are elevated in lung transplant patients with GER. However, studies on these biomarkers are often limited by their small size, methods of analysis, and case selections. The two pathogenesis mechanisms are associated with different respiratory illnesses and biochemical profiles. A reliable test to identify GER-induced respiratory disorders needs to be developed. Bronchoalveolar lavage is too invasive to be of use in most patients. Exhaled breath condensate samples need further evaluation and standardization. The newly developed particles in exhaled air measurements remain to be studied further.

  15. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health. (United States)

    Mamane, Ali; Baldi, Isabelle; Tessier, Jean-François; Raherison, Chantal; Bouvier, Ghislaine


    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three) and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two) were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  16. Respiratory exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Pinto, Susana; Swash, Michael; de Carvalho, Mamede


    We have evaluated the potential role of respiratory exercise by implementing specific inspiratory muscle training in a selected population of early-affected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We studied 26 patients with ALS with normal respiratory function using two groups of patients in a parallel, control-group, randomized, delayed-start design. Patients in the first group (G1) started the active inspiratory exercise programme at entry and were followed for eight months, while the second group (G2) of patients followed a placebo exercise programme for the first four months and then active exercise for the second four-month period. The primary outcome measure was the ALSFRS. Respiratory tests, neurophysiological measurements, fatigue and quality of life scales were secondary outcomes. Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes between and within groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two patient groups. Within-group analysis suggested that inspiratory exercise promotes a transient improvement in the respiratory subscore and in the maximal voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow, and sniff inspiratory pressure. In conclusion, there was no clear positive or negative outcome of the respiratory exercise protocol we have proposed, but we cannot rule out a minor positive effect. Exercise regimes merit more detailed clinical evaluation in ALS.

  17. 建筑群中低矮建筑的雷击概率及接闪器设计%Probability of lightning striking of a low building among the architectural complex and the air-termination system design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙安然; 行鸿彦


    研究了建筑群中周边建筑结构的存在对中心低矮建筑物雷击率的影响,利用MATLAB仿真了建筑群周围等势面分布剖面图,采用有限差分方法进行编程,把连续的求解区域用有限个离散点构成的网格来代替,将偏微分方程中的偏导函数用差商形式来表示,通过计算有限个网格节点上的函数,得到整个区域上的近似解.通过IEC经验公式验证了MATLAB仿真图形的研究结果,针对雷击率低的中心低矮建筑提出了采用暗敷避雷带(网)与避雷短针相组合的防雷方式.%In this paper the influence that surrounding ones to the probability of lightning striking of a central low building is studied and the equipotential surface profile around the buildings is simulated with the MATLAB software, using the finite difference method to program. This method chooses the grid constituted by finite discrete points instead of the continuous domain, using the difference form to show the partial derivative function in the partial differential equations and getting the approximate solution in the whole area through the function of a finite grid nodes. The MATLAB simulation results are verified through the IEC formula so that the paper puts forward the way of combining concealed laying lightning tape (net) and short lightning rod according to the central building which has a low probability of lightning striking.

  18. 基于水平集的复杂三维地层模型建模及在地下工程中的应用研究%Study of building 3D complex strata model based on level set methods and application to underground engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏艳华; 白世伟


    由于地质体存在断层、尖灭、出露等复杂地质现象,在三维地层建模时,为了表达这些现象,无论是面模型还是体模型或混合模型,都存在空间分割或曲面求交线的问题.由于地质体拓扑关系的复杂性、数据误差以及计算机精度问题,使得这些模型在实际建模过程中常常失效.运用水平集理论可以有效解决这一问题,水平集用隐函数表达曲面(或超曲面),可以实现复杂地质体的表达及并、交、差等拓扑运算.在三维地层建模中,插值生成各种地质界面后,用水平集表达这些地质界面,利用水平理论完成各种复杂的拓扑操作,建立以水平集表达的三维地层模型.在此基础上,插入水平集表达的各种工程活动界面,利用水平集理论进行拓扑操作,可构建各种工程活动后的地层模型.再利用Marching cube算法抽取各种地质界面或工程活动界面,构建可用于实时可视化或用于工程评估(如有限元计算)等的NMTINF-BR地层模型或工程活动后的NMTINF-BR地层模型.%In order to represent three dimension complex stratigraphic objects including faults, disappearances , outcrops and other phenomena, we have to face the difficult problems in the process of spatial partition or calculating intersection lines of curved surfaces in building 3D strata model, either based on surface elements , or based on volume elements, or based on hybrid elements. But these methods in building 3D complex strata models usually failed, because of complex topological relationships of the strata, source data error and computer accuracy etc. It is a good idea to resolve these problems by using level set methods. Level sets are implicit functions of surfaces or hypersurfaces, which can represent complex geological bodies and implement a series of topological operations such as union, intersection, difference etc. In building 3D strata model, after interpolating geological interfaces, these

  19. Green building performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, N. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    A system for labelling buildings in a manner similar to product labelling already well established with respect to goods and materials in general, was proposed. The system envisaged would differ from existing labelling systems in that it would follow the principles incorporated into `Green Building Challenge `98`, (GBC`98) The GBC`98 is a two-year process of international building performance assessment, whose goal is to inform the international community of scientists, designers and builders about advances in green building performance. GBC`98 also aims to test and demonstrate an improved method for measuring building performance, establish international benchmarks for building performance while respecting regional and technical diversity, showcase `best-practice` examples of green buildings around the world, document successful elements in individual green buildings and offer direction to participating countries in the development of regionally sensitive assessment models. The genesis of GBC`98, its potential applications as a second generation tool for eco-labeling of buildings was summarized, along with a review of existing building performance assessment systems. 4 refs.

  20. Respiratory systems in the hemin-requiring Haemophilus species. (United States)

    WHITE, D C


    White, D. C. (Rockefeller Institute, New York, N.Y.). Respiratory systems in hemin-requiring Haemophilus species. J. Bacteriol. 85:84-96. 1963.-If grown in Levinthal's medium or in proteose peptone medium with excess hemin, Haemophilus influenzae, H. aegyptius, and H. canis (H. haemoglobinophilus) form an electron-transport system consisting of six cytochromes and two respiratory flavoproteins. In proteose peptone, these species can greatly modify the composition of their electron-transport complex. With anaerobic incubation in the presence of nitrate, they produce increased amounts of cytochrome c(1) and the cytochrome oxidases a(1) and o. This anaerobic pattern is greatly exaggerated by growth under carbon monoxide, in which case large concentrations of cytochrome oxidase are produced. In the presence of the inhibitor secobarbital or of growth-limiting amounts of hemin, intermediate amounts of cytochromes and respiratory flavoproteins are formed. When only small amounts of hemin are present, these species grow but form no detectable cytochrome system. Catalase is the only hemoprotein found. Under these conditions, the addition of glucose induces the formation of a lactate oxidase flavoprotein if the system is incubated aerobically. This cytochromeless state also occurs when these species are grown in KCN or anaerobically without nitrate and with excess hemin. The ability of these species to modify the composition of the electron-transport system strongly suggests that this function unit is formed from individual components. Hemin-requiring Haemophilus species have a hemin-sparing compensatory mechanism that allows growth under conditions under which hemin-independent Haemophilus species will not grow.