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Sample records for build supra-cellular ropes

  1. The evolution of a capacity to build supra-cellular ropes enabled filamentous cyanobacteria to colonize highly erodible substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Garcia-Pichel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several motile, filamentous cyanobacteria display the ability to self-assemble into tightly woven or twisted groups of filaments that form macroscopic yarns or ropes, and that are often centimeters long and 50-200 microm in diameter. Traditionally, this trait has been the basis for taxonomic definition of several genera, notably Microcoleus and Hydrocoleum, but the trait has not been associated with any plausible function. METHOD AