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Sample records for building 03-60 underground

  1. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1997-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUS) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (FFACO, 1996). As per the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figures 1-1 and 1-2). Corrective Action Unit No. 423 is comprised of only one CAS (No. 03-02-002-0308), which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest as shown on Figure 1-3.

  3. Size distribution of natural radioactive aerosols in an underground building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The size distribution of natural radioactive aerosols is a very important factor for evaluating the exposure dose contributed by radon. In order to measure the size distribution, a cascade impactor was employed for sampling in an underground building. The results of 4-time measurements at 58 places show that the sizes of natural radioactive aerosols are lognormal distribution, and the AMAD is between 0.087 and 0.427 μm with an average of 0.194 μm. The AMADs ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 μm cover 85% of all data. (authors)

  4. Walker Community Library: building underground to serve neighborhood needs. [Minneapolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.J.

    1980-09-01

    A branch library in Minneapolis was constructed underground in order to meet community needs for public open areas and affordable library space. A review of the site selection and building-design processes reveals a long-standing interaction between the library board, residents of the neighborhood, and consultants to develop a consensus. The money saved by reducing the land area needed for a single-story building more than offset the higher construction costs of roof-top parking. Energy savings are estimated at a 40 percent reduction of the present above-ground facility. The pedestrian terrace connects with an existing mall and provides a setting for neighborhood activities. 6 figures. (DCK)

  5. RELATION BETWEEN THE MRT BUILDING AND UNDERGROUND SPACE EXPLOITATION--A Case in Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-ling; YAN Xiao-pei; WANG Fang

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the history and characteristics of the underground space exploitation and the urban space development in Guangzhou, and making a thorough study on the underground space exploitation based on the subway building, this paper points out some main problems in the exploitation of underground space in Guangzhou, and emphasizes that Guangzhou must develop the underground space on a large scale with the aid of the subway building, and puts forward a proposal on the urban space coordinate development between on-ground and underground in Guangzhou City.

  6. UNDERGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cossetted deep underground, sheltered from cosmic ray noise, has always been a favourite haunt of neutrino physicists. Already in the 1930s, significant limits were obtained by taking a geiger counter down in Holborn 'tube' station, one of the deepest in London's underground system. Since then, neutrino physicists have popped up in many unlikely places - gold mines, salt mines, and road tunnels deep under mountain chains. Two such locations - the 1MB (Irvine/ Michigan/Brookhaven) detector 600 metres below ground in an Ohio salt mine, and the Kamiokande apparatus 1000m underground 300 km west of Tokyo - picked up neutrinos on 23 February 1987 from the famous 1987A supernova. Purpose-built underground laboratories have made life easier, notably the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory near Rome, 1.4 kilometres below the surface, and the Russian Baksan Neutrino Observatory under Mount Andyrchi in the Caucasus range. Gran Sasso houses ICARUS (April, page 15), Gallex, Borexino, Macro and the LVD Large Volume Detector, while Baksan is the home of the SAGE gallium-based solar neutrino experiment. Elsewhere, important ongoing underground neutrino experiments include Soudan II in the US (April, page 16), the Canadian Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with its heavy water target (January 1990, page 23), and Superkamiokande in Japan (May 1991, page 8)

  7. VIBRATION OF FRAME BUILDING STRUCTURES CAUSED BY UNDERGROUND TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Аliavdin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains investigations on element vibration of a real residential 9-storeyed reinforced-concrete frame building induced by train movement in the shallow subway. A design model for a problem on propagation of bending waves within the limits of the typical fragment of a skeleton is presented in the paper. The steady state vibrations of a column and reinforced-concrete slab induced by an excited force which is equivalent to the impact of the subway trains have been investigated in the paper. The problem has been solved numerically on the basis of the ANSYS FEA program. Numerical results have been compared with an approximate analytical solution and data on full-scale experiment. A prediction technique for vibration propagation in the designed buildings is offered in the paper. 

  8. To the conception of a small HTR shop-fabricated in underground silo type of building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technical improved small HTR (co-generation) on the basis of AVR in underground silo type of building is a technic-economic alternative to the nuclear site concepts until now. Under 250 MW thermal power (100 MWe) the reactor can be shop-fabricated nearly completely at today's technic standard. The four years of erection time for a first facility can be reduced to less than three years for the following projects. But further actions shortening the erection time, as for example simplify the authorisation procedure, use standardized components or short-run production have to be taken. The installation of the reactor in an underground silo makes the application near city or in industry fields possible with regard to the higher expected safety potential. Estimating the investment and power costs shows an evident diminishing of the costs for the following projects and the modul concept (2 to 4 reactor units), so that an economical marketable plant could be realized with this facility. (orig.)

  9. Analytical Model of Underground Train Induced Vibrations on Nearby Building Structures in Cameroon: Assessment and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezin Seba MINSILI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research paper was to assess and predict the effect of vibrations induced by an underground railway on nearby-existing buildings prior to the construction of projected new railway lines of the National Railway Master Plan of Cameroon and after upgrading of the railway conceded to CAMRAIL linking the two most densely populated cities of Cameroon: Douala and Yaoundé. With the source-transmitter-receiver mathematical model as the train-soil-structure interaction model, taking into account sub-model parameters such as type of the train-railway system, typical geotechnical conditions of the ground and the sensitivity of the nearby buildings, the analysis is carried out over the entire system using the dynamic finite element method in the time domain. This subdivision of the model is a powerful tool that allows to consider different alternatives of sub-models with different characteristics, and thus to determine any critical excessive vibration impact. Based on semi-empirical analytical results obtained from presented models, the present work assesses and predicts characteristics of traffic-induced vibrations as a function of time duration, intensity and vehicle speed, as well as their influence on buildings at different levels.

  10. Shielding Design for Adjacent, Underground Buildings of a Megavoltage Radiotherapy Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Darío Esteban

    2016-07-01

    In a radiotherapy facility, safety in areas next to the treatment room can be of concern when irradiating downward due to oblique x-ray transmission through the floor and/or walls, especially in areas immediately adjacent or underground. Even when there is no basement underneath, a usual conservative solution is to build a thick concrete slab as the base for the treatment room. Of course, this implies deeper soil excavation and higher associated costs. As a convenient alternative, the limiting walls can be buried a certain depth below floor level to shield oblique, downward irradiation. Besides, for space considerations, laminated barriers are usually employed, and some additional shielding to the floor may be required (L-shaped barriers). In this work, the author introduces an analytical method for calculating the required wall penetration below floor level or, alternatively, the additional floor shielding for L-shaped barriers, taking into account in either case the attenuation properties of the earth underneath the vault. Interestingly, the required penetration depth for a given wall barrier (primary or secondary), relative to a reference thickness, is only a function of basic attenuation data. Likewise, for a laminated, lead-concrete barrier, the required dimensions depend on the relative amount of lead used for the wall and on the corresponding attenuation data. The shielding design criteria developed in this work to protect underground nearby sites is conservative in nature, yet it yields optimal shield dimensions for wall footing and for wall-floor shielding, avoiding the need to construct oversized concrete slab floors. PMID:27218288

  11. Substantiation of the simplified method of determining heat losses through underground parts of building enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the successful development of construction industry depends on the improved energy performance of buildings, structures and facilities, as well as on the quality assurance of the indoor climate. The approximate calculation of two-dimensional temperature field of the ground outside the underground part of the building is considered using the analytical solution of differential equation of thermal conduction by the method of sources and sinks according to the existing boundary conditions. This problem is a very high-priority task now because of actualization of building standards in Russian Federation and because of the increasing demands to safety and security of heat supply. That’s why it is very important to find a simple but accurate enough dependence for the heat losses through the floor situated on the ground. The results of the estimation of thermal resistance of floor areas on the ground are presented on the basis of the obtained temperature field. The comparison of these results with the regulatory requirements specified in SP 50.13330.2012, and with the data of numerical calculations of other authors using finite difference approximation of the thermal conduction equation with consideration of soil freezing is held. It is shown that the requirements of the SP 50.13330.2012 are physically reasonable, and numerical calculations can also be described by the analytical dependence obtained in this paper with appropriate selection of the numerical coefficients with the preservation of engineering form of the calculation procedure. The obtained model is easy to use in engineering practice especially during preliminary calculations. The presentation is illustrated with numerical and graphical examples.

  12. Revised corrective action plan for underground storage tank 2331-U at the Building 9201-1 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document represents the Corrective Action Plan for underground storage tank (UST) 2331-U, previously located at Building 9201-1, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Tank 2331-U, a 560-gallon UST, was removed on December 14, 1988. This document presents a comprehensive summary of all environmental assessment investigations conducted at the Building 9201-1 Site and the corrective action measures proposed for remediation of subsurface petroleum product contamination identified at the site. This document is written in accordance with the regulatory requirements of the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) Rule 1200-1-15-.06(7)

  13. A national survey on radon concentration in underground inspection rooms and in buildings of a telephone company: methods and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national survey has been carried out to measure radon concentration in a large sample of Telecom-Italia small underground inspection rooms, which form a particularly dense net in urban areas. Measuring radon in such underground places is interesting both for a possible contribution to radon mapping activities and to evaluate workers exposures. Radon concentration was also measured in Telecom buildings (i.e. buildings housing plant equipment, including telephone switches, often also offices, etc.) close and partially connected to the selected inspection rooms. The methodology and the first results of the survey related to the first year of measurements, for a total of 1438 inspection rooms and 1414 Telecom buildings, are reported. Radon concentration was measured with passive devices containing CR-39 detectors for about 12 consecutive months, in order to average seasonal variations. In underground inspection rooms, measured radon concentration reached values up to about 44,000 Bq/m3, with a regional median ranging from about 90 Bq/m3 up to about 1600 Bq/m3. In Telecom buildings, the regional median concentration ranged from 13 Bq/m3 to 174 Bq/m3. These results show that radon concentration in underground inspection rooms can reach very high values, whereas medians in monitored buildings are generally lower than those measured in dwellings in a representative national survey.

  14. A national survey on radon concentration in underground inspection rooms and in buildings of a telephone company: methods and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carelli, V., E-mail: vinicio.carelli@telecomitalia.i [Safety and Environment Dept., Telecom-Italia S.p.A., Via di Valcannuta 182, I-00168 Roma (Italy); Bianco, V.; Cordedda, C. [Safety and Environment Dept., Telecom-Italia S.p.A., Via di Valcannuta 182, I-00168 Roma (Italy); Ferrigno, G.; Carpentieri, C.; Bochicchio, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita (Italian National Institute of Health), Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161 Roma (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    A national survey has been carried out to measure radon concentration in a large sample of Telecom-Italia small underground inspection rooms, which form a particularly dense net in urban areas. Measuring radon in such underground places is interesting both for a possible contribution to radon mapping activities and to evaluate workers exposures. Radon concentration was also measured in Telecom buildings (i.e. buildings housing plant equipment, including telephone switches, often also offices, etc.) close and partially connected to the selected inspection rooms. The methodology and the first results of the survey related to the first year of measurements, for a total of 1438 inspection rooms and 1414 Telecom buildings, are reported. Radon concentration was measured with passive devices containing CR-39 detectors for about 12 consecutive months, in order to average seasonal variations. In underground inspection rooms, measured radon concentration reached values up to about 44,000 Bq/m{sup 3}, with a regional median ranging from about 90 Bq/m{sup 3} up to about 1600 Bq/m{sup 3}. In Telecom buildings, the regional median concentration ranged from 13 Bq/m{sup 3} to 174 Bq/m{sup 3}. These results show that radon concentration in underground inspection rooms can reach very high values, whereas medians in monitored buildings are generally lower than those measured in dwellings in a representative national survey.

  15. 地下建筑火灾烟气的特点及排烟措施%Characteristics and Measures of the Smoke Flue Gas in Underground Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游越

    2014-01-01

    This paper, through the analysis of the characteri-stics of fire smoke in underground buildings and related risk, pointing out that the key factors of fire protection of underg-round buildings is the effective control of flue gas discharge. In the fire protection measures in the underground building, we must do a good job in smoke prevention measures, so as to el-iminate fire hidden danger in the underground construction.%本文通过对地下建筑火灾烟气的特点和相关的危险性进行的分析,指出了地下建筑防火的关键因素是有效控制烟气排出。在地下建筑的防火措施中,要切实做好有效、稳妥的排烟、防烟的各项措施,从而达到能真正有效地杜绝地下建筑发生火灾的隐患的目的。

  16. 试论地下公共建筑的火灾设防等级%On Fire Fortification Level of Underground Public Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔彦轩; 袁勇; 邱俊男; 王奕然

    2014-01-01

    地下建筑由于人流密度大、通风不便、消防疏散困难等劣势,一旦发生火灾容易造成巨大的经济损失和严重的社会影响。本文对国内外已有的地下公共建筑类别进归纳,并从地下公共建筑的火灾设防问题出发,对于不同类型建筑按照其规模、功能、环境等因素的不同提出火灾设防等级的划分,仅供参考。%Underground structures because of weaknesses su-ch as the big traffic density, inconvenient of ventilation, fire evacuation difficulties, once the fire is easy to cause huge eco-nomic losses and serious social impact. In this paper, the und-erground public building categories into induction, and starting from the fire protection problems of underground public build-ings, put forward the division of fire prevention level for diff-erent types of construction in accordance with its size, function, environment and other factors of fire protection in different gr-ades, for reference only.

  17. COSTEAU - preheating and cooling by means of underground collectors with water circulation - case study (Perret building at Satigny, Geneva) and generalisation; COSTEAU. Prechauffage et rafraichissement par collecteurs souterrains a eau. Etude de cas (batiment Perret a Satigny, Geneve) et generalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmuller, P.; Lachal, B.

    2003-07-01

    Since a couple of years, underground collectors with air circulation have been becoming increasingly popular as a simple means for preheating (at winter time) and cooling (at summer time) of outdoor air ahead of a ventilation system for well insulated buildings. This report considers underground collectors with water circulation used for similar purposes. They are connected to the ventilation system via an air/water heat exchanger. Starting from a case study - one-year detailed in-situ measurements and data analysis from an air-heated office building near Geneva, Switzerland - computerised simulations have been performed as a sensitivity analysis tool as well as to establish recommendations and sizing rules for planners, including cost considerations. In the case study it turned out that the water-circulated underground collector, which is installed right under the basement of this well insulated building, is in thermal contact with the basement. Its main function is to damp the daily temperature oscillation of the inlet ventilation air, bringing the expected thermal comfort improvement in the summer time. However, this underground collector is unable to collect seasonally stored heat from the ground. Hence, in the winter time the main preheating contribution arises from the series-connected heat-recovery unit from the exit air. Numerical simulations show that optimal sizing of underground collectors is essential, and that both the underground collector and the well insulated building as a physical system with thermal inertia have to be simultaneously considered in the optimization process. Optimization also has to include parasitic energy (electricity) needed by fans and pumps. As outdoor air inlet can never be flooded in the case of underground collectors with water circulation the sanitary risk encountered with air-circulated underground collectors does not exist for them. Initial investment cost for water-circulated underground collectors is higher than for a

  18. The concept of underground nuclear heat and power plants (UNHPP) of upgraded safety, developed on the basis of ship-building technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept of underground nuclear heat and power plants (UNHPP) of upgraded safety on the basis of ship-building technologies is considered, in which the priority is set to population security and environmental protection. Ways of realization of ziro radiation risk for the population residing in a close vicinity of UNHPP are substantiated. basic principles of the concept are formulated which envisage the use of ship propulsion reactor facilities that have been multiply tested in operation. The sources of economic competitiveness of UNHPPs, as compared with the existing NPPs, are shown

  19. Underground gas storage Uelsen: Findings from planning, building and commissioning. Part 1: Deposit; Untertagegasspeicher Uelsen: Erkenntnisse aus Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme. Teil 1: Lagerstaette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallbrecht, J.; Beckmann, H.; Reiser, H.; Wilhelm, R. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The underground gas storage at Uelsen which was built as a H-gas storage in a former variegated sandstone gasfield in Western Lower Saxony close to the town of Nordhorn has added to the gas supply system of the BEB Erdgas and Erdoel GmbH. The underground storage is connected to the Bunde-Rheine transport pipeline BEB-grid gas system by a 27 km pipeline and is a consequent expansion of BEB`s underground storage/transport system. Planning, building and commissioning were handled by BEB. Findings to date are described. [Deutsch] Der Untertagegasspeicher (UGS) Uelsen, der in einem ehemaligen Buntsandstein Gasfeld im westlichen Niedersachsen in der Naehe der Stadt Nordhorn als H-Gasspeicher eingerichtet wurde, hat die BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH eine weitere Staerkung ihres Gasversorgungssystems erreicht. Der UGS Uelsen ist ueber eine 27 km lange Anbindungsleitung mit der zum BEB - Ferngasleitungssystems gehoerenden Bunde-Rheine Transportleitung verbunden und stellt eine konsequente Erweiterung des BEB Untertagegasspeicher-/Transportsystems dar. Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme erfolgten durch BEB im Rahmen einer integrierten bereichsuebergreifenden Projektbearbeitung. Die hierbei gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden im Folgenden fuer den Untertagebereich dargestellt. (orig.)

  20. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  1. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  2. The role and limitation of underground research laboratories to foster development of expertise, information exchange, transfer of knowledge, and confidence building through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rationale for constructing and operating underground rock laboratories (URL) is basically the need for carrying out Research and Technical Development (RTD) work under realistic conditions in realistic environments. Full scale experiments and tests are possible. Because of the limited number of existing URLs in each type of considered repository host rock, see Figure 1, and the high costs for large scale experiments international co-operation and networking have become a fruitful as well as traditional way of conducting the work in the URLs. This co-operation and networking have progressively developed into other areas than pure RTD work, and show that added value may be achieved in URLs in also many other areas. The paper gives examples of good experience and points out future ways of enhancing this kind of added. value within four areas: development of expertise; information exchange; transfer of knowledge, and confidence building. (author)

  3. Urban underground resources management for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huanqing

    2010-01-01

    Urban problems such as congestions, land scarcity, pollutions, could be alleviated by underground solutions, which are critical underground infrastructues and buildings adaptable to subsurface. An integrated approach of urban underground management is put forward, aiming to research on the feasability of developing valuable subsurface, and to promote the sustainability of resources' multi-usage exploitation.

  4. Underground gas storage Uelsen: Findings from planning, building and commissioning the surface buildings and structures; Untertagegasspeicher (UGS) Uelsen: Erkenntnisse aus Planung, Bau und Inbetriebnahme der obertaegigen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, H.; Brueggmann, R.; Mende, F.; Steinkraus, D.; Wauer, R. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The article describes the concepts of the plants and equipment and the specific features of the underground storage at Uelsen. The underground storage will be purpose-built as an H-gas storage in a nearly depleted sandstone deposit. At a nominal deliverability of 250.000 cubic m/h (Vn) the storage at Uelsen has more potential for expansion. This potential was taken into account by designing appropriate pressure stages, capacities, performance characteristics and space. (orig.). [Deutsch] Die nachfolgende Veroeffentlichung stellt das anlagentechnische Grundkonzept und die spezifischen Besonderheiten des UGS Uelsen dar. Der im suedwestlichen Niedersachsen als H-Gasspeicher in einer nahezu ausgefoerderten Buntsandsteinlagerstaette eingerichtete UGS Uelsen wird in mehreren Ausbaustufen bedarfsgerecht fertiggestellt. Bei einer Nennentnahmekapazitaet von 450.000 m{sup 3}/h (Vn) und einer Nenninjektionsleistung von 250.000 m{sup 3}/h (Vn) weist der UGS Uelsen noch weiteres Potential fuer Erweiterungen auf. Dieses Ausbaupotential wurde bei der Planung und dem Bau der bestehenden Anlagen durch Festlegung entsprechender Druckstufen, Kapazitaeten, Leistungsgroessen und Platzanordnungen beruecksichtigt. (orig.)

  5. The fire safety analysis of a semi-underground public building%某半地下公共建筑消防设计方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴钢

    2012-01-01

    Taking the problem of the negative layer of conference center, Shaanxi hotel that the safety exit does not meet the specification requirements, and the evacuation distance exceeds the criterion as an example, performance based design solutions for semi- underground public building were given, which is quasi safety zone. FDS was used to simulate the fire develop-ment in the building, and calculate the available safety egress lime. Software of people evacuation simulation Pathfinder was used to simulate the evacuation in the building, and get the re-quired safety egress time. Simulation result showed that the quasi safety zone can be the temporary shelter for evacuation, and when the design exceeds the standard, after strengthening the fire management, both the design requirement and fire safe-ty can be satisfied.%以陕西宾馆会议中心负一层安全出口不符合规范要求、疏散距离超标的问题为例,提出半地下公共建筑消防设计的性能化解决方法,即设置亚安全区.借助FDS模拟建筑内假定的火灾过程,得出火灾到达危险状态的时间,同时借助人员疏散模拟软件Pathfinder对模拟建筑内人员疏散情况,得出人员疏散所需时间.模拟结果表明,亚安全区可以做为人员安全疏散暂时避难场所,在超出规范要求的条件下,经过消防措施的加强提高其安全性能,既能满足设计需要,又能保障消防安全.

  6. GPR surveying of transport infrastructures and buildings; underground utility and void sensing - ongoing activities in Working Group 2 of COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Plati, Christina; Derobert, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 2 'GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. WG1 focuses on the development of innovative GPR equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications. WG2 deals with the development of guidelines and protocols for the surveying, through the use of a GPR system, of transport infrastructure and buildings, as well as for the sensing of utilities and voids. WG3 deals with the development of electromagnetic forward and inverse scattering methods, for the characterization of GPR scenarios, as well as with data- processing algorithms for the elaboration of the data collected during GPR surveys. WG4 is concerned with the use of GPR in fields different from the civil engineering, as well as with the integration of GPR with other non-destructive testing techniques. Each WG includes several Projects. WG2 includes five Projects. Project 2.1 focuses on outlining 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of critical transport infrastructures (pavements, bridges and tunnels).' Project 2.2 is concerned with the development of 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of buildings.' Project 2.3 deals with identifying 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids, with a focus to urban

  7. Annual collection and storage of solar energy for the heating of buildings, report No. 1. Progress report, May--November 1976. [Underground pool of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, J. T.; Dickey, J. W.; Iachetta, F. A.; Lilleleht, L. U.

    1977-01-01

    A new system for the annual collection and storage of solar heated water for heating of buildings is under development at the University of Virginia. The system is composed of an energy storage sub-system which stores hot water in an underground pool and of a solar collector sub-system which acts not only to collect solar energy throughout the year but also to limit the evaporative and convective heat losses from the storage system. During the summer of 1976, a storage sub-system was constructed using the initial design specifications. A structural failure of that storage pool occurred in August resulting from a leak in the pool liner which caused a failure of the pool structure. A revised design of the storage pool sub-system has been implemented and construction was completed in November, 1976. The collector sub-system has been designed and constructed. Collector operation began in February 1977. A vertical reflector on the north edge of the collector was added in March 1977. Future research will include initial total system operation, performance evaluation, and analytical modeling.

  8. An Essay on the Anthropology of Underground Economy: The Economic Behavior of the Tenants of a Building in Dorcol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a case study of the economic behavior of the tenants of a building in downtown Belgrade. The data was gathered through ethnographic methods of observation and informal interviews. The external indicators of spending, as well as the researcher’s knowledge about the professions and income of a number of tenants pointed toward the conclusion that informal economy plays a major role in the earnings of the observed households. The goal of this paper is to point out the shortcomings of official statistical data on the income of Serbian citizens on which assessments of the standard of living are based. The outline of an “anthropology of informal earning” is given, and suggested as a way to access information on a wide variety of informal means of acquiring income which are left out of formal statistics, yet enable a significant proportion of Serbian citizens to attain a better standard of living than is suggested by official data. Another goal was to, by making a connection between informal economy and the political choices of Serbian citizens; point out the fact that the revolts occurring over the past two decades were mainly motivated by political and not economic reasons as would be expected. This is especially relevant, keeping in mind the catastrophic economic situation in the country which is often emphasized in public discourse, and taking into account the different events and parameters – starting with the hyperinflation in the first half of the 90’s, international sanctions, the increase in public spending on the part of all the regimes that had been in power, great budget deficits and national debt, up to and including the lack of much needed economic reform. Given all this, it is confounding that economic reasons do not cause the people to revolt, unless, we look to the informal economy which allows a significant number of Serbian citizens to have a more comfortable existence than public data suggests.

  9. Physics at the proposed National Underground Science Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific, technical, and financial reasons for building a National Underground Science Facility are discussed. After reviewing examples of other underground facilities, we focus on the Los Alamos proposal and the national for its choice of site

  10. Underground Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  11. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  12. GPR surveying of transport infrastructures and buildings; underground utility and void sensing - ongoing activities in Working Group 2 of COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajewski, Lara; Plati, Christina; Derobert, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the ongoing research activities carried out in Working Group 2 'GPR surveying of pavements, bridges, tunnels and buildings; underground utility and void sensing' of the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (www.GPRadar.eu). The principal goal of the COST Action TU1208 is to exchange and increase scientific-technical knowledge and experience of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques in civil engineering, whilst simultaneously promoting throughout Europe the effective use of this safe and non-destructive technique in the monitoring of infrastructures and structures. Four Working Groups (WGs) carry out the research activities. WG1 focuses on the development of innovative GPR equipment dedicated for civil engineering applications. WG2 deals with the development of guidelines and protocols for the surveying, through the use of a GPR system, of transport infrastructure and buildings, as well as for the sensing of utilities and voids. WG3 deals with the development of electromagnetic forward and inverse scattering methods, for the characterization of GPR scenarios, as well as with data- processing algorithms for the elaboration of the data collected during GPR surveys. WG4 is concerned with the use of GPR in fields different from the civil engineering, as well as with the integration of GPR with other non-destructive testing techniques. Each WG includes several Projects. WG2 includes five Projects. Project 2.1 focuses on outlining 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of critical transport infrastructures (pavements, bridges and tunnels).' Project 2.2 is concerned with the development of 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR surveying of buildings.' Project 2.3 deals with identifying 'Innovative inspection procedures for effective GPR sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids, with a focus to urban

  13. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  14. Underground logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Foraz, K; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    More than 80’000 tons of materials have to be transported and installed down into the LHC tunnel. The magnet assemblies which represent about 50’000 tons, will be transported according to the master schedule between March 2005 and November 2006. Considering that these about 1’800 cryo-magnets will be transported at a maximum speed of 3 km/h in a narrow tube (where installation works and hardware commissioning activities are ongoing) this duration of 21 months is a real challenge. This paper aims at describing: - the information flows between the different people involved in the logistics attached to the cryo-magnets, - the organization chosen within the Installation Coordination group, - the problems encountered so far and the solutions adopted. The coordination process with other underground transport and activities, mainly for the QRL will also be presented.

  15. The Underground Test Area Project of the Nevada Test Site: Building Confidence in Groundwater Flow and Transport Models at Pahute Mesa Through Focused Characterization Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G A; Wurtz, J; Drellack, S L

    2009-12-29

    Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site contains about 8.0E+07 curies of radioactivity caused by underground nuclear testing. The Underground Test Area Subproject has entered Phase II of data acquisition, analysis, and modeling to determine the risk to receptors from radioactivity in the groundwater, establish a groundwater monitoring network, and provide regulatory closure. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination at Pahute Mesa is particularly difficult due to the complex stratigraphy and structure caused by multiple calderas in the Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field and overprinting of Basin and Range faulting. Included in overall Phase II goals is the need to reduce the uncertainty and improve confidence in modeling results. New characterization efforts are underway, and results from the first year of a three-year well drilling plan are presented.

  16. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  17. 27 February 2012- Thai Minister of Science and Technology P. Suraswadi with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis and CMS Collaboration Former Deputy Spokesperson A. De Roeck signing the guest book in the 6th floor conference room, building 60 and visiting CMS underground experimental area at LHC Point 5.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    27 February 2012- Thai Minister of Science and Technology P. Suraswadi with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis and CMS Collaboration Former Deputy Spokesperson A. De Roeck signing the guest book in the 6th floor conference room, building 60 and visiting CMS underground experimental area at LHC Point 5.

  18. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  19. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  20. SVM Model for Identifying Building Damage Induced by Underground Mining%地采诱发建筑物损伤识别的SVM分析模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯东梅; 关秋燕; 邵良杉

    2015-01-01

    针对地采诱发建筑物损害预测中指标与建筑物损害的关系不确定性问题,综合应用相关分析法、鱼骨图理论及SVM原理构建地采诱发建筑物损害的分析模型。采用相关分析法及原因型鱼骨图模型分析指标与建筑物损害的关联度,计算各因素权重,用建筑物损害观测数据对指标加权的SVM模型进行训练和测试,测试结果良好。研究结果表明:鱼骨图模型可获得指标与建筑物损害的关系,量化输入指标的重要性;建筑物本身条件中与空区位置、建筑物状况的重要性明显高于其他指标,加大建筑物本身建设,可较好地改善建筑物抗损害能力;基于鱼骨图的SVM分析模型可以更好地考虑各指标对建筑物损害的综合影响,回估误判率较低。%In view of the uncertain relationships among indexes and buildings damage in mining-induced damage predic-ting,and combining with the characteristics of correlation analysis,fishbone diagram,and SVM,the analysis model for mining-induced buildings damage was established. Correlation analysis theory and fishbone diagram were used to analyze the correla-tions,and calculate the indexes′weights. The SVM model were trained and tested by a series of data from observations of min-ing-induced and damage degree of buildings,and the test results was good. The results show that the fishbone diagram can ob-tain the relationships between indexes and buildings′damage,and the importance of the quantified index;The building′s own conditions including its position in Gob and building conditions are more important than others obviously,and increasing the construction of building foundation can well improve the destruction resistance of buildings;SVM model based on fishbone dia-gram can better consider the effect of each index on damage degree induced by mining-induced,and get a lower ratio of mis-discrimination.

  1. Blasting in underground mining

    OpenAIRE

    Doneva, Nikolinka; Despodov, Zoran; Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mijalkovski, Stojance

    2015-01-01

    The long history of underground facilities gives us a lot of cognitions that we use in the choice of appropriate drilling and blasting parameters to obtain satisfactory results in underground facility constructions. In this paper are represent parts of those cognitions. Selection of an appropriate blast hole pattern, hole cut type, total quantity of explosives, initiation sequence and to the amount of explosive detonated per delay are crucial for successfully blasting in underground facilitie...

  2. Underground laboratories in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed

  3. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  4. An empirical study of the underground economy in the Kingdom of Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco; Dana, Léo-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the underground economy in Belgium. Although several government initiatives are attempting to combat underground economic activities, we found illegal foreign workers identifying opportunities and fulfilling market needs. Underground employment thus thrives in a variety ...... of sectors, including the building sector, cleaning houses, delivery jobs, garage business horticulture, hotels, industrial cleaning, and social work....

  5. The ANDES Deep Underground Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Bertou, X

    2013-01-01

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is a unique opportunity to build a deep underground laboratory in the southern hemisphere. It will be built in the Agua Negra tunnel planned between Argentina and Chile, and operated by the CLES, a Latin American consortium. With 1750m of rock overburden, and no close- by nuclear power plant, it will provide an extremely radiation quiet environment for neutrino and dark matter experiments. In particular, its location in the southern hemisphere should play a major role in understanding dark matter modulation signals.

  6. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  7. Probe into Technical Measures to Accelerate Construction of Xiaowan Hydroplant's Underground Plant Buildings%加快小湾水电站地下厂房施工的技术措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兴国

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes important technical measures to accelerate construction of the state key preject, Yunnan Xiaowan hydroplants underground plant buildings, such as construction procedure, construction passage, construction cycle, construction method, construction machinary, construction calender and so on.These technical meaures had improtant instructive significance and refrence value for the next stage's optimum design and construction of Xiaowan hydroplant,and construction of other undergrand engineerings.%介绍了加快国家重点工程——云南小湾水电站地下厂房施工的施工顺序、施工通道、施工循环、施工方法、施工机械设备等重要技术措施。这些技术措施小湾水电站下阶段优化设计施工以及其它地下工程施工都有重要的指导意义和参考价值。

  8. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C

  9. Size Distribution of Natural Radioactive Aerosols in an Underground Building%某地下建筑内天然放射性气溶胶粒度分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海军; 王月兴; 杨翊方; 王震涛; 陈伟; 李珂娴

    2012-01-01

    天然放射性气溶胶粒度分布是评价氡暴露所致有效剂量的重要参数.本文采用撞击法对某地下建筑物室内天然放射性气溶胶的粒度分布进行试验研究,58个点位的4次测量表明:该建筑内天然放射性气溶胶粒度分布可采用单峰对数正态分布形式描述,活度中值空气动力学直径(AMAD)范围为0.087~0.427 μm,平均值为0.194 μm;AMAD主要分布在0.1~0.3 μm之间,约占全部测量结果的85%.%The size distribution of natural radioactive aerosols is a very important factor for evaluating the exposure dose contributed by radon. In order to measure the size distribution, a cascade impactor was employed for sampling in an underground building. The results of 4-time measurements at 58 places show that the sizes of natural radioactive aerosols are lognormal distribution, and the AMAD is between 0. 087 and 0. 427 μm with an average of 0. 194 μm. The AMADs ranging from 0. 1 to 0. 3 μm cover 85% of all data.

  10. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  11. Underground Gun Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Cook; Jens Ludwig; Sudhir Venkatesh; Anthony A. Braga

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an economic analysis of underground gun markets drawing on interviews with gang members, gun dealers, professional thieves, prostitutes, police, public school security guards and teens in the city of Chicago, complemented by results from government surveys of recent arrestees in 22 cities plus administrative data for suicides, homicides, robberies, arrests and confiscated crime guns. We find evidence of considerable frictions in the underground market for guns in Chicago. ...

  12. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  13. Underground physics with DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.; DUNE Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40-kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  14. Underground Physics with DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A. [Sheffield U.

    2016-01-14

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40 kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  15. Underground mineral extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Under ground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1999-05-20

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Underground Discharge Points (UDPs) included in both CAU 406 and CAU 429. The CAUs are located in Area 3 and Area 9 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  17. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  18. Addendum to the corrective action plan for Underground Storage Tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, 2068-U at the Rust Garage Facility, Buildings 9720-15 and 9754-1: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID {number_sign}0-010117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This document represents an addendum to the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for underground storage tanks 1219-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U located at Buildings 9720-15 and 9754-1, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN. The site of the four underground storage tanks is commonly referred to as the Rust Garage Facility. The original CAP was submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) for review in May 1992. During the time period after submission of the original CAP for the Rust Garage Facility, Y-12 Plant Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program personnel continued to evaluate improvements that would optimize resources and expedite the activities schedule presented in the original CAP. Based on these determinations, several revisions to the original corrective action process options for remediation of contaminated soils are proposed. The revised approach will involve excavation of the soils from the impacted areas, on-site thermal desorption of soil contaminants, and final disposition of the treated soils by backfilling into the subject site excavations. Based on evaluation of the corrective actions with regard to groundwater, remediation of groundwater under the Y-12 Plant CERCLA Program is proposed for the facility.

  19. Inflation and the underground economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahiabu, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal rate of seigniorage in an economy characterized by decentralized trade and a tax-evading underground sector. The economy has buyers, some of whom visit the formal market, while others visit the underground market. I find that the optimal rate of inflation depends on which of the two sectors, formal or underground, is more crowded/congested with buyers. If the underground sector is more crowded, the optimal inflation rate is as high as 42% per a...

  20. Underground construction of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the discussions about the safety of nuclear installations the question of building nuclear power stations below ground is being raised again and again. Almost all the experts in the field regard further investigations of underground construction as necessary or desirable. Although in present above-ground plant designs safety measures must ensure that the consequences of hypothetical accidents will in any case be accommodated without involving any hazard to the public, there are some question marks when it comes to ensuring protection against acts of war and sabotage. This contribution outlines the variants of underground designs of nuclear power stations and their feasibility at the present state of the art. The question is studied whether underground construction will increase the safety of the public as against present above-ground designs. Another problem considered is the question of whether the extensive protective measures required under the present licensing procedures and implemented in these plants already preclude any real hazard to the environment with a high degree of certainty, which would leave no necessity for underground constructions. (orig.)

  1. LUNA: Nuclear astrophysics underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground nuclear astrophysics with LUNA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso spans a history of 20 years. By using the rock overburden of the Gran Sasso mountain chain as a natural cosmic-ray shield very low signal rates compared to an experiment on the surface can be tolerated. The cross sectons of important astrophysical reactions directly in the stellar energy range have been successfully measured. In this proceeding we give an overview over the key accomplishments of the experiment and an outlook on its future with the expected addition of an additional accelerator to the underground facilities, enabling the coverage of a wider energy range and the measurement of previously inaccessible reactions

  2. LUNA: Nuclear astrophysics underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    Underground nuclear astrophysics with LUNA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso spans a history of 20 years. By using the rock overburden of the Gran Sasso mountain chain as a natural cosmic-ray shield very low signal rates compared to an experiment on the surface can be tolerated. The cross sectons of important astrophysical reactions directly in the stellar energy range have been successfully measured. In this proceeding we give an overview over the key accomplishments of the experiment and an outlook on its future with the expected addition of an additional accelerator to the underground facilities, enabling the coverage of a wider energy range and the measurement of previously inaccessible reactions.

  3. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    He, Miao

    2014-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a multipurpose neutrino-oscillation experiment designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to precisely measure oscillation parameters by detecting reactor antineutrinos, observe supernova neutrinos, study the atmospheric, solar neutrinos and geo-neutrinos, and perform exotic searches, with a 20 kiloton liquid scintillator detector of unprecedented $3\\%$ energy resolution (at 1 MeV) at 700-meter deep underground and to have other rich scientific possibilities. Currently MC study shows a sensitivity of the mass hierarchy to be $\\overline{\\Delta\\chi^2}\\sim 11$ and $\\overline{\\Delta\\chi^2}\\sim 16$ in a relative and an absolute measurement, respectively. JUNO has been approved by Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2013, and an international collaboration was established in 2014. The civil construction is in preparation and the R$\\&$D of the detectors are ongoing. A new offline software framework was developed for the detector simulation, the event ...

  4. Underground Economy in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Švec

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this paper is to estimate the size of underground economy in the period 2001-2007 using labour approach. Two types of data are used: administrative and survey. The main questions are: How did the activity rates move? What is the relationship between activity rates and the size of shadow economy? Is there correlation between official employment, official unemployment and unofficial employment (shadow economy) and what is it like? What is the position of Croatia considering the m...

  5. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  6. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  7. Environment Of Underground Water And Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong Sang

    1998-02-15

    This book deals with environment of underground water and pollution, which introduces the role of underground water in hydrology, definition of related study of under water, the history of hydro-geology, basic conception of underground water such as origin of water, and hydrogeologic characteristic of aquifers, movement of underground water, hydrography of underground water and aquifer test analysis, change of an underground water level, and water balance analysis and development of underground water.

  8. Environment Of Underground Water And Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with environment of underground water and pollution, which introduces the role of underground water in hydrology, definition of related study of under water, the history of hydro-geology, basic conception of underground water such as origin of water, and hydrogeologic characteristic of aquifers, movement of underground water, hydrography of underground water and aquifer test analysis, change of an underground water level, and water balance analysis and development of underground water.

  9. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James

    2011-01-01

    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...

  10. The underground economy in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Eugenia Ramona MARA

    2011-01-01

    The actual economic crisis has a major impact on the underground economy because of tax burden increase especially. This study realizes an analysis of the major implications of the economic crises on the size and the consequences of the underground activities. Also we try to reveal the correlation between the underground economy and the official one. The conclusion of this study is that the shadow activities have grown since the financial crisis began.

  11. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground...-3 through § 75.1107-16, or be enclosed in a noncombustible structure or area. (b) Underground...

  12. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP) for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainab...

  13. Bioclimatic underground architecture: Development and principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal idea of paper lies in analyzing contemporary architectural challenges, concerning climate changes, global warming, renewable energy deficiency and population growth. The relevant examples and principles of sustainable and selfsustainable architecture development throughout history are presented. Underground structures as passive solar systems, vegetation used as insulation, ventilation and isolation are given as one of possible solutions for this global phenomenon. By studying the model of Nature, certain solutions imitating systems and laws of flora and fauna are given that will insure the necessary savings of non-renewable energy during the building construction and their later energy consumption.

  14. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  15. Underground Commissioning of LUX

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Michael

    2013-01-01

    LUX is a dual-phase xenon TPC designed for the direct detection of dark matter. Using 370 kg of xenon, LUX is capable of setting a WIMP-nucleon cross section limit at 2 x 10^-46 cm^2 after 300 days of running. LUX will surpass all existing dark matter limits for WIMP masses above 10 GeV within weeks of beginning its science run. Following a successful six month surface run, the detector has recently been deployed underground, and we expect completed commission in the near future. Updates on status and results are provided.

  16. Site-specific standard request for Underground Storage Tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U at the Rust Garage Facility Buildings 9754-1 and 9720-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a site-specific standard request for underground storage tanks located at the Rust Garage Facility. These standards are justified based on conclusion derived from the exposure assessment that indicates there is no current or forseeable future human health risk associated with petroleum contaminants on the site, that current and future ecological risks would be generally limited to subsurface species and plant life with roots extending into the area, and that most of the impacted area at the site is covered by asphalt or concrete. The vertical and horizontal extent of soil and ground water contamination are limited to immediate area of the Rust Garage Facility.

  17. Site-specific standard request for Underground Storage Tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U at the Rust Garage Facility Buildings 9754-1 and 9720-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a site-specific standard request for underground storage tanks located at the Rust Garage Facility. These standards are justified based on conclusion derived from the exposure assessment that indicates there is no current or forseeable future human health risk associated with petroleum contaminants on the site, that current and future ecological risks would be generally limited to subsurface species and plant life with roots extending into the area, and that most of the impacted area at the site is covered by asphalt or concrete. The vertical and horizontal extent of soil and ground water contamination are limited to immediate area of the Rust Garage Facility

  18. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  19. RP delves underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The LHC’s winter technical stop is rapidly approaching. As in past years, technical staff in their thousands will be flocking to the underground areas of the LHC and the Linac2, Booster, PS and SPS injectors. To make sure they are protected from ionising radiation, members of the Radiation Protection Group will perform an assessment of the levels of radioactivity in the tunnels as soon as the beams have stopped.   Members of the Radiation Protection Group with their precision instruments that measure radioactivity. At 7-00 a.m. on 8 December the LHC and all of the upstream accelerators will begin their technical stop. At 7-30 a.m., members of the Radiation Protection Group will enter the tunnel to perform a radiation mapping, necessary so that the numerous teams can do their work in complete safety. “Before we proceed underground, we always check first to make sure that the readings from the induced radioactivity monitors installed in the tunnels are all normal,&rdqu...

  20. Modern geodesy approach in underground mining

    OpenAIRE

    Mijalkovski, Stojance; Despodov, Zoran; Gorgievski, Cvetan; Bogdanovski, Goran; Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents overview of the development of modern geodesy approach in underground mining. Correct surveying measurements have great importance in mining, especially underground mining as well as a major impact on safety in the development of underground mining facilities.

  1. New Projects in Underground Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Maury

    2003-01-01

    A large fraction of neutrino research is taking place in facilities underground. In this paper, I review the underground facilities for neutrino research. I discuss ideas for future reactor experiments being considered to measure theta_13 and the UNO proton decay project.

  2. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ilkka Vhaho

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an under-ground master plan (UMP) for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy effi-ciency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century;at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city’s underground con-struction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  3. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  4. Site-specific standard request for underground storage tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U at the rust garage facility buildings 9754-1 and 9720-15: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID No. 0-010117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This document represents a Site-specific Standard Request for underground storage tanks (USTs) 1219-U,1222-U and 2082-U previously located at former Building 9754-1, and tank 2086-U previously located at Building 9720-15, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The tanks previously contained petroleum products. For the purposes of this report, the two building sites will be regarded as a single UST site and will be referred to as the Rust Garage Facility. The current land use associated with the Y-12 Plant is light industrial and the operational period of the plant is projected to be at least 30 years. Thus, potential future residential exposures are not expected to occur for at least 30 years. Based on the degradation coefficient for benzene (the only carcinogenic petroleum constituent detected in soils or groundwater at the Rust Garage Facility), it is expected that the benzene and other contaminants at the site will likely be reduced prior to expiration of the 30-year plant operational period. As the original sources of petroleum contamination have been removed, and the area of petroleum contamination is limited, a site-specific standard is therefore being requested for the Rust Garage Facility.

  5. Site-specific standard request for underground storage tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U at the rust garage facility buildings 9754-1 and 9720-15: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID No. 0-010117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document represents a Site-specific Standard Request for underground storage tanks (USTs) 1219-U,1222-U and 2082-U previously located at former Building 9754-1, and tank 2086-U previously located at Building 9720-15, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The tanks previously contained petroleum products. For the purposes of this report, the two building sites will be regarded as a single UST site and will be referred to as the Rust Garage Facility. The current land use associated with the Y-12 Plant is light industrial and the operational period of the plant is projected to be at least 30 years. Thus, potential future residential exposures are not expected to occur for at least 30 years. Based on the degradation coefficient for benzene (the only carcinogenic petroleum constituent detected in soils or groundwater at the Rust Garage Facility), it is expected that the benzene and other contaminants at the site will likely be reduced prior to expiration of the 30-year plant operational period. As the original sources of petroleum contamination have been removed, and the area of petroleum contamination is limited, a site-specific standard is therefore being requested for the Rust Garage Facility

  6. Civil Engineering Construction of Underground Works

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    1999-01-01

    For the first time at CERN, new shafts and caverns will be excavated inside a surface building. The LHC civil engineering construction for the ATLAS experiment has been designed such that the experimental hall will be completed to the extent that it can provide a secure, weatherproof and sound insulated covering to the shaft excavation area. The construction of the two access shafts and the experimental cavern will follow and will be carried out inside the building. This unconventional method of working allows the excavation of the Molasse rock in the dry, which is essential for this type of rock, and ensures reduced environmental pollution by noise and dust. The paper will present the technical infrastructure required for this particular construction method, explain its advantages and disadvantages, and compare it with a conventional method of underground excavations to be used on the same work site for the construction of the service cavern.

  7. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  8. Biofuel goes underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollinsky, Norm

    2011-09-15

    Kirkland Lake Gold, a gold producer, is switching to a blend of biofuel to power the mine's underground equipment. Kirkland Lake Gold is using a soy-based product which has several advantages: less expensive: for example, the soybean-based biofuel used by Kirkland Lake Gold is 10 cents a liter less expensive than diesel; cleaner: biofuel can reduce emissions by up to 80 per cent compared to conventional diesel; and safer: biofuel is safer than miner's diesel because it has a much higher flash point. Testing with soybean-based biofuel began in the early 90s but its price was too high at that time. The federal government's regulation of renewable fuel quotas has led to the better availability of biofuel now. The supply should be doubled to meet government quotas.

  9. Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013 (fifth edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. The study builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. This document summarizes the key findings of the Survey which includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries are surveyed with 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned

  10. 29 CFR 1926.956 - Underground lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground lines. 1926.956 Section 1926.956 Labor... Underground lines. (a) Guarding and ventilating street opening used for access to underground lines or... underground facilities, efforts shall be made to determine the location of such facilities and work...

  11. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification,gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  12. Science underground (Los Alamos, 1982)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, M.M.; Haxton, W.C.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kolb, E.W.; Sandberg, V.D.; Toevs, J.W. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    Topics covered include solar neutrinos, proton decay, cosmic rays, geophysics, gravity waves, double beta decay, and possible future research directions with underground detectors. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  13. LUNA: Nuclear Astrophysics Deep Underground

    OpenAIRE

    Broggini, Carlo; Bemmerer, Daniel; Guglielmetti, Alessandra; Menegazzo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics strives for a comprehensive picture of the nuclear reactions responsible for synthesizing the chemical elements and for powering the stellar evolution engine. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory the cross sections of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The salient features of underground nuclear astrophysics are summarized here. The mai...

  14. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  15. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  16. Sustainable underground space development in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; 徐笑晓

    2014-01-01

    Underground space development is regarded as an effective approach to promote a quality living environment in compact city. In Hong Kong, urban underground space developed by private sectors seems not well organized. Besides, underground use in HK can be multifunctional. Thirdly, inner design in some underground spaces is not desirable and lacks vibrancy. Fourthly, underground space development in HK lacks governmental incentives. Last but not least, the regulations and legal loophole on prop...

  17. INTEGRATIVE CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE OF SUBWAY STATION AND UNDERGROUND SPACE OF SURROUNDING BUILDING UNDER COMPLEX ENVIRONMENT%复杂环境下地铁车站与周边建筑地下空间一体化施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永军

    2012-01-01

    越来越多的地铁车站开始与临近的商业建筑进行全方位结合,实施一体化建设.一体化结合大部分位于城市繁华地区或老城区,受拆迁滞后、场地狭小、周边建筑物复杂、地下管线多等诸多因素影响,施工较常规地铁车站存在更高风险性.通过模拟现场施工工况验算,对钢支撑设置进行优化及监控量测,基坑开挖未对建筑物、现况管线造成损坏,围护结构安全、稳定.%More and more subway stations are combined with adjacent business buildings and their integrative construction is witnessing an increasing application. Most of these integrative combinations are located at downtown district or old urban area and the construction has higher risk than ordinary subway station due to various problems, such as underdeveloped relocation, small construction site and complex surrounding buildings and underground pipelines, etc. After verification through simulation of construction conditions on site, optimization and monitoring on setting of steel support, it is indicated that foundation pit excavation doesn't damage existing buildings and pipelines and that enclosure structure is safe and stable. The integrative construction technique can provide references to similar projects.

  18. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  19. THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE TRIAD ECONOMICS, SOCIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Corneliu Sorin BAICU; Cristian Valentin HAPENCIUC

    2015-01-01

    Underground economy, in view of researchers, economists and jurists, is a theoretical complex construct, a phenomenon with profound social and economic reverberations. This study argues multidisciplinary integrative the sociological, psychological and socio-psychological approach of underground economy. The premises of this study are given by methodological individualism and rational choice theory through building in neoclassical version of Homo economicus able to interact in a multidisciplin...

  20. Destabilization analysis of overlapping underground chambers induced by blasting vibration with catastrophe theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chang-bin; XU Guo-yuan; ZUO Yu-jun

    2006-01-01

    According to the main characters of overlapping underground chambers, the roof (floor) of two adjacent underground chambers is simplified to the mechanical model that is the beam with build-in ends. And vibration load due to blasting is simplified to harmonic wave. The catastrophic model of double cusp for underground chambers destabilization induced by blasting vibration has been established under the circumstances of considering deadweight of the beam, and the condition of destabilization has been worked out. The critical safety thickness of the roof (floor) of underground chambers has been confirmed according to the destabilization condition. The influence of amplitude and frequency of blasting vibration load on the critical safety thickness has been analyzed, and the quantitative relation between velocity, frequency of blasting vibration and critical safety thickness has been determined. Research results show that the destabilization of underground chambers is not only dependent on the amplitude and frequency of blasting vibration load, but also related to deadweight load and intrinsic attribute. It is accordant to testing results and some related latest research results of blasting seismic effect. With increasing amplitude, the critical safety thickness of underground chambers decreases gradually. And the possibility of underground chambers destabilization increases. When the frequency of blasting vibration is equal to or very close to the frequency of beam, resonance effect will take place in the system. Then the critical safety thickness will turn to zero, underground chambers will be damaged severely, and its loading capacity will lose on the whole.

  1. DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF THE MULTI-STOREY BUILDING SUBJECTED TO BLAST LOADING IN UNDERGROUND TUNNEL%地下隧道内爆炸冲击下地表多层建筑的动力响应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田力; 高芳华

    2011-01-01

    该文对带有筏板基础和地下室的多层框架及框剪建筑物在遭受邻近地下隧道内爆炸冲击作用下的动力响应进行了分析研究。采用ABAQUS软件建立了考虑地基土和混凝土等材料非线性的隧道-土体-多层建筑耦合体系的三维数值模型,经与LS-DYNA模型结果的比较分析验证了该文所建体系模型的正确性和有效性。通过大量的算例分析,对隧道内爆炸冲击下地表多层建筑在单线、双线隧道布局、建筑物与爆炸隧道之间距离的变化、以及爆炸点沿隧道纵轴线的位置移动等3组工况下的动力响应规律进行系统研究。结果显示:介于建筑物与爆炸隧道之间的另一平行隧道使爆炸波在土中的传播受到明显阻碍,继而削弱了建筑物的动力响应幅值;不同类型的多层建筑随着与爆炸点位置的不断接近均产生愈发强烈的动力响应,而彼此之间抗爆动力性能的差异也更为显著。%The dynamic response of three types of a multi-storey building (including a framed structure with raftfoundation, a flame-shear wall structure with raft foundation, a framed structure with basement) under a blast loading generated by an in-tunnel explosion is investigated numerically. The ABAQUS software is used to establish a three-dimension tunnel-soil-multi-storey building coupling model considering the material nonlinearity of the concrete and soil. The accuracy and validity of the coupling model set up with the ABAQUS software are verified by a comparison between its results and those from a LS-DYNA coupling model. A large number of example analyses are carried out to systematically disclose the response characteristics of the aboveground building subjected to an in-tunnel explosion in three groups of cases, i.e. the one-way and two-way tunnel layouts, the change of a distance between the building and the explosion-happening tunnel, and the change of the explosive position

  2. LUNA: Nuclear Astrophysics Deep Underground

    CERN Document Server

    Broggini, Carlo; Guglielmetti, Alessandra; Menegazzo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics strives for a comprehensive picture of the nuclear reactions responsible for synthesizing the chemical elements and for powering the stellar evolution engine. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory the cross sections of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The salient features of underground nuclear astrophysics are summarized here. The main results obtained by LUNA in the last twenty years are reviewed, and their influence on the comprehension of the properties of the neutrino, of the Sun and of the Universe itself are discussed. Future directions of underground nuclear astrophysics towards the study of helium and carbon burning and of stellar neutron sources in stars are pointed out.

  3. Planning geological underground repositories - Communicating with society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project 'Planning geological underground repositories: Communicating with society', financed by the Swiss Federal Office for Energy, aimed at identifying basic principles for an appropriate information and communication strategy in the process of finding an underground site to store radioactive wastes. The topic concerns an issue increasingly discussed in modern societies: How to improve the dialogue between science, infrastructure operators, public authorities, groups in civil society and the population to answer complex problems? Against this background, in the project the following questions were taken into account: (i) How can the dialogue between science, politics, economy, and the (non-)organised public be arranged appropriately? Which principles are to be considered in organising this process? How can distrust within the population be reduced and confidence in authorities and scientific expertise be increased? (ii) How can society be integrated in the process of decision-making so that this process is perceived as comprehensible, acceptable and legitimate? To answer these questions, an analysis method based on scientific theory and methodology was developed, which compares national participation and communication processes in finding underground storage sites in selected countries. Case studies have been carried out in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Switzerland. By using specific criteria to evaluate communication processes, the strong points as well as the drawbacks of the country-specific concepts of information, communication and participation have been analysed in a comparing dimension. By taking into account the outcomes, prototypical scenarios have been deduced that can serve as a basis for compiling a reference catalogue of measures, which is meant to support the Swiss communication strategy in the finding of an appropriate site for a nuclear waste repository. Following conclusions can be drawn from the international comparison: (i) Open and

  4. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  5. Underground gas storage in the World - 2013 (fifth Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its first publication in 1990, 'Underground Gas Storage in the World' has been the industry's reference on underground gas storage (UGS). The updated 2013 edition includes in-depth CEDIGAZ's analyses of the latest developments and trends in the storage industry all over the world as well as extensive country analyses with complete datasets including current, under construction and planned Underground Gas Storage facilities in 48 countries. It describes the 688 existing storage facilities in the world and the 236 projects under construction and planned. Future storage demand and its main drivers are presented at global and regional levels. 'Underground Gas Storage in the World 2013' builds on the CEDIGAZ Underground Gas Storage Database, the only worldwide Underground Gas Storage database to be updated every year. The Survey includes four main parts: The first part gives an overview of underground gas storage in the world at the beginning of 2013 and analyzes future storage needs by 2030, at regional and international levels. The second part focuses on new trends and issues emerging or developing in key storage markets. It analyzes the emerging storage market in China, reviews the storage business climate in Europe, examines Gazprom's storage strategy in Europe, and reviews recent trends in storage development in the United States. The third part gives some fundamental background on technical, economic and regulatory aspects of gas storage. The fourth part gives a countrywide analysis of the 48 countries in the world holding underground gas storage facilities or planning storage projects. 48 countries surveyed, 688 existing UGS facilities, 256 projects under construction or planned. The document includes 70 tables, 72 charts and figures, 44 country maps. The countries surveyed are: Europe : Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland

  6. Fight Against Underground Policies Intensifies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUZHUOQIONG

    2004-01-01

    On May 27, the China Insurance Regulatory Commission (CIRC)called in the chief representatives of foreign life insurers with branches in Hong Kong and Macao for a meeting andasked the companies to get more disciplined and help the government to combat underground policies.

  7. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated...

  8. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of underground cable installed in conduit and...

  9. 虚拟现实环境下井下救援机器人控制体系的构建方法研究∗%Building Method Research on Underground Rescue Robot Control System based on VR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗迎; 曹金玲

    2015-01-01

    Based on the introduction of Virtual Reality theory and teleoperation technology,look on the mine rescue ro-bot as the technology carrier,construct the virtual environment based on coal mine rescue scene,design the conceptual sys-tem with the control system of the downhole rescue robot,carry the functional division,and give the typical code system im-plementation.The data glove experimental program is integrated,and it belongs to the experiment of the conceptual design part of the prototype system realization.The research helps to explore for building methods for teleoperation system proto-type of virtual reality system.%在虚拟现实即 VR 技术和遥操作技术基本理论的基础上,以井下救援机器人为技术载体,以煤矿事故现场为蓝本的虚拟环境的构建为基础,对井下救援机器人的控制体系进行了概念设计和功能划分,并对模块的实现算法进行了初步探讨,给出了系统实现的典型代码。对数据手套集成到平台下进行了实验研究,这些工作属于该系统原型系统的实验实现概念设计部分,是对虚拟现实的遥操作系统原型系统构建方法的有益探讨。

  10. THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE TRIAD ECONOMICS, SOCIOLOGY, PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu\tSorin\tBAICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Underground economy, in view of researchers, economists and jurists, is a theoretical complex construct, a phenomenon with profound social and economic reverberations. This study argues multidisciplinary integrative the sociological, psychological and socio-psychological approach of underground economy. The premises of this study are given by methodological individualism and rational choice theory through building in neoclassical version of Homo economicus able to interact in a multidisciplinary and multifaceted manner with the area of social sciences. For the nonce, we submit to analysis an integrative model of Homo Oeconimicus with Homo Sociologicus, aggregated with elements of social psychology. Synergistic effects of this integrative approach consist of the ability to give an answer as relevant on symptoms and forms of deviant behavior and thus to explain the development of underground economy. The finality of this paper, starting from the stated premises, resides in the explanation and analysis of deviant behavior in the framework of the morphology and causality of underground economy. Deviant behavior in the context of our analysis reveals the coherence perspective on the following issues: anatomy and etiology of underground economy (informal and underground activities, illegal labor, tax fraud, etc.; attitude towards rules, society and the state (tax mentality, tax morality, moral conscience; tax compliance or non-compliance (willingness to pay tax liabilities. This paper is intended to constitute a pleading for an interdependent approach, multi-causal and interdisciplinary of underground economy

  11. Evaluation of the underground soil thermal storage properties in Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassar, Y.; ElNoaman, A.; Abutaima, A.; Yousif, S.; Salem, A. [Solar Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Sebha University, P.O. Box 68, Brack (Libya)

    2006-04-15

    Experimental investigation was conducted of temperature distribution through the underground soil of Tripoli (Capital of Libya). The aim of the experiment is to monitor the temperature variation of the underground soil under a depth of 4m and around the year, in order to know the thermal capacity ability of the soil to be used as a seasonal thermal storage. The measurements covered two types of systems: the first one is dry soil and the second is dry soil covered by a glass sheet. The measurements indicate that, at a depth of 4m, the average temperatures for the dry and dry-glass covered systems are 21, 46{sup o}C, with maximum temperatures of 21.5 and 47{sup o}C during December and January, and the minimum temperatures occurred in May and June, are reached values of 19, 44{sup o}C, respectively. The temperatures for the two systems were almost constant through the year and fluctuating with a monthly period of 2p/12. Results show that, the underground thermal capacity can be used as a source of heating and cooling of buildings leading to reduce the energy consumption in this application. Furthermore, for industrial and domestic heating processes, one can utilize the dry-glass covered system to cover a significant part of the heating load. Anyhow, the experimental study may not applicable everywhere, so an analytical presentation for the system will be necessary to save money and efforts. The first step to put the analytical model in reality is to get the thermal properties of the underground soil, and this is the aim of the present study. The paper described the followed procedure during theoretical-heat transfer approach. The thermal properties were presented as a function of the ground depth, furthermore, the paper presented the measured temperatures of the two systems for Tripoli underground soil. [Author].

  12. Ground engineering principles and practices for underground coal mining

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, J M

    2016-01-01

    This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings. Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards. The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of informati...

  13. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  14. Underground leaching of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amounts of low-grade U ore, not worth processing by conventional methods, are to be found at many sites in mine pillars, walls, and backfilling. Many proven deposits are not being mined because the geological conditions are difficult or the U ore is of relatively low grade. Factors such as radioactive emission, radon emanation, and the formation of radioactive dust give rise to health hazards. When U ores are treated above ground, enormous quantities of solid and liquid radioactive waste and mining spoil accumulate. The underground leaching of U is a fundamentally different kind of process. It is based on the selective dissolving of U at the place where it occurs by a chemical reagent; all that reaches the ground surface is a solution containing U, and after extraction of the U by sorption the reagent is used again. The main difficult and dangerous operations associated with conventional methods (excavation; extraction and crushing of the ore; storage of wastes) are avoided. Before underground leaching the ore formation has to be fractured and large ore bodies broken down into blocks by shrinkage stopping. These operations are carried out by advanced machinery and require the presence underground of only a few workers. If the ore is in seams, the only mining operation is the drilling of boreholes. The chemical reagent is introduced under pressure through one set of boreholes, while the U bearing solution is pumped out from another set. The process is monitored with the help of control boreholes. After extraction of the U by sorption, the reagent is ready to be used again. Very few operations are involved and insignificant amounts of dissolved U escape into the surrounding rock formations. Experience has shown that underground leaching reduces the final cost of the U metal, increases productivity, reduces capital expenditure, and radically improves working conditions

  15. Double wall underground storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canaan, E.B. Jr.; Wiegand, J.R.; Bartlow, D.H.

    1993-07-06

    A double wall underground storage tank is described comprising: (a) a cylindrical inner wall, (b) a cylindrical outer wall comprising plastic resin and reinforcement fibers, and (c) a layer of spacer filaments wound around the inner wall, the spacer filaments separating the inner and outer walls, and the spacer filaments being at least partially surrounded by voids to enable liquids to flow along the filaments.

  16. Underground explosion barriers - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, B.; O`Beirne, T. [ACIRL Ltd., Booval, Qld. (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The paper focuses on explosibility conditions in underground coal mines, the behaviour of explosions from initiating gas ignition to violent dust explosions and the effectiveness and limits of operation of current designs of passive explosion barriers in suppressing the flame front. The paper also discusses performance evaluations made in full scale explosion galleries and the use of alternatives to passive barriers, including the installation of active barriers under some circumstances.

  17. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  18. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi [Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  19. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  20. Selection and application of the touchable elements for blind and people in the Warsaw underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Poliński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work was to design a warning belt for blind people as well as an inclusion of the requirements in the normative document. Methods: A diagnostic survey using the questionnaires and the interviews with disabled people (especially with blind and visually impaired people. Results and Conclusion: As a result of the research and a participation of the blind and visually impaired people, the tactile elements were chosen and parameterized for use in the underground buildings in Warsaw. The relevant information in this filed, which should correspond to Warsaw underground buildings, were included in the regulations of the Minister of Infrastructure. On this basis, all the edges of the Warsaw underground platforms were indicated.

  1. Causes and consequences of underground economy

    OpenAIRE

    Mara, Eugenia-Ramona

    2011-01-01

    In this endeavor an attempt has been made to investigate the major causes and factors of influence of the underground economy. Our analysis is based on the study of tax payer behavior and taxation system pattern. The paper examines how social institutions and government policies affect underground economy. All these factors have an important impact on the level and size of underground economy and determine the consequences of this phenomenon.

  2. Transport Model of Underground Sediment in Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Jichao; Wang Guangqian

    2013-01-01

    Studies about sediment erosion were mainly concentrated on the river channel sediment, the terrestrial sediment, and the underground sediment. The transport process of underground sediment is studied in the paper. The concept of the flush potential sediment is founded. The transport equation with stable saturated seepage is set up, and the relations between the flush potential sediment and water sediment are discussed. Flushing of underground sediment begins with small particles, and large pa...

  3. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, GDP AND STOCK MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Caus Vasile Aurel

    2012-01-01

    Economic growth is affected by the size and dynamics of underground economy. Determining this size is a subject of research for many authors. In this paper we present the relationship between underground economy dynamics and the dynamics of stock markets. The observations are based on regression used by Tanzi (1983) and the relationship between GDP and stock market presented in Tudor (2008). The conclusion of this paper is that the dynamics of underground economy is influenced by dynamic of f...

  4. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in...

  5. 30 CFR 57.8519 - Underground main fan controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground main fan controls. 57.8519 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Ventilation Surface and Underground § 57.8519 Underground main fan controls. All underground main fans...

  6. Aguamilpa underground penstocks: Excavation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, F. (Comision Federal de Electricidad, Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico))

    1994-01-01

    The Aguamilpa hydroelectric project is one of a number of hydroelectric schemes currently being constructed along the course of the Santiago River in western Mexico. Aguamilpa will cost US$750 million and includes a 187-m concrete-faced rockfill dam, spillway and diversion tunnels, and a 960 MW underground powerhouse. The underground works include the penstocks, the powerhouse and surge chamber caverns, and the tailrace tunnel. In the initial design, most of the tunnelling work was to have been of a permanent nature. However, as the date of completion was brought forward to June 1993, it became necessary to open up more working faces and, as such, a number of temporary tunnels were started. The sequence of underground penstock excavation is described along with the construction methods developed and the equipment employed. It was originally intended to excavate the upper and lower ends of the penstocks and then raise-bore an initial pilot hole along the whole length. This hole would then be reamed out to the full diameter. To achieve faster completion, it was decided to excavate the lower portion of the penstocks from special access tunnels and to gain access to the top of the penstocks via geological exploration and drainage galleries. The horizontal parts of the penstocks were excavated by drill-and-blast methods, and the sloping parts were constructed by raise-boring a pilot hole and then using drill-and-blast to enlarge the hole in several stages to the full profile. Installation of steel liner sections will proceed upward and outward from the lower elbow section. 3 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  8. Reversal of underground mine ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, S.K.; Sahay, N.; Singh, R.P.; Singh, A.K.; Bhowmick, B.C. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    2002-09-01

    Reversal of main ventilation is one of the important means to isolate a fire during emergency. In America, it has been reported that by fan reversal lives have been saved in underground coal mines. Indian coal mines have so far not come forward to adopt this method. Not much research work has so far been carried out in India. This paper deals with international review of the work carried out in other countries. Laws relating to the reversal of ventilation in different countries of the world is discussed. The effect of reversal on goaf gases and adjustment of ventilation flow is also outlined. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE CHANGE IN HYDROGEOLOGICAL MODE ОF THE TERRITORIES RESULTING FROM THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN UNDERGROUND COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich; Khokhotva Sergey Nikolaevich; Alekseev German Valer’evich

    2016-01-01

    One of the consequences of the construction in the conditions of dense housing system is the development of underground part of buildings, which influences the surrounding buildings, changing the stress-strain state of soil masses and hydrogeological conditions of the construction site. The damming effect leads to local increase of hydrostatical pressure of ground waters on underground structures. The authors present a description of hydrogeological conditions of the construction site of unde...

  10. Review: Impact of underground structures on the flow of urban groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Guillaume; Winiarski, Thierry; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    Property economics favours the vertical development of cities but flow of groundwater can be affected by the use of underground space in them. This review article presents the state of the art regarding the impact of disturbances caused by underground structures (tunnels, basements of buildings, deep foundations, etc.) on the groundwater flow in urban aquifers. The structures built in the underground levels of urban areas are presented and organised in terms of their impact on flow: obstacle to the flow or disturbance of the groundwater budget of the flow system. These two types of disturbance are described in relation to the structure area and the urban area. The work reviewed shows, on one hand, the individual impacts of different urban underground structures, and on the other, their cumulative impacts on flow, using real case studies. Lastly, the works are placed in perspective regarding the integration of underground structures with the aim of operational management of an urban aquifer. The literature presents deterministic numerical modelling as a tool capable of contributing to this aim, in that it helps to quantify the effect of an underground infrastructure project on groundwater flow, which is crucial for decision-making processes. It can also be an operational decision-aid tool for choosing construction techniques or for formulating strategies to manage the water resource.

  11. Drawing from past experience to improve the management of future underground projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughton, Christopher; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    The high-energy physics community is currently developing plans to build underground facilities as part of its continuing investigation into the fundamental nature of matter. The tunnels and caverns are being designed to house a new generation of particle accelerators and detectors. For these projects, the cost of constructing the underground facility will constitute a major portion of the told capital cost and project viability can be greatly enhanced by paying careful attention to design and construction practices. A review of recently completed underground physics facilities and related literature has been undertaken to identify some management principles that have proven successful in underground practice. Projects reviewed were constructed in the United States of America and Europe using both Design-Build and more traditional Engineer-Procure-Construct contract formats. Although the physics projects reviewed tend to place relatively strict tolerances on alignment, stability and dryness, their overall requirements are similar to those of other tunnels and it is hoped that some of the principles promoted in this paper will be of value to the owner of any underground project.

  12. Underground repository for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the feasibility study for an underground repository in Argentina, the conceptual basis for the final disposal of high activity nuclear waste was set, as well as the biosphere isolation, according to the multiple barrier concept or to the engineering barrier system. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. The container for reprocessed and vitrified wastes shall have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, an external one of a metal to be selected and a thick intermediate lead layer preselected due to its good radiological protection and corrosion resistance. Therefore, the study of the lead corrosion behaviour in simulated media of an underground repository becomes necessary. Relevant parameters of the repository system such as temperature, pressure, water flux, variation in salt concentrations and oxidants supply shall be considered. At the same time, a study is necessary on the galvanic effect of lead coupled with different candidate metals for external layer of the container in the same experimental conditions. Also temporal evaluation about the engineering barrier system efficiency is presented in this thesis. It was considered the extrapolated results of corrosion rates and literature data about the other engineering barriers. Taking into account that corrosion is of a generalized type, the integrity of the lead shall be maintained for more than 1000 years and according to temporal evaluation, the multiple barrier concept shall retard the radionuclide dispersion to the biosphere for a period of time between 104 and 106 years. (Author)

  13. Underground storage tank management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations

  14. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository

  15. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  16. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting underground in hazardous areas. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20031 Blasting underground in hazardous areas. In underground areas where... removed to safe places before blasting....

  17. Technologies for placing of underground installations

    OpenAIRE

    Doneva, Nikolinka; Despodov, Zoran; Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija

    2014-01-01

    In urban communities often there is a need to change existing underground installations or placing new ones. This paper will discuss two technologies for placing underground installations including: classic and contemporary technology (technology with mechanical excavation). For each of these two technologies will be given advantages and disadvantages, as well as experiences from their application.

  18. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    OpenAIRE

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  19. Underground nuclear explosions: tectonic utility and dangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toksöz, M N; Kehrer, H H

    1971-07-16

    The tectonic strain energy released by several underground nuclear explosions has been calculated through an analysis of seismic surface waves. The proportionally great amount of energy released in certain events suggests the possible uses for, as well as the hazards of, underground testing.

  20. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  1. Overview of the European Underground Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pandola, L

    2011-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories are the only places where the extremely low background radiation level required for most experiments looking for rare events in physics and astroparticle physics can be achieved. Underground sites are also the most suitable location for very low background gamma-ray spectrometers, able to assay trace radioactive contaminants. Many operational infrastructures are already available worldwide for science, differing for depth, dimension and rock characteristics. Other underground sites are emerging as potential new laboratories. In this paper the European underground sites are reviewed, giving a particular emphasis on their relative strength and complementarity. A coordination and integration effort among the European Union underground infrastructures was initiated by the EU-funded ILIAS project and proved to be very effective.

  2. A power flow method for evaluating vibration from underground railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, M. F. M.; Hunt, H. E. M.

    2006-06-01

    One of the major sources of ground-borne vibration is the running of trains in underground railway tunnels. Vibration is generated at the wheel-rail interface, from where it propagates through the tunnel and surrounding soil into nearby buildings. An understanding of the dynamic interfaces between track, tunnel and soil is essential before engineering solutions to the vibration problem can be found. A new method has been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of vibration countermeasures. The method is based on calculating the mean power flow from the tunnel, paying attention to that part of the power which radiates upwards to places where buildings' foundations are expected to be found. The mean power is calculated for an infinite train moving through the tunnel with a constant velocity. An elegant mathematical expression for the mean power flow is derived, which can be used with any underground-tunnel model. To evaluate the effect of vibration countermeasures and track properties on power flow, a comprehensive three-dimensional analytical model is used. It consists of Euler-Bernoulli beams to account for the rails and the track slab. These are coupled in the wavenumber-frequency domain to a thin shell representing the tunnel embedded within an infinite continuum, with a cylindrical cavity representing the surrounding soil.

  3. Underground Prehistoric Mining in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Domínguez Bella

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the south-west of Spain, the archaeological site of El Jadramil (Arcos de la Frontera, Cádiz presents a great number of vertical cylindrical pits and horizontal subterranean galleries, with an estimated chronology of the Bronze Age (3000-2000 BC. A new interpretation of underground extractive mining techniques used at the site is presented in this article. The archaeology of the site shows how agricultural societies exploited local raw materials. A preliminary geoarchaeological study of these mining structures and an aerial survey of the site have been carried out. The geological relationship to the possible raw material extracted from this site and the properties of these materials are discussed.

  4. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  5. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  6. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a large and high precision liquid scintillator detector under construction in the south of China. With its 20 kt target mass, it aims to achieve an unprecedented 3% energy resolution at 1 MeV. Its main goal is to study the disappearance of reactor antineutrino to determine the neutrino mass ordering, and to precisely measure the mixing parameters $\\theta_{12}$, $\\Delta m^2_{12}$, and $\\Delta m ^2_{ee}$. It also aims to detect neutrinos emitted from radioactive processes taking place within the inner layers of the Earth (geonutrinos), as well as neutrinos produced during rare supernova bursts. Neutrinos emitted in solar nuclear reactions could also be observed, if stringent radiopurity requirements on the scintillator are met. This manuscript provides some highlights of JUNO's Physics Programme, and describes the detector design, as well as the ongoing detector R&D.

  7. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  8. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  9. Waves from an underground explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krymskii, A. V.; Lyakhov, G. M.

    1984-05-01

    The problem of the propagation of a spherical detonation wave in water-saturated soil was solved in [1, 2] by using a model of a liquid porous multicomponent medium with bulk viscosity. Experiments show that soils which are not water saturated are solid porous multicomponent media having a viscosity, nonlinear bulk compression limit diagrams, and irreversible deformations. Taking account of these properties, and using the model in [2], we have solved the problem of the propagation of a spherical detonation wave from an underground explosion. The solution was obtained by computer, using the finite difference method [3]. The basic wave parameters were determined at various distances from the site of the explosion. The values obtained are in good agreement with experiment. Models of soils as viscous media which take account of the dependence of deformations on the rate of loading were proposed in [4 7] also. In [8] a model was proposed corresponding to a liquid multicomponent medium with a variable viscosity.

  10. Depleted Argon from Underground Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argon is a strong scintillator and an ideal target for Dark Matter detection; however 39Ar contamination in atmospheric argon from cosmic ray interactions limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. Argon from deep underground is depleted in 39Ar due to the cosmic ray shielding of the earth. In Cortez, Colorado, a CO2 well has been discovered to contain approximately 600 ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO2. We first concentrate the argon locally to 3% in an Ar, N2, and He mixture, from the CO2 through chromatographic gas separation, and then the N2 and He will be removed by continuous distillation to purify the argon. We have collected 26 kg of argon from the CO2 facility and a cryogenic distillation column is under construction at Fermilab to further purify the argon.

  11. Seismic effects on underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical modeling techniques were used to determine the conditions required for seismic waves generated by an earthquake to cause instability to an underground opening or create fracturing and joint movement that would lead to an increase in the permeability of the rock mass. Three different rock types (salt, granite, and shale) were considered as host media for the repository located at a depth of 600 m. Special material models were developed to account for the nonlinear material behavior of each rock type. The sensitivity analysis included variations in the in situ stress ratio, joint geometry, and pore pressures, and the presence or absence of large fractures. Three different sets of earthquake motions were used to excite the rock mass. The methodology applied was found to be suitable for studying the effects of earthquakes on underground openings. In general, the study showed that moderate earthquakes (up to 0.41 g) did not cause instability of the tunnel or major fracturing of the rock mass; however, a tremor with accelerations up to 0.95 g was amplified around the tunnel, and fracturing occurred as a result of the seismic loading in salt and granite. In situ stress is a critical parameter in determining the subsurface effects of earthquakes but is nonexistent in evaluating the cause for surface damage. In shale with the properties assumed, even the moderate seismic load resulted in tunnel instability. These studies are all generic in nature and do not abrogate the need for site and design studies for specific facilities. 30 references, 14 figures, 8 tables

  12. Suitability Maps of Underground Construction in the Province of South-Holland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbschleb, Jurgen; Wassing, Brecht B. T.; Weerts, Henk J. T.

    Subsurface suitability maps give an insight in both the geology and the physical and chemical soil properties. The geology and soil properties together with the groundwater conditions determine technically speaking the way subsurface activities can take place. In the project described in this article a set of maps was created which indicate the suitability of the soil conditions for underground constructions. A common way to create underground constructions in the Netherlands is to use building pits and the degree of difficulty (or suitability) of underground construction is directly related to the design of the building pit. With the geological knowledge and boundary conditions that apply to the design of a building pit, a common classification of the soil properties has been made based on the type of soil (sand, clay, and peat). The combination of the strength and stiffness properties together with the thickness of the soil layers is used to obtain three suitability scores, (1) score underneath the building pit, (2) score adjacent to the pit, and (3) ground water score. These scores are added to obtain an overall suitability score. In this way, a suitability score is calculated for every site where borehole-descriptions of sufficient depth are available and groundwater conditions are known. Based on the data in the DINO-database of TNO-NITG a suitability map for subsurface building/construction was made for the province of South Holland.

  13. Underground structure characterization using motor vehicles as passive seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Rector, J.; Vaidya, S.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to detect and characterize underground voids will be critical to the success of On-Site Inspections (OSI) as mandated by the nuclear Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs may be conducted in order to successfully locate the Ground Zero of underground tests as well as infrastructure related to testing. Recently, our team has shown the potential of a new technique to detect underground objects using the amplitude of seismic surface waves generated by motor vehicles. In an experiment conducted in June, 2009 we were able to detect an abandoned railroad tunnel by recognizing a clear pattern in the surface waves scattered by the tunnel, using a signal generated by driving a car on a dirt road across the tunnel. Synthetic experiments conducted using physically realistic wave-equation models further suggest that the technique can be readily applied to detecting underground features: it may be possible to image structures of importance to OSI simply by laying out an array of geophones (or using an array already in place for passive listening for event aftershocks) and driving vehicles around the site. We present evidence from a set of field experiments and from synthetic modeling and inversion studies to illustrate adaptations of the technique for OSI. Signature of an abandoned underground railroad tunnel at Donner Summit, CA. To produce this image, a line of geophones was placed along a dirt road perpendicular to the tunnel (black box) and a single car was driven along the road. A normalized mean power-spectrum is displayed on a log scale as a function of meters from the center of the tunnel. The top of the tunnel was 18m below ground surface. The tunnel anomaly is made up of a shadow (light) directly above the tunnel and amplitude build-up (dark) on either side of the tunnel. The size of the anomaly (6 orders of magnitude) suggests that the method can be extended to find deep structures at greater distances from the source and receivers.

  14. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de;

    In this paper we investigate the effects of different fiscal policies on the firm choice to produce underground. We consider a tax evading firm operating simultaneously both in the regular and in the underground economy. We suggest that such a kind of firm, referred to as moonlighting firm, is able...... to offset the specific costs usually stressed by literature on underground production, such as those suggested by Loayza (1994) andAnderberg et al. (2003). Investigating the effects of different fiscal policy interventions,we find that taxation is a critical parameter to define the size of capital...

  15. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  16. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only....

  17. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4057 - Underground trailing cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground trailing cables. 57.4057 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control § 57.4057 Underground trailing cables. Underground trailing cables shall be accepted...

  20. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  1. Radioactive waste containing vessel for underground disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A canister and an over packing vessel for containing the canister are assembled. Preceding to underground disposal, a sealing medium under a pressurized state is sealed to the space in the overpacking vessel. As the sealing medium, non-compressible medium of a liquid or a fluid such as a mineral oil, vegetable oil, cement mortar is used in an ordinary cases. Alternatively, gases such as of nitrogen or argon are applied for the purpose of increasing pressure of the space portion to more than the pressure of underground water and the like. In the state of the underground disposal, difference of pressure between the external pressure such as of underground water and a pressure of the sealed medium is applied to the wall of the over packing vessel. With such a constitution, since the wall of the over packing vessel can be reduced, the weight and the cost can be reduced. (I.N.)

  2. Region 6 Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is now a storage and retrieval application. Permit information and enforcement information of Underground Injection Wells are scanned and stored as a part of...

  3. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In 1986, Congress amended Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, directing EPA to regulate Underground Storage Tanks (USTs). EPA directly implements the UST...

  4. Over-excavation forecast of underground opening by using Bayes discriminant analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Feng-qiang; LI Xi-bing; ZHANG Wei

    2008-01-01

    A method to forecast the over-excavation of underground opening by using the Bayes discriminant analysis(BDA) theory was presented. The Bayes discriminant analysis theory was introduced. Based on an engineering example, the factors influencing the over-excavation of underground opening were taken into account to build a forecast BDA model, and the prior information about over-excavation of underground opening was also taken into consideration. Five parameters influencing the over-excavation of opening, including 2 groups of joints, 1 group of layer surface, extension and space between structure faces were selected as geometric parameters. Engineering data in an underground opening were used as the training samples. The cross-validation method was introduced to verify the stability of BDA model and the ratio of mistake-discrimination was equal to zero after the BDA model was trained. Data in an underground engineering were used to test the discriminant ability of BDA model. The results show that five forecast results are identical with the actual situation and BDA can be used in practical engineering.

  5. Insiders, Outsiders, and the Underground Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Anderberg, Dan

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers whether labour market rigidities lead to more underground economic activities. This is suggested by aggregate cross-country data which show that underground economic activities are more strongly correlated with a commonly used index of employment protection than with effective tax rates. A simple theoretical model is constructed to support this finding. The model, contrary to many models of equilibrium unemployment in the literature, also has the feature that a rise in a ...

  6. Overview of the European Underground Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Pandola, L.

    2011-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories are the only places where the extremely low background radiation level required for most experiments looking for rare events in physics and astroparticle physics can be achieved. Underground sites are also the most suitable location for very low background gamma-ray spectrometers, able to assay trace radioactive contaminants. Many operational infrastructures are already available worldwide for science, differing for depth, dimension and rock characteristics. Othe...

  7. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  8. Depleted argon from underground sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, H.O.; /Princeton U.; Alton, A.; /Augustana U. Coll.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; /Princeton U.; Kendziora, C.; /Fermilab; Loer, B.; /Princeton U.; Montanari, D.; /Fermilab; Mosteiro, P.; /Princeton U.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  9. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  10. 40 CFR 280.220 - Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ownership of an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system or facility or property on which an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system is located. 280.220 Section 280.220 Protection of Environment...

  11. Studies on muon showers underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 4 m2 spark chamber telescope array of the Mt. Cappuccini Laboratory, Torino, At 40 m w.e. underground was operated for about 830 h recording muon showers. The data were analysed with respect to the multiplicity distribution of the shower particles, adn to local interactions initiated in the chamber absorbers. Regarding the multiplicity analysis a semi-empirical expression for the likely shower size dependence of a structure function of the analytical form proposed by Vernov et al., was derived and applied with systematically varied parameters. The comparison of the observed rates of multiples with those calculated with a variety of parameters showed that a satisfactory agreement can be attained only if one admits a variation with the shower size of the parameters, and an enhanced muon/electron ratio at the lower primary energies, possibly indicative of an increased abundance of primary heavy nuclei. This would conform with the idea of a two-component primary composition in which a pulsar-produced fraction, enriched in heavy nuclei, dominated only at medium energies. The records on multiplicative interactions, and on large-angle scattering, were analysed by comparing their rates observed for shower particles with those found in single-muon check runs. The results are consistent with the assumption that all shower particle interactions are electromagnetic in nature, and that nonconventional components like mandelas are absent. Only making extreme allowances for statistical fluctuations the data can be made compatible with a mandela flux as large as that suggested by Baruch et al., provided that the mandela attenuation length is less than 1 500g/cm2 of rock

  12. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall... condition. Dust collectors approved under Part 33—Dust Collectors for Use in Connection with Rock Drilling... the purpose of this section. (c) Water control. Water used to control dust from drilling rock shall...

  13. Aspects of heat recovery systems in underground mine ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbara, H.D.; Fytas, K.; Paraszczak, J. [Laval Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Underground mining in cold regions requires heating for surface buildings and fresh air intake. However, little research has been conducted on heat recovery systems in underground mines as they are not commonplace. The growing interest in heat recovery systems can be attributed to the increasing price of energy. This paper presented recommendations for heat recovery system designs found in the literature as well as designs from calculations. The design calculations were performed to evaluate the energy that could be recovered from exhaust mine air and discharged in the intake fresh air for different exhaust and ambient air conditions. Specifically, the paper discussed heating; exhaust air heat recovery; cross-flow tube-fin heat exchangers at intake and exhaust; transferring heat from intake to exhaust; natural heating and cooling system; ice stopes; mine water heat recovery; heat recovery of mine air compressors; existing heat recovery projects; and general steps to be followed when designing a heat recovery system for a mine site. These studies confirmed the value of establishing a program to facilitate the energy calculations for a heat recovery system. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  14. The LHC magnets' trip underground

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Buildings SMI 2 and SDI 2 are currently a big blue construction at the end of the Meyrin site. When they are finished, in 2003, they will be the departure point from where the magnets for the LHC will be lowered down into the tunnel. View of the new building at the end of the Meyrin site. If you live in neighbouring France, you have probably noticed a new blue steel construction that has changed the view from Saint Genis Pouilly since last March. It's the first of two contiguous buildings, SMI 2 and SDI 2, which will make it possible to prepare and lower the 1232 dipole magnets, the 400 short straight sections and some 60 insertion magnets down into the TI2 tunnel, and from there, to their final location in the LHC tunnel. According to Paul Faugeras, Technical Co-ordinator for the LHC machine, 'the installation of the magnets will start in early 2004, and hopefully everything will be done by October 2006'. The first part of the magnets' journey will take place on surface. The 15 metre-long dipole magnets a...

  15. Radioisotopic methods for quality control of works and studies while constructing foundations and underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on the use of radioisotope methods of quality control of various kinds of construction works when building foundations and underground constructions and when carrying out scientific research, are presented. Devices and equipment are described, their block diagrams are presented. The experience in using radioisotope devices to control the quality of construction works, is presented. The problems of economic effectivenes of works using radioisotope devices are solved

  16. Investigation of foundation pit excavation influence on adjacent buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Zertsalov Mikhail Grigor'evich; Kazachenko Sergey Andreevich; Konyukhov Dmitriy Sergeevich

    2014-01-01

    Modern urban policies, particularly in major towns, involve the active use of underground space that poses the problem of assessing the impact of excavation on the existing buildings as one of the most urgent. Surface and semi-closed construction methods are currently widespread in the process of urban civil and transport underground facilities construction. The depth of excavation can reach 30 m, but more often, in everyday practice common foundation pits have shallower depth, accommodating ...

  17. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germata, Daniel Thomas

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  18. Behaviors of radionuclides in wet underground soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies were made of the variations of the distribution coefficient of 65Zn, 60Co, and /sup 110 m/Ag with Ca ion contents in sand--water and resin--water systems. It is concluded that: (1) The distribution coefficient of a radionuclide is not constant but varies greatly especially with calcium ion concentration in underground water. (2) The Saturation Index I=pH-pHs can be used as a parameter to indicate such variations. (3) Some radionuclides, existing as radiocolloids like (sup 110m/Ag and 59Fe, are inactive toward ion exchange reactions as with hydroxide. In such cases, the nuclides migrate underground as fast as underground water

  19. The Mimetic Principle in the Underground Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Voicu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been in the recent years an increased preoccupation at international level for the research of the mechanism of development of the underground economy. The numerous vain attempts to measure the dimension of the underground economy persuaded us to embark on a qualitative research of this economic phenomenon. In our investigation on the roots of the underground economy we drew very close to the psychological and sociological aspects of the phenomenon itself. The process of humanizing that has at its origin components of the mimetic principle, like acquisitive mimesis, prompt us to ponder over J.M. Keynes’ words: „The avoidance of taxes is the only intellectual ambition that one feels rewarded for.”

  20. Master plan of Mizunami underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1994, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reformulated the Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy (LTP). The LTP (item 7, chapter 3) sets out the guidelines which apply to promoting scientific studies of the deep geological environment, with a view to providing a sound basis for research and development programmes for geological disposal projects. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting scientific studies of the deep geological environment as part of its Geoscientific Research Programme. The LTP also emphasised the importance of deep underground research facilities in the following terms: Deep underground research facilities play an important role in research relating to geological disposal. They allow the characteristics and features of the geological environment, which require to be considered in performance assessment of disposal systems, to be investigated in situ and the reliability of the models used for evaluating system performance to be developed and refined. They also provide opportunities for carrying out comprehensive research that will contribute to an improved overall understanding of Japan's deep geological environment. It is recommended that more than one facility should be constructed, considering the range of characteristics and features of Japan's geology and other relevant factors. It is important to plan underground research facilities on the basis of results obtained from research and development work already carried out, particularly the results of scientific studies of the deep geological environment. Such a plan for underground research facilities should be clearly separated from the development of an actual repository. JNC's Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) Project will be a deep underground research facility as foreseen by the above provisions of the LTP. (author)

  1. Underground storage of gas in aquiferous strata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, B.; Legros, D.

    1981-01-01

    The process of developing an aquifer for underground storage is very similar to the naturally occurring gas accumulation process. To exploit aquiferous strata as storage requires (1) a porous, permeable rock to allow the displacement of water with gas, (2) an impermeable layer above the reservoir to prevent the gas from escaping upward, (3) a dome to contain lateral gas movement, and (4) a formation deep enough to maintain a high gas pressure. G.D.F. and S.N.E.A. describe the equipment needed to develop underground storage (injection and withdrawal wells, surface equipment, control apparatus, compressor and processing stations, etc.) and explain the operation and limitations of aquifer storage.

  2. Using old underground quarries in Paris area for interseasonal storage of solar energy, for housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M.; Deveughele, M.; Efforsat, J.

    1985-01-01

    The city of Paris and its suburbs are riddled with former underground quarries which pose problems of soil stability. These quarries can be consolidated and used to store water heated by solar collectors to heat buildings. In the framework of a preelementary school building project in Sevres (Hauts-de-Seine department), a detailed analysis of heat transfers in the uninsulated water storage and the containing bed rock, using a finite difference model, demonstrated participation of the rock to the storage function. Such a project appears feasible provided the water store is exploited at a low thermal level.

  3. Underground openings production line 2012. Design, production and initial state of the underground openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The Underground Openings Line Production Line report describes the design requirements, the design principles, the methods of construction and the target properties for the underground rooms required for the final repository. It is one of five Production Line reports, namely the: Underground Openings Line report, Canister report, Buffer report, Backfill report, Closure report. Together, these reports cover the lifespan of the underground phases of the final repository from the start of construction of the underground rooms to their closure. Posiva has developed reference methods for constructing the underground rooms. Tunnels will be constructed using the drill and blast technique, shafts will be constructed using raise boring and the deposition holes will be constructed by reverse down reaming. Underground openings will be made safe by reinforcement by using rock bolts, net or shotcrete, depending on which type of opening is being considered, and groundwater inflows will be limited by grouting. Posiva's requirements management system (VAHA) sets out the specifications for the enactment of the disposal concept at Olkiluoto under five Levels - 1 to 5, from the most generic to the most specific. In this report, the focus is on Level 4 and 5 requirements, which provide practical guidance for the construction of the underground openings. The design requirements are presented in Level 4 and the design specification in Level 5 In addition to the long-term safety-related requirements included in VAHA, there are additional requirements regarding the operation of underground openings, e.g. space requirements due to the equipment used and its maintenance, operational and fire safety. The current reference design for the disposal facility is presented based on the design requirements and design specifications. During the lifespan of the repository the reference design will be revised and updated according to the design principles as new information is available

  4. Assessment of condition of underground collector lines situated inside the technological complexes of underground storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of status of underground gas pipeline systems operating for several decades becomes a decisive factor of the decision making for their further safe and reliable operation. The decision becomes crucial especially in cases when piping is installed within a facility without the cathodic protection. The evaluation and inspection of underground gas manifolds requires a specific approach tailored for the respective manifolds. In 2003 NAFTA, the company initiated an extensive plan of the underground gas manifolds diagnostics and evaluation. The results were presented within the Working Committee WOC2 at the 23rd World Gas Congress in Amsterdam. (authors)

  5. 76 FR 51970 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground... Drinking Water/Drinking Water Protection Division/Underground Injection Control Program, Mailcode: 4606M... owners and operators of underground injection wells, State Underground Injection Control (UIC)...

  6. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  7. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  8. NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF THE UNDERGROUND EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Underground exploitation of dimension stone is spreading lately for three main reasons; economy, organisation and environment. Moreover, underground openings can be used for many purposes. Underground exploitation is different from surface quarrying only in the first stage, the removal of top slice, descending slices are worked as in conventional quarries. In underground stone quarries, stability problems require adequate studies in order to avoid expensive artificial support measures, ...

  9. A FUZZY MODEL TO ESTIMATE ROMANIAN UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Corina Maria ENE; Natalita HURDUC

    2010-01-01

    I propose here a model based on fuzzy logic in order to “quantify” Romanian underground economy. This approach starts from MIMIC model variables used by many authors in estimating underground economy in all over the world. I also assumed there can be establish a positive relation between a number of causal variables and underground economy. The model uses a set of variables whose choice is based on both economic theory and empirical observations. These variables determinate underground activi...

  10. 30 CFR 77.508-1 - Lightning arresters; wires entering buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning arresters; wires entering buildings... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.508-1 Lightning arresters; wires entering buildings. Lightning arresters protecting exposed telephone wires entering buildings shall be provided...

  11. Airborne and Ground-Based Optical Characterization of Legacy Underground Nuclear Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, S.; Craven, J.; Anderson, D.; Dzur, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Detecting, locating, and characterizing suspected underground nuclear test sites is a U.S. security priority. Currently, global underground nuclear explosion monitoring relies on seismic and infrasound sensor networks to provide rapid initial detection of potential underground nuclear tests. While seismic and infrasound might be able to generally locate potential underground nuclear tests, additional sensing methods might be required to further pinpoint test site locations. Optical remote sensing is a robust approach for site location and characterization due to the ability it provides to search large areas relatively quickly, resolve surface features in fine detail, and perform these tasks non-intrusively. Optical remote sensing provides both cultural and surface geological information about a site, for example, operational infrastructure, surface fractures. Surface geological information, when combined with known or estimated subsurface geologic information, could provide clues concerning test parameters. We have characterized two legacy nuclear test sites on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), U20ak and U20az using helicopter-, ground- and unmanned aerial system-based RGB imagery and light detection and ranging (lidar) systems. The multi-faceted information garnered from these different sensing modalities has allowed us to build a knowledge base of how a nuclear test site might look when sensed remotely, and the standoff distances required to resolve important site characteristics.

  12. Control and monitoring of landfill gas underground migration at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed paper covers the various aspects of control and monitoring of potential landfill gas (LFG) migration through soil voids or rock fractures at the City of Montreal sanitary landfill site. It depicts the social, geographical and geological context and presents a brief history of the landfill site. It describes the LFG collecting system and LFG migration monitoring equipment and programs. Finally it presents monitoring data taken over last few years. The landfill site is located in a well populated urban area. Since 1968, about 33 million metric tons of domestic and commercial waste have been buried in a former limestone quarry. Because of houses and buildings in the vicinity, 100 m in some locations, LFG underground migration is a major risk. LFG could indeed infiltrate buildings and reach explosive concentrations. So it must be controlled. The City of Montreal acquired the site in 1988 and has progressively built a LFG collecting system, composed of more than 288 vertical wells, to pump out of the landfill 280 million m3 of gas annually. To verify the efficiency of this system to minimize LFG underground migration, monitoring equipment and programs have also been designed and put into operation. The monitoring network, located all around the landfill area, is composed of 21 well nests automated to monitor presence of gas in the ground in real time. In addition, 55 individual wells, where manual measurements are made, are also available. To complete the monitoring program, some measurements are also taken in buildings, houses and underground utilities in the neighborhood of the site. Monitoring data show that LFG underground migration is well controlled. They also indicate significant decrease of migration over the years corresponding to improvements to the LFG collecting system

  13. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to date...

  14. Nõukogudemaa underground bootleg'id / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2008-01-01

    DVDst "Päratrusti pärand" - ENSV Riikliku Kultuurijäätmete Töötlemise Artelli "Päratrust" kultusfilmide kogumikust. Mustvalged underground-lühimängufilmid "Tsarli läheb Tallinna", "Tsaar Muhha", "Neurootiline pärastlõuna", "Kalkar", "Päratee" jt. aastatest 1980 -1983, filmid on taashelindatud 2007. aastal

  15. Historical development of underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olness, D.; Gregg, D.W.

    1977-06-30

    The development of underground coal gasification is traced through a discussion of the significant, early experiments with in situ gasification. Emphasized are the features of each experiment that were important in helping to alter and refine the process to its present state. Experimental details, coal characteristics, and gasification data are supplied for many of the experiments. 69 refs.

  16. A Comprehensive Study of Underground Animals Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klokov, A. V.; Zapasnoy, A. S.; Mironchev, A. S.; Yakubov, V. P.; Shipilova, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method of studying the natural habitats of underground animals by the example of zokor. The purpose of the research is to find habitation of animals using unmanned aircraft and investigate networks of tunnels and burrows with ground penetrating radar "OKO-2". Geolocation data were processed by techniques developed by the authors.

  17. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustible material, the control doors or bulkheads shall provide protection at least equivalent to a door.... Roll-down steel doors with a fire-resistance rating of 11/2 hours or greater, but without an insulation... located underground: (i) The cable or conductors supplying power to the fan shall be routed through...

  18. Bioclimatic underground architecture: Development and principles

    OpenAIRE

    Stojić Jasmina; Stanković Danica

    2009-01-01

    The principal idea of paper lies in analyzing contemporary architectural challenges, concerning climate changes, global warming, renewable energy deficiency and population growth. The relevant examples and principles of sustainable and selfsustainable architecture development throughout history are presented. Underground structures as passive solar systems, vegetation used as insulation, ventilation and isolation are given as one of possible solutions for this global phenomenon. By studying t...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4161 - Use of fire underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of fire underground. 57.4161 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4161 Use of fire underground. Fires shall...

  20. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-01-01

    The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG) and underground coal incineration (UCI) are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  1. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4362 - Underground rescue and firefighting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground rescue and firefighting operations... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4362 Underground rescue...

  3. 18 CFR 157.215 - Underground storage testing and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Underground storage... of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.215 Underground storage testing... observation wells for the testing or development of underground reservoirs for the possible storage of gas,...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4363 - Underground evacuation instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground evacuation instruction. 57.4363... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4363 Underground evacuation instruction....

  5. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4505 - Fuel lines to underground areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel lines to underground areas. 57.4505... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4505 Fuel lines to underground areas....

  8. 30 CFR 57.4361 - Underground evacuation drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground evacuation drills. 57.4361 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4361 Underground evacuation drills. (a)...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4561 Stationary diesel equipment underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4260 - Underground self-propelled equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground self-propelled equipment. 57.4260... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4260 Underground self-propelled equipment. (a) Whenever self-propelled equipment is used underground, a fire extinguisher shall be on the equipment....

  11. 47 CFR 32.6422 - Underground cable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable expense. 32.6422 Section 32.6422 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Underground cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with underground cable....

  12. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall...

  13. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  14. Polysubstance Use Patterns in Underground Rave Attenders: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Calderon, Fermin; Lozano, Oscar M.; Vidal, Claudio; Ortega, Josefa Gutierrez; Vergara, Esperanza; Gonzalez-Saiz, Francisco; Bilbao, Izaskun; Caluente, Marta; Cano, Tomas; Cid, Francisco; Dominguez, Celia; Izquierdo, Emcarni; Perez, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    Drug use in mainstream rave parties has been widely documented in a large number of studies. However, not much is known about drug use in underground raves. The purpose of this study is to find out the polysubstance use patterns at underground raves. Two hundred and fifty-two young people between the ages of 18 and 30 who went to underground raves…

  15. Underground Storage Tanks - UST_IDEM_IN: Underground Storage Tanks in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — UST_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains regulated underground storage tank locations (including leaking underground storage tanks) in Indiana, provided by...

  16. NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF THE UNDERGROUND EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević-Zelić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Underground exploitation of dimension stone is spreading lately for three main reasons; economy, organisation and environment. Moreover, underground openings can be used for many purposes. Underground exploitation is different from surface quarrying only in the first stage, the removal of top slice, descending slices are worked as in conventional quarries. In underground stone quarries, stability problems require adequate studies in order to avoid expensive artificial support measures, The article presents numerical analyses of an underground stone quarry made using of the finite difference code FLAC (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Stability analysis of underground engineering based on multidisciplinary design optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rong; ZHOU Ke-ping; GAO Feng

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at characteristics of underground engineering,analyzed the feasibility of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) used in underground engineering,and put forward a modularization-based MDO method and the idea of MDO to resolve problems in stability analysis,proving the validity and feasibility of using MDO in underground engineering.Characteristics of uncertainty,complexity and nonlinear become bottle-neck to carry on underground engineering stability analysis by MDO.Therefore,the application of MDO in underground engineering stability analysis is still at a stage of exploration,which need some deep research.

  18. Stability analysis of underground engineering based on multidisciplinary design optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rong; ZHOU Ke-ping; GAO Feng

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at characteristics of underground engineering, analyzed the feasibility of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) used in underground engineering, and put forward a modularization-based MDO method and the idea of MDO to resolve problems in stability analysis, proving the validity and feasibility of using MDO in underground engi-neering. Characteristics of uncertainty, complexity and nonlinear become bottle-neck to carry on underground engineering stability analysis by MDO. Therefore, the application of MDO in underground engineering stability analysis is still at a stage of exploration, which need some deep research.

  19. An electromagnetic induction method for underground target detection and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartel, L.C.; Cress, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    An improved capability for subsurface structure detection is needed to support military and nonproliferation requirements for inspection and for surveillance of activities of threatening nations. As part of the DOE/NN-20 program to apply geophysical methods to detect and characterize underground facilities, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated an electromagnetic induction (EMI) project to evaluate low frequency electromagnetic (EM) techniques for subsurface structure detection. Low frequency, in this case, extended from kilohertz to hundreds of kilohertz. An EMI survey procedure had already been developed for borehole imaging of coal seams and had successfully been applied in a surface mode to detect a drug smuggling tunnel. The SNL project has focused on building upon the success of that procedure and applying it to surface and low altitude airborne platforms. Part of SNL`s work has focused on improving that technology through improved hardware and data processing. The improved hardware development has been performed utilizing Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funding. In addition, SNL`s effort focused on: (1) improvements in modeling of the basic geophysics of the illuminating electromagnetic field and its coupling to the underground target (partially funded using LDRD funds) and (2) development of techniques for phase-based and multi-frequency processing and spatial processing to support subsurface target detection and characterization. The products of this project are: (1) an evaluation of an improved EM gradiometer, (2) an improved gradiometer concept for possible future development, (3) an improved modeling capability, (4) demonstration of an EM wave migration method for target recognition, and a demonstration that the technology is capable of detecting targets to depths exceeding 25 meters.

  20. Heat Transfer in Underground Rail Tunnels

    CERN Document Server

    Sadokierski, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of heat between the air and surrounding soil in underground tunnels ins investigated, as part of the analysis of environmental conditions in underground rail systems. Using standard turbulent modelling assumptions, flow profiles are obtained in both open tunnels and in the annulus between a tunnel wall and a moving train, from which the heat transfer coefficient between the air and tunnel wall is computed. The radial conduction of heat through the surrounding soil resulting from changes in the temperature of air in the tunnel are determined. An impulse change and an oscillating tunnel air temperature are considered separately. The correlations between fluctuations in heat transfer coefficient and air temperature are found to increase the mean soil temperature. Finally, a model for the coupled evolution of the air and surrounding soil temperature along a tunnel of finite length is given.

  1. Neutron albedo effects of underground nuclear explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device.The neutron field distribution is affected by the surrounding medium in the underground nuclear explosion. It will influence the radiation chemical diagnosis. By Monte Carlo simulation, the fuel burnup induced by device and neutron albedo was calculated. The analysis method of albedo effect on radiation chemical diagnosis result under special environment was proposed. Neutron albedo should be considered when capture reaction burnup fraction is used, and then correct analysis can be carried out on the nuclear device. (authors)

  2. Underground nuclear astrophysics: Why and how

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, A.; Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Caciolli, A. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, Gy. [Institute for Nuclear Research (MTA Atomki), Debrecen (Hungary); Napolitani, E. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Legnaro (Italy); Rigato, V. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Legnaro (Italy); Roca, V. [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Szuecs, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The goal of nuclear astrophysics is to measure cross-sections of nuclear physics reactions of interest in astrophysics. At stars temperatures, these cross-sections are very low due to the suppression of the Coulomb barrier. Cosmic-ray-induced background can seriously limit the determination of reaction cross-sections at energies relevant to astrophysical processes and experimental setups should be arranged in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Placing experiments in underground sites, however, reduces this background opening the way towards ultra low cross-section determination. LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) was pioneer in this sense. Two accelerators were mounted at the INFN National Laboratories of Gran Sasso (LNGS) allowing to study nuclear reactions close to stellar energies. A summary of the relevant technology used, including accelerators, target production and characterisation, and background treatment is given. (orig.)

  3. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    CERN Document Server

    Heise, J

    2014-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the CUBED low-background counter. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability.

  4. Gel fire suppressants for controlling underground heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng-gen; XUE Sheng

    2011-01-01

    One of the major safety issues in coal mining is heatings and the resultant spontaneous combustion in underground coal mines.CSIRO researchers have developed a number of polymer gels suitable for controlling heatings in coal mines.These gels were developed to meet strict selection criteria including easy preparation,no or low toxicity,controllable gelation time,adaptable to mine water chemistry,adjustable viscosity,relatively long gel life,thermally and chemically stable and low cost.The HPAM-Aluminum Citrate gel system was identified to be the most favourable gel system for fire suppression in underground coal mines.These gels can be applied to the areas undergoing coal heating or gas leakage at a controllable gelation time and impermeable gel barriers can be formed in the areas to block ingress of air.

  5. Ventilation measurements at underground-mine regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.L.; Haney, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate practical and accurate methods for computing the air volumes passing through underground mine regulators and rectangular openings in stoppings. The first series of tests produced a revised regulator formula using the static pressure drop at the regulator and the area of the opening to calculate the volumetric flow through the regulator. An overall discharge coefficient was determined experimentally for all pressure losses at regulators. The second set of observations used 4-inch rotating vane anemometers to develop methods factors for velocity readings at underground regulators. Methods factors were determined by comparing the corrected measured velocity at the centerline of the openings with the average air velocity passing through the regulators. Methods factors were dependent on the size of the opening, the location of the reading (inlet or discharge side of the regulator), and the type of instrument support (rod-mounted or hand-held); they showed little dependence on the air velocity.

  6. Underground nuclear astrophysics: why and how

    CERN Document Server

    Best, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gyürky, Gy; Laubenstein, M; Napolitani, E; Rigato, V; Roca, V; Szücs, T

    2016-01-01

    The goal of nuclear astrophysics is to measure cross sections of nuclear physics reactions of interest in astrophysics. At stars temperatures, these cross sections are very low due to the suppression of the Coulomb barrier. Cosmic ray induced background can seriously limit the determination of reaction cross sections at energies relevant to astrophysical processes and experimental setups should be arranged in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Placing experiments in underground sites, however, reduces this background opening the way towards ultra low cross section determination. LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) was pioneer in this sense. Two accelerators were mounted at the INFN National Laboratories of Gran Sasso (LNGS) allowing to study nuclear reactions close to stellar energies. A summary of the relevant technology used, including accelerators, target production and characterisation, and background treatment is given.

  7. Underground caverns. a developing storage method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-15

    A report on papers given at the Rockstore 80 conference held recently in Stockholm covers the obstacles to subsurface storage of oil encountered in South and Central Europe, the US, and the Far East, where the geophysical conditions are not as favorable for the construction of underground structures as in Finland, Norway, and Sweden; the economic and environmental advantages of underground over aboveground storage; the technical problems involved in the creation of Gaz de France's pressure relief-operated gas storages in salt cavities, as well as in aquiferous beds, and the efforts of the company's subsidiary, Sofregaz, to solve these problems; and the design of a storage facility at Mesilat Zion, 20 km west of Jerusalem, which is now under construction for storing 7500 tons of LPG in lined caverns above the water table.

  8. Subjective evaluation of indoor environmental quality of underground shopping malls in central district of Chongqing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊敏; 张科; 蒲清平; 张英

    2009-01-01

    Good indoor environmental quality enhances occupant health,comfort and productivity. In order to know the status of indoor environmental quality of underground shopping malls,five large underground shopping malls in five central districts of Chongqing,China,were surveyed. 2 411 questionnaires were distributed,and 98.5% of them were returned. From the results of questionnaire survey,the following conclusions were obtained:(1) in the five underground shopping malls surveyed,only shopping mall D in Nan’an district accords with the ASHRAE standard for good indoor air quality; (2) odors and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms are widespread in the underground shopping malls. The SBS occurrence rates for women and salespersons are higher than those of men and customers,respectively; (3) in the evaluation of the indoor environment,the indoor air quality dissatisfaction rate is the highest,followed by the thermal environment; and (4) women and salespersons generally have higher rates of dissatisfaction with the indoor environmental quality of underground shopping malls than men and customers,respectively.

  9. Radio Active Waste Management: Underground Repository Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finding a solution for nuclear waste is a key issue, not only for the protection of the environment but also for the future of the nuclear industry. Ten years from now, when the first decisions for the replacement of existing nuclear power plants will have to be made, The general public will require to know the solution for nuclear waste before accepting new nuclear plants. In other words, an acceptable solution for the management of nuclear waste is a prerequisite for a renewal of nuclear power. Most existing wastes are being stored in safe conditions waiting for permanent solution, with some exceptions in the former Eastern Bloc. Temporary surface or shallow storage is a well known technique widely used all over the world. A significant research effort has been made by the author of this paper in the direction of underground repository. The underground repository appears to be a good solution. Trying to transform dangerous long lived radionuclides into less harmful short lived or stable elements is a logical idea. It is indeed possible to incinerate or transmute heavy atoms of long lived elements in fast breeder reactors or even in pressurised or boiling water reactors. There are also new types of reactors which could be used, namely accelerator driven systems. High level and long lived wastes (spent fuel and vitrified waste) contain a mixture of high activity (heat producing) short lived nuclides and low activity long lived alpha emitting nuclides. To avoid any alteration due to temperature of the engineered or geological barrier surrounding the waste underground, it is necessary to store the packages on the surface for several decades (50 years or more) to allow a sufficient temperature decrease before disposing of them underground. In all cases, surface (or shallow) storage is needed as a temporary solution. This paper gives a detailed and comprehensive view of the Deep Geological Repository, providing a pragmatic picture of the means to make this method, a

  10. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  11. Underground Muon Physics with the MACRO experiment

    OpenAIRE

    M. SioliUniversity and INFN, Bologna; for the MACRO Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Underground muon events detected by the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso have been studied for different purposes. The studies include the vertical muon intensity measurement, multiplicity distribution, lateral and angular muon distribution and searches for substructures inside muon bundles. These analyses have contributed to bring new insights in cosmic ray physics, in particular in the framework of primary cosmic ray composition studies. Moreover, this activity allows the testing and tuning o...

  12. Heavy context dependence --- decisions of underground soldiers

    CERN Document Server

    Kułakowski, K; Krawczyk, M J

    2015-01-01

    An attempt is made to simulate the disclosure of underground soldiers in terms of theory of networks. The coupling mechanism between the network nodes is the possibility that a disclosed soldier is going to disclose also his acquaintances. We calculate the fraction of disclosed soldiers as dependent on the fraction of those who, once disclosed, reveal also their colleagues. The simulation is immersed in the historical context of the Polish Home Army under the communist rule in 1946-49.

  13. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota, has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-search dark matter experiments and the Fermilab-led international long-baseline neutrino program. Planning to understand the infrastructure developments necessary to accommodate these future projects is well advanced and in some cases have already started. SURF is a dedicated research facility with significant expansion capability

  14. Intelligent Scheduling for Underground Mobile Mining Equipment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Song

    Full Text Available Many studies have been carried out and many commercial software applications have been developed to improve the performances of surface mining operations, especially for the loader-trucks cycle of surface mining. However, there have been quite few studies aiming to improve the mining process of underground mines. In underground mines, mobile mining equipment is mostly scheduled instinctively, without theoretical support for these decisions. Furthermore, in case of unexpected events, it is hard for miners to rapidly find solutions to reschedule and to adapt the changes. This investigation first introduces the motivation, the technical background, and then the objective of the study. A decision support instrument (i.e. schedule optimizer for mobile mining equipment is proposed and described to address this issue. The method and related algorithms which are used in this instrument are presented and discussed. The proposed method was tested by using a real case of Kittilä mine located in Finland. The result suggests that the proposed method can considerably improve the working efficiency and reduce the working time of the underground mine.

  15. Ionospheric Effects of Underground Nuclear Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; von Frese, R. R.; G-Brzezinska, D. A.; Morton, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Telemetry from the Russian INTERCOSMOS 24 satellite recorded ELF and VLF electromagnetic disturbances in the outer ionosphere from an underground nuclear explosion that was detonated at Novaya Zemlya Island on 24 October 1994. The IC24 satellite observations were obtained at about 900 km altitude within a few degrees of ground zero. The disturbances were interpreted for magnetohydrodynamic excitation of the ionosphere’s E layer by the acoustic wave. Electrons are accelerated along the magnetic force lines to amplify longitudinal currents and magnetic disturbances that may be measured by magnetometers at ground-based observatories and on-board satellites. The underground nuclear test near P’unggye, North Korea on 25 May 2009 provides a further significant opportunity for studying the utility of ionospheric disturbances for characterizing ground zero. Of the seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic, and radionuclide detection elements of the International Monitoring System (IMS) established by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), only the first two elements detected this event. However, the event also appears to have been recorded as a direct traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) in the slant total electron content (TEC) observations derived from a network of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. The TID was observed to distances of at least 600 km from the explosion site propagating with a speed of about 281m/s. Thus, the global distributions and temporal variations of the TEC, may provide important information to help detect and characterize clandestine underground nuclear explosions.

  16. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    CERN Document Server

    Heise, Jaret

    2015-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota has been transformed into a dedicated facility to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e.) and currently hosts two main physics projects: the LUX dark matter experiment and the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment. In addition, two low-background counters currently operate at the Davis Campus in support of current and future experiments. Expansion of the underground laboratory space is underway at the 4850L Ross Campus in order to maintain and enhance low-background assay capabilities as well as to host a unique nuclear astrophysics accelerator facility. Plans to accommodate other future experiments at SURF are also underway and include the next generation of direct-sea...

  17. Dispersion mechanics in underground mine ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standish, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    Application of Dispersion Mechanics to mine ventilation surveys is studied using C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ tracer release and detection on the 2 Drill level at Elura Mine, Cobar, NSW. Preliminary calibration work of the measuring systems in the laboratory and in a large test rig together with the results obtained is reported. It is found that the results in these non-mining systems closely follow the results of Dispersion Mechanics theory for a dispersed plug flow model. For the underground conditions studied the results of tracer studies show that the ventilating air flow is layered or segregated in a tube bundle pattern. These tracer results are reproduced by the results of traditional anemometer readings obtained under the same flow conditions. The results also show that the ventilating air flow under actual underground conditions is characterized by transient behavior which appears to be normal behavior of the ventilating air in underground workings. Application of the results to practice is included.

  18. Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In situ coal gasification poses a potential environmental risk to groundwater pollution although it depends mainly on local hydrogeological conditions.In our investigation, the possible processes of groundwater pollution originating from underground coal gasification (UCG) were analyzed.Typical pollutants were identified and pollution control measures are proposed.Groundwater pollution is caused by the diffusion and penetration of contaminants generated by underground gasification processes towards surrounding strata and the possible leaching of underground residue by natural groundwater flow after gasification.Typical organic pollutants include phenols, benzene, minor components such as PAHs and heterocyclics.Inorganic pollutants involve cations and anions.The natural groundwater flow after gasification through the seam is attributable to the migration of contaminants, which can be predicted by mathematical modeling.The extent and concentration of the groundwater pollution plume depend primarily on groundwater flow velocity, the degree of dispersion and the adsorption and reactions of the various contaminants.The adsorption function of coal and surrounding strata make a big contribution to the decrease of the contaminants over time and with the distance from the burn cavity.Possible pollution control measures regarding UCG include identifying a permanently, unsuitable zone, setting a hydraulic barrier and pumping contaminated water out for surface disposal.Mitigation measures during gasification processes and groundwater remediation after gasification are also proposed.

  19. Assessment of the underground disposal of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) of Canada is facing the issue of long-term disposal of uranium tailings. One option that has not been examined in sufficient detail for the AECB is the retrieval of tailings from surface impoundments and subsequent placement of those tailings in underground workings of mines. This report is structured like a catalogue of facts and information, with each paragraph presenting some concept, concern, theory, or case study involving the retrieval or placement of tailings. All relevant information, findings, interpretations, conclusions, and recommendations gathered during the course of this study are included. The Table of Contents illustrates the striking number of relevant topics and acts like a flowchart or checklist to ensure that an underground-disposal submission by a mining company has addressed relevant topics. This report explains in detail the implications of disturbing surface-impounded tailings for the purpose of placing only some of the volume underground. The cumulative environmental, safety, and monetary liabilities of such a partial scheme can be discouraging in some cases. (author). 244 refs., 47 tabs., 17 figs

  20. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  1. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmin; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Joon

    2015-01-01

    The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures) for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM). The implementation consists of four phases: (1) geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2) implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3) accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4) creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system. PMID:26690174

  2. Development of a 3D Underground Cadastral System with Indoor Mapping for As-Built BIM: The Case Study of Gangnam Subway Station in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmin Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cadastral system provides land ownership information by registering and representing land boundaries on a map. The current cadastral system in Korea, however, focuses mainly on the management of 2D land-surface boundaries. It is not yet possible to provide efficient or reliable land administration, as this 2D system cannot support or manage land information on 3D properties (including architectures and civil infrastructures for both above-ground and underground facilities. A geometrical model of the 3D parcel, therefore, is required for registration of 3D properties. This paper, considering the role of the cadastral system, proposes a framework for a 3D underground cadastral system that can register various types of 3D underground properties using indoor mapping for as-built Building Information Modeling (BIM. The implementation consists of four phases: (1 geometric modeling of a real underground infrastructure using terrestrial laser scanning data; (2 implementation of as-built BIM based on geometric modeling results; (3 accuracy assessment for created as-built BIM using reference points acquired by total station; and (4 creation of three types of 3D underground cadastral map to represent underground properties. The experimental results, based on indoor mapping for as-built BIM, show that the proposed framework for a 3D underground cadastral system is able to register the rights, responsibilities, and restrictions corresponding to the 3D underground properties. In this way, clearly identifying the underground physical situation enables more reliable and effective decision-making in all aspects of the national land administration system.

  3. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  4. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  5. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these s...

  6. Money, «Laissez-Faire» and the Underground Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasimos T. Soldatos; Zikos, Spyros

    2000-01-01

    The fact that the use of money enables underground transactions to be kept undetected by the authorities, implies that its variation changes this ability too, thus imposing transaction costs. Variations in money alter in addition the interest rate and hence, the opportunity cost of holding money, which is another money related factor affecting underground economy. The present paper argues that this double role of money makes it useful in controlling underground activities, more useful than a ...

  7. The effects of the underground economy on economic competitiviness

    OpenAIRE

    Donici, Gabriel-Andrei/GA

    2012-01-01

    A real, almost palpable, connection exists between the official and the underground economy. More than that, both sides of the economy (official and underground) are connected with the competitiveness of a country. Strangely a large presence of undereground in the economy is a sign of competitiveness. Although we would be tempted to say that underground is bad for competitiveness the reality is that due to taxes and regulations the resources (especially the human ones) used ”illegaly” would p...

  8. Money, "laissez-faire" and the underground economy

    OpenAIRE

    Σολδάτος, Γεράσιμος; Ζήκος, Σπύρος

    2000-01-01

    The fact that the use of money enables underground transactions to be kept undetected by the authorities, implies that its variation changes this ability too, thus imposing transaction costs. Variations in money alter in addition the interest rate and hence, the opportunity cost of holding money, which is another money related factor affecting underground economy. The present paper argues that this double role of money makes it useful in controlling underground activities, more...

  9. Cascade recursion models of computing the temperatures of underground layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Liqun; BI Siwen; SONG Shixin

    2006-01-01

    An RBF neural network was used to construct computational models of the underground temperatures of different layers, using ground-surface parameters and the temperatures of various underground layers. Because series recursion models also enable researchers to use above-ground surface parameters to compute the temperatures of different underground layers, this method provides a new way of using thermal infrared remote sensing to monitor the suture zones of large areas of blocks and to research thermal anomalies in geologic structures.

  10. A Matching Model of Endogenous Growth and Underground Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Lisi; Maurizio Pugno

    2012-01-01

    A matching model will explain both unemployment and economic growth by considering the underground sector and human capital. Three problems can thus be simultaneously accounted for: (i) the persistence of the underground sector, (ii) the ambiguous relationships between underground employment and unemployment, and (iii) between growth and unemployment. Key assumptions are that entrepreneurial ability is heterogeneous, skill accumulation determines productivity growth, job-seekers choose whethe...

  11. The Underground Economy in a Matching Model of Endogenous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Lisi, Gaetano; Pugno, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    A matching model will explain both unemployment and economic growth by considering the underground sector. Three problems can thus be simultaneously accounted for: (i) the persistence of underground economy, (ii) the ambiguous relationships between underground employment and unemployment, and (iii) between growth and unemployment. The key assumptions adopted are that entrepreneurial ability is heterogeneous across individuals; skill accumulation determines productivity growth in the regular s...

  12. Grounding Effect on Common Mode Interference of Underground Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Qiang; Cheng, Ning; LI Zhen-shuang

    2013-01-01

    For the neutral point not grounded characteristics of underground power supply system in coal mine, this paper studied common mode equivalent circuit of underground PWM inverter, and extracted parasitic parameters of interference propagation path. The author established a common mode and differential mode model of underground inverter. Taking into account the rise time of PWM, the simulation results of conducted interference by Matlab software is compared with measurement spectrum on the AC s...

  13. POTENSI PENERIMAAN PAJAK DARI UNDERGROUND ECONOMY DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nizar, Muhammad Afdi; Purnomo, Kuntarto

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to estimate the size of underground economy activities in Indonesia. Based on the results of these estimates, further calculated the potential tax loss due to the existence of underground economy activities. This study was conducted using quantitative approaches, namely currency demand model which is estimated by ordinary least square (OLS) method. By using time series (quarterly) data period 2000 – 2009 we found that the size of underground economy is about Rp164, 4 trill...

  14. POTENSI PENERIMAAN PAJAK DARI UNDERGROUND ECONOMY DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nizar, Muhammad Afdi; Purnomo, Kuntarto

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to estimate the size of underground economy activities in Indonesia. Based on the results of these estimates, further calculated the potential tax loss due to the existence of underground economy activities. This study was conducted using quantitative approaches, namely currency demand model which is estimated by ordinary least square (OLS) method. By using time series (quarterly) data period 2000 – 2009 we found that the size of underground economy is about Rp164, 4 trillion ...

  15. Entrepreneurial Opportunity in Denmark’s Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Dana, L-P; Vang, Jan;

    Based on interviews with immigrants to Denmark, meetings with stakeholders and with experts in the field, this article addresses issues regarding the underground economy in Denmark. What circumstances and factors characterise specific sectors or breaches to the ones in which undocumented immigran...... participate in underground economic activities? Is the underground economy a pull factor for irregular/undocumented migration?......Based on interviews with immigrants to Denmark, meetings with stakeholders and with experts in the field, this article addresses issues regarding the underground economy in Denmark. What circumstances and factors characterise specific sectors or breaches to the ones in which undocumented immigrants...

  16. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Andreas; Junker, Matthias; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Laubenstein, Matthias; Long, Alexander; Nisi, Stefano; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of He-3 counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  17. Alternative constructional measures to tighten up on security in surface nuclear plants as compared with underground nuclear power plants for extreme loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the exception of projectile impact surface constructions have a less high safety potential than underground nuclear power plants. All measures proposed to tighten up on security can be carried out indenpendently of the building foundations, but the measures for hypothetical internal accidents are very costly. (DG)

  18. Personal Dosimetry Enhancement for Underground Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thinová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal dosimetry for underground workers mainly concerns measurement of the concentration of radon (and its daughters and the correct application of the data in dose calculation, using a biokinetic model for lung dosimetry. A conservative approach for estimating the potential dose in caves (or underground is based on solid state alpha track detector measurements. The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose in agreement with the ICRP recommendations using the “cave factor”, the value of which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached and the attached fraction and on the equilibrium factor. The main difference between apartments and caves is the absence of aerosol sources, high humidity, low ventilation rate and the uneven surface in caves. A more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies or on restricting the time workers stay underground. In order to determine  how the effective dose is calculated, it is necessary to divide these areas into distinct categories by the following measuring procedures: continual radon measurement (to capture the differences in EERC between working hours and night-time, and also between daily and seasonal radon concentration variations; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoils and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; aerosol particle-size spectrum measurements to determine the free fraction; monitoring the behaviour of guides and workers to record the actual time spent in the cave, in relation to the continuously monitored levels of Rn concentration. 

  19. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.;

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...... over all of the tracking detector area and even extending over to the satellite station are identified as EAS. The recorded multiplicity spectrum of the events is in general agreement with CORSIKA EAS simulation and demonstrates the array's capability of EAS detection....

  20. Underground-brändien rakentuminen

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Markkinajohtajuudesta eri toimialoilla taistelevat usein suuret ja kauan toiminnassa olleet brändit, joiden haastaminen saattaa olla vaikeaa. Brändinrakennus kannattaakin suunnata näiden suurien brändien väliin jääviin tyhjiin markkinarakoihin. Yksi esimerkki tällaisesta hyvin hyödynnetystä markkinaraosta ovat underground-brändit, joiden brändinrakennuksen lähtökohtana ei ole kilpailla toimialan suurien brändien kanssa, vaan hallita omaa markkinarakoaan kohdennetulla tarjonnallaan. Niiden tav...

  1. Wages, unemployment, and the underground economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2003-01-01

    While examining the macroeconomic effects of increased governmentcontrol of the informal sector, this paper develops a two-sectorgeneral equilibrium model featuring matching frictions and worker-firm wage bargaining. Workers search for jobs in both the formaland the informal sector. We analyse...... the impact of higher punishmentrates and a higher audit rate on labour market performance. We findthat a higher punishment rate reduces the size of the informal sectorand reduces unemployment. A higher audit rate has an ambiguousimpact on unemployment, and may actually increase the size of theunderground...... economy.JEL-codes: H26Keywords: Tax evasion, underground economy, matching, bargaining,unemployment....

  2. VIRTUS. Virtual underground laboratory in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germany does not have an underground laboratory to study the behavior of geological formations for the use as final repository for radioactive high-level wastes. VIRTUS was developed to have an adequate tool to study the complex and safety relevant processes in geological structures for a fast and effective planning and testing of final repository design. The three-dimensional visualization of the numerical simulations results will help n the scientists and the interested public to understand the process flows in a final repository.

  3. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory: Status and Prospectives

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a 20 kton liquid scintillator (LS) detector, which is planed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and measure the oscillation parameters at the sub-percent level using reactor antineutrino oscillations. As a multipurpose neutrino experiment, JUNO is also capable of measuring supernova burst neutrinos, the diffuse supernova neutrino background, geo-neutrinos, solar neutrinos and atmospheric neutrinos. After a brief introduction to the physics motivation, we discuss the status of the JUNO project, including the design of the detector systems. Finally the latest civil progress and future prospectives are also highlighted.

  4. The homestake surface-underground scintillations: Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbato, S.; Daily, T.; Fenyves, E. J.; Kieda, D.; Cherry, M. L.; Lande, K.; Lee, C. K.

    1985-01-01

    Two new detectors are currently under construction at the Homestake Gold Mine a 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) with an upper surface area of 130 square meters, a geometry factor (for an isotropic flux) of 1200 square meters, sr, and a depth of 4200 m.w.e.; and a surface air shower array consisting of 100 scintillator elements, each 3 square meters, spanning an area of approximately square kilometers. Underground, half of the LASD is currently running and collecting muon data; on the surface, the first section of the air shower array will begin operation in the spring of 1985. The detectors and their capabilities are described.

  5. Homestake surface-underground scintillations: description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new detectors are currently under construction at the Homestake Gold Mine, a 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) with an upper surface area of 130 square meters a geometry factor (for an isotropic flux) of 1200 square meters sr, and a depth of 4200 m.w.e.; and a surface air shower array consisting of 100 scintillator elements, each 3 square meters. Underground, half of the LASD is currently running and collecting muon data; on the surface, the first section of the air shower array will begin operation in the spring of 1985. The detectors and their capabilities are described

  6. Monopoles and the Homestake underground scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Together, the two new Homestake detectors will be used to search for slow, massive magnetic monopoles; to study the zenith angle distribution of neutrino-induced muons; to search for neutrino bursts from the gravitational collapse of massive stars; to measure the multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of cosmic ray muons; and to study the composition of the primary cosmic rays. Both instruments have been described in detail elsewhere; the authors discuss here the capabilities of the underground device as a detector of slow magnetic monopoles

  7. Underground storage of gas in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantin, C.; Leblanc, B.

    1981-01-01

    In areas lacking geologic formations suitable for aquiferous storage, salt caverns can serve as underground storage reservoirs if (1) the salt layers are thick enough (over 500 ft) and deep enough (1650-5000 ft), (2) the average concentration of insolubles is less than about 25%, (3) the layer of insolubles is less than 3 ft thick, (4) the distribution of insolubles is homogeneous enough, and (5) the brine can be discharged at a 10,600-14,000 ft/sup 3//hr flow rate. The development and operation of a typical salt-cavern storage reservoir, including leaching techniques and control equipment are described.

