WorldWideScience

Sample records for building asphalt pavement

  1. Building Asphalt Pavement with SBS-based Compound Added Using a Dry Process in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hosin; Kim, Yongjoo; Geisler, Nivi

    2009-01-01

    PMA where it is formulated to melt and blend with asphalt quickly during a batch mixing process. The main objectives of this study are to (1) build asphalt pavement using asphalt mixtures with SBS-based compound added using a “dry” process at the batch plant and (2) evaluate its performance under......-based compound seemed to affect the asphalt mix to become more flexible under the heavy loads. By adding SBS-based compound to asphalt mixtures using a “dry” process, it is expected that the pavement would become more resistant to rutting than a typical asphalt mixture used in Greenland while enduring its arctic...

  2. Asphaltic concrete pavement survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-04-01

    The ever increasing problem of wheel path rutting and excessive desification of asphaltic concrete pavement has been the subject of asphalt technology for quite sometime. It is known that the density of the pavement, which is significant for several ...

  3. Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    Maintenance methods that can be used equally well in all regions of the country have been developed for the use of asphalt in pavement maintenance. Specific information covering methods, equipment and terminology that applies to the use of asphalt in the maintenance of all types of pavement structures, including shoulders, is provided. In many…

  4. Premature asphalt concrete pavement cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) has identified hot mix asphalt concrete : (HMAC) pavements that have displayed top-down cracking within three years of construction. The objective of : the study was to evaluate the top-down cr...

  5. Preventive maintenance of asphalt concrete pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Preventive maintenance of asphalt concrete can often extend the pavement life for a number of years at relatively low costs. The types of preventive maintenance that are discussed in this report include rejuvenators, slurry seals, surface treatments,...

  6. Fatigue performance of asphalt pavements containing RAS and RAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Rising oil and gas prices spurs development of methods and technologies for reducing fuel consumption and increased use of : recycled materials. With increased environmental awareness, using reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and reclaimed asphalt : sh...

  7. Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 7 New Hampshire DOT SPR2 Program Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements Co ld...the asphalt concrete layer of a flexible pavement as an effective rehabilitation method to reduce or arrest cracking. The New Hampshire Department...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessment of Asphalt Concrete Reinforcement Grid in Flexible Pavements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER CRADA 13-CRL-01 5b

  8. Predicting low-temperature cracking in asphalt pavements : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    In Wisconsin's winter climate, low temperatures can cause asphalt pavements to contract and crack, reducing their ride quality and service lives. To help engineers more accurately determine how well certain pavement designs will fare in such conditio...

  9. Density measurement verification for hot mixed asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  10. Density measurement verification for hot mix asphalt concrete pavement construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) requires a minimum density for the construction of dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete (HMAC) pavements to ensure the likelihood that the pavement will not experience distresses that reduce the expected se...

  11. Microtexture diagnostics of asphalt pavement surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florková, Zuzana; Pepucha, L.'ubomír

    2017-09-01

    The microtexture of asphalt pavement surface is an essential parameter from the traffic safety point of view and it closely relates to a geometrical, petrological and physical properties of aggregate particle used in asphalt pavement. Microtexture has a significant influence for assurance basic friction values between tire and pavement in relation to a skid resistance properties. Therefore, the microtexture detecting methods are necessary. The British pendulum tester measurements have been carried out on selected sections of roads with different asphalt surfaces. Individual grains of aggregates were taken from the surface of each section from the sliding path and also from the core sample after the extraction. The laboratory profilometry measurements have been practiced on these aggregate samples and subsequently the surface microtexture was investigated based on commonly used texture characteristics and the filtration approach was applied in calculation process. The results have shown the degradation of microtexture values occurs due to polishing of aggregate under loading from traffic in relation to the type of used aggregate. Some correlation between BPN values and texture characteristics was found.

  12. Application of Conductive Materials to Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Viet Vo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow-melting pavement technique is an advanced preservation method, which can prevent the forming of snow or ice on the pavement surface by increasing the temperature using an embedded heating system. The main scope of this study is to evaluate the impact of conductive additives on the heating efficiency. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were considered to investigate effects of conductive additives, graphite, and carbon fibers on the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixtures. Also, the distribution of the conductive additives within the asphalt concrete body was investigated by microstructural imaging. An actual test was applied to simulate realistic heating for an asphalt concrete mixture. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon fibers improve the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixes and their combination is more effective than when used alone. As observed in the microstructural image, carbon fibers show a long-range connecting effect among graphite conductive clusters and gather in bundles when added excessively. According to the actual test, adding the conductive additives helps improve snow-melting efficiency by shortening processing time and raising the surface temperature.

  13. Feasibility of reclaimed asphalt pavement as aggregate in portland cement concrete pavement, phase II : field demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This research was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using minimally processed reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) as : aggregate replacement in concrete pavements. An initial phase of research demonstrated that concretes with up to 50 percent : o...

  14. Tire-Pavement Friction Characteristics with Elastic Properties of Asphalt Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The skid-resisting performance of pavement is a critical factor in traffic safety. Recent studies primarily analyze this behavior by examining the macro or micro texture of the pavement. It is inevitable that skid-resistance declines with time because the texture of pavement deteriorates throughout its service life. The primary objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of different asphalt pavements, varying in resilience, to optimize braking performance on pavement. Based on the systematic dynamics of tire-pavement contact, and analysis of the tire-road coupled friction mechanism and the effect of enlarging the tire-pavement contact area, road skid resistance was investigated by altering the elastic modulus of asphalt pavement. First, this research constructed the kinetic contact model to simulate tire-pavement friction. Next, the following aspects of contact behaviors were studied when braking: tread deformation in the tangential pavement interface, actual tire-pavement contact in the course, and the frictional braking force transmitted from the pavement to the tires. It was observed that with improvements in pavement elasticity, the actual tire-pavement contact area increased, which gives us the ability to effectively strengthen the frictional adhesion of the tire to the pavement. It should not be overlooked that the improvement in skid resistance was caused by an increase in pavement elasticity. This research approach provides a theoretical basis and design reference for the anti-skid research of asphalt pavements.

  15. Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Portland Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Al-Oraimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is the result of removing old asphalt pavement material. RAP consists of high quality well-graded aggregate coated with asphalt cement. The removal of asphalt concrete is done for reconstruction purposes, resurfacing, or to obtain access to buried utilities. The disposal of RAP represents a large loss of valuable source of high quality aggregate. This research investigates the properties of concrete utilizing recycled reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP. Two control mixes with normal aggregate were designed with water cement ratios of 0.45 and 0.5. The control mixes resulted in compressive strengths of 50 and 33 MPa after 28 days of curing. The coarse fraction of RAP was used to replace the coarse aggregate with 25, 50, 75, and 100% for both mixtures. In addition to the control mix (0%, the mixes containing RAP were evaluated for slump, compressive strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Durability was evaluated using surface absorption test.

  16. Estimation of Asphalt Pavement Surfaces Using Image Analysis Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A. Khasawneh

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements gradually lose their skid resistance causing safety problems especially under wet conditions and high driving speeds. In order to enact the actual field polishing and wearing process of asphalt pavement surfaces in a laboratory setting, several laboratory-scale accelerated polishing devices were developed by different agencies. To mimic the actual process, friction and texture measuring devices are needed to quantify surface deterioration at different polishing inte...

  17. A hybrid strategy in selecting diverse combinations of innovative sustainable materials for asphalt pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron Colbert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This project integrates recent innovations of recycled materials used in designing and building sustainable pavements. An increasing environmental awareness and the demand for improving economic and construction efficiencies, through measures such as construction warrantees and goals to reduce air pollution under the Kyoto Protocol, have increased the efforts to implement sustainable materials in roadways. The objective of this research is to develop a systematic approach toward selecting optimum combinations of sustainable materials for the construction of asphalt pavements. The selected materials, warm mix asphalt (WMA, recycled asphalt shingles (RAS, and reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP were incorporated in this study. The results of this research are intended to serve as guidelines in the selection of the mixed sustainable materials for asphalt pavements. The approach developed from this project draws upon previous research efforts integrating graphical modeling with optimizing the amount of sustainable materials based on the performance. With regard to moisture susceptibility and rutting potential test results, as well as the MIM analysis based on a 95% confidence interval, the rutting performance and moisture susceptibility of asphalt mixtures are not significantly different regardless of the percentages of RAS, RAP, or WMA. The optimum mixture choices could be made by the plant emission rankings with consideration of the optimal WMA types, percentages of RAS/RAP, and WMA production temperatures. The WMA mixtures prepared with 75% RAP and Advera® WMA have produced the lowest CO2 emissions among the investigated mixture types.

  18. Investigating In Situ Properties of Recycled Asphalt Pavement with Foamed Asphalt as Base Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Plati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to conduct a comprehensive field experiment for the in situ assessment of in-depth recycled asphalt pavement using foamed asphalt as a stabilization treatment for base works. For this purpose Nondestructive Testing (NDT data collected using the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR along a foamed asphalt recycled pavement section was thoroughly analysed. Critical issues including the stabilized material curing and the contribution of the asphalt layers to the structural properties of the in-depth recycled pavement are discussed. In addition, recommendations concerning the improvement of the structural condition of the in-depth recycled pavement are developed based on this practical approach of investigation using NDT.

  19. Numerical evaluation of induction heating assisted compaction technology for low temperature asphalt pavement construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, C.; Liu, X.; Apostolidis, P.

    2017-01-01

    Low Temperature Asphalt (LTA) technologies are utilized in asphalt pavement industry to lower energy demands and greenhouse gas emission during mixing and construction processes. Although these technologies are currently available and hope to demonstrate similar performance with Hot Mix Asphalt

  20. Experimental Study on Color Durability of Color Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shi; Huan, Su

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at the poor Color durability and the lack of research on Color asphalt pavement, spraying an anti-tire trace seal resin emulsion on the surface, a Color durable asphalt pavement was proposed. After long-term rolling and long-term aging test, the Color durability was evaluated by RGB function in Photoshop and trace residue rate formula. Test results proved that the Evaluation method was simple and effective. After long-term rolling, the Color of the road surface tends to a constant value. Spraying the emulsion on the road surface can resist tire traces. After long-term aging test, the resistance to tire traces was increased by 26.6% compared with the conventional type, while the former was 44.1% higher than the latter without long-term aging. The Color durable asphalt pavement can effectively improve the ability of Color asphalt pavement to resist tire traces, and significantly improve the Color durability of Color asphalt pavement.

  1. Three-Dimensional Surface Texture of Asphalt Pavements Containing Reclaimed Asphalt Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qingfan; Esfandiarpour, Saman; Shalaby, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The type, shape, and gradation of aggregate have significant influence upon surface texture and its durability. The properties of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) are different from virgin aggregate. Previous research found that the presence of RAP influenced negatively the pavement surface terminal friction value and surface polishing rate. The objective of this research is to assess the impact of high content of RAP on pavement surface texture after five years of environmental and traffic l...

  2. Thermal behavior of an asphalt pavement in the laboratory and in the parking lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkauppi, J B; Mäkiranta, A; Kiijärvi, J; Hiltunen, E

    2015-01-01

    The urban, constructed areas are full of buildings and different kinds of pavements and have a noticeable lack of trees and flora. These areas are accumulating the heat from the Sun, people, vehicles, and constructions. One interesting heat collector is the asphalt pavement. How does the heat transfer to different layers under the pavement or does it? What are the temperatures under the pavement in Finland where the winter can be pretty hard? How can those temperatures be measured accurately? These are the main questions this paper gives the preliminary answers to. First the thermal behavior of asphalt and the layers beneath are researched in the laboratory and then the measurement field is bored and dug in the parking in the Western coast of Finland, 63°5'45'' N. Distributed temperature sensing method was found to be a good choice for temperature measurements. Thermal behavior of pavement has been monitored in different layers and the preliminary results have been published here. The goal of this research is to assess the applicability of asphalt pavements for heat energy collection.

  3. Thermal Behavior of an Asphalt Pavement in the Laboratory and in the Parking Lot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Martinkauppi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban, constructed areas are full of buildings and different kinds of pavements and have a noticeable lack of trees and flora. These areas are accumulating the heat from the Sun, people, vehicles, and constructions. One interesting heat collector is the asphalt pavement. How does the heat transfer to different layers under the pavement or does it? What are the temperatures under the pavement in Finland where the winter can be pretty hard? How can those temperatures be measured accurately? These are the main questions this paper gives the preliminary answers to. First the thermal behavior of asphalt and the layers beneath are researched in the laboratory and then the measurement field is bored and dug in the parking in the Western coast of Finland, 63°5′45′′ N. Distributed temperature sensing method was found to be a good choice for temperature measurements. Thermal behavior of pavement has been monitored in different layers and the preliminary results have been published here. The goal of this research is to assess the applicability of asphalt pavements for heat energy collection.

  4. Thermal stability analysis under embankment with asphalt pavement and cement pavement in permafrost regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwei, Zhang; Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

    2013-01-01

    The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8 m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results.

  5. Characterization of Bitumen Extracted from used Asphalt Pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the research were principally to characterize extracted bitumen from Used Asphalt Pavement (UAP) on twelve selected roads through the determination of engineering properties (penetration and viscosity) and establishment of appropriate mathematical relationship between principal parameters of the ...

  6. The relation between surface texture of asphalt pavements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor pavement surface conditions have been recognized to be contributory factors for road accidents. Empirical relationship between accident explanatory variables (traffic flow, road geometry and road features) on link secti-ons of asphalted trunk roads were investigated using 617 test lengths selected from three ...

  7. Laboratory Measurements of Particulate Matter Concentrations from Asphalt Pavement Abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullová Daša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emissions from road traffic is compounded by the fact that the number of vehicles and driven kilometres increase each year. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter and traffic volume is still increasing and has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The contribution deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures of wearing courses are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The contribution offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  8. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yati Katman, Herda; Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohd; Yazip Matori, Mohd; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela

    2013-06-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  9. Decision of National and Provincial Highway Asphalt Pavement Structure Based on Value Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important that decision of asphalt pavement structure requires overall considerations of the performance and financial investment. To have asphalt pavement structure fulfilling good reliability, the asphalt pavement structure decision was researched based on value engineering theory. According to the national and provincial highway investigation data in Shandong Province during the last decade, the asphalt pavement performance attenuation rules of traffic levels and asphalt layer thicknesses were developed, and then the road performance evaluation method was presented. In addition, the initial investments, the costs of road maintenance, and middle-scale repair in a period were analyzed. For the light traffic and medium traffic example, using the value engineering method, the pavement performance and costs of which thickness varies from 6 cm to 10 cm were calculated and compared. It was concluded that value engineering was an effective method in deciding the asphalt pavement structure.

  10. Evaluating the performance of sustainable perpetual pavements using recycled asphalt pavement in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. Sultan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast highways network in China is moving from the phase of construction to the phase of maintenance, and with the introduction of new technique of perpetual pavement in last decade, it is necessary to consider recycling as one of the promising solutions for rehabilitation of old asphalt concrete pavement and ultimately to convert them into perpetual pavements. The aim is to reuse the existing pavement materials for several reasons, mainly to preserve natural resources such as aggregates, and to satisfy economic requirements by reducing the cost of highway construction and rehabilitation. A detailed testing program has been carried out on recycled asphalt pavements materials (RAP to evaluate their mechanical and structural characteristics to be used for the construction and rehabilitation of road pavements. Different types of RAP mixes have been stabilized by Portland cement to find the most suitable one from the point of view of design, construction, economy and environment. The analysis of life cycle costs has been carried out using system analysis and management of pavement program (SAMP5. The analysis of life cycle costs showed that the use of Portland cements with small percentages improves the structural characteristics of recycled asphalt materials to be used as stabilized base pavement layers for new or rehabilitated old road pavements and also for the construction and rehabilitation of perpetual pavements. A large amount of savings in construction and rehabilitation cost has been achieved by the use of stabilized RAP materials in addition to important contributions to the environment and preserving of natural resources.

  11. Performance of Recycled Asphalt Pavement as Coarse Aggregate in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis O. OKAFOR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recycled asphalt pavement (RAP is the reclaimed and reprocessed pavement material containing asphalt and aggregate. Most RAP is recycled back into pavements, and as a result there is a general lack of data pertaining to the mechanical properties for RAP in other possible applications such as Portland cement concrete. In the present study, some mechanical properties of Portland cement concrete containing RAP as coarse aggregate were investigated in the laboratory. Six concrete mixes of widely differing water/cement ratios and mix proportions were made using RAP as coarse aggregate. The properties tested include the physical properties of the RAP aggregate, the compressive and flexural strengths of the concrete. These properties were compared with those of similar concretes made with natural gravel aggregate. Results of the tests suggest that the strength of concrete made from RAP is dependent on the bond strength of the “asphalt-mortar” (asphalt binder-sand-filler matrix coatings on the aggregates and may not produce concrete with compressive strength above 25 MPa. However, for middle and low strength concrete, the material was found to compare favorably with natural gravel aggregate.

  12. Representative volume element of asphalt pavement for electromagnetic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terhi Pellinen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this study was to investigate the representative volume element (RVE needed to correlate the nondestructive electromagnetic (EM measurements with the conventional destructive asphalt pavement quality control measurements. A large pavement rehabilitation contract was used as the test site for the experiment. Pavement cores were drilled from the same locations where the stationary and continuous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR measurements were obtained. Laboratory measurements included testing the bulk density of cores using two methods, the surface-saturated dry method and determining bulk density by dimensions. Also, Vector Network Analyzer (VNA and the through specimen transmission configuration were employed at microwave frequencies to measure the reference dielectric constant of cores using two different footprint areas and therefore volume elements. The RVE for EM measurements turns out to be frequency dependent; therefore in addition to being dependent on asphalt mixture type and method of obtaining bulk density, it is dependent on the resolution of the EM method used. Then, although the average bulk property results agreed with theoretical formulations of higher core air void content giving a lower dielectric constant, for the individual cores there was no correlation for the VNA measurements because the volume element seizes deviated. Similarly, GPR technique was unable to capture the spatial variation of pavement air voids measured from the 150-mm drill cores. More research is needed to determine the usable RVE for asphalt.

  13. Development of a non-solvent based test method for evaluating reclaimed asphalt pavement mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The percent of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) used in hot mix asphalt (HMA) is currently established either by arbitrarily setting maximum percent limits, or alternatively, by evaluating both the virgin and recovered binder properties. The first ap...

  14. Load Response Analysis of Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the filed data of Fuzhou test road, load response regulation of nonlinear pavement structure was analyzed in this paper; Mechanics software was adopted to analyze linear elastic and nonlinear of the pavement structure, analyzed results and road filed data were compared, and determine the correlation between them and the field data.

  15. Rutting Prediction in Asphalt Pavement Based on Viscoelastic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahi Mohammed Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutting is one of the most disturbing failures on the asphalt roads due to the interrupting it is caused to the drivers. Predicting of asphalt pavement rutting is essential tool leads to better asphalt mixture design. This work describes a method of predicting the behaviour of various asphalt pavement mixes and linking these to an accelerated performance testing. The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model based on viscoplastic theory for simulating the laboratory testing of asphalt mixes in Hamburg Wheel Rut Tester (HWRT for rutting. The creep parameters C1, C2 and C3 are developed from the triaxial repeated load creep test at 50°C and at a frequency of 1 Hz and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’ s ratio determined at the same temperature. Viscoelastic model (creep model is adopted using a FE simulator (ANSYS in order to calculate the rutting for various mixes under a uniform loading pressure of 500 kPa. An eight-node with a three Degrees of Freedom (UX, UY, and UZ Element is used for the simulation. The creep model developed for HWRT tester was verified by comparing the predicted rut depths with the measured one and by comparing the rut depth with ABAQUS result from literature. Reasonable agreement can be obtained between the predicted rut depths and the measured one. Moreover, it is found that creep model parameter C1 and C3 have a strong relationship with rutting. It was clear that the parameter C1 strongly influences rutting than the parameter C3. Finally, it can be concluded that creep model based on finite element method can be used as an effective tool to analyse rutting of asphalt pavements.

  16. IMPROVING OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENTS USING STYRENE-BUTYL ACRYLATE POLYMER

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelzaher E. A. Mostafa; Nasser, A M

    2017-01-01

    According to the most recent surveys, the European area produced 265 mil tons of asphalt for road applications in 2014, while the amount of available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) was more than 50 mil tons. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat bitumen, making RAP recycling economically attractive. This study investigates the potential use of styrene-bacrylate polymer and extracted Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) with different percentages b...

  17. IMPROVING OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENTS USING VINYL ACETATE-BUTYL ACRYLATE POLYMER

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser, A M; Abd El-Wahab

    2017-01-01

    According to the most recent surveys, the European area produced 265 mil tons of asphalt for road applications in 2014, while the amount of available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) was more than 50 mil tons. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat bitumen, making RAP recycling economically attractive. This study investigates the potential use of vinyl acetate-bacrylate polymer and extracted Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) with different percent...

  18. The effect of aggregate density on pavement performance of SMA-13 asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Yinping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper chooses the top layer SMA-13 asphalt mixture material as the research object. Basalt was selected as pavement material, and modified SBS asphalt was used as a cementing material. Two basalt aggregates with different densities were used to carry out standard Marshall test in the laboratory.Aimed at the volume parameters of the asphalt mixture carry on anaiysis,and obtian the effect of aggregate density on pavement performance of SMA-13 asphalt mixture, which is that the density of aggregate has a significant effect on the void ratio, saturation, and the gap rate of the aggregate, thus affecting the pavement performance of the asphalt mixture

  19. Ageing and performance of warm mix asphalt pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Raab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from investigating the ageing behaviour and performance of different warm mix asphalt (WMA pavement mixtures also called energy reduced pavements. The mixtures were either prepared in the laboratory or taken directly from a mixing plant. The study compared the rutting and fatigue behaviours of unaged material in comparison to long term laboratory aged material. In order to conduct the long term ageing, a special laboratory ageing protocol with different heating, cooling and watering cycles had been developed. The investigation revealed a quite controversial rutting behavior which could not be explained with the available data. While most aged energy reduced pavements showed increased rutting for other mixtures, lower rut depths could be found. As opposed to this finding, fatigue and stiffness of all aged energy reduced pavement samples compared to unaged samples improved significantly. The overall results led to the conclusion that the ageing of energy reduced pavement simulated in the laboratory is not very critical regarding their mechanical performance. Therefore, it was confirmed that the application of this type of pavement provides a good solution for saving on CO2 emissions. Another advantage is that by using energy reduced pavements the road construction season can be significantly prolonged.

  20. Life cycle assessment of asphalt pavement maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at developing a life cycle assessment (LCA) model to quantify the impact of pavement preservation on energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The construction stage contains material, manufacture, transportation and plac...

  1. Use of reclaimed asphalt pavement in concrete pavement slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the feasibiltiy of using RAP as aggregate replacement in concrete for use in pavement. Four different RAPs from FDOT approved RAP sources were used. Concrete mixtures with 0%, 20%, 40%, 70%, and 100% aggregate replacement by RAP ...

  2. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  3. Partial substitution of asphalt pavement with modified sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Souaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of sulfur in pavement laying was developed in 1980 but it was restricted in the late 19th century due to its environmental problems and its high reactivity toward oxidation processes which give sulfuric acid products that are capable of destroying the asphalt mixture. The study involved the conversion of elemental sulfur to a more stable modified one using a combination of byproducts of olefin hydrocarbons that were obtained from petroleum fractional distillates and cyclic hydrocarbon bituminous residue at 145 °C. The changes in the structural characteristics and morphology of prepared modified sulfur were studied using XRD and SEM respectively. Also DSC curves help us to elucidate the changes in sulfur phases from α-orthorhombic to β-mono clinic structure. The technique of nanoindentation helps us to compare the mechanical properties of modified and pure sulfur including modulus of elasticity and hardness. The hot mixture asphalt designs were prepared according to the Marshall Method in which the asphalt binder content was partially substituted with 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% modified sulfur. The mechanical properties were measured including Marshall Stability, flow, air voids, and Marshall Stiffness. From the overall study, the results indicated that asphalt could partially be substituted with modified sulfur with no significant deleterious effect on performance and durability of hot mixed asphalt.

  4. Effect of asphalt rejuvenating agent on aged reclaimed asphalt pavement and binder properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabahfar, Nassim

    Hot in-place recycling (HIR) preserves distressed asphalt pavements while minimizing use of virgin binder and aggregates. The final quality of an HIR mixture depends on characteristics of the original binder, aging of the pavement surface during service, and whether or not new binder or rejuvenator was added to the mixture. An HIR mixture should maintain desired properties for additional service periods, making asphalt binder modification inevitable. Asphalt binder modifications in HIR are commonly done by adding an asphalt rejuvenating agent (ARA). However, ARA may adversely affect the qualities of new HIR and potentially fail to improve the quality of the final surface. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of rejuvenation on HIR performance characteristics by assessing critical performance indicators such as stiffness, permanent deformation, moisture susceptibility, and cracking resistance. A two-step experimental program was designed that included mechanical property measurements of the HIR mixture and rheological properties of the extracted binder. The level of mixing occurring between new and aged binder with ARA was also investigated. HIR Samples were obtained from three Kansas Department of Transportation projects, and Hamburg wheel-tracking device, dynamic modulus, flow number, Texas overlay, thermal stress restrained specimen, and moisture susceptibility tests were conducted on mixtures with and without ARA. Rheological studies on the extracted binder included dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer tests. The miscibility of new and aged binder was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), and the exudation droplet test (EDT). Study results showed significant variability in the mechanical performance of HIR mixtures, which was attributed to the variability of binders as observed in EDT, SEM and EDXS studies. Life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) showed that HIR

  5. Ageing evolution of foamed warm mix asphalt combined with reclaimed asphalt pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perez-Martinez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The combination of high rates of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP and warm mix asphalt (WMA technologies is still ambiguous in terms of durability. With the aim of clarifying this issue, a study comparing a hot mix asphalt with a WMA prepared using the foaming process technology. Both mixes contain 50% of RAP and are submitted to a laboratory ageing procedure. The long term related performance of the mixtures is compared by means of complex modulus and fatigue testing. Penetration and ring and ball tests are undertaken on the recovered bitumens, as well as the ageing evolution, characterised by the Fourier Transform Infrared analysis. Finally, the Apparent Molecular Weight Distribution (AMWD of the binders is calculated from rheological measurements using the δ-method. Results show a relation between ageing evolution and mechanical performance. After ageing, the overall tendencies are similar for both processes.

  6. Experimental Modelling of Asphaltic Layers Behaviour at Reflective Fracture from Degraded Pavements – Parametric Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobază Mihai Gabriel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the pavement degradation in time, rehabilitation measures need to be adopted, maintaining the costs as lower as it can. One of the solutions often utilized is to apply a layer of asphalt concrete over the degraded pavement. The main issue of this method is that the fractures which exists in the old pavement are transmitted in the asphaltic overlay (reflective fracture.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Asphalt Pavement Construction: A Case Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In China, the construction of asphalt pavement has a significant impact on the environment, and energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. At present, there is no universal criterion for the evaluation of GHG emissions in asphalt pavement construction. This paper proposes to define the system boundaries for GHG emissions from asphalt pavement by using a process-based life cycle assessment method. A method for evaluating GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction is suggested. The paper reports a case study of GHG emissions from a typical asphalt pavement construction project in China. The results show that the greenhouse gas emissions from the mixture mixing phase are the highest, and account for about 54% of the total amount. The second highest GHG emission phase is the production of raw materials. For GHG emissions of cement stabilized base/subbase, the production of raw materials emits the most, about 98%. The GHG emission for cement production alone is about 92%. The results indicate that any measures to reduce GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction should be focused on the raw materials manufacturing stage. If the raw materials production phase is excluded, the measures to reduce GHG emissions should be aimed at the mixture mixing phase.

  8. GPR in Nondestructive Quality Assurance of New Asphalt Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikajärvi, J.; Peisa, K.; Narbro, A.

    2012-04-01

    Mara Nord is an international cooperation project financed by Interreg IVA Nord funding program with partners from Finland, Sweden and Norway. One of the objectives in Mara Nord project has been to research the quality assurance of new asphalt pavement. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey is used as an alternative method for coring in quality assurance. There exist numerous advantages for the use of GPR. For example, the fluent measuring arrangements without closing the traffic on the road and the extensive continuous profile that can be constructed from the measuring data. Within the framework of Mara Nord Project field tests were organized in Seinäjoki region in Finland on August 2011. The tests were done by four consulting companies from Finland and Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences. The aim of these tests was to compare the measured dielectric value profiles and the calculated void content profiles of the equipment. The tested equipment was GSSI manufactured SIR-20 and 1 GHz horn antennas. Void content values were calculated using the model presented by Mr. Roimela (1997). All core samples were taken from the right wheel path. The same reference core samples were used when analyzing the data of each GPR equipment. Some samples were taken right after the pavement work was completed with the rest three weeks after during the test measurements. The tests indicated that GPRs have very good repeatability in measuring dielectric changes on top surface layers of asphalt pavements. Furthermore, different GPRs locate the same detectable longitudinal dielectric changes with high accuracy. Some differences were found in the dielectric value levels, yet reproducibility of the calculated void content values was quite good. The test data was also used to evaluate the reliability of the regression model between the dielectric values measured through GPR and the void content of the pavement determined from reference cores. Test data indicated that accurate regression

  9. Influence of hot asphalt mixture using asbuton on road composite pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, Abdul; Darwis, Muhammad; Imran

    2017-11-01

    Construction and rehabilitation of road infrastructure in Indonesia require about 1.2 million tons of asphalt per year, approximately 100% used of petroleum asphalt. Only a half of asphalt demand can be provided domestically, while about 600 thousand tons have to be imported from abroad. Indonesia has natural asphalt with a quite large deposit but has not been fully utilized. Lack of availability of asphalt and the increasing demand of the domestic market will give effect to an increase in bitumen cost in the domestic market. Somehow, this is not a sufficient condition due to the rising cost of road infrastructure. This study aims to determine the effect of using a layer of asphalt concrete pavement asbuton to rigid pavement (PR-modification). Stressing that occur in rigid pavement, asphalt concrete layer and base course measured by using LVDT and for the subgrade using soil pressure transducer. Using asbuton on asphalt concrete will have more benefit on improving the stability of the marshall. The maximum deflection occurring in the PR-modification at 5.19 mm with a maximum stress of 175.10 kN. Vertical and horizontal tension that occur at the base course at -20 cm row by 0.855 MPa and 0.00282 MPa. Addition of layers of asphalt concrete in rigid pavement using asbuton has increased power by 9.5%.

  10. Continued field evaluation of precutting for maintaining asphalt concrete pavements with thermal cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In continuation of a previously completed project entitled Evaluate Presawn Transverse Thermal Cracks for Asphalt Concrete Pavement, this project was a further effort to understand important variables in the thermal cracking process through continued...

  11. Recycled Asphalt Pavement and Crushed Concrete Backfill: State-of-the-Art Review and Material Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    This report describes research results from the first year of a three-year study focused on the use of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and crushed concrete (CC) as backfill for mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) walls.

  12. New experiences with foamed bitumen asphalts in hungarian road building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchard Zoltan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of low temperature (LT asphalt products can result in a significant decrease of temperature required for asphalt production. This reduces energy costs and consumption. Moreover, safety during asphalt production and laying improves because the amount of potentially harmful vapours and aerosols decreases. Temperature decrease, in addition to the above, reduces the short-term ageing of bitumen in the asphalt production process, and ultimately has a positive impact on the durability of pavements.

  13. Quantify the energy and environmental effects of using recycled asphalt and recycled concrete for pavement construction phase I : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the energy and environment impacts from using recycled materials : for highway construction. Specifically, when recycled asphalt pavement is re-used for producing hot mix : asphalt or when recycled concrete ...

  14. Toward the Design of an Induction Heating System for Asphalt Pavements with the Finite Element Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Liu, X.; Kasbergen, C.; Scarpas, Athanasios; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2017-01-01

    Induction technology was introduced to the paving industry to assist pavement operations by heating asphalt layers efficiently from the surface. Many experimental studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of inductive particles on the heating efficiency of asphalt mixes. However,

  15. Investigation of the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA) testing program in Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    The asphalt pavement analyzer (APA) has been widely used to evaluate hot-mix asphalt (HMA) rutting potential in mix : design and quality control-quality assurance (QC-QA) applications, because the APA testing and its data analyses are : relatively si...

  16. Characterization and modelling of self healing of bituminous materials towards durable asphalt pavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Wu, S.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The traffic volume and the number of heavy vehicles are growing enormously nowadays. There is a need for designing a durable asphalt pavement with innovative technologies. Pavement structures and materials with self healing and self repairing capability are believed to be very useful in such a

  17. Asphalt Concrete Overlay Optimization Based on Pavement Performance Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikolaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle length of pavement with asphalt concrete material (ACM surfacing is significantly influenced, in addition to transport loading and climatic conditions, by design method and rehabilitation timing. Appropriate overlay thickness calculation and estimation of optimal rehabilitation time are crucial to maximizing life cycle length and, concurrently, reducing road administration costs and road user costs. This article describes a comprehensive method of ACM rehabilitation design. For optimization of life cycle cost analysis (LCCA based design, mathematical analytical solution in combination with experimental verification of physical, mechanical, and fatigue characteristics is utilized. Pavement performance, that is, functions mathematically describing pavement’s degradation characteristics of operational capability, is represented by longitudinal and transverse unevenness; these are used to describe relations between traffic loading and pavement’s bearing capacity on 1 : 1 scale. Optimizing of rehabilitation plan is carried out by making a cost benefit analysis (CBA for several rehabilitation scenarios in which different rehabilitation timing produces different capital cost requirements and social benefits. Rehabilitation scenarios differ in technology, the design of which needs to be mathematically optimized, and timing of rehabilitation execution. This article includes a case study for the sake of illustration of practical results and verification of applicability of used methodology.

  18. Visco-elastic modelling for asphalt pavements : Software ViscoRoute

    OpenAIRE

    CHABOT, Armelle; TAMAGNY, Philippe; POCHE, Didier; DUHAMEL, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Huet-Sayegh model (1963) gives a set of constitutive equations of a viso-elastic material which accounts well for the behaviour of asphalt pavement layers, especially regarding thermal effects. This model allows rather good predictions of experimental data. The French pavement design method consists in a pavement mechanistic analysis based on the Burmister multilayer elastic model (1943) -LCPC Software ALIZE (1982)-. In that model the Huet-Sayegh behaviour is taken into account with its equiv...

  19. Artificial intelligence modeling to evaluate field performance of photocatalytic asphalt pavement for ambient air purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Somayeh; Hassan, Marwa; Nadiri, Ataallah; Dylla, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the application of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) as a photocatalyst in asphalt pavement has received considerable attention for purifying ambient air from traffic-emitted pollutants via photocatalytic processes. In order to control the increasing deterioration of ambient air quality, urgent and proper risk assessment tools are deemed necessary. However, in practice, monitoring all process parameters for various operating conditions is difficult due to the complex and non-linear nature of air pollution-based problems. Therefore, the development of models to predict air pollutant concentrations is very useful because it can provide early warnings to the population and also reduce the number of measuring sites. This study used artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy (NF) models to predict NOx concentration in the air as a function of traffic count (Tr) and climatic conditions including humidity (H), temperature (T), solar radiation (S), and wind speed (W) before and after the application of TiO₂ on the pavement surface. These models are useful for modeling because of their ability to be trained using historical data and because of their capability for modeling highly non-linear relationships. To build these models, data were collected from a field study where an aqueous nano TiO₂ solution was sprayed on a 0.2-mile of asphalt pavement in Baton Rouge, LA. Results of this study showed that the NF model provided a better fitting to NOx measurements than the ANN model in the training, validation, and test steps. Results of a parametric study indicated that traffic level, relative humidity, and solar radiation had the most influence on photocatalytic efficiency.

  20. Forensic analysis of asphaltic pavement failures in Ghana: case histories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampadu, SIK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available with specification. This paper presents three historical cases of premature failures on two national trunk roads and one inter regional road in Ghana. These case histories give details on pavement history, pavement structure, premature failure types, pavement...

  1. Effect of interlayer bonding quality of asphalt layers on pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskula, Piotr; Rys, Dawid

    2017-09-01

    The quality of interlayer bonding at the interfaces between the asphalt layers in flexible pavements affects the overall pavement performance. Lack or partial lack of interlayer bonding between asphalt layers can cause pavement’s premature failures such as rutting, slippage of the wearing course, cracking or simply a reduction in the calculated fatigue life of the pavement structure. This paper shows the case studies of investigation of actual or potential premature failure of newly reconstructed and constructed pavements where low quality of interlayer bonding has a dominant meaning. In situ and laboratory tests were performed and followed by analytical calculation of pavement structure where thicknesses of layers and maximum shear strengths obtained from the tests were used. During the investigation it was found out that a low quality of tack coat as well as the same aggregate gradation in the bonded asphalt mixtures were the main reasons behind the weak quality of interlayer bonding. Partial interlayer bonding has a strong influence on reduction of calculated fatigue life of pavement. The summary of the paper includes recommendations on how to avoid the low quality of interlayer bonding of asphalt layers.

  2. An Optimization Model for Design of Asphalt Pavements Based on IHAP Code Number 234

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ghanizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pavement construction is one of the most costly parts of transportation infrastructures. Incommensurate design and construction of pavements, in addition to the loss of the initial investment, would impose indirect costs to the road users and reduce road safety. This paper aims to propose an optimization model to determine the optimal configuration as well as the optimum thickness of different pavement layers based on the Iran Highway Asphalt Paving Code Number 234 (IHAP Code 234. After developing the optimization model, the optimum thickness of pavement layers for secondary rural roads, major rural roads, and freeways was determined based on the recommended prices in “Basic Price List for Road, Runway and Railway” of Iran in 2015 and several charts were developed to determine the optimum thickness of pavement layers including asphalt concrete, granular base, and granular subbase with respect to road classification, design traffic, and resilient modulus of subgrade. Design charts confirm that in the current situation (material prices in 2015, application of asphalt treated layer in pavement structure is not cost effective. Also it was shown that, with increasing the strength of subgrade soil, the subbase layer may be removed from the optimum structure of pavement.

  3. Field Evaluation of Red-Coloured Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements for Bus Rapid Transit Lanes in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfan Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coloured pavements have been implemented by metropolitan areas to denote dedicated lanes for bus rapid transit to maintain a high level of safety. Transit benefits of these installations are well documented. However, field performance of various types of coloured pavement has not been investigated systematically, with questions not being answered. In collaboration with the Regional Municipality of York (ON, Canada where red pavement sections have been in operation for years for its bus rapid transit lanes, the Centre for Pavement and Transportation Technology at the University of Waterloo (Waterloo, ON, Canada assessed the performance of various types of red pavements including epoxy paint and red asphalt mixes. It was found that, with significant lower texture depth, epoxy paint surface has disadvantages to red asphalt pavement from a pavement texture and safety perspective. The red asphalt sections in this study were observed as lower yet compatible frictional levels to conventional black pavement. Various types of contamination onto the red pavement were observed during field survey. In addition, the ultraviolet radiation degraded the colour of red asphalt pavement over time and may make it less effective for lane designation. Long-term monitoring is recommended to evaluate the functional and structural performance of red asphalt pavement.

  4. Viscoroute 2.0: a tool for the simulation of moving load effects on asphalt pavement

    CERN Document Server

    Chabot, Armelle; Deloffre, Lydie; Duhamel, Denis

    2010-01-01

    As shown by strains measured on full scale experimental aircraft structures, traffic of slow-moving multiple loads leads to asymmetric transverse strains that can be higher than longitudinal strains at the bottom of asphalt pavement layers. To analyze this effect, a model and a software called ViscoRoute have been developed. In these tools, the structure is represented by a multilayered half-space, the thermo-viscoelastic behaviour of asphalt layers is accounted by the Huet-Sayegh rheological law and loads are assumed to move at constant speed. First, the paper presents a comparison of results obtained with ViscoRoute to results stemming from the specialized literature. For thick asphalt pavement and several configurations of moving loads, other ViscoRoute simulations confirm that it is necessary to incorporate viscoelastic effects in the modelling to well predict the pavement behaviour and to anticipate possible damages in the structure.

  5. Development of a Full-Depth Wheel Tracking Test for Asphalt Pavement Structure: Methods and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rutting performance of asphalt pavement structure relies on the high temperature properties of asphalt mixture as well as the pavement structure and thickness. In order to investigate the influence of the structure and thickness, a full-depth wheel tracking test is developed in this research by improving the conventional wheel tracking test apparatus. The newly proposed test method is capable of varying its load speed and load size, controlling its specimen temperature gradient, and simulating the support conditions of actual asphalt pavement. The full-depth wheel tracking test based rutting performance evaluation of different asphalt pavement structures indicates that it is not reasonable to explain the rutting performance of asphalt pavement structure from the point of view of single-layer asphalt mixture rutting performance. The developed full-depth wheel tracking test can be used to distinguish rutting performance of different asphalt pavement structures, and two of five typical asphalt pavement structures commonly used in Shanxi Province were suggested for use in practical engineering.

  6. A review on using crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction.

  7. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction.

  8. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction. PMID:24688369

  9. Asphalt Pavement Pothole Detection and Segmentation Based on Wavelet Energy Field

    OpenAIRE

    Penghui Wang; Yongbiao Hu; Yong Dai; Mingrui Tian

    2017-01-01

    Potholes are one type of pavement surface distresses whose assessment is essential for developing road network maintenance strategies. Existing methods for automatic pothole detection either rely on expensive and high-maintenance equipment or could not segment the pothole accurately. In this paper, an asphalt pavement pothole detection and segmentation method based on energy field is put forward. The proposed method mainly includes two processes. Firstly, the wavelet energy field of the pavem...

  10. Basic Performance of Fibre Reinforced Asphalt Concrete with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Produced In Low Temperatures with Foamed Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz-Kowalska, Anna; Iwański, Mateusz M.; Mrugała, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    During the reconstruction of road pavements, the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), which is obtained through milling of the worn out existing asphalt, is commonly used for producing new base courses in cold recycling processes. Two of these techniques are most popular: one using mineral-cement-emulsion mixes and one utilizing mineral cement mixes with foamed bitumen. Additionally, some amounts of RAP can be incorporated into traditional hot mix asphalt. The demand for energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions however, results in a need for development of new techniques that would result in cheaper and more reliable solutions with smaller carbon footprint. The reduction of processing temperatures with simultaneous incorporation of reclaimed material is the most efficient way of obtaining these objectives, but it often results in the overall decrease of bituminous mix quality. The paper presents the possibility of using RAP for producing asphalt concrete in warm mix asphalt (WMA) production process by the use of foamed bitumen modified with Fischer-Tropsch synthetic wax and polymer-basalt fibers. Additionally, a series of reference mixtures were produced to investigate the effects of the additives and of the warm process. The carried out analyses and tests shown that the experimental warm mix asphalt produced with RAP and foamed bitumen returned satisfactory performance. The introduction of synthetic F-T wax in the warm foam bitumen mixes resulted in a significantly improved compaction levels and moisture and frost resistance and the addition of polymer-basalt fibers has further improved the permanent deformation resistance of the mixes. All of the designed and tested mixes have fulfilled the requirements for binding course asphalt concrete with medium traffic loads.

  11. HOW TO OBTAIN ECONOMICALLY EFFICIENT ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES FOR CONSTRUCTIVE AUTOMOBILE ROAD AND STREET PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Verenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology for evaluation of technical and economic efficiency of asphalt concrete mixture components. The method allows to perform a directed search for new materials which are used for mixture preparation and it also provides an efficient use of monetary funds. Firstly, it is possible to obtain this result due to optimum price-quality ratio of asphalt mixture which is determined by its service life in a pavement; secondly, it is possible to obtain this result due to  exclusion of errors while selecting components of the asphalt mixture out of the whole range applied presently in the world practice.

  12. Qualitative analysis of SBS modifier in asphalt pavements using field samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Fengxia; Liu, Zhifei

    2017-06-01

    Series of tests are implemented to analysis the related characteristics of common asphalt and unknown asphalt mainly using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) for chemical compositions and rheological properties of asphalt, respectively. In addition, a series of mechanical properties were performed on asphalt mixtures, including indirect tensile strength test and three point bending test at low temperature. Experimental results indicated that compared with common asphalt, the characteristic absorption peak of the unknown asphalt are appeared at 966cm-1and 699cm-1, which are accordant with the SBS modifier. The results of DSR indicated that the unknown asphalt’s complex modulus is higher and the phase angle is lower. The mechanical tests indicated that some properties of the unknown mixture samples are increased by 24.7%∼41.8% compared with common pavement sample, like the indirect tensile strength, the bending test at low temperature and indirect tensile resilient modulus. Comprehensive analysis indicates that SBS modifier is existed in the unknown asphalt pavement.

  13. Modification of local asphalt with epoxy resin to be used in pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.M. Abd El Rahman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The durability of asphalt pavement is greatly influenced by the environmental changes during the year. In this paper, we prepared asphalt modified by mixing asphalt 60/70 with epoxidized natural rubber (ENR in different percentages (5, 10 and 15%, which was achieved using preformed peracetic acid (aqueous solution 59% at 60–80 °C, then molten cross-linker maleic anhydride (MA was added to modified asphalt until homogenous blends are achieved. Marshall test was used to evaluate the asphalt pavement performance depending on the curing time and hardener concentration. To measure marshall test, the pervious mixture was stirred with aggregate jop formula mix (JMF and 40% MA at 150–170 °C for 20 h and 1600 rpm. From the obtained data, it was found that asphalt mixed with 15% of ENR + 40% MA achieves a high stability (16,632 Newton, air voids of 2.5%, flow of 2.9 mm and mineral voids of 14.6%. While, the stability of the unmodified asphalt was (11,500 Newton, the flow 3.2 mm, the suitable air void value was 3.7% at 5.5% with the same conditions.

  14. Kinerja Campuran Beraspal Hangat Laston Lapis Pengikat (AC-BC dengan Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Maha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory study of AC-BC asphalt mixture reusing reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP by warm mix method. 30% of RAP is combined with new aggregate in the mixture. Rejuvenating agent Cyclogen L was used to activate RAP asphalt binder. With 3% organic wax Sasobit, temperature of mixing and paving was set at 135°C and 123°C, 30°C lower than conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA with unmodified asphalt binder 60/70 penetration. Three mixtures were set in this research, consisting of hot mix asphalt conventional mixture (identified as HM, warm mix asphalt mixture (identified as SASO and warm mix asphalt with RAP (identified as SASORAP. Marshall design procedure was used to determine the optimum bitumen content (OBC. OBC for each mixture was 5,2%, 5,2% and 5,3% for HMA, SASO and SASORAP respectively. From Indirect Tensile Stress test result, all asphalt mixture meet moisture sensitvity requirement where Indirect Tensile Stress Ratio (ITSR is higher than 80%. From resilient modulus and fatigue resistance test result, SASO and SASORAP showed a better performance than conventional mixture (HMA.

  15. Hot-mix asphalt testing for the South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available of local and international hot-mix asphalt (HMA) test methods and modify or adapt them to suit South African road pavement conditions. This paper presents various laboratory HMA test protocols developed as part of the project to revise SAPDM. Large scale...

  16. Three-dimensional modelling of sound absorption in porous asphalt pavement for oblique incident waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer-Krijnen, Marieke; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries; Glorieux, C.

    2015-01-01

    Sound absorption of porous asphalt pavements is an important property when reducing tyre-road noise. A hybrid model has been developed to predict the sound absorption of porous roads. This model is a combination of an analytical analysis of the sound eld and a numerical approach, including both the

  17. PECULIAR FEATURES OF HEAT-HUMIDITY MODE PERTAINING TO POROUS LAYERS OF ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Verenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental investigations and points out the fact that conventional approaches to design and calculations of road pavements that presuppose application of porous asphalt concrete on compact bedding can cause some deformations and destructions initiated due to humidity migration in large internal material pores and lead to material destruction during warm season of the year when water is characterized by high activity. Such processes result in bitumen washing-out, white spot occurrence on the pavement and quick destruction of the pavement.The paper proposes to reconsider existing approaches to design and calculation of road pavements, estimation of reliability and service-ability levels of the applied construction materials. In particular it is necessary to calculate a road pavement with respect to thermo-physical action while excluding condensate and humidity accumulation in porous materials. 

  18. Stormwater quality of spring-summer-fall effluent from three partial-infiltration permeable pavement systems and conventional asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer; Bradford, Andrea; Van Seters, Tim

    2014-06-15

    This study examined the spring, summer and fall water quality performance of three partial-infiltration permeable pavement (PP) systems and a conventional asphalt pavement in Ontario. The study, conducted between 2010 and 2012, compared the water quality of effluent from two Interlocking Permeable Concrete Pavements (AquaPave(®) and Eco-Optiloc(®)) and a Hydromedia(®) Pervious Concrete pavement with runoff from an Asphalt control pavement. The usage of permeable pavements can mitigate the impact of urbanization on receiving surface water systems through quantity control and stormwater treatment. The PP systems provided excellent stormwater treatment for petroleum hydrocarbons, total suspended solids, metals (copper, iron, manganese and zinc) and nutrients (total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus) by reducing event mean concentrations (EMC) as well as total pollutant loadings. The PPs significantly reduced the concentration and loading of ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3), nitrite (NO2(-)) and organic-nitrogen (Org-N) but increased the concentration and loading of nitrate (NO3(-)). The PP systems had mixed performances for the treatment of phosphate (PO4(3-)). The PP systems increased the concentration of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) but EMCs remained well below recommended levels for drinking water quality. Relative to the observed runoff, winter road salt was released more slowly from the PP systems resulting in elevated spring and early-summer Cl and Na concentrations in effluent. PP materials were found to introduce dissolved solids into the infiltrating stormwater. The release of these pollutants was verified by additional laboratory scale testing of the individual pavement and aggregate materials at the University of Guelph. Pollutant concentrations were greatest during the first few months after construction and declined rapidly over the course of the study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic response of concrete pavement structure with asphalt isolating layer under moving loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional finite element model (3D FEM is built using ABAQUS to analyze the dynamic response of a concrete pavement structure with an asphalt isolating layer under moving loads. The 3D model is prepared and validated in the state of no asphalt isolating layer. Stress and deflection at the critical load position are calculated by changing thickness, modulus of isolating layer and the combination between the isolating layer and concrete slab. Analysis result shows that the stress and deflection of the concrete slab increase with the increase of thickness. The stress and deflection of the concrete slab decrease with the increase of combination between the isolating layer and concrete slab. The influence of changing the isolating layer modulus to the stress and deflection of the concrete slab is not significant. From the results, asphalt isolating layer design is suggested in concrete pavement.

  20. An assessment of SBS modified asphalt concrete pavements performance features performing numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Ahmet Sertac; Bozkurt, Tarik Serhat; Sayin, Baris; Ortes, Faruk

    2017-07-01

    In passenger and freight traffic on the roads, which has the largest share of the hot mix asphalt (HMA) prepared asphalt concrete pavement is one of the most preferred type of flexible superstructure. During the service life of the road, they must provide the performance which is expected to show. HMA must be high performance mix design, comfortable, safe and resistance to degradation. In addition, it becomes a critical need to use various additives materials for roads to be able to serve long-term against environmental conditions such as traffic and climate due to the fact that the way of raw materials is limited. Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS) polymers are widely used among additives. In this study, the numerical analysis of SBS modified HMA designed asphalt concrete coatings prepared with different thicknesses with SBS modified HMA is performed. After that, stress and deformation values of the three pavement models are compared and evaluated.

  1. Development of Guidelines for Reduction of Temperature Differential Damage (TDD) for Hot Mix Asphalt Pavement Projects in Connecticut - Construction Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Connecticut Department of Transportation personnel used an infrared camera to observe thermal segregation of hot mix asphalt during pavement construction. Several sites were selected for study from ongoing paving projects. During paving operations, t...

  2. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  3. Effects of street tree shade on asphalt concrete pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J. Muchnick

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight street segments were paired into 24 high-and low-shade pairs in Modesto, California, U.S. Field data were collected to calculate a Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and Tree Shade Index (TSI) for each segment. Statistical analyses found that greater PCI was associated with greater TSI, indicating that tree shade was partially responsible for reduced pavement...

  4. An evaluation of the efficiency of compartmented alginate fibres encapsulating a rejuvenator as an asphalt pavement healing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabaković, Amir; Karač, Aleksandar; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the potential methods for evaluating a healing system for asphalt pavements. The healing system under investigation involves compartmented calcium-alginate fibres encapsulating an asphalt binder healing agent (rejuvenator). This system presents a novel method of incorporating

  5. An evaluation of the efficiency of compartmented alginate fibres encapsulating a rejuvenator as an asphalt pavement healing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabaković, Amir; Karač, Aleksandar; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    This paper explores the potential methods for evaluating a healing system for asphalt pavements. The healing system under investigation involves compartmented calcium-alginate fibres encapsulating an asphalt binder healing agent (rejuvenator). This system presents a novel method of incorporating

  6. Comparison of wintertime asphalt and concrete pavement surface temperatures on U.S. Route 40 near Heber, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Asphalt and concrete pavement surface temperatures were compared at a location on U.S. Route 40 in : northern Utah where asphalt and concrete meet end to end at the base of the mountain pass. An environmental : sensor station was installed to facilit...

  7. Ultrasound data for laboratory calibration of an analytical model to calculate crack depth on asphalt pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Franesqui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the ultrasound data employed to calibrate in the laboratory an analytical model that permits the calculation of the depth of partial-depth surface-initiated cracks on bituminous pavements using this non-destructive technique. This initial calibration is required so that the model provides sufficient precision during practical application. The ultrasonic pulse transit times were measured on beam samples of different asphalt mixtures (semi-dense asphalt concrete AC-S; asphalt concrete for very thin layers BBTM; and porous asphalt PA. The cracks on the laboratory samples were simulated by means of notches of variable depths. With the data of ultrasound transmission time ratios, curve-fittings were carried out on the analytical model, thus determining the regression parameters and their statistical dispersion. The calibrated models obtained from laboratory datasets were subsequently applied to auscultate the evolution of the crack depth after microwaves exposure in the research article entitled “Top-down cracking self-healing of asphalt pavements with steel filler from industrial waste applying microwaves” (Franesqui et al., 2017 [1].

  8. Dynamic Properties of Footbridges: Influence of Asphalt Pavement and Support Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural frequencies and damping ratios are important parameters in the design of footbridges against vibrations. Although not normally considered in calculations, non-structural elements such as the asphalt pavement and the supports can have a significant influence on the dynamic properties. In this article we present results from vibration tests conducted on four footbridges over the last few years covering a wide range of asphalt temperatures. The experiments show that both the natural frequencies and the damping ratios can change significantly with temperature. In one particular case, a variation in natural frequency of 25% has been observed between high and low asphalt temperatures. An additional damping of around 1% due to the asphalt pavement has been detected. To more clearly understand the experimental results, the bridges were also analysed numerically using a visco-elastic material for the asphalt. The analysis of the experimental results also revealed that other non-structural elements can have a large influence on dynamic properties of bridges. In two cases, the supports did not perform as expected and lead to surprising results.

  9. Ultrasound data for laboratory calibration of an analytical model to calculate crack depth on asphalt pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franesqui, Miguel A; Yepes, Jorge; García-González, Cándida

    2017-08-01

    This article outlines the ultrasound data employed to calibrate in the laboratory an analytical model that permits the calculation of the depth of partial-depth surface-initiated cracks on bituminous pavements using this non-destructive technique. This initial calibration is required so that the model provides sufficient precision during practical application. The ultrasonic pulse transit times were measured on beam samples of different asphalt mixtures (semi-dense asphalt concrete AC-S; asphalt concrete for very thin layers BBTM; and porous asphalt PA). The cracks on the laboratory samples were simulated by means of notches of variable depths. With the data of ultrasound transmission time ratios, curve-fittings were carried out on the analytical model, thus determining the regression parameters and their statistical dispersion. The calibrated models obtained from laboratory datasets were subsequently applied to auscultate the evolution of the crack depth after microwaves exposure in the research article entitled "Top-down cracking self-healing of asphalt pavements with steel filler from industrial waste applying microwaves" (Franesqui et al., 2017) [1].

  10. Application Research of Quality Control Technology of Asphalt Pavement based on GPS Intelligent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Gao, Bo; Shang, Fei; Wang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    Due to the difficulty of steel deck pavement asphalt layer compaction caused by the effect of the flexible supporting system (orthotropic steel deck plate), it is usually hard and difficult to control for the site compactness to reach the design goal. The intelligent compaction technology is based on GPS control technology and real-time acquisition of actual compaction tracks, and then forms a cloud maps of compaction times, which guide the roller operator to do the compaction in accordance with the design requirement to ensure the deck compaction technology and compaction quality. From the actual construction situation of actual bridge and checked data, the intelligent compaction technology is significant in guaranteeing the steel deck asphalt pavement compactness and quality stability.

  11. Effect of polymer modified bitumen on deformation characteristics of low-traffic asphalt pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Pay, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Low-volume roads with an AADT less than 3000 make up 90 % of the Norwegian road network. Although considerable effort is being made to improve its quality, deterioration of existing low-volume roads is a significant concern. There are many deterioration mechanisms which affect Norwegian low-volume roads. The literature study conducted for this thesis found that permanent deformation and rutting in the asphalt pavement caused by heavy traffic loads and climatic conditions one of the most subst...

  12. Study of the Raveling Resistance of Porous Asphalt Pavements Used in Sustainable Drainage Systems Affected by Hydrocarbon Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodriguez-Hernandez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are one of the most commonly-used sustainable drainage systems (SuDS in urban areas for managing stormwater runoff problems. Porous asphalt is widely used in surface layers of permeable pavement systems, where it can suffer from accidental oil spills from vehicles. Oil spills affect bituminous mixes through the solvent action of the hydrocarbons on the bitumen, reducing the raveling resistance of asphalt pavements. In order to assess the raveling resistance in porous asphalt pavements, the Cantabro abrasion test was performed on 200 test samples after applying controlled oil spills. Three different types of binders were used: conventional bitumen, polymer-modified bitumen and special fuel-resistant bitumen. After analyzing the results, it was concluded that the most suitable bitumen to protect against oil leakages is the polymer-modified one, which is far better than the other two types of bitumen tested.

  13. Low Temperature Performance Characteristics of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP Mortars with Virgin and Aged Soft Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feipeng Xiao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP has many advantages and is utilized to improve the high temperature properties of asphalt mixtures. Low temperature cracking is a predominant distress in asphalt pavements containing RAP materials. Thus, the evaluation of fracture resistance for asphalt mixtures containing RAP is of interest. The objective of this research is to explore the low temperature performance characteristics of RAP mortars containing sieved RAP and soft binders at three aged states. The stiffness values and m-values from bending beam rheometer (BBR tests at three test temperatures of −18 °C, −12 °C and −6 °C were obtained to conduct the minimum low temperature grades. RAP mortar with a higher aged binder content had a higher minimum low temperature regardless of RAP source. In addition, RAP mortars with virgin soft binder had the best low temperature resistance followed by the RAP mortars with rolling thin film oven (RTFO and pressure-aged vessel (PAV binders.

  14. Warm mix asphalt with natural zeolite for road pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravský, Marián; Mandula, Ján

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with a method to reduce temperature of asphalt mix using the ingredients of natural zeolite. In this article we discuss a proposal of the warm mix asphalt mixtures based on natural zeolite and determine the density, maximum density and sensitivity of asphalt test specimens on water. The results are compared with the reference hot mix asphalt. Розглядається метод зменшення температури асфальтових сумішей з використанням природного цеоліту. Обговорений підбір ск...

  15. Design tool for the thermal energy potential of asphalt pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Oversloot, H.P.; Bondt, A. de; Jansen, R.; Rij, H. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a design tool for the calculation of the thermal energy potential of a so-called asphalt collector. Two types of numerical models have been developed and validated against experimental results from a full-scale test-site. The validation showed to be a tedious

  16. Investigation of the use of recycled polymer-modified asphalt in asphaltic concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-30

    This report presents issues associated with recycling polymer modified asphalt cements (PMACs), particularly blending aged PMAC with new PMAC. A styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) PMAC was selected and graded using the Superpave Performance Grading (PG)...

  17. Using traffic speed deflectometer to measure deflections and evaluate bearing capacity of asphalt road pavements at network level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Březina, Ilja; Stryk, Josef; Grošek, Jiří

    2017-09-01

    The paper deals with diagnostics of bearing capacity of asphalt pavements by a Traffic Speed Deflectometer (TSD device), which allows to measure pavement deflections continually at the traffic speed on the basis of dynamic loading induced by moving wheel of a reference axle at the speed of up to 80 km/h. The paper aims to inform of a new method to measure road pavement deflections, describes the principles of measuring pavement deflections by TSD device, and presents results of comparative measurements between FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer) and TSD devices organized by CDV in Italy and Slovakia. Particular attention was paid to the difference between deflections measured by FWD and TSD devices.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of longitudinal cracking on asphalt pavement using MEPDG in permafrost region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal cracking is one of the most important distresses of asphalt pavement in permafrost regions. The sensitivity analysis of design parameters for asphalt pavement can be used to study the influence of every parameter on longitudinal cracking, which can help optimizing the design of the pavement structure. In this study, 20 test sections of Qinghai–Tibet Highway were selected to conduct the sensitivity analysis of longitudinal cracking on material parameter based on Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG and single factorial sensitivity analysis method. Some computer aided engineering (CAE simulation techniques, such as the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS technique and the multiple regression analysis are used as auxiliary means. Finally, the sensitivity spectrum of material parameter on longitudinal cracking was established. The result shows the multiple regression analysis can be used to determine the remarkable influence factor more efficiently and to process the qualitative analysis when applying the MEPDG software in sensitivity analysis of longitudinal cracking in permafrost regions. The effect weights of the three parameters on longitudinal cracking in descending order are air void, effective binder content and PG grade. The influence of air void on top layer is bigger than that on middle layer and bottom layer. The influence of effective asphalt content on top layer is bigger than that on middle layer and bottom layer, and the influence of bottom layer is slightly bigger than middle layer. The accumulated value of longitudinal cracking on middle layer and bottom layer in the design life would begin to increase when the design temperature of PG grade increased.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Warm- and Hot-Mix Asphalt Mixtures Based on Laboratory and Accelerated Pavement Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of warm-mix asphalt (WMA technologies are used to reduce the temperature at which the asphalt mixtures are produced and compacted, apparently without compromising the performance of the pavement. The main objective of this study is to determine whether the use of an innovative wax-based LEADCAP WMA additive influences the performance of the asphalt mixture, which is produced and compacted at significantly low temperatures. The WMA pavement using LEADCAP additive (WMA-LEADCAP along with a control HMA pavement was evaluated with respect to their performances of rutting resistance, crack resistance, and viscoelastic property based on the laboratory dynamic modulus test, indirect tensile strength test, and in-door accelerated pavement test (APT results. With the limited data carried out, the LEADCAP additive is effective in producing and paving asphalt mixture at approximately 30°C lower temperature than a control HMA mixture, and the performances of WMA-LEADCAP pavement are comparable to a control HMA pavement.

  20. Evaluation of various hot mix asphalt pavement thicknesses over rubblized concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In 1999, the Wisconsin DOT constructed two test sections as part of a rubblized PCC pavement project on I-39 to evaluate whether : increased HMA thickness could extend the pavement system's service life. Design thicknesses of the control and test sec...

  1. Asphalt Pavement Pothole Detection and Segmentation Based on Wavelet Energy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penghui Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Potholes are one type of pavement surface distresses whose assessment is essential for developing road network maintenance strategies. Existing methods for automatic pothole detection either rely on expensive and high-maintenance equipment or could not segment the pothole accurately. In this paper, an asphalt pavement pothole detection and segmentation method based on energy field is put forward. The proposed method mainly includes two processes. Firstly, the wavelet energy field of the pavement image is constructed to detect the pothole by morphological processing and geometric criterions. Secondly, the detected pothole is segmented by Markov random field model and the pothole edge is extracted accurately. This methodology has been implemented in a MATLAB prototype, trained, and tested on 120 pavement images. The results show that it can effectively distinguish potholes from cracks, patches, greasy dirt, shadows, and manhole covers and accurately segment the pothole. For pothole detection, the method reaches an overall accuracy of 86.7%, with 83.3% precision and 87.5% recall. For pothole segmentation, the overlap degree between the extracted pothole region and the original pothole region is mostly more than 85%, which accounts for 88.6% of the total detected pavement pothole images.

  2. Respirable crystalline silica exposures during asphalt pavement milling at eleven highway construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Duane R; Shulman, Stanley A; Echt, Alan S

    2016-07-01

    Asphalt pavement milling machines use a rotating cutter drum to remove the deteriorated road surface for recycling. The removal of the road surface has the potential to release respirable crystalline silica, to which workers can be exposed. This article describes an evaluation of respirable crystalline silica exposures to the operator and ground worker from two different half-lane and larger asphalt pavement milling machines that had ventilation dust controls and water-sprays designed and installed by the manufacturers. Manufacturer A completed milling for 11 days at 4 highway construction sites in Wisconsin, and Manufacturer B completed milling for 10 days at 7 highway construction sites in Indiana. To evaluate the dust controls, full-shift personal breathing zone air samples were collected from an operator and ground worker during the course of normal employee work activities of asphalt pavement milling at 11 different sites. Forty-two personal breathing zone air samples were collected over 21 days (sampling on an operator and ground worker each day). All samples were below 50 µg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit. The geometric mean personal breathing zone air sample was 6.2 µg/m(3) for the operator and 6.1 µg/m(3) for the ground worker for the Manufacturer A milling machine. The geometric mean personal breathing zone air sample was 4.2 µg/m(3) for the operator and 9.0 µg/m(3) for the ground worker for the Manufacturer B milling machine. In addition, upper 95% confidence limits for the mean exposure for each occupation were well below 50 µg/m(3) for both studies. The silica content in the bulk asphalt material being milled ranged from 7-23% silica for roads milled by Manufacturer A and from 5-12% silica for roads milled by Manufacturer B. The results indicate that engineering controls consisting of ventilation controls in combination with water-sprays are

  3. Effects of Asphalt Mix Design Properties on Pavement Performance: A Mechanistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Abu Abdo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of hot mix asphalt material properties on the performance of flexible pavements via mechanistic approach. 3D Move Analysis software was utilized to determine rutting and cracking distresses in an asphalt concrete (AC layer. Fourteen different Superpave mixes were evaluated by utilizing results of the Dynamic Modulus (|E⁎| Test and the Dynamic Shear Modulus (|G⁎| Test. Results showed that with the increase of binder content, the tendency of rutting in AC layer increased. However, with the increase of binder content, the cracking of AC layer lessened. Furthermore, when different binder grades were evaluated, results showed that with the increase of the upper binder grade number, rutting decreased, and with the increase of the lower binder grade number, rutting increased. Furthermore, analysis showed that with the increase of the lower binder grade number, higher percent of bottom up cracks would result. As a result of the analysis, binder grade should not be solely considered for cracking in AC layer; binder content and aggregate structure play a big role. Finally, results illustrated that the mechanistic approach is a better tool to determine the performance of asphalt pavement than commonly used methods.

  4. STOCK-PILED ORGANIC AND MINERAL MIXTURES FOR POT-HOLE REPAIRING OF ASPHALT AND CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Igoshkina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite of application of modem materials and methods for construction and repair of asphalt and concrete road pavement, the problem pertaining to removal of surface defects and consequently requirement for effective pot-hole repairing methods still remains an actual one and it is considered as one of the factors that ensures safety traffic conditions.Perspective repairing material has been obtained (cold stock-piled organic and mineral mixtures, which does not require special paving equipment, and which is characterized by a wide range of operational temperatures and excellent thixotropic properties. This allows to solve a problem to prevent asphalt and concrete pavement defects in the seasons of spring and winter. Possibility of long-term storage period and all-year-round application of repairing mixtures increase traffic safety and especially in the period of emergency pot-hole removal on asphalt road pavements.

  5. Influence of Hydrated Lime on the Properties and Permanent Deformation of the Asphalt Concrete Layers in Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tameemi Ahmed F.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Flexible or asphalt concrete pavement is the paving system most widely adopted all over the world. It has been recognized that there are many different types of the factors affecting the performance and durability of asphalt concrete pavement, including the service conditions, such as: the variation of temperature from mild to extremes and the repeated excessive axle loading as well as the inadequate quality of the raw materials. All of these when combined together are going to accelerate the occurrence of distresses in flexible pavement such as permanent deformation and fatigue cracking. As the result, there has an urgent need to enhance the ability of asphalt concrete mixture to resist distresses happened in pavement. Use of additives is one of the techniques adopted to improve pavement properties. It has been found that hydrated lime might be one of the effective additives because it is widely available and relatively cheap compared to other modifiers like polymers. This paper presents an experimental study of the hydrated-lime modified asphalt concrete mixtures. Five different percentages of the hydrated lime additive were investigated, namely (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 percent. The hydrated lime additive was used as partial replacement of limestone filler by total weight of the aggregate. The designed Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA concretes are for the application of three pavement courses, i.e. Surface, Leveling and Base. These mixtures are designed and tested following Marshall procedure and uniaxial repeated loading to evaluate permanent deformation at different temperatures of 20°C, 40°C and 60°C. The experimental results show that the addition of hydrated lime as a partial replacement of ordinary limestone mineral filler results a significant improvement on mechanical properties and the resistant to permanent deformation of the designed asphalt concrete mixtures.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Crumb Rubber Modified Stone Mastic Asphalt Pavement in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To prevent pavement distresses there are various solutions such as adopting new mix designs or utilisation of asphalt additives. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding crumb tyre rubber as an additive to SMA mixture performance properties. This study investigated the essential aspects of modified asphalt mixtures in order to better understand the influence of CRM modifiers on volumetric, mechanical, and stiffness properties of SMA mixture. In this study, virgin bitumen 80/100 penetration grade was used, modified with crumb rubber (CRM at five different modification levels, namely, 6%, 12%, 16%, and 20%, respectively, by weight of the bitumen. The appropriate amount of the added CRM was found to be 12% by weight of bitumen. This percentage results in the maximum level of stability. The resilient modulus (Mr of modified SMA samples including different percentages of CRM was obviously higher in comparison with that of unmodified samples.

  7. Test and Analysis of Bridge Transducers for Harvesting Energy from Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongduo ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Part of energies in asphalt pavement caused by vehicle can be converted into electric energy by piezoelectric transducer. A bridge-shaped transducer is selected to harvest energy because of its reasonable efficiency and moderate stiffness close to asphalt pavement. This paper is to compare the performance of Bridge transducers with trapezoidal, arc and arch structure through finite element analysis (FEA and laboratory test. Results show that the arch Bridge has higher energy conversion efficiency and the trapezoidal Bridge has stronger ability to resist pressure. For arc and trapezoidal Bridge, the maximum tensile stress and shear stress are both in the inner corner of contact area between cap and PZT (lead zirconate titanate disk. They were broken because of the cracking of PZT at the stress concentrations area. For arch Bridge, the maximum tensile stress increases with thickness of metal cap but decrease with modulus, and maximum shear stress decreases first and increases later with increasing thickness and modulus of metal cap. In laboratory test, its cracking area is shifted from edge to inner corner of contact area between cap and PZT disk with increasing thickness of metal cap. The electric potential generated by arch Bridge decreased with increasing thickness and modulus of metal cap. Under the load of 0.7 MPa, the electric potential is about 286 V for an arch Bridge transducer with 0.4mm thickness of stainless steel cap, and its storage electric energy is 0.6 mJ. The designed arch Bridge transducer is suggested as the optimum one for harvesting energy from asphalt pavement.

  8. Evaluation of Rutting Performance of Asphalt Mixture with Driving Wheel Pavement Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutting is common pavement distress, which leads to lower riding comfort for road users and high maintenance costs. One of the commonly used tests is the simulation test with wheel tracking devices. Here, a new rutting test system has been developed based on the “Driving Wheel Pavement Analyzer” (DWPA to evaluate the rutting performance of asphalt mixtures. This study conducted three types of rutting tests to validate feasibility, reliability, and accuracy of DWPA test. The results indicated that the DWPA test provided more information on ruts and enabled us to distinguish the performance of materials. The CDWPA index is better suited to reflect the rutting resistance of the material, which is highly correlated to the APA rutting index and the rutting test index of China according to the grey relational analysis results.

  9. Study on infrared differential thermal non-destructive testing technology of the permeability of hot mix asphalt pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duanyi; Shi, Jicun

    2017-06-01

    In order to non-destructive test (NDT) the permeability coefficient of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements fast, A methodology for assessing the permeability coefficient was proposed by infrared differential thermal testing of pavement after rain. The relationship between permeability coefficient and air voids of HMA specimen deter-mined. Finite element method (FEM) models were built to calculate the surface temperature difference with different exposure time after precipitation. Simulated solar radiation source and fully saturated plate specimens were set in laboratory, tests verify that the different exposure time the specimen surface temperature difference. Infrared differential thermal detection permeable pavement hardware and corresponding software developed. Based on many test results, the evaluation index and criteria of permeability coefficient of HMA pavements tested by infrared differential thermal were developed. The results showed that: There is correlation between air voids and permeability coefficient of HMA specimen. Permeability coefficient of HMA pavements can be determined by different surface temperature at different exposure time. 9:00 am - 14:00 pm is the best time to detect permeability coefficient by infrared differential thermal NDT. Permeable asphalt pavement permeability can be achieved by infrared detector quickly and continuously, a lane testing; Per the permeable assessment criteria, in-place pavements permeability coefficients can be accurately evaluated.

  10. GPR in road investigations - equipment tests and quality assurance of new asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikajärvi, Janne; Peisa, Kari; Herronen, Tomi; Aursand, Per Otto; Maijala, Pekka; Narbro, Anita

    2012-09-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was successfully used in road applications in the Nordic countries as a nondestructive test procedure during the last decade. In order to standardise the procedures, boost cooperation and share knowledge between Finland, Sweden and Norway, a joint Mara Nord project was launched in 2010, involving national transport administrations, universities, consultant companies and GPR manufacturers. One outcome of the project will be recommendations to guidelines on different GPR applications. Within the frame of the project test, measurements of the most common GPR units and antennas were carried out. The results show that all tested equipment produce good results, and differences between the varying techniques are highlighted. Quality assurance of new asphalt pavements can be performed with the help of GPR, by relating the measured dielectric value to the void content of the asphalt pavement. The current method used in Finland is analysed. Recommendations and proposals for developing the quality assurance are presented. The project is scheduled to end by summer 2012.

  11. The use of a non-nuclear density gauge for monitoring the compaction process of asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den bergh, Wim; Vuye, Cedric; Kara, Patricia; Couscheir, Karolien; Blom, Johan; Van Bouwel, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    The mechanical performance of an asphalt pavement affects its durability - thus carbon footprint. Many parameters contribute to the success of a durable asphalt mix, e.g. material selection, an accurate mix and even the road design in which the asphalt mix quality is quantified. The quality of the asphalt mix, by its mechanical properties, is also related to the compaction degree. However, and specifically for high volume rates, the laying process at the construction site needs an effective method to monitor and adjust immediately the compaction quality before cooling and without damaging the layer, which is now absent. In this paper the use of a non-nuclear density gauge (PQI - Pavement Quality Indicator) is evaluated, based on a site at Brussels Airport. Considering the outcome of the present research, this PQI is advised as a unique tool for continuous density measurements and allow immediate adjustments during compaction, and decreases the number of core drilling for quality control, and as a posteriori asphalt pavement density test where cores are prohibited. The use of PQI could be recommended to be a part of the standard quality control process in the Flemish region.

  12. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich; Korolev Evgeniy Valer’evich

    2015-01-01

    In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III) and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physica...

  13. Utilize Cementitious High Carbon Fly Ash (CHCFA) to Stabilize Cold In-Place Recycled (CIR) Asphalt Pavement as Base Coarse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Haifang; Li, Xiaojun; Edil, Tuncer; O' Donnell, Jonathan; Danda, Swapna

    2011-02-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of cementitious high carbon fly ash (CHCFA) stabilized recycled asphalt pavement as a base course material in a real world setting. Three test road cells were built at MnROAD facility in Minnesota. These cells have the same asphalt surface layers, subbases, and subgrades, but three different base courses: conventional crushed aggregates, untreated recycled pavement materials (RPM), and CHCFA stabilized RPM materials. During and after the construction of the three cells, laboratory and field tests were carried out to characterize the material properties. The test results were used in the mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide (MEPDG) to predict the pavement performance. Based on the performance prediction, the life cycle analyses of cost, energy consumption, and greenhouse gasses were performed. The leaching impacts of these three types of base materials were compared. The laboratory and field tests showed that fly ash stabilized RPM had higher modulus than crushed aggregate and RPM did. Based on the MEPDG performance prediction, the service life of the Cell 79 containing fly ash stabilized RPM, is 23.5 years, which is about twice the service life (11 years) of the Cell 77 with RPM base, and about three times the service life (7.5 years) of the Cell 78 with crushed aggregate base. The life cycle analysis indicated that the usage of the fly ash stabilized RPM as the base of the flexible pavement can significantly reduce the life cycle cost, the energy consumption, the greenhouse gases emission. Concentrations of many trace elements, particularly those with relatively low water quality standards, diminish over time as water flows through the pavement profile. For many elements, concentrations below US water drinking water quality standards are attained at the bottom of the pavement profile within 2-4 pore volumes of flow.

  14. Evaluation of the Pavement Quality Indicator (PQI for the on-site density measurement of asphalt emulsion mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Echevarría, M. J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pavement Quality Indicator (PQI is a non-nuclear gauge used for the on-site density measurement of asphalt pavements without the need to extract core samples. Previous studies of hot asphalt mixes found that PQI density readings were very similar to laboratory density measurements of pavement cores. This paper describes the first stage of a research project whose objective is to analyze PQI density measurements of mixes manufactured with an asphalt emulsion binder. The PQI density variability for such mixes was verified and compared with the results obtained with other on-site methods for measuring pavement density.

    El equipo Pavement Quality Indicator es un dispositivo para la determinación de densidad in situ en pavimentos asfálticos sin extracción de testigos. Las experiencias con este equipo en mezclas bituminosas en caliente, recogidas en diferentes fuentes bibliográficas, muestran que las densidades medidas in situ con el PQI son muy similares a las obtenidas mediante la extracción de testigos. En este artículo se expone la primera etapa de un proyecto de investigación que tiene por objeto analizar los resultados de mediciones efectuadas con PQI en mezclas bituminosas donde se utiliza emulsión asfáltica como ligante. Se comprueba la variabilidad de la densidad obtenida con el equipo para este tipo de mezclas, y se comparan los resultados con otros métodos de medida de densidad in situ.

  15. Paver Asphalt Distress Manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shahin, M

    1997-01-01

    .... Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) in June 1989. It comprises an illustrated asphalt pavement distress manual suitable for use by pavement inspection personnel in the field or in pavement inspection training courses...

  16. Recommendations and strategies for using reclaimed asphalt pavement in the Flemish Region based on a first life cycle assessment research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den bergh, Wim; Kara, Patricia; Anthonissen, Joke; Margaritis, Alexandros; Jacobs, Geert; Couscheir, Karolien

    2017-09-01

    In Flanders, using Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) is allowed in asphalt mixes for base layers. Primary economic and secondary laboratory-measured mechanical properties are given as justification for higher amounts in specific mixes. However, one should evaluate the performance of these mixes on long-term by environmental impact of the production until end-of-life. In this paper recommendations and strategies for using RA, based on current research, are discussed in a broader perspective such as using a carbon-footprint tool and warm-mix asphalt production in the Flemish Region. The paper aims to a wide discussion by reporting several outcomes of laboratory research, statistics and practical application in order to set a general strategy for the road engineering sector in the Flemish Region.

  17. Advanced self-healing asphalt composites in the pavement performance field: mechanisms at the nano level and new repairing methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agzenai, Yahya; Pozuelo, Javier; Sanz, Javier; Perez, Ignacio; Baselga, Juan

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to give a global view of this field of research, in this mini-review we highlight the most recent publications and patents focusing on modified asphalt pavements that contain certain reinforcing nanoparticles which impart desirable thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. In response to the increasing cost of asphalt binder and road maintenance, there is a need to look for alternative technologies and new asphalt composites, able to self-repair, for preserving and renewing the existing pavements. First, we will focus on the self-healing property of asphalt, the evidences that support that healing takes place immediately after the contact between the faces of a crack, and how the amount of healing can be measured in both the laboratory and the field. Next we review the hypothetical mechanisms of healing to understand the material behaviour and establish models to quantify the damage-healing process. Thereafter, we outline different technologies, nanotechnologies and methodologies used for self-healing paying particular attention to embedded micro-capsules, new nano-materials like carbon nanotubes and nano-fibres, ionomers, and microwave and induction heating processes.

  18. Recycled asphalt pavement - fly ash geopolymers as a sustainable pavement base material: Strength and toxic leaching investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Menglim; Horpibulsuk, Suksun; Rachan, Runglawan; Chinkulkijniwat, Avirut; Arulrajah, Arul

    2016-12-15

    In this research, a low-carbon stabilization method was studied using Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and Fly Ash (FA) geopolymers as a sustainable pavement material. The liquid alkaline activator (L) is a mixture of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and high calcium FA is used as a precursor to synthesize the FA-RAP geopolymers. Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) of RAP-FA blend and RAP-FA geopolymer are investigated and compared with the requirement of the national road authorities of Thailand. The leachability of the heavy metals is measured by Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and compared with international standards. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of RAP-FA blend indicates the Calcium Aluminate (Silicate) Hydrate (C-A-S-H) formation, which is due to a reaction between the high calcium in RAP and high silica and alumina in FA. The low geopolymerization products (N-A-S-H) of RAP-FA geopolymer at NaOH/Na2SiO3=100:0 are detected at the early 7days of curing, hence its UCS is lower than that of RAP-FA blend. The 28-day UCS of RAP-FA geopolymers at various NaOH/Na2SiO3 ratios are significantly higher than that of the RAP-FA blend, which can be attributed to the development of geopolymerization reactions. With the input of Na2SiO3, the highly soluble silica from Na2SiO3 reacted with leached silica and alumina from FA and RAP and with free calcium from FA and RAP; hence the coexistence of N-A-S-H gel and C-A-S-H products. Therefore, the 7-day UCS values of RAP-FA geopolymers increase with decreasing NaOH/Na2SiO3 ratio. TCLP results demonstrated that there is no environmental risk for both RAP-FA blends and RAP-FA geopolymers in road construction. The geopolymer binder reduces the leaching of heavy metal in RAP-FA mixture. The outcomes from this research will promote the move toward increased applications of recycled materials in a sustainable manner in road construction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Measurements of the stiffness and thickness of the pavement asphalt layer using the enhanced resonance search method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nur Mustakiza; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md; Hardwiyono, Sentot; Nayan, Khairul Anuar Mohd; El-Shafie, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced resonance search (ERS) is a nondestructive testing method that has been created to evaluate the quality of a pavement by means of a special instrument called the pavement integrity scanner (PiScanner). This technique can be used to assess the thickness of the road pavement structure and the profile of shear wave velocity by using the principle of surface wave and body wave propagation. In this study, the ERS technique was used to determine the actual thickness of the asphaltic pavement surface layer, while the shear wave velocities obtained were used to determine its dynamic elastic modulus. A total of fifteen locations were identified and the results were then compared with the specifications of the Malaysian PWD, MDD UKM, and IKRAM. It was found that the value of the elastic modulus of materials is between 3929 MPa and 17726 MPa. A comparison of the average thickness of the samples with the design thickness of MDD UKM showed a difference of 20 to 60%. Thickness of the asphalt surface layer followed the specifications of Malaysian PWD and MDD UKM, while some of the values of stiffness obtained are higher than the standard.

  20. Measurements of the Stiffness and Thickness of the Pavement Asphalt Layer Using the Enhanced Resonance Search Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Mustakiza Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced resonance search (ERS is a nondestructive testing method that has been created to evaluate the quality of a pavement by means of a special instrument called the pavement integrity scanner (PiScanner. This technique can be used to assess the thickness of the road pavement structure and the profile of shear wave velocity by using the principle of surface wave and body wave propagation. In this study, the ERS technique was used to determine the actual thickness of the asphaltic pavement surface layer, while the shear wave velocities obtained were used to determine its dynamic elastic modulus. A total of fifteen locations were identified and the results were then compared with the specifications of the Malaysian PWD, MDD UKM, and IKRAM. It was found that the value of the elastic modulus of materials is between 3929 MPa and 17726 MPa. A comparison of the average thickness of the samples with the design thickness of MDD UKM showed a difference of 20 to 60%. Thickness of the asphalt surface layer followed the specifications of Malaysian PWD and MDD UKM, while some of the values of stiffness obtained are higher than the standard.

  1. A method based on machine learning using hand-crafted features for crack detection from asphalt pavement surface images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yusuke; Shimada, Koji; Ichihara, Manabu; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2017-03-01

    Application of machine vision is expected for efficiency and objectivity of inspection in various fields. Automation of visual inspection for asphalt pavement surface images is also expected, but it is difficult because of unexpected objects, non-uniform illumination and irregularities in the pavement surface. Many of conventional approaches are based on state-of-the-arts. However, there is a problem that the application conditions of these is limited. In this article, we proposed a new method based on state-of-the-art and machine learning for crack detection from asphalt pavement surface images. The classifier of the proposed method is the linear support vector machine, and it uses features proposed in the conventional study that is one of the state-of-the-art approaches. The proposed system need not a large number of training data, unlike deep learning architectures. It is easy to train the classifier to detect cracks using a GUI tool developed by authors. Quantitative evaluation using 100 road surface images obtained by mobile mapping system was performed to compare with our conventional method as one of state-of-the-art approaches. Experiments show that our proposed method clearly outperforms the state-of-the-art approach.

  2. Mechanical Response Analysis of Long-life Asphalt Pavement Structure of Yunluo High-speed on the Semi-rigid Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Wu, Chuanhai; Xu, Xinquan; Li, Hao; Wang, Zhixiang

    2018-01-01

    In order to grasp the rule of the strain change of the semi-rigid asphalt pavement structure under the FWD load and provide a reliable theoretical and practical basis for the design of the pavement structure, based on the test section of Guangdong Yunluo expressway, taking FWD as the loading tool, by using the finite element analysis software ANSYS, the internal variation rules of each pavement structural layer were obtained. Based on the results of the theoretical analysis, the measured strain sensor was set up in the corresponding layer of the pavement structure, and the strain test plan was determined. Based on the analysis of the strain data obtained from several structural layers and field monitoring, the rationality of the type pavement structure and the strain test scheme were verified, so as to provide useful help for the design and the maintenance of the pavement structure.

  3. Simulation of Permanent Deformation in High-Modulus Asphalt Pavement with Sloped and Horizontally Curved Alignment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mulian Zheng; Lili Han; Chongtao Wang; Zhanlei Xu; Hongyin Li; Qinglei Ma

    2017-01-01

    .... Based on the creep test, the Prony series representation of Burgers model parameters for different asphalt mixtures were obtained and used in the deformation simulation of a high-modulus asphalt...

  4. Evaluating the mechanical performance of Very Thin Asphalt Overlay (VTAO as a sustainable rehabilitation strategy in urban pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sol-Sánchez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Very Thin Asphalt Overlay (VTAO has been introduced as an alternative to traditional thick overlays, seal coats, and micro-surfacings. Nonetheless, there are some challenges that still remain regarding the application of VTAOs (such as mixture type, cohesiveness, wear resistance, cracking and durability, particularly in heavy traffic urban areas. Therefore, this paper presents an extensive comparative evaluation of the mechanical performance, durability and safety issues (cohesiveness, adhesiveness, ageing, cracking, plastic deformation, permeability, macrotexture, skid and wear resistance, and fuel resistance of a VTAO (20 mm thick and a high performance BBTM 11B (35 mm thick, commonly used as an open-graded mixture for pavement overlays. The results demonstrated that VTAO is an appropriate material for urban pavements as it provides good durability and resistance to the propagation of defects. Nonetheless, further studies are required to improve its behavior under distresses related to plastic deformations and safety properties.

  5. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Foreman, William T

    2014-05-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effect of fly ash on properties of crushed brick and reclaimed asphalt in pavement base/subbase applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadinia, Alireza; Arulrajah, Arul; Horpibulsuk, Suksun; Chinkulkijniwat, Avirut

    2017-01-05

    Fly Ash (FA), an abundant by-product with no carbon footprint, is a potential stabilizer for enhancing the physical and geotechnical properties of pavement aggregates. In this research, FA was used in different ratios to stabilize crushed brick (CB) and reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) for pavement base/subbase applications. The FA stabilization of CB and RAP was targeted to improve the strength and durability of these recycled materials for pavement base/subbase applications. The Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) and resilient modulus (MR) development of the stabilized CB and RAP aggregates was studied under room temperature and at an elevated temperatures of 40°C, and results compared with unbound CB and RAP. Analysis of atomic silica content showed that when the amount of silica and alumina crystalline was increased, the soil structure matrix deteriorated, resulting in strength reduction. The results of UCS and MR testing of FA stabilized CB and RAP aggregates indicated that FA was a viable binder for the stabilization of recycled CB and RAP. CB and RAP stabilized with 15% FA showed the highest UCS results at both room temperature and at 40°C. Higher temperature curing was also found to result in higher strengths. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and azaarenes in runoff from coal-tar- and asphalt-sealcoated pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Foreman, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal-tar-based sealcoat, used extensively on parking lots and driveways in North America, is a potent source of PAHs. We investigated how concentrations and assemblages of PAHs and azaarenes in runoff from pavement newly sealed with coal-tar-based (CT) or asphalt-based (AS) sealcoat changed over time. Samples of simulated runoff were collected from pavement 5 h to 111 d following application of AS or CT sealcoat. Concentrations of the sum of 16 PAHs (median concentrations of 328 and 35 μg/L for CT and AS runoff, respectively) in runoff varied relatively little, but rapid decreases in concentrations of azaarenes and low molecular weight PAHs were offset by increases in high molecular weight PAHs. The results demonstrate that runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement, in particular, continues to contain elevated concentrations of PAHs long after a 24-h curing time, with implications for the fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of contaminants in runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement.

  8. Investigation on Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR Specimen to Predict Moisture Sensitivity of Asphalt Pavements Mixture and Using Polymer to Reduce Moisture Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aziz Hameed Al-Shaybani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage of asphalt concrete is defined as losing the strength and Permanence caused by the active presence of moisture.The most common technique to reduce moisture damage is using modifiers with the asphalt binder or the aggregate.The goal of this study was to explore the effect of various modifiers of polymer on the moisture susceptibility mixture of asphaltic concrete pavement. Modifiers included in this research selected two kinds of polymers Crumb Rubber No 50 (CR No 50 and Methyl Methacrylates (MMA(which are available in the local markets in Iraq and have been used in three percentages for each type. These percentages are (5, 10 and 15% for (CR No 50 and (2.5, 5 and 7.5(% for (MMA.Each type of these polymers is blended with asphalt by wet process at constant blending times for a suitable range of temperatures. The experimental works showed that all polymers modified mixtures have indirect tensile strength higher than control asphalt mixtures, its about (2-15 %, dependent on different type of polymer and polymer concentration under predicted suitable blending time.Test results of indirect tensile strength indicated betterment in modifying the proprieties of mixture, the increased resistance mixture of asphalt concrete pavement versus moisture damage, and reduced the effect of water on asphalt concrete properties. The final result is the addition of (10% CR No 50 and (5% MMA to asphalt mixtures showed an improved mixture of asphalt concrete properties and produced strong mixtures for road construction.One model is predicted for tensile strength ratio [TSR]to estimate the effects of polymer modification on moisture susceptibility mixture of asphalt concrete.

  9. Alternate bidding strategies for asphalt and concrete pavement projects utilizing life cycle cost analysis (LCCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recent changes in pavement materials costs have impacted the competitive environment relative to the : determination of the most cost effective pavement structure for a specific highway project. In response, State : highway agencies have renewed thei...

  10. Rapid Detection Methods for Asphalt Pavement Thicknesses and Defects by a Vehicle-Mounted Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehua Dong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The thickness estimation of the top surface layer and surface layer, as well as the detection of road defects, are of great importance to the quality conditions of asphalt pavement. Although ground penetrating radar (GPR methods have been widely used in non-destructive detection of pavements, the thickness estimation of the thin top surface layer is still a difficult problem due to the limitations of GPR resolution and the similar permittivity of asphalt sub-layers. Besides, the detection of some road defects, including inadequate compaction and delamination at interfaces, require further practical study. In this paper, a newly-developed vehicle-mounted GPR detection system is introduced. We used a horizontal high-pass filter and a modified layer localization method to extract the underground layers. Besides, according to lab experiments and simulation analysis, we proposed theoretical methods for detecting the degree of compaction and delamination at the interface, respectively. Moreover, a field test was carried out and the estimated results showed a satisfactory accuracy of the system and methods.

  11. Rapid Detection Methods for Asphalt Pavement Thicknesses and Defects by a Vehicle-Mounted Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zehua; Ye, Shengbo; Gao, Yunze; Fang, Guangyou; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Xue, Zhongjun; Zhang, Tao

    2016-12-06

    The thickness estimation of the top surface layer and surface layer, as well as the detection of road defects, are of great importance to the quality conditions of asphalt pavement. Although ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods have been widely used in non-destructive detection of pavements, the thickness estimation of the thin top surface layer is still a difficult problem due to the limitations of GPR resolution and the similar permittivity of asphalt sub-layers. Besides, the detection of some road defects, including inadequate compaction and delamination at interfaces, require further practical study. In this paper, a newly-developed vehicle-mounted GPR detection system is introduced. We used a horizontal high-pass filter and a modified layer localization method to extract the underground layers. Besides, according to lab experiments and simulation analysis, we proposed theoretical methods for detecting the degree of compaction and delamination at the interface, respectively. Moreover, a field test was carried out and the estimated results showed a satisfactory accuracy of the system and methods.

  12. Comparing Production and Placement of Warm-Mix Asphalt to Traditional Hot-Mix Asphalt for Constructing Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    25  Figure 29. Sampling asphalt mixture from delivery trucks . ................................................................. 26...46  Table 8. Transport truck data...the material to a uniform 12-in. depth, pulverizing the material with a rotary mixer , adjusting the moisture content, pulverizing the material again

  13. Best practices for full-depth reclamation using asphalt emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Full depth reclamation of asphalt pavements using asphalt emulsions (AEFDR) is a process that recycles and rejuvenates the existing : asphalt pavement surface, base, and, sometimes, the subgrade, providing an improved underlying structure for the new...

  14. Use of NDT equipment for construction quality control of hot mix asphalt pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    The focus of the study has been to evaluate the utility of seismic methods in the quality management of the hot mix asphalt layers. Procedures are presented to measure the target field moduli of hot mix asphalt (HMA) with laboratory seismic methods, ...

  15. Monitoring hot mix asphalt temperature to improve homogeneity and pavement quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; Doree, Andries G.; Santagata, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how controlled compaction practices lead to better quality asphalt. Therefore, it is important that during compaction operations the mixture is at a suitable temperature in order to achieve the specified degree of compaction. The University of Twente’s Asphalt Paving Research

  16. Influence of limestone fillers on combustion characteristics of asphalt mortar for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Wu; Kai, Zhu; Wu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt materials will be ignited and release significant toxic fumes within tunnel fires. Thus, combustion characteristics of asphalt materials used in road tunnel should be studied in order to limit such an adverse effect. In the present work we study the influence of limestone fillers on combu...

  17. Creep recovery behaviour of bituminous binders - relevance to permanent deformation of asphalt pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mturi, GAJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available different modifiers has expanded the range of PMBs to select from when designing pavements in order to avoid pavement deformation. The new binder selection criterion using the Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery (MSCR) protocol as per ASTM D7405 is meant...

  18. Analysis of stiffness and fatigue resistance of cold recycled asphalt mixtures manufactured with foamed bitumen for their application to airfield pavement design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Lacalle-Jiménez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold recycled bound materials (CRBMs provide an economic and environmental advantage for pavements since they decrease energy and raw material consumption. However, design methods for airfield pavements do not include key CRBM properties. In this paper an empirical-mechanistic method is used to study airfield pavement design with CRBM in order to develop design guidance. The aim of the paper is to obtain the inputs related to material properties needed for use in this method. For this purpose, CRBM containing reclaimed asphalt, with fly ash, cement and foamed bitumen as stabilising agents, was characterised. The methodology included indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM and indirect tensile fatigue tests (ITFT in strain control mode. The inputs needed for a pavement design analysis with CRBM were then obtained. The results showed the importance of further study on CRBM fatigue to understand the behaviour of these mixes under cyclic loading.

  19. Improving the sustainability of asphalt pavements through developing a predictive model with fundamental material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This study presents the numerical implementation and validation of general constitutive relationships for describing the : nonlinear behavior of asphalt concrete mixes. These constitutive relationships incorporate nonlinear viscoelasticity and : visc...

  20. Characterization of HMA mixtures containing high reclaimed asphalt pavement content with crumb rubber additives : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    With the increase in hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures prices continuously climbing, highway agencies and owners are continually : searching for methods to decrease material costs and maximize their benefi ts with no compromise in performance. One su...

  1. A comparative analysis of modified binders : original asphalts and materials extracted from existing pavements : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The initial objective of this research was to develop procedures and standards for applying GPC as an analytical tool to define the percentage amounts of polymer modifiers in polymer modified asphalt cements soluble in eluting GPC solvents. Quantific...

  2. PECULIAR FEATURES OF HEAT-HUMIDITY MODE PERTAINING TO POROUS LAYERS OF ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V. Verenko; V. Sizov

    2012-01-01

    ... asphalt concrete on compact bedding can cause some deformations and destructions initiated due to humidity migration in large internal material pores and lead to material destruction during warm season...

  3. Infrared thermography-driven flaw detection and evaluation of hot mix asphalt pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This research was conducted to study more realistic explanations of how variables are created and : dealt with during hot mix asphalt (HMA) paving construction. Several paving projects across the : state of Nebraska have been visited where sensory de...

  4. Compaction of asphalt road pavements : using finite elements and critical state theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, Henderikus L.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate whether it is possible to develop a tool that enables simulation of a compaction process of asphalt for construction of roads, and how this is best done.

  5. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Nuha Salim Mashaan; Asim Hassan Ali; Mohamed Rehan Karim; Mahrez Abdelaziz

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in i...

  6. Determination of the heating temperature of potholes surface on road pavement in the process of repairs using hot asphalt concrete mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the process of roads construction the necessary transport and operational characteristics should be achieved, which depend on the quality of the applied, material and technologies. Under the loads of transport means and the influence of weather conditions on the road pavement deformations and destructions occur, which lead to worsening of transport and operational characteristics, decrease of operational life of the road and they are often the reason of road accidents. According to the data of the Strategic Research Center of "Rosgosstrah" more than 20 % of road accidents in Russia occur due to bad quality of road pavement. One of the main directions in traffic security control and prolongation of operational life for road pavement of non-rigid type is road works, as a result of which defects of pavement are eliminated and in case of timely repairs of high quality the operational life of the road increases for several years. The most widely used material for non-rigid pavement repairs is hot road concrete mixes and in case of adherence to specifications they provide high quality of works. The authors investigate the problems of hot asphalt concrete mixes for repairs of road surfaces of non-rigid type. The results of the study hot asphalt concrete mix’s temperature regimes are offered in case of repair works considering the temperature delivered to the work site and the ambient temperature depending on the type of mix and class of bitumen.

  7. Feasibility of perpetual pavement stage construction in China: A life cycle cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyin Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of pavement design and management is to build sustainable pavement structure with minimum costs during its whole life. There are many uncertainties in the process of pavement design pertaining many of its variables, such as future traffic estimation, long time behavior of materials, future weights and types of traveling vehicles, availability of funds etc. Therefore, it is important to apply pavement stage construction technique during the process of pavement design and management to minimize the risk associated with these uncertainties. From the beginning of 2000, the research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology has been deployed in China. The semi rigid base for asphalt pavement has been normally considered as typical component of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience since 1997. The research objective is to apply pavement stage construction for the evaluation of life cycle costs of Chinese perpetual and traditional semi rigid pavements using operational pavement management system in addition to examine its suitability for design and construction of more economical and durable flexible pavements. It has been found that the stage construction of asphalt layers in PP over semi rigid pavement foundation will create more sustainable and trusted pavement structures in spite of 2–5% increase in present total cost.

  8. Hot recycling of asphaltic concrete pavement : IR-15-3(8)121, Wildcat to Pine Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    There are various methods of pavement material recycling. This report is devoted to hot-mix plant recycling considerations and procedures. The several phases of the hot-mix recycling process are discussed separately, including removal and size reduct...

  9. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION USING KERNEL-BASED TECHNIQUES IN ASPHALT ROAD SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Miraliakbari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for the digital survey and acquisition of road pavement conditions, there is also the parallel growing need for the development of automated techniques for the analysis and evaluation of the actual road conditions. This is due in part to the resulting large volumes of road pavement data captured through digital surveys, and also to the requirements for rapid data processing and evaluations. In this study, the Canon 5D Mark II RGB camera with a resolution of 21 megapixels is used for the road pavement condition mapping. Even though many imaging and mapping sensors are available, the development of automated pavement distress detection, recognition and extraction systems for pavement condition is still a challenge. In order to detect and extract pavement cracks, a comparative evaluation of kernel-based segmentation methods comprising line filtering (LF, local binary pattern (LBP and high-pass filtering (HPF is carried out. While the LF and LBP methods are based on the principle of rotation-invariance for pattern matching, the HPF applies the same principle for filtering, but with a rotational invariant matrix. With respect to the processing speeds, HPF is fastest due to the fact that it is based on a single kernel, as compared to LF and LBP which are based on several kernels. Experiments with 20 sample images which contain linear, block and alligator cracks are carried out. On an average a completeness of distress extraction with values of 81.2%, 76.2% and 81.1% have been found for LF, HPF and LBP respectively.

  10. Estudo de misturas asfálticas com ligante modificado pelo polímero EVA para pavimentos urbanos de Manaus - AM Study of asphalt mixtures containing a binder modified with EVA polymer for use in urban pavements in Manaus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M. G. D'Antona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa buscou soluções com materiais alternativos visando à construção de pavimentos urbanos para Manaus (AM com maior vida útil e condizente com as suas condições de serviço, em particular, o seu desempenho mecânico frente às temperaturas regionais. Estudou-se o ligante regional, CAP 50/70, misturado com 4% do polímero EVA, e como partícipe em compósitos asfálticos. A incorporação do mencionado polímero teve como objetivo melhorar suas propriedades reológicas e, por conseguinte, o comportamento mecânico desse compósito - concreto asfáltico, empregado como revestimento nas vias urbanas da Capital do Estado do Amazonas. Os ligantes (virgem e modificado foram caracterizados conforme a especificação da ANP e a metodologia Superpave. As misturas asfálticas foram avaliadas pelo ensaio de fluência por compressão axial, com carregamento dinâmico à temperatura de 40 ºC. O material asfáltico modificado com EVA (AMP EVA demonstrou melhores propriedades reológicas ou equivalentes ao asfalto convencional (REMAN, ao longo de todos os ensaios de caracterização. As misturas alternativas compostas com o CAP modificado (SEVA obtiveram desempenho mecânico superior ao de misturas com cimento asfáltico habitualmente comercializado na região (SMAN.In this research we investigated alternative materials to build urban pavements in Manaus, seeking for pavements with longer lifetime for usage and suitable mechanical properties to withstand the local temperatures. The asphaltic mixtures contained a regional binder, namely CAP 50/70, mixed with 4% of EVA polymer. The incorporation of the latter polymer was aimed at improving the rheological properties of asphaltic concrete used in roads in the Amazonas' capital. The asphalt binders (original and modified were characterized in accordance with the ANP (National Petroleum Agency specification and the Superpave methodology. The asphalt mixtures had their mechanical properties

  11. Investigation of Self Consolidating Concrete Containing High Volume of Supplementary Cementitious Materials and Recycled Asphalt Pavement Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Varun chowdary

    The use of sustainable technologies such as supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs), and/or recycled materials is expected to positively affect the performance of concrete mixtures. However, it is important to study and qualify such mixtures and check if the required specifications of their intended application are met before they can be implemented in practice. This study presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Self Consolidating concrete (SCC) containing sustainable technologies. A total of twelve concrete mixtures were prepared with various combinations of fly ash, slag, and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). The mixtures were divided into three groups with constant water to cementitiuous materials ratio of 0.37, and based on the RAP content; 0, 25, and 50% of coarse aggregate replaced by RAP. All mixtures were prepared to achieve a target slump flow equal to or higher than 500 mm (24in). A control mixture for each group was prepared with 100% Portland cement whereas all other mixtures were designed to have up to 70% of portland cement replaced by a combination of supplementary cementitiuous materials (SCMs) such as class C fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag. The properties of fresh concrete investigated in this study include flowability, deformability; filling capacity, and resistance to segregation. In addition, the compressive strength at 3, 14, and 28 days, the tensile strength, and the unrestrained shrinkage up to 80 days was also investigated. As expected the inclusion of the sustainable technologies affected both fresh and hardened concrete properties. Analysis of the experimental data indicated that inclusion of RAP not only reduces the ultimate strength, but it also affected the compressive strength development rate. Moreover, several mixes satisfied compressive strength requirements for pavements and bridges; those mixes included relatively high percentages of SCMs and RAP. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is not

  12. Composition of abraded dust from asphalt pavement produced using ferrochromium smelter slag (OKTO-aggregate)

    OpenAIRE

    Makowska, Michalina; Leveinen, Jussi; Pellinen, Terhi; Marjamaa, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    This report describes an investigation that took place at Aalto University commissioned by the Finnish Transport Agency about asphalt dust containing OKTO-aggregate. In the fall of 2013, Finnish newspaper headlines began to raise the issue of the occurrence of damaged timing belts in the Oulu region. It seemed to only concern certain models and was found in the form of a dust. The press reasoned that this "mysterious" dust must have originated from the aggregates abraded from the local Oulu r...

  13. Evaluation of Warm-Mix Asphalt Technologies for Use on Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    technical letters ( ETLs ) and a guide specification were developed from this study. The first, ETL 11-3, was published in August 2011 and provides...general information and guidance. The second ETL and the guide specification, both under review, provide more specific guidance on design and...Technical Letter ( ETL ) to provide guidance on using WMA for military airfield pavements. It is expected that the implementation of this guidance

  14. Investigation of the Effect of Recycled Asphalt Pavement Material on Permeability and Bearing Capacity in the Base Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Güneş Seferoğlu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP and cement content on the permeability and bearing capacity characteristics of aggregate base courses. Mixtures containing untreated RAP ranging between 0 and 100 percent and 1, 2, and 3% cement-treated RAP were subjected to laboratory tests (bitumen content, sieve analysis, modified proctor, soaked California bearing ratio (CBR, and constant-level permeability tests. The results showed that, as the RAP percentage in the mixture increased, CBR values decreased considerably. Moreover, there is a linear increase in the CBR values with cement treatment. Optimum moisture contents (OMC and maximum dry densities (MDD showed a decreasing trend. Increasing the cement percentages in 100% RAP blend increases the OMC and MDD values. The permeability of RAP showed a decrease as the percentage of RAP and cement increased in blends. The study showed that the CBR value of the 20% RAP blend is also obtained in the 100% RAP/3% cement-treated blend. Thus, it has been understood that cement is a suitable material in order to increase the use of RAP. In addition, the increase in the percentage of RAP and cement made the base course more impermeable.

  15. ANALYSIS INFLUENCE OF CEMENT OF THE ASPHALT PAVEMENT DEMOLITION MATERIAL ON ROADS SEMARANG-DEMAK-INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pratikso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine levels of cement that can be used for the top layer foundation (base course with recycled asphalt materials mixed cement on road rehabilitation Semarang – Demak. T his study uses an experimenta l method in the laboratory with a cylindrical specimen diameter of 7 cm height of 14 cm made of cement content variation 0%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6% and 7.5% is use d for testing the uncondifined compressive strength / (UCS at the age of 7 days, 21 days, 14 days and 28 days. The results show that the addition of cement content w ill increase the value of the dry weight insignificantly, but will rise UCS value significantly and utilization of scratching asphalt cement with added material from these lab oratory experiments can increase the carrying capacity CTRB construction. Levels of cement that meets the requirements of Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS for the construction of Cement Treated Recycling Base (CTRB is between 6% to 7.5%. Acc ording to the results of research it is economically to used cement content a t average of 6.75% for road rehabilitation works Semara ng - Demak has met the required UCS test.

  16. Certification Tests on Cold Patch Asphalt Repair Materials for Use in Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    calculating the amount of bitumen absorbed by the aggregate, and in providing target values for the compaction of pav- ing mixtures (ASTM D2041). A weighed...pavement structure consisted of 5 in. of HMA over 8 in. of limestone, 6 in. of stabilized clay gravel, 16 in. of clay gravel and, finally, the...test section. HMA Limestone Stabilized Clay Gravel Clay Gravel Subgrade 5” 8” 6” 16 ERDC/GSL TR-10-14 30 Repairs The test area

  17. Application of a bio-binder as a rejuvenator for wet processed asphalt shingles in pavement construction

    OpenAIRE

    OLDHAM, Daniel J.; Ellie H. Fini; Chailleux, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the merits of application of bio-binder to enhance rheological properties of asphalt binder in the presence of wet processed recycled asphalt shingles (RAS). It will further examine the performance and workability of asphalt designed with and without a specified percentage of a bio-binder produced from swine manure and RAS. Bio-binder was introduced to liquid asphalt binder modified with four different percentages of RAS; the high and low temperature properties of each...

  18. The Fate of Pollutants in Porous Asphalt Pavements, Laboratory Experiments to Investigate Their Potential to Impact Environmental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Susanne M; Beddow, Jamie; Nnadi, Ernest O

    2017-06-21

    Pervious Paving Systems (PPS) are part of a sustainable approach to drainage in which excess surface water is encouraged to infiltrate through their structure, during which potentially toxic elements, such as metals and hydrocarbons are treated by biodegradation and physical entrapment and storage. However, it is not known where in the PPS structure these contaminants accumulate, which has implications for environmental health, particularly during maintenance, as well as consequences for the recycling of material from the PPS at the end-of-life. A 1 m³ porous asphalt (PA) PPS test rig was monitored for 38 months after monthly additions of road sediment (RS) (367.5 g in total) and unused oil (430 mL in total), characteristic of urban loadings, were applied. Using a rainfall simulator, a typical UK rainfall rate of 15 mm/h was used to investigate its efficiency in dealing with contamination. Water quality of the effluent discharged from the rig was found to be suitable for discharge to most environments. On completion of the monitoring, a core was taken down through its surface, and samples of sediment and aggregate were taken. Analysis showed that most of the sediment remained in the surface course, with metal levels lower than the original RS, but higher than clean, unused aggregate or PA. However, even extrapolating these concentrations to 20 years' worth of in-service use (the projected life of PPS) did not suggest their accumulation would present an environmental pollution risk when carrying out maintenance of the pavement and also indicates that the material could be recycled at end-of-life.

  19. The Fate of Pollutants in Porous Asphalt Pavements, Laboratory Experiments to Investigate Their Potential to Impact Environmental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne M. Charlesworth

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pervious Paving Systems (PPS are part of a sustainable approach to drainage in which excess surface water is encouraged to infiltrate through their structure, during which potentially toxic elements, such as metals and hydrocarbons are treated by biodegradation and physical entrapment and storage. However, it is not known where in the PPS structure these contaminants accumulate, which has implications for environmental health, particularly during maintenance, as well as consequences for the recycling of material from the PPS at the end-of-life. A 1 m3 porous asphalt (PA PPS test rig was monitored for 38 months after monthly additions of road sediment (RS (367.5 g in total and unused oil (430 mL in total, characteristic of urban loadings, were applied. Using a rainfall simulator, a typical UK rainfall rate of 15 mm/h was used to investigate its efficiency in dealing with contamination. Water quality of the effluent discharged from the rig was found to be suitable for discharge to most environments. On completion of the monitoring, a core was taken down through its surface, and samples of sediment and aggregate were taken. Analysis showed that most of the sediment remained in the surface course, with metal levels lower than the original RS, but higher than clean, unused aggregate or PA. However, even extrapolating these concentrations to 20 years’ worth of in-service use (the projected life of PPS did not suggest their accumulation would present an environmental pollution risk when carrying out maintenance of the pavement and also indicates that the material could be recycled at end-of-life.

  20. Design and evaluation of foamed asphalt base materials : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Foamed asphalt stabilized base (FASB) combines reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), : recycled concrete (RC), and/or graded aggregate base (GAB) with a foamed asphalt : binder to produce a partially stabilized base material. Although widely used, most :...

  1. Performance Evaluation of Asphalt Modified with Municipal Wastes for Sustainable Pavement Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasir Amin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The severe hot temperature and high traffic loadings in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are causing distress in flexible pavements within a few years of service. Secondly, the conventional bitumen extracted from Saudi oil refineries have a performance grade of 64-10 (PG 64-10, which does not meet the SuperPave performance grade requirement for most of the KSA’s regions. In order to improve the performance grade of bitumen, different percentages of municipal wastes (plastic and crumb rubber were used as bitumen additives. The performance of bitumen at low, intermediate, and high temperatures was evaluated. This is important as the waste production is rising significantly due to the fast urbanization and high population growth in the KSA. Particularly, when there are very few ways of recycling these wastes (municipal, as well as industrial, which in fact have great impact on the environment. High-density polyethylene (HDP, low-density polyethylene (LDP, and crumb rubber (CR with 5%, 10%, and 15% by weight of bitumen, were mixed with the base bitumen (PG 64-10. Rotational viscometer (RV, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, and bending beam rheometer (BBR were used to evaluate the viscosity, rutting, fatigue, and low-temperature behavior of base and modified binders. The test results indicated that the rutting (permanent deformation and fatigue resistance were significantly improved in modified binders due to the improvement in the visco-elastic properties.

  2. Experimental study on the impact of rain water puddle of asphalt pavement structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairuddin, Firdaus

    2017-11-01

    This research was the study case of Jalan Dr. Wahidin Sudiro Husodo's Segment, Makassar. Makassar City is a city area of eastern Indonesia, but they often found the road flooded during the rainy season, as a result there are few roads damaged by stagnant water, such as Jalan Dr. Wahidin Sudiro Husodo. STA.0 + 900 - STA. 1 + 200 there is a pattern of damage stripping, raveling, pothole. Rainfall data from the Meteorological agency of Makassar notes starting from January to December of 2010 and January of 2011 until mid-August rainfall reached 368 mm / mo. Sampling from jalan Dr. Wahidin Sudiro Husodo Makassar (Sta.0 + 900 - Sta. 1 + 200) by means of cores using the tool coredrill. Next is conducting laboratory tests starting from cutting the sample, weighing, soaking, accumulation of wet, drying surface, decomposition of the sample, manufacture briquette. Further test Density (SNI 03-2828 - 1992) Stability test, testing asphalt content (SNI 03-3640 - 1994), testing Aggregate gradation (SNI 03-1968 - 1990). The number of samples taken there were 12 points. Sampling starts from the left side and then on the right road sample of 12 points. on stability testing using the Marshall test only produced four pieces of sample A1, A2, B1 and A1 B2. The result of gradation on the sample can be seen from the graph that% larger sieve contained in No. ½ "which has a value of 73.37. The results of the samples graded B1 of grading results can also be seen from the graph that% larger sieve contained in No. ½ "which has a value of 87.35%. In sample B2 can also be seen from the graph that% larger sieve contained in No. ½ "which has a value of 87.53.

  3. Fundametal Study On Permeability Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    川口, 基広; 建部, 英博

    1997-01-01

    This study aimed at the thing which develops a water permeability pavement which improved a drainage pavement. Then it examined possibility of the permeability pavement which can secure water permeability and strength, which it uses water granulated iron-blast-furnace slag in subgrade roadbed and it makes an asphalt mixture mix a stainless steel fiber, to solve a problem of permeability pavement

  4. Use of Recycling Building Demolition waste As Coarse Aggregate in Hot Mix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil I. Al- Sarrag* Hanaa Khaleel A Suham E. Saleh Al-Maliky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At the recent years in Iraq, building demolition increase because of wars and the processes of destruction that lead to increase concrete waste, causing extreme pressure on the available land-filled sites that’s becomes a new challenge to local environment, in addition to south region from country poor from aggregate source.  So this study make as first evaluation to return use concrete aggregate for old and demolition building in concrete asphalt mix, the concrete aggregate obtained from building to live long more than 20 years after crash reinforcement concrete and sieving to get requirement granular particle to make locally asphalt mixture (Type IIIB depends on modified specification of State Commission of Roads and Bridges (2003 with percent (0,25,50,75,100% from weight of coarse aggregate.  Asphalt mixtures were tested by Marshall test, Indirect tensile strength test, and the loss of stability test.

  5. Quantifying Asphalt Emulsion-Based Chip Seal Curing Times Using Electrical Resistance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Chip sealing typically consists of covering a pavement surface with asphalt emulsion into which aggregate chips are embedded. The asphalt emulsion cures through the evaporation of water, thus providing mechanical strength to adhere to the pavement wh...

  6. Proposed design method for large-stone asphalt and the implementation thereof in the rehabilitation of an airport pavement.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, JE

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of a design procedure for large-stone asphalt, the implementation thereof in two sets of trial sections, the correlation of engineering properties obtained in the laboratory with field properties...

  7. Study of lime vs. no lime in cold in-place recycled asphalt concrete pavements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    The resilient characteristics of cold in-place recycled asphalt concrete with and without lime were examined. Six core samples were obtained from a site two months after construction; six months later, six additional core samples were obtained from t...

  8. Wear resistant pavement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the construction of three special pavement test sections on I-90 east of Spokane, Washington. The test sections included ultra-thin and thin whitetopping, Modified Class D open graded asphalt concrete, and micro/macro surfacing ...

  9. Potential for Potable Water Savings in Buildings by Using Stormwater Harvested from Porous Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Niehuns Antunes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about the scarcity of water resources due to population growth and increased demand for potable water. Thus, the rational use of water has become necessary for the conservation of such resources. The objective of this study is to estimate the potential for potable water savings in buildings of different sectors—residential, public and commercial—in the city of Florianópolis, southern Brazil, by using stormwater harvested from porous pavements. Models were constructed to assess infiltration and rainwater quality; samples of stormwater from a local road were collected to evaluate its quality; and computer simulation was performed to assess the potential for potable water savings and rainwater tank sizing. Draining asphalt concrete slabs with two types of modifiers were used, i.e., tire rubber and SBS polymer—styrene-butadiene-styrene. The Netuno computer programme was used to simulate the potential for potable water savings considering the use of rainwater for non-potable uses such as flushing toilets and urinals, cleaning external areas, and garden watering. Average stormwater infiltration was 85.4%. It was observed that stormwater is not completely pure. From the models, the pH was 5.4 and the concentrations of ammonia, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen were 0.41, 0.14, 0.002, and 9.0 mg/L, respectively. The results for the stormwater runoff of a paved road were 0.23, 0.11, 0.12, 0.08, 1.41, 2.11, 0.02, and 9.0 mg/L for the parameters aluminium, ammonia, copper, chromium, iron, phosphorus, nitrite, and dissolved oxygen, respectively; and the pH was 6.7. In the city of Florianópolis, which has a surface area of paved roads of approximately 11,044,216 m², the potential for potable water savings ranged from 1.2% to 19.4% in the residential sector, 2.1% to 75.7% in the public sector and 6.5% to 70.0% in the commercial sector.

  10. Validation of asphalt mixture pavement skid prediction model and development of skid prediction model for surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Pavement skid resistance is primarily a function of the surface texture, which includes both microtexture and macrotexture. Earlier, under the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Research Project 0-5627, the researchers developed a method to p...

  11. Operational properties of nanomodified stone mastic asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the lifetime and to improve the quality of pavements made of asphalt concrete it is necessary to apply innovative solutions in the process of design of such building materials. In order to solve the problem of low durability of asphalt concrete a modifier was proposed, which consists of diatomite, iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Application of the diatomite with nanoscale layer of nanomodifier allows getting a stone mastic asphalt, which has high values of physical and mechanical properties and allows refusing from expensive stabilizing additive. Mineral filler was replaced by diatomite, which has been modified by iron hydroxide sol (III and silica sol. Modified diatomite allows sorption of bitumen and increase the cohesive strength and resistance to shear at positive temperatures. The modified asphalt has higher resistance to rutting at high temperature, abrasion resistance at low temperature and impact of climatic factors: alternate freezing and thawing, wetting-drying, UV and IR radiations. It is achieved by formation of solid and dense bitumen film at the phase interface and controlling the content of light fractions of the bitumen. The modifier consists of sol of iron hydroxide, which blocks the oxidation and polymerization of bitumen during operation. The proposed material allows controlling the initial structure formation of stone mastic asphalt. It was shown that modern test methods allow assessing the durability of asphalt in the design phase compositions.

  12. Pavement performance evaluation, phase II : data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Phase I and II of this study tested approximately 1500 rehabilitated pavements (asphalt and PCC) : throughout the State. These pavements ranged from 5 to 15 years old and were intended to develop a : snapshot of how various rehabilitations were perfo...

  13. Long-term pavement performance monitoring and the revision of performance criteria for high modulus asphalt in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enrobé à Module Élevé (EME) technology, a High Modulus Asphalt (HiMA), was originally developed in France. The technology is primarily suitable for construction of heavily trafficked routes, airports and container terminals. The key performance...

  14. The shakeout scenario: Meeting the needs for construction aggregates, asphalt, and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    An Mw 7.8 earthquake as described in the ShakeOut Scenario would cause significantdamage to buildings and infrastructure. Over 6 million tons of newly mined aggregate would be used for emergency repairs and for reconstruction in the five years following the event. This aggregate would be applied mostly in the form of concrete for buildings and bridges, asphalt or concrete for pavement, and unbound gravel for applications such as base course that goes under highway pavement and backfilling for foundations and pipelines. There are over 450 aggregate, concrete, and asphalt plants in the affected area, some of which would be heavily damaged. Meeting the increased demand for construction materials would require readily available permitted reserves, functioning production facilities, a supply of cement and asphalt, a source of water, gas, and electricity, and a trained workforce. Prudent advance preparations would facilitate a timely emergency response and reconstruction following such an earthquake. ?? 2011, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  15. Modified Asphalt Binder with Natural Zeolite for Warm Mix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravský Marián

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, warm mix asphalt (WMA is becoming more and more used in the asphalt industry. WMA provide a whole range of benefits, whether economic, environmental and ecological. Lower energy consumption and less pollution is the most advantages of this asphalt mixture. The paper deals with the addition of natural zeolite into the sub base asphalt layers, which is the essential constituent in the construction of the road. Measurement is focused on basic physic – mechanical properties declared according to the catalog data sheets. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ability of addition the natural zeolite into the all asphalt layers of asphalt pavement. All asphalt mixtures were compared with reference asphalt mixture, which was prepared in reference temperature.

  16. Modified Asphalt Binder with Natural Zeolite for Warm Mix Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubravský, Marián; Mandula, Ján

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, warm mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more and more used in the asphalt industry. WMA provide a whole range of benefits, whether economic, environmental and ecological. Lower energy consumption and less pollution is the most advantages of this asphalt mixture. The paper deals with the addition of natural zeolite into the sub base asphalt layers, which is the essential constituent in the construction of the road. Measurement is focused on basic physic - mechanical properties declared according to the catalog data sheets. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ability of addition the natural zeolite into the all asphalt layers of asphalt pavement. All asphalt mixtures were compared with reference asphalt mixture, which was prepared in reference temperature.

  17. Resilient response characterisation of hot-mix asphalt mixes for a new South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The South Africa National Road Agency Ltd (SANRAL) is in the process of revising the South African Pavement Design Method (SAPDM). A necessary part of this programme is to develop resilient response models. Dynamic (complex) modulus has been used...

  18. 78 FR 26847 - Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... data from three pavement types: dense-graded asphaltic concrete (DGAC), open-graded asphaltic concrete... to consider a wider range of asphaltic concrete and PCC pavements within the agency's traffic noise... Federal Highway Administration Including Specific Pavement Types in Federal-aid Highway Traffic Noise...

  19. Asphalt mix characterization using dynamic modulus and APA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    final report summarizes two research efforts related to asphalt mix characterization: dynamic modulus and Asphalt Pavement Analyzer testing. One phase of the research consisted of a laboratory-based evaluation of dynamic modulus of Oregon dense-grade...

  20. Appropriate models for estimating stresses and strains in asphalt layers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jooste, FJ

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The broad objective is to make recommendations for appropriate modelling procedures to be used in the structural design of asphalt layers. Findings of this investigation are intended to be used in refining and validating existing asphalt pavement...

  1. Assessment of Quality of Asphalt Concrete used in Road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of asphalt concrete used for pavement construction in southwest Nigeria was carried out to determine the causes of untimely failure of newly constructed/rehabilitated asphalt roads. Samples of asphalt concrete and bitumen were collected from three asphalt plants selected for the study. Samples from each plant ...

  2. Calculation of the temperature of asphalt concrete at making the joints of multilane road pavement of non-rigid type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The construction quality of road surface of non-rigid type essentially depend on providing the temperature regimes in the process of laying and packing of hot asphalt concrete mixtures. In order to provide the required characteristics of asphalt concrete due to the surface width it is necessary to provide the temperature regimes of hot asphalt concrete mixture in the zones of lane connection. The hot mixture is promptly cooling right after laying within several minutes, which results, according to the construction technology and the specific conditions of work production, in temperature abuse of the mixture at joints of the lanes at packing. The authors present the analysis of the technology of arranging multilane road surface by one paver with the possibility of heating the surface lane edge with the temperature of the adjacent lane. The results of the studies of the production conditions effect on the temperature of edge heating of the previously laid lanes, and the time required to achieve the maximum heating temperature depending on the relative thickness of coating layers.

  3. Effect of Mineral Filler Type and Particle Size on the Engineering Properties of Stone Mastic Asphalt Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Muniandy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines four types of industrial and by-product waste fillers, namely limestone dust (LSD, which was the reference filler; ceramic waste dust (CWD; coal fly ash (CFA, and steel slag mixture (SSD. The filler consisted of an aggregate (10% of total weight with three proportions: 100% passing 75μm, 50% passing 75μm/20μm, and 100% passing 20μm. Comprehensive laboratory tests were performed to determine the impact of different types and particle sizes of fillers on the engineering and mechanical properties of fine mastics and stone mastic asphalt mixture. The results indicate that the application of industrial by-products used as fillers improves the engineering properties of stone mastic asphalt mixtures. The increased stiffness due to the addition of the filler is represented by an increase in the softening point, viscosity, stability, and resilient modulus, as well as a decrease in penetration. The optimum asphalt content increased with the decrease in filler particle size for LSD and SSD, and decreased for CWD and CFA. It was also determined that the filler type and particle size has a significant effect on the mixture properties. Among these three proportions, the samples prepared with the filler size proportion of 50/50 gave the best value in terms of stability, Marshall quotient, and resilient modulus than the other filler size proportions.

  4. Evaluation of tack coating practices for asphalt overlays in Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The strength of the bond between asphalt layers affects the lifespan of pavement structures. It is also a key factor in preventing major pavement distresses, such as slippage cracking and delamination. This research project evaluates and compares the...

  5. Riding Quality Model for Asphalt Pavement Monitoring Using Phase Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiya Yoshikazu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There are difficulties associated with near-real time or frequent pavement monitoring, because it is time consuming and costly. This study aimed to develop a binary logit model for the evaluation of highway riding quality, which could be used to monitor pavement conditions. The model was applied to investigate the influence of backscattering values of Phase Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR. Training data obtained during 3–7 May 2007 was used in the development process, together with actual international roughness index (IRI values collected along a highway in Ayutthaya province, Thailand. The analysis showed that an increase in the backscattering value in the HH or the VV polarization indicated the poor condition of the pavement surface and, of the two, the HH polarization is more suitable for developing riding quality evaluation. The model developed was applied to analyze highway number 3467, to demonstrate its capability. It was found that the assessment accuracy of the prediction of the highway level of service was 97.00%. This is a preliminary study of the proposed technique and more intensive investigation must be carried out using ALOS/PALSAR images in various seasons.

  6. Mathematical and experimental investigations of modeling, simulation and experiment to promote the life-cycle of polymer modified asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The formulation of constitutive equations for asphaltic pavement is based on rheological models which include the asphalt mixture, additives, and the bitumen. In terms of the asphalt, the rheology addresses the flow and permanent deformation in time,...

  7. State-of-the-art and prospect for self-healing asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong

    2017-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of asphalt concrete pavement cracks, this paper summarizes the principle of self-healing asphalt concrete, and describes asphalt concrete self-healing technology in various countries. This paper also analyses the factors of influencing the self-healing ability of asphalt concrete and the evaluation index, and describes the prospect of asphalt concrete self-healing technology.

  8. Application of CalME incremental-recursive method to the evaluation of the structural condition as asphalt pavements; Aplicacion del metodo recursivo-incremental CalME a la evaluacion del estado estructural de los pavimentos bituminosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos Moreno, A.; Perez Ayuso, J.; Cadavid Jauregui, B.; Marron Fernandez, J. O.

    2011-07-01

    CalME procedure represents one of the most advanced tools for the design, of flexible pavements world-wide. It is an incremental-recursive method, which means that pavements service life must be divided into many time intervals where both structural integrity and environmental conditions can be regarded as constants. It also means that the damage calculated at the end of each interval must be considered as initial condition for the next one. The goal of this type of models is the prediction of the evolution of the different distress mechanisms. The advantages of incremental-recursive procedures versus classical analytical design are shown in this paper. Advantages are shown not only in terms of design, but also as a tool in order to support structural evaluation. In particular, the potential of asphalt fatigue model incorporated in CalME is presented. this model is initially calibrated in the laboratory, and it is then re-calibrated based on the actual performance observed from field deflection testing. The model provides a reliable prediction of the future evolution of the damage of the asphalt mixture. Fatigue model validation has been conducted based on the performance from several flexible sections evaluated in CEDEX full-scale pavements test track. (Author) 14 refs.

  9. Evaluation of Long-Life Concrete Pavement Practices for Use in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Current Florida construction practices produce asphalt pavements with a service life of 12 to 20 years before needing rehabilitation; concrete pavements are typically designed for 20 years. However, pavements with much longer design lives are possibl...

  10. Performance and cost effectiveness of permeable friction course (PFC) pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    In this project, the research team evaluated the performance of Permeable Friction Courses (PFC) over time and compared it against other types of wearing surface pavement layers. Several pavement sections including Asphalt Rubber (AR) PFCs, Performan...

  11. The Concrete and Pavement Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as…

  12. Environmental performance and mechanical analysis of concrete containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and waste precast concrete as aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Savaş; Blankson, Marva Angela

    2014-01-15

    The overall objective of this research project was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating 100% recycled aggregates, either waste precast concrete or waste asphalt planning, as replacements for virgin aggregates in structural concrete and to determine the mechanical and environmental performance of concrete containing these aggregates. Four different types of concrete mixtures were designed with the same total water cement ratio (w/c=0.74) either by using natural aggregate as reference or by totally replacing the natural aggregate with recycled material. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) was used as a mineral addition (35%) in all mixtures. The test results showed that it is possible to obtain satisfactory performance for strength characteristics of concrete containing recycled aggregates, if these aggregates are sourced from old precast concrete. However, from the perspective of the mechanical properties, the test results indicated that concrete with RAP aggregate cannot be used for structural applications. In terms of leaching, the results also showed that the environmental behaviour of the recycled aggregate concrete is similar to that of the natural aggregate concrete. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lead and zinc removal with storage period in porous asphalt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Porous asphalt pavements have been used as an effective technique to overcome road runoff challenges, and to improve efficiency of rainwater utilisation in urban areas. Using porous asphalt pavements with reservoir storage and harvesting facilities is an important consideration for the future. This study monitored ...

  14. Cement stabilized red earth as building block and structural pavement layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. RAMA SUBBARAO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Red Earth is most commonly used as material in the building and road construction. Many a times, the red earth found in various quarries is found not suitable for construction. Cement of 4 and 8% of dry mass of red earth was added to improve its suitability as building block and structural pavement material. To know the influence of waste plastic fiber on cement stabilized red earth, 1% fiber was also added to the mixture. It is shown that the compressive strength of cement stabilized red earth blocks was improved with seven days of curing. The addition of cement to red earth enhanced soaked CBR value. The soaked CBR value of fiber reinforced cement stabilized red earth was about 1.3 to 1.5 times that of unreinforced cement stabilized red earth.

  15. POROUS-MASTIC ASPHALT-CONCRETE MIXTURES AND THEIR UTILIZATION HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudokonenko Anton Aleksandrovich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject: a rapid increase in the traffic intensity and freight traffic on motor roads leads to premature destruction of road surfaces. At the same time, the actual service life of asphalt-concrete pavements rarely exceeds 4-5 years and in most cases is only 2-3 years. Most intensively defects and fractures appear on asphalt-concrete pavements in the early spring. Nowadays the overhaul intervals for the road surface coverings are significantly lower than those given by the regulatory requirements. One of the main reasons for this phenomenon is the use of obsolete technologies based on traditional materials whose properties are inadequate to resist stresses and deformations arising in the coating. This is especially evident in the climatic conditions of the south of the European part of Russia, where the upper layers of the roadway experience a much wider range of temperatures. Tighter requirements for the initial road-building materials and timely repair of the coatings allow us to increase the service life of motor roads. Research objectives: the aim of the study is to develop a new type of asphalt-concrete, such as porous-mastic one. Materials and methods: the work was carried out based on observations and published sources, a method of theoretical study and analysis. Results: the domestic and foreign experience of using the given asphalt concrete for the top layer of the coating was considered. The technology of preparation and laying of a porous-mastic asphalt-concrete mixture is presented and its advantages and disadvantages are shown. Conclusions: increasing the longevity of highways is an important and urgent task and it can be solved, in particular, due to the wide use of new technologies and non-traditional building materials that allow us to improve the quality of asphalt-concrete pavement and prolong its overhaul intervals.

  16. Validity of multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test for DOTD asphalt binder specification : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Higher traffic coupled with heavier loads led the asphalt industry to introduce polymer-modified binders to enhance the durability and strength of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. When the Superpave Performance Graded (PG) binder specification (AASHT...

  17. Development of asphalts and pavements using recycled tire rubber. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Technical progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J. [and others

    1996-06-01

    About 285 million tires are discarded every year; less than 100 million are currently being recycled, with the rest being placed in landfills and other waste sites. A solution to reduce the littering of the environment is to use ground tire rubber in road construction. Currently, about 27 million tons of asphalt are used each year in road construction and maintenance of the country`s 2 million miles of roads. If all of the waste tire rubber could be combined with asphalt in road construction, it would displace less than 6% of the total asphalt used each year, yet could save about 60 trillion Btus annually. Purpose of this project is to provide data needed to optimize the performance of rubber-asphalt concretes. The first phase is to develop asphalts and recycling agents tailored for compatibility with ground tire rubber. Chapter 2 presents results on Laboratory Testing and Evaluation: fractionate asphalt material, reblending for aromatic asphalts, verifying optimal curing parameters, aging of blends, and measuring ductilities of asphalt-rubber binders. Chapter 3 focuses on Evaluating Mixture Characteristics (modified binders). Chapter 4 covers Adhesion Test Development (water susceptibility is also covered). The final chapter focuses on the Performance/Economic Update and Commercialization Plan.

  18. Assessment of non-destructive testing technologies for quality control/quality assurance of asphalt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Asphalt pavements suffer various failures due to insufficient quality within their design lives. The American Association of State : Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) has been proposed :...

  19. Development of a semicircular bend (SCB) test method for performance testing of Nebraska asphalt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Granted that most distresses in asphalt (flexible) concrete (AC) pavements are directly related to fracture, it becomes clear : that identifying and characterizing fracture properties of AC mixtures is a critical step towards a better pavement design...

  20. A review of asphalt and asphalt mixture aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Darío Fernández-Gómez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive review of the pertinent literature regarding asphalt and asphalt mixture Aging. Aging affects flexible pavement performance and is produced by intrinsic and extrinsic variables as well as exposure time. Intrinsic variables include asphalt and aggregate properties, a mixture’s asphalt content, binder film thickness and air void content; extrinsic variables are associated with production (short-term aging and exposure to environmental field conditions (long-term aging. Taken together, both variables demonstrate that aging results from three distinct mechanisms: volatilisation, oxidation and steric hardening. Temperature, pressure and photo degradation treatments are used to simulate aging in the laboratory and empirical and semi-empirical models are created to represent and study aging. Aging increases asphalt complex modulus and decreases the phase angle. Mixtures become stiffer while fatigue life becomes reduced. Carbonyl and sulfoxide group formation in asphalt are often studied as such chemical changes show oxidation in aged asphalts. The prevailing models used to predict asphalt aging are discussed, though more comprehensive research into asphalt aging is still needed.

  1. A review of asphalt and asphalt mixture aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Darío Fernández-Gómez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive review of the pertinent literature regarding asphalt and asphalt mixture Aging. Aging affects flexible pavement performance and is produced by intrinsic and extrinsic variables as well as exposure time. Intrinsic variables include asphalt and aggregate properties, a mixture’s asphalt content, binder film thickness and air void content; extrinsic variables are associated with production (short-term aging and exposure to environmental field conditions (long-term aging. Taken together, both variables demonstrate that aging results from three distinct mechanisms: volatilisation, oxidation and steric hardening. Temperature, pressure and photo degradation treatments are used to simulate aging in the laboratory and empirical and semi-empirical models are created to represent and study aging. Aging increases asphalt complex modulus and decreases the phase angle. Mixtures become stiffer while fatigue life becomes reduced. Carbonyl and sulfoxide group formation in asphalt are often studied as such chemical changes show oxidation in aged asphalts. The prevailing models used to predict asphalt aging are discussed, though more comprehensive research into asphalt aging is still needed.

  2. Asphalt-Rubber SAMI (Stress-Absorbing Membrane Interlayers) Field Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    ork Total Cost WI 83-1570 83 Replace 460 SY of 14,500 pavement and subgrade WI 79-0933 81 Seal cracks, apply 58.585 herbicide, fog seal WI 77-0702 77...Bituminous Materials D 3407-76 Joint Sealants , Hot-Poured, for Concrete and Asphalt Pavements 2. DESCRIPTION . This work involves placement of a polymer...SECTION D-5 POLYPROPYLENE PAVEMENT REINFORCING FABRIC 1 . APPLICABLE PUBLICATIONS 2. GENERAL 3. POLYPROPYLENE PAVEMENT REINFORCING FABRIC 4 ASPHALT SEALANT

  3. Linking asphalt binder fatigue to asphalt mixture fatigue performance using viscoelastic continuum damage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Farinaz; Castorena, Cassie; Kim, Y. Richard

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue cracking is a major form of distress in asphalt pavements. Asphalt binder is the weakest asphalt concrete constituent and, thus, plays a critical role in determining the fatigue resistance of pavements. Therefore, the ability to characterize and model the inherent fatigue performance of an asphalt binder is a necessary first step to design mixtures and pavements that are not susceptible to premature fatigue failure. The simplified viscoelastic continuum damage (S-VECD) model has been used successfully by researchers to predict the damage evolution in asphalt mixtures for various traffic and climatic conditions using limited uniaxial test data. In this study, the S-VECD model, developed for asphalt mixtures, is adapted for asphalt binders tested under cyclic torsion in a dynamic shear rheometer. Derivation of the model framework is presented. The model is verified by producing damage characteristic curves that are both temperature- and loading history-independent based on time sweep tests, given that the effects of plasticity and adhesion loss on the material behavior are minimal. The applicability of the S-VECD model to the accelerated loading that is inherent of the linear amplitude sweep test is demonstrated, which reveals reasonable performance predictions, but with some loss in accuracy compared to time sweep tests due to the confounding effects of nonlinearity imposed by the high strain amplitudes included in the test. The asphalt binder S-VECD model is validated through comparisons to asphalt mixture S-VECD model results derived from cyclic direct tension tests and Accelerated Loading Facility performance tests. The results demonstrate good agreement between the asphalt binder and mixture test results and pavement performance, indicating that the developed model framework is able to capture the asphalt binder's contribution to mixture fatigue and pavement fatigue cracking performance.

  4. Permeable Pavement Research - Edison, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides the background and summary of results collected at the permeable pavement parking lot monitored at the EPA facility in Edison, NJ. This parking lot is surfaced with permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. ...

  5. Mechanical characterization of porous asphalt mixes modi-fying the asphalt with fatty acid amides -FAA-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Senior Arrieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt mixes (PAM, form a special road surface for asphalt pavement structures, have a special particle size distribution that lets infiltrate to the runoff storm water through of it because of its voids content about 20 %. Many researchers conducted studies and have concluded that the use of modified asphalts is completely necessary to design PAM. Organic and chemical additives and special procedures as foamed asphalt have enhanced the performance of PAM, during their service life. This paper is focused on the mechanical characterization of PAM and how the asphalt modified with fatty acid amides, influenced on their behavior and performance. Based on an experimental methodology with laboratory tests aimed at establishing a comparison between porous asphalt mixes, using for its design and production a penetration 60-70 pure asphalt and another one asphalt modified with fatty acid amides.

  6. Permeable pavement study (Edison)

    Science.gov (United States)

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each permeable pavement type has four, 54.9-m2, lined sections that direct all infiltrate into 5.7-m3 tanks enabling complete volume collection and sampling. This paper highlights the results from a 12-month period when samples were collected from 13 rainfall/runoff events and analyzed for nitrogen species, orthophosphate, and organic carbon. Differences in infiltrate concentrations among the three permeable pavement types were assessed and compared with concentrations in rainwater samples and impervious asphalt runoff samples, which were collected as controls. Contrary to expectations based on the literature, the PA infiltrate had significantly larger total nitrogen (TN) concentrations than runoff and infiltrate from the other two permeable pavement types, indicating that nitrogen leached from materials in the PA strata. There was no significant difference in TN concentration between runoff and infiltrate from either PICP or PC, but TN in runoff was significantly larger than in the rainwater, suggesting meaningful inter-event dry de

  7. Mechanical analysis of asphalt stabilized permeable base to inhibit reflective cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min

    2017-09-01

    Asphalt stabilized drainage base has good drainage performance, can effectively rule out the water in pavement structure, reduce the occurrence of water damage, and maintain good pavement performance. Based on the mechanical analysis of the affect of asphalt stabilized permeable base on the inhibition of reflection crack, using the finite element software to simulate the stress characteristics of the asphalt and to do the mechanical analysis of asphalt pavement cracks at the grass-roots level to the pavement after stretching process, by comparing the pavement crack tip stress intensity factor of original pavement structure and set up the ATPB layer, respectively, to study the effect of asphalt stabilized permeable base on inhibition of reflection cracking.

  8. Effectiveness of noise barriers installed adjacent to transverse grooved concrete pavement : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-16

    In recent years the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) has reconstructed a number of roadways where asphalt pavements were replaced with concrete pavements which were finished with a random transverse grooved surface texture (ODOT specification...

  9. Effectiveness of noise barriers installed adjacent to transverse grooved concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-16

    In recent years the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) has reconstructed a number of roadways where asphalt pavements were replaced with random transverse grooved concrete pavements. Upon completion, residents living adjacent to the reconstruct...

  10. Application of locally developed pavement temperature prediction algorithms in performance grade (PG) binder selection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, locally developed algorithms for asphalt pavement temperature prediction are validated against new field data. The algorithms provide accepable estimates of the actual pavement temperatures at the monitored sites. The algorithms were...

  11. SUperior PERforming Asphalt PAVEments (SUPERPAVE)

    OpenAIRE

    Méndez, Rosalín

    2012-01-01

    El asfalto puede encontrarse en forma natural, como lagos o rocas de asfalto. Sin embargo, a pesar de la calidad del asfalto natural y su fásil explotación; el asfalto para fines industriales mayormente se obtiene como un producto de desecho de las refinerías petroleras, debido que es mucho más económico. El primer registro del uso del asfalto como material para la construcción de calles procede de Babilonia desde los años 625 y 604 A.C., en la región del Rey Naboppolassar. Desde entonces,...

  12. Knowledge Discovery and Pavement Performance : Intelligent Data Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, A.A.A.; Babuska, R.; Miradi, M.

    The main goal of the study was to discover knowledge from data about asphalt road pavement problems to achieve a better understanding of the behavior of them and via this understanding improve pavement quality and enhance its lifespan. Four pavement problems were chosen to be investigated; raveling

  13. Knowledge Discovery and Pavement Performance : Intelligent Data Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miradi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to discover knowledge from data about asphalt road pavement problems to achieve a better understanding of the behavior of them and via this understanding improve pavement quality and enhance its lifespan. Four pavement problems were chosen to be investigated; raveling

  14. INFLUENCE OF SEA WATER ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POROUS ASPHALT CONTAINING LIQUID ASBUTON

    OpenAIRE

    N, Ali; L, Samang; Tjaronge, M.W.; A.Rahman, Djamaluddin

    2011-01-01

    The Buton Asphalt or Asbuton is natural rock asphalt that deposited on South Buton Island in southeast Sulawesi Island, Indonesia. The refining process reduces the mineral content to produce the liquid Asbuton. Porous asphalt is an asphalt pavement that has enough voids within to allow water to pass freely through it. This paper reports on experimental investigation conducted to determine the influence of sea water on the mechanical properties of porous asphalt containing liqui...

  15. Improving rutting resistance of pavement structures using geosynthetics: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzapour Mounes, Sina; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Khodaii, Ali; Almasi, Mohammad Hadi

    2014-01-01

    A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Geosynthetics is one type of synthetic materials utilized for improving the performance of pavements against rutting. Various studies have been conducted on using different geosynthetic materials in pavement structures by different researchers. One of the practices is a reinforcing material in asphalt pavements. This paper intends to present and discuss the discoveries from some of the studies on utilizing geosynthetics in flexible pavements as reinforcement against permanent deformation (rutting).

  16. Inverted base pavements: construction and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Efthymios

    2017-05-11

    Inverted base pavements involve a well-compacted granular aggregate base built between a thin asphalt concrete layer and a cement-treated base. Inverted base pavements can be constructed using conventional equipment and procedures but require proper quality control. This study reviews the extensive South African experience and case histories in the USA. Accumulating evidence suggests that inverted base pavements are a viable alternative and can outperform conventional pavements at a lower cost. Inverted base pavements rely on the complementary interaction between layers. The cement-treated base provides a stiff foundation for efficient compaction and constrains the deformation of the stress-sensitive granular aggregate base. The thin asphalt surface layer deforms as a membrane and develops low tensile stress. Additional large-scale field tests should be conducted to assess the performance of inverted base pavement designs in a wide range of conditions relevant to the USA.

  17. The interaction between concrete pavement and corrosion-induced copper runoff from buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, B; Herting, G; Wallinder, I Odnevall; Hakkila, K; Leygraf, C; Virta, M

    2008-05-01

    Changes in chemical speciation of copper and the capacity of concrete pavement to retain copper in runoff water from external buildings have been investigated at urban field conditions, and in parallel laboratory experiments simulating outdoor scenarios. The research study showed the concrete surface to form a copper rich surface layer ( approximately 50 microm thick) upon exposure, and a high capacity to significantly reduce the bioavailable fraction of released copper (20-95%). The retention capacity of copper varied between 5 and 20% during single runoff events in the laboratory, and between 10 and 40% of the total copper release during single natural runoff events. The capacity to retain and reduce the bioavailable fraction of non-retained copper increased with increasing wetness of the concrete surfaces, increasing pH of the runoff water and decreasing flow rates. Bioassay testing with bacterial and yeast bioreporters showed the bioavailable fraction of non-retained copper to be significantly lower than the total copper concentration in the runoff water, between 22 and 40% for bacteria and between 8 and 31% for yeast. The application of generated data to simulate a fictive outdoor scenario, suggests a significant reduction of bioavailable and total copper to background values during environmental entry as a result of dilution, and the interaction with solid surfaces, organic matter and complexing agents already in the drainage system.

  18. Risk management of low air void asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Various forms of asphalt pavement distress, such as rutting, shoving and bleeding, can be attributed, in many cases, to low air voids in : the mixtures during production and placement. The occurrence of low air void contents during plant production m...

  19. Lead and zinc removal with storage period in porous asphalt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    . ABSTRACT. Porous asphalt pavements have been used as an effective technique to overcome road runoff challenges, and to improve efficiency of ...... FIELD R, MASTERS H and SINGER M (1982) An overview of porous.

  20. Analysis of using porous asphalt on the surfaces of bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Chmielewski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the analysis of the use of modern technology while paving the road bridges. It shall assess the possibility of using porous asphalt paving of road bridges. Based on the results of laboratory tests of selected porous asphalt, such as: determination of free space in the mixture of mineral-asphalt, runoff of the binder, sensitivity to water and frost, the loss of grains in the mixture, the design of porous asphalt mixture has been completed.[b]Keywords[/b]: construction of bridges, road bridges pavements, porous asphalt, dehydration of the bridges

  1. International State-of-the-Art Colloquium on Low-Temperature Asphalt Pavement Cracking Held in Hanover, New Hampshire on 6-8 May 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    provided by Heukelom and Klomp. as great as the stresses developed in the laboratory It was found that the fracture temperature of an as- testing setup...penetration mixes, it should be borne in mind that the relevant bitu- of the asphalt cement. In addition, the Heukelom nomo- -f the bitumen recovered...presented data showing the relationship 6. Heukelom , W. (1966) Observations on the rheology of bending strength to the stiffness modulus of the and

  2. Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, M.; Koomey, J.G.; Pomerantz, M.

    2001-11-21

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland cement concrete (PCC), porous pavements, resin pavements, AC pavements using light-colored chip seals, and AC pavements using light-colored asphalt emulsion additives. We found that for streets and parking lots, PCC can provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional AC when severely damaged pavements must be completely reconstructed. We also found that rehabilitating damaged AC streets and intersections with thin overlays of PCC (ultra-thin white topping) can often provide a cost-effective alternative to standard rehabilitation techniques using conventional AC. Chip sealing is a common maintenance treatment for low-volume streets which, when applied using light-colored chips, could provide a reflective pavement surface. If the incremental cost of using light-colored chips is low, this chip sealing method could also be cost-effective, but the incremental costs of light-colored chips are as of yet uncertain and expected to vary. Porous pavements were found to have higher life cycle costs than conventional AC in parking lots, but several cost-saving features of porous pavements fell outside the boundaries of this study. Resin pavements were found to be only slightly more expensive than conventional AC, but the uncertainties in the cost and performance data were large. The use of light-colored additives in asphalt emulsion seal coats for parking lot pavements was found to be significantly more expensive than conventional AC, reflecting its current niche market of decorative applications. We also proposed two additional approaches to increasing the reflectivity of conventional AC

  3. Finite element simulation of asphalt fatigue testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Kieler, Thomas Lau; Kargo, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The traditional interpretation of fatigue tests on asphalt mixes has been in terms of a logarithmic linear relationship between the constant stress or strain amplitude and the number of load repetitions to cause failure, often defined as a decrease in modulus to half the initial value. To accomod...... tests are that the extrapolation from laboratory tests to insitu conditions is facilitated and that the gradual deterioration of the asphalt may be predicted, which is useful for pavement management purposes....

  4. Characterization of Failure and Permanent Deformation Behaviour of Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, A.A.A.; Wu, S.P.; Wang, J.G.

    Asphalt concrete is a viscoelastic material consisting of aggregates, filler and bitumen. The response of asphalt concrete is highly dependent on temperature, loading rate and confining pressure. Permanent deformation is one of the most important distresses developing during the flexible pavement

  5. Crack repair of asphalt concrete with induction energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, A.; Schlangen, E.; Van de Ven, M.; Van Vliet, D.

    It is well known that the healing rates of asphalt courses increase with the temperature. A new method, induction heating, is used in this paper to increase the lifetime of asphalt concrete pavements. Mastic will be first made electrically conductive by the addition of conductive fibers. Then it

  6. Crack repair of asphalt concrete with induction energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, A.; Schlangen, E.; Ven, M. van de; Vliet, D. van

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the healing rates of asphalt courses increase with the temperature. A new method, induction heating, is used in this paper to increase the lifetime of asphalt concrete pavements. Mastic will be first made electrically conductive by the addition of conductive fibers. Then it

  7. Laboratory and Field Asphalt Fatigue Performance, Matching Theory with Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramesti, F.P.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the relationship between predicted and observed fatigue life of asphalt. This study also investigates the positive effects of modifying bitumen with Retona, a bitumen modifier produced in Indonesia from natural asphalt rock sources, on pavement performance in terms of

  8. Characterization of Failure and Permanent Deformation Behaviour of Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Asphalt concrete is a viscoelastic material consisting of aggregates, filler and bitumen. The response of asphalt concrete is highly dependent on temperature, loading rate and confining pressure. Permanent deformation is one of the most important distresses developing during the flexible pavement

  9. The Development of Moisture Sensitivity Test for Compacted Asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. Shamshuddin; M.E. Abdullah; Rhasbudin Shah, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture damage is one of the major issues in asphalt distress. It is due to the adhesive and cohesive failure of asphalt mixture and it will shorten pavement life. Moisture-sensitive mixtures need to be identified during the course of the mixture design process which fulfills the specified minimum standard. The laboratory testing procedures currently available for compacted Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) to test the moisture sensitivity were primarily developed to determine the degree ...

  10. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  11. Self Healing of Asphalt Mixtures : Towards a Better Understanding of the Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is increasing rapidly in terms of number of vehicles and also in axle loads. In order to maximize the availability of the pavement and to minimize hindrances to traffic because of maintenance works, long life pavements are needed. An asphalt pavement with self repairing capabilities is

  12. A Research on Low Modulus Distributed Fiber Optical Sensor for Pavement Material Strain Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingjian; Wang, Linbing; Hou, Yue; Yan, Guannan

    2017-10-19

    The accumulated irreversible deformation in pavement under repeated vehicle loadings will cause fatigue failure of asphalt concrete. It is necessary to monitor the mechanical response of pavement under load by using sensors. Previous studies have limitations in modulus accommodation between the sensor and asphalt pavement, and it is difficult to achieve the distributed monitoring goal. To solve these problems, a new type of low modulus distributed optical fiber sensor (DOFS) for asphalt pavement strain monitoring is fabricated. Laboratory experiments have proved the applicability and accuracy of the newly-designed sensor. This paper presents the results of the development.

  13. Effect of training algorithms on neural networks aided pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    pavement modeling results for training the NN aided inverse analysis is .... Also, the Asphalt Institute's Thickness Design Manual MS-1 recommends ERi as ..... http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/sites/default/files/RC2009_full_report.pdf ...

  14. Evaluation of Longitudinal Joints of HMA Pavements in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Longitudinal joints between lanes of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) pavements are commonly susceptible to moisture damage and other failures. In 2006, the Tennessee Department of Transportation (TDOT) identified longitudinal joint failure as one of the major ...

  15. Ground penetrating radar evaluation of new pavement density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this project was to map pavement surface density variations using dielectric : measurements from ground penetrating radar (GPR). The work was carried out as part of an : Asphalt Intelligent Compaction demonstration project on SR 539 ...

  16. Effect of Cement on Emulsified Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, Seref; Celik, Fazil; Akpinar, M. Vefa

    2007-10-01

    Emulsified asphalt mixtures have environmental, economical, and logistical advantages over hot mixtures. However, they have attracted little attention as structural layers due to their inadequate performance and susceptibility to early life damage by rainfall. The objective of this article is to provide an improved insight into how the mechanical properties of emulsion mixtures may be improved and to determine the influence of cement on emulsified asphalt mixtures. Laboratory tests on strength, temperature susceptibility, water damage, creep and permanent deformation were implemented to evaluate the mechanical properties of emulsified asphalt mixtures. The test results showed that mechanical properties of emulsified asphalt mixtures have significantly improved with Portland cement addition. This experimental study suggested that cement modified asphalt emulsion mixtures might be an alternate way of a structural layer material in pavement.

  17. Investigating the Properties of Asphalt Concrete Containing Glass Fibers and Nanoclay

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Taherkhani

    2016-01-01

    The performance of asphaltic pavements during their service life is highly dependent on the mechanical properties of the asphaltic layers. Therefore, in order to extend their service life, scientists and engineers are constantly trying to improve the mechanical properties of the asphaltic mixtures. One common method of improving the performance of asphaltic mixtures is using different types of additives. This research investigated the effects of reinforcement by randomly distributed glass fib...

  18. Cooler reflective pavements give benefits beyond energy savings: durability and illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, Melvin; Akbari, Hashem; Harvey, John T.

    2000-06-01

    City streets are usually paved with asphalt concrete because this material gives good service and is relatively inexpensive to construct and maintain. We show that making asphalt pavements cooler, by increasing their reflection of sunlight, may lead to longer lifetime of the pavement, lower initial costs of the asphalt binder, and savings on street lighting and signs. Excessive glare due to the whiter surface is not likely to be a problem.

  19. Study of Antiultraviolet Asphalt Modifiers and Their Antiageing Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxuan Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV radiation causes serious ageing problems on pavement surface. In recent years, different UV blocking materials have been used as modifiers to prevent asphalt ageing during the service life of the pavement. In this study, three different materials have been used as modifiers in base asphalt to test their UV blocking effects: layered double hydroxides (LDHs, organomontmorillonite (OMMT, and carbon black (CB. UV ageing was applied to simulate the ageing process and softening point, penetration, ductility, DSR (Dynamic Shear Rheometer test, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR test were conducted to evaluate the anti-UV ageing effects of the three UV blocking modifiers. Physical property tests show that base asphalt was influenced more seriously by UV radiation compared to the modified asphalt. DSR test results indicate that the complex modulus of asphalt before UV ageing is increased because of modifiers, while the complex modulus of base asphalt after UV ageing is higher than that of the modified asphalt, which shows that the UV blocking modifiers promote the antiageing effects of asphalt. FTIR test reveals that the increment of carbonyl groups and sulfoxide groups of modified asphalt is less than that in base asphalt. Tests indicate the best UV blocking effect results for samples with LDHs and the worst UV blocking effect results for samples with CB.

  20. Practical experiences with new types of highly modified asphalt binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špaček, Petr; Hegr, Zdeněk; Beneš, Jan

    2017-09-01

    As a result of steadily increasing traffic load on the roads in the Czech Republic, we should be focused on the innovative technical solutions, which will lead to extending the life time of asphalt pavements. One of these ways could be the future use of bitumen with a higher degree of polymer modification. This paper discusses experience with comparison of new highly polymer modified asphalt binder type with conventional polymer modified asphalt binder and unmodified binder with penetration grade 50/70. There are compared the results of various types laboratory tests of asphalt binders, as well as the results of asphalt mixtures laboratory tests. The paper also mentions the experience with workability and compactability of asphalt mixture with highly polymer modified asphalt binder during the realization of the experimental reference road section by the Skanska company in the Czech Republic.

  1. Microstructural Analysis and Rheological Modeling of Asphalt Mixtures Containing Recycled Asphalt Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cannone Falchetto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of recycled materials in pavement construction has seen, over the years, a significant increase closely associated with substantial economic and environmental benefits. During the past decades, many transportation agencies have evaluated the effect of adding Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, and, more recently, Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS on the performance of asphalt pavement, while limits were proposed on the amount of recycled materials which can be used. In this paper, the effect of adding RAP and RAS on the microstructural and low temperature properties of asphalt mixtures is investigated using digital image processing (DIP and modeling of rheological data obtained with the Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR. Detailed information on the internal microstructure of asphalt mixtures is acquired based on digital images of small beam specimens and numerical estimations of spatial correlation functions. It is found that RAP increases the autocorrelation length (ACL of the spatial distribution of aggregates, asphalt mastic and air voids phases, while an opposite trend is observed when RAS is included. Analogical and semi empirical models are used to back-calculate binder creep stiffness from mixture experimental data. Differences between back-calculated results and experimental data suggest limited or partial blending between new and aged binder.

  2. COST Action TU1208 - Working Group 2 - GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Benedetto, Andrea; Derobert, Xavier; Fontul, Simona; Govedarica, Miro; Gregoire, Colette; Loizos, Andreas; Perez-Gracia, Vega; Plati, Christina; Ristic, Aleksandar; Tosti, Fabio; Van Geem, Carl

    2017-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the main results achieved by Working Group (WG) 2 "GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing" of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" (www.GPRadar.eu, www.cost.eu). The principal goal of the Action, started in April 2013 and ending in October 2017, is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe non-destructive technique. The Action involves more than 300 Members from 28 COST Countries, a Cooperating State, 6 Near Neighbour Countries and 6 International Partner Countries. The most interesting achievements of WG2 include: 1. The state of the art on the use of GPR in civil engineering was composed and open issues were identified. The few existing international/national guidelines/protocols for GPR inspection in civil engineering were reviewed and discussed. Academic end-users, private companies and stakeholders presented their point of view and needs. 2. Guidelines for investigating flexible pavement by using GPR were prepared, with particular regard to layer-thickness assessment, moisture-content sensing, pavement-damage detection and classification, and other main GPR-based investigations in pavement engineering. 3. Guidelines for GPR sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids were prepared, with a main focus on urban areas. 4. Guidelines for GPR assessment of concrete structures, with particular regard to inspections in bridges and tunnels, were prepared. 5. A report was composed, including a series of practical suggestions and very useful information to guide GPR users during building inspection. 6. WG2 Members carried out a plethora of case studies where GPR was used to survey roads, highways, airport runways, car

  3. Long-Term Performance Evaluation of Asphalt Surface Treatments: Product Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    to 1-in.) layers of sealant substances, often asphalt emulsions con- taining fine aggregates, placed on top of existing pavements. Coverings may...include slurry seals, fog seals, micro-surfacing treatments, and thin surface overlays. The coverings are used to protect the pavement from...MTD data will be used to compare the pavement texture after product placement. Sealants are expected to fill surface voids in the pavement. The

  4. Long-term Metal Performance of Three Permeable Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA constructed a 4,000-m2 parking lot surfaced with three permeable pavements (permeable interlocking concrete pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt) on the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ in 2009. Samples from each permeable pavement infiltrate were collected...

  5. Asphalt Mixture Segregation Detection: Digital Image Processing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadtaqi Baqersad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Segregation determination in the asphalt pavement is an issue causing many disputes between agencies and contractors. The visual inspection method has commonly been used to determine pavement texture and in-place core density test used for verification. Furthermore, laser-based devices, such as the Florida Texture Meter (FTM and the Circular Track Meter (CTM, have recently been developed to evaluate the asphalt mixture texture. In this study, an innovative digital image processing approach is used to determine pavement segregation. In this procedure, the standard deviation of the grayscale image frequency histogram is used to determine segregated regions. Linear Discriminate Analysis (LDA is then implemented on the obtained standard deviations from image processing to classify pavements into the segregated and nonsegregated areas. The visual inspection method is utilized to verify this method. The results have demonstrated that this new method is a robust tool to determine segregated areas in newly paved FC9.5 pavement types.

  6. Durable high strength cement concrete topping for asphalt roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyrozhemskyi, Valerii; Krayushkina, Kateryna; Bidnenko, Nataliia

    2017-09-01

    Work on improving riding qualities of pavements by means of placing a thin cement layer with high roughness and strength properties on the existing asphalt pavement were conducted in Ukraine for the first time. Such pavement is called HPCM (High Performance Cementitious Material). This is a high-strength thin cement-layer pavement of 8-9 mm thickness reinforced with metal or polymer fiber of less than 5 mm length. Increased grip properties are caused by placement of stone material of 3-5 mm fraction on the concrete surface. As a result of the research, the preparation and placement technology of high-strength cement thin-layer pavement reinforced with fiber was developed to improve friction properties of existing asphalt pavements which ensures their roughness and durability. It must be emphasized that HPCM is a fundamentally new type of thin-layer pavement in which a rigid layer of 10 mm thickness is placed on a non-rigid base thereby improving riding qualities of asphalt pavement at any season of a year.

  7. Development of high stability hot mix asphalt concrete with hybrid binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Hirato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cost reduction of public works projects has been desired due to severe financial circumstances. Therefore, asphalt pavement has been requested to extend its life. Semi-flexible pavement or epoxy asphalt pavement, which has high rutting resistance and oil resistance, may be applied to the place where these performances ae demanded. However, special technique is required in manufacturing and construction. In addition, these materials have also raised a problem that they cannot be recycled. Meanwhile, conventional asphalt pavement has several drawbacks. It is vulnerable to rutting caused by traffic load and damage caused by petroleum oils such as gasoline or motor oil. The materials used in asphalt mixtures were studied for improving the durability of asphalt mixture. A high stability asphalt concrete was developed which has equal or superior performance to semi-flexible pavement and epoxy asphalt pavement. In this paper, the process of selecting the substance and the characteristics evaluation of the developed mixtures ae described. Furthermore, an inspection result as well as follow-up survey of the performance of the developed mixtures obtained from trial and actual construction is shown.

  8. Analysis of asphalt mix surface-tread rubber interaction by using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Srirangam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface texture of the pavement plays a very important role in driving the frictional properties at the tire rubber-pavement interface. Particularly, the hysteretic friction due to viscoelastic deformations of rubber depends mainly on the pavement surface texture. In the present paper, the effect of micromechanical pavement surface morphology on rubber block friction was brought in by comparing the friction results for three different asphalt mix morphological surfaces, named stone mastic asphalt (SMA, ultra-thin surfacing (UTS and porous asphalt (PA. The asphalt surface morphologies of these mixes were captured by using an X-ray tomographer, from which the resulting images micromechanical finite element (FE meshes for SMA, UTS and PA pavements were developed by means of the SimpleWare software. In the FE model, the rubber and asphalt binder were modeled as viscoelastic (VE materials and the formulation was given in the large deformation framework. FE simulations were then carried out by using contact algorithm between rubber and the road surface. It was observed that the rubber friction inversely varies with the sliding speed and positively varies with the pressure for all the pavement morphological and stiffness conditions. Furthermore, it was observed that the highly porous pavement surface results in large dissipation of energy, hence, large rubber friction which shows that the mix characteristics of pavements have a significant effect on rubber friction.

  9. Properties of sulfur-extended asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkikh Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, increased functional reliability of asphalt concrete coatings associated with various modifying additives that improve the durability of pavements. Promising builder is a technical sulfur. Asphalt concrete, made using a complex binder consisting of petroleum bitumen and technical sulfur, were calledsSulfur-Extended Asphalt Concrete. Such asphalt concrete, due to changes in the chemical composition of particulate and bitumen, changes the intensity of the interaction at the interface have increased rates of physical and mechanical properties. There was a lack of essential knowledge concerning mechanical properties of the sulfur-bituminous concrete with such an admixture; therefore, we had carried out the necessary examination. It is revealed that a new material satisfies local regulations in terms of compressive and tensile strength, shear resistance, and internal friction.

  10. Evaluation of binder aging and its influence in aging of hot mix asphalt concrete : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    TxDOT Project 0-6009 was a comprehensive interdisciplinary research effort that has developed the ability : to predict asphalt oxidative hardening over time and pavement depth, and the impact of this hardening on : mixture durability. The many interr...

  11. Quality control/quality assurance testing for joint density and segregation of asphalt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Longitudinal joint quality control/assurance is essential to the successful performance of asphalt pavements and it has received considerable amount of attention in recent years. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the level of compaction at the ...

  12. Installation report : evaluation of recycled hot mix asphaltic concrete on Route 220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a project in which the bituminous pavement on an approximately 8-mi. (13-km) section of roadway was removed, recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant, and relaid. The project was accomplished with little difficulty an...

  13. Thermal Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Conductive Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Chol Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the thermal properties of asphalt mixtures modified with conductive fillers used for snow melting and solar harvesting pavements. Two different mixing processes were adopted to mold asphalt mixtures, dry- and wet-mixing, and two conductive fillers were used in this study, graphite and carbon black. The thermal conductivity was compared to investigate the effects of asphalt mixture preparing methods, the quantity, and the distribution of conductive filler on thermal properties. The combination of conductive filler with carbon fiber in asphalt mixture was evaluated. Also, rheological properties of modified asphalt binders with conductive fillers were measured using dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer at grade-specific temperatures. Based on rheological testing, the conductive fillers improve rutting resistance and decrease thermal cracking resistance. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon black improve the thermal properties of asphalt mixes and the combined conductive fillers are more effective than the single filler.

  14. Study of asphalt performance impact with ultraviolet aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Min

    2017-09-01

    To solve the problem of strong ultraviolet radiation on the road asphalt aging, ultraviolet aging environment box analog wild aging condition to be used to experiment, Through dynamic shear rheometer respectively to study the effect of SBS modified asphalt and asphalt matrix high temperature, low temperature and fatigue performance with the aging time to change. The results show that SBS modified asphalt can produce serious aging under strong ultraviolet light, the Main aspects is fatigue performance and low temperature performance greatly reduced, high temperature performance is further improved, They have a closer relationship with aging time; At the same time, along with the test temperature, aging time on the influence of G*/sinδ, G*sinδ of amplitude decreases. That ultraviolet on SBS modified asphalt aging has temperature sensitivity. The research conclusion can choose the light aging resistance of airport pavement asphalt to provide good technical support.

  15. Evaluation of MIT-SCAN-T2 for thickness quality control for PCC and HMA pavements : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Thickness is currently a pay item for portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements : and a quality control item for both PCC and hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. : A change in pavement thickness of 0.5 in. can result in a reduction of multiple : years of...

  16. Mechanical characterization of porous asphalt mixes modified with fatty acid amides -FAA-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Senior Arrieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt mixes (PAM, form a special road surface for asphalt pavement structures, have a special particle size distribution that lets infiltrate to the runoff storm water through of it because of its voids content about 20 %. Many researchers conducted studies and have concluded that the use of modified asphalts is completely necessary to design PAM. Organic and chemical additives and special procedures as foamed asphalt have enhanced the performance of PAM, during their service life. This paper is focused on the mechanical characterization of PAM and how the asphalt modified with fatty acid amides, influenced on their behavior and performance. Based on an experimental methodology with laboratory tests aimed at establishing a comparison between porous asphalt mixes, using for its design and production a penetration 60-70 pure asphalt and another one asphalt modified with fatty acid amides.

  17. Cyclic elasto-viscoplastic model for asphalt concrete materials

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, DT; Nedjar, B.; P. Tamagny

    2007-01-01

    These last few years, many interests have been devoted to the study of rutting problems. In fact, under high traffic loadings together with the extreme environmental conditions, permanent deformations of asphalt pavements appear and become more and more severe demanding more efforts on developing suitable predictive models. In this paper, a three-dimensional elasto-viscoplasticity model is developed and applied to describe the behaviour of asphalt concrete materials under cyclic loadings. The...

  18. Modeling of asphalt by means of discrete element method – an initial study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Hededal, Ole; Stang, Henrik

    Asphalt is a viscous material consisting of a matrix of stones, sand and filler glued together by a bituminous binder, which is used in many pavement constructions. Knowledge about asphalt is mainly based on the results of experimental and empirical investigation, which comes at the expense...

  19. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed that porous asphalt had much lower concentration in monitored infiltrate compared to pervious concrete and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Concentrations of monitored organisms in infiltrate from porous asphalt were consistently below the bathing water quality standard. Fecal coliform and enterococci exceeded bathing water quality standards more than 72% and 34% of the time for permeable interlocking concrete pavers and pervious concrete, respectively. Purpose is to evaluate the performance of permeable pavement in removing indicator organisms from infiltrating stormwater runoff.

  20. The influence of nanoclay on the durability properties of asphalt mixtures for top and base layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Johan; De Kinder, Bram; Meeusen, Jannes; Van den bergh, Wim

    2017-09-01

    To avoid traffic congestion, due to road works, a continuous research into asphalt pavement and especially its durability is of great importance. This research focuses on improving the mechanical performance and the durability of asphalt mixtures by nanoclay modified bitumen. This promising technique of introducing nanoclays or nano particles into bitumen could offer an significant improvement on the fatigue properties and rutting performance and thus the durability of the asphalt top layer.

  1. Effects of Short-Term Aging on Asphalt Binders and Hot Mix Asphalt at Elevated Temperatures and Extended Aging Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolly Rubben

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production process of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA causes a short term aging (STA to asphalt binder due to the heating of both asphalt binder and aggregates before mixing together. Laboratory protocols are followed to simulate the STA conditions for both asphalt binders and asphalt mixtures. STA protocols expose asphalt binders or asphalt mixtures to specific aging temperature for a specific period of time to produce stiffening that is similar to that of actual production conditions. Successful construction of HMA in cold season/regions may require elevating the production temperature of HAM to achieve proper compaction of HMA layers. Producing HMA mixtures at elevated temperatures may cause further increase in the binder stiffness and negatively affect the future field performance of asphalt pavements. This negative affect can be even worse especially if it is coupled with extended exposer time increase. This study aims to investigate effect of elevated production (mixing and STA temperatures and exposure time on the stiffening of binders and asphalt mixtures. The binder experiment involved aging of two Performance Graded (PG binders (PG 76-16 and PG 64-22 at two different temperatures and aging durations. The asphalt mixture experiment involved the STA of asphalt mixtures produced in the laboratory at mixing and STA temperatures 25°F above standard practice and aging time 2 and 4 hours longer than standard practices. The effect of different aging times and temperatures was investigated by running viscosity tests on binders and dynamic modulus |E*| and Indirect Diametrical Strength (IDT tests on asphalt mixtures. The results showed that increasing the mixing and STA temperatures by 25°F seems to have no significant effect on the asphalt mixture properties while doubling the standard STA time seems to have a significant effect on binder and asphalt mixture properties.

  2. Determining the healing potential of asphalt concrete mixtures : a pragmatic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, Sandra; van Vliet, Dave; van Dommelen, Arthur; Leegwater, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Most design methods for pavements use a factor explaining the difference between pavement life predictions from design models and performance in the road [1]. Part of this correction factor is healing, the natural capacity of asphalt concrete to recover in rest periods, which generally are not

  3. Determining the healing potential of asphalt concrete mixtures--a pragmatic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, S.; Vliet, D. van; Dommelen, A. van; Leegwater, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Most design methods for pavements use a factor explaining the difference between pavement life predictions from design models and performance in the road [1]. Part of this correction factor is healing, the natural capacity of asphalt concrete to recover in rest periods, which generally are not

  4. Aging of Asphalt Symposium, September 17th 2014, Delft, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, S.M.J.G.; Scarpas, A.; Blab, R.; Glaser, R.; Glover, C.; Oeser, M.; Porot, L.; Soenen, H.

    Technical specifications for the asphalt concrete properties are developed to be able to specify mixtures that will perform well in pavement applications. Being able to identify and determine properties related to pavement performance in practice is crucial for both road authorities and contractors,

  5. Aging of Asphalt Symposium : Delft, the Netherlands September 17th 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, Sandra; Scarpas, Athanasios

    Technical specifications for the asphalt concrete properties are developed to be able to specify mixtures that will perform well in pavement applications. Being able to identify and determine properties related to pavement performance in practice is crucial for both road authorities and contractors,

  6. Chemomechanics of Damage Accumulation and Damage-Recovery Healing in Bituminous Asphalt Binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauli, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    As a contribution to the development of mutli-scale multi-physics approaches to modelling pavement performance, the present thesis considers the topic of damage accumulation accompanied by damage recover self-healing of the bituminous asphalt phase of pavement systems. It is found insightful that by

  7. Aging of Asphalt Symposium, September 17th 2014, Delft, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, S.M.J.G.; Scarpas, A.; Blab, R.; Glaser, R.; Glover, C.; Oeser, M.; Porot, L.; Soenen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Technical specifications for the asphalt concrete properties are developed to be able to specify mixtures that will perform well in pavement applications. Being able to identify and determine properties related to pavement performance in practice is crucial for both road authorities and contractors,

  8. Aging of Asphalt Symposium : Delft, the Netherlands September 17th 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, Sandra; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Technical specifications for the asphalt concrete properties are developed to be able to specify mixtures that will perform well in pavement applications. Being able to identify and determine properties related to pavement performance in practice is crucial for both road authorities and contractors,

  9. rice-husk ash-carbide-waste stabilization of reclaimed asphalt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-07-03

    Jul 3, 2016 ... This paper present results of the laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of carbide waste and rice husk ash stabilized reclaimed asphalt pavement waste with a view to determine its suitability for use as flexible pavement material. The mixtures were subjected to British Standard heavy compactive effort ...

  10. Environmentally friendly pavements: Results from noise measurements 2005-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Truls Svenn; Haukland, Frode; Ustad, Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    CPX-measurements (tyre A) have been performed on a wide range of ordinary dense Norwegian road pavements and special test pavements, as part of the R&D project “Environmental friendly pavements” initiated by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. The following conclusions can be made from the investigation:- New dense asphalt concrete pavements can give a tyre/road noise level (CPX) of 4-8 dB(A) lower noise level, compared to a chosen reference level for a pavement of type AC 0/1...

  11. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots in Edison Environmental Center, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed tha...

  12. Environmental assessment of airport pavement design and construction alternatives : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify energy and environmental sustainability of asphalt and concrete : runway pavements using Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA). The design alternatives include runway rehabilitation/reconstruction : designs considered...

  13. Evaluation and specification of high build and special use waterborne pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    High build waterborne traffic paints and highly retro-reflective elements were applied at various locations to evaluate their : practicality for use by NYSDOT Maintenance forces. In addition, highly reflective elements were applied within grooved in ...

  14. Assessment of highway pavements using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plati, Christina; Loizos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Highway infrastructure is a prerequisite for a functioning economy and social life. Highways, often prone to congestion and disruption, are one of the aspects of a modern transport network that require maximum efficiency if an integrated transport network, and sustainable mobility, is to be achieved. Assessing the condition of highway structures, to plan subsequent maintenance, is essential to allow the long-term functioning of a road network. Optimizing the methods used for such assessment will lead to better information being obtained about the road and underlying ground conditions. The condition of highway structures will be affected by a number of factors, including the properties of the highway pavement, the supporting sub-base and the subgrade (natural ground), and the ability to obtain good information about the entire road structure, from pavement to subgrade, allows appropriate maintenance programs to be planned. The maintenance of highway pavements causes considerable cost and in many cases obstruction to traffic flow. In this situation, methods that provide information on the present condition of pavement structure non-destructively and economically are of great interest. It has been shown that Ground-Penetrating-Radar (GPR), which is a Non Destructive Technique (NDT), can deliver information that is useful for the planning of pavement maintenance activities. More specifically GPR is used by pavement engineers in order to determine physical properties and characteristics of the pavement structure, information that is valuable for the assessment of pavement condition. This work gives an overview on the practical application of GPR using examples from highway asphalt pavements monitoring. The presented individual applications of GPR pavement diagnostics concern structure homogeneity, thickness of pavement layers, dielectric properties of asphalt materials etc. It is worthwhile mentioning that a number of applications are standard procedures, either

  15. Analytical approach for predicting three-dimensional tire-pavement contact load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hernandez, JA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available . To minimize pavement damage, several fac- tors must be addressed during the design process, such as environ- mental conditions (temperature and moisture), material properties (asphalt concrete and granular), and vehicular loading (traffic level and truck... responses, especially pavement fatigue life (1). Another study assumed uniform contact stresses and determined that for an asphalt concrete surface thickness of less than 2 in., the tensile strain could be underpredicted by as much as half (2). Other...

  16. Improvement in strength calculation for pavement structure of rail station areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozgovyi Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of how to increase the durability of road pavements at stations. At the same time, the behavior of asphalt-concrete layers is considered taking into account thermoreological properties and their materials. An increased duration of traffic loads on station areas influences changes in strength and rigidity characteristics of the asphalt concrete. Mathematical models to increase the accuracy of strength calculation of pavement designs on station areas have been developed.

  17. ACAA pavement manual. Recommended practice: Coal fly ash in pozzolanic stabilized mixtures for flexible pavement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to guide pavement design engineers, materials engineers, and construction managers in the design and construction of flexible pavement systems in which low- to high-strength Pozzolanic Stabilized Mixtures' ( PSMs') serve as base layers. A PSM incorporates coal fly ash in combination with activators, aggregates and water. Each of three design methods is useful for determining the thickness of a PSM base layer for a flexible pavement system: Method A - American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) flexible pavement design procedures, using structural layer coefficients; Method B - Mechanistic pavement design procedures, using resilient modulus values for the pavement layers; and Method C - A combination of Method A and Method B, using mechanistic design concepts for determining pavement layer coefficients. PSMs offer several advantages: PSMs are strong, durable mixtures using locally available materials; PSMs are economically competitive with properly engineered full-depth asphalt or crushed stone base courses; PSMs are suited to stabilizing recycled base mixtures; and PSMs are placed and compacted with conventional construction equipment. To provide the needed guidance for capturing the long-term service and cost-saving features of a PSM design, this manual details the following: a procedure for proportioning PSMs; thickness design procedures which include base layer and asphalt wearing course; and proven techniques for PSM mixing and base layer construction.

  18. Preparation of Flame Retardant Modified with Titanate for Asphalt Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt is a difficult task due to the complex nature of the materials. This study explores a low dosage compound flame retardant and seeks to improve the compatibility between flame retardants and asphalt. An orthogonal experiment was designed taking magnesium hydroxide, ammonium polyphosphate, and melamine as factors. The oil absorption and activation index were tested to determine the effect of titanate on the flame retardant additive. The pavement performance test was conducted to evaluate the effect of the flame retardant additive. Oxygen index test was conducted to confirm the effect of flame retardant on flame ability of asphalt binder. The results of this study showed that the new composite flame retardant is more effective in improving the compatibility between flame retardant and asphalt and reducing the limiting oxygen index of asphalt binder tested in this study.

  19. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  20. Large stone asphalt mix design for heavy duty asphalt pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available to between 9 and 10 metric tonnes. There is also a tendency from overseas to use higher tyre pressures with new tyre types. One of the main reasons why the top size stone in mixtures has been limited to 26,5 mm is because the conventional mix design...

  1. Quality control/quality assurance testing for joint density and segregation of asphalt mixtures : tech transfer summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    A longitudinal joint is the interface between two adjacent and parallel hot-mix asphalt (HMA) mats. Inadequate joint construction can lead to a location where water can penetrate the pavement layers and reduce the structural support of the underlying...

  2. Fractal Analysis on Asphalt Mixture Using a Two-Dimensional Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractal is a mathematical set that has a fractal dimension which usually exceeds its topological dimension and may be nonintegral. Since the asphalt pavement texture has limitations of randomness and self-similarity, fractal theory has been explored to quantify the asphalt pavement texture and employs good applicability in processing and analyzing the complex details of research object. In this paper, the 2D digital image of the pavement surface is measured in terms of area fractal dimension and contour fractal dimension, which are used to correlate with aggregate gradation and British Pendulum Number (BPN value, respectively. It turns out the area fractal dimension of aggregate provides a simple way to acquire the continuous gradation of asphalt concrete sample and the contour fractal dimension is an available parameter to characterize roughness and friction of pavement surface texture.

  3. Evaluating The Performance of Asphalt Concrete Mixes by Utilizing Carbon Black as Asphalt Modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa Faleh Al.ani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black produced from several factories in Iraq is expected to provide a reinforcing agent for asphalt paving materials. Carbon black has many characteristics that distinguish  it from conventional mineral fillers, as well as their different function in pavement mixtures. Theory and exercise advanced  in the inclusive utilize of carbon black as a reinforcing agent for rubber has led to concept of asphalt reinforcement. The very fine particles of micro filler added in different contents will be dispersed in asphalt cement improving the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixes. In this Four percentages rates were utilized; 0, 3, 6, and 9 percent adding to asphalt grade (60-70. Mixes of asphalt concrete were destined at their optimum asphalt content (OAC then experienced to assess their engineering characteristics that contain moisture of damage, permanent deformation, modulus of resilient and characteristics of fatigue. These characteristics have been assessed utilizing indirect tensile strength, uniaxial repeated loading and repeated flexural beam tests. Mixtures improved with carbon black were existed to have amended permanent deformation and fatigue characteristics, else exhibited high resilient modulus and lower moisture susceptibility. Result showed that a rate changed from 3 to 9 percent has shown an increase in resilient modulus for increment of carbon black and modulus of resilient for mixes with 9 percent carbon black was 1.4 times that for mixes with 0 percent carbon black. The altering of carbon black from a range (3-9 percent has modified the fatigue property of the asphalt concrete mixes as determined by flexural test, Significantly, to modify the asphalt concrete manner taken the  percent of carbon black 6, and to produce the mixes more durable , higher resistance to distresses by adding the local knowledge.

  4. Quantifying Evaporation and Evaluating Runoff Estimation Methods in a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable pavement in the parking lanes which were designed to receive run-on from the impervious hot-mix asphalt driving lanes. Twelve lined permeable pavement sec...

  5. Heavy Vehicle Simulator aided evaluation of overlays on pavements with active cracks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, AW

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available their effects by means of field data from actual pavements. The South African Heavy Simulator was also used to evaluate a variety of conventional and innovative asphaltic overlays on a severely cracked concrete pavement of which the mechanisms and extent...

  6. Perpetual pavement – absorbing stress and functional maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Gao; Le Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Perpetual Pavement combines the well documented smoothness and safety advantages of asphalt with an advanced, multi-layer paving design process, that with routine maintenance, extends the useful life of a roadway. Perpetual provides long lasting road and smoothness for the construction purposes. This study has the design key points of perpetual pavement based on the idea of life cycle, which has a new direction for the new highway construction, reconstruction and expansion. First, the structu...

  7. Performance of macro clay on the porous asphalt mixture properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, C. M.; Ramadhansyah, P. J.; Haryati, Y.; Norhidayah, A. H.; Abdullah, M. E.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan

    2017-11-01

    Porous asphalt pavement already well known as one type of pavement since many decades, however due to lack in strength it is not been widely used in road construction especially in high stresses areas. Many research had been conducted by researchers in order to improve the durability and increase the service life of the road. One of the methods that commonly used is through asphalt modification. Objectives of this study are to discuss influence of macro-clay in terms of physical and rheological properties and their effect on performance of porous asphalt mixture. Various percentage of macro-clay (starting from 2% to 8%) was blended in an asphalt binder and compacted using the Marshall compactor. The blended asphalt was characterized using penetration, softening point test and penetration index compared with unmodified binder. Performance tests of asphalt mixture were carried out such as Los Angeles Abrasion Value (LAAV) and Stability and Flow test in order to determine the strength and durability. The results show that the addition of macro-clay would increase in softening point but decrease in binder penetration. Based on the results, while macro-clay changes physical and rheological properties of bitumen and increase stiffness, it also improves strength and durability resistance, as well. Generally, the best improvements in the modified binders were obtained with 4% of macro-clay.

  8. "Full-Scale Testing of Pavement Response"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ekdahl, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Three pavement sections in southern Sweden were instrumented in late 1991. Each section have instruments for measuring the strain at the bottom of the asphalt layer, vertical stress and strains in the subgrade and temperatures at different depths. The purpose was to evaluate different theoretical...... methods for determining stresses, strains and deflections in pavement structurers.Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test were done on the test sections, and stresses and strains were measured both under FWD loading and under a rolling wheel load. Different back-analysis procedures were used to derive...

  9. Evaluation of non-destructive technologies for construction quality control of HMA and PCC pavements in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Current roadway quality control and quality acceptance (QC/QA) procedures for the Louisiana Department of Transportation and : Development (LADOTD) include coring for thickness, density, and air voids in hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements and thickness ...

  10. Evaluation of non-destructive technologies for construction quality control of HMA and PCC pavements in Louisiana : [tech summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Current roadway quality control and quality acceptance (QC/QA) procedures for the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development : (LADOTD) include coring for thickness, density, and air voids in hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements and thickness ...

  11. Evaluation of non-destructive technologies for construction quality control of HMA and PCC pavements in Louisiana : [research project capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Current roadway quality control and quality acceptance (QC/QA) procedures : for Louisiana include coring for thickness, density, and air void checks in hot : mix asphalt (HMA) pavements and thickness and compressive strength for : Portland cement con...

  12. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, NJ, that incorporated three different permeable pavement types in the parking lanes – permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). An impermeable liner installed 0.4 m below the driving surface in four 11.6-m by 4.74-m sections per each pavement type captures all infiltrating water and routes it to collection tanks that can contain events up to 38 mm. Each section has a design impervious area to permeable pavement area ratio of 0.66:1. Pressure transducers installed in the underdrain collection tanks measured water level for 24 months. Level was converted to volume using depth-to-volume ratios for individual collection tanks. Using a water balance approach, the measured infiltrate volume was compared to rainfall volume on an event-basis to determine the rainfall retained in the pavement strata and underlying aggregate. Evaporation since the previous event created additional storage in the pavement and aggregate layers. Events were divided into three groups based on antecedent dry period (ADP) and three, four-month categories of potential e

  13. EFFECTS OF SALT FREEZE DAMAGE ON THE VISCOELASTIC PERFORMANCE OF ASPHALT MORTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Cui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In cold regions, road pavements are frequently covered by ice and snow because of low temperatures and extreme weather conditions during winter. Deicing salt is commonly used to reduce icing coverage and clean pavements. However, the repetitive use of deicing salt may have a negative impact on the pavements that are made from a mixture of asphalt mortar and coarse aggregate. This paper discusses the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mortar in salt freezing environments. The study consists of three steps. First, uniaxial creep tests are conducted on asphalt mortar specimens under different freeze-thaw cycles. Then, a Burgers model with a damage factor is proposed in order to obtain the viscoelastic parameters. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM is used to study the microstructure of asphalt mortar and to investigate the structural changes that take place during freeze-thaw cycles. The results of the study indicated that freeze-thaw cycles with different salt concentrations can damage asphalt mortar and change its viscoelastic properties. The Burgers damage model is shown to reflect the creep of asphalt mortar more accurately than the Burgers model. From the results, it can be concluded that it is necessary for cold regions to control vehicle overloading and limit the amount of deicing salt to be used on pavement.

  14. Epoxy asphalt concrete is a perspective material for the construction of roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyrozhemskyi, Valerii; Kopynets, Ivan; Kischynskyi, Sergii; Bidnenko, Nataliia

    2017-09-01

    An effective way to increase the durability of asphalt concrete pavements that are subject to high traffic loads and adverse weather and climatic factors is the use of polymer additives which drastically improve the rheological and physical-mechanical properties of bitumen. The use of thermosetting polymers including epoxy resins for asphalt and bitumen modification is seen as a perspective solution for this issue. Conducted at DerzhdorNDI SE studies have proved high riding qualities of asphalt pavements that contain epoxy resins. When replacing 20-35% of bitumen with epoxy component, a significant improvement in strength characteristics of asphalt pavement is noted, especially at elevated temperatures. Specific feature of epoxy asphalt concrete is its ability to gain strength over a long-term operation. Thus, despite the increased cost of epoxy asphalt concrete, long service life of pavements on its basis (up to 30 years as predicted) ensures a high profitability of using this material, especially on the roads with heavy traffic and severe traffic conditions.

  15. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julide Oner

    Full Text Available The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  16. Utilization of recycled asphalt concrete with warm mix asphalt and cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Julide; Sengoz, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The asphalt paving industries are faced with two major problems. These two important challenges are generated with an increase in demand for environmentally friendly paving mixtures and the problem of rapidly rising raw materials. Recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is a critical necessity to save precious aggregates and reduce the use of costly bitumen. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology provides not only the option of recycling asphalt pavement at a lower temperature than the temperature maintained in hot mixtures but also encourages the utilization of RAP and therefore saves energy and money. This paper describes the feasibility of utilizing three different WMA additives (organic, chemical and water containing) at recommended contents with different percentages of RAP. The mechanical properties and cost-benefit analysis of WMA containing RAP have been performed and compared with WMA without RAP. The results indicated that, 30%, 10% and 20% can be accepted as an optimum RAP addition related to organic, chemical and water containing additives respectively and organic additive with 30% RAP content has an appreciable increase in tensile strength over the control mix. It was also concluded that the RAP with WMA technology is the ability to reduce final cost compared to HMA and WMA mixtures.

  17. Implementing energy efficient pavements: A socio-economic analysis of the development and implementation of energy efficient pavements with low rolling resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Christian; Pettinari, Matteo; Schmidt, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    for the transportation sector is to make road networks more energy efficient by implementing pavements with low rolling resistance, leading to lower fuel consumption. Through a series of projects focusing on reducing rolling resistance conducted since 2010, the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) has developed a durable......, energy-efficient asphalt pavement. Socio-economic analyses conducted to quantify the benefit to society associated with implementing these asphalt pavements have demonstrated very high benefits. The demonstrated results in terms of durability, energy efficiency and socio-economics have resulted...... in substantial government funding being provided for demonstration trials on 50 kilometers of energy-efficient pavement in 2018. The implementation of energy-efficient pavements will enable Denmark to contribute to the out-of-quota 2030-emission cuts in line with EU regulations....

  18. Development of the Asphalt Multi-Integrated Roller Field and Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El Halim Omar Abd El Halim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt pavements have been compacted using steel drum rollers for a century. However, the problems that are observed today on these pavements are universal with no solution in sight. Intensive research work has been invested to identify the mechanisms that cause these problems. A recent development was the introduction of SuperPave mix design, GP asphalt cements, and the use of reinforcing elements ranging from polymer to steel bars. Yet it seems that none of these solutions have succeeded in eliminating any of the old problems. The pavements suffer from serious distresses regardless of the geographic location of the pavements and its design, materials, traffic loads, and climate condition. This paper presents a new approach to deal with the problems facing the asphalt pavements. While the research efforts to date concentrated on materials-related solutions, this paper identifies conventional compaction equipment as the cause of many problems observed on the pavements. The paper provides the development of the new Asphalt Multi-Integrated Roller, AMIR, and discusses new developments leading to a number of commercial field trials on several Ontario highways. The paper concludes that current compactors must be replaced with soft flat plates in order to achieve the required specifications for long term performance.

  19. LABORATORY SIMULATION OF POROUS ASPHALT PARKING LOT SYSTEM AND MIX DESIGN FOR STORM WATER MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. HAMZAH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous asphalt pavement was initially developed for the purpose of improving road safety, best candidate material for quiet pavement and to avoid aquaplaning and skidding in wet weather. However, from previous studies, porous asphalt is able to mitigate surface runoff. Porous asphalt parking lots with underlying reservoir course perform as additional temporary water storage matrix that enables reduction of flash flood. This paper elaborates the development of a new porous asphalt aggregate grading design for storm water mitigation using the Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size (NMAS 20 mm. The properties of the mixes were quantified and evaluated in terms of air voids, permeability, abrasion loss and indirect tensile strength. It was found that the proposed gradation has the best permeability and Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS values when compacted at 50 blows per face with a standard Marshal compactor. The porous asphalt slab was prepared using a slab compactor to simulate porous parking lot paving at site. The porous asphalt slab was finally placed inside a locally fabricated water flow simulator to simulate a porous asphalt pavement system for parking lots.

  20. PROSPECTS FOR APPLICATION OF COMPLEX-MODIFIED SAND ASPHALT CONCRETE IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Alexandrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility to use sand asphalt concrete as a material for protection of asphalt concrete and cement concrete road pavements against affection of external destructive factors. Advantages and disadvantages of sand asphalt concrete road pavements have been determined in the paper. The paper provides recommendations on improvement of sand asphalt concrete properties and contains an analysis of possible variants for usage of complex-modified sand asphalt concrete in the road construction. It has been noted that according to its potentially possible physical and mechanical properties activated quartz sand being micro-reinforced by dispersive industrial wastes is considered as an efficient component for creation of constructive layers in road asphalt concrete pavements. The paper reveals only specific aspects of the efficient application of quartz sand in road asphalt concrete. The subject of the paper loоks rather interesting for regions where there are no rock deposits for obtaining broken-stone ballast but there is rather significant spreading of local quarts sand. Its successful application is connected with the necessity to develop special equipment for physical and chemical activation of sand grain surface that permits strongly to increase an adhesive strength in the area of phase separation within the “bitumen–SiO2” system. The considered problem is a topical one and its solution will make it possible to local sand in a maximum way and partially to exclude application of broken stone in road construction.

  1. Expedient Repair Materials for Roadway Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    www.qprcoldpatch.com 3. Description: QPR is a cold-mix patch material for asphalt and concrete pavements. The binder is a proprietary modified bitumen . The aggregate...hydroxide (lye) solution and ground slag to produce a strong cementing silicate gel. Any clean aggregate can be used as the filler material. The mixture...and standing water. AASC can be mixed with any equipment that would be used to prepare a portland cement-based mixture. As with all rigid silicate

  2. Review and environmental impact assessment of green technologies for base courses in bituminous pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthonissen, Joke, E-mail: joke.anthonissen@uantwerpen.be [Faculty of Applied Engineering, University of Antwerp, Rodestraat 4, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Van den bergh, Wim, E-mail: wim.vandenbergh@uantwerpen.be [Faculty of Applied Engineering, University of Antwerp, Rodestraat 4, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Braet, Johan, E-mail: johan.braet@uantwerpen.be [Department Engineering Management, Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp, Prinsstraat 13, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2016-09-15

    This paper provides a critical review of different approaches applied in the Belgian asphalt sector in order to reduce the environmental impact of bituminous road construction works. The focus is on (1) reusing reclaimed asphalt pavement, (2) reducing the asphalt production temperature, and (3) prolonging the service life of the pavement. Environmental impact assessment of these methods is necessary to be able to compare these approaches and understand better the ability to reduce the environmental impact during the life cycle of the road pavement. Attention should be drawn to the possible shift in environmental impact between various life cycle stages, e.g., raw material production, asphalt production, or waste treatment. Life cycle assessment is necessary to adequately assess the environmental impact of these approaches over the entire service life of the bituminous pavement. The three approaches and their implementation in the road sector in Flanders (region in Belgium) are described and the main findings from life cycle assessment studies on these subjects are discussed. It was found from the review that using reclaimed asphalt pavement in new bituminous mixtures might yield significant environmental gains. The environmental impact of the application of warm mix asphalt technologies, on the other hand, depends on the technique used. - Highlights: • Recycling, lower production temperature and durability of asphalt are investigated. • The use of RAP in new asphalt mixtures yields significant environmental advantages. • It would be beneficial to allow RAP in asphalt mixtures for wearing courses. • The use of particular additives might counteract the environmental gain from WMA. • The service life and the environmental data source influence the LCA results.

  3. Fatigue and rutting strain analysis of flexible pavements designed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The layered elastic analysis of pavements designed using three known CBR methods; the Asphalt Institute, the National Crushed Stone Association and the Nigerian CBR methods were carried out to evaluate their fatigue strain and rutting deformation characteristics. The elastic properties of the materials were determined.

  4. Nitrogen Transformations in Three Types of Permeable Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, USEPA constructed a 0.4-ha (1-ac) parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ, that incorporated three different permeable pavement types - permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). The driving lanes...

  5. DURABILITY OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS: A CASE STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    course typically made of asphaltic concrete (wearing course, binder course etc) resist skidding, traffic abrasion and disintegration effect of climate [8]. It is therefore obvious that the conditions of these materials in terms of strength, moisture content, drainage and spatial variability affect the durability of the pavement.

  6. The reinforcement and healing of asphalt mastic mixtures by rejuvenator encapsulation in alginate compartmented fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaković, A.; Post, W.; Cantero, D.; Copuroglu, O.; Garcia, S. J.; Schlangen, E.

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores the potential use of compartmented alginate fibres as a new method of incorporating rejuvenators into asphalt pavement mixtures. The compartmented fibres are employed to locally distribute the rejuvenator and to overcome the problems associated with spherical capsules and hollow fibres. The work presents proof of concept of the encapsulation process which involved embedding the fibres into the asphalt mastic mixture and the survival rate of fibres in the asphalt mixture. To prove the effectiveness of the alginate as a rejuvenator encapsulating material and to demonstrate its ability survive asphalt production process, the fibres containing the rejuvenator were prepared and subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and uniaxial tensile test. The test results demonstrated that fibres have suitable thermal and mechanical strength to survive the asphalt mixing and compaction process. The CT scan of an asphalt mortar mix containing fibres demonstrated that fibres are present in the mix in their full length, undamaged, providing confirmation that the fibres survived the asphalt production process. In order to investigate the fibres physiological properties and ability to release the rejuvenator into cracks in the asphalt mastic, the environmental scanning electron microscope and optical microscope analysis were employed. To prove its success as an asphalt healing system, compartmented alginate fibres containing rejuvenator were embedded in asphalt mastic mix. The three point bend tests were performed on the asphalt mastic test samples and the degree to which the samples began to self-heal in response was measured and quantified. The research findings indicate that alginate fibres present a promising new approach for the development of self-healing asphalt pavement systems.

  7. Particulate matter mass concentrations produced from pavement surface abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullova Dasa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest findings particulate matter belong to the most significant pollutants in Europe together with ground-level ozone O3 and nitrogen dioxide NO2. Road traffic is one of the main sources of particulate matter. Traffic volume has unpleasant impact on longevity of the pavements and also on the environment. Vehicle motions cause mechanical wearing of the asphalt pavement surface - wearing course by vehicle tyres. The paper deals with abrasion of bituminous wearing courses of pavements. The asphalt mixtures are compared in terms of mechanically separated particulate matter. The samples of asphalt mixtures were rutted in wheel tracking machine. The particulate matter measurements were performed in laboratory conditions. The experimental laboratory measurements make it possible to sample particulates without contamination from exhaust emissions, abraded particles from vehicles, resuspension of road dust and climate affects. The paper offers partial results of measurements on six trial samples of asphalt mixtures with different composition. It presents particulate matter morphology and the comparison of rutted asphalt samples in terms of PM mass concentrations and chemical composition.

  8. Voids characteristics of asphaltic concrete containing coconut shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Hannani Madzaili, Amirah; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah; Yaacob, Haryati; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Asphalt durability is often linked to the thickness of the asphalt coating on the aggregate particles. In order to have adequate film thickness in asphaltic concrete, there must be sufficient space between the aggregate particles in the compacted pavement. This void space is referred to as voids in total mix (VTM), voids with filled bitumen (VFB), and voids in mineral aggregate (VMA). Hence, this study investigates the performance of coconut shell (CS) as coarse aggregate replacement on voids characteristics of asphaltic concrete. Four CS were used as coarse aggregates replacement in asphalt mixture namely 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% (by weight volume). The voids properties of asphalt mixture were determined based on Marshall Mix design test. Test results show that VTM and VMA values were decrease with the increasing bitumen content where VFB was increase with increasing bitumen content. Furthermore, increasing the percentage of coconut shell in asphalt mixture was found to increases the voids value up to a peak level and then decreases with further additions of CS.

  9. Rutting resistance of asphalt mixture with cup lumps modified binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffie, E.; Hanif, W. M. M. Wan; Arshad, A. K.; Hashim, W.

    2017-11-01

    Rutting is the most common pavement distress in pavement structures which occurs mainly due to several factors such as increasing of traffic volume, climatic conditions and also due to construction design errors. This failure reduced the service life of the pavement, reduced driver safety and increase cost of maintenance. Polymer Modified Binder has been observed for a long time in improving asphalt pavement performance. Research shows that the use of polymer in bituminous mix not only improve the resistance to rutting but also increase the life span of the pavement. This research evaluates the physical properties and rutting performance of dense graded Superpave-designed HMA mix. Two different types of dense graded Superpave HMA mix were developed consists of unmodified binder mix (UMB) and cup lumps rubber (liquid form) modified binder mix (CLMB). Natural rubber polymer modified binder was prepared from addition of 8 percent of cup lumps into binder. Results showed that all the mixes passed the Superpave volumetric properties criteria which indicate that these mixtures were good with respect to durability and flexibility. Furthermore, rutting results from APA rutting test was determined to evaluate the performance of these mixtures. The rutting result of CLMB demonstrates better resistance to rutting than those prepared using UMB mix. Addition of cup lumps rubber in asphalt mixture was found to be significant, where the cup lumps rubber has certainly improves the binder properties and enhanced its rutting resistance due to greater elasticity offered by the cup lumps rubber particles. It shows that the use of cup lumps rubber can significantly reduce the rut depth of asphalt mixture by 41% compared to the minimum rut depth obtained for the UMB mix. Therefore, it can be concluded that the cup lumps rubber is suitable to be used as a modifier to modified binder in order to enhance the properties of the binder and thus improves the performance of asphalt mixes.

  10. Use and application of accelerated pavement testing in pavement preservation research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJVDM

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available treatments due to the low test speeds. However, with road authorities in much of the world spending considerably more on maintenance and pavement preservation than new construction, the use of APT has been explored as a means of providing rapid comparison... and is intended primarily to seal the surface. If this overlay is placed on a pavement with relatively thick existing asphalt layers before the appearance of much cracking, then it can be considered a “preservation” treatment, and a succession of these overlays...

  11. Pavement structure mechanics response of flexible on semi-flexible overlay that based on the old cement concrete pavement damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ruinan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The old cement pavement damage status directly affect the design of the paving renovation. Based on the state of the old road investigation, combined with the research data at home and abroad, use the control index that average deflection, deflection value and CBR value to determine the reasonable time to overlay. Draw up the typical pavement structure according to the principle of combination of old cement pavement overlay structure design, and calculated that the tensile stress and shear stress in asphalt layer ,semi-flexible layer and the tensile in the old cement pavement adopting BISA3.0 statics finite element analysis model when modulus in the old road was diminishing. Use the computed result to analyses the influence of old road damage condition the influence of pavement structure.

  12. Evaluation of pavement skid resistance using high speed texture measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay N. Meegoda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skid resistance is an important parameter for highway designs, construction, management, maintenance and safety. The purpose of this manuscript is to propose the correlation between skid resistance, which is measured as skid resistance trailer, and mean profile depth (MPD or the macro surface texture, which is measured by vehicle mounted laser, so that highway agencies can predict the skid resistance of pavement without the use of expensive and time consuming skid resistance trailer, which also causes disruption of traffic in use. In this research skid numbers and MPD from 5 new asphalt pavements and 4 old asphalt pavements were collected using a locked wheel skid trailer and a vehicle mounted laser. Using the data collected, a correlation between the skid number (SN40R collected by locked wheel skid tester and the texture data or MPD collected by a vehicle mounted laser operating at highway speeds was developed. The proposed correlation for new pavements was positive for MPD values less than 0.75 mm to reach a peak SN40R value, then there was a negative correlation as the MPD increases until the MPD value was equal to 1.1 mm and beyond the MPD value of 1.1 mm to the maximum value of 1.4 mm, SN40R value remained almost constant. There were significant data scatter for the MPD value of 0.8 mm. To explain these results, water film thickness during the friction test was calculated and the critical MPD was defined. The effect of sealed water pool on the SN40R was discussed. The test result showed a similar trend for older asphalt pavements, but with lower SN40R values due to the polishing of pavement micro-texture by traffic. Hence, a reduction factor was proposed for older pavements based on cumulative traffic volume for the above correlation to predict the skid resistance of older pavements.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Conventional Hot Mix and Porous Asphalt Under Accelerated Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djakfar Ludfi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to evaluate and compare the performance of conventional hot mix asphalt and porous hot mix asphalt under accelerated loading. To achieve the objective, a test section was constructed and tested with a loading device previously developed. The pavement material conforms to the Indonesian Directorate General of Highway. While the porous surface conforms to the Australian standard for asphalt porous. The thickness of the test section was prepared to simulate the real condition of the pavement structure. The load, equivalent to the standard 8,160 kg axle load was applied for 1,000 passes. For every 100 passes, stresses and deformation were recorded. The result shows that there is some consistency between theory and field results in terms of stresses and deformation. Conventional surface course seems to perform better in deformation/rutting. Future research should be directed to improve the performance of the device and also the performance of the porous asphalt.

  14. Study on Flexible Pavement Failures in Soft Soil Tropical Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, M.; Chee Soon, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Road network system experienced rapid upgrowth since ages ago and it started developing in Malaysia during the colonization of British due to its significant impacts in transportation field. Flexible pavement, the major road network in Malaysia, has been deteriorating by various types of distresses which cause descending serviceability of the pavement structure. This paper discusses the pavement condition assessment carried out in Sarawak and Sabah, Malaysia to have design solutions for flexible pavement failures. Field tests were conducted to examine the subgrade strength of existing roads in Sarawak at various failure locations, to assess the impact of subgrade strength on pavement failures. Research outcomes from field condition assessment and subgrade testing showed that the critical causes of pavement failures are inadequate design and maintenance of drainage system and shoulder cross fall, along with inadequate pavement thickness provided by may be assuming the conservative value of soil strength at optimum moisture content, whereas the exiting and expected subgrade strengths at equilibrium moisture content are far below. Our further research shows that stabilized existing recycled asphalt and base materials to use as a sub-base along with bitumen stabilized open graded base in the pavement composition may be a viable solution for pavement failures.

  15. Rutting prediction of asphalt concrete materials using a multi-criteria viscopasticity model

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, DT; Nedjar, B.; P. Tamagny; DE LA ROCHE, C

    2006-01-01

    These last few years, many efforts have been devoted to the study of rutting problems. In fact, under high traffic loadings together with the extreme environmental conditions, permanent deformations of asphalt pavements appear and become more and more severe demanding more efforts on developing suitable predictive models. In this paper, a three-dimensional elasto-viscoplastic model is developed and applied to describe the behaviour of asphalt concrete materials under cyclic loadings. The mode...

  16. INFLUENCE OF POLYMERIC-DISPERSED REINFORCEMENT ADDITIVES ON THE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernov Sergey Anatolevych

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The technique and results of the studies of the influence of a polymeric-dispersed reinforcement additive on the performance characteristics of road hot asphalt concrete, namely, its resistance to fatigue failures, rutting and development of residual deformation are described. It is shown that the proposed method of modification of asphalt-concrete mixtures ensures an increase in the durability of layers of pavement road surface.

  17. Evaluation of permanent deformation and durability of epoxidized natural rubber modified asphalt mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A.; Ismail, Amiruddin; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Nazri Borhan, Muhamad; Alsharef, Jamal M. A.; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Rehan Karim, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    The road distresses have caused too much in maintenance cost. However, better understandings of the behaviours and properties of asphalt, couples with greater development in technology, have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, modifiers such as polymers are the most popular modifiers used to improve the performance of asphalt mix. This study was conducted to investigate the use of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) to be mixed with asphalt mix. Tests were conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of ENR-asphalt mixes, where the mixes were prepared according to the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes have demonstrated that the asphalt mix permanent deformation performance at high temperature was found to be improved compared to the base mixes. However, the durability studies have indicated that ENR-asphalt mixes are slightly susceptible with the presence of moisture. The durability of the ENR-asphalt mixes were found to be enhanced in term of permanent deformation at high and intermediate temperatures compared to the base asphalt mixes. As conclusion, asphalt pavement performance can be enhanced by using ENR as modifier to face the major road distresses.

  18. Design and Properties of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Using Renewable Bioasphalt Binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, A.; Djumari; Irfansyah, P. A.; Shidiq, A. M.; Wibisono, I. S.; Fauzy, M. N.; Hadi, F. N.

    2017-02-01

    The needs of petroleum asphalt as materials for pavement is very large, while the petroleum classified as natural resources that cannot be renewable. As a result of petroleum dwindling and prices tend to be more expensive. So that requiring other alternative materials as a substitute for conventional asphalt derived from biomass or often called bioasphalt. This study aims to know the volumetric and Marshall characteristics on Asphalt Cement ( AC ) using the Damar asphalt modification to substitute 60/70 penetration asphalt as a binder. The volumetric and Marshall characteristic are porosity, density, flow, stability, and Marshall quotient. The characteristic of asphalt concrete at optimum bitumen content are compared to the conditions from highway agency 1987 and the general specification of asphalt concrete Bina Marga 2010 the third revision. The research uses experimental method in the laboratory with the samples made using the dasphalt modification as binder and incorporating the aggregate gradation no. VII SNI 03-1737-1989. The research is using 15 samples divided into 5 contents of damar asphalt, they are 5%, 5,5%, 6%, 6,5%, dan 7%. Tests carried out using Marshall test equipment to get the value of flow and stability and then be searched the value of optimum damar asphalt content. The result of asphalt concrete analysis using dasphalt modification as binder gives the value of optimum dasphalt content at 5,242%. The most characteristics already met the requirements and specifications.

  19. Evaluation the effect of using polymers on the performance of wearing asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Mohammed Jebur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Iraq , the increasing in number of vehicles and trucks with their heavy traffic loading and under high temperature , a variety of pavement distresses continues to develop affecting the performance and economy of pavement construction. Polymer modified asphalt mixtures have been used to resist the distresses that produced and developed from the applied stresses. Several distresses effect on the performance of HMA. The primary forms of distress are fatigue cracking , rutting , moisture damage and thermal cracking. These distresses reduce the services life of HMA and increase the maintenance costs. The main objective of this research is to find the effect of polymers on the performance of asphalt mixtureby using one asphalt cement grade (40-50 from Al-Daurah refinery with two types of locally available polymers (Low-Density Polyethylene LDPE and Styrene Butadiene Styrene SBS with three percentages for each type. These percent are (1, 3 and 6 % for (LDPE & SBS by weight of asphalt cement. Each type of these polymers is blended with asphalt cement by using the wet process. The experimental work showed that all polymer-modified mixtures have stability and indirect tensile strength higher than the control mixtures. It can be concluded that the addition of (1% LDPE and (3% SBS to asphalt mixtures showed better improvement on the performance properties of pavement modified with these polymers , in which the referred percent represent the optimum percent of concentration for blending polymers .

  20. A review of changes in composition of hot mix asphalt in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Diane J; Marano, Kristin M; Nunes, Anthony P; Adams, Robert C

    2009-11-01

    This review researched the materials, methods, and practices in the hot mix asphalt industry that might impact future exposure assessments and epidemiologic research on road paving workers. Since World War II, the U.S. interstate highway system, increased traffic volume, transportation speeds, and vehicle axle loads have necessitated an increase in demand for hot mix asphalt for road construction and maintenance, while requiring a consistent road paving product that meets state-specific physical performance specifications. We reviewed typical practices in hot mix asphalt paving in the United States to understand the extent to which materials are and have been added to hot mix asphalt to meet specifications and how changes in practices and technology could affect evaluation of worker exposures for future research. Historical documents were reviewed, and industry experts from 16 states were interviewed to obtain relevant information on industry practices. Participants from all states reported additive use, with most being less than 2% by weight. Crumb rubber and recycled asphalt pavement were added in concentrations approximately 10% per unit weight of the mix. The most frequently added materials included polymers and anti-stripping agents. Crumb rubber, sulfur, asbestos, roofing shingles, slag, or fly ash have been used in limited amounts for short periods of time or in limited geographic areas. No state reported using coal tar as an additive to hot mix asphalt or as a binder alternative in hot mix pavements for high-volume road construction. Coal tar may be present in recycled asphalt pavement from historical use, which would need to be considered in future exposure assessments of pavers. Changes in hot mix asphalt production and laydown emission control equipment have been universally implemented over time as the technology has become available to reduce potential worker exposures. This work is a companion review to a study undertaken in the petroleum refining

  1. Development of an asphalt aging procedure to assess long-term binder performance

    KAUST Repository

    Juristyarini, Pramitha

    2011-09-07

    Nine asphalts, including seven Strategic Highway Research Program asphalts and two Texas asphalts, were aged at several conditions of temperature and oxygen pressure to develop an aging test. Values for a dynamic shear rheometer function, a combination of both elastic and viscous properties that serves as an indicator of susceptibility to age-related pavement cracking, were measured for both aged and unaged samples. Each aging condition was ranked and calibrated against environmental room aging (60°C, 1 atm air), used to simulate road aging. PAV thin-film aging at 90°C, 20 atm air for 32 hr best represented environmental room aging. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  2. Contribution of rheological characteristics of pavement structure with addition of brick waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senisna, Zoubida; Bentebba, Med Tahar

    2017-02-01

    The construction and demolition waste at the end of the cycle are often a threat for the environment due to their congestion and biodegradability. The presented research work aims to develop these wastes such as the waste of pavements structure brick. It refers to the behavior of modified asphalt mixture (bituminous grave) by adding the waste of the grinding yellow brick, which is used in the construction of buildings. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate and compare the physical and mechanical performance roadway structure (modified bituminous Gravel (GB 0/20)) by replacing natural sand partly mix (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% or completely by brick waste sand) and determine the optimal composition. Mechanical and rheological performance give the best results. The results show that the use of brick waste sand leads to a reduction of the physical and mechanical properties of GB 0/20.

  3. The use of waste materials in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncan, Mustafa; Tuncan, Ahmet; Cetin, Altan

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the effects of rubber and plastic concentrations and rubber particle sizes on properties of asphalt cement, (b) on properties of asphalt concrete specimens and (c) the effects of fly ash, marble powder, rubber powder and petroleum contaminated soil as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete specimens. One type of limestone aggregate and one penetration-graded asphalt cement (75-100) were used. Three concentrations of rubber and plastic (i.e. 5%, 10% and 20% of the total weight of asphalt cement), three rubber particle sizes (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 20 [0.85 mm], No. 20 [0.85mm] - 200 [0.075mm] and No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm]) and one plastic particle size (i.e. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 10 [2.00mm]) were also used. It was found that while the addition of plastic significantly increased the strength of specimens, the addition of rubber decreased it. No. 4 [4.75mm] - 200 [0.075mm] rubber particles showed the best results with respect to the indirect tensile test. The Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength properties of plastic modified specimens increased. Marble powder and fly ash could be used as filler materials instead of stone powder in the asphalt concrete pavement specimens.

  4. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA. Both the wet (field blend and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans increased the use of scrap tire rubber in paving projects and invested considerable resources in developing technically sound, cost effective, and environmentally friendly strategies for using scrap tire rubber in roadway applications. By the end of year 2010, approximately 31%of all hot mix asphalt (HMA placed by Caltrans was rubberized HMA, roughly 1.2 million tons. Caltrans efforts in using asphalt rubber products were also demonstrated in its research and technology development. These included the construction of two full-scale field experiments, five warranty projects, and an accelerated pavement study using a heavy vehicle simulator. Additionally, terminal blend asphalt rubber and rubberized warm mix asphalts began to be experimented on trial basis. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Caltrans experience over four decades with asphalt rubber products. Current practices and future outlook are also discussed.

  5. Ice melting properties of steel slag asphalt concrete with microwave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Sun, Yihan; Liu, Quantao; Fang, Hao; Wu, Shaopeng; Tang, Jin; Ye, Qunshan

    2017-03-01

    The ice on the surface of asphalt pavement in winter significantly influences the road transportation safety. This paper aims at the improvement of the ice melting efficiency on the surface of asphalt pavement. The steel slag asphalt concrete was prepared and the high ice melting efficiency was achieved with the microwave heating. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the ice melting performance of steel slag asphalt concrete, including the heating test, ice melting test, thermal conductivity test and so on. The results indicated that the microwave heating of steel slag concrete can improve the efficiency of deicing, mainly because the heating rates of steel slag asphalt mixture are much better than traditional limestone asphalt mixture. According to different thickness lever of ice, the final temperatures of each sample were very close to each other at the end of melting test. It is believed the thickness of the ice has a limited impact on the ice melting efficiency. According to the heating tests results, the bonding of ice and asphalt concrete is defined failure at the moment when the surface temperature of the ice reached 3 °C.

  6. Evaluation system for CO2 emission of hot asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The highway construction industry plays an important role in economic and development, but is also a primary source of carbon emission. Accordingly, with the global climate change, energy conservation and reduction of carbon emissions have become critical issues in the highway construction industry. However, to date, a model for the highway construction industry has not been established. Hence, to implement a low-carbon construction model for highways, this study divided asphalt pavement construction into aggregate stacking, aggregate supply, and other stages, and compiled a list of energy consumption investigation. An appropriate calculation model of CO2 emission was then built. Based on the carbon emission calculation model, the proportion of carbon emissions in each stage was analyzed. The analytic hierarchy process was used to establish the system of asphalt pavement construction with a judgment matrix, thereby enabling calculation of the weight coefficient of each link. In addition, the stages of aggregate heating, asphalt heating, and asphalt mixture mixing were defined as key stages of asphalt pavement construction. Carbon emissions at these stages accounted for approximately 90% of the total carbon emissions. Carbon emissions at each stage and their impact on the environment were quantified and compared. The energy saving construction schemes as well as the environmental and socioeconomic benefits were then proposed. Through these schemes, significant reductions in carbon emissions and costs can be achieved. The results indicate that carbon emissions reduce by 32.30% and 35.93%, whereas costs reduce by 18.58% and 6.03%. The proposed energy-saving and emission reduction scheme can provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the development of low-carbon highway construction.

  7. Change in consistency and composition of trichloroethylene- and trichloroethane-treated asphalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Elgheit, M A; Ijam, M J

    1982-12-01

    Solvent extraction of asphalt from pavement mixtures is a technique used to study the change in asphalt during service. Rheological measurements indicate that asphalts recovered from trichloroethylene or trichloroethane are markedly hardened. Compositional studies on asphaltic fractions reveal a notable decrease in saturates, naphthenes, H, N, Ni and V, and increase in polar aromatics and asphaltenes along with incorporation of Cl in all fractions. These structural changes are responsible for the hardening of the asphalt and are interpreted in terms of cyclization of saturates, aromatization of naphthenes, coupling of free radicals with neutral species to give a high content of asphaltenes, and in terms of loss of the relatively volatile Ni and V porphyrins during the extraction-recovery process.

  8. Application of minerals residues in the asphalt composition; Aplicacao de residuos minerais na composicao do asfalto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Roberto Carlos da C.; Seidl, Peter Rudolf [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Correia, Julio Cesar Guedes [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral - CETEM, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The performance of asphalt pavements depends mainly on the properties of their constituents: mineral aggregates and asphalt cement. The mineral aggregate represents about 95% in weight of asphalt mixtures having a significant influence on the properties and performance of these mixtures. Asphalt cement (CAP) corresponds to the smaller fraction but it is mainly responsible for adsorption on the mineral aggregates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between different CAPs with residues from granite saw wills in place of mineral aggregates that run up costs with extraction and processing in asphalt production. This way asphalt production costs as well as the environmental problems that are caused by mineral residue are reduced. Five different asphalt cements, referred to as A, B, C, D and E, and a granite residue were used in this work. The results indicated that the residue strongly absorbs all the CAPs that were studied; particularly CAP A, which is considered the most adequate for the production of asphalt from this residue. Preliminary tests this indicate that asphalt production can use mineral residues instead of mineral aggregates in its composition. (author)

  9. Mechanistic and Economical Characteristics of Asphalt Rubber Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena I. Souliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavement systems. Flexural bending beam fatigue laboratory test has been used for several decades and is considered to be an integral part of the new superpave advanced characterization procedure. One of the most significant solutions to prolong the fatigue life for an asphaltic mixture is to utilize flexible materials as rubber. A laboratory testing program was performed on a conventional and Asphalt Rubber- (AR- gap-graded mixtures to investigate the impact of added rubber on the mechanical, mechanistic, and economical attributes of asphaltic mixtures. Strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted according to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO procedures. The results from the beam fatigue tests indicated that the AR-gap-graded mixtures would have much longer fatigue life compared with the reference (conventional mixtures. In addition, a mechanistic analysis using 3D-Move software coupled with a cost analysis study based on the fatigue performance on the two mixtures was performed. Overall, analysis showed that AR modified asphalt mixtures exhibited significantly lower cost of pavement per 1000 cycles of fatigue life per mile compared to conventional HMA mixture.

  10. Thermal segregation of asphalt material in road repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Byzyka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a field study of asphaltic pavement patching operations performed by three different contractors working in a total of ten sites. It forms part of an ongoing research programme towards improving the performance of pothole repairs. Thermal imaging technology was used to record temperatures of the patching material throughout the entire exercise, from the stage of material collection, through transportation to repair site, patch forming, and compaction. Practical complications occurring during patch repairs were also identified. It was found that depending on the weather conditions, duration of the travel and poor insulation of the transported hot asphalt mix, its temperature can drop as high as 116.6 °C over the period that the reinstatement team travel to the site and prepare the patch. This impacting is on the durability and performance of the executed repairs. Cold spots on the asphalt mat and temperature differentials between the new hot-fill asphalt mix and existing pavement were also identified as poorly compacted areas that were prone to premature failure. For example, over the five-minute period, the temperature at one point reduced by 33% whereas the temperatures of nearby areas decreased by 65% and 71%. A return visit to the repair sites, three months later, revealed that locations where thermal segregation was noted, during the patching operation, had failed prematurely.

  11. Building America Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Asphalt Shingles in a Cold Climate, Boilingbrook, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Insulating roofs with dense-pack cellulose (instead of spray foam) has moisture risks, but is a lower cost approach. If moisture risks could be addressed, buildings could benefit from retrofit options, and the ability to bring HVAC systems within the conditioned space. Test houses with unvented roof assemblies were built to measure long-term moisture performance, in the Chicago area (5A) and the Houston area (2A). The Chicago-area test bed had seven experimental rafter bays, including a 'control' vented compact roof, and six unvented roof variants with cellulose or fiberglass insulation. The interior was run at 50% RH. All roofs except the vented cathedral assembly experienced wood moisture contents and RH levels high enough to constitute failure. Disassembly at the end of the experiment showed that the unvented fiberglass roofs had wet sheathing and mold growth. In contrast, the cellulose roofs only had slight issues, such as rusted fasteners and sheathing grain raise. The Houston-area roof was an unvented attic insulated with spray-applied fiberglass. Most ridges and hips were built with a 'diffusion vent' detail, capped with vapor permeable roof membrane. Some ridge sections were built as a conventional unvented roof, as a control. In the control unvented roofs, roof peak RHs reached high levels in the first winter; as exterior conditions warmed, RHs quickly fell. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions at the roof peak in wintertime, but during the summer, RHs and MCs were higher than the unvented roof (albeit in the safe range).

  12. Prediction of performance and evaluation of flexible pavement rehabilitation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Won Wayne Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Five test sections with different additives and strategies were established to rehabilitate a State-maintained highway more effectively in Rhode Island (RI: control, calcium chloride, asphalt emulsion, Portland cement and geogrid. Resilient moduli of subgrade soils and subbase materials before and after full depth rehabilitation were employed as input parameters to predict the performance of pavement structures using AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design (Pavement ME software in terms of rutting, cracking and roughness. It was attempted to use Level 1 input (which includes traffic full spectrum data, climate data and structural layer properties for Pavement ME. Traffic data was obtained from a Weigh-in-Motion (WIM instrument and Providence station was used for collecting climatic data. Volumetric properties, dynamic modulus and creep compliance were used as input parameters for 19 mm (0.75 in. warm mix asphalt (WMA base and 12.5 mm (0.5 in. WMA surface layer. The results indicated that all test sections observed AC top-down (longitudinal cracking except Portland cement section which passed for all criteria. The order in terms of performance (best to worst for all test sections by Pavement ME was Portland cement, calcium chloride, control, geogrid, and asphalt emulsion. It was also observed that all test sections passed for both bottom up and top down fatigue cracking by increasing thickness of either of the two top asphalt layers. Test sections with five different base/subbase materials were evaluated in last two years through visual condition survey and measurements of deflection and roughness to confirm the prediction, but there was no serious distress and roughness. Thus these experiments allowed selecting the best rehabilitation/reconstruction techniques for the particular and/or similar highway, and a framework was formulated to select an optimal technique and/or strategy for future rehabilitation/reconstruction projects. Finally, guidelines for

  13. Application of Finite Layer Method in Pavement Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The finite element (FE method has been widely used in predicting the structural responses of asphalt pavements. However, the three-dimensional (3D modeling in general-purpose FE software systems such as ABAQUS requires extensive computations and is relatively time-consuming. To address this issue, a specific computational code EasyFEM was developed based on the finite layer method (FLM for analyzing structural responses of asphalt pavements under a static load. Basically, it is a 3D FE code that requires only a one-dimensional (1D mesh by incorporating analytical methods and using Fourier series in the other two dimensions, which can significantly reduce the computational time and required resources due to the easy implementation of parallel computing technology. Moreover, a newly-developed Element Energy Projection (EEP method for super-convergent calculations was implemented in EasyFEM to improve the accuracy of solutions for strains and stresses over the whole pavement model. The accuracy of the program is verified by comparing it with results from BISAR and ABAQUS for a typical asphalt pavement structure. The results show that the predicted responses from ABAQUS and EasyFEM are in good agreement with each other. The EasyFEM with the EEP post-processing technique converges faster compared with the results derived from ordinary EasyFEM applications, which proves that the EEP technique can improve the accuracy of strains and stresses from EasyFEM. In summary, the EasyFEM has a potential to provide a flexible and robust platform for the numerical simulation of asphalt pavements and can easily be post-processed with the EEP technique to enhance its advantages.

  14. A simple approach to the design of pavements incorporating grouted macadams

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Joel; Zoorob, S.; Thom, N.H.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2007-01-01

    Grouted macadams form a semi-flexible class of composites whose behaviour lies somewhere between concrete and conventional asphalt materials, having both excellent rut resistance and a degree of flexibility. This paper presents a series of pavement design computer simulations, based on results obtained from laboratory fatigue and stiffness tests on grouted macadam and conventional asphalt mixtures. The design variables explored include the application of grouted macadams both as surf...

  15. Impacts of pavement types on in-vehicle noise and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Noise is a major source of pollution that can affect the human physiology and living environment. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an exposure for longer than 24 hours to noise levels above 70 dB(A) may damage human hearing sensitivity, induce adverse health effects, and cause anxiety to residents nearby roadways. Pavement type with different roughness is one of the associated sources that may contribute to in-vehicle noise. Most previous studies have focused on the impact of pavement type on the surrounding acoustic environment of roadways, and given little attention to in-vehicle noise levels. This paper explores the impacts of different pavement types on in-vehicle noise levels and the associated adverse health effects. An old concrete pavement and a pavement with a thin asphalt overlay were chosen as the test beds. The in-vehicle noise caused by the asphalt and concrete pavements were measured, as well as the drivers' corresponding heart rates and reported riding comfort. Results show that the overall in-vehicle sound levels are higher than 70 dB(A) even at midnight. The newly overlaid asphalt pavement reduced in-vehicle noise at a driving speed of 96.5 km/hr by approximately 6 dB(A). Further, on the concrete pavement with higher roughness, driver heart rates were significantly higher than on the asphalt pavement. Drivers reported feeling more comfortable when driving on asphalt than on concrete pavement. Further tests on more drivers with different demographic characteristics, along highways with complicated configurations, and an examination of more factors contributing to in-vehicle noise are recommended, in addition to measuring additional physical symptoms of both drivers and passengers. While there have been many previous noise-related studies, few have addressed in-vehicle noise. Most studies have focused on the noise that residents have complained about, such as neighborhood traffic noise. As yet, there have been no complaints by

  16. Making operational strategies of asphalt teams explicit to reduce process variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; Doree, Andries G.

    2014-01-01

    The on-site construction process undertaken by asphalt teams has a critical impact on pavement quality. Process improvement and learning require explicit information about the process. However, current on-site operational activities and key parameters are, in general, not systematically monitored

  17. Damage development in the adhesive zone and mortar of porous asphalt concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, A.A.A.; Wu, S.P.; Huurman, M.; Mo, L.T.

    This research is focused on damage development in the adhesive zone and the mortar of porous asphalt concrete. The motive of this research is the loss of stone from the pavement surface, the so-called ravelling of noise reducing surface wearing courses. Ravelling is the dominant defect of porous

  18. Damage development in the adhesive zone and mortar of porous asphalt concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, L.T.

    2010-01-01

    This research is focused on damage development in the adhesive zone and the mortar of porous asphalt concrete. The motive of this research is the loss of stone from the pavement surface, the so-called ravelling of noise reducing surface wearing courses. Ravelling is the dominant defect of porous

  19. Dynamic modulus of nanosilica modified porous asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, A. K.; Masri, K. A.; Ahmad, J.; Samsudin, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Porous asphalt (PA) is a flexible pavement layer with high interconnected air void contents and constructed using open-graded aggregates. Due to high temperature environment and increased traffic volume in Malaysia, PA may have deficiencies particularly in rutting and stiffness of the mix. A possible way to improve these deficiencies is to improve the asphalt binder used. Binder is normally modified using polymer materials to improve its properties. However, nanotechnology presently is being gradually used for asphalt modification. Nanosilica (NS), a byproduct of rice husk and palm oil fuel ash is used as additive in this study. The aim of this study is to enhance the rutting resistance and stiffness performance of PA using NS. This study focused on the performance of PA in terms of dynamic modulus with the addition of NS modified binder to produce better and more durable PA. From the result of Dynamic SPT Test, it shows that the addition of NS was capable in enhancing the stiffness and rutting resistance of PA. The addition of NS also increase the dynamic modulus value of PA by 50%.

  20. Evaluation of Three Porous Pavement Systems in a Newly Constructed Parking Lot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project examines porous pavement systems in a newly constructed parking lot next to Building 205 at the Edison Environmental Center. Porous pavement systems are one means of promoting environmental sustainability through stormwater runoff reduction. This project examines t...

  1. Paint Pavement Marking Performance Prediction Model That Includes the Impacts of Snow Removal Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hypothesized that snow plows wear down mountain road pavement markings. 2007 Craig et al. -Edge lines degrade slower than center/skip lines 2007...retroreflectivity to create the models. They discovered that paint pavement markings last 80% longer on Portland Cement Concrete than Asphalt Concrete at low AADT...retroreflectivity, while yellow markings lost 21%. Lu and Barter attributed the sizable degradation to snow removal, sand application, and studded

  2. Case study: dynamic modulus characterization of naturally occurring bituminous sands for sustainable pavement applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available -1 Technical Paper ISSN 1997-1400 Int. J. Pavement Res. Technol. 3(6):286-294 Copyright @ Chinese Society of Pavement Engineering Vol.3 No.6 Nov. 2010 International..., Alberta, Canada. 18. AASHTO, (2005). Standard Method of Test for Bulk Specific Gravity of Compacted Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Using Saturated Surface-Dry Specimens, AASHTO T 166, AASHTO, USA. 19. AASHTO, (2009). Standard Method of Test for Theoretical...

  3. Conventional and Non-Conventional Equipment for Pavement Surface Macrotexture Measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováč Matúš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the surface macrotexture measurement on various asphalt pavements. For the macrotexture measurement were used two differently working devices. The Profilograph GE is a continually working device owned by Slovak road administration. The ZScanner® 800 is a handoperated laser 3D scanner, which is the property of University of Zilina. As a characteristic for pavement texture evaluation was chosen the worldwide used parameter MPD.

  4. Fatigue Life Assessment of Orthotropic Steel Deck with UHPC Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of large-span bridges with orthotropic steel decks were constructed in China. With increasing traffic volumes and higher wheel loads, many fatigue cracks developed at the welds and the edge of cut-out holes. This paper aims at presenting the numerical analysis on the fatigue performance of the orthotropic steel deck using ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC overlay as the deck pavement instead of the conventional asphalt concrete pavement. By using finite element method (FEM model, stress distribution at fatigue sensitive locations under the action of wheel loads is characterized and the obtained stress ranges indicate that the UHPC pavement significantly reduces the magnitude of the stress peak valued. A suggested truck stream model based on the weigh-in-motion (WIM data of four bridges in China is employed to calculate the stress variation at specific fatigue details. Furthermore, the fatigue damage accumulation at fatigue details under the UHPC and conventional asphalt concrete pavement is studied based on Miner’s linear cumulative damage rule and the rain-flow method. The results indicate that the UHPC pavement on the orthotropic steel deck can extend the service lives of the concerned regions over 100 years, but the fatigue lives will reduce significantly when the elastic modulus of UHPC decreases to 50% of the original value.

  5. Comparative field permeability measurement of permeable pavements using ASTM C1701 and NCAT permeameter methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Kayhanian, Masoud; Harvey, John T

    2013-03-30

    Fully permeable pavement is gradually gaining support as an alternative best management practice (BMP) for stormwater runoff management. As the use of these pavements increases, a definitive test method is needed to measure hydraulic performance and to evaluate clogging, both for performance studies and for assessment of permeability for construction quality assurance and maintenance needs assessment. Two of the most commonly used permeability measurement tests for porous asphalt and pervious concrete are the National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) permeameter and ASTM C1701, respectively. This study was undertaken to compare measured values for both methods in the field on a variety of permeable pavements used in current practice. The field measurements were performed using six experimental section designs with different permeable pavement surface types including pervious concrete, porous asphalt and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Multiple measurements were performed at five locations on each pavement test section. The results showed that: (i) silicone gel is a superior sealing material to prevent water leakage compared with conventional plumbing putty; (ii) both methods (NCAT and ASTM) can effectively be used to measure the permeability of all pavement types and the surface material type will not impact the measurement precision; (iii) the permeability values measured with the ASTM method were 50-90% (75% on average) lower than those measured with the NCAT method; (iv) the larger permeameter cylinder diameter used in the ASTM method improved the reliability and reduced the variability of the measured permeability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Field investigation of low-temperature cracking and stiffness moduli on selected roads with conventional and high modulus asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judycki, Józef; Jaczewski, Mariusz; Ryś, Dawid; Pszczoła, Marek; Jaskuła, Piotr; Glinicki, Adam

    2017-09-01

    High Modulus Asphalt Concrete (HMAC) was introduced in Poland as a one of the solutions to the problem of rutting, type of deterioration common in the 1990s. After first encouraging trials in 2002 HMAC was widely used for heavily loaded national roads and motorways. However some concerns were raised about low-temperature cracking of HMAC. This was the main reason of the studies presented in this article were started. The article presents the comparison of performance of pavements constructed in typical contract conditions with the road bases made of HMAC and conventional asphalt concrete (AC). The field investigation was focused on the number of low-temperature cracks, bearing capacity (based on FWD test) of road sections localized in coldest region of Poland. Also load transfer efficiency of selected low-temperature cracks was assessed. FWD test confirmed lower deflections of pavements with HMAC and two times higher stiffness modulus of asphalt courses in comparison to pavements constructed with conventional AC mixtures. Relation of stiffness of asphalt layers and amount of low-temperature cracks showed that the higher stiffness modulus of asphalt layers could lead to increase of the number of low-temperature cracks. FWD test results showed that the load transfer efficiency of low-temperature cracks on pavements with HMAC presents very low values, very close to lack of load transfer. It was surprising as section with HMAC road base were aged from 2 to 5 years and presented very good bearing capacity.

  7. POROUS ASPHALT???S CONTRIBUTION ON ROAD SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nur; Ramli, M. Isran; Hustim, Muralia

    2012-01-01

    The porous asphalt properties are different from dense asphalt concrete. Regarding the open structure of its gradation, the porous asphalt can reduce noise level from road traffic, drains water from the road surface, and the thermal conductivity. These behaviors lead to the porous asphalt contribution on road traffic safety and environment. This paper provides a comparison study regarding a literature review based on some developed countries??? experiences in using the porous asphalt related ...

  8. Fatigue Evaluation of Recycled Asphalt Mixture Based on Energy-Controlled Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue properties of asphalt mixtures are important inputs for mechanistic-empirical pavement design. To understand the fatigue properties of asphalt mixtures better and to predict the fatigue life of asphalt mixtures more precisely, the energy-controlled test mode was introduced. Based on the implementation theory, the laboratory practice for the energy-controlled mode was realized using a four-point-bending fatigue test with multiple-step loading. In this mode, the fatigue performance of typical AC-20 asphalt specimens with various reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP contents was tested and evaluated. Results show that the variation regulation of the dissipated energy and accumulative energy is compatible with the loading control principle, which proves the feasibility of the method. In addition, the fatigue life of the asphalt mixture in the energy-controlled mode was between that for the stress-controlled and strain-controlled modes. The specimen with a higher RAP content has a longer fatigue life and better fatigue performance.

  9. An In-Depth Investigation into the Physicochemical, Thermal, Microstructural, and Rheological Properties of Petroleum and Natural Asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Nciri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, unexpected and sudden pavement failures have occurred in several provinces in South Korea. Some of these failures remain unexplained, further illustrating the gaps in our knowledge about binder chemistry. To prevent premature pavement distress and enhance road performance, it is imperative to provide an adequate characterization of asphalt. For this purpose, the current research aims at inspecting the chemistry, microstructure, thermal, and physico-rheological properties of two types of asphalt, namely petroleum asphalt (PA and natural asphalt (NA. The binders were extensively investigated by using elemental analysis, thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-fight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-MS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy (RS, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR, ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, penetration, softening point, ductility, and viscosity tests. The findings of this research have revealed the distinct variations between the chemical compositions, microstructures, and thermo-rheological properties of the two asphalts and provided valuable knowledge into the characteristics of the binders. Such insight has been effective in predicting the performance or distress of road pavement. This paper will, therefore, be of immediate interest to materials engineers in state highway agencies and asphalt industries.

  10. Laboratory Evaluation of Aging Behaviour of SBS Modified Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of aging SBS modified asphalt on the performance of asphalt pavement, aging at various times and temperatures was conducted with thin film oven, and then tests were made about the penetration, softening point, ductility, viscosity, toughness, and fluorescence microscopy of modified asphalt with different aging levels. The results show that, with the increasing of aging time, the penetration and ductility of modified asphalt decrease while its softening point and viscosity increase, and the variation trend of the toughness and tenacity is related to the aging temperature; the aging dynamic model with viscosity as parameter can well characterize the aging process of modified asphalt; at microlevel, with the decreasing of SBS particle size, the uniformity of particle size is better. Analysis of macroscopic properties, microscopic characteristics, and significance shows that the SBS particle area ratio has a significant correlation with tenacity as the aging temperature changes. When the aging temperature is 163°C, the SBS particle area ratio still has a significant correlation with tenacity as the aging time changes.

  11. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3% to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  12. Assessing The Durability of Polymer Modified Asphalt Emulsions Slurry Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singgih, C.; Handayani, D.; Setyawan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Slurry Seal is an application of road preservation in the form of impermeable nonstructural thin layer with maximum thickness of 10 mm, which consisting of a cold laid mixture of asphalt emulsion with continuous graded fine aggregate, mineral filler, water and other added ingredients. Road preservation use slurry seal only functioning as a surface layer on the existing pavement structure. This preliminary research was conducted to determine the value of consistency, setting time, and indirect tensile strength of polymer modified slurry seal. The laboratory tests were conducted to determine the optimum residual asphalt content. The results show that the value of the optimum water content by pre-wetting 5% is getting smaller with increasing levels of residual asphalt emulsion. The addition of water 0 - 2.5% with 5% water for pre-wetting, the mixture provides a sufficient consistency in accordance with the specifications. The increasing levels of residual asphalt emulsion obtained the longer setting time at all slurry seal mixtures, but all of the mixtures still meet the specifications. The use of polymer modified asphalt emulsion on slurry seal was improved durability significantly, based on the value of indirect tensile strength.

  13. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  14. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenbo; Wu, Shaopeng; Pang, Ling; Sun, Yihan; Chen, Zongwu

    2017-01-07

    In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration) were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3%) to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants) of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  15. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A; Ismail, Amiruddin; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O K; Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Azhari, Che Husna; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR-asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR-asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress.

  16. Performance characterizations of asphalt binders and mixtures incorporating silane additive ZycoTherm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohd Rosli Mohd; Hamzah, Meor Othman; Yee, Teh Sek

    2017-10-01

    Experimental works were conducted to evaluate the properties of asphalt binders and mixtures produced using a relatively new silane additive, named ZycoTherm. In this study, 0.1wt% ZycoTherm was blended with asphalt binder to enable production of asphalt mixture at lower than normal temperatures, as well as improve mix workability and compactability. Asphalt mixture performances towards pavement distresses in tropical climate region were also investigated. The properties of control asphalt binders (60/70 and 80/10 penetration grade) and asphalt binders incorporating 0.1% ZycoTherm were reported based on the penetration, softening point, rotational viscosity, complex modulus and phase angle. Subsequently, to compare the performance of asphalt mixture incorporating ZycoTherm with the control asphalt mixture, cylindrical samples were prepared at recommended temperatures and air voids depending on the binder types and test requirements. The samples were tested for indirect tensile strength (ITS), resilient modulus, dynamic creep, Hamburg wheel tracking and moisture induced damage. From compaction data using the Servopak gyratory compactor, specimen prepared using ZycoTherm exhibit higher workability and compactability compared to the conventional mixture. From the mixture performance test results, mixtures prepared with ZycoTherm showed comparable if not better performance than the control sample in terms of the resistance to moisture damage, permanent deformation and cracking.

  17. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez A Al-Mansob

    Full Text Available Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR-asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR-asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress.

  18. The effect of mineralogy, texture and mechanical properties of anti-skid and asphalt aggregates on urban dust

    OpenAIRE

    Räisänen, M.; Kupiainen, K.; Tervahattu, H.

    2003-01-01

    In northern latitudes mineral dust is formed when cars use studded tyres and roads are sanded to obtain more traction on the icy surfaces. Anti-skid and asphalt aggregates with different textural, mineralogical and mechanical properties were tested with an indoor road simulator fitted with studded and friction tyres. The particle size distribution and proportions of dust from pavement and anti-skid aggregate were analyzed using SEM-EDX. The wear on the road pavement...

  19. Effect Analysis of Vehicle System Parameters on Dynamic Response of Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-xia Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the damage of a semirigid pavement under vehicle loads with varied parameters, the random dynamic loads applied on the pavement by a running vehicle were computed with two degrees of freedom, quarter-vehicle model, and then a three-dimensional finite element analysis model of semirigid asphalt pavement was established. With the peak stress index of each pavement layer, the effect of varied vehicle parameters on pavement response was studied. The results indicated that the stress wave frequency of each pavement layer was similar to that of the dynamic random load, and, with increased pavement depth, the wave effect decreased. The pavement response increased with increased suspension stiffness and tire stiffness and decreased with increased suspension damping and tire damping. Furthermore, compared to the stiffness, the response variation induced by the damping was orders of magnitude lower. Compared with the traditional time response analysis method, the peak response analysis of the pavement structure was more scientific, rational, and intuitive, which could be useful for the study of vehicle-pavement interaction and road damage.

  20. SIMULATION OF TEMPERATURE AND TRANSPORT LOAD IMPACT ON FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CRACKS ON ASPHALT-CONCRETE ROAD SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Melnikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of statistical data has shown that about 60 % of all types of road surface destructions and damages in the Republic of Belarus are attributed to cracks (separate, frequent and cracks network. The process of cracks formation in the asphalt concrete pavement is rather complicated and it is affected by a number of factors. The most important and determining factors are character and value of traffic loads, temperature action, road pavement structure, properties of materials used for its layers. Some regularities of the cracks formation and development in the asphalt-concrete layers of the pavement have been established on the basis of the physical and mathematical modeling. Application of a finite  element  method for  calculations  has made it possible to determine  numerical values of compressive and tensile stresses arising due to temperature action and traffic load, deflection of road pavement constructive layers. The paper contains recommendations for a road pavement design and repair of asphalt-concrete pavements which have been made on the basis of the obtained data analysis.

  1. Influence of mixture composition on the noise and frictional characteristics of flexible pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Karol J.

    Both traffic noise and wet pavement-tire friction are mainly affected by the tire/pavement interaction. Existing laboratory test methods allow for evaluation of polishing resistance of the aggregates only. Currently, there is no generally accepted standardized laboratory test method to address noise related issues and the overall frictional properties of pavements (including macrotexture). In this research, which included both laboratory and field components, friction and noise properties of the flexible (asphalt) pavements were investigated. As a part of this study, a laboratory device to polish asphalt specimens was developed and the procedure to evaluate mixture frictional properties was proposed. Following this procedure, forty-six different Superpave mixtures (each utilizing a different aggregate blends), one stone matrix asphalt (SMA) mixture and one porous friction course (PFC) mixture were tested. Six of the above mixes (four Superpave mixtures, SMA mixture and PFC mixture) were selected for laboratory noise testing. This testing was performed using a one-of-a-kind tester called the Tire/Pavement Test Apparatus (TPTA). In addition, the field sections constructed using Superpave, SMA and PFC mixtures were also periodically tested for friction and noise. Field measurements included testing of total of 23 different asphalt and two concrete pavements. The field friction testing was performed using both portable CTM and DFT devices and the (ASTM E 274) locked wheel friction trailer. The laboratory friction testing was performed using CTM and DFT devices only. The results of both field and laboratory friction measurements were used to develop an International Friction Index (IFI)-based frictional requirement for laboratory friction measurements. The results collected in the course of the study indicate that the IFI-based flag values could be successfully used in place of SN-based flag values to characterize frictional characteristics of pavements.

  2. Pavement Stripping in Saudi Arabia: Prediction and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavement weathering or stripping is a major distress in highway networks in arid regions. Using the Saudi Arabian road network as a case study area, seventeen road test sections were selected, out of which eight were stripped and nine were non-stripped. Aggregates from quarries used to build these sections were also collected and subjected to detailed physical and chemical tests to evaluate the ability of these tests to distinguish between stripped and non-stripped sections. The modified Lottman test was used to distinguish between compacted mixes. In addition, the Swedish Rolling Bottle test, was also found to be effective in being able to distinguish between different asphalt-aggregates for stripping potential. Eleven anti-stripping liquid additives, lime and cement, in addition to two polymers, were evaluated for their ability to reduce/eliminate stripping potential of stripping-prone aggregates. It was found that EE-2 Polymer, Portland cement, and their combination were effective with all aggregate sources.

  3. Evaluation of moisture damage in asphalt concrete with CRM motorcycle tire waste passing #50 sieve size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Pranoto; Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this experimental research is to evaluate moisture damage in Asphalt Concrete (AC) with Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) motorcycle tire waste passing #50 and retaining #100 sieve size. Two gradations were used in this research, the first gradation is usual for asphalt concrete base (ACB) and the second gradation is for asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC). Marshall testing apparatus was used for testing the Marshall specimens. Seven levels of CRM content were used, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5% and 6% by weight of mixtures. Retained stability represent the level of moisture damage of AC pavement. The result indicates that addition CRM to the AC mixture increases their the stability to a maximum value and subsequent addition decrease the stability. The addition CRM to AC decreases their moisture damage susceptibility. AC with 1% CRM is the best asphalt-CRM mix.

  4. Construction, testing and performance report : state study no. 137 : resin modified pavement demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Resin Modified Pavement (RMP) is a composite paving material consisting of a thin layer (2 inches) : of open graded hot mix asphalt (HMA) whose internal air voids (approximately 30% voids) are : filled with a latex rubber-modified portland cement gro...

  5. Correlation of Traditional Water Quality Parameters with Metal Concentrations in Permeable Pavement Infiltrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA constructed a 4,000-m2 parking lot for research and demonstration of three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)] at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ in 2009. Infiltrate samples from e...

  6. Modelling tyre-road contact stresses in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available , as a “raw” product, is by far the most costly element in flexible pavements, for example compared to Crushed stone, which is at approximately R170 per metric tonne. Since the asphalt layer or relatively thin bituminous seal acts as the stress barrier...

  7. Effect of crumb rubber gradation on a rubberized cold recycled mixture for road pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Simone, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Cold recycling technique represents the most environmental friendly solution for pavement rehabilitation nowadays. In fact, this technique allows the use of the highest percentage of reclaimed asphalt avoiding the energy consumption related to aggregates heating required by the traditional hot mix...

  8. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  9. Application of viscoelastic continuum damage approach to predict fatigue performance of Binzhou perpetual pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For this study, the Binzhou perpetual pavement test sections constructed in Shandong Province, China, were simulated for long-term fatigue performance using the layered viscoelastic pavement analysis for critical distresses (LVECD finite element software package. In this framework, asphalt concrete was treated in the context of linear viscoelastic continuum damage theory. A recently developed unified fatigue failure criterion that defined the boundaries of the applicable region of the theory was also incorporated. The mechanistic modeling of the fatigue mechanisms was able to accommodate the complex temperature variations and loading conditions of the field pavements in a rigorous manner. All of the material models were conveniently characterized by dynamic modulus tests and direct tension cyclic fatigue tests in the laboratory using cylindrical specimens. By comparing the obtained damage characteristic curves and failure criteria, it is found that mixtures with small aggregate particle sizes, a dense gradation, and modified asphalt binder tended to exhibit the best fatigue resistance at the material level. The 15-year finite element structural simulation results for all the test sections indicate that fatigue performance has a strong dependence on the thickness of the asphalt pavements. Based on the predicted location and severity of the fatigue damage, it is recommended that Sections 1 and 3 of the Binzhou test sections be employed for perpetual pavement design.

  10. Pavement scores synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this synthesis was to summarize the use of pavement scores by the states, including the : rating methods used, the score scales, and descriptions; if the scores are used for recommending pavement : maintenance and rehabilitation action...

  11. Permeable pavement study (Edison)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types...

  12. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Ullidtz, Per; Macdonald, Robin

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the second test in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM) under the International Pavement Subgrade Performance Study. Pavement response was measured in different layers, and compared to different theroretical values. Performance in terms of plastic strains, rutting...

  13. Saw & seal, airport pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Due to extreme cold temperatures, hot bituminous pavements on Maines airports are subject to transverse : or thermal cracking. This can lead to poorly performing pavement structure causing heaving and : settlement problems. Studies have shown that...

  14. Concrete pavement joint deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Concrete pavements are an important part of our national infrastructure. In recent years the relatively small number of reported joints deteriorating prematurely in concrete pavements around Indiana has increased. Changes over the past 45 years in IN...

  15. Performance of Soft Asphalt and Double Otta Seal within First Three Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Vaitkus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravel roads play an important role in the transport infrastructure. However, their maintenance (especially the control of dustiness using chemical dust suppressants is expensive. Besides, the condition of gravel roads results in low driving comfort, longer travelling time, faster vehicle amortization, and so forth. Typically, these problems are solved by paving gravel roads with asphalt wearing layer. However, north countries practice had shown pavement structure high susceptibility to frost due to insufficient thickness of frost resistance layer. The construction of thicker frost resistant layer increases road construction cost by 25% and, in most cases, there is no need to increase bearing capacity by increasing total thickness of pavement structure. In 2012 19 gravel roads were constructed using cost effective rehabilitation technologies—soft asphalt and double Otta Seal in Lithuania. This paper focuses on those two technologies’ performance within first three years of constructed roads exploitation. The implemented experimental research consisted of three parts by evaluating constructed roads base layers bearing capacity; pavement roughness; and pavement distresses and defects. As a result, the acceptable performance indicators were determined for both technologies—soft asphalt and double Otta Seal. Also recommendations for construction and exploitation improvement were defined.

  16. Volumetric characteristics and compactability of asphalt rubber mixtures with organic warm mix asphalt additives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A M Rodríguez-Alloza; J Gallego

    2017-01-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) refers to technologies that reduce manufacturing and compaction temperatures of asphalt mixtures allowing lower energy consumption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from asphalt plants...

  17. Developing the elastic modulus measurement of asphalt concrete using the compressive strength test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Arief; Suparma, Latif Budi; Mulyono, Agus Taufik

    2017-11-01

    Elastic modulus is a fundamental property of an asphalt mixture. An analytical method of the elastic modulus is needed to determine the thickness of flexible pavement. It has a role as one of the input values on a stress-strain analysis in the finite element method. The aim of this study was to develop the measurement of the elastic modulus by using compressive strength testing. This research used a set of specimen mold tool and Delta Dimensi software to record strain changes occurring in the proving ring of compression machine and the specimens. The elastic modulus of the five types of aggregate gradation and 2 types of asphalt were measured at optimum asphalt content. Asphalt Cement 60/70 and Elastomer Modified Asphalt (EMA) were used as a binder. Manufacturing success indicators of the specimens used void-in-the-mix (VIM) 3-5 % criteria. The success rate of the specimen manufacturing was more than 76%. Thus, the procedure and the compressive strength test equipment could be used for the measurement of the elastic modulus. The aggregate gradation and asphalt types significantly affected the elastic modulus of the asphalt concrete.

  18. Modified Asphalt Binder with Natural Zeolite for Warm Mix Asphalt

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravský Marián; Mandula Ján

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, warm mix asphalt (WMA) is becoming more and more used in the asphalt industry. WMA provide a whole range of benefits, whether economic, environmental and ecological. Lower energy consumption and less pollution is the most advantages of this asphalt mixture. The paper deals with the addition of natural zeolite into the sub base asphalt layers, which is the essential constituent in the construction of the road. Measurement is focused on basic physic – mechanical properties decl...

  19. Prestressed pavement rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-23

    In 1989, a landmark pavement project was opened to traffic in Blair County, Pennsylvania, that received national attention. The pavement was a two-mile section of prestressed concrete pavement that was constructed on the northbound lanes of what is n...

  20. Method to determine full work of fracture from disk shaped compact tension tests on hot-mix asphalt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue cracking is an important mode of failure in hot-mix asphalt (HMA). As part of the revision of the South African pavement design method (SAPDM) a need was identified to assess the fracture toughness of HMA in terms of fracture energy...

  1. Effects of Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size on the Performance of Stone Matrix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA in service life is closely related to a proper aggregate gradation. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS on the performance of stone matrix asphalt (SMA. The volumetric characteristics and performance properties obtained from wheel tracking tests, permeability test, beam bending test, contabro test are compared for SMA mixes with different NMAS. The results indicated that voids in mineral aggregate (VMA and voids filled with asphalt (VFA of SMA mixtures increased with a decrease of aggregate size in aggregate gradation. SMA30 had the lowest optimum asphalt content among all the mixtures. Increase of NMAS contributed to improvement of the rutting resistance of SMA mixtures. However, a decrease of NMAS showed better cracking and raveling resistance. Permeability rate of SMA was primarily affected by the air voids (AV and break point sieve, but was also sensitive to aggregate gradation to some extent, with reduced NMAS corresponding to less permeability rate. Based on the test results, SMA5 and SMA13 are suggested to be used as a water-proof layer in bridge deck pavement, and SMA20 and SMA30 are suggested to be used as binder course in asphalt pavement, which needs to possess superior rutting resistance at high temperature.

  2. An approach to the usage of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste as roadway pavement material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürü, Metin, E-mail: mguru@gazi.edu.tr [Gazi University, Eng. Fac., Chem. Eng. Depart., 06570 Maltepe-Ankara (Turkey); Çubuk, M. Kürşat; Arslan, Deniz; Farzanian, S. Ali [Gazi University, Eng. Fac., Civil Eng. Depart., 06570 Maltepe-Ankara (Turkey); Bilici, İbrahim [Hitit University, Eng. Fac., Chem. Eng. Depart., 19100 Çorum (Turkey)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We derived two novel additive materials from PET bottle waste: TLPP and VPP. • We used them to modify the base asphalt separately. • The additives improved both the asphalt and the asphalt mixture performance. • TLPP, VPP offer a beneficial way about disposal of ecologically hazardous PET waste. - Abstract: This study investigates an application area for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle waste which has become an environmental problem in recent decades as being a considerable part of the total plastic waste bulk. Two novel additive materials, namely Thin Liquid Polyol PET (TLPP) and Viscous Polyol PET (VPP), were chemically derived from waste PET bottles and used to modify the base asphalt separately for this aim. The effects of TLPP and VPP on the asphalt and hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture properties were detected through conventional tests (Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Marshall Stability, Nicholson Stripping) and Superpave methods (Rotational Viscosity, Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR)). Also, chemical structures were described by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. Since TLPP and VPP were determined to improve the low temperature performance and fatigue resistance of the asphalt as well as the Marshall Stability and stripping resistance of the HMA mixtures based on the results of the applied tests, the usage of PET waste as an asphalt roadway pavement material offers an alternative and a beneficial way of disposal of this ecologically hazardous material.

  3. Mechanical behavior of flexible pavements undergoing thermal gradients - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.10848

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielli Vassoler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The proper structural understanding of a pavement should consider, according to the pavement mechanics, the aspects related to the traffic load, the environment and material properties. When asphaltic materials are used, the stress/strain relationships and the dependencies of load-time and temperature are key parameters for understanding flexible pavement performance. In this study, we employed the finite elements method to calculate stress/strain in flexible pavements structures considering temperature variation. The input data includes material stiffness, which is function of temperature and changes with position and time. The pavement temperature is obtained through the heat transfer differential equation, applying the Laplace transform and its numerical inversion. The finite elements grid was generated by the software ANSYS® and imported by the software MATLAB®. In order to determine the stiffness of the first layer (asphalt concrete we used the average of four nodes, depending on the each node temperature. The result evidences the importance of thermal gradients for the pavement analysis, both for the fatigue cracking and the accumulation of plastic deformations. The use of unique modulus for asphalt concrete layer generates results far from reality.

  4. Damage development in the adhesive zone and mortar of porous asphalt concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, L.T.

    2010-01-01

    This research is focused on damage development in the adhesive zone and the mortar of porous asphalt concrete. The motive of this research is the loss of stone from the pavement surface, the so-called ravelling of noise reducing surface wearing courses. Ravelling is the dominant defect of porous asphalt resulting in huge costs of maintenance and resurfacing in the Netherlands. Ravelling is a mixture-associated problem and is directly related to the binding failure within the stone-to-stone co...

  5. Viscoelastic behaviour of cold recycled asphalt mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Zuzana; Suda, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Behaviour of cold recycled mixes depends strongly on both the bituminous binder content (bituminous emulsion or foamed bitumen) and the hydraulic binder content (usually cement). In the case of cold recycled mixes rich in bitumen and with low hydraulic binder content, behaviour is close to the viscoelastic behaviour of traditional hot mix asphalt. With decreasing bituminous binder content together with increasing hydraulic binder content, mixes are characteristic with brittle behaviour, typical for concrete pavements or hydraulically bound layers. The behaviour of cold recycled mixes with low content of both types of binders is similar to behaviour of unbound materials. This paper is dedicated to analysing of the viscoelastic behaviour of the cold recycled mixes. Therefore, the tested mixes contained higher amount of the bituminous binder (both foamed bitumen and bituminous emulsion). The best way to characterize any viscoelastic material in a wide range of temperatures and frequencies is through the master curves. This paper includes interesting findings concerning the dependency of both parts of the complex modulus (elastic and viscous) on the testing frequency (which simulates the speed of heavy traffic passing) and on the testing temperature (which simulates the changing climate conditions a real pavement is subjected to).

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions of alternative pavement designs: framework development and illustrative application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Cui, Qingbin; Schwartz, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Pavement rehabilitation is carbon intensive and the choice of pavement type is a critical factor in controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The existing body of knowledge is not able to support decision-making on pavement choice due to a lack of consensus on the system boundaries, the functional units and the estimation periods. Excessive data requirements further inhibit the generalization of the existing methodologies for design evaluation at the early planning stage. This study proposes a practical life-cycle GHG estimation approach, which is arguably effective to benchmark pavement emissions given project bid tabulation. A set of case studies conducted for this study suggest that recycled asphalt pavement (e.g., foam stabilized base (FSB), and warm mix asphalt (WMA)) would prevent up to 50% of GHGs from the initial construction phase. However, from a life-cycle perspective, pavement emissions are dictated largely by the traffic characteristics and the analysis period for the use phase. The benefits from using recycled materials (e.g., FSB) are likely to diminish if the recycled products do not perform as well as those properly proportioned with less recycled materials, or if the recycled materials are locally unavailable. When the AADT reaches 10,000, use phase releases more than 97% of the life cycle emissions and the emissions difference among alternative designs will be within 1%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of cross-anisotropy and stress-dependency of pavement layers on pavement responses under dynamic truck loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul A. Tarefder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies by the authors have determined pavement responses under dynamic loading considering cross-anisotropy in one layer only, either the cross-anisotropic viscoelastic asphalt concrete (AC layer or the cross-anisotropic stress-dependent base layer, but not both. This study evaluates pavement stress–strain responses considering cross-anisotropy in all layers, i.e. AC, base and subbase, using finite element modeling (FEM technique. An instrumented pavement section on Interstate I-40 near Albuquerque, New Mexico was used in ABAQUS framework as model geometry. Field asphalt cores were collected and tested in the laboratory to determine the cross-anisotropy (n-values defined by horizontal to vertical modulus ratio, and other viscoelastic parameters as inputs of the model incorporated through user defined material interface (UMAT functionality in ABAQUS. Field base and subbase materials were also collected and tested in the laboratory to determine stress-dependent nonlinear elastic model parameters, as inputs of the model, again incorporated through UMAT. The model validation task was carried out using field-measured deflections and strain values under falling weight deflectometer (FWD loads at the instrumented section. The validated model was then subjected to an actual truck loading for studying cross-anisotropic effects. It was observed that horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of the AC layer and vertical strains in all layers decreased with an increase in n-value of the asphalt layer, from n < 1 (anisotropy to n=1 (isotropy. This indicates that the increase in horizontal modulus caused the decrease in layer strains. It was also observed that if the base and subbase layers were considered stress-dependent instead of linear elastic unbound layers, the horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of the asphalt layer increased and vertical strains on top of the base and subbase also increased.

  8. The use of whitetopping technology in the aspect of implementation of repairs of flexible pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Rudnicki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of technical and economic implementation of repairs of bituminous pavements using whitetopping technology at the example of classical jointed solutions and the continuous reinforcement. The problems of repairs of asphalt roads in the context of steadily progressive degradation of flexible pavements in Poland are discussed.The types of pavement constructions were presented, with particular emphasis on characteristics of flexible pavements. There were identified and described significant factors contributing to damage, which consequently lead to surface degradation. Also there have been described the types of concrete pavements and their characteristics, taking into account modern technology of cement concrete overlays made in various technologies. The results of the analysis of technical and economic implementation of repairs of flexible pavements using whitetopping technology are presented at the example of classical jointed solutions and the continuous reinforcement. The benefits and potential difficulties in the implementation of pavements repairs as cement concrete technology are indicated.[b]Keywords[/b]: road, repair, whitetopping, overlay, flexible surface, cement concrete pavement, continuous reinforcement

  9. Application of Principles of Theory of Damage Accumulation to Calculation of Asphalt-Concrete Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, N. P.; Aleksandrov, A. S.; Chusov, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    It was found that, when exposed to the repeated loads, the asphalt concrete pavement of roads accumulates damage which must be considered in their calculation. By entering the damage measuring theory (L.M. Kachanova continuity, damage Rabotnova Y.N.) and applying the principle of equivalence of a continuous state of stress and damage caused by media the authors modified the criteria proposed by Pisarenko-Lebedev and Drucker-Prager. Such modified criteria take into account the effect of damage accumulation in the calculation of asphalt concrete pavement on the tensile strength in bending and shear. To determine the functional dependence of damage and continuity on the number of applied loads, the authors used the principle of energy equivalence for continuous and damaged media.

  10. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavements including interlocking concrete permeable pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. The permeable pavements are limited to parking spaces while adjacent driving lanes are impermeable and drain to the permeable surfaces. The parking lot is instrumented for continuous monitoring with thermistors and water content reflectometers that measure moisture as infiltrate passes through the storage gallery beneath the permeable pavements into the underlying native soil. Each permeable surface of the parking lot has four lined sections that capture infiltrate in tanks for water quality analyses; these tanks are capable of holding volumes up to 4.1 m3, which represents up to 38 mm (1.5 in.) for direct rainfall on the porous pavement and runoff from adjacent driving lanes that drain into the permeable surface.Previous technical releases concerning the demonstration site focused on monitoring techniques, observed chloride and nutrient concentrations, surface hydrology, and infiltration and evaporation rates. This presentation summarizes these past findings and addresses current water quality efforts including pH, solids analysis, total organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand. Stormwater runoff continues to be a major cause of water pollution in

  11. Perpetual pavement – absorbing stress and functional maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Perpetual Pavement combines the well documented smoothness and safety advantages of asphalt with an advanced, multi-layer paving design process, that with routine maintenance, extends the useful life of a roadway. Perpetual provides long lasting road and smoothness for the construction purposes. This study has the design key points of perpetual pavement based on the idea of life cycle, which has a new direction for the new highway construction, reconstruction and expansion. First, the structure of long life pavement design is studied to analyze the effect of stress absorbing layer. Second, researches on stress absorbing layer from the aspects of raw materials, mix proportion are implemented. Third, the design index of stress absorbing layer is determined by the shear strength test. The results show that the design idea of composite perpetual pavement can be realized by reasonable design of the stress absorbing layer and carrying out the surface functional maintenance can ensure the pavement to avoid structural damage in the operation stage.

  12. Performance testing of asphalt concrete containing crumb rubber modifier and warm mix additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpugha, Omo John

    American Association of State Highway and Transportation Official's Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (AASHTO MEPDG) software was used to predict long term low temperature performance of the mixtures in various areas of Ontario. Sasobit, Rediset LQ and Rediset WMX gave good 15 years prediction with stone mastic asphalt mixtures but the performance of dense graded mixtures was less satisfactory.

  13. Reuse of bituminous pavements: A mini-review of research, regulations and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonissen, Joke; Van den Bergh, Wim; Braet, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Bituminous pavement can be recycled - even multiple times - by reusing it in new bituminous mixtures. If the mechanical properties of the binder get worse, this reclaimed asphalt is often used in the sub-structure of the road. Apparently, up till now, no end-of-life phase exists for the material. Actually, defining the end-of-life and the end-of-waste stage of a material is important for life cycle assessment modelling. Various standards and scientific studies on modelling life cycle assessment are known, but the crucial stages are not yet defined for reclaimed asphalt pavement. Unlike for iron, steel and aluminium scrap, at this moment, no legislative end-of-waste criteria for aggregates are formulated by the European Commission. More research is necessary in order to develop valuable end-of-life criteria for aggregates. This contribution is a mini-review article of the current regulations, standards and studies concerning end-of-life and end-of-waste of reclaimed asphalt pavement. The existing methodology in order to define end-of-waste criteria, a case study on aggregates and the argumentation used in finished legislative criteria are the basis to clarify some modelling issues for reclaimed asphalt material. Hence, this contribution elucidates the assignment of process environmental impacts to a life cycle stage as defined by EN15804, that is, end-of-life stage (C) and the supplementary information Module D with benefits and loads beyond the system boundary.

  14. Green building handbook: Green pavement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is one of the key foundations of economic growth. South African cities have grown on the back of infrastructure investments like water, energy, transportation and increasingly telecommunications. Ultimately infrastructure investment...

  15. Use of emulsion for warm mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahabir Panda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to increase in energy costs and emission problems in hot mix asphalt usually used, it brought a great interest to the researchers to develop the warm mix technology for pavement constructions. Commonly known as warm mix asphalt (WMA, it is a typical method in the bituminous paving technology, which allows production and placement of bituminous mixes at lower temperatures than that used for hot mix asphalt (HMA. The WMA involves an environmental friendly production process that utilises organic additives, chemical additives and water based technologies. The organic and chemical additives are normally very costly and still involve certain amount of environmental issues. These factors motivated the authors to take up this technology using simple, environment friendly and somewhat cost effective procedure. In this study, an attempt has been made to prepare warm mixes by first pre-coating the aggregates with medium setting bitumen emulsion (MS and then mixing the semi-coated aggregates with VG 30 bitumen at a lower temperature than normally required. After a number of trials it was observed that mostly three mixing temperatures, namely temperatures 110 °C, 120 °C and 130 °C were appropriate to form the bituminous mixes with satisfactory homogeneity and consistency and as such were maintained throughout this study. Marshall samples for paving mixes were prepared using this procedure for dense bituminous macadam (DBM gradings as per the specifications of Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MORTH and subsequently Marshall properties of the resultant mixes were studied with the main objective of deciding the different parameters that were considered for development of appropriate warm mix asphalt. In this study it has been observed that out of three mixing temperatures tried, the mixes prepared at 120 °C with bitumen-emulsion composition of 80B:20E for DBM warm mix, offer highest Marshall stability and highest indirect tensile strength

  16. Experiences from in-situ monitoring of pavement under weather conditions change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likar Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Very strong winters with temperatures under 0°C and hot summers with temperatures more than 30°C are observed in the South East part of Slovenia. Those big differences in temperature during the year and especially temperatures below freezing point have strong influence on asphalt layer and sub base of road pavement. The freeze/thaw cycles lead to formation of ice lenses in base course causing cracks in asphalt layers and degrade the pavement usually in a few years. For this reason one section of the national road in the South East part of Slovenia was rebuilt with cold in-situ pavement retreatment. A test field with inbuilt sensors for measuring water content, temperature and deformation in various depths and locations was constructed during the remediation works to study the mechanism of freeze-thaw degradation of pavements. The main goal of the test field is to determine water content in sub base, freezing depth, temperature distribution and deformations, which lead to cracks in asphalt layer after the remediation work in the road construction.

  17. Cost-benefit analysis of the construction of different flexible pavement structures considering the axle load and type of binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Dotto Bueno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The status of Brazilian highways reflects a deficient pavement performance when they are subjected to loadings imposed by heavy traffic. Current legislation, as enacted by Contran (National Traffic Council, has increased the axle weight limit for cargo vehicles by up to 10%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine a cost-benefit ratio by using different types of structures, asphalt binders and load intensities. Typical pavements were determined and then analyzed by the software AEMC (SisPav to obtain the horizontal tensile strain (εt values at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer and, later, the NFATIGUE value. It was found that the increase in weight, within values covered by legislation, might result in a reduction of approximately 50% in the NFATIGUE value for the pavement structures analyzed. As for economic impact, the same weight increase caused a mean increase of 120% in the cost of repeated loading on pavement structures (R$ NFATIGUE-1. It was also observed that structures with more robust asphalt concrete layers can provide the best R$ NFATIGUE-1 ratios. The best results for granular materials were found with thinner layers, associated with a thicker coating. The benefits of modified binders were shown by the analyses of the best structural options: both the polymer-modified binder and the rubber asphalt binder offer significant structural and economic improvements to the structure.

  18. Three Permeable Pavements Performances for Priority Metal Pollutants and Metals associated with Deicing Chemicals from Edison Parking Lot, NJ - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each p...

  19. Three Permeable Pavements Performances for Priority Metal Pollutants and Metals Associated with Deicing Chemicals from Edison Parking Lot, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements [permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA)]. Samples of each p...

  20. A model for predicting thermal properties of asphalt mixtures from their constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Merlin; Roche, Alexis; Lavielle, Marc

    Numerous theoretical and experimental approaches have been developed to predict the effective thermal conductivity of composite materials such as polymers, foams, epoxies, soils and concrete. None of such models have been applied to asphalt concrete. This study attempts to develop a model to predict the thermal conductivity of asphalt concrete from its constituents that will contribute to the asphalt industry by reducing costs and saving time on laboratory testing. The necessity to do the laboratory testing would be no longer required when a mix for the pavement is created with desired thermal properties at the design stage by selecting correct constituents. This thesis investigated six existing predictive models for applicability to asphalt mixtures, and four standard mathematical techniques were used to develop a regression model to predict the effective thermal conductivity. The effective thermal conductivities of 81 asphalt specimens were used as the response variables, and the thermal conductivities and volume fractions of their constituents were used as the predictors. The conducted statistical analyses showed that the measured values of thermal conductivities of the mixtures are affected by the bitumen and aggregate content, but not by the air content. Contrarily, the predicted data for some investigated models are highly sensitive to air voids, but not to bitumen and/or aggregate content. Additionally, the comparison of the experimental with analytical data showed that none of the existing models gave satisfactory results; on the other hand, two regression models (Exponential 1* and Linear 3*) are promising for asphalt concrete.

  1. Evaluation of the effects of crumb rubber and SBR on rutting resistance of asphalt concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Chuang-Tsair; Tia, Mang; Ruth, B.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study to evaluate the effects of addition of crumb rubber (CR) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) on the rutting resistance of asphalt concrete. These two additives were blended with an AC-20 and an AC-30 grade asphalt cements at different levels of concentrations. These modified and unmodified asphalt blends were tested at intermediate and high temperatures to evaluate their rutting resistance characteristics. They were also used to make Florida type S-I structural surface mixtures. These mixtures were made into Marshall-size specimens by using Gyratory Testing Machine (GTM) equipped with air-roller to compact and density to three compaction levels which simulate three different conditions in the pavement. The FDOT`s (Florida Department of Transportation) Loaded Wheel Tester was also used to evaluate the rutting resistance of these asphalt mixtures. The test results indicate that the modified asphalt mixtures show relatively better rutting resistance and shear resistance as compared with the unmodified asphalt mixtures.

  2. Investigating the Properties of Asphalt Concrete Containing Glass Fibers and Nanoclay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Taherkhani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of asphaltic pavements during their service life is highly dependent on the mechanical properties of the asphaltic layers. Therefore, in order to extend their service life, scientists and engineers are constantly trying to improve the mechanical properties of the asphaltic mixtures. One common method of improving the performance of asphaltic mixtures is using different types of additives. This research investigated the effects of reinforcement by randomly distributed glass fibers and the simultaneous addition of nanoclayon some engineering properties of asphalt concrete have been investigated. The properties of a typical asphalt concrete reinforced by different percentages of glass fibers were compared with those containing both the fibers and nanoclay. Engineering properties, including Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient, volumetric properties and indirect tensile strength were studied. Glass fibers were used in different percentages of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6% (by weight of total mixture, and nanoclay was used in 2, 4 and 6% (by the weight of bitumen. It was found that the addition of fibers proved to be more effective than the nanoclay in increasing the indirect tensile strength. However, nanoclay improved the resistance of the mixture against permanent deformation better than the glass fibers. The results also showed that the mixture reinforced by 0.2% of glass fiber and containing 6% nanoclay possessed the highest Marshall quotient, and the mixture containing 0.6% glass fibers and 2% nanoclay possessedthe highest indirect tensile strength.

  3. High temperature impact on fatigue life of asphalt mixture in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandula, Ján; Olexa, Tomáš

    2017-09-01

    Temperature dependence of materials bonded with bitumen is a well-known fact. The impact of temperature changes the behaviour of asphalt mixtures from elastic to viscous state, and it also influences the complex modulus, phase angle and other properties of asphalt mixtures. This study observed the summer temperature influence on fatigue behaviour of an asphalt mixture for the surface course of roads in conditions of Slovakia. Measurements were made using the four-point bending method on the asphalt mixture with maximum grain size of 11 mm bonded with polymer modified bitumen. Summer conditions were represented by environmental temperature of 27 °C according to the Slovakian pavement design method. Ordinary temperatures for fatigue measurements are 10 °C, 15 °C and 20 °C according to European standards for asphalt mixture testing. Structural changes in the material were observed by dissipation energy calculations for each loading cycle. The aim of the study was to find out if the influence of high environmental temperature is positive or negative for the lifespan of asphalt mixtures.

  4. Viscosity of plasticized sulfur-extended asphalt: two-factor sequential optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkikh Vitaliy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The compounding properties of construction materials for pavements strongly depend on dynamic viscosity of the binder. The favorable class of binder is plasticized sulfur-extended asphalt. Unfortunately, the viscosity of such a binder has not been studied in detail. In the present work we have performed experimental two-factor sequential constrained optimization of the viscosity. The binders under examination were made of asphalt, sulfur and paraffin. It was revealed that the addition of sulfur and paraffin leads to a significant decrease of the dynamic viscosity. The obtained results allowed us to estimate mixture and temperature that correspond to optimal compounding properties of the sulfur-extended asphalt concrete. In particular, for plasticized asphalt concrete with 30% of sulfur and 5% of paraffin, the optimal processing temperature is 25 °C lower than for ordinary asphalt. Since low preparation temperatures correspond to low emission of toxic gases and low processing costs, we can consider the concretes that will be based on plasticized sulfur-extended asphalt as green paving materials.

  5. Pavement Functional Condition Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    equations «hen pavements with large surface textures are encoun- tered.105 Table 2 compares the operational charac- teristics of the CHLOE... pavement when they are prevented from rotating. This loree depends on many variables such as: I. Pavement surface texture condition 2. Tire tread...factor 49 IJ: SYNTHETIC RUBBER RIBBED TREAD FINE TEXTURE POLISHED «rHARSH j COMPOSITE TEXTURE COARSE TEXTURE 7 4 i 01 02 0.3

  6. Concrete Block Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    intersections, bus loading areas, and pedestrian crosswalks. The change in surface texture between conven- tional and block pavements has been successful...blocks polished under traffic within a few weeks, providing a pavement surface with unsatisfactory skid resistance. U. K. Cement and Concrete Association...further problems of this type. Kellersman (1980) reports that although many brick pavements have become polished and slippery under traffic, no concrete

  7. The Influence of Waste Carpet on the Structural Soil Characteristics in Pavement Granular Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Khabiri

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste materials can be left out of environment in different ways or can be used again. As an example of waste fiber materials is the fibers reselling from producing carpet which are made in Iran in largest quantity. These materials are added to soil and granular materials and improve their various properties as compressive and tensile strengths. In present study, the result of previous researches are collected and presented, then, they are used to analyses the effect of using from waste materials in subgrade on highway pavement performance. By using analytical software and results of testing, tensile strain under asphalt layer and compressive strain on subgrade of pavement containing these materials are calculated and after that they are compared together. Next the allowable frequencies of loading for different pavement models are calculated by using existing formula. The results indicate that adding 1.5% of waste fiber to pavement subgrade increases the allowable frequency of loading to 15%.

  8. Effect of mineral additives on structure and properties of concrete for pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobol Khrystyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete pavements is an attractive alternative to asphalt pavements because of its lower cost and higher durability. Major contribution to sustainable development can be made by partial replacement of cement in concrete pavement with supplementary cementitious materials of different nature and origin. In this paper, the effect of natural zeolite and perlite additives in complex with chemical admixtures on the structure and properties of concrete for pavement was studied. Compressive and flexural strength test was used to study the mechanical behavior of designed concrete under load. Generally, the compressive strength of both control concrete and concrete containing mineral additives levels at the later ages of hardening. The microstructure analysis of concrete with mineral additives of different nature activity showed the formation of additional amount of hydration products such as tobermorite type calcium hydrosilicate which provide self-reinforcement of hardening concrete system.

  9. Effect of mineral additives on structure and properties of concrete for pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Khrystyna; Markiv, Taras; Hunyak, Oleksii

    2017-12-01

    Concrete pavements is an attractive alternative to asphalt pavements because of its lower cost and higher durability. Major contribution to sustainable development can be made by partial replacement of cement in concrete pavement with supplementary cementitious materials of different nature and origin. In this paper, the effect of natural zeolite and perlite additives in complex with chemical admixtures on the structure and properties of concrete for pavement was studied. Compressive and flexural strength test was used to study the mechanical behavior of designed concrete under load. Generally, the compressive strength of both control concrete and concrete containing mineral additives levels at the later ages of hardening. The microstructure analysis of concrete with mineral additives of different nature activity showed the formation of additional amount of hydration products such as tobermorite type calcium hydrosilicate which provide self-reinforcement of hardening concrete system.

  10. Pavement Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Comprehensive Environmental and Structural AnalysesThe ERDC Pavement Testing Facility, located on the ERDC Vicksburg campus, was originally constructed to provide an...

  11. Spills on Flat Inclined Pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Carver S.; Keller, Jason M.; Hylden, Jeff L.

    2004-03-01

    This report describes the general spill phenomenology for liquid spills occurring on relatively impermeable surfaces such as concrete or asphalt pavement and the development and application of a model to describe the time evolution of such spills. The discussion assumes evaporation and degradation are negligible and a homogeneous surface. In such an instance, the inherent interfacial properties determine the spatial extent of liquid spreading with the initial flow being controlled by the release rate of the spill and by the liquids resistance to flow as characterized by its viscosity. A variety of spill scenarios were simulated and successful implementation of the model was achieved. A linear relationship between spill area and spill volume was confirmed. The simulations showed spill rate had little effect on the final spill area. Slope had an insignificant effect on the final spill area, but did modify spill shape considerably. However, a fluid sink on the edge of the simulation domain, representing a storm drain, resulted in a substantial decrease in spill area. A bona fide effort to determine the accuracy of the model and its calculations remain, but comparison against observations from a simple experiment showed the model to correctly determine the spill area and general shape under the conditions considered. Further model verification in the form of comparison against small scale spill experiments are needed to confirm the models validity.

  12. Organism Detection in Permeable Pavement Parking Lot Infiltrates at the Edison Environmental Center, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, Ariamalar; O'Connor, Thomas P

    2018-01-01

      Three types of permeable pavements were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey, for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and Escherichia coli. Results showed that porous asphalt had a much lower concentration in monitored infiltrate compared to pervious concrete and permeable interlocking concrete pavers; concentrations of monitored organisms in infiltrate from porous asphalt were consistently below the bathing water quality standard and actually had limited detection. Fecal coliform and enterococci exceeded bathing water quality standards more than 72 and 34% of the time for permeable interlocking concrete pavers and pervious concrete, respectively. Concentration reductions greater than 90% were observed for all three indicator organisms for porous asphalt and fecal coliform and E. coli for pervious concrete when compared to runoff values, while permeable interlocking concrete pavers only had a modest (39%) observable reduction for E. coli only. The near absence of indicator organisms observed in the porous asphalt infiltrate may be due to the high pH potentially due to asphalt processing. Neither rain intensity nor temperature was demonstrated to have an observable effect in both concentrations of organisms and performance of permeable pavement; but this may due to the limitations of the dataset consisting of 16 events over an 8-month period.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

    1980-12-01

    Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

  14. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr2O7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375??C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr2O7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr2O7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr2O7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Mechanical Performance of Asphalt Mortar Containing Hydrated Lime and EAFSS at Low and High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hoon Moon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the possibility of improving the global response of asphalt materials for pavement applications through the use of hydrated lime and Electric Arc-Furnace Steel Slag (EAFSS was investigated. For this purpose, a set of asphalt mortars was prepared by mixing two different asphalt binders with fine granite aggregate together with hydrated lime or EAFSS at three different percentages. Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR creep tests and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR complex modulus tests were performed to evaluate the material response both at low and high temperature. Then, the rheological Huet model was fitted to the BBR creep results for estimating the impact of filler content on the model parameters. It was found that an addition of hydrated lime and EAFSS up to 10% and 5%, respectively, results in satisfactory low-temperature performance with a substantial improvement of the high-temperature behavior.

  16. Mechanical Performance of Asphalt Mortar Containing Hydrated Lime and EAFSS at Low and High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ki Hoon; Wang, Di; Riccardi, Chiara; Wistuba, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the possibility of improving the global response of asphalt materials for pavement applications through the use of hydrated lime and Electric Arc-Furnace Steel Slag (EAFSS) was investigated. For this purpose, a set of asphalt mortars was prepared by mixing two different asphalt binders with fine granite aggregate together with hydrated lime or EAFSS at three different percentages. Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) creep tests and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) complex modulus tests were performed to evaluate the material response both at low and high temperature. Then, the rheological Huet model was fitted to the BBR creep results for estimating the impact of filler content on the model parameters. It was found that an addition of hydrated lime and EAFSS up to 10% and 5%, respectively, results in satisfactory low-temperature performance with a substantial improvement of the high-temperature behavior. PMID:28773100

  17. Fatigue Performance of Recycled Hot Mix Asphalt: A Laboratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pasetto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces and analyses the results of an experimental trial on the fatigue resistance of recycled hot mix asphalt for road pavements. Based on the gyratory compaction and the indirect tensile strength test, the mix design procedure has optimized nine different mixes, considering both conventional limestone and Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP, the latter used at different quantities, up to 40% by weight of the aggregate. A standard bitumen and two polymer modified binders were used for the production of the mixes. The fatigue study was carried out with four-point bending tests, each one performed at 20°C and 10 Hz. The empirical stiffness reduction method, along with the energy ratio approach, based on the dissipated energy concept, was adopted to elaborate the experimental data. Unaged and aged specimens were checked, to analyse the ageing effects on the fatigue performance. In comparison with the control mixes, produced only with limestone, improved fatigue performance was noticed for the mixtures prepared with RAP, especially when made with polymer modified binders, under both aged and unaged conditions. Both the approaches adopted for the experimental data analysis have outlined the same ranking of the mixes.

  18. Mechanical performance assessment of half warm recycled asphalt mixes containing up to 100 % RAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Lizárraga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of Half Warm Mixes with high Reclaimed Asphalt content (HWMRA has the potential to generate significant environmental advantages such as the reduction in consumption of natural resources and the emission of gases into the atmosphere. This paper therefore focuses on demonstrating the viability of using these types of mixes in wearing courses. For this purpose, an HWMRA with 70 % and 100 % Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and emulsion were designed in the laboratory. The performance of the mixes was then assessed and compared with that of conventional Hot Mix Asphalt. In a second stage, the mixes were manufactured in-plant, and laid and compacted in an Accelerated Pavement Test track. The cores were then extracted and tested for stiffness modulus and resistance to fatigue. The results from the tests conducted with both the laboratory specimens and the cores showed that the performance of HWMRA is comparable to that of HMA. These findings encourage greater confidence in promoting the use of these types of sustainable asphalt mixes.

  19. Effects of Crumb Rubber Size and Concentration on Performance of Porous Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altan Cetin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of size distribution and concentration of crumb rubber on the performance characteristics of porous asphalt mixture. The recycling of scrap tires in asphalt pavements appears as an important alternative providing a large-scale market. The characteristics of bitumen are very important with regard to service life of porous asphalt pavement. The experimental study consists of two main steps. Firstly, the mixture design was performed to determine the optimum bitumen content. In the latter step, the mixtures were modified by dry process using crumb rubber in three different grain size distributions of #4~#20, #20~#200, and #4~#200 and rubber content of 10%, 15%, and 20% as weight of optimum bitumen. The permeability, Cantabro abrasion loss, indirect tensile strength, moisture susceptibility, and resilient modulus tests were carried out on the specimens. Test results show that #20~#200 sized rubber particles reduced air voids and coefficient of permeability, while they increased the Cantabro abrasion loss. In general, increasing the crumb rubber size and content decreased the performance characteristics of the porous asphalt mixtures.

  20. Design and Properties of Thin Surfacing Hot Mix Asphalt Containing Crumb Rubber as Partial Aggregate Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Ary; Febrianto, Nugroho; Sarwono, Djoko

    2017-07-01

    Road damage caused as a result of the traffic load and environment. One method to improve the road condition is from an overlay. But the new layer on the top of the pavement structure is thick enough and elevate the surface of the pavement, so it will cause some impact on the user safety and engineering. The use of a thin layer of hot mix asphalt is an alternative to anticipate the thickness problem. Crumb rubber is a waste material that has a flexible nature, these materials are used as an aggregate replacement in the hot mix asphalt thin layer. The research was conducted to find the optimum bitumen content and optimum crumb rubber content on asphalt mixtures by the Marshall procedure. Finally, it was concluded that the addition of crumb rubber in a thin layer of hot mix asphalt indicates the better the interlocking between aggregates so that gave the better Marshall stability, the higher the flow rate, the lower the marshall quotient, reduce the void ratio. The results show that the addition of crumb rubber content as an aggregate replacement leads to the use of less optimum bitumen content.

  1. An Investigation of Geography and Climate Induced Distresses Patterns on Airfield Pavements at US Air Force Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren K. Sahagun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated climate induced distresses patterns on airfield pavements at US Air Force installations. A literature review and surveys of Pavement Condition Index indicated that the predominant factor contributing to the development of pavement distress was climate. Results suggested that, within each type of pavement distress, a geographic pattern exists which is strongly correlated to conventional US climate zones. The US Air Force Roll-Up Database, housing over 50,000 records of pavement distress data, was distilled using a process designed to combine similar distresses while accounting for age and size of samples. The process reduced the data to a format that could be used to perform krig analysis and to develop pavement behavior models for runways built with asphalt cement (AC and Portland cement concrete (PCC. Regression and krig analyses were conducted for each distress type to understand distress behavior among climate zones. Combined regression and krig analyses provided insight into the overall pavement behavior for AC and PCC runways and illustrated which climate zone was more susceptible to specific pavement distresses. Distress behavior tends to be more severe in the eastern US for AC and in the western US for PCC runway pavements, respectively.

  2. National Asphalt Pavement Association Questions and Answers on PSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. Current Practices on Nighttime Pavement Construction Asphaltic Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    checking may result. 10 Although there will be variations due to aggregate size and bitumen content, -~ the following rolling temperatures are a... bitumen may be del- ivered to the plant during the daytime. 2. Labor for Paving. Normally it could be expected that some incentive should be used to...should be taken in highly plastic clay to place the bottom course a sufficient depth to bridge the area so that no pumping of the underlying clay

  4. Anomalies detection in asphalt pavements: a morphological image processing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Buchinger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O sistema terrestre de transporte possui grande influência na vida moderna, mas a manutenção de cada quilômetro da rede rodoviária é uma tarefa difícil, dada a sua extensão. A avaliação das condições de estradas pode ser um trabalho cansativo se realizado sem auxílio computacional automatizado; por isso, sistemas semiautomatizados de análise de estradas foram criados. Neste artigo, um novo algoritmo baseado em visão para detecção de anomalias, tais como buracos e rachaduras, é proposto, usando processamento morfológico de imagens, baseado no conceito estatístico de intervalos de confiança. O algoritmo foi testado com 186 fotos, que foram pré-processadas por um algoritmo de segmentação de estradas, utilizando intervalos de confiança entre 0,1% e 10,0%. O melhor valor encontrado para o intervalo de confiança foi de 4% para cenários controlados – onde não há automóveis andando pela rua e não há sombreamento significativo – resultando numa acurácia de 84,00%, precisão de 75,68% e exatidão de 90,32%.

  5. Acoustic Properties of Absorbent Asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-08-01

    Road traffic is one of the greater cause of noise pollution in urban centers; a prolonged exposure to this source of noise disturbs populations subjected to it. In this paper is reported a study on the absorbent coefficients of asphalt. The acoustic measurements are carried out with a impedance tube (tube of Kundt). The sample are measured in three conditions: with dry material (traditional), “wet” asphalt and “dirty” asphalt.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Pavements: A Critical Review of Existing Literature and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santero, Nicholas; Masanet, Eric; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-04-20

    This report provides a critical review of existing literature and modeling tools related to life-cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pavements. The review finds that pavement LCA is an expanding but still limited research topic in the literature, and that the existing body of work exhibits methodological deficiencies and incompatibilities that serve as barriers to the widespread utilization of LCA by pavement engineers and policy makers. This review identifies five key issues in the current body of work: inconsistent functional units, improper system boundaries, imbalanced data for asphalt and cement, use of limited inventory and impact assessment categories, and poor overall utility. This review also identifies common data and modeling gaps in pavement LCAs that should be addressed in future work. These gaps include: the use phase (rolling resistance, albedo, carbonation, lighting, leachate, and tire wear and emissions), asphalt fumes, feedstock energy of bitumen, traffic delay, the maintenance phase, and the end-of-life phase. This review concludes with a comprehensive list of recommendations for future research, which shed light on where improvements in knowledge can be made that will benefit the accuracy and comprehensiveness of pavement LCAs moving forward.

  7. Effects of Mineral Filler to Polymer Modified Bitumen Ratio on the Design Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt and its Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Hafeez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Current development in the design of asphalt concrete especially in the upper layers of flexible pavements contains about acceptable proportion of mineral fillers passing 75?m (# 200 sieve, which contributes towards the mix cohesion, resistant to rutting and improves serviceability. Three filler to PMA (Polymer Modified Asphalt ratios (i.e. 2.4, 3.4. and 4.4% in Marshall Method of mix design were used in order to determine the optimum filler content at relatively low design asphalt contents (3.83%, for asphalt concrete having PMA and 100% lime stone dust. Designed mix was laid on Southbound Turnol Taxila National Highway Section (N-5, Pakistan as a trial in year 2003. The study reveals that filler to asphalt ratio affects the mix properties to a greater extent and mix laid at site have shown relatively better performance during its service life of initial four critical years. For coarse graded mixes with low asphalt contents, designed especially for heavy loading and high temperatures regions like Pakistan, filler to asphalt ratio less than equal to 1.0 yields better results.

  8. Fatigue Life Prediction of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete Based on the Local Stress-Strain Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulian Zheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously published studies have proposed fatigue life prediction models for dense graded asphalt pavement based on flexural fatigue test. This study focused on the fatigue life prediction of High Modulus Asphalt Concrete (HMAC pavement using the local strain-stress method and direct tension fatigue test. First, the direct tension fatigue test at various strain levels was conducted on HMAC prism samples cut from plate specimens. Afterwards, their true stress-strain loop curves were obtained and modified to develop the strain-fatigue life equation. Then the nominal strain of HMAC course determined using finite element method was converted into local strain using the Neuber method. Finally, based on the established fatigue equation and converted local strain, a method to predict the pavement fatigue crack initiation life was proposed and the fatigue life of a typical HMAC overlay pavement which runs a risk of bottom-up cracking was predicted and validated. Results show that the proposed method was able to produce satisfactory crack initiation life.

  9. The effect of pavement-watering on subsurface pavement temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Hendel, Martin; Royon, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Pavement-watering is currently viewed as a potential climate change adaptation and urban heat island mitigation technique. The effects of pavement-watering on pavement temperature measured 5 cm deep are presented and discussed. Subsurface temperature measurements could not be used to improve or optimize pavement-watering methods as was seen in previous work on surface temperatures or subsurface pavement heat flux measurements.

  10. Assessment of the Remaining Life of Bituminous Layers in Road Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálmán Adorjányi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a mechanistic-empirical approach is presented for the assessment of bearing capacity condition of asphalt pavement layers by Falling Weight Deflectometer measurements and laboratory fatigue tests. The bearing capacity condition ratio was determined using past traffic data and the remaining fatigue life which was determined from multilayer pavement response model. The traffic growth rate was taken into account with finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. Fatigue resistance of layers’ bituminous materials was obtained with indirect tensile fatigue tests. Deduct curve of condition scores was derived with Weibull distribution.

  11. Microstructural and rheological analysis of fillers and asphalt mastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.; Buzimov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pavements are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and organic binder. The aggregates are sorted in different sizes and different amount which are mixed together with bitumen. The finest mineral fraction (dfiller. This component has an important role in asphalt mixture - it fills the gaps between the aggregates and if mixed with bitumen (which is called asphalt mastics) it sticks the larger particles together. Particle size, microstructure and surface properties of fillers highly affect the cohesion with bitumen, therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the microstructure of mineral fillers (limestone, dolomite) which are used in Hungarian road constructions with the use of different techniques (particle size distribution, scanning electronmicroscopy tests, mercury intrusion porosimetry, BET specific surface tests, determination of hydrophobicity). After the tests of fillers, asphalt mastics were prepared and rheological examinations were obtained. These examinations served to observe the interaction and the effect of fillers. The stiffening effect of fillers and the causes of rutting were also investigated. Based on our results, it can be stated that particle size, hydrophobic properties and the amount of fillers highly affect the rheological properties of mastics.

  12. Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.

    1978-05-01

    Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea asphalts probably have been documented over a longer period of time than any other hydrocarbon deposit--from antiquity to the 19th century. Major uses of asphalt from the Dead Sea have been as an ingredient in the embalming process, for medicinal purposes, for fumigation, and for agriculture. The first known war for control of a hydrocarbon deposit was in the Dead Sea area in 312 B.C. between the Seleucid Syrians and the Nabatean Arabs who lived around the lake. Surface manifestations of asphalt are linked closely to tectonic activity. In the lake itself, the asphalt is associated with diapirs During certain historic periods, tectonic and diapiric activity caused frequent liberation to the Dead Sea surface of semiliquid asphalt associated with large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas. When the tectonic activity was attenuated, as in the 19th and 20th centuries, the rate of asphalt seepage to the bottom sediments of the Dead Sea was much slower and the asphalt solidified on the lake bottom. The release of asphalt to the surface became much more sporadic, and may have resulted in part from earthquakes. Thus, future asphalt prospecting in the Dead Sea area should be conducted along the boundaries of diapirs or their associated faults.

  13. Contributions crumb rubber in hot mix asphalt to the resilient modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyapijati, Raden Hendra; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit Pranowo; Sumabrata, R. Jachrizal

    2017-06-01

    Pavement on the structure of the surface layer receives direct load from the vehicles. Road surfaces are designed to withstand the wear from vehicle loads. Therefore, we need a way to improve the durability of the pavement. Road damage may reduce the life of roads and increase the maintenance costs. The retention rate of road surface material is affected by the environmental conditions, one of them is temperature. To overcome the issues related to temperature, material additives are added to the asphalt mixture. These additive materials would change the binding properties of bitumen and the characteristics of strain and stress before the damage due to repeated traffic loading. Crumb rubber (CR) is a type of polymer additives and thermoplastic elastomers are obtained from scrap tires and rubber waste that is utilized in order to preserve the environment. This study investigated the contribution of the crumb rubber in terms of the value of resilient modulus and resistance to deformation. Hot mix asphalt used was asphalt Pen 60/70, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and filler. Crumb rubber was made from scrap tire rubber, in the form of fine powder with sieve no. 30 (0.6 mm). CR additive was added to the base asphalt at several rates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% at a temperature of 177° C. The test data used the indirect tensile test with a tool UMATTA at temperatures of 25°, 35°, and 45° C. The test results showed that the levels of crumb rubber on the asphalt decreased the penetration rate, increased the bitumen softening point, and improved the resistance to permanent deformation. The addition of additive materials was evidenced to improve the penetration index, reduce the temperature sensitivity, and increase the viscosity. Subsequently, it can extend the temperature range of viscoelasticity. The contributions of crumb rubber in hot mix asphalt included the increase of the recoverable deformation and the decrease of the value of resilient modulus. This study

  14. PROTOTYPE WEB-BASED EXPERT SYSTEM FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDALRHMAN MILAD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the development of a prototype web-based expert knowledge system that can be used to maintain flexible pavement within a tropical region. This prototype system provides the advantages of using existing web-based expert system technology. Currently, deterioration of asphalt pavement layers is one of the biggest problems in Malaysia and requires maintenance to ensure that the roads remain open and able to guarantee the regularity, punctuality, and safety of all transport services. According to this process, the knowledge collection that has acquired and the date concerning to domain expert system of the development web-based system was launched with knowledge representation IF and THEN rules and coded by PHP programming. The web pages that support the user interface are created using a framework consisting of HTML, CSS, and J-Query. The prototype web-based expert system uses the knowledge of a pavement maintenance expert, or a specialist in pavement problem remediation, to emulate a portion of their professional reasoning abilities, which it can then use to assist with the maintenance of existing roads and enhance the efficiency and accuracy of the professional engineers tasked with the assessment of all available remedies. Thus, the system increases the performance level of the engineers in analysing, discerning and customising the information that will assist decision makers throughout the project, so the probability that the right decision and treatment are implemented at the right time is increased.

  15. Enhancing Asphalt Binder's Rheological Behavior and Aging Susceptibility Using Nano-Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Renaldo C.

    The life expectancy of Asphalt Binder (AB) has been negatively impacted by the harsh bombardment of UV rays. UV rays cause asphalt to oxidize faster which results in deterioration of asphalt rheological characteristics that can lead to pavement distresses. This study investigates the impact that nano-particles and bio modification have on the aging susceptibility of asphalt binder. As such, the following hypothesis was investigated: Introduction of nano particles to asphalt binder will reduce asphalt oxidation aging by increasing the inter layer spacing of the nano particles. Two nano scale materials were used for this study, nano-clay and bio-char as well as one micro scale material, silica fume. Nano-clay (Cloisite 30B) is a naturally occurring inorganic mineral. Bio-char is the waste product from bio-binder production. Bio-binder is produced from swine manure using a thermochemical conversion process. This process is then followed by a filtration procedure where the bio-char is produced. Chemical and physical properties of bio-char showed a significant presence of carbon which could in turn reduce the rate of asphalt oxidation. Silica Fume is an ultra-fine powder collected as a by-product of silicon and ferrosilicon alloy production and consists of spherical particles. In this study several mixtures are designed and evaluated using RV testing (Rotational Viscometer), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Nano-clay is blended at 2% and 4% by weight of dry mass, with and without bio-binder (5% by weight of dry mass). Bio-char is grinded to nano scale and added to the virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22) at 2%, 5% and 10% by weight of dry mass. Silica Fume is added to virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22) at 2%, 4% and 8% by weight of dry mass. The optimum percent of nano scale material that is added to virgin asphalt binder is expected to reduce aging susceptibility of asphalt binder, extending its service life.

  16. Polyurethane synthesis reactions in asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukowski, A.; Gretkiewicz, J.

    1982-04-01

    A series of asphalt-polyurethane composites was prepared by means of polyurethane synthesis in asphalt and carried out in melt. The applied materials were asphalts of differentiated group components content, polyester polyols of chain structure from linear to strongly branched, 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate, 4,4-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), and tinorganic catalyst. The asphalt components react with isocyanates to a minimal degree. The influence of the applied substrates, temperature, and polyurethane content in the system on the basic kinetic relations characterizing the process is presented. Polyurethane synthesis in asphalts does not differ in a fundamental way from the obtaining of polyurethanes, especially when their content in the composition is significant, 20 wt% and more.

  17. Understanding the Effects of Climate on Airfield Pavement Deterioration Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    simulate rain-wetted pavement surface conditions during which friction measurements are taken while the system is traveling at speeds between 40 and...relate temperature data to frost penetration in pavement soil structures, heating requirements for building, ice-dynamic modeling, flood forecasting...ESRI’s ArcGIS to utilize the geospatial analysis tools to create the regional climate model. The subsequent geospatial analysis involved combining

  18. Effect of Warm Asphalt Additive on the Creep and Recovery Behaviour of Aged Binder Containing Waste Engine Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Kamaruddin, Nurul Hidayah Mohd; Rosli Hainin, Mohd; Ezree Abdullah, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    The use of waste engine oil as an additive in asphalt mixture has been reported to be able to offset the stiffening effect caused by the recycled asphalt mixture. Additionally, the fumes and odor of the waste engine oil has caused an uncomfortable condition for the workers during road construction particularly at higher production temperature. Therefore, this problem was addressed by integrating chemical warm asphalt additive into the mixture which functions to reduce the mixing and compaction temperature. This study was initiated by blending the additive in the asphalt binder of bitumen penetration grade 80/100 prior to the addition of pavement mixture. The effect of chemical warm asphalt additive, Rediset WMX was investigated by modifying the aged binder containing waste engine oil with 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% by weight of the binder. The samples were then tested for determining the rutting behaviour under different loading stress levels of 3Pa (low), 10Pa (medium) and 50Pa (high) using Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR). A reference temperature of 60 °C was fixed to reflect the maximum temperature of the pavement. The results found that the addition of Rediset did not affect the creep and recovery behavior of the modified binder under different loading. On the other hand, 2% Rediset resulted a slight decrease in its rutting resistance as shown by the reduction of non-recoverable compliance under high load stress. However, overall, the inclusion of chemical warm asphalt additive to the modified binder did not adversely affect the rutting resistance which could be beneficial in lowering the temperature of asphalt production and simultaneously not compromising the binder properties.

  19. The effects of salt on rheological properties of asphalt after long-term aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Wang, Ying; Luo, Yilin; Yin, Long

    2013-01-01

    Limited studies in recent years have shown that asphalt pavement subject to seawater in coastal regions or deicing salt in cold regions may be seriously damaged after being soaked in saline water for a long time. However, there is limited research into the influence of salt on rheological properties of asphalt after long-term aging. In this study, rheological properties of unmodified and polymer-modified asphalt after long-term aging were tested after being soaked in different concentrations of salt (0.3%~5%) for different durations (1 day~30 days). Orthogonal array based on the Taguchi method was used for experimental design. The frequency sweep tests were performed on the specimens of aged asphalt after being soaked for complex modulus and phase angle master curves and ultimate fatigue temperature. BBR tests were performed for stiffness. The test results indicate that saline water appears to reduce low temperature properties and fatigue resistance properties and improved high temperature properties of aged asphalt, and it also affects the sensitivity of complex modulus and phase angles at low frequencies.

  20. The Effects of Salt on Rheological Properties of Asphalt after Long-Term Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited studies in recent years have shown that asphalt pavement subject to seawater in coastal regions or deicing salt in cold regions may be seriously damaged after being soaked in saline water for a long time. However, there is limited research into the influence of salt on rheological properties of asphalt after long-term aging. In this study, rheological properties of unmodified and polymer-modified asphalt after long-term aging were tested after being soaked in different concentrations of salt (0.3%~5% for different durations (1 day~30 days. Orthogonal array based on the Taguchi method was used for experimental design. The frequency sweep tests were performed on the specimens of aged asphalt after being soaked for complex modulus and phase angle master curves and ultimate fatigue temperature. BBR tests were performed for stiffness. The test results indicate that saline water appears to reduce low temperature properties and fatigue resistance properties and improved high temperature properties of aged asphalt, and it also affects the sensitivity of complex modulus and phase angles at low frequencies.

  1. Evaluation of Asphalt Mixture Low-Temperature Performance in Bending Beam Creep Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczola, Marek; Jaczewski, Mariusz; Rys, Dawid; Jaskula, Piotr; Szydlowski, Cezary

    2018-01-10

    Low-temperature cracking is one of the most common road pavement distress types in Poland. While bitumen performance can be evaluated in detail using bending beam rheometer (BBR) or dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests, none of the normalized test methods gives a comprehensive representation of low-temperature performance of the asphalt mixtures. This article presents the Bending Beam Creep test performed at temperatures from -20 °C to +10 °C in order to evaluate the low-temperature performance of asphalt mixtures. Both validation of the method and its utilization for the assessment of eight types of wearing courses commonly used in Poland were described. The performed test indicated that the source of bitumen and its production process (and not necessarily only bitumen penetration) had a significant impact on the low-temperature performance of the asphalt mixtures, comparable to the impact of binder modification (neat, polymer-modified, highly modified) and the aggregate skeleton used in the mixture (Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) vs. Asphalt Concrete (AC)). Obtained Bending Beam Creep test results were compared with the BBR bitumen test. Regression analysis confirmed that performing solely bitumen tests is insufficient for comprehensive low-temperature performance analysis.

  2. Assessment of dynamic modulus of high density polypropylene waste fiber reinforcement in asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan S. OTUOZE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional asphalt tests like Hveem and Marshall tests are at best mere characterization than effective test of pavement field performance because of complex viscoelastic behavior of asphalt. Mechanical properties otherwise called simple performance tests (SPT are performance criteria of asphalt. Dynamic modulus among other SPT’s like permanent deformation, fatigue cracking, thermal cracking, moisture susceptibility, shear and friction properties; determines stress-strain to time-temperature relationships that imparts on strength, service life and durability. The test followed the recommendations of NCHRP 1-37a (2004 and mixes were prepared using 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% HDPP contents. The parameters tested for dynamic modulus, /E*/, are stiffness, recoverable strain (ε, and phase angle (ξ. Time – temperature superposition (TTS called master curve was fitted using sigmoidal curve to interpolate the parameters beyond measured data set so as to observe the viscoelastic behavior outside the physical properties. The performance of 0.5% HDPP asphalt is better enhanced than the conventional asphalt to improve upon strength, service and durability.

  3. Development of an Image-based Multi-Scale Finite Element Approach to Predict Fatigue Damage in Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, Amir

    Image-based simulation of complex materials is a very important tool for understanding their mechanical behavior and an effective tool for successful design of composite materials. In this thesis an image-based multi-scale finite element approach is developed to predict the mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures. In this approach the "up-scaling" and homogenization of each scale to the next is critically designed to improve accuracy. In addition to this multi-scale efficiency, this study introduces an approach for consideration of particle contacts at each of the scales in which mineral particles exist. One of the most important pavement distresses which seriously affects the pavement performance is fatigue cracking. As this cracking generally takes place in the binder phase of the asphalt mixture, the binder fatigue behavior is assumed to be one of the main factors influencing the overall pavement fatigue performance. It is also known that aggregate gradation, mixture volumetric properties, and filler type and concentration can affect damage initiation and progression in the asphalt mixtures. This study was conducted to develop a tool to characterize the damage properties of the asphalt mixtures at all scales. In the present study the Viscoelastic continuum damage model is implemented into the well-known finite element software ABAQUS via the user material subroutine (UMAT) in order to simulate the state of damage in the binder phase under the repeated uniaxial sinusoidal loading. The inputs are based on the experimentally derived measurements for the binder properties. For the scales of mastic and mortar, the artificially 2-Dimensional images of mastic and mortar scales were generated and used to characterize the properties of those scales. Finally, the 2D scanned images of asphalt mixtures are used to study the asphalt mixture fatigue behavior under loading. In order to validate the proposed model, the experimental test results and the simulation results were

  4. Characterization of HMA mixtures containing recycled asphalt pavement modified with crumb rubber asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    The main objective of this study is to characterize the laboratory performance of conventional HMA mixtures and mixtures containing high RAP content and waste tire crumb rubber/additives through their fundamental engineering properties. These mixture...

  5. Mechanical Properties of Warm Mix Asphalt Prepared Using Foamed Asphalt Binders : Executive Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a mixture containing aggregates and asphalt binders prepared at specified : proportions. The aggregates and asphalt binder proportions are determined through a mix design : procedure such as the Marshall Mix Design or the Sup...

  6. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the surface layer, is the main damage mechanism of porous asphalt surface wearing courses. In this research, an induction healing approach (namely, activating the healing process of asphalt concrete through ...

  7. Recovery and reuse of asphalt roofing waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.; Graziano, G.; Shepherd, P.

    1984-02-02

    Burning of asphalt roofing waste as a fuel and incorporating asphalt roofing waste in bituminous paving were identified as the two outstanding resource recovery concepts out of ten studied. Four additional concepts might be worth considering under different market or technical circumstances. Another four concepts were rated as worth no further consideration at this time. This study of the recovery of the resource represented in asphalt roofing waste has identified the sources and quantities of roofing waste. About six million cubic yards of scrap roofing are generated annually in the United States, about 94% from removal of old roofing at the job site and the remainder from roofing material production at factories. Waste disposal is a growing problem for manufacturers and contractors. Nearly all roofing waste is hauled to landfills at a considerable expense to roofing contractors and manufacturers. Recovery of the roofing waste resource should require only a modest economic incentive. The asphalt contained in roofing waste represents an energy resource of more than 7 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year. Another 1 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year may be contained in field-applied asphalt on commercial building roofs. The two concepts recommended by this study appear to offer the broadest applicability, the most favorable economics, and the highest potential for near-term implementation to reuse this resource.

  8. Numerical Investigation of Design Strategies to Achieve Long-Life Pavements

    CERN Document Server

    Ghauch, Ziad G

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the HMA base thickness and modifying the HMA mixture properties to improve the resistance to fatigue cracking are among the most popular methods for achieving long-lasting pavements. Such methods are based on the idea of reducing the tensile strain at the bottom of the HMA layer below the Fatigue Endurance Limit (FEL), a level of strain below which no cumulative damage occurs to the HMA mixture. This study investigates the effectiveness of several design strategies involved in long-life, perpetual pavement design. A 3D Finite Element model of the pavement involving a linear viscoelastic constitutive model for HMA materials and non-uniform tire contact stresses is developed using ABAQUS 6.11. The effects of asphalt base course thickness and mixture type, rich binder layer, and aggregate subbase layer are examined. Four asphalt base course mixture types, namely dense graded, polymer modified, high modulus, and standard binder, are studied as a function of the asphalt base course thickness. The result...

  9. Effect of Natural Sand Percentages on Fatigue Life of Asphalt Concrete Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Yassub Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of a flexible pavement requires the knowledge of the material properties which are characterized by stiffness and fatigue resistance. The fatigue resistance relates the number of load cycles to failure with the strain level applied to the asphalt mixture. The main objective of this research is the evaluation of the fatigue life of asphalt mixtures by using two types of fine aggregate having different percentages. In this study, two types of fine aggregate were used natural sand (desert sand and crushed sand. The crushed sand was replaced by natural sand (desert sand with different percentages (0%, 25%, 75% and 100% by the weight of the sand (passing sieve No.8 and retained on sieve No.200 and one type of binder (40/50 penetration from Al-Daurah refinery. The samples of beams were tested by four point bending beam fatigue test at the control strain mode (250, 500 and 750 microstrain while the loading frequency (5Hz and testing temperature (20oC according to (AASHTO T321. The experimental work showed that fatigue life (Nf and initial flexural stiffness increased when control strain decreased for asphalt mixtures. Acceptable fatigue life at 750 microstrain was obtained with asphalt concrete mixtures containing 100% crushed sand as well as asphalt concrete contained 25% natural sand. The asphalt concrete contained 100% and 75% of natural sand exhibited high fatigue life at low level of microstrain (250. The main conclusion of this study found that best proportion of natural sand to be added to an asphaltic concrete mixture is falling within the range (0% and 25% by weight of fraction (passing No.8 and retained on No.200 sieve .