  8. Fire extinguishing in goaf of underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalov, N.I.; Belik, I.P.; Krupka, A.A.; Taratuta, S.N. (VNIIGD (USSR))

    1990-09-01

    Discusses a scheme developed by the VNIIGD institute for fire fighting in underground coal mines with or without fire hazards. Inert gases are used for fire extinguishing. The following aspects of fire fighting are discussed: isolation of a mine zone with a developing fire, position of ventilation barriers, other methods for control of air leaks, position of the GIG-4 inert gas generator, supply of inert gases to a fire center, position of blowers, operation of an automatic system for analysis of fire gases and for measuring concentration of individual components, automatic control of inert gas supply. A scheme of the system is discussed.

  9. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  10. Assessment of phosphogypsum utilisation in underground hard coal mines in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialecka, B. [Central Mining Institute, Katewice (Poland)

    2003-12-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product obtained during the production of phosphoric acid. Over 100 million tons of phosphogypsum are produced annually world-wide, most of which is dumped. In countries of the European Union, dumping of waste products is a last resort and not the recommended means of disposal. For years, ecologically and economically sound means have been sought for the use of bulk amounts of phosphogypsum, including in farming, the construction industry and in the production of building materials. This study analysis of the potential for use of phosphogypsum in hard coal mining for: (I) precipitation of radioactive components from underground mine waters; (ii) suppression of coal dust explosions; and (iii) filling of underground mine workings. It presents an overview of the following areas: (I) a review of methods of phosphogypsum utilisation; (ii) an analysis of Polish laws regulating the application of phosphogypsum in underground mines; and (iii) an analysis of hard coal mining from the point of view of the potential use of phosphogypsum.

  11. Encountering and Integration of Municipal Roads and Underground Space Engineering---Design of Underground Space Engineering Hebin Road and Jianguo Road in Xining%市政道路与地下空间工程的相遇与融合--西宁滨河路和建国路地下空间工程设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文

    2015-01-01

    Through exploration and practice on design of super large-scaled underground space engineering of Hebin Road and Jianguo Road before Xining Railway Station, confliction of arrangement of the municipal roads and underground space engineering, integration of the super large scaled underground super market and underground pedestrian passage, coordination of the super large-scaled super market and munici-pal roads, design of fire protection of the underground space engineering, and design of the super large-scaled underground parking, etc are designed and demonstrated.The building cover without girder and the pallet expanded column cap applied by the underground structures are the ones which are applicable, economic and developed widely.Application of the lighting tracing mirror by buildings satisfies requirements on guidance of the green building development.%通过对西宁火车站站前滨河路和建国路特大型地下空间工程设计的探索与实践,就市政道路与地下空间工程的布置矛盾、超大型地下商场与地下人行通道的融合问题、超大型地下商场与城市道路的协调问题、地下空间工程防火设计、特大型地下汽车停车场设计等问题进行了设计论证。提出地下建筑物结构采用无梁楼盖、托板式扩大柱帽结构形式是可以大量推广的、经济适用的结构形式。采用建筑采光追逐镜新技术符合国家开展绿色建筑行动的倡导。

  12. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study's products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge

  13. A GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage in northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, Michael; Malte, Schwanebeck; Ehsan, Biniyaz; Rainer, Duttmann

    2015-04-01

    We would like to present the concept and current state of development of a GIS-based 3D online information system for underground energy storage. Its aim is to support the local authorities through pre-selection of possible sites for thermal, electrical and substantial underground energy storages. Since the extension of renewable energies has become legal requirement in Germany, the underground storing of superfluously produced green energy (such as during a heavy wind event) in the form of compressed air, gas or heated water has become increasingly important. However, the selection of suitable sites is a complex task. The presented information system uses data of geological features such as rock layers, salt domes and faults enriched with attribute data such as rock porosity and permeability. This information is combined with surface data of the existing energy infrastructure, such as locations of wind and biogas stations, powerline arrangement and cable capacity, and energy distribution stations. Furthermore, legal obligations such as protected areas on the surface and current underground mining permissions are used for the process of pre-selecting sites suitable for energy storage. Not only the current situation but also prospective scenarios, such as expected growth in produced amount of energy are incorporated in the system. While the process of pre-selection itself is completely automated, the user has full control of the weighting of the different factors via the web interface. The system is implemented as an online 3D server GIS environment, so that it can easily be utilized in any web browser. The results are visualized online as interactive 3d graphics. The information system is implemented in the Python programming language in combination with current Web standards, and is build using only free and open source software. It is being developed at Kiel University as part of the ANGUS+ project (lead by Prof. Sebastian Bauer) for the federal state of

  14. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  15. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  16. Use of a Sheath in Concealing Underground Explosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Viswanathan

    1966-10-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical formula is obtained for the decoupling of the seismic signals from underground explosions due to the introduction of a sheath of a stronger material on the cavity walls. The elastic-elastic decoupling clearly enhances the value of the elastic-nonelastic decoupling factor already known. The theory has applications in the concealing of underground nuclear and chemical explosions.

  17. On Future Coal Mining and Human Underground Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, L.

    1980-01-01

    The IIASA Research Program for 1980 includes two Industry Studies under the general heading "Issues for the Eighties". The first of these industry studies is in Coal, in particular hard coal mining underground. This Professional Paper provides background material for a discussion of new mining technologies, e.g., robot mining devices, to be considered in the context of anticipated shortage of underground manpower.

  18. Urban Underground Pipelines Mapping Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground spaces are now being given attention to exploit for transportation, utilities, and public usage. The underground has become a spider's web of utility networks. Mapping of underground utility pipelines has become a challenging and difficult task. As such, mapping of underground utility pipelines is a ''hit-and-miss'' affair, and results in many catastrophic damages, particularly in urban areas. Therefore, this study was conducted to extract locational information of the urban underground utility pipeline using trenchless measuring tool, namely ground penetrating radar (GPR). The focus of this study was to conduct underground utility pipeline mapping for retrieval of geometry properties of the pipelines, using GPR. In doing this, a series of tests were first conducted at the preferred test site and real-life experiment, followed by modeling of field-based model using Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD). Results provide the locational information of underground utility pipelines associated with its mapping accuracy. Eventually, this locational information of the underground utility pipelines is beneficial to civil infrastructure management and maintenance which in the long term is time-saving and critically important for the development of metropolitan areas

  19. The Stranger Within: Dostoevsky's Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In Fyodor Dostoevsky's influential novel "Notes from underground", we find one of the most memorable characters in nineteenth century literature. The Underground Man, around whom everything else in this book revolves, is in some respects utterly repugnant: he is self-centred, obsessive and cruel. Yet he is also highly intelligent,…

  20. Magneto-Inductive Underground Communications in a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon;

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of underground data communications is investigated by employing magnetic induction as the key technology at physical layer. Realizing an underground wireless sensor network for a district heating plant motivates this research problem. The main contribution of the paper is to find...

  1. 30 CFR 75.340 - Underground electrical installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground electrical installations. 75.340 Section 75.340 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... electrical installations. (a) Underground transformer stations, battery charging stations,...

  2. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new largescale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of 3He counters and polyethylene moderators we measured the thermal and epithermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented and the consequences for future underground measurements of neutron producing reactions for nuclear astrophysics are discussed. (author)

  3. An investigation into underground navigation using electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tillema, N J

    2000-01-01

    findings. The lateral wave starts at the source underground, travels to the boundary, follows the air-ground boundary and then propagates back into the ground to the receiver antenna. As the wave travels a significant part of its path in air, it was less susceptible to irregularities underground. Measurement of the phase has shown it to be sensitive to errors caused by reflections. This was the reason why reliable information of the phase was not always available during the measurements. The field trials have shown the possibility of using electromagnetic waves to track a moving transmitter underground. Any system that estimates the underground displacement of the transmitter should have two or more receiver antennas. The experiments have shown a possible accuracy of such a system of approximately 2 m or less. This thesis explores the possibility of measuring the movement of an underground transmitter using electromagnetic waves. The displacement of the transmitter was estimated based on the magnitude and pha...

  4. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a {open_quotes}paste{close_quotes} mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for placing the coal combustion by-products underground, and to conduct a demonstration of the technologies on the surface. Therefore, this quarter has been largely devoted to developing specifications for equipment components, visiting fabrication plants throughout Southern Illinois to determine their capability for building the equipment components in compliance with the specifications, and delivering the components in a timely manner.

  5. Sanford Underground Research Facility - The United State's Deep Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2.5 km deep Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is managed by the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA) at the former Homestake Mine site in Lead, South Dakota. The US Department of Energy currently supports the development of the facility using a phased approach for underground deployment of experiments as they obtain an advanced design stage. The geology of the Sanford Laboratory site has been studied during the 125 years of operations at the Homestake Mine and more recently as part of the preliminary geotechnical site investigations for the NSF's Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory project. The overall geology at DUSEL is a well-defined stratigraphic sequence of schist and phyllites. The three major Proterozoic units encountered in the underground consist of interbedded schist, metasediments, and amphibolite schist which are crosscut by Tertiary rhyolite dikes. Preliminary geotechnical site investigations included drift mapping, borehole drilling, borehole televiewing, in-situ stress analysis, laboratory analysis of core, mapping and laser scanning of new excavations, modeling and analysis of all geotechnical information. The investigation was focused upon the determination if the proposed site rock mass could support the world's largest (66 meter diameter) deep underground excavation. While the DUSEL project has subsequently been significantly modified, these data are still available to provide a baseline of the ground conditions which may be judiciously extrapolated throughout the entire Proterozoic rock assemblage for future excavations. Recommendations for facility instrumentation and monitoring were included in the preliminary design of the DUSEL project design and include; single and multiple point extensometers, tape extensometers and convergence measurements (pins), load cells and pressure cells, smart cables, inclinometers/Tiltmeters, Piezometers, thermistors, seismographs and accelerometers, scanners (laser

  6. Low frequency vibration tests on a floating slab track in an underground laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-yun DING; Wei-ning LIU; Ke-fei LI; Xiao-jing SUN; Wei-feng LIU

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency vibrations induced by underground railways have attracted increasing attention in recent years. To obtain the characteristics of low frequency vibrations and the low frequency performance of a floating slab track (FST), low frequency vibration tests on an FST in an underground laboratory at Beijing Jiaotong University were carried out. The FST and an unbalanced shaker SBZ30 for dynamic simulation were designed for use in low frequency vibration experiments. Vibration measurements were performed on the bogie of the unbalanced shaker, the rail, the slab, the tunnel invert, the tunnel wall, the tunnel apex, and on the ground surface at distances varying from 0 to 80 m from the track. Measurements were also made on several floors of an adjacent building. Detailed results of low frequency vibration tests were reported. The attenuation of low frequency vibrations with the distance from the track was presented, as well as the responses of different floors of the building. The experimental results could be regarded as a reference for developing methods to control low frequency vibrations and for adopting countermeasures.

  7. NECESSITY FOR UNDERGROUND RESEARCH LABORATORY IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želimir Vejnović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plant (NPP Krško has a license to operate until 2023, and under the current agreement between the Republic of Slovenia and the Republic of Croatia, countries are bound to dispose one half of radioactive waste produced during the operation time and after decommissioning of NPP each. Safe long-term management of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel represents one of the most important issues of the modern world. The best way to provide practical demonstration of repository’s safety, which will be one of convincing arguments in the process of licensing future repository, is developed underground research laboratory (URL. Existence of URL open to international co-operation would certainly improve the international recognition and credibility of Croatian programme, as well as allow dissemination of scientific research results to a broader scientific community (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. Underground research laboratory room 209 instrument array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in situ excavation response test was conducted at the 240 level of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL). The test was carried out in conjunction with drill and blast excavation of a near-circular tunnel, about 3.5 m in diameter. The tunnel was excavated through a tunnel axis. Three modelling groups made predictions of the response of the rock mass and hydraulic behaviour of the water-bearing fracture to excavation. Two of the groups used the three-dimensional Finite-element Method and one group used the Discontinuous Deformation Analysis Method. Both methods predicted displacements and stress changes that agreed reasonably well with the measured response, but none of the methods predicted the hydraulic response of the fracture

  9. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Akerib, D S; Bedikian, S; Bernard, E; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Camp, C; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Carr, D; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A; Chiller, C; Clark, K; Classen, T; Coffey, T; Curioni, A; Dahl, E; Dazeley, S; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dragowsky, E; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M; Hall, C; Hanhardt, M; Holbrook, B; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Knoche, R; Kyre, S; Kwong, J; Lander, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Leonard, D S; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lyashenko, A; Malling, D C; Mannino, R; Marquez, Z; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D -M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morii, M; Nelson, H; Neves, F; Nikkel, J A; Pangilinan, M; Parker, P D; Pease, E K; Pech, K; Phelps, P; Rodionov, A; Roberts, P; Shei, A; Shutt, T; Silva, C; Skulski, W; Solovov, V N; Sofka, C J; Sorensen, P; Spaans, J; Stiegler, T; Stolp, D; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D; Thomson, J; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, D; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Wlasenko, M; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2012-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles(WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross section per nucleon of $2\\times 10^{-46}$ cm$^{2}$, equivalent to $\\sim$1 event/100 kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have $<$1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector.

  10. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  11. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  12. Homestake surface-underground scintillators: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first 70 tons of the 140-ton Large Area Scintillation Detector (LASD) have been operating since Jan. 1985 at a depth of 4850 ft. (4200 m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine, Lead, S.D. A total of 4 x 10(4) high-energy muons (E sub mu is approx. 2.7 TeV at the surface) have been detected. The remainder of the detector is scheduled to be in operation by the Fall of 1985. In addition, a surface air shower array is under construction. The first 27 surface counters, spaced out over an area of 270' x 500', began running in June, 1985. The LASD performance, the potential of the combined shower array and underground muon experiment for detecting point sources, and the initial results of a search for periodic emission from Cygnus X-3 are discussed

  13. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity

  14. Notes from the underground: a cultural, political, and aesthetic mapping of underground music

    OpenAIRE

    GRAHAM, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The term 'underground music‘, in my account, connects various forms of music-making that exist largely outside 'mainstream‘ cultural discourse, such as Drone Metal, Free Improvisation, Power Electronics, and DIY Noise, amongst others. Its connotations of concealment and obscurity indicate what I argue to be the music‘s central tenets of cultural reclusion, political independence, and aesthetic experiment. In response to a lack of scholarly discussion of this music, my thesis provides a cultur...

  15. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  16. Wiener filtering with a seismic underground array at the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seismic array has been deployed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in the former Homestake mine, South Dakota, USA, to study the underground seismic environment. This includes exploring the advantages of constructing a third-generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector underground. A major noise source for these detectors would be Newtonian noise (NN), which is induced by fluctuations in the local gravitational field. The hope is that a combination of a low-noise seismic environment and coherent noise subtraction using seismometers in the vicinity of the detector could suppress the NN to below the projected noise floor for future GW detectors. In this paper, certain properties of the NN subtraction problem are studied by applying similar techniques to data of a seismic array. We use Wiener filtering techniques to subtract coherent noise in a seismic array in the frequency band 0.05–1 Hz. This achieves more than an order of magnitude noise cancellation over a majority of this band. The variation in the Wiener-filter coefficients over the course of the day, including how local activities impact the filter, is analyzed. We also study the variation in coefficients over the course of a month, showing the stability of the filter with time. How varying the filter order affects the subtraction performance is also explored. It is shown that optimizing filter order can significantly improve subtraction of seismic noise. (paper)

  17. Wiener filtering with a seismic underground array at the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael; Christensen, Nelson; Dergachev, Vladimir; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Kandhasamy, Shivaraj; Mandic, Vuk

    2014-01-01

    A seismic array has been deployed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in the former Homestake mine, South Dakota, to study the underground seismic environment. This includes exploring the advantages of constructing a third-generation gravitational-wave detector underground. A major noise source would be Newtonian noise, which is induced by fluctuations in the local gravitational field. The hope is that a combination of a low-noise seismic environment and coherent noise subtraction using seismometers in the vicinity of the detector could suppress the Newtonian noise to required levels. In this paper, we use Wiener filtering techniques to subtract coherent noise in a seismic array in the form of oceanic microseisms. We achieve more than an order of magnitude noise cancellation between about 0.05-0.5 Hz. We examine the variation in the Wiener filter coefficients over the course of the day, showing how local activities impact the filter. We also study the variation in coefficients over the course of a mo...

  18. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  19. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  20. Occurrence of radon in the Polish underground tourist routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Olszewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are about 200 underground tourist routes in Poland. There are caves, mines or underground structures. This paper presents the results of the research intended to identify the extent of the occurrence of radon concentrations in underground areas of tourist routes. Material and Methods: We conducted the measurement of periodic concentrations of radon (1–2 months in the summer using type Tastrak trace detectors. We determined the average concentrations of radon in air in 66 underground tourist routes in Poland. Results: The research results comprise 259 determinations of average radon concentrations in 66 routes. The arithmetic average of the results was 1610 Bqm–3, and the maximum measured concentration was over 20 000 Bqm–3. The minimum concentration was 100 Bqm–3 (threshold method considering the arithmetic average of the measurements. It was found that in 67% of the routes, the average concentration of radon has exceeded 300 Bqm–3 and in 22 underground routes it exceeded 1000 Bqm–3. Conclusions: Radon which occurs in many Polish underground tourist routes may be an organizational, legal and health problem. It is necessary to develop a program of measures to reduce radon concentrations in underground routes, especially routes located in the former mines. Med Pr 2015;66(4:557–563

  1. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  2. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family's native language) is taught as the child's second language through reading, writing, speech, and use of residual ... that parents can use to help their child learn language. There are many types of building blocks, and ...

  3. Lunar Underground Mining and Construction : A Terrestrial Vision enabling Space Exploration and Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Greg; Grenier, Louis; Blair, Brad

    As the Space Shuttle, Candarm and Space Station near their useful extended lives before the end of this decade, the question "What will be the next frontier for humans and robots to explore and how will we get there?" needs to be considered. Several countries are planning their next take on the exploration of the solar system. The moon is still a viable destination for several countries for two main reasons: the recent discovery of water improves the prospects of a basic infrastructure capability that would enable future commercial interests to drive the impetus to deploy profitable operations in the near future. The commercial appeal to establish a permanent lunar base should rise in this decade with the prospect of using natural resources available, in particular recently found water. The ability to break water into hydrogen and oxygen for providing the main necessities of life, rocket fuel and air to breathe make this permanent base feasible. Furthermore, several significant environmental issues will force this permanent base underground. These issues include lunar radiation, solar flares, temperature extremes and micro-meteorites. Lunar radiation alone will force this move to rock shielding protection of astronauts as at least 10 metres of rock cover will be required to protect human, animals and plants. As early as 1959 the placecountry-regionUS army considered a permanent underground base on the moon. While the original underground idea has merit space pioneers have strayed from this sensible safe concept. Furthermore, advances in proven telerobotic min-ing technology for terrestrial purposes can provide the opportunity for the commercial interests and perhaps government space programs to consider the concept, design, build and implement an underground lunar habitat and a mining and processing operation from basic infrastructure to commercial deployment of profitable operations. This paper discusses a Canadian concept behind a permanent manned outpost on the

  4. Underground nuclear energy complexes - technical and economic advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kunze, Jay F [IDAHO STATE UNIV; Giraud, Kellen M [BABECOCK AND WILCOX; Mahar, James M [IDAHO STATE UNIV

    2010-01-01

    Underground nuclear power plant parks have been projected to be economically feasible compared to above ground instalIations. This paper includes a thorough cost analysis of the savings, compared to above ground facilities, resulting from in-place entombment (decommissioning) of facilities at the end of their life. reduced costs of security for the lifetime of the various facilities in the underground park. reduced transportation costs. and reduced costs in the operation of the waste storage complex (also underground). compared to the fair share of the costs of operating a national waste repository.

  5. Indirect Tax Incidence under Inelastic Underground Economy Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Soldatos, Gerasimos

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates theoretically that a profit tax does not affect the distribution of the firm’s operations between the official and the underground economy. Or, if the firm was initially operating only officially, direct taxation of its business would not be a reason to go underground. Indirect taxation in the form of a sales tax does influence an already existing mix of official and underground activities, favoring the latter. And, it does constitute a reason to “go underground” for a...

  6. The size of the underground economy in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kanao, Koji; Hamori, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the size of the underground economy in Japan. The results show that (i) the size of the underground GDP peaked in the early 1990s but has been declining since; (ii) the underground economy reached its peak in around 1992, approximating 25% of nominal GDP; and (iii) two laws (the Act for the Prevention of Wrongful Acts by Members of Organized Crime Groups and the Act Regulating the Adult Entertainment Business, etc.) successfully worked to reduce the size of the...

  7. Muon simulation codes MUSIC and MUSUN for underground physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtsev, V A

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes two Monte Carlo codes dedicated to muon simulations: MUSIC (MUon SImulation Code) and MUSUN (MUon Simulations UNderground). MUSIC is a package for muon transport through matter. It is particularly useful for propagating muons through large thickness of rock or water, for instance from the surface down to underground/underwater laboratory. MUSUN is designed to use the results of muon transport through rock/water to generate muons in or around underground laboratory taking into account their energy spectrum and angular distribution.

  8. Development of a low-cost cableless geophone and its application in a micro-seismic survey at an abandoned underground coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H. Felix

    2015-04-01

    Due to the urbanization in China, some building construction sites are planned on areas above abandoned underground mines, which pose a concern for the stability of these sites and a critical need for the use of reliable site investigations. The array-based surface wave method has the potential for conducting large-scale field surveys at areas above underground mines. However, the dense deployment of conventional geophones requires heavy digital cables. On the other hand, the bulky and expensive standard stand-alone seismometers limit the number of stations for the array-based surface wave measurements. Therefore, this study developed a low-cost cableless geophone system for the array-based surface wave survey. A field case study using this novel cableless geophone system was conducted at an abandoned underground mine site in China to validate its functionality.

  9. Numerical study of wave propagation around an underground cavity: acoustic case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Schöberl, Joachim; Bokelmann, Götz

    2015-04-01

    Motivated by the need to detect an underground cavity within the procedure of an On-Site-Inspection (OSI) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), which might be caused by a nuclear explosion/weapon testing, we aim to provide a basic numerical study of the wave propagation around and inside such an underground cavity. The aim of the CTBTO is to ban all nuclear explosions of any size anywhere, by anyone. Therefore, it is essential to build a powerful strategy to efficiently investigate and detect critical signatures such as gas filled cavities, rubble zones and fracture networks below the surface. One method to investigate the geophysical properties of an underground cavity allowed by the Comprehensive Nuclear-test Ban Treaty is referred to as 'resonance seismometry' - a resonance method that uses passive or active seismic techniques, relying on seismic cavity vibrations. This method is in fact not yet entirely determined by the Treaty and there are also only few experimental examples that have been suitably documented to build a proper scientific groundwork. This motivates to investigate this problem on a purely numerical level and to simulate these events based on recent advances in the mathematical understanding of the underlying physical phenomena. Here, we focus our numerical study on the propagation of P-waves in two dimensions. An extension to three dimensions as well as an inclusion of the full elastic wave field is planned in the following. For the numerical simulations of wave propagation we use a high order finite element discretization which has the significant advantage that it can be extended easily from simple toy designs to complex and irregularly shaped geometries without excessive effort. Our computations are done with the parallel Finite Element Library NGSOLVE ontop of the automatic 2D/3D tetrahedral mesh generator NETGEN (http://sourceforge.net/projects/ngsolve/). Using the basic mathematical understanding of the

  10. Numerical modeling of dam-break flood through intricate city layouts including underground spaces using GPU-based SPH method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建松; 张辉; 杨锐

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies the meshfree Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method with Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) parallel computing technique to investigate the highly complex 3-D dam-break flow in urban areas including underground spaces. Taking the advantage of GPUs parallel computing techniques, simulations involving more than 107 particles can be achieved. We use a virtual geometric plane boundary to handle the outermost solid wall in order to save considerable video card memory for the GPU computing. To evaluate the accuracy of the new GPU-based SPH model, qualitative and quantitative comparison to a real flooding experiment is performed and the results of a numerical model based on Shallow Water Equations (SWEs) is given with good accu- racy. With the new GPU-based SPH model, the effects of the building layouts and underground spaces on the propagation of dam- break flood through an intricate city layout are examined.

  11. Application of phase space reconstruction and v-SVR algorithm in predicting displacement of underground engineering surrounding rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Chao; CHEN Yi-feng; YU Zhi-xiong; YANG Kun

    2006-01-01

    A new method for predicting the trend of displacement evolution of surrounding rock was presented in this paper. According to the nonlinear characteristics of displacement time series of underground engineering surrounding rock, based on phase space reconstruction theory and the powerful nonlinear mapping ability of support vector machines, the information offered by the time series datum sets was fully exploited and the non-linearity of the displacement evolution system of surrounding rock was well described.The example suggests that the methods based on phase space reconstruction and modified v-SVR algorithm are very accurate, and the study can help to build the displacement forecast system to analyze the stability of underground engineering surrounding rock.

  12. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and...

  13. 10 CFR 60.133 - Additional design criteria for the underground facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional design criteria for the underground facility... Operations Area § 60.133 Additional design criteria for the underground facility. (a) General criteria for the underground facility. (1) The orientation, geometry, layout, and depth of the underground...

  14. 30 CFR 75.822 - Underground high-voltage longwall cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage longwall cables. 75... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.822 Underground high-voltage longwall cables. In addition to the...

  15. Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show

  16. Design of underground layout and their maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Layout of underground structure has to be designed based on rock mechanical analysis and the concept of active support has to be adopted considering the large openings are requested to accommodate heavy duty diesel equipment in underground. Rock bolt and shotcrete will be the most applicable method to support such a large dimensional tunnels. 1) Direction: The main haulage way of the mines where diesel equipment are operating is ramp way system. For optimizing safety measures, and minimizing maintenance cost of the tunnels, it is strongly recommended that all the tunnels including ramp way, rooms and sublevels should be designed in parallel to the direction of principal stress and perpendicular to the direction of major discontinuity. 2) Inclination: Basically, the inclination of the ramp way depends on the specification of the equipment, but 10-15% is usual. The steep inclination needs less initial investment but there will be an adverse effects such as higher operating and maintenance costs. 3) Profile (Cross section): The maximum dimension of the equipment operating in local mines appeared 12.8m long, 3.705m wide and 3.68m high. Considering the dimension, the requested profile simply can be calculated to 4m x 4m, but it should be decided according to the regulated minimum clearances from the walls and roof. The minimum inner curvature radius of the tunnels should be more than 5.2m, and in this case, the tunnel width of the curved zone should be more than 5.5m. 4) Sight distance and braking distance: For the safe operation of the equipment, the sight distance must be longer than braking distance, so that the driver can hold up the equipment safely after finding the obstacles in front of him. The maximum braking distance without heating of brake shoe is 60m. 5) Support and maintenance: Due to the large dimensional tunnels where diesel equipment are operating, the conventional supporting system is not applicable. Therefore, the active support concept should be

  17. Synergic and conflicting issues in planning underground use to produce energy in densely populated countries, as Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► In densely populated countries, the public need a synergic approach to produce low-carbon energy. ► The paper is mapping coexistent and different underground technologies to produce low-GHG energy. ► The paper calculate Energy Density Potential in Land – EDPL in terms of [GW h/ha/year]. ► Draw-plate technologies platforms (EU-ZEP, etc.) should merge using underground together. ► Synergies among the different uses of deep underground (up to 5000 m) jointing the energy lobbies. -- Abstract: In densely populated countries there is a growing and compelling need to use underground for different and possibly coexisting technologies to produce “low carbon” energy. These technologies include (i) clean coal combustion merged with CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS); (ii) last-generation nuclear power or, in any case, safe nuclear wastes disposal, both “temporary” and “geological” somewhere in Europe (at least in one site): Nuclear wastes are not necessarily associated to nuclear power plants; (iii) safe natural gas (CH4) reserves to allow consumption also when the foreign pipelines are less available or not available for geopolitical reasons and (iv) “low-space-consuming” renewables in terms of Energy Density Potential in Land (EDPL measured in [GW h/ha/year]) as geothermics. When geothermics is exploited as low enthalpy technology, the heat/cool production could be associated, where possible, to increased measures of “building efficiency”, low seismic risks building reworking and low-enthalpy heat managing. This is undispensable to build up “smart cities”. In any case the underground geological knowledge is prerequisite. All these technologies have been already proposed and defined by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Road Map 2009 as priorities for worldwide security: all need to use underground in a rational and safe manner. The underground is not renewable in most of case histories [10,11]. IEA recently matched and

  18. Physical security of cut-and-cover underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To aid designers, generic physical security objectives and design concepts for cut-and-cover underground facilities are presented. Specific aspects addressing overburdens, entryways, security doors, facility services, emergency egress, security response force, and human elements are discussed

  19. Pollution of underground waters; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The map of pollution of underground waters was compiled based on 16,359 chemical analyses carried out in the years 1991-1994 (as part of preparation of the Geochemical Atlas of the Slovak Republic, part Underground Waters in Statny geologicky ustav D. Stura in Bratislava). The level of pollution is expressed by (Cd), which reflects the sum of chemical element contents and components of underground waters, which exceed the limit values of pure drinking water (pursuing the Decree of the Ministry of Health of the SR No. 29/2002 of Coll. on requirements concerning drinking water and control of quality drinking water). The most important inorganic indicators of chemical composition of underground waters were evaluated: NO3, Cl, S04, F, NH4, Na, Fe, Mn, Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Zn. (authors)

  20. Horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions have been experimentally determined for 13 explosions conducted at the Balapan test site of the Semipalatinsk test site. (author)

  1. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks, Region 9, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and...

  2. Shallow Melting and Underground Drainage in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, F.; Sejourne, A.; Kargel, J.; Soare, R.

    2012-03-01

    Based on the identification of sinuous and elongated pits in Utopia Planitia, we suggest that shallow melting and underground drainage are possible. We test that hypothesis using a thermal model that comprises a thick insulating dusty layer.

  3. A study on improvement of underground ventilation in coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Kwon [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-02-28

    As the workings of underground mine is getting deeper, the working environment is getting worse. Accordingly, it is required to improve underground ventilation system by the precise data acquisition and computer simulation technology. This study is aimed to apply the new technology to mine sites and improve the underground working environment. This study has been carried out at S colliery. For providing improvement program of underground ventilation of the mine, various fundamental data such as number and elevation of each nodes, length, section area, perimeter of airways and their resistance are surveyed respectively. According to the above data, optimum ventilation programs have been suggested after a series of computer simulation process. (author). 9 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Horonobe underground research program. Research report of 2002 FY investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main results of investigation about Horonobe deep underground research center in 2002 FY were reported. It consists of six chapters: introduction, main results, selection of research center area, underground science research, R and D of geological disposal, and the environmental survey and research center on the ground. The research center area at about 3 km north of Horonobe (B1) was selected in the four areas: A, B1, B2 and C on the basis of data, researches in the sky, aboveground and underground and other conditions. The model of geological environment was constructed by physical, geological, surface water supply researches. Development of geological environment monitoring techniques, investigation of long stabilization of geological environment and design of underground facilities are reported. The basic design of preparation of research center was investigated. (S.Y.)

  5. A Matching Model of Endogenous Growth and Underground Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Lisi, Gaetano; Pugno, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Economic growth and unemployment exhibit an ambiguous relationship – according to empirical studies. This ambiguity can be investigated by observing the role of the underground economy in shaping the productivity of firms. Indeed, unemployment may be absorbed by underground firms, which adopt backward technology, at the cost of reduced economic growth. Alternatively, unemployment diminishes because productivity grows by employing workers who prefer to become skilled, and thus not to work in u...

  6. Underground economy modelling: simple models with complicated dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian-Liviu ALBU

    2003-01-01

    The paper aims to model the underground economy using two different models: one based on the labor supply method and a generalized model for the allocation of time. The model based on the labor supply method is conceived as a simulating one in order to determine some reasonable thresholds of the underground sector extension based only on the available macroeconomic statistical data. The generalized model for the allocation of time is a model based on direct approach which estimates the underg...

  7. The unemployment volatility puzzle: the role of the underground economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lisi, Gaetano

    2010-01-01

    Relying on the non-negligible role played by the underground economy in the labour market fluctuations, this paper extends the standard matching model à la Mortensen-Pissarides by introducing an underground sector along with an endogenous sector choice for both entrepreneurs and workers. These modifications improve the quantitative properties of the standard matching model, thus providing a possible explanation for the unemployment volatility puzzle.

  8. Trend Forecasting Underground Fashion : CASE: Evil Clothing Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Vehviläinen, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the science behind trend forecasting as a part of fashion design, this thesis examines the opportunities that trend forecasting brings to business orientated fashion design. It will also provide a trend forecast and information for the target group. Subcultures observed in this thesis are punk, gothic and rock movements which together form the term Underground Fashion used in this thesis. Underground Fashion makes and interesting research subject as very little inv...

  9. Vibration from underground railways: considering piled foundations and twin tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Kirsty Alison

    2011-01-01

    Accurate predictions of ground-borne vibration levels in the vicinity of an underground railway are greatly sought after in modern urban centers. Yet the complexity involved in simulating the underground environment means that it is necessary to make simplifying assumptions about this system. One such commonly made assumption is to ignore the effects of nearby embedded structures such as piled foundations and neighbouring tunnels. Through the formulation of computationally efficient mathe...

  10. Optimization Design and Application of Underground Reinforced Concrete Bifurcation Pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Su; Zhenxue Zhu; Yangyang Zhang; Niantang Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe is an important part of conveyance structure. During construction, the workload of excavation and concrete pouring can be significantly decreased according to optimized pipe structure, and the engineering quality can be improved. This paper presents an optimization mathematical model of underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe structure according to real working status of several common pipe structures from real cases. Then, an optimiza...

  11. Selected factors of economic efficiency of underground gas storing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic issues related with the economic efficiency of underground gas storing are discussed in the paper. There are presented unit capital costs, depending on the storage type, and the structure of exploitation costs. The influence of capital costs, constant and floating costs as well as the storage prices were determined for the Net Present Value (NPV). The influence of the used active storing capacity on the profitability of the underground gas storage process was analysed. (authors)

  12. Systematic Selection and Application of Backfill in Underground Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Masniyom, Manoon

    2009-01-01

    The use of backfill in underground mining is increasing due to need for systematic backfilling of mine openings and workings to avoid surface damage, increase safety and contribution to sustainable mining. This study is to investigate backfill materials and new methods suited for systematic selection and application of backfill in underground mines. Laboratory tests were carried out on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures thereof. Special a...

  13. Hyperspectral reflectance of vegetation affected by underground hydrocarbon gas seepage

    OpenAIRE

    Noomen, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous concentrations of natural gas in the soil may be sourced from leaking underground gas pipelines or from natural microseepages. Due to the explosive nature of hydrocarbon gases, early detection of these gases is essential to avoid dangerous situations. It is known that natural gas in the soil affects vegetation health, which may be detected through analysis of reflectance spectra. This thesis characterizes the effects of underground gas leakage on plant and canopy development and ref...

  14. Simulation of Daylighting Conditions in a Virtual Underground City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Merli Alcini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the Piranesi fantastic architectures to the animation movies and video games of the last thirty years, a new design approach has been introduced and developed: the design of the virtual space. Designing the "virtual" means experiencing a multidisciplinary approach where architecture, engineering, and urban planning meet the new horizons of information and communication technology. This study is focused on virtual space, which is an underground city. Mankind have always made and used underground environments: the possibilities of unlimited spaces to potential development, the reduced needs for raw materials for the construction and the protection from outdoor weather are some of the reasons that prompted humans to the realization of underground spaces in the past. These reasons and the availability of innovative technologies could encourage a breakthrough in the realization of new underground environments. A recent example is represented by the Underground City of Montreal (RÉSO. We present the architectural design of a virtual underground city, which is called Arch[ane], and its evaluation. The underground city is modular and the studied module is composed of eight floors with a total depth of 400 m and dimensions of 800 m × 800 m. The study comprises the evaluation of the effect of sunlight on each eight floors of the city. Daylighting simulations were performed considering different cities at different latitudes, days, and hours. The results have shown that the particular design of the underground city with skylights gives significant values of illuminance at a certain depth. Furthermore, the simulation results show how huge can be the potentialities of software to simulate extremely big environments.

  15. Ground subsidence resulting from underground gasification of coal. [36 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, D W

    1977-03-29

    Ground subsidence has been found to be a very significant physical phenomenon that must be dealt with in the design and operation of an underground coal gasification process. This report deals with the types of subsidence that one might expect, and how they affect the process. A brief theory of bending subsidence is presented, and the experience the Soviets had while operating their commercial underground gasification stations is reviewed.

  16. Basic equations of channel model for underground coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The underground coal gasification has advantages of zero rubbish, nonpollution, low cost and high safety. According to the characteristics of the gasification, the channel model of chemical fluid mechanics is used to set up the fluid equations and chemical equations by some reasonable suppositions in this paper, which lays a theoretical foundation on requirements of fluid movement rules in the process of underground coal gasification.

  17. Underground-Energy-Storage Program, 1982 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1983-06-01

    Two principal underground energy storage technologies are discussed--Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). The Underground Energy Storage Program objectives, approach, structure, and milestones are described, and technical activities and progress in the STES and CAES areas are summarized. STES activities include aquifer thermal energy storage technology studies and STES technology assessment and development. CAES activities include reservoir stability studies and second-generation concepts studies. (LEW)

  18. Application of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in Underground Mine Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, Edmund Chime

    2011-01-01

    The schlieren technique describes an optical analysis method designed to enhance light distortions caused by air movement. The ability to visualize gas flows has significant implications for analyzing underground mine ventilation systems. Currently, the widely utilized traditional schlieren methods are impractical underground due to complex equipment and design requirements. Background oriented schlieren (BOS) provides a solution to this problem. BOS requires two primary components, a pro...

  19. Evaluation of underground structure deformations caused by blasting load

    OpenAIRE

    Зуєвська, Наталя Валеріївна; Ванчак, Микола Іванович; Туровський, Микола Валерійович

    2015-01-01

    This paper treats the underground blast response of a metallic structure in a soil using LS - DYNA. Given the properties of the soil and the soil - structure interaction, the blast wave propagation in the soil is considered and stress zones and horizontal deformation of the metal structure are presented. The paper shows the dependency between the underground structure deformation and the distance from the source of the explosion. The results of this study provide information about the impact ...

  20. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  1. Underground tank assembly with internal bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strock, D.J.

    1987-03-10

    An underground tank assembly is described for storing motor fuels, such as gasoline or diesel fuel, comprising: a collapsible primary tank comprising a flexible bladder for containing a motor fuel, the primary tank being moveable from a collapsed generally empty position to an inflated generally full position; a substantially rigid secondary tank substantially surrounding and enclosing the primary tank for secondary containment of an leakage of motor fuel from the primary tank, the secondary tank having a top, a bottom, and end walls extending between and connecting the top and bottom; the bladder having a bottom portion positioned adjacent the bottom of the secondary tank; and conduit means extending through the top of the rigid secondary tank to a position in proximity to the bottom portion of the flexible bladder. The conduit means includes an inlet conduit with an inlet upright portion for filing the flexible bladder with motor fuel and an outlet conduit with an outlet upright portion for withdrawing the motor fuel from the flexible bladder. The outlet upright portion of the outlet conduit is positioned within the interior of and is substantially concentrically and coaxially surrounded by the inlet upright portion of the inlet conduit. The outlet conduit and the inlet conduit both are positioned in proximity to one of the end walls of the rigid secondary tank.

  2. Fire incidents in underground coal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, J. (Helsingin Energia, Helsinki (Finland)); Auerkari, P. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    Autoignition of coal in underground storage facilities is reviewed in the light of recent incidents of smouldering fires. The opportunities to prevent and extinguish closed-space fires are also considered considering the efficiency of the available alternatives. The challenges of such fires are highlighted by an example case, describing the observations and outcome of a smouldering coal storage fire. The principles of self-heating and most critical factors in spontaneous combustion such as the condition and quality of coal are fairly well known, but usually only provide partial help in fire prevention. The experience suggests that nitrogen injection can be useful for extinguishing controllable fires, while more extensive measures may be needed against uncontrolled fires. In general, efficient fire extinction during plant operation can be challenging, as any air ingress tends to feed the fire. Methods and indicators for predicting and detecting the ignition are discussed, and improvements are suggested to enhance the storage and plant availability. Also, new experience on dealing with frozen coal is discussed in brief. (orig.)

  3. Atmospheric neutrinos observed in underground detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisser, T. K.; Stanev, T.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric neutrinos are produced when the primary cosmic ray beam hits the atmosphere and initiates atmospheric cascades. Secondary mesons decay and give rise to neutrinos. The neutrino production was calculated and compared with the neutrino fluxes detected in underground detectors. Contained neutrino events are characterized by observation of an interaction within the fiducial volume of the detector when the incoming particle is not observed. Both the neutrino flux and the containment requirement restrict the energy of the neutrinos observed in contained interactions to less than several GeV. Neutrinos interact with the rock surrounding the detector but only muon neutrino interactions can be observed, as the electron energy is dissipated too fast in the rock. The direction of the neutrino is preserved in the interaction and at energies above 1 TeV the angular resolution is restricted by the scattering of the muon in the rock. The muon rate reflects the neutrino spectrum above some threshold energy, determined by the detector efficiency for muons.

  4. Modelling Underground Coal Gasification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md M. Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The technical feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG has been established through many field trials and laboratory-scale experiments over the past decades. However, the UCG is site specific and the commercialization of UCG is being hindered due to the lack of complete information for a specific site of operation. Since conducting UCG trials and data extraction are costly and difficult, modeling has been an important part of UCG study to predict the effect of various physical and operating parameters on the performance of the process. Over the years, various models have been developed in order to improve the understanding of the UCG process. This article reviews the approaches, key concepts, assumptions, and limitations of various forward gasification UCG models for cavity growth and product gas recovery. However, emphasis is given to the most important models, such as packed bed models, the channel model, and the coal slab model. In addition, because of the integral part of the main models, various sub-models such as drying and pyrolysis are also included in this review. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the various simulation methodologies and sub-models in order to enhance the understanding of the critical aspects of the UCG process.

  5. Radiological modeling software for underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) has developed computer simulation software for modeling radiological parameters in underground uranium mines. The computer program, called 3d RAD, allows radiation protection professionals and mine ventilation engineers to quickly simulate radon and radon progeny activity concentrations and potential alpha energy concentrations in complex mine networks. The simulation component of 3d RAD, called RSOLVER, is an adaptation of an existing modeling program called VENTRAD, originally developed at Queen's University, Ontario. Based on user defined radiation source terms and network physical properties, radiological parameters in the network are calculated iteratively by solving Bateman's Equations in differential form. The 3d RAD user interface was designed in cooperation with the Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology (CANMET) to improve program functionality and to make 3d RAD compatible with the CANMET ventilation simulation program, 3d CANVENT. The 3d RAD program was tested using physical data collected in Canadian uranium mines. 3d RAD predictions were found to agree well with theoretical calculations and simulation results obtained from other modeling programs such as VENTRAD. Agreement with measured radon and radon progeny levels was also observed. However, the level of agreement was found to depend heavily on the precision of source term data, and on the measurement protocol used to collect radon and radon progeny levels for comparison with the simulation results. The design and development of 3d RAD was carried out under contract with the Saskatchewan government

  6. Gamma-ray astronomy with underground detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Halzen, Francis

    1995-01-01

    Underground detectors measure the directions of up-coming muons of neutrino origin. They can also observe down-going muons made by gamma rays in the Earth's atmosphere. Although gamma ray showers are muon-poor, they produce a sufficient number of muons to detect the sources observed by GeV and TeV telescopes. With a threshold higher by one hundred and a probability of muon production of about 1\\% for the shallower AMANDA and Lake Baikal detectors, these instruments can, for a typical GRO source, match the detection efficiency of a GeV satellite detector since their effective area is larger by a factor 10^4. The muons must have enough energy for accurate reconstruction of their direction. Very energetic muons on the other hand are rare because they are only produced by higher energy gamma rays whose flux is suppressed by the decreasing flux at the source and by absorption on interstellar light. We show that there is a window of opportunity for muon astronomy in the 100~GeV energy region which nicely matches th...

  7. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-03-01

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. We observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be an indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.

  8. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (1012 calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 μm scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity

  9. Ultimate recourse protected underground water resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesny, M.; Comte, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    The French BRGM (Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres), by order of the environment ministry, has carried out an exhaustive inventory of the available drinking water reserves in the French territory in the case of a major pollution crisis. These 98 protected ultimate recourse aquifers have been reported on a 1/1500000 scale map with their extension limits. Most of them correspond to the captive groundwaters of the Parisian and Aquitanian basins. Regional files have been established for the stratigraphic, structural and chemical characteristics of the protected waters. 16 departments over 97 dispose of protected water resources on their whole territory while 24 do not have any. 61 over the 103 towns of more than 50000 inhabitants (61% of the urban population) also dispose of protected aquifers under their feet. The protection degree of bottling water (mineral springs) has not been objectively evaluated yet. The constraints of underground aquiferous storage of natural gas has been also examined. (J.S.). 1 fig. Short communication.

  10. Phenomenology of atmospheric, submarine and underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atmospheric nuclear explosion, particularly at ground level or at low altitude, generates immediate radiation that is propagated via different modes of energy transfer, i.e.: electromagnetic waves, light and heat, mechanical effects. Late-stage phenomena, such as the formation and propagation of the cloud, follow on after these early effects. The whole range of different effects - including acoustic and seismic waves as well as the products contained in the cloud - can be detected at distances up to several hundred or several thousand km. When the nuclear source is submarine, a shock wave is generated due to the interaction with the medium. According to the depth of the source, a gas bubble is created which starts to pulsate. As a result of this effect, the acoustic signal is modulated and then propagated to great distances away from the source, thus enabling identification of the explosive phenomenon in the water column. In the case of underground explosions, it is possible to establish a complete description of the interaction with the medium. This comprises generation and propagation of the shock wave, creation of the cavity, zonation of explosion effects, vent collapse, etc. The influence of depth on crater formation, subsidence and decoupling is also discussed. (authors)

  11. Underground characterisation and research facility ONKALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva's repository for geological disposal of the spent fuel from Finnish nuclear reactors will be constructed at Olkiluoto. The selection of Olkiluoto was made based on site selection research programme conducted between 1987-2001. The next step is to carry out complementary investigations of the site and apply for the construction license for the disposal facility. The license application will be submitted in 2012. To collect detailed information of the geological environment at planned disposal depth an underground characterisation and research facility will be built at the site. This facility, named as ONKALO, will comprise a spiral access tunnel and two vertical shafts. The excavation of ONKALO is in progress and planned depth (400 m) will be reached in 2009. During the course of the excavation Posiva will conduct site characterisation activities to assess the structure and other properties of the site geology. The aim is that construction will not compromise the favourable conditions of the planned disposal depth or introduce harmful effects in the surrounding bedrock which could jeopardize the long-term safety of the geological disposal. (author)

  12. The status quo and technical development direction of underground gas storages in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guosheng Ding

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available UGS (underground gas storage construction in China has stepped into a new development stage after years of exploration. The eleven UGSs that have been put into production play an important role in domestic natural gas peak shaving safety and supply guarantee, with designed working gas volume of 180 × 108 m3, but there are still various difficulties in UGS construction in China. Firstly, the increasing speed of working gas volume is slower than that of peak shaving demand volume. Secondly, the UGS building engineering is difficult in technologies and high in investment costs. Thirdly, safe operation is under high pressure and it is hard to identify and control risks. Fourthly, there are fewer candidate UGS sites in China and UGS building conditions are complicated. And fifthly, it is difficult for those UGSs to realize economic benefits only based on their own operation under the existing natural gas price systems. To sum up, the currently available UGS operation modes and building technologies in China are not sufficient to cope with the challenges resulted from markets and complex geologic conditions. Facing all these challenges, it is necessary not only to explore market driven operation modes, but also to strengthen technology tackling and carry out core technological research and development, including geologic evaluation, gas reservoir engineering, drilling and completion engineering, UGS injection and gas recovery engineering, surface auxiliary technologies and UGS integrity evaluation, so that UGS building efficiency can be increased greatly.

  13. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences...... on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  14. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which...... evolves from a simple establishment of a contractual relationship to a central and strategic part of construction. The authors relate to cultural, ethical and social and behavioural sciences as the fundamental basis for analysis and understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the procurement system...

  15. Stability analysis of underground openings for extraction of natural stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Fifer Bizjak

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of natural stone is usually carried out in surface quarries. Underground excavation is not a frequently used method. Due to the restrictive environmental legislature and limited stores of natural stone, underground extraction has become quite an interestingalternative. Dimensions of underground openings are determined with stability analyses.Prior to starting a numerical analysis of a large underground opening it is very important to determine the mechanism of failure and set up a proper numerical model. The continuum method is usually used in rock mechanics. A disadvantage of this calculation is that it cannotbe applied to a large number of joints. Other methods are preferred, such as the numerical discrete method, which allows joint systems to be involved into calculations. The most probable failure of rock with several joint systems is block sliding. In the example of themarble of Hotavlje both methods were used. It was established that the continuum method is convenient for the global stability prediction of the underground opening. Further discretemethod enable the block stability calculation. The analytical block analysis is still accurate for the a stability calculation of single block. The prerequisite for a good numerical analysis is sufficient quality data on geomechanical properties of rock. In-situ tests, laboratory tests and geotechnical measurements on the site are therefore necessary. Optimum dimensions of underground chambers in the Quarry of Hotavlje were calculated by using several numericalmodels, and the maximum chamber width of 12 m was obtained.

  16. Design, construction and initial state of the underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the underground openings for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the underground openings at final disposal, backfilling or closure. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the underground openings shall be constructed and inspected. The report presents the design premises and the methodology applied to design the underground openings and adapt them the to the site conditions so that they conform to the design premises. It presents the reference design at Forsmark and its conformity to the design premises. It also describes the reference methods to be applied to construct and inspect the different kinds of underground openings. Finally, the initial state of the underground openings and its conformity to the design premises is presented

  17. Design, construction and initial state of the underground openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the underground openings for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the underground openings at final disposal, backfilling or closure. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the underground openings shall be constructed and inspected. The report presents the design premises and the methodology applied to design the underground openings and adapt them the to the site conditions so that they conform to the design premises. It presents the reference design at Forsmark and its conformity to the design premises. It also describes the reference methods to be applied to construct and inspect the different kinds of underground openings. Finally, the initial state of the underground openings and its conformity to the design premises is presented

  18. Underground mine economics under threat: future strategy to overcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, A.K. [Regional Institute-V, Bilaspur (India)

    2006-07-01

    The paper aims to identify and address the future strategies for complete turnaround in coal production and economics of underground mining in India. The essential strategies are introduction of mass production technology, infrastructure status to the coal projects under India's Income Tax Act 1061, full grant for construction of infrastructure by CCDA, deletion of net present value for forest land, outsourcing of on-core mining activities including hiring of equipment, monetary compensation for underground projects by charging less on cheaper overcast coal, additional compensation/subsidy for difficult mining conditions, blending of coal from opencast and underground projects to maintain a desired grade of coal for supplying to power and other industries with combined mine economics, introduction of incentive scheme in mechanized underground projects, change in economic criteria for approval of underground projects, approval of project on the basis of profit at 85% level of production. An effort should be made to explore and implement with positive approach the future strategies to continue production from underground mining in the years to come. 7 tabs.

  19. Expeditious remediation of a leaking underground tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inactive leaking diesel fuel tank, at a TV transmitter site in Memphis, Tennessee, was removed just prior to transfer of ownership. The removal of contaminated soil resulted in an excavated to a depth of about 5.5 m (18 ft) by a contractor from Memphis. This excavation partially undermined the building, and furthermore exposed two friction pilings which supported the transmitter building. Rogers and Associates Engineering (RAE) accepted project management. The excavation was backfilled with gravel to stabilize the site and prevent damage to the foundation of the building. Site characterization, including bore holes and groundwater monitoring wells indicated that essentially all of the remaining contamination was in the area immediately beneath where the tank had been located. Final mitigation was performed using a 1.5-m (5-ft) diameter caisson auger to excavate the material to a depth of 11 m beneath the surface. A steel casing was driven behind the auger to the full depth to provide site stability and prevent caving. Simultaneous drilling and driving the casing resulted in essentially no mixing of material and removal of the contaminated soil, without impact on the building. Sampling from the excavation and additional groundwater monitoring verified full remediation had been accomplished. The monitoring wells were plugged according to Tennessee requirements and the area of the excavation was capped. This phase of the site characterization and remediation were completed within about one month and the State verified the closure

  20. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...

  1. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN: Underground Coal Mines in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — COAL_UND, the predecessor of COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN, is a polygon-based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the location and extent of underground coal mines in the...

  2. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...

  3. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  4. An investigation into underground navigation using electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis explores the possibility of measuring the movement of an underground transmitter using electromagnetic waves. The displacement of the transmitter was estimated based on the magnitude and phase of the received electromagnetic wave, using receiver antennas at fixed locations. Electromagnetic wave propagation underground was dependent on the frequency used, soil type, soil moisture content and environmental conditions. An extensive investigation has been conducted in measuring the soil dielectric constant and conductivity. When the sample moisture was increased, its dielectric constant increased, being disperse for clays, but fairly linear for sands. Clays show a higher conductivity. The optimum antennas to use underground were dielectric loaded electric monopole and dipole antennas. A method was developed to predict the admittance of insulated monopole antennas in soil using measured data of the ambient medium. The field trials have shown that propagation of an electromagnetic wave from a transmitter underground to a receiver underground was possible over a distance of up to 30m and to a depth of 1.5m. A simulation model was developed to predict the electromagnetic wave propagation from the source underground using the measured εr and σ. Its predictions compared well with the measured results. The model predicted that the lateral wave was the strongest mode of propagation in the majority of the field trials. The field trials confirmed these findings. The lateral wave starts at the source underground, travels to the boundary, follows the air-ground boundary and then propagates back into the ground to the receiver antenna. As the wave travels a significant part of its path in air, it was less susceptible to irregularities underground. Measurement of the phase has shown it to be sensitive to errors caused by reflections. This was the reason why reliable information of the phase was not always available during the measurements. The field trials have shown

  5. SELF-LOCALIZATION OF A MULTI-FISHEYE CAMERA BASED AUGMENTED REALITY SYSTEM IN TEXTURELESS 3D BUILDING MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, S.; J. Leitloff; S. Wursthorn; Hinz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Georeferenced images help planners to compare and document the progress of underground construction sites. As underground positioning can not rely on GPS/GNSS, we introduce a solely vision based localization method, that makes use of a textureless 3D CAD model of the construction site. In our analysis-by-synthesis approach, depth and normal fisheye images are rendered from presampled positions and gradient orientations are extracted to build a high dimensional synthetic feature space...

  6. Summary of results of underground engineering experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results pertinent to the use of nuclear explosives in underground engineering applications have been accumulating for the past 10 years from the Plowshare and Weapons tests of the AEC. Thus, predictive and measurement techniques of shock effects and chimney formation were developed in the course of analyzing explosions in granite, salt, and dolomite. The ability to predict effects related specifically to safety has resulted from many measurements on detonations at the Nevada Test Site, where also many of the techniques for handling, emplacing, and firing the explosive have been developed. This gestation period culminated in the execution of Project Gasbuggy, jointly sponsored by industry and government, and the first nuclear explosion in a gasbearing formation. The Gasbuggy explosive had a nominal yield of 25 kt and was detonated 4240 ft below the surface in the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico on December 10, 1967. The shot point was 40 ft below the lower boundary of a 285-ft-thick gas-bearing sandstone formation of very low permeability. No radioactive venting occurred, and no damage to surrounding gas wells or structures resulted. Post-shot geophysical exploration and gas production tests have revealed that the nuclear explosion created a subsurface chimney approximately 160 ft in diameter and 335 ft high. Fractures appear to extend to about 400 ft symmetrically from the detonation point, with shifts or offsets along geological weaknesses extending out to perhaps 750 ft. Presently, radioactive constituents in the gas consist of tritium and krypton-85, with concentrations of approximately 10 μCi/ft3 and 1.5 μCi/ft3 respectively. These concentrations are decreasing a gas withdrawn from the chimney is replaced by formation gas. Tests to evaluate the increase in productivity and ultimate recovery are currently in progress. (author)

  7. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Anzac Park, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Primary Industry

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called `array beams`. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  8. Development of an underground HPGe array facility for ultra low radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low Level Counting techniques using low background facilities are continuously under development to increase the possible sensitivity needed for rare physics events experiments. The CUP (Center for Underground Physics) group of IBS is developing, in collaboration with Canberra, a ultra low background instrument composed of two arrays facing each other with 7 HPGe detectors each. The low radioactive background of each detector has been evaluated and improved by the material selection of the detector components. Samples of all the building materials have been provided by the manufacturer and the contaminations had been measured using an optimized low background 100% HPGe with a dedicated shielding. The evaluation of the intrinsic background has been performed using MonteCarlo simulations and considering the contribution of each material with the measured contamination. To further reduce the background, the instrument will be placed in the new underground laboratory at YangYang exploiting the 700m mountain coverage and radon-free air supplying system. The array has been designed to perform various Ultra Low background measurements; the sensitivity we are expecting will allow not only low level measurements of Ra and Th contaminations in Copper or other usually pure materials, but also the search for rare decays. In particular some possible candidates and configurations to detect the 0νECEC (for example 106Cd and 156Dy) and rare β decays (96Zr, 180mTa , etc ) are under study

  9. Surrounding rock mass stability monitoring of underground caverns in a geomechanical model test using FBG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhu, Weishen; Zheng, Wenhua; He, Jianping

    2009-07-01

    Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) sensor is widely accepted as a structural stability device for all kinds of geomaterials by either embedding into or bonding onto the structures. The physical model in geotechnical engineering, which can accurately simulate the construction processes and the effects on the stability of underground caverns on basis of satisfying the similarity principles, is an actual physical entity. Due to a large number of restrained factors, a series of experiments are difficult to be carried out, in particular for how to obtain physical parameters during the experiments. Using the geo-mechanical model test of underground caverns in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station as a research object, the FBG sensors were mainly focused on and adopted to figure out the problem how to achieve the small displacements in the large-scale model test. The final experimental results show that the FBG sensor has higher measuring accuracy than other conventional sensors like strain gages and mini-extensometers. The experimental results agree well with the numerical simulation results. In the process of building the model, it's successful to embed the FBG sensors in the physical model through making a reserved pore and adding some special glue. In conclusion, FBG sensors can effectively measure the small displacement of monitoring points in the whole process of the geomechanical model test. The experimental results reveal the deformation and failure characteristics of the surrounding rock mass and make some guidance for the in-situ engineering construction.

  10. A three-dimensional back-analysis of the collapse of an underground cavity in soft rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Nunzio Luciano; Lollino, Piernicola; Perrotti, Michele; Parise, Mario; Bonamini, Marco; Di Maggio, Cipriano; Madonia, Giuliana; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic sinkholes have recently occurred in built-up areas of Sicily (southern Italy) and are generally associated with the presence of ancient underground quarries for the extraction of soft calcarenite rock, used as building material. These quarries were poorly excavated and then were abandoned in the following decades; urban expansion has recently enlarged to involve the areas affected by presence of the cavities, so that the likely collapse of the underground systems poses serious risks to people, buildings and infrastructures. The present work focuses on the case of the town of Marsala, where in 2003 a sinkhole opened at the outskirts of town, near peri-urban buildings. Field surveys, structural analysis of the joint networks in the rock mass and numerical modeling were carried out in order to investigate the most significant factors responsible of the instability processes of the underground quarry. In particular, a geotechnical three-dimensional model has been defined based on in-situ measurements and surveys. The FEM analyses have been performed with the code Plaxis-3D, by using initially the Mohr-Coulomb elasto-plastic model and then assessing the influence of the joint systems on the rock-mass stability with a jointed rock anisotropic model. Discrete planar bands have been also used to simulate the effect of specific joints, as an alternative to the jointed rock model. The results are in good agreement with the failure mechanism generated during the 2003 sinkhole event, and confirm that reliable analyses of these problems requires 3-D sophisticated tools.

  11. Building Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Cabinet是种十分吸引人却很简单的衬线字体,是由一名匿名字体设计师专门为Building Letters最新的资金筹集活动所设计的。这个Building Letters包中包含一个CDROM,有32种字体,以及一本专门设计的杂志和两张由Eboy和Emigre所设计的海报。字体光盘样例是由世界顶级的字体设计师们设计的.

  12. An Approach for Developing Site-Specific Lateral and Vertical Inclusion Zones within which Structures Should be Evaluated for Petroleum Vapor Intrusion due to Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buildings may be at risk from Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) when they overlie petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the unsaturated zone or dissolved in groundwater. The U.S. EPA Office of Underground Storage Tanks (OUST) is preparing Guidance for Addressing Petroleum Vapor I...

  13. Model Building

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, Paul H.

    1997-01-01

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light leptoquarks possibly...

  14. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  15. Evaluation method of radon preventing effect in underground construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: It's difficult to evaluate the radon prevention effect because of the short operating time of measuring instrument under the circumstances of high humidity in underground construction. Purpose: A new rapid method to evaluate the radon prevention efficiency of underground construction was introduced. Methods: The radon concentrations before and after shielding operation were determined, and according to the regularity of radon decay, the shielding rate can be calculated. Results: The results showed that radon shielding rate in underground construction remains generally stable with variation of time, and the actual relatively standard deviation was 3.95%. So the rapid determination and evaluation of radon preventing effect under special conditions in underground construction can be realized by taking shielding rate in a short time for the final shielding rate. Compared with those by the local static method in ground lab, the results were similar. Conclusion: This paper provided a prompt, accurate and practicable way for the evaluation of radon prevention in underground construction, having a certain reference value. (authors)

  16. Status and prospects of a deep underground laboratory in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, K J; Cheng, J P; Li, Y J; Yue, Q [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Chen, Y H; Shen, M B; Wu, S Y, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [Ertan Hydropower Development Company, Chengdu, 610051 (China)

    2010-01-01

    An excellent candidate location for a deep underground laboratory with more than 2500 m of rock overburden has been identified at Sichuan Province in China. It can be accessed through a road tunnel of length 17.5 km, and is supported by services and amenities near the entrance provided by the local Ertan Hydropower Plant. The particle physics community in China is actively pursuing the construction of an underground laboratory at this location, under the leadership of Tsinghua University. Memorandum has been signed with Ertan Hydropower Plant which permits access to and construction of the underground laboratory - China JinPing Deep Underground Laboratory (CJPL). The basic features of this underground site, as well as the status and schedules of the construction of the first laboratory cavern are presented. The immediate goal is to have the first experiment operational in 2010, deploying an Ultra-Low-Energy Germanium detector for WIMP dark matter searches, with emphasis on the mass range of 1-10 GeV. The conceptual design of the experiment, as well as the future plans and prospects of the laboratory, will be surveyed.

  17. THE JOSEF REGIONAL UNDERGROUND RESEARCH CENTRE (JOSEF URC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Pacovská

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Josef Gallery, located in the central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic was first excavated in 1981 as an exploration complex for the potential mining of gold. In 2007, the gallery was substantially reconstructed to house the Josef Underground Educational Facility (Josef UEF, which subsequently became an autonomous workplace under the direction of the Czech Technical University in Prague. At the beginning of 2010, the UEF was renamed the Josef Regional Underground Research Centre (Josef URC which, along with the extensive underground complex, features modern above-ground facilities. One of the most important roles of this research center is to provide practical in-situ instruction in the fields of geotechnical engineering, geology, geochemistry, radiochemistry and radioecology. The training of future experts in this authentic underground setting involves the participation of several other Czech universities and numerous experienced specialists from outside the academic sphere. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency has added the Josef URC to its prestigious list of international training canters involved in the “Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Facilities – A Network of Centers of Excellence” project.

  18. Dynamic analysis for design criteria for underground nuclear reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is based on i) the recent input of the authors for the Underground Containment Sub-Section of the Seismic Task Group Report of the ASCE Committee for Nuclear Structures and Materials, and ii) parametric studies carried out by the first author on the principal undergound concepts. The extensive work on aseismic design of above-ground reactors and recent studies on missile impact effects, aircraft impact, blast effects due to chemical explosions, reactor core melt-down and tornadoes indicate the advantages of underground siting with inherent general reduction to complexity of seismic amplification and benefits of structural and biological integrity. Other advantages are possibilities of urban siting, ecological considerations, reduced effects on the landscape, ability to design three-dimensionally, separation of component facilities, support capability to equipment, reduced power transmission costs, increased number of acceptable units and power capability from a single location, and reduction of decommissioning problems. In view of the limited actual experience in the structural design of underground containments (only four European reactors), the proposals are based on a) the transposition of applicable design specifications, constraints and criteria from existing surface nuclear power plants to underground, and b) the use of many years of experience in the structural design of large underground cavities and cavity complexes for other purposes such as mining, hydropower stations etc. (Auth.)

  19. Characteristics of the Inchukalsky underground gas storage facility. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbuzova, I.D.

    1977-12-01

    The U.S.S.R.'s VNIIGaz is planning to expand the Inchukalsky underground gas storage facility in the Baltic region, which comprises a mid-Cambrian, water-bearing sand stratum with a closed structural contour measuring 160 ft (50 m). The average porosity of the layer is 22%, its initial pressure 1050 psi (71.5 kg/sq cm). The number of operating wells will be increased from the present 12 wells up to 47. Gas from the Valdag-Pskov-Riga pipeline is now compressed to 1470 psi (100 kg/sq cm) and injected into the underground storage. In the future facility, the injection pressure will be increased to 1570 psi (107 kg/sq cm). Experiments on gas drying with diethylene glycol have shown that the gas stored in the Inchukalsky underground facilities contains a high amount of bed water. The ciurrent phase of expansion of the Inchukalsky underground gas stoarge facilities will have an investment payback period of 4.7 yr, which is much lower than for other U.S.S.R. underground gas storage facilities located in aquiferous strata.