  10. Effect of Fly-ash on The Performance of Asphalt Concrete Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa Faleh Al.ani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available At last year, effectively fly ash has been used in producing high performance concrete mixes with limited used in asphalt pavements. This is possibly due to the performance advantage that fly ash equipped to asphalt mixes in now days. A bituminous paving mixture is a mix of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and bitumen mixed in suitable proportion to result strong and durable mix to bear traffic load. In this paving mix, normally limestone and fly ash are used as filler material. In this research , the performance of asphalt concrete mixes modified with fly ash as a partial replacement of limestone dust mineral filler were evaluated. Four replacement rates were used; 0, 1, 2, and 3 percent by weight of aggregate. Asphalt concrete mixes were prepared at their optimum asphalt content and then tested to evaluate their engineering properties which include moisture damage, resilient modulus, permanent deformation and fatigue characteristics. These properties have been evaluated using indirect tensile strength, uniaxial repeated loading and repeated flexural beam tests. Mixes modified with fly ash were found to have improved fatigue and permanent deformation characteristics, also showed lower moisture susceptibility and high resilient modulus. the result showed that a rate changed from 1 to 3 percent has shown an increase in resilient modulus for addition of fly ash as a filler substitute and the resilient modulus for mixes with 3 percent fly ash was 1.31 times that for mixes with 0 percent fly ash. The altering of fly ash as a filler substitute from a range (1-3 percent has modified the fatigue property of the asphalt concrete mixes as determined by flexural test, Significantly, to modify the asphalt concrete manner taken the percent of fly ash 2, and to produce the mixes more durable , higher resistance to distresses by adding the local knowledge.

  11. Analysis of Instrumentation Selection and Placement to Monitor the Hydrologic Performance of Permeable Pavement Systems and Bioinfiltration Areas at the Edison Environmental Center in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 0.4-ha (1-ac) parking lot surfaced with three different permeable pavement types (interlocking concrete pavers, porous concrete, and porous asphalt) and six bioinfiltration areas with three different drainage area to...

  12. Thermal and Fatigue Evaluation of Asphalt Mixtures Containing RAP Treated with a Bio-Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol J. Kowalski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Environment conservation and diminishing natural resources caused an increase in popularity of the application of renewable bio-origin resources for the construction of road pavement. Currently, there are known additions of bio-origin materials for bitumen modification. Such material is also used as a flux additive for bitumen or as a rejuvenator once working with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP. This paper presents research dealing with asphalt mixtures with RAP modified with a bio-agent of rapeseed origin. The main idea of the conducted research was to apply more RAP content directly to the batch mix plant without extra RAP heating. The RAP used in this study was milled from a base asphalt layer; the addition of RAP stiffens new asphalt mixtures. A bio-agent, due to its fluxing action, was used to support the asphalt mixing process and to decrease the over-stiffening of the mixture caused by RAP addition. This research includes bitumen and mixture tests. For the bitumen study, three different bitumens (35/50, 50/70, and 70/100 were tested in a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR for complex modulus G* and for phase angle |δ| in the temperature range 0–100 °C. The reference mixture and mixtures with 2.5% bio-agent were tested to assess the influence of RAP and the bio-agent addition on the asphalt mixture properties. Low temperature behavior (TSRST, stiffness, and fatigue resistance (4PB were tested. Based on the bitumen test, it was determined that even a low rate of bio-agent (2.5% beneficially changes bitumen properties at a low temperature; moreover, polymerization processes occurring in the second stage of the process improves bitumen properties at a high operational temperature. The research with these asphalt mixtures demonstrates that the bio-origin flux acts as a rejuvenator and allows for an application of 30% cold RAP. Thermal cracking resistance of the mixture with RAP and 2.5% bio-agent improved. The bio-agent removes unfavorable

  13. "Comparison of some Structural Analyses Methods used for the Test Pavement in the Danish Road Testing Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltzer, S.; Zhang, W.; Macdonald, R.

    1998-01-01

    A flexible test pavement, instrumented to measure stresses and strains in the three primary axes with the upper 400 mm of the subgrade, has been constructed and load tested in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM). One objective of this research, which is part of the International Pavement Subgrade...... three test series, 50000 load repetitions were applied at each load level, and the test chamber temperature was maintained at approximately 25 degree C.Instruments installed in the test pavement included: Strain measuring sensors (LVDT Soil Strain Deformation Transducers and Asphalt Strain Gauges), Soil...... methods used for the RTM test pavement with data from FWD testing undertaken after the construction and loading programmes. Multilayer linear elastic forward and backcalculation methods, a finite element program and MS Excel spreadsheet based methods are compared....

  14. Development of test method for evaluating root resistance of pavement used for roof garden caused by thickening growth of root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Saori; Tanaka, Kyoji [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The growth of roots of plants can damage roof garden components, such as pavements. This paper developed a test method for evaluating the resistance of pavement used in roof gardens to damage from a thickening growth of roots. The study assessed the behaviour of plant roots and evaluated the force of root growth subjected to hypertrophy. A system to measure the enlargement force of roots was designed and used for measurements over a period of 8 months on a cherry blossom of 21 years growth. The enlargement force was approximately 440 N/cm. A mechanical simulated root was designed and used to carry out experimental tests on asphalt pavements. The tests results demonstrated the viability of simulated root for evaluation of root resistances in pavements and various components of roof gardens.

  15. Alabama warm mix asphalt field study : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation hosted a warm mix asphalt field demonstration in August 2007. The warm mix asphalt technology demonstrated was Evotherm Dispersed Asphalt Technology. The WMA and hot mix asphalt produced for the demonstration ...

  16. Evaluating Cool Impervious Surfaces: Application to an Energy-Efficient Residential Roof and to City Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Pablo Javier

    Summer urban heat island (UHI) refers to the phenomenon of having higher urban temperatures compared to the those in surrounding suburban and rural areas. Higher urban air temperatures lead to increased cooling demand, accelerates the formation of smog, and contributes to the generation of greenhouse gas emissions. Dark-colored impervious surfaces cover a significant fraction of an urban fabric, and as hot and dry surfaces, are a major contributor to the UHI effect. Adopting solar-reflective ("cool") roofs and cool pavements, and increasing the urban vegetation, are strategies proven to mitigate urban heat islands. These strategies often have an "indirect" effect (ambient cooling) and "direct" effect (change in solar energy flux entering the conditioned space) on the energy use of buildings. This work investigates some elements of the UHI mitigation strategies, specifically the annual direct effect of a cool roof, and the direct and indirect effects of cool pavements. The first topic researched in this paper consists in an experimental assessment of the direct effects from replacing a conventional dark roof with a highly energy-efficient cool roof. The study measures and calculates the annual benefits of the cool roof on the cooling and heating energy uses, and the associated emission reductions. The energy savings attributed to the cool roof are validated by measuring the difference between the homes in the heat loads that entered the conditioned space through the ceiling and HVAC ducts. Fractional annual cooling energy savings (26%) were 2.6 times the 10% daily cooling energy savings measured in a previous study that used a white coating to increase the albedo of an asphalt shingle roof by the same amount (0.44). The improved cooling energy savings (26% vs. 10%) may be attributed to the cool tile's above-sheathing ventilation, rather than to its high thermal mass. The roof also provided energy savings during the heating season, yielding fractional annual gas

  17. Consideration of pavement roughness effects on vehicle-pavement interaction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present some of the results of the vehicle-pavement interaction project, mainly in terms of the expected effects of pavement roughness on the moving dynamic effects in pavement analysis and design. Background is provided...

  18. Coal-tar-based pavement sealants—a potent source of PAHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    P avement sealants are applied to the asphalt pavement of many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds in North America (Figure 1), where, when first applied, they render the pavement glossy black and looking like new. Sealant products used commercially in the central, eastern, and northern United States typically are coal-tarbased, whereas those used in the western United States typically are asphalt-based. Although the products look similar, they are chemically different. Coal-tarbased pavement sealants typically are 25-35 percent (by weight) coal tar or coal-tar pitch, materials that are known human carcinogens and that contain high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related chemicals (unless otherwise noted, all Figure 1. Pavement sealant is commonly used to seal parking lots, playgrounds, and driveways throughout the United States. Sealants used in the central, northern, eastern, and southern United States typically contain coal tar or coal-tar pitch, both of which are known human carcinogens. Photos by the U.S. Geological Survey. data in this article are from Mahler et al. 2012 and references therein).

  19. Evaluation of pavement marking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the useful life of pavement markings. The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) provides general guidelines for the application and installation of pavement markings. However, performance...

  20. Development of reliable pavement models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The current report proposes a framework for estimating the reliability of a given pavement structure as analyzed by : the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The methodology proposes using a previously fit : response surface, in plac...

  1. Prediction of Frequency for Simulation of Asphalt Mix Fatigue Tests Using MARS and ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ghanizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue life of asphalt mixes in laboratory tests is commonly determined by applying a sinusoidal or haversine waveform with specific frequency. The pavement structure and loading conditions affect the shape and the frequency of tensile response pulses at the bottom of asphalt layer. This paper introduces two methods for predicting the loading frequency in laboratory asphalt fatigue tests for better simulation of field conditions. Five thousand (5000 four-layered pavement sections were analyzed and stress and strain response pulses in both longitudinal and transverse directions was determined. After fitting the haversine function to the response pulses by the concept of equal-energy pulse, the effective length of the response pulses were determined. Two methods including Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS and Artificial Neural Network (ANN methods were then employed to predict the effective length (i.e., frequency of tensile stress and strain pulses in longitudinal and transverse directions based on haversine waveform. It is indicated that, under controlled stress and strain modes, both methods (MARS and ANN are capable of predicting the frequency of loading in HMA fatigue tests with very good accuracy. The accuracy of ANN method is, however, more than MARS method. It is furthermore shown that the results of the present study can be generalized to sinusoidal waveform by a simple equation.

  2. Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Granular Layers Stiffness on Fatigue Life of Hot Mix Asphalts - HMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Rondón-Quintana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The mainly factors studied to predict fatigue life of hot mix asphalt-HMA in flexible pavements are the loading effect, type of test, compaction methods, design parameters of HMA (e.g., particle size and size distribution curve, fine content, type of bitumen and the variables associated with the environment (mainly moisture, temperature, aging. This study evaluated through a computer simulation, the influence of the granular layers and subgrade on the fatigue life of asphalt layers in flexible pavement structures. Mechanics parameters of granular layers of subgrade, base and subbase were obtained using the mathematical equations currently used for this purpose in the world. The emphasis of the study was the city of Bogotá, where the average annual temperature is 14°C and soils predominantly clay, generally experience CBR magnitudes between 1% and 4%. General conclusion: stiffness of the granular layers and subgrade significantly affect the fatigue resistance of HMA mixtures. Likewise, the use of different equations reported in reference literature in order to characterize granular layers may vary the fatigue life between 4.6 and 48.5 times, varying the thickness of the pavement layers in the design.

  3. Effect of synthetic surfactants, salinity and alkalinity on the properties of asphalt emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez, G.; Martín, J. J.; Alejandre, F. J.; Fortes, J. C.; Prat, F.; Dávila, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of salinity, alkalinity and amount of ionic and non-ionic synthetic surfactants in the aqueous emulsifier used to prepare oil-in-water or asphaltic emulsions on the performance of such substances as waterproofing on buildings. The emulsion systems studied here were prepared with Venezuelan extra heavy oil. The findings showed that the four variables modified viscosity, surface tension and mean particle size, physical properties that are instrumental to asphalt em...

  4. Investigation of Adding Proportion of RAP in Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the relationship between gradation and proportion of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and design gradation of recycled mixture, the authors discussed the influence of proportion of RAP on gradation adjustment of recycled mixture. And then, recycled mixture with 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% of RAP were made, and Influence of proportion of RAP on high and low temperature performance, water stability and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture were discussed. The results and analysis indicate that gradation of recycled mixture would not be adjusted to aiming gradation if proportion of RAP was too big. With the increase of proportion of RAP, high temperature performance and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture enhanced, but low temperature performance and water stability decayed sharply. In practical application, reasonable proportion of RAP should be determined according to gradation, performance demand and economy of recycled mixture.

  5. Assessing the durability of North Buton Asphalt seal with Polymer Modified and Rejuvenation in warm mixture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalman; Yulianto, B.; Setyawan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Utilization of Buton Asphalt has been expanded with various optimizations through modification of the base material so that it can be used either as an additive in granular form or as modified asphalt. While in North Buton using Asphalt Buton that uses a special material specification Buton Asphalt cold mixture of Butur Seal, a thin layer of Buton Asphalt B 50/30 above the base course or existing asphalt pavement layer, which has been prepared in accordance with the General Specifications. Technically utilization of Butur Seal is still very sensitive to human resource capacity in understanding the physical condition of Asbuton, and severely affects construction to failure. Buton asphalt cold mix in the field also showed some kind of damage caused by difficulties or not fitting rejuvenation materials used. Making the challenge to do research on the characteristic properties of Asphalt Buton B50 / 30 with modifications, to get Asbuton that has higher durability in use in the field. Quality performance of the Asbuton cold mixtures is observed through a series of tests in the laboratory. This test includes testing the stability and the compressive test. Tests conducted in the laboratory are expected to be directly applicable as it is done in the field. This research aimed to investigate the characteristics of Butur Seal in warm mixture that can be used in the construction and maintenance of roads in North Burton and to investigate the characteristics of Butur Seal with the addition of elastomeric polymers and rejuvenation materials in warm mixing temperature of 30, 40, 60 and 80° C.

  6. The Rejuvenating Effect in Hot Asphalt Recycling by Mortar Transfer Ratio and Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusong; Wang, Zipeng; Li, Chao; Xiao, Yue; Wu, Shaopeng; Pan, Pan

    2017-01-01

    Using a rejuvenator to improve the performance of asphalt pavement is an effective and economic way of hot asphalt recycling. This research analyzes the rejuvenating effect on aged asphalt by means of a Mortar Transfer Ratio (MTR) test, which concerns the ratio of asphalt mortar that moves from recycled aggregates (RAP aggregates) to fresh added aggregates when aged asphalt is treated with a regenerating agent and comes into contact with fresh aggregates. The proposed MTR test analyzes the regeneration in terms of the softening degree on aged asphalt when the rejuvenator is applied. The covered area ratio is studied with an image analyzing tool to understand the possibility of mortar transferring from RAP aggregates to fresh aggregates. Additionally, a micro-crack closure test is conducted and observed through a microscope. The repairing ability and diffusion characteristics of micro-cracks can therefore be analyzed. The test results demonstrate that the proposed mortar transfer ratio is a feasible way to evaluate rejuvenator diffusion during hot recycling. The mortar transfer ratio and uncovered area ratio on fresh aggregates are compatible, and can be used to quantify the contribution of the rejuvenator. Within a certain temperature range, the diffusing effect of the rejuvenator is better when the diffusing temperature is higher. The diffusion time of the rejuvenator is optimum when diffusion occurs for 4–8 h. When the rejuvenator is properly applied, the rough and cracking surface can be repaired, resulting in better covered aggregates. The micro-closure analysis visually indicates that rejuvenators can be used to repair the RAP aggregates during hot recycling. PMID:28772935

  7. An approach to the usage of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste as roadway pavement material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürü, Metin; Çubuk, M Kürşat; Arslan, Deniz; Farzanian, S Ali; Bilici, İbrahim

    2014-08-30

    This study investigates an application area for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle waste which has become an environmental problem in recent decades as being a considerable part of the total plastic waste bulk. Two novel additive materials, namely Thin Liquid Polyol PET (TLPP) and Viscous Polyol PET (VPP), were chemically derived from waste PET bottles and used to modify the base asphalt separately for this aim. The effects of TLPP and VPP on the asphalt and hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture properties were detected through conventional tests (Penetration, Softening Point, Ductility, Marshall Stability, Nicholson Stripping) and Superpave methods (Rotational Viscosity, Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR), Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR)). Also, chemical structures were described by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. Since TLPP and VPP were determined to improve the low temperature performance and fatigue resistance of the asphalt as well as the Marshall Stability and stripping resistance of the HMA mixtures based on the results of the applied tests, the usage of PET waste as an asphalt roadway pavement material offers an alternative and a beneficial way of disposal of this ecologically hazardous material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Constructing better roads with asphalt rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Jorge C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilians mixtures containing asphalt rubber were evaluated by mechanical laboratory tests. A conventional mixture with asphalt CAP-50/70 was produced as a mixture control. With the aim of compare the Brazilians mixtures performance, a Portuguese asphalt rubber mixture was tested as well. The testing set involved the determination of the mechanical properties, fatigue and permanent deformation, of asphalt rubber produced by wet process through two different systems: continuous blend and terminal blend. The asphalt rubber morphology was evaluated in order to determine the compatibility of the systems. The asphalt rubber mixtures exhibit good resistance to permanent deformation and prolonged fatigue life in relation to mixture control. Therefore it is concluded that the application of asphalt rubber alters the characteristics of asphalt mixture in a very beneficial way.

  9. A review of warm mix asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) technology, recently developed in Europe, is gaining strong interest in the US. By : lowering the viscosity of asphalt binder and/or increasing the workability of mixture using minimal heat, WMA : technology allows the mixing, ...

  10. Controlling conductivity of asphalt concrete with graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Electrically conductive asphalt concrete has a huge potential for various multifunctional applications such as : self-healing, self-sensing, and deicing. In order to utilize the full spectrum of applications of electrically conductive : asphalt compo...

  11. Effect Assessment the Impact of Filler Types on the Input Design Parameter of Flexible Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar S. Neham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To meet the requirements of flexible pavements (safety, economy, limited the stresses on the natural subgrade and a smooth ride, good quality material of surface course must be used so to prevent pavement distresses caused by the different types of loadings (structural and environmental loadings, while the resilient modulus is important input data when flexible pavement was designed, it is selected to show its effect by different types of mineral filler as a partial replacement. In this paving mix, to improve the quality of the mix material and to represent the effect of these replacements materials on the elastic characterization by measuring the resilient modulus of hot mix asphalt (HMA: Fly Ash (FA, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, Hydrated Lime (HL and Silica Fume (SF are used as a partial percent of filler (Limestone Dust (LSD replacement, where these materials are locally available including (40-50 penetration grade asphalt binder. To achieve the goal of study; asphalt concrete mixes are prepared at their optimum asphalt content using Marshall Method of mix design. Four replacement percent’s were used; 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 percent by total weight of aggregate for each filler types. According to ASTM D4123 criteria (Resilient Modulus was tested by UTM¬25. Mixes modified with (FA, (OPC, (HL and (SF were found to have average improvement in the value of Resilient Modulus by (13.37, 9.63, 11.14, 24.00 % at 1.5 percent of filler replacement and by (24.54, 16.63, 18.73, 38.31 % at 3.0 percent of filler replacement also the percent of improvement is: (39.55, 26.36, 29.82, 58.30 at 4.5percent of filler replacement sequentially.

  12. The effect of different surface materials on runoff quality in permeable pavement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Li, Zhifei; Zhang, Xiaoran; Li, Zhuorong; Liu, Dongqing; Li, Tanghu; Zhang, Ziyang

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of different permeable pavement surface materials on the removal of pollutants from urban storm-runoff, six commonly surface materials (porous asphalt, porous concrete, cement brick, ceramic brick, sand base brick, and shale brick) were selected in this study and the research was carried out by column experiments. Except the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 -N), nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in the influent and effluent that were measured, the removal mechanism of pollutants was discussed further. The results indicate that the surface materials influence the removal efficiency of pollutants greatly and have different effects on certain pollutant. Furthermore, the physical interception and adsorption would be the main mechanism for the removal of pollutants from runoff. For example, for all surface materials, the average removal efficiency of TSS is nearly about 90.0% because of physical interception. Due to the amount of iron oxide, the removal efficiency of COD, NO 3 -N, and TN of shale brick was 88.2, 35.1, and 17.5%, respectively. NH 4 -N and TN can be easily removed by porous asphalt due to the high content of organic matter. By lacking of useful adsorption sites, all the surface materials had little effect on the removal of TP from runoff. This research could offer useful guidelines for the better design of permeable pavement system and promote the insight into the removal mechanism of pollutants in permeable pavement system. Graphical abstract Different types of materials for the different types of pollutants in the runoff purification capacity were significantly different, overall, shale brick and porous asphalt Shale bricks and porous asphalt have a better purification effect according to the six kinds of materials.

  13. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  14. EVALUATION OF TIRE RUBBER DISPOSAL IN CONCRETE FOR PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Cecche Lintz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of waste by the tire industry has been a growing problem, indicating the need for its reuse. More than thirty million tires are discharged per year in Brazil, where regulation for the environment states that for each four new tires, five unusable ones must be adequately disposed by manufacturers and importers. Paving consumes an extremely large quantity of materials, which can be the source of rational application of waste and rejected materials. Research shows that tire rubber can be added to asphalt, which increases its durability and improves pavement quality and safety conditions by absorbing the rubber elastic properties, and also be used for architectural applications, among others. This study deals with the addition of rubber fibers from tire crushing in concrete for roadway pavements in order to provide proper indication about the alternative material disposal through an evaluation of the mechanical behavior of the modified concrete. Different concrete mixes were produced, within which, part of fine aggregates were substituted by tire rubber and mechanical experiment tests were performed, which show that, due to great resistance losses, the disposal of this alternative material in concrete should be considered for light traffic pavements, with the addition of rubber ranging up to 10% in mass.

  15. Performance properties of asphalt mixes for rich bottom layers (RBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureš, Petr; Fiedler, Jiří; Kašpar, Jiří; Sýkora, Michal; Hýzl, Petr

    2017-09-01

    The binder content of asphalt mixes has an important influence on the performance properties. Higher binder content improves fatigue resistance. That is why the concept of RBL was developed in USA and applied for “perpetual pavements”. However excessive binder content could lead to the decrease of the mix stiffness and to permanent deformations of asphalt pavement during hot summer. The advantages and limitations of RBL concept have been studied in research project CESTI. Fatigue tests of mixes with road bitumen and polymer modified bitumen and RBL were realised. Deformation behaviour of these mixes was also evaluated. The experience from the test section with RBL laid in 2015 will be presented. The results corresponded to expectations. However, low void content was obtained on one subsection. In spite of it, there were no permanent deformations during summer 2016. The analysis of methods for the prediction of the permanent deformation was also undertaken in research project CESTI. Some information about the results of these analysis related to the use of RBL will be also briefly mentioned.

  16. Asphalt mixtures with a high amount of RAP - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, Tomas; Varaus, Michal

    2017-09-01

    A case study of one trial section in the Pilsen region is presented. The pavement in the section was newly constructed in 2015 using one type of an asphalt concrete mixtures with varying RAP content. The constructed surface course comprises of 0% to 50% RAP. In order to restore the aged binder properties and to avoid the embrittlement of the produced mixtures, a rubber-based modifier/rejuvenator was employed. For technological reasons during manufacturing processes, which engage a parallel drying drum, a crude oil-based rejuvenator was also added. This article contains the preliminary data from an on-going project focused on monitoring the properties of bituminous binders contained in asphalt mixtures. The actual bituminous binders were extracted straight after production, after 6 months and after 12 months. The binder characteristics are evaluated using empirical testing as well as functional tests. Low temperature properties are measured by a Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR). The preliminary results show, that the bituminous binders properties change significantly in a relatively short period of time. The progress in binder’ characteristics is contradictory to up-to date knowledge. The probability that the phenomenon of diffusion between aged binder and rejuvenator agents occurs exists. Moreover, the data might indicate that the process of rejuvenator evaporation takes place.

  17. Choosing mineral carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time the operation life of the majority of roads is essentially shorter than required. The reason for it is the increase in traffic intensity and axle loads of automobile transport. The obvious reasons for early wear of roads are the low quality of the components used and low industrial standards while producing asphalt pavement. In this paper the mineral material was selected as a carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt. The optimal modes for grinding mineral materials were identified, which provide correspondence of their structure parameters with the developed model. The influence of different mineral nanomodifier carriers on the structure formation processes was estimated. It is shown that among a number of mineral materials diatomite has high activity in relation to the bitumen, because it has a highly porous structure. It is also shown that as a result of lighter fractions of bitumen adsorption on the border of phase interface, diatomite and bitumen changes from the free state to the film, and solvate shell of bitumen is saturated with asphaltenes. With the help of IR spectroscopy the authors defined the nature of the diatomite and bitumen interaction and proved that in the process of their interaction there occurs physical adsorption with additional absorption of bitumen components into the pore space of diatomite grains.

  18. Fatigue Properties of Layered Double Hydroxides Modified Asphalt and Its Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of layered double hydroxides (LDHs on the fatigue properties of asphalt mixture. In this paper, different aging levels (thin film oven test (TFOT and ultraviolet radiation aging (UV aging for short of bitumen modified with various mass ratios of the LDHs were investigated. The TFOT and UV aging process were used to simulate short-term field thermal-oxidative aging and long-term field light UV aging of bitumen, respectively. The influences of LDHs on the fatigue properties of LDHs were evaluated by dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and indirect tensile fatigue test. Results indicated that the introduction of LDHs could change the fatigue properties of bitumen under a stress control mode. The mixture with modified bitumen showed better fatigue resistance than the mixture with base bitumen. The results illustrated that the LDHs would be alternative modifiers used in the bitumen to improve the lifetime of asphalt pavements.

  19. The Use of Steel Works Crushed Slag (Lidonit in the Preparation of Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Gugiuman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The high costs of the quarry crushed aggregates (producer costs to which additional railroad transport costs are taken into account result in the fact that at large distance away from quarry lesser amounts of chippings and crushing sands are provided only. The initiation of the crushed aggregates production manufactured out of steelworks crushed slag. Lidonit, at a competitive delivering price, has led to the first series of laboratory tests. In the first stage two asphalt concrete mixtures were made in cube-shaped and cylinder-shaped (Marshall test-tubes on which physical and mechanical characteristic values are determined. The results of these first tests outlined the real opportunity of using these products in supplying the roads and streets with asphalt mix for pavements.

  20. Experimental testing of hot mix asphalt mixture made of recycled aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Muhammad Masood; Qadir, Adnan; Siddiqui, Salman Hameed

    2011-12-01

    The migration of population towards big cities generates rapid construction activities. These activities not only put pressure on natural resources but also produce construction, renovation and demolition waste. There is an urgent need to find out ways to handle this waste owing to growing environmental concerns. This can reduce pressure on natural resources as well. This paper presents the results of experimental studies which were carried out on hot mix asphalt mixture samples. These samples were manufactured by adding recycled aggregates (RA) with natural crushed stone aggregates (CSA). Three levels of addition of RA were considered in the presented studies. RA were obtained from both the concrete waste of construction, renovation and demolition activities and reclaimed asphalt pavement. Separate samples were manufactured with the coarse and fine aggregate fractions of both types of RA. Samples made with CSA were used as control specimens. The samples were prepared and tested using the Marshall method. The performance of the samples was investigated in terms of density-void and stability/flow analysis and was compared with the performance criteria as given by National Highway Authority for wearing course material in Pakistan. Based on this data optimum asphalt contents were determined. All the samples made by adding up to 50% RA conform to the specification requirements of wearing course material as given by National Highway Authority in terms of optimum asphalt contents, voids in mineral aggregates and stability/flow. A statistical analysis of variation of these samples confirmed that addition is also possible statistically.

  1. Evaluation of the rheological behavior of asphaltic binder modified with zeolite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, E.M. da; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Sandra A.; Soares, Jorge B. [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Several new processes have been developed to reduce mixing and compaction temperatures of hot mix asphalt without sacrificing the quality of the resulting pavement. One of these processes utilizes the zeolite, a crystalline hydrated aluminum silicate. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the applicability of zeolite to improve the rheological and chemical behavior of an asphaltic binder. The synthetic asphaltic binder was produced with different zeolite contents (0,1; 0.3; and 0.5% w/w) by wet process. The rheological and chemical behavior was verified by Dynamic Shear Rheometer and Infrared Spectroscopy, respectively. The zeolite's chemical composition and morphology was studied by Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Additionally, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) was utilized to establish the zeolite elemental composition. The results showed that investigated zeolite was classified as a sodium aluminum silicate and it was able to modify the rheological properties of the neat asphalt binder. The G*/sin{delta} parameter was affected by the zeolite presence, indicating better performance for the binders with zeolite. The results show that synthetic binders can partly replicate the rheological properties of conventional AB. Comparable complex modulus values was obtained. No significant difference was found in viscoelastic response, given by the phase angles as a function of both temperature and frequency. (author)

  2. Research on the Microstructure and Property of an Anion Rubber Modified Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anion rubber modified asphalt (ARMA mixture was first successfully developed with a unique process. In the development process, rubber and asphalt were mixed in the same proportion. Furthermore, the microstructure and modification mechanism of the material were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, TG, and XRD tests. The mechanical property of the mixture was also tested in accordance with the relevant standards. In the end, the material’s capacity of releasing anion was measured by DLY-6A232 atmospheric ion gauge. The results indicated that the addition of anion additive into the rubber modified asphalt (RMA was a mere physical mixture, and the anion additives and rubber particles uniformly dispersed in the ARMA. The addition of anion additive could improve the thermal stability of the RMA. Compared with the traditional asphalt pavement material, the ARMA material shows excellent mechanical properties as well as the ability of releasing anion. Moreover, the material has enormous economic and social benefits by taking full advantage of a large amount of waste tires, thus improving the road surrounding environment.

  3. Aging Influence on Fatigue Characteristics of RAC Mixtures Containing Warm Asphalt Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feipeng Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is an important factor to affect the long-term performance of asphalt pavement. The fatigue life of a typical warm mix asphalt (WMA is generally related to various factors of rheological and mechanical properties of the mixture. The study of the fatigue behavior of the specific rubberized WMA is helpful in recycling the scrap tires and saving energy in terms of the conventional laboratory aging process. This study explores the utilization of the conventional fatigue analysis approach in investigating the cumulative dissipated, stiffness, and fatigue life of rubberized asphalt concrete mixtures containing the WMA additive after a long-term aging process. The aged beams were made with one rubber type (−40 mesh ambient crumb rubber, two aggregate sources, two WMA additives (Asphamin and Sasobit, and tested at 5 and 20ºC. A total of 55 aged fatigue beams were tested in this study. The test results indicated that the addition of crumb rubber extends the fatigue resistance of asphalt binder while WMA additive exhibits a negative effect. The study indicated that the WMA additive generally has an important influence on fatigue life. In addition, test temperature and aggregate source play an important role in determining the cumulative dissipated energy, stiffness, and fatigue life of an aged mixture.

  4. Optimizing the durability of the coarse fraction of porous asphalt RAP for effective recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Irina; Wilson, Douglas J.; Black, Philippa; Holleran, Glynn; Walubita, Lubinda F.

    2017-09-01

    Porous asphalt (PA) durability depends not only on the binder used to manufacture the mix, but also on the aggregates chosen, particularly the coarse fraction component. Aggregates for PA should be of the highest quality and highly durable to withstand the effects of weather and traffic. To recycle PA into a new PA mix, without compromising the long-term performance, the durability of the recovered aggregates from PA-derived reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) should be assessed alongside the aged binder properties. In this study, the Micro-Deval (MD) Abrasion test, combined with water absorption, was found to be a good predictor of asphalt mix performance for PA. Minerology of the aggregates is an important factor when setting limits for MD loss. New Zealand (NZ) aggregates are significantly younger in geological terms, and chemically and physically less stable compared to the aggregates used in many other countries. This is especially true for greywacke, the most used aggregate in NZ for road construction. If the MD limits reported in some literature are applied to NZ PA-derived RAP aggregates, poor performing material can be erroneously incorporated in asphalt mixes. Findings from this study contributes in understanding how PA-derived RAP can be recycled into new value PA mixes.

  5. Asphalts tests using onshore drilling oil wells residues; Ensaios asfalticos utilizando residuos de perfuracao onshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Adriano Elisio de F.L.; Rodrigues, John Kennedy G.; Ferreira, Heber Carlos; Lucena, Leda Christiane de F.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Lucena, Luciana de F.L. [Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais Aplicada (FACISA), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The drilling cuttings are one of the residues produced by the oils industries in large amounts during the drilling of oil wells. An alternative of final disposal of the drilling cutting residue is its utilization in asphalt mixtures. Based on this alternative, it was realized chemical and granulometric analysis and tests (Marshall and indirect tensile strength), on the asphaltic mixture using the residue from the oil drilling wells (well: 1-POTI-4-RN, located at Governador DIX-Sept Rosado - RN - Brazil). The achieved results to Marshall test indicated that for the analyzed mixture, the ideal content of residue that can be incorporated to the asphaltic composition and attend at the DNIT-ES 31 (2006) is 5%. To the indirect tensile strength test, the results showed a strength value higher than the minimum limit requested by the DNIT (0,65 MPa). The achieved results indicated the possibility of the utilization of the drilling cuttings in asphaltic pavements as fine aggregate, obeying the percentage limits, as an alternative to the final disposal. (author)

  6. Effect of crumb rubber on asphaltic binder chemistry and rheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cicero de S.; Tome, Luisa G.A.; Sant' ana, Hosiberto B.; Soares, Jorge B.; Soares, Sandra A. [University Federal of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The use of the crumb rubber (CR) from scraps tires to modify asphalt binders (AB) at high temperature can improve significantly the performance grade, but the storage stability can be influenced after the mix of AB and CR or polymer. The major concern of asphalt binder with polymer and CR blends is their lack of stability during prolonged storage at high temperatures. The tendency to phase separation under quiescent conditions appears as an important limitation for the practical use of these blends. After the RTFOT and PAV process, the binder conventional and modified was analyzed in a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR) for chemical characterization. After aging in RTFOT, the AB presented a larger degradation compared to the CR of RABC and RABC commercial. So, the crumb rubber contributed to the binder stability, acting as an antioxidant in the aging process. The dynamic mechanical properties of CR modify asphalts binder before and after graft has been characterized by use of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) or advances rheology expanded system (ARES) of Rheometric Scientific. The difference in the viscoelastic parameters between the top and the bottom sections of the tube was measured. It has been found that the added content of CR has great effect on the rheological properties of the AB and its high temperature performance. It also has been confirmed that the RABC sample showed larger storage stability compared to the sample RABC commercial observed with viscoelastic parameters. As a consequence, the use CR and aromatic oil can be considered a suitable alternative for modification of binder in pavement. (author)

  7. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  8. Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlangen, E.; Liu, Q.

    Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the

  9. Evaluation of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a project in which approximately 6,200 tons (5,630 Mg) of asphaltic concrete were recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant. During the construction of the project, a buildup of asphalt-coated fines occurred in the dry...

  10. New insights into the effects of styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer modifier on the structure, properties, and performance of asphalt binder: The case of AP-5 asphalt and solvent deasphalting pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nciri, Nader, E-mail: nader.nciri@koreatech.ac.kr [Department of Energy, Materials, and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, 1600 Chungjeol-ro, Byeongcheon-myeon, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-City, Chungnam-Province 330-708 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Namho [Department of Architectural Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, 1600 Chungjeol-ro, Byeongcheon-myeon, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-City, Chungnam-Province 330-708 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Namjun, E-mail: njuncho@koreatech.ac.kr [Department of Energy, Materials, and Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, 1600 Chungjeol-ro, Byeongcheon-myeon, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-City, Chungnam-Province 330-708 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-01

    are found to be much more stable than those obtained with asphaltenes-rich AP-5 asphalts. - Highlights: • Effect of SBS on the properties of AP-5 asphalt and SDA pitch was investigated. • Degree of SBS modification is strongly dependent on SARA and polymer content. • XRD provided novel insights into the colloidal structure of SBS/asphalt blends. • Blending of aromatics-rich asphalts with SBS can produce high-quality pavement.

  11. [PAH exposure in asphalt workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Siria; Sarnico, Michela; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Barbieri, P G

    2010-01-01

    There has been interest in evaluating the potential carcinogenicity of bitumen fumes in asphalt workers since the 1960's. The IARC classified air-refined bitumens as possible human carcinogens, while coal-tar fumes were classified as known carcinogens. Occupational/environmental PAH exposure can be measured by several urinary markers. Urinary 1-OHP has become the most commonly used biological marker of PAH exposure in asphalt workers. The aim of this study was to assess asphalt workers' exposure levels by monitoring 1-OHP urinary excretion and compare this data with those of non-occupationally exposed subjects. We investigated three groups of asphalt workers: 100 in summer 2007, 29 in winter 2007, and 148 during summer 2008 and compared 1-OHP urinary concentrations using Kruskall-Wallis test. Median 1-OHP urinary concentrations during the three biomonitoring sampling periods were 0.65, 0.17 and 0.53 microg/g creatinine respectively. There was a significant difference in 1-OHP values between the three groups (p < 0.001). our study showed that PAH exposure of asphalt workers' is higher than that observed in the general population and in workers in urban areas. Our results suggest that PAH exposure in the three groups studied is not sufficiently kept under control by the use of personal protective equipment and that biomonitoring is useful in evaluating PAH exposure and for risk assessment. Regulations need to be enforced for workers exposed to cancer risk, such as the register of workers exposed to carcinogens.

  12. Nature based solutions to mitigate soil sealing in urban areas: Results from a 4-year study comparing permeable, porous, and impermeable pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, A; Frangi, P; Mori, J; Donzelli, D; Ferrini, F

    2017-07-01

    Soil sealing is one of the most pervasive forms of soil degradation that follows urbanization and, despite innovative pavements (i.e. pervious) are being installed in urban areas to mitigate it, there is little research on the effects of pervious pavements on soil water and carbon cycle and on the physiology of urban trees. The aim of this 4-year experiment was to assess the effects of three pavements, differing in permeability to water and gases, on some soil physical parameters, and on growth and physiology of newly planted Celtis australis and Fraxinus ornus. Treatments were: 1) impermeable pavement (asphalt on concrete sub-base); 2) permeable pavement (pavers on crushed rock sub-base); 3) porous design (porous pavement on crushed rock sub-base); 4) control (unpaved soil, kept free of weed by chemical control). Soil (temperature, moisture, oxygen content and CO 2 efflux) and plant (above- and below-ground growth, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations) parameters were measured. All types of pavements altered the water cycle compared to unpaved soil plots, but this disturbance was less intense in porous pavements than in other soil cover types. Porous pavements allowed both higher infiltration and evaporation of water than both pavers and asphalt. Reduction of evaporative cooling from soil paved with permeable and impermeable pavements contributed to significant soil warming: at 20cm depth, soils under concrete pavers and asphalt were 4 and 5°C warmer than soil covered by porous pavements and unpaved soils, respectively. Thus, enhancing evaporation from paved soil by the use of porous pavements may contribute to mitigating urban heat islands. CO 2 greatly accumulated under impermeable and permeable pavements, but not under porous pavements, which showed CO 2 efflux rates similar to control. Soil oxygen slightly decreased only beneath asphalt. Growth of newly planted C. australis and F. ornus was little affected by pavement type. Tree

  13. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervious pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Edison, NJ, is evaluating concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pollutant removal of a bench-scale permeable interlo...

  14. The use of natural sand from lampusatu beach, kabupatenmerauke, papua for mixed asphalt concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwae, D. D. M.; Parera, L. R.; Alpius; Tanijaya, J.

    2017-05-01

    The natural sand from LampuSatu Beach, KabupatenMerauke, Papua, is often used as building material by local people. This research aims to test the use of this natural sand for mixed asphalt concrete. Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course (AC-WC) with bitumen penetration 60/70 and variations of asphalt content 5%, 6%, 7%, 8% and 9% are used in this research. Testing result shows the stability 1372.17 kg, VIM 3.95%, VMA 16.81%, Flow 4.14 mm, and MQ 332.89 kg/mm. It has fulfilled the standard requirements set by Indonesian Director General for Highways. The percentage of Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC) is 7% and the Index of Retained Strength (IRS) is 107.84% (≥ 75%). These indicate that the mixture can fulfill the Stability and Marshall Immersion Test.

  15. PAHs underfoot: contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C; Mahler, Barbara J; Wilson, Jennifer T

    2009-01-01

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U.S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of PAHs associated with sealcoat. Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U.S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U.S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median SigmaPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median SigmaPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2.1 and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in dustfrom coal-tarsealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted.

  16. Climatic Characteristics of Slovakia in the Years 1971 to 2011 from the Aspect of Pavement Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decky, Martin; Remisova, Eva; Kovalcik, Lubomír; Dibdiakova, Jana; Hajek, Matej

    2017-12-01

    Contribution follows the previous work of authors in the field of implementation of objectified results of climate change in the design of roads, especially their pavement [1] to [3]. Climate conditions are besides traffic load, one of the permanent external factors adversely affecting the physical and mechanical properties of the construction layers. For designing concrete pavements is used in SR conditions average annual air temperature Tm and frost index for design of asphalt and concrete pavements. As part of the research activities carried out at the workplace, the authors statistically evaluated average daily temperatures of SR meteorological stations covering most of the SR territory with altitude from 115 to 695 m above sea level in the years 1971 to 2011. Act No. 135/1961 Coll. (Road Act) states that the design of road pavements is performed according to valid Slovak technical standards, technical regulations and objectively identified results of research and development for road infrastructure. On the basis of the presented correlations, it can be stated that the presented research results can be used immediately for SR conditions in the design of road pavements.

  17. State-of-the-art review of the applications of nanotechnology in pavement materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Luis, Jr.

    The use of nanotechnology in pavement materials is one main area that shows great promise and has the potential to change commonly used materials. This will develop more effective solutions to achieve the desired performance. The overall objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art literature review of nano-science-based principles to improve the performance and, ultimately, the life cycle of transportation construction materials. This work will be organized into two different parts. The first part will consist of six sections: applications of nanotechnology in concrete pavements, applications of nanotechnology in asphalt pavement, application of nanotechnology in general soils, cost-benefit analysis, challenges, and trends to the future. In addition, a current practice review was performed from a literature review that included a questionnaire of the knowledge and opinion about nanotechnology, which included students, general contractors, teachers, engineers, and architects. The second part will deal with the advancement of the application of nanotechnology in pavement materials for different developed countries. Because nanotechnology is relatively a young field in pavement materials, limited research has been conducted in North America, Europe, and Asia. A comparison of the advancement of nano-science-based principles, as applied to the performance and life cycle of transportation materials, for the three continents will be carried out in a summarized manner.

  18. Soft Asphalt and Double Otta Seal—Self-Healing Sustainable Techniques for Low-Volume Gravel Road Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Vaitkus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased traffic flow on low-volume gravel roads and deficiencies of national road infrastructure, are increasingly apparent in Lithuania. Gravel roads do not comply with requirements, resulting in low driving comfort, longer travelling time, faster vehicle amortization, and dustiness. The control of dustiness is one of the most important road maintenance activities on gravel roads. Another important issue is the assurance of required driving comfort and safety. Soft asphalt and Otta Seal technologies were proposed as a sustainable solution for the improvement of low-volume roads in Lithuania. Five gravel roads were constructed with soft asphalt, and 13 gravel roads were sealed with double Otta Seal, in 2012. The main aim of this research was to check soft asphalt and double Otta Seal’s ability to self-heal, on the basis of the results of the qualitative visual assessment of pavement defects and distress. The qualitative visual assessment was carried out twice a year following the opening of the rehabilitated road sections. The results confirmed soft asphalt and double Otta Seal’s ability to self-heal. The healing effect was more than 13% and 19% on roads with soft asphalt and double Otta Seal, respectively. In addition, on some roads, all cracks observed in spring self-healed during summer.

  19. Damage Simulation and Ultrasonic Detection of Asphalt Mixture under the Coupling Effects of Water-Temperature-Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-chun Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to accurately simulate the performance changes of asphalt pavement in the hot rainy days, laboratory water-temperature-radiation cycle test is designed and carried out for the damage simulation of asphalt mixture under the environmental effect of rain, high temperatures, and sunshine. Ultrasonic detection method is used to determine the ultrasonic velocity of asphalt mixture specimen under different temperatures and water contents in the process of water-temperature-radiation cycles. Thus, we get the preliminary damage assessment. Splitting strength attenuation is defined as the damage parameter. In addition, the regression prediction models of the ultrasonic velocity and damage coefficient of asphalt mixture are constructed using the grey theory, neural network method, and support vector machine theory, respectively. We compare the prediction results of the three different models. It can be concluded that the model derived from the support vector machine possesses higher accuracy and stability, which can more satisfactorily reflect the relationship between ultrasonic velocity and damage coefficient. Therefore, the damage degree of the asphalt mixture can be obtained.

  20. Asphalt Mixture for the First Asphalt Concrete Directly Fastened Track in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hyeok Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research has been initiated to develop the asphalt mixtures which are suitable for the surface of asphalt concrete directly fastened track (ADFT system and evaluate the performance of the asphalt mixture. Three aggregate gradations which are upper (finer, medium, and below (coarser. The nominal maximum aggregate size of asphalt mixture was 10 mm. Asphalt mixture design was conducted at 3 percent air voids using Marshall mix design method. To make impermeable asphalt mixture surface, the laboratory permeability test was conducted for asphalt mixtures of three different aggregate gradations using asphalt mixture permeability tester. Moisture susceptibility test was conducted based on AASHTO T 283. The stripping percentage of asphalt mixtures was measured using a digital camera and analyzed based on image analysis techniques. Based on the limited research results, the finer aggregate gradation is the most suitable for asphalt mixture for ADFT system with the high TSR value and the low stripping percentage and permeable coefficient. Flow number and beam fatigue tests for finer aggregate asphalt mixture were conducted to characterize the performance of asphalt mixtures containing two modified asphalt binders: STE-10 which is styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS polymer and ARMA which is Crum rubber modified asphalt. The performance tests indicate that the STE-10 shows the higher rutting life and fatigue life.