  20. Scientific investigation in deep boreholes at the Meuse/Haute Marne underground research laboratory, northeastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1994 to 1996, the preliminary investigation carried out by Andra, identified a sector favourable for hosting a laboratory in argillaceous Callovo-Oxfordian formation which has a thickness of 130 m and lies more than 400 m below ground level. In November 1999 Andra began building an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) with a 3D seismic survey over 4 km2. From 2000 to 2004, large programs of boreholes were carried out on site and on the sector in order to define the characteristics of formations, to improve the regional geological and hydrogeological knowledge and to provide an accurate definition of structural features in Callovo-Oxfordian argillites and Dogger limestones. These drilling programs have provided a fine characterization of the argillites on the laboratory area and a good correlation of geological properties at a sector scale. (author)

  1. Risk analysis of the LHC underground area fire risk due to faulty electrical equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, A

    2007-01-01

    The European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, is currently building the latest generation of particle accelerators, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The machine is housed in a circular tunnel of 27 km of circumference and is situated approximately 100 metres beneath the surface astride the Franco-Swiss border. Electrically induced fires in the LHC are a major concern, since an incident could present a threat to CERN personnel as well as the public. Moreover, the loss of equipment would result in significant costs and downtime. However, the amount of electrical equipment in the underground area required for operation, supervision and control of the machine is essential. Thus the present thesis is assessing the risk of fire due to faulty electrical equipment in both a qualitative as well as quantitative way. The recommendations following the qualitative analysis suggest the introduction of fire protection zones for the areas with the highest risk of fire due to a combination of p...

  2. Automatic drawing of the geologic profile of an underground mine based on COMGIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jingqiu; Qiu Xinfa; Li Anbo; Lu Mingyue

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of building a prototype system of geologic profile auto-drawing. A .NET development platform and integrated environment was used along with a component based design, a B/S system model, and XML techniques. Knowledge rules for creating geologic profiles and generating virtual drilling data from existing bore data and expert, hand-drawn geologic profiles were acquired.Then a prototype system was established by utilizing the known knowledge rules, topological relationships, and semantic relationships among strata. This system has a friendly human-computer interface and can meet requirements of mutual queries between attribute and spatial data. The generated profile map is editable. This study provides a new powerful tool for underground mine work.

  3. Costs and Benefits of Underground Pupal Chambers Constructed by Insects: A Test Using Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Jonathan C; Woods, H Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Many holometabolous insects metamorphose in belowground pupal chambers. Although the chambers may be elaborate and their construction costly, their functions are unknown. Using laboratory and field experiments, we examined the costs and functions of chambers made by the hawk moth Manduca sexta (Sphingidae). Costs were large in some circumstances; prepupal larvae lost up to 60% of their body mass when constructing chambers in dry soils. We tested three alternative hypotheses about what, if anything, chambers do for the individuals that make them: (1) chambers provide critical open space underground, allowing room for ecdysis and preventing soil from deforming the metamorphosing individual; (2) chambers raise the local relative humidity, so that cuticular and respiratory water losses are minimized; and (3) chamber walls prevent predators and pathogens from attacking. The data support the first hypothesis (about open space) and largely exclude the other two. These results provide a simple and potentially broad explanation for the evolution of chamber building in metamorphosing insects. PMID:26658249

  4. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is

  5. Impact of climate change on the stability of underground cavities. Status of knowledge. Investigation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having described the impact of global warming on climate parameters (possible climate evolution, impact on temperatures and precipitations in France) and presented underground cavities in France (nature and localisation, expected instability), this report discusses the impact of climate change on underground waters: impact on water cycle, on underground water level variation, and on the power of dissolution by underground waters. Then, it more particularly addresses the impact of water on underground cavity stability: impact of water on the behaviour of underground works, examples (iron mines, water sheet rising, quarry collapsing, and so on, in France, Belgium and USA), development of natural cavities. It finally outlines the perspectives, knowledge gaps, and required researches

  6. On the determination of the thermal comfort conditions of a metropolitan city underground railway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavoutas, George; Assimakopoulos, Margarita N; Asimakopoulos, Dimosthenis N

    2016-10-01

    Although the indoor thermal comfort concept has received increasing research attention, the vast majority of published work has been focused on the building environment, such as offices, residential and non-residential buildings. The present study aims to investigate the thermal comfort conditions in the unique and complex underground railway environment. Field measurements of air temperature, air humidity, air velocity, globe temperature and the number of passengers were conducted in the modern underground railway of Athens, Greece. Environmental monitoring was performed in the interior of two types of trains (air-conditioned and forced air ventilation cabins) and on selected platforms during the summer period. The thermal comfort was estimated using the PMV (predicted mean vote) and the PPD (predicted percentage dissatisfied) scales. The results reveal that the recommended thermal comfort requirements, although at relatively low percentages are met only in air-conditioned cabins. It is found that only 33% of the PPD values in air-conditioned cabins can be classified in the less restrictive comfort class C, as proposed by ISO-7730. The thermal environment is "slightly warm" in air-conditioned cabins and "warm" in forced air ventilation cabins. In addition, differences of the thermal comfort conditions on the platforms are shown to be associated with the depth and the design characteristics of the stations. The average PMV at the station with small depth is 0.9 scale points higher than that of the station with great depth. The number of passengers who are waiting at the platforms during daytime reveals a U-shaped pattern for a deep level station and an inverted course of PMV for a small depth station. Further, preliminary observations are made on the distribution of air velocity on the platforms and on the impact of air velocity on the thermal comfort conditions.

  7. Energy geostructures innovation in underground engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laloui, Lyesse

    2013-01-01

    Energy geostructures are a tremendous innovation in the field of foundation engineering and are spreading rapidly throughout the world. They allow the procurement of a renewable and clean source of energy which can be used for heating and cooling buildings. This technology couples the structural role of geostructures with the energy supply, using the principle of shallow geothermal energy. This book provides a sound basis in the challenging area of energy geostructures.The objective of this book is to supply the reader with an exhaustive overview on the most up-to-date and available knowledge

  8. UNDERGROUND LITERATURE IN TURKEY AND THE TRACES OF UNDERGROUND LITERATURE IN HAKAN GÜNDAY’S NOVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren KARATAŞ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the sources which feeds the literature is underground culture. It is known that the underground effects have been reflected to the literature field by the Gothic literature since 18th century. Gothic literature is based on fear which is one of the most basic and primitive emotions of people. Fear and evil are the two indispensable elements of underground culture. Looking at the centuries-long adventure of literature, it is seen that the literature is also benefited from “evil” concept. Literature has been predicated on the good/evil contrast for many years and given its messages on behalf of goodness. But the evil has become a dominant element with the underground literature, and the badness concept has began to be questioned again through the opponent and anarchist heroes. In the underground literature understanding, the evil is not the opposite of good now, it is just a new way of life. Traces of underground literature began to form in the political and social crisis environment of Turkey after 1980 and it was taken its place as a significant movement in the 1990’s. Today H. Günday has been accepted as one of the important representatives of underground literature in Turkey by critics. In this study, three novels of H. Günday as Kinyas and Kayra (2000, Zargana (2002, Piç (2003 which were written between 2000-2003. And carry the main dynamics of underground literature are selected as a sample and in the results of the data obtained, the underground values which Günday presented as a character property of novel persons are reported in the headings of inability to accord in life/inability to give meaning to the existence, the idealization of death, prefererred loneliness, anti-socialization and opposition against institutions, lack of the feeling of belonging to somewhere or something, ignorance of moral rules, the violence trend-dependence and the opposition to the civilization.

  9. Emanation of radon in underground uranium mines - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emunation of radon from rock surfaces in underground uranium mines is a continuous process and its magnitude depends on several factors such as radium content, porosity, moisture content and mineralogical characteristics of the ore. The radon gas entering into mine atmosphere starts decaying into its daughter products, which attach themselves to the dust particles in mine atmosphere. Inhalation of radon and its daughters are recognized as the primary cause of health hazard to the miners. Thus, accurate estimation of radon emanation is essential to control the radiation levels within the safe limits and protect the miners from radiation hazards. This paper presents an overview of different sources of radon in underground uranium mines. It also discusses the prediction of radon emanation rate in underground uranium mines based on diffusion theory and growth of radon daughters. (author)

  10. Study on effects of longwall mining on the underground water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wen-bing; Syd S. Peng

    2007-01-01

    It is very important for secure mining under water bodies to study the effects of Iongwall mining on the underground water. In order to study this problem, piezometers for monitoring underground water levels were established in an American coalmine. Large amounts of pre-mining and post-mining monitoring data were collected. Based on the data,the effects of Iongwall mining on the underground water was studied. The results demonstrate that when the piezometer monitoring wells have an interburden thickness less than 72.7 m, the groundwater level decreases immediately to immeasurable levels and go dry after undermining. The height of the fractured zone in is 72.7~85.3 m in this geological and mining conditions. The results also show that the calculated value of fractured zone by the empirical formulae used in China is smaller than the actual results. Therefore, it is not always safe to use them in analysis of mining under water bodies.

  11. Distributed Source Localization in Wireless Underground Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hongyang; Wang, Chen

    2011-01-01

    Node localization plays an important role in many practical applications of wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs), such as finding the locations of earthquake epicenters, underground explosions, and microseismic events in mines. It is more difficult to obtain the time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) measurements in WUSNs than in terrestrial wireless sensor networks because of the unfavorable channel characteristics in the underground environment. The robust Chinese remainder theorem (RCRT) has been shown to be an effective tool for solving the phase ambiguity problem and frequency estimation problem in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, the RCRT is used to robustly estimate TDOA or range difference in WUSNs and therefore improves the ranging accuracy in such networks. After obtaining the range difference, distributed source localization algorithms based on a diffusion strategy are proposed to decrease the communication cost while satisfying the localization accuracy requirement. Simulation results c...

  12. WASTAGE OF UNDERGROUND WATER - STEPS TOWARDS A TRAP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Underground water is used indiscriminately for the purposes like agriculture, serving purposes of urban people, cold drink and mineral water manufacturing etc. As a matter of policy, the rural areas are supplied with underground water in India without considering the factors like actual requirement of water in a particular area, season of scarcity of water etc. It is very common to see the ever open taps of water supplying lines in rural India thronging water continuously and nobody is there to use it. The discharge rate of underground water is far more than the charging rate. This may lead to a very serious condition of water scarcity in near future. Various steps like holding of rain water in the water bodies, selection of crop with requirement of lesser amount of water during the dry months as well as use of Forward Osmosis (FO technology for Cold drinks or Bottled Drinking Water manufacturing from the sea water are advocated.

  13. The underground storages of carbon dioxide. Juridical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the reduction of the carbon dioxide emissions in the air, the underground storage of the CO2 is studied. Some experimentation are already realized in the world and envisaged in France. This document aims to study the juridical aspects of these first works in France. After a presentation of the realization conditions and some recalls on the carbon dioxide its capture and storage, the natural CO2 underground storages and the first artificial storages are discussed. The CO2 waste qualification, in the framework of the environmental legislation is then detailed with a special task on the Lacq region. The problem of the sea underground storages is also presented. (A.L.B.)

  14. Drainage Network Design of Korean LILW Underground Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The underground waste repository site is located at Gyeongju and is selected for the disposal of all the Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (LILW). Its operation is scheduled in the beginning of 2009. The repository, with a disposal capacity of 800,000 drums, will be constructed in granite bedrock near the seashore at the Gyeongju site. In the first phase of construction, the repository will have a capacity to dispose of 100,000 drums. Considering the depth of access tunnels and silos and high groundwater level, the drain type is applied for the underground repository. The drainage network is required to drain out the groundwater inflow of the underground repository during the operation. The drainage network is designed considering the arrangement of repository, radioactive zone, groundwater inflow, and service water, etc. After the closure, the operation of drainage network will be stopped

  15. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  16. A survey of the underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The idea of locating nuclear power plants underground is not new, since in the period of time between the late fifties and the early sixties, four small nuclear plants have been built in Europe in rock cavities. Safety has been, in general, the main motivation for such a siting solution. In the last years several factors such as increasing power transmission costs, decreasing number of suitable sites above ground, increased difficulties in obtaining site approval by the licensing authorities, increasing opposition to nuclear power, increasing concern for extreme - but highly improbable - accidents, together with the possibility of utilizing the waste heat and the urban siting concept have renewed the interest for the underground siting as an alternative to surface siting. The author presents a survey of the main studies carried out on the subject of underground siting. (Auth.)

  17. EHV/HV Underground Cable Systems for Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth

    lines are undesirable. Therefore, we must come up with an alternative, acceptable to the public. Underground cables fulfil the above mentioned need to be more publically acceptable, but, for long transmission lines, they are in many ways unproven. Guidelines for their design are needed. This thesis...... presents the results of a decade of underground cable research studies performed in Denmark by Danish TSO Energinet.dk and the Department of Energy Technology. The thesis is based upon a number of selected publications and summarises the results of these at a presentation level intended to have an easier...... cables is given, and secondly, the modelling approach and validation of this is discussed. Thirdly, making up the main core of the work presented, dynamics of underground cable systems are discussed and important cases to study are highlighted, and next, protection and fault location are discussed...

  18. Safety aspects of underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the recent years design-principles of underground-sited nuclear power stations have been investigated mainly in the USA and the Fed. Rep. Germany. It was hoped that the consequences of extremely remote accidents could be generally reduced by such designs. It is pointed out in this article that underground-siting, however, does not only lead to many disadvantages, some of them also safety-related, but at best results in only slight reductions of the consequences of internal accidents. It is the author's impression that, due to high additional cost and important delays of licensing- and construction-times underground-siting of nuclear power stations is no meaningful and suitable safety measure. (orig.)

  19. Grounding Effect on Common Mode Interference of Underground Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Qiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For the neutral point not grounded characteristics of underground power supply system in coal mine, this paper studied common mode equivalent circuit of underground PWM inverter, and extracted parasitic parameters of interference propagation path. The author established a common mode and differential mode model of underground inverter. Taking into account the rise time of PWM, the simulation results of conducted interference by Matlab software is compared with measurement spectrum on the AC side and motor side of converter, the difference is consistent showing that the proposed method has some validity. After Comparison of calculation results by Matlab simulation ,it can be concluded that ungrounded neutral of transformer could redue common mode current in PWM system, but not very effective, the most efficient way is to increase grounding  impedance of  inverter and motor.

  20. Numerical simulation of coupled heat, liquid water and water vapor in soils for heat dissipation of underground electrical power cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend towards renewable energy comes along with a more and more decentralized production of electric energy. As a consequence many countries will have to build hundreds or even thousands of miles of underground transmission lines during the next years. The lifetime of a transmission line system strongly depends on its temperature. Therefore an accurate calculation of the cable temperature is essential for estimating and optimizing the system's lifetime. The International Electrotechnical Commission and the Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers are still employing classic approaches, dating back from the 1950s, that are missing fundamental phenomena involved in heat transport in soils. In recent years several authors [4,37] pointed out that for a proper computation of heat transport in soils, physical processes describing heat, liquid water and vapor transport must be coupled and the respective environmental weather conditions need to be considered. In this study we present a numerical model of coupled liquid water, vapor and heat flow, to describe heat dissipation from underground cables. At first the model is tested and validated on a downscaled experiment [32], secondly the model is applied on a simplified system to demonstrate the strong relation of the cable temperature on soil water content and finally the model is applied using real weather conditions to demonstrate that small changes in the design of underground transmission line systems can lead to considerable improvements in both average as well as peak-to-peak temperatures. - Highlights: • Wind farms and heat dissipation in underground power cables. • Cable lifetime, cable temperature and properties of surrounding soil. • Coupled model for heat dissipation, liquid water and vapor transport in soils. • Numerical simulation under real weather conditions. • Cable temperature depending on construction of transmission line system

  1. Assessment of rock bolt systems for underground waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of existing rock bolting systems was undertaken to assess their suitability in underground design for storage of nuclear waste. Unique engineering considerations are required due to the thermal pulse generated by the waste causing additional stress to the support system and possibly affecting anchorage stability. Field visits were made to four underground projects to assess the performance of a wide variety of rock bolt systems. Cable bolts, point anchor bolts, locally debonded full column cement grout bolts, and yieldable bolt systems show promise. Full scale testing of bolt systems is recommended, together with assessing temperature effects on grout strength and grout longterm stability

  2. Discrete Wavelet Transform for Fault Locations in Underground Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisit, C.; Ngaopitakkul, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a technique for detecting faults in underground distribution system is presented. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) based on traveling wave is employed in order to detect the high frequency components and to identify fault locations in the underground distribution system. The first peak time obtained from the faulty bus is employed for calculating the distance of fault from sending end. The validity of the proposed technique is tested with various fault inception angles, fault locations and faulty phases. The result is found that the proposed technique provides satisfactory result and will be very useful in the development of power systems protection scheme.

  3. Optimization Design and Application of Underground Reinforced Concrete Bifurcation Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe is an important part of conveyance structure. During construction, the workload of excavation and concrete pouring can be significantly decreased according to optimized pipe structure, and the engineering quality can be improved. This paper presents an optimization mathematical model of underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe structure according to real working status of several common pipe structures from real cases. Then, an optimization design system was developed based on Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. Furthermore, take the bifurcation pipe of one hydropower station as an example: optimization analysis was conducted, and accuracy and stability of the optimization design system were verified successfully.

  4. Simulations of explosion-induced damage to underground rock chambers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A numerical approach is presented to study the explosion-induced pressure load on an underground rock chamber wall and its resultant damage to the rock chamber.Numerical simulations are carried out by using a modified version of the commercial software AUTODYN.Three different criteria,i.e.a peak particle velocity (PPV) criterion,an effective strain (ES) criterion,and a damage criterion,are employed to examine the explosion-induced damaged zones of the underground rock chamber.The results show that the charg...

  5. Control Surveys for Underground Construction of the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greening, W.J.Trevor; Robinson, Gregory L.; /Measurment Science Inc.; Robbins, Jeffrey S.; Ruland, Robert E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-16

    Particular care had to be taken in the design and implementation of the geodetic control systems for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) due to stringent accuracy requirements, the demanding tunneling schedule, long duration and large size of the construction effort of the project. The surveying requirements and the design and implementation of the surface and underground control scheme for the precise location of facilities which include approximately 120 km of bored tunnel are discussed. The methodology used for the densification of the surface control networks, the technique used for the transfer of horizontal and vertical control into the underground facilities, and the control traverse scheme employed in the tunnels is described.

  6. EHV AC undergrounding electrical power performance and planning

    CERN Document Server

    Benato, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    EHV AC Undergrounding Electrical Power discusses methods of analysis for cable performance and for the behaviour of cable, mixed and overhead lines. The authors discuss the undergrounding of electrical power and develop procedures based on the standard equations of transmission lines. They also provide technical and economical comparisons of a variety of cables and analysis methods, in order to examine the performance of AC power transmission systems. A range of topics are covered, including: energization and de-energization phenomena of transmission lines; power quality; and cable safety cons

  7. Revaluating the Tanzi-Model to Estimate the Underground Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ferwerda, J; I. Deleanu; Unger, B

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, the interest in the nature and size of the non-measured economy (both the informal and the illegal one) was born among researchers in the US. Since then, several models to estimate the shadow and/or the underground economy appeared in the literature, each with its own theoretical pros and cons. In this paper we show that it is possible to overcome earlier expressed criticism of the Tanzi-model (1983). Its lack of a base year without any underground economy can be overco...

  8. Underground mine ventilation does not have to be a problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savidis, G.M.

    1986-04-01

    The application of computer technology to ventilation investigations has provided a ready means of solving the various problems encountered underground. While the procedures for collection and analysis of underground ventilation data are not reported here in detail, an example of subsequent analyses has been provided. Following a description of the various stages in preparing a computer model (for a fictitious case study), the results obtained have been analysed with emphasis on their practical value. In this regard, the calculation of regulator sizes and fan running costs has been considered most appropriate. General comments regarding typical airway resistance values and the operation of fans have also been included. 7 references.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL STRATEGIES ON THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Tudurachi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fight against shadow economy must be addressed not only as a permanent concern of economic analysts and decision-makers, but rather as a problematic ethical-moral nature affecting economic and interpersonal relations, as strategic and operational object. The authors attempt outline an institutional management strategy geared towards underground economy combating has as objective the strands establishment without having exhaustiveness claim. We make a case for extending the implementation of a coherent program, strategic and operational, and its adoption as a way of institutional management in the context it really wants to launch a concerted offensive to combat the underground economy.

  10. Underground gas storage in Germany; Untertage-Gasspeicherung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-11-15

    The safe natural gas supply of Germany is guaranteed by imports, domestic delivery and underground natural gas storage facilities. More than 80 % of the consumed natural gas is imported. Due to new natural gas storage facilities as well as due to the extension of existing natural gas storage facilities, the storage of natural gas in Germany experiences an upward trend for years. The contribution under consideration reports on the status of the underground natural gas storage of crude oil products and petroleum products in Germany on the basis of the data of the Lower Saxony State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany).

  11. Rock massif observation from underground coal gasification point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sasvári

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underground coal gasification (UCG of the coal seams is determined by suitable geological structure of the area. The assumption of the qualitative changes of the rock massif can be also enabled by application of geophysical methods (electric resisting methods and geoelectric tomography. This article shows the example of evaluating possibilities of realization of the underground coal gasification in the area of the Upper Nitra Coal Basin in Cíge¾ and Nováky deposits, and recommend the needs of cooperation among geological, geotechnical and geophysical researchers.

  12. Radon in an underground excavation site in Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on radon measurements and actions taken in a large underground excavation site in Helsinki, where a coal store was excavated underneath an existing power plant. The measurements were carried out by taking grab samples using Lucas type scintillation cells. Large variations in radon concentrations were observed during the three-year study. The reasons for variations are discussed and recommendations are given for radon monitoring procedures in underground excavation sites. The importance of ventilation to reduce the radon level is stressed. (P.A.)

  13. Seismic testing of models and fragments of seismic isolated structures of NPS buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report states the bases of original methodology and results of model and full-scale seismic testing on 3-component seismic platforms (load-carrying capacity up to 500 t). For simulation of loads and shakes of elements of structures of seismic isolated buildings on the structure of the stands the technology of buried underground explosions was used. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THE USE OF ELASTOMER SEALS FOR SEALING OF UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    L. H. Politikova; Leshchenko, V. I.; M. V. Zahorskyi; M. V. Mykhailenko; Khorolskyi, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    The research work on creation of effective rubber sealants for hermetic sealing of joints of underground structures from modular ferro-concrete and pig-iron including the underground tunnel casings is carried out.

  15. 77 FR 52717 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... final decision allows the continued underground injection by Cornerstone, of the specific...

  16. 77 FR 26755 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... final decision allows the continued underground injection by Diamond Shamrock, of the...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1904 - Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have liquid tight welded seams; (4) Not leak; and (5) For stationary tanks in permanent underground... for stationary tanks in permanent underground diesel fuel storage facilities and self-closing caps...

  18. Algebra of the Visual: The London Underground Map and the Art It Has Inspired

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Ashton-Smith

    2011-01-01

    "Algebra of the Visual: The London Underground Map and the Art It Has Inspired" by Alan Ashton-Smith. The London Underground symbolizes London, and the London Underground map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, symbolizes the London Underground. Accordingly, Beck’s map has in itself come to be a recognizable signifier of London. Its impact resonates beyond this city though: it is also the prototype for metro maps worldwide, with its basic topological structure having been adopted for use on the ...

  19. A simple statistical signal loss model for deep underground garage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Kovacs, Istvan;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the channel modeling aspects for a deep-indoor scenario with extreme coverage conditions in terms of signal losses, namely underground garage areas. We provide an in-depth analysis in terms of path loss (gain) and large scale signal shadowing, and a propose simple propaga...

  20. A Corrosion Risk Assessment Model for Underground Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik; Fraser, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pressure Systems Manager at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has embarked on a project to collect data and develop risk assessment models to support risk-informed decision making regarding future inspections of underground pipes at ARC. This paper shows progress in one area of this project - a corrosion risk assessment model for the underground high-pressure air distribution piping system at ARC. It consists of a Corrosion Model of pipe-segments, a Pipe Wrap Protection Model; and a Pipe Stress Model for a pipe segment. A Monte Carlo simulation of the combined models provides a distribution of the failure probabilities. Sensitivity study results show that the model uncertainty, or lack of knowledge, is the dominant contributor to the calculated unreliability of the underground piping system. As a result, the Pressure Systems Manager may consider investing resources specifically focused on reducing these uncertainties. Future work includes completing the data collection effort for the existing ground based pressure systems and applying the risk models to risk-based inspection strategies of the underground pipes at ARC.

  1. 30 CFR 816.79 - Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of underground mining. 816.79 Section 816.79 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE...

  2. Adaptation of magnesian cements to underground storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis is the experimental study of magnesium oxychloride cements as filling materials for underground granitic cavities containing high level radioactive wastes. After a bibliographic study, mechanical properties are examined before and after setting, in function of the ratio MgO/MgCl2. Then behavior with water is investigated: swelling, cracking and leaching

  3. Feasibility Study Contract Signed for Underground Gas Storage in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On December 22, 2005, CNPC and Gazprom signed the feasibility study service contract on constructing the underground gas storage in Ren 11 reservoir of CNPC's Renqiu Oilfield. According to the contract terms, Gazprom will provide feasibility study services on the construction of the gas storage for CNPC. CNPC Vice President Zhou Jiping attended the signing ceremony held in Beijing.

  4. Construction experiences from underground works at Forsmark. Compilation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    The main objective with this report, the Construction Experience Compilation Report (CECR), is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Forsmark, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the two cooling water tunnels of the Forsmark nuclear power units 1, 2 and 3, and from the underground excavations of the undersea repository for low and intermediate reactor waste, SFR. In addition, a brief account is given of the operational experience of the SFR on primarily rock support solutions. The authors of this report have separately participated throughout the entire construction periods of the Forsmark units and the SFR in the capacity of engineering geologists performing geotechnical mapping of the underground excavations and acted as advisors on tunnel support; Anders Carlsson participated in the construction works of the cooling water tunnels and the open cut excavations for Forsmark 1, 2 and 3 (geotechnical mapping) and the Forsmark 3 tunnel (advise on tunnel support). Rolf Christiansson participated in the underground works for the SFR (geotechnical mapping, principal investigator for various measurements and advise on tunnel support and grouting). The report is to a great extent based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. But it stands to reason that, during the course of the work with this report, unpublished notes, diaries, drawings, photos and personal recollections of the two authors have been utilised in order to obtain such a complete compilation of the construction experiences as possible.

  5. Study of Fast Neutron Background Detection at Deep Underground Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to detect very low flux neutron background at deep underground laboratory, a low background fast neutron detector will be developed. The detector is a Gd loaded liquid scintillator contained in a Φ30 cm×40 cm cylindrica

  6. Roof Rockmass Characterization in an Illinois Underground Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osouli, Abdolreza; Shafii, Iman

    2016-08-01

    Among all United States underground coal fields, those in Illinois have the highest rate of roof fall events due to their weak and severely moisture sensitive roof rock units. Rockmass characterization is the key initial step in designing safe and economical roof control measures in underground coal mines. In this study, a performance-based roof rockmass characterization is investigated. The geologic conditions as well as underground mine geographic specifications, roof fall analysis, mining method, utilized supplemental roof control measures, and geotechnical properties of roof rock units were considered to link the roof performance to rockmass characterization. The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) rockmass characterization method was used to evaluate the roof conditions and roof support design for an underground coal mine located in the Illinois Coal Basin. The results of several mine visit mappings, laboratory test results, and geotechnical issues and concerns are presented and discussed. The roof support designs are analyzed based on the rockmass characterization and are compared with the observed performance. This study shows that (1) CMRR index is a reasonable method for characterizing roof rockmass; (2) moisture sensitivity and bedding strengths in the horizontal direction are essential parameters for roof support design in mines with weak roof conditions; and (3) the applicability of the analysis of roof bolt system for roof support design of the studied mine is questionable.

  7. The Maintenance of The London Underground Tube Tunnel Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gleig Frazer

    2004-01-01

    It is helpful to have a brief history of London Underground when considering any aspect of its maintenance or future development. The system has developed over more than 100 years and only comparatively recently come under the control of a single organisation. This partly explains the complexity that has resulted from differences in construction between lines. A brief History is accordingly appended to this presentation as Appendix B. The recent History outlines how Tube Lines have come to be involved with London Underground and explains a little of the reason for our existence. We are required to maintain and improve London Underground assets. Our performance has to be measurable and it follows that we need to know the current condition "value" of those assets. A large part of London Underground's infrastructure is tube tunnels some of which have not been fully assessed since they were first constructed in the 19th Century. They used materials whose physical and durability properties were not, at the time, fully understood; and they were designed on a very empirical basis if they were "designed" at all. Some shafts and other elements of the Tunnel Asset appeared to have been forgotten or lost when the Public Private Partnership (PPP) instigation procedures began in earnest in 1998. A major part of our current maintenance programme is thus to ascertain and agree the current condition and extent of approximately 178kilometres of tube tunnel asset that we are required to maintain and improve.

  8. Enhanced-hydrogen gas production through underground gasification of lignite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-qin; WANG Yuan-yuan; ZHAO Ke; YANG Ning

    2009-01-01

    Underground coal gasification is one of the clean technologies of in-situ coal utilization. Hydrogen production from underground gasification of lignite was investigated in this study based on simulation experiments. Pyrolysis of lignite, gasification activity, oxygen-steam gasification and the effect of groundwater influx were studied. As well, the advantages of lignite for stable underground gasification were analyzed. The results indicate that lignite has a high activity for gasification. Coal pyrolysis is an important source of hydrogen emission. Under special heating conditions, hydrogen is released from coal seams at temperatures above 350 ℃ and reaches its maximum value between 725 and 825 ℃. Gas with a hydrogen concentration of 40% to 50% can be continuously obtained by oxygen-steam injection at an optimum ratio of steam to oxygen, while lignite properties will ensure stable gasification. Groundwater influx can be utilized for hydrogen preparation under certain geological conditions through pressure control. Therefore, enhanced-hydrogen gas production through underground gasification of lignite has experimentally been proved.

  9. PLASTIC LIMIT ANALYSIS OF DISCONTINUOUS LINING UNDERGROUND PRESSURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙春安

    1999-01-01

    Discontinuous lining is a special form of support in underground excavation. Based on the method of plastic limit analysis, it is found the upper and the lower bound solution of the pressure of circular discontinuous lining and discussed support parameter of discontinuous lining and its applicable conditions, which provides theoretical basis for the design and calculation of discontinuous lining.

  10. Underground storage tank 511-D1U1 closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains the closure plan for diesel fuel underground storage tank 511-D1U1 and appendices containing supplemental information such as staff training certification and task summaries. Precision tank test data, a site health and safety plan, and material safety data sheets are also included.

  11. Effective goaf gas capture design at Ravensworth Underground Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miles Brown; Scott Hobden

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights a reliable goaf gas capture system developed and used at Ravensworth Under-ground Mine since its trial in 2009. The method utilises horizontal holes drilled from underground sites and connected to an underground gas pipeline. This system incorporates a gas suction and flaring plant designed specifically for this method. The current method has captured effectively a total longwall, and adjacent goaf gas accounts for over 85%. The design of the holes drilled has been the success of the gas flow reliability. The flow is extraordinarily consistent and predictable. The management of the under-ground pipeline determines the overall reliability of flow. The design has resulted in Ravensworth Man-agement being confident to remove a gas bearing bleeder roadway and still manage the existing tailgate roadway for allowing access as required. The reduction of CO2 equivalent emissions recorded is approx-imately 0.35 ? 106 tons annually. This design has further improvements to be added to allow use at any other site with gas in the overlying strata.

  12. Underground tank vitrification: Field-scale experiments and computational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal waste remediation process developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for stabilization and treatment of soils contaminated with hazardous, radioactive, or mixed wastes. Many underground tanks containing radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes at U.S. Department of Energy sites will soon require remediation. Recent development activities have been pursued to determine if the ISV process is applicable to underground storage tanks. As envisioned, ISV will convert the tank, tank contents, and associated contaminated soil to a glass and crystalline block. Development activities include testing and demonstration on three scales and computational modeling and evaluation. In this paper, the authors describe engineering solutions implemented on the field scale to mitigate unique problems posed by ISV of a confined underground structure along with the associated computational analysis. The ISV process, as applied to underground storage tanks, is depicted. The process is similar to ISV of contaminated soils except the tank also melts and forms a metal ingot at the bottom of the melt

  13. Bimodal detection of underground contamination in two-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Guzmán, Maria F.; Padilla, Ingrid; Rodriguez, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    Widespread contamination of underground environments with dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is of great concern to the public, military, and industrial sectors. Proper management of contaminated sites requires detection and monitoring of the contaminants, and accurate knowledge of their transport behavior in underground environments. Over the last years we have done great efforts to develop and integrate technologies that serve to locate contamination and monitor transport mechanism underground. In this paper, we describe a two-dimensional multiphase flow experiment to develop and evaluate two modes of concurrent detection and monitoring technologies: Cross Well Radar (CWR) and Image Analysis (IA). Loop antennas preset at specific locations in the tank are used to evaluate wave scattering properties of the soil under different conditions, while color images are acquired. The electromagnetic response in the CWR antennas and IA are used to establish the relation between electrical soil properties variations and changes spatial and temporal mass of water and contaminants. The technologies used in this research are both in development, but they can be successful tools for the detection, monitoring and imagining of underground contaminants and process. Once develop, the technology may be applied for detecting and monitoring other buried objects.

  14. Revaluating the Tanzi-Model to Estimate the Underground Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, J.; Deleanu, I.; Unger, B.

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, the interest in the nature and size of the non-measured economy (both the informal and the illegal one) was born among researchers in the US. Since then, several models to estimate the shadow and/or the underground economy appeared in the literature, each with its own theoreti

  15. Valuing the Non-Market Impacts of Underground Coal Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Robert; Kragt, Marit Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This paper has been published in a peer-reviewed journal as: Gillespie, R. & M. E. Kragt (2012). "Accounting for nonmarket impacts in a benefit-cost analysis of underground coal mining in New South Wales, Australia." Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis 3(2): article 4. DOI: 10.1515/2152-2812.1101

  16. Analysis of underground fires in Polish hard coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WACHOWICZ Jan

    2008-01-01

    In the period of the first twenty years after World War II the number of fires in Polish hard coal mines reached annually the value of several thousands of cases. About 80% of fires constituted spontaneous fires. Investigations into the development of new methods of fire hazard prediction and implementation of new methods and means of fire prevention as well as the introduction of prohibition concerning the use of products manufactured of combustible organic materials in underground mine workings re-duced considerably the hazard of underground fire rise. The worked out at the Central Mining Institute (GIG) new method of un-derground fire prediction allows the correct selection of fire prevention means. The introduction into common use of fire-resistant conveyor belts, the main factor giving rise to spontaneous fires, and methods of assessment of their fire resistance eliminated prac-tically the fire hazard. These activities contributed in an efficient way to the reduction of the number of underground fires to a sa-tisfactory level.

  17. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... INFORMATION: On August 8, 2013 (78 FR 48593), MSHA published a Request for Information on Refuge Alternatives... Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for information...) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension gives interested parties...

  18. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Appropriations Act of 2008, SEC. 112(b)). MSHA published a notice of proposed rulemaking on June 16, 2008 (73 FR 34140) and the final rule on December 31, 2008 (73 FR 80656). The final rule established requirements... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No....

  19. Most Used Rock Mass Classifications for Underground Opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jbori A’ssim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rock mass characterization is an integral part of rock engineering practice. The empirical design methods based on rock mass classifications systems provide quick assessments of the support requirements for underground excavations at any stage of a project, even if the available geotechnical data are limited. The underground excavation industry tends to lean on empirical approaches such as rock mass classification methods, which provide a rapid means of assessing rock mass quality and support requirements. Approach: There were several classifications systems used in underground construction design. This study reviewed and summarized the must used classification methods in the mining and tunneling systems. Results: The method of this research was collected of the underground excavations classifications method with its parameters calculations procedures for each one, trying to find the simplest, less costs and more efficient method. Conclusion: The study concluded with reference to errors that may arise in particular conditions and the choice of rock mass classification depend on the sensitivity of the projects, costs and the efficient.

  20. Measuring Underground Economy Can Be Done, but It Is Difficult

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo-Echavarria, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    There are at least two main ways to measure "the informal sector" of an economy, both of which entail difficulties. The effort is needed, however, because the underground economy accounts for about 13 percent of GDP in developed countries and almost three times that in developing countries.

  1. Reserch process geomigration during underground gasification and coal combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of subsoil water in the over- and subcoal deposits during underground combustion of brown coal can vary under coals thermal development product and pollution. Analysis of the substances-contaminants migratory in water is one of the main issues of further implementation of technologies UCG and UCC.

  2. Underground Test Area Subproject Project Management Plan, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-03

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) describes the manner in which the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) will manage the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It provides the basic guidance for implementation and the organizational structure for meeting the UGTA objectives.

  3. NUMERICAL MANIFOLD METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION IN UNDERGROUND POENINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芝银; 李云鹏

    1998-01-01

    A brief introduction is made for the Numerical Manifold Method and its analysingprocess in rock mechanics. Some aspects of the manifold method are improved in implementingprocess according to the practice of excavating underground openings. Corresponding formulasare given and a computer program of the Numerical Manifold Method has been completed in thispaper.

  4. Dimensional analysis for the mechanical effects of some underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the medium properties upon the effects of underground nuclear and high explosive explosions is studied by dimensional analysis methods. A comparison is made with the experimental data from the Hoggar contained nuclear shots, specially with the particle motion data and the cavity radii. Furthermore, for example, crater data from explosions in Nevada have been examined by statistical methods. (author)

  5. 30 CFR 937.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  6. 30 CFR 912.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  7. 30 CFR 939.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  8. 30 CFR 903.783 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-Minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.783 Underground mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (a) Part 783 of this chapter, Underground...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4160 - Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground electric substations and liquid..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL... Underground electric substations and liquid storage facilities. The requirements of this standard apply...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1712-6 - Underground sanitary facilities; installation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground sanitary facilities; installation..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-6 Underground sanitary facilities; installation and maintenance. (a) Except as...

  11. 30 CFR 75.313 - Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.313 Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground. (a) If a main mine fan stops while anyone is...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1712-7 - Underground sanitary facilities; waiver of requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground sanitary facilities; waiver of... OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-7 Underground sanitary facilities; waiver of requirements. If it has been determined by...

  13. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have...

  14. 30 CFR 922.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  15. 30 CFR 905.783 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-Minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.783 Underground mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (a) Part 783 of this chapter, Underground...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1902 - Underground diesel fuel storage-general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel storage-general... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1902 Underground diesel fuel storage—general requirements. (a) All diesel fuel must be...

  17. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. A splice in underground wire shall...

  18. 30 CFR 910.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  19. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines, published on August 31... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. Due to requests from the public and to provide...

  20. APPRAISAL OF THE POPULATION THREAT RISK BY CARBON LEAKAGE PRODUCED BY UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Šofranko, Marian; Škvareková, Erika; Laciak, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The UCG /underground coal gasification/ technology could increase energy production resulting in improving the economic situation. Even if the risk of accidents may occur in the both coal gasification and underground mining, the other parameters suggest that the coal gasification method is much safer that the underground mining.

  1. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As...

  2. 77 FR 4834 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration. ACTION: Notice of... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines DATES: Submit comments on or before April 2, 2012. ADDRESSES: Comments... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. OMB Number: 1219-0146. Affected Public: Business or other...

  3. On area-specific underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Wang

    2014-01-01

    Underground research laboratories (URLs), including “generic URLs” and “site-specific URLs”, are un-derground facilities in which characterisation, testing, technology development, and/or demonstration activities are carried out in support of the development of geological repositories for high-level radio-active waste (HLW) disposal. In addition to the generic URL and site-specific URL, a concept of “area-specific URL”, or the third type of URL, is proposed in this paper. It is referred to as the facility that is built at a site within an area that is considered as a potential area for HLW repository or built at a place near the future repository site, and may be regarded as a precursor to the development of a repository at the site. It acts as a “generic URL”, but also acts as a “site-specific URL” to some extent. Considering the current situation in China, the most suitable option is to build an“area-specific URL”in Beishan area, the first priority region for China’s high-level waste repository. With this strategy, the goal to build China’s URL by 2020 may be achieved, but the time left is limited.

  4. Earthquakes: no danger for deep underground nuclear waste repositories; erdbeben: keine gefahr fuer tiefenlager. Themenheft Nr. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    On the Earth, the continental plates are steadily moving. Principally at the plate boundaries such shifts produce stresses which are released in form of earthquakes. The highest the built-up energy, the more violent will be the shaking. Earthquakes accompany mankind from very ancient times on and they disturb the population. Till now nobody is able to predict where and when they will take place. But on the Earth there are regions where, due to their geological situation, the occurrence of earthquakes is more probable than elsewhere. The impact of a very strong earthquake on the structures at the Earth surface depends on several factors. Besides the ground structure, the density of buildings, construction style and materials used play an important role. Construction-related technical measures can improve the safety of buildings and, together with a correct behaviour of the people concerned, save many lives. Earthquakes are well known in Switzerland. Here, the stresses are due to the collision of the African and European continental plates that created the Alps. The impact of earthquake is more limited in the underground than at the Earth surface. There is no danger for deep underground repositories

  5. On area-specific underground research laboratory for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground research laboratories (URLs, including “generic URLs” and “site-specific URLs”, are underground facilities in which characterisation, testing, technology development, and/or demonstration activities are carried out in support of the development of geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste (HLW disposal. In addition to the generic URL and site-specific URL, a concept of “area-specific URL”, or the third type of URL, is proposed in this paper. It is referred to as the facility that is built at a site within an area that is considered as a potential area for HLW repository or built at a place near the future repository site, and may be regarded as a precursor to the development of a repository at the site. It acts as a “generic URL”, but also acts as a “site-specific URL” to some extent. Considering the current situation in China, the most suitable option is to build an “area-specific URL” in Beishan area, the first priority region for China's high-level waste repository. With this strategy, the goal to build China's URL by 2020 may be achieved, but the time left is limited.

  6. Construction experiences from underground works at Oskarshamn. Compilation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (SE)); Christiansson, Rolf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The main objective with this report is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Oskarshamn, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the cooling water tunnels of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units 1,2 and 3, from the underground excavations of Clab 1 and 2 (Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel), and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. In addition, an account is given of the operational experience of Clab 1 and 2 and of the Aespoe HRL on primarily scaling and rock support solutions. This report, as being a compilation report, is in its substance based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. Approximately 8,000 m of tunnels including three major rock caverns with a total volume of about 550,000 m3 have been excavated. The excavation works of the various tunnels and rock caverns were carried out during the period of 1966-2000. In addition, minor excavation works were carried out at the Aespoe HRL in 2003. The depth location of the underground structures varies from near surface down to 450 m. As an overall conclusion it may be said that the rock mass conditions in the area are well suited for underground construction. This conclusion is supported by the experiences from the rock excavation works in the Simpevarp and Aespoe area. These works have shown that no major problems occurred during the excavation works; nor have any stability or other rock engineering problems of significance been identified after the commissioning of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units O1, O2 and O3, BFA, Clab 1 and 2, and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The underground structures of these facilities were built according to plan, and since than been operated as planned. Thus, the quality of the rock mass within the construction area is such that it lends itself to excavation of large rock caverns with a minimum of rock support

  7. Problems and countermeasures in construction of underground research shaft and drift of Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outline of design of construction of underground research facilities in Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project is described. The problems and investigations of countermeasures are reported. The bedrock in and around the underground research facilities consists of sedimentary soft rock. The competence factor is low. The groundwater contains salt, methane, boron and ammonium in the deep underground. The support design under the conditions of low competence factor is explained by rock classification, establishment of characteristic values of every classified rock, and the double supporting structure. The control methods for spring water in the shallow stratum are stated by the previous boring in and around shaft, countermeasures to spring water, and verification using comparison between the analytical results and the amount of spring water. The results showed the amount of spring water in the shaft was decreased by construction of cut-off wall. Rock classification standard, physical properties of rocks, flow of shaft support design, and results of permeability tests are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  8. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  9. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  10. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE CHANGE IN HYDROGEOLOGICAL MODE ОF THE TERRITORIES RESULTING FROM THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN UNDERGROUND COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the consequences of the construction in the conditions of dense housing system is the development of underground part of buildings, which influences the surrounding buildings, changing the stress-strain state of soil masses and hydrogeological conditions of the construction site. The damming effect leads to local increase of hydrostatical pressure of ground waters on underground structures. The authors present a description of hydrogeological conditions of the construction site of underground construction and mathematical geofiltration model of the soil foundation. The results of numerical investigation of the change in the hydrogeological mode of the construction area in case of enveloping the foundation pit with the wall in the ground are considered. On the first stage the basic mathematical model was calibrated by variation of the values of geofiltration parameters of water-bearing sediments and water-resistant mass and the values of infiltration recharge. The validation criterion of the mathematical model was the good agreement of the modeled and real ground water levels obtained as a result of compilation of the existing geological and hydrogeological materials. The construction simulation was carried out in a multivariant formulation for the conditions of entirely impenetrable wall in the ground with the filtration coefficient 0.001 m/day.

  11. Research on communication system of underground safety management based on leaky feeder cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hong; ZHANG Tao; CHENG Yun-cai; ZHANG Han

    2007-01-01

    According to the current working status of underground safety management and production scheduling, the importance and existed problem of underground mine radio communication were summarized, and the basic principle and classification of leaky feeder cable were introduced and the characteristics of cable were analyzed specifically in depth, and the application model of radio communication system for underground mine safety management was put forward. Meanwhile, the research explanation of the system component, function and evaluation was provided. The discussion result indicates that communication system of underground mine safety management which is integrated two-way relay amplifier and other equipment has many communication functions, and underground mine mobile communication can be achieved well.

  12. Investigation of Underground Sour Gas Storage in a Depleted Gas Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Underground Gas Storage (UGS involves storage of large quantities of natural gas to support the natural gas demand in domestic, commercial and industrial areas. Storage of sour gas can be advantageous from economic standpoint, as it reduces treatment costs and increases the potential of production from shared reservoirs. This paper investigates feasibility of UGS in one of Iranian depleted fractured gas condensate reservoirs. Compositional simulation was employed to build dynamic reservoir model, develop the history matching phase of the reservoir and construct Injection/Withdrawal (I/W cycles. One sweet gas stream and three sour gas streams with different compositions were tested for storage into reservoir during summer season. Results of simulation showed that presence of H2S and CO2 in the injected gas stream improves condensate production. Condensate Production Enhancement (CPE, defined as the percentage of condensate recovery increase due to sour gas injection relative to the sweet gas injection, was calculated for different compositions of storage gas. Also, Condensate Holding Ratio (CHR, defined as the ratio of condensate in the withdrawn sour gas to that in the withdrawn CH4, was estimated for different storage gas compositions. Results showed that CPE has a higher rate in earlier cycles and declines at later cycles. CHR is higher for sour gas storage compared to sweet gas. Furthermore, heating value of produced gas was calculated in all I/W cycles and compared with heating value of injected gas. It was indicated that difference between heating value of produced and injected gas increases with increase of H2S and CO2 content of the injected gas. Also, it was found that the reservoir has lower pressure rise at the end of I/W cycles in the case of underground sour gas storage compared to sweet gas storage. The presence of acid gas components decreases the z-factor of injected gas stream resulting in smaller difference between z-factors of

  13. Numerical Simulations of Leakage from Underground LPG Storage Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-09-01

    To secure a stable supply of petroleum gas, underground storage caverns for liquified petroleum gas (LPG) are commonly used in many countries worldwide. Storing LPG in underground caverns requires that the surrounding rock mass remain saturated with groundwater and that the water pressure be higher than the liquid pressure inside the cavern. In previous studies, gas containment criteria for underground gas storage based on hydraulic gradient and pressure have been discussed, but these studies do not consider the physicochemical characteristics and behavior of LPG such as vaporization and dissolution in groundwater. Therefore, while these studies are very useful for designing storage caverns, they do not provide better understanding of the either the environmental effects of gas contamination or the behavior of vaporized LPG. In this study, we have performed three-phase fluid flow simulations of gas leakage from underground LPG storage caverns, using the multiphase multicomponent nonisothermal simulator TMVOC (Pruess and Battistelli, 2002), which is capable of solving the three-phase nonisothermal flow of water, gas, and a multicomponent mixture of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in multidimensional heterogeneous porous media. A two-dimensional cross-sectional model resembling an actual underground LPG facility in Japan was developed, and gas leakage phenomena were simulated for three different permeability models: (1) a homogeneous model, (2) a single-fault model, and (3) a heterogeneous model. In addition, the behavior of stored LPG was studied for the special case of a water curtain suddenly losing its function because of operational problems, or because of long-term effects such as clogging of boreholes. The results of the study indicate the following: (1) The water curtain system is a very powerful means for preventing gas leakage from underground storage facilities. By operating with appropriate pressure and layout, gas containment can be ensured. (2

  14. Building trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Activate' is the energy magazine for secondary schools and is part of the Education Programme which is managed on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum by AEA Technology. activate is the flagship communication device between the British Nuclear Industry Forum's Education Programme and secondary schools in the UK. It was developed from a previous publication, Nuclear Bulletin. There is a need for the nuclear industry to build trust with teachers and students in the UK, where for a long time, everything that the industry has said, written or printed has been disregarded by school teachers as propaganda. Over the last few years the industry has put in a great deal of effort to position itself as a provider of educationally sound and socially acceptable information. 'Activate' was an evolution of this idea and there was a hole in the market for a lively, activity and article based magazine that could be used in the classroom. The target audience is principally teachers of science, mathematics and geography, but also includes teachers of art,, English and history with students of between 11 and 18. The results were very positive in that teachers appreciated the colourful and lively nature of activate and they felt that it provided information and opinions in an un biased and non-propagandist way. Their comments about layout, number of activities style of presentation were taken into account and during the summer of 1994 activate was remodelled ready for re launch in September. The feedback so far is good with more teachers signing up every week to receive their own free copy

  15. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit No. 456: Underground storage tank release site 23-111-1, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The underground storage tank (UST) release site 23-111-1 is located in Mercury, Nevada. The site is in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, (NTS) located on the north side of Building 111. The tank associated with the release was closed in place using cement grout on September 6, 1990. The tank was not closed by removal due to numerous active underground utilities, a high-voltage transformer pad, and overhead power lines. Soil samples collected below the tank bottom at the time of tank closure activities exceeded the Nevada Administrative Code Action Level of 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for petroleum hydrocarbons. Maximum concentrations detected were 119 mg/kg. Two passive venting wells were subsequently installed at the tank ends to monitor the progress of biodegradation at the site. Quarterly air sampling from the wells was completed for approximately one year, but was discontinued since data indicated that considerable biodegradation was not occurring at the site

  16. Laplace Synthesis Validation through Measurements on Underground Transmission Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe-Campos Felipe Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground cable electrical parameters ZY as well as their modal propagation characteristics are highly frequency dependent which in certain cases turns its analysis difficult. To perform electromagnetic transient studies of cables the calculation of electrical parameters is essential to obtain the waves propagation solution through the multiconductor system. At the same time this requires to solve the inverse Laplace transform on a numerical form. Although the analytic Laplace transform has an indisputable accuracy, the application of its numerical version up-to-date has not been completely accepted. A complete methodology is developed in this work to guide analyst engineers or graduate students in the calculation of electromagnetic transients of underground cable systems. Finally, to help the validation of the numerical inverse Laplace transform a scaled prototype experiment is performed in the laboratory in which a transient step-response at the remote end of an energized conductor is measured.

  17. Cosmic rays muon flux measurements at Belgrade shallow underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgrade underground laboratory is a shallow underground one, at 25 meters of water equivalent. It is dedicated to low-background spectroscopy and cosmic rays measurement. Its uniqueness is that it is composed of two parts, one above ground, the other bellow with identical sets of detectors and analyzing electronics thus creating opportunity to monitor simultaneously muon flux and ambient radiation. We investigate the possibility of utilizing measurements at the shallow depth for the study of muons, processes to which these muons are sensitive and processes induced by cosmic rays muons. For this purpose a series of simulations of muon generation and propagation is done, based on the CORSIKA air shower simulation package and GEANT4. Results show good agreement with other laboratories and cosmic rays stations

  18. Progress of Jinping Underground laboratory for Nuclear Astrophysics (JUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu WeiPing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jinping Underground lab for Nuclear Astrophysics (JUNA will take the advantage of the ultralow background in Jinping underground lab, high current accelerator based on an ECR source and highly sensitive detector to study directly a number of crucial reactions to the hydrostatic stellar evolution for the first time at their relevant stellar energies. In its first phase, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ26Al, 19F(p,α16O, 13C(α,n16O and 12C(α,γ16O. The experimental setup, which include the accelerator system with high stability and high intensity, the detector system, and the shielding material with low background, will be established during the above research. The current progress of JUNA will be given.

  19. Energy-Efficient Routing Algorithm for WSNs in Underground mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs technology has been used for security monitoring to provide a safe working environment for Underground mining miners. But, energy consumption is an important issue in the design of routing protocol in wireless sensor networks. For the problems of coal mine chain-type network topology, unbalanced information flow and energy consumption among nodes is serious uneven, we proposed a Liner Energy-Balanced Uneven Cluster Routing Protocol Algorithm for Underground Mining. The cluster head election mechanism of the algorithm considered the distance between nodes and base station node, nodes energy and nodes density. At the same time, the algorithm reduces the amount of computation when candidate nodes campaigning. We evaluate LEBUC and the results show that LEBUC effectively graded the wireless sensor network of coal mine’s "hot zone" problem and reduces network traffic and energy consumption. It extends the survival time of the network significantly.

  20. Underground fluid composition analysis based on the near infrared spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenxi; Liao, Yanbiao; Zhang, Min

    2011-11-01

    The near-infrared spectrum is very practical for real-time analyzing in the field of industry. This paper describes the structure of optical system, which is a part of the well logging instruments. The optical system is designed to analyze the composition of underground fluid, using the differences between oil and water in near-infrared absorption. Using Beer- Lambert law, the article analyzes the light intensity when broad-spectrum light passes through the liquid. According to the results of analysis, a group of wavelength including center wavelength and bandwidth can be selected. With each selected wavelength, light intensity changes significantly as the concentration of liquid changes. By measuring the light intensity, the system can analyse the composition of underground fluid.

  1. Safety assessment for the underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and reviewing safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories. It introduces and discusses in a general manner approaches and areas to be considered in making such safety assessments; its emphasis is on repositories for long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. It is hoped that this document will contribute to providing a base for a common understanding among the authorities and specialists concerned with the numerous studies involving a variety of scientific disciplines. While providing guidance, the document is also intended to stimulate further international discussion on this subject. It is the intention of the IAEA to develop more specific reports providing examples for the application of safety analyses for underground waste disposal

  2. 200 Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) has been tasked by Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) to incorporate current location data for 64 of the 200-Area plateau inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (IMUST) into the centralized mapping computer database for the Hanford facilities. The IMUST coordinate locations and tank names for the tanks currently assigned to the Hanford Site contractors are listed in Appendix A. The IMUST are inactive tanks installed in underground vaults or buried directly in the ground within the 200-East and 200-West Areas of the Hanford Site. The tanks are categorized as tanks with a capacity of less than 190,000 liters (50,000 gal). Some of the IMUST have been stabilized, pumped dry, filled with grout, or may contain an inventory or radioactive and/or hazardous materials. The IMUST have been out of service for at least 12 years

  3. Analysis of an Underground Vertical Electrically Small Wire Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem considered is a vertical electrically small wire antenna located underground, which transmits electromagnetic signals to the ground. Getting Green’s function of the vertical dipole underground was the first step to calculate this issue. A quasistatic situation was considered to make an approximation on Sommerfeld integral for easy solution. The method of moments was used to solve the current distribution on the antenna surface at different frequencies, which laid a good foundation for obtaining the electric field of the antenna. Then the axial and radial components of the electric field with the radial distance on the ground were investigated, as well as the voltage received on the ground. Furthermore, the influence of the frequency and stratum parameters on current and electric field was studied to understand the variation clearly.

  4. Underground gas storage in Germany; Untertage-Gasspeicherung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-11-15

    The safe natural gas supply of Germany is guaranteed by imports, domestic delivery and underground natural gas storage facilities. More than 80 % of the consumed natural gas is imported. Due to new natural gas storage facilities as well as due to the extension of existing natural gas storage facilities, the storage of natural gas in Germany experiences an upward trend for years. This development especially experienced an enormous upswing in the last two years. The contribution under consideration reports on the status of the underground natural gas storage of crude oil products and petroleum products in Germany on the basis of the data of the Lower Saxony State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (Hannover, FRG).

  5. Development of a Testbed for Wireless Underground Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet C. Vuran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Underground Sensor Networks (WUSNs constitute one of the promising application areas of the recently developed wireless sensor networking techniques. WUSN is a specialized kind of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN that mainly focuses on the use of sensors that communicate through soil. Recent models for the wireless underground communication channel are proposed but few field experiments were realized to verify the accuracy of the models. The realization of field WUSN experiments proved to be extremely complex and time-consuming in comparison with the traditional wireless environment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that proposes guidelines for the development of an outdoor WUSN testbed with the goals of improving the accuracy and reducing of time for WUSN experiments. Although the work mainly aims WUSNs, many of the presented practices can also be applied to generic WSN testbeds.

  6. Selecting utilities placement techniques in urban underground engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Curiel Esparza, Jorge; Cantó Perelló, Julián

    2013-01-01

    Placement of utilities has not been generally accomplished in any sustainable technique resulting in a veritable maze in high density urban areas. As underground space scarcity grows in our cities due to the increasing demands for utility services, subsurface facilities such as utility tunnels are becoming more efficient in providing the required infrastructure. There is a growing public awareness of aesthetic considerations and impatience with street cuts and their associated costs, traffic ...

  7. Proceedings of second annual underground coal gasification symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuck, L Z [ed.

    1976-01-01

    The Second Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Research Center of the US Energy Research and Development Administration and held at Morgantown, WV, August 10-12, 1976. Fifty papers of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. While the majority of the contribution involved ERDA's own work in this area, there were several papers from universities, state organizations, (industrial, engineering or utility companies) and a few from foreign countries. (LTN)

  8. Microwave Detection of Water Pollution in Underground Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad H. Abdelgwad; Tarek M. Said; Gody, Amr M.

    2014-01-01

    An electromagnetic model is proposed to detect water pollution in underground pipelines. Contaminants present above a certain level in water can be a public health hazard. The contrast in the dielectric constant between contaminated and fresh water is one of the most important parameters to be considered for detecting the presence of pollutants in water. Simulations of frequency response and time domain pulse wave through a multi-layer medium are presented. The complex dielectric permittivity...

  9. May Heavy neutrinos solve underground and cosmic ray puzzles?

    OpenAIRE

    Belotsky, K.; Fargion, D.; Khlopov, M.; Konoplich, R. V.

    2004-01-01

    Primordial Heavy neutrinos of 4th generation might explain different astrophysical puzzles: indeed the simplest 4th neutrino scenario may be still consistent with known 4th neutrino physics, cosmic ray anti-matter and gamma fluxes and signals in underground detectors for a very narrow neutrino mass windows (46-47 GeV). We have analyzed extended Heavy neutrino models related to the clumpiness of neutrino density, new interactions in Heavy neutrino annihilation, neutrino asymmetry, neutrino dec...

  10. Overview of the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO)

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The medium baseline reactor antineutrino experiment, Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), which is being planed to be built at Jiangmen in South China, can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and improve the precision of three oscillation parameters by one order of magnitude. The sensitivity potential on these measurements is reviewed and design concepts of the central detector are illustrated. Finally, we emphasize on the technical challenges we meet and the corresponding R&D efforts.

  11. Observation of the moon shadow in deep underground muon flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shadow of the moon, with a statistical significance of 5σ, has been observed in the underground muon flux at a depth of 2090 mwe using the Soudan 2 detector. The angular resolution of the detector is well described by a Gaussian with σ le0.3degree. The position of the shadow confirms the alignment of the detector to better than 0.15degree. This alignment has remained stable during 10 years of data taking from 1989 through 1998

  12. Performance assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A waste disposal system comprises a number of subsystems and components. The performance of most systems can be demonstrated only indirectly because of the long period that would be required to test them. This report gives special attention to performance assessment of subsystems within the total waste disposal system, and is an extension of an IAEA report on Safety Assessment for the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

  13. THE POLLUTION PHENOMENON MODELLING OF THE UNDERGROUND WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail Luca; Paul Răzvan Balan; Andreea Mănescu; Lucian Alexandru Luca

    2012-01-01

    The industrial waste deposits determine an increased pollution ofunderground waters. The paper presents the modeling of pollution phenomenon of underground water in an industrial waste deposit area. The pollution phenomenon is analyzed in time, during the period of the deposit exploitation and conservation. The results obtained through modeling allow the application of some environment protection measures. The numerical simulations achieved for different scenariosand for a certain period of t...

  14. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY OF ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana Maftei

    2014-01-01

    Shadow economy affected for a long time Romania, even since the old regime. During the period 1995-1996, the expansion of this phenomenon has become more serious. Along with Bulgaria, Romania is the second most affected country in the Eastern part of Europe, the shadow economy reaching around 28% of national GDP. This process is boosted by a high level of tax evasion, black labor and overregulation. With the ascension into EU, Romania made considerable efforts to combat the underground econom...

  15. Predicting surface vibration from underground railways through inhomogeneous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Simon; Hunt, Hugh

    2012-04-01

    Noise and vibration from underground railways is a major source of disturbance to inhabitants near subways. To help designers meet noise and vibration limits, numerical models are used to understand vibration propagation from these underground railways. However, the models commonly assume the ground is homogeneous and neglect to include local variability in the soil properties. Such simplifying assumptions add a level of uncertainty to the predictions which is not well understood. The goal of the current paper is to quantify the effect of soil inhomogeneity on surface vibration. The thin-layer method (TLM) is suggested as an efficient and accurate means of simulating vibration from underground railways in arbitrarily layered half-spaces. Stochastic variability of the soil's elastic modulus is introduced using a K-L expansion; the modulus is assumed to have a log-normal distribution and a modified exponential covariance kernel. The effect of horizontal soil variability is investigated by comparing the stochastic results for soils varied only in the vertical direction to soils with 2D variability. Results suggest that local soil inhomogeneity can significantly affect surface velocity predictions; 90 percent confidence intervals showing 8 dB averages and peak values up to 12 dB are computed. This is a significant source of uncertainty and should be considered when using predictions from models assuming homogeneous soil properties. Furthermore, the effect of horizontal variability of the elastic modulus on the confidence interval appears to be negligible. This suggests that only vertical variation needs to be taken into account when modelling ground vibration from underground railways.

  16. Proceedings of the 5th underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The 5th underground coal conversion symposium was held at Alexandria, Virginia, June 18--21, 1979. Thirty-three papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Seven papers were also abstracted for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. Seven papers had been entered previously from other sources. The symposium was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Extraction. (LTN)

  17. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  18. Proposal for the establishment of a national underground physics laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in elementary particles physics and astrophysics during the past decade have indicated certain areas in those fields in which experiments of high potential significance, albeit great difficulty, need to be done. In general, these are experiments that seek to uncover rare, new physical phenomena, or to study quantitatively phenomena that are especially difficult to observe. Among them are: (1) the study of solar and other cosmic neutrinos; (2) the search for nucleon instability; (3) the search for non-zero neutrino mass through the study of neutrino stability and double beta-decay; and (4) intensive searches for and attempts to measure accurately very energetic, rare elementary particle interactions such as may be manifested, for example, in the so-called Centauro events. The nature of these experiments requires that they be shielded from the intense flux of cosmic ray muons and air showers on the earth's surface, and therefore that the experimental apparatus be located deep underground or in the deep sea. However, for most of the experiments, and the apparatus also needs to be very large in mass and volume, and highly instrumented to achieve the necessary measurement capability. It is proposed to establish a laboratory deep underground of sufficient scope to be capable of housing and maintaining a variety of experiments that employ the most advanced technology. A specific channel is discussed whereby a national underground physics laboratory might be formed. The desirable characteristics of such a laboratory are described, and a possible location is recommended. Detailed cost estimates are provided

  19. Nonlinear flow model for well production in an underground formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Guo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow in underground formations is a nonlinear process. In this article we modelled the nonlinear transient flow behaviour of well production in an underground formation. Based on Darcy's law and material balance equations, we used quadratic pressure gradients to deduce diffusion equations and discuss the origins of nonlinear flow issues. By introducing an effective-well-radius approach that considers skin factor, we established a nonlinear flow model for both gas and liquid (oil or water. The liquid flow model was solved using a semi-analytical method, while the gas flow model was solved using numerical simulations because the diffusion equation of gas flow is a stealth function of pressure. For liquid flow, a series of standard log-log type curves of pressure transients were plotted and nonlinear transient flow characteristics were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The effect of nonlinearity upon pressure transients should not be ignored. For gas flow, pressure transients were simulated and compared with oil flow under the same formation and well conditions, resulting in the conclusion that, under the same volume rate production, oil wells demand larger pressure drops than gas wells. Comparisons between theoretical data and field data show that nonlinear models will describe fluid flow in underground formations realistically and accurately.

  20. Noise propagation characteristics of underground equipment in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Gen-yin; WEI Zhi-yong; XU Ming; ZHU Yan-yan

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the survey of underground noise in Jinggezhuang and Donghuantuo mines,Kailuan Group,noise radiation intensity,noise propagation properties and noise frequency-spectrum characteristics of underground equipment were studied at different work conditions.The result indicates that the noise source intensity surpasses the noise limit requirement of 85 dBA completely.Nearly 70% noise sources exceed the noise limit of 90 dBA,and some are over 100 dBA.Noise attenuation in semi-free field environment on the ground is significantly different from underground far-field environment of noise source in coal mines.Noise of these regions,where staffs are long and highly concentrated,exceeds 85 dBA,the basic noise limit.The noise frequency-spectrum presents the wideband characteristics.Especially in the main frequency of the language communication 500,1 000 and 2 000 Hz,the octave band of noise performs obviously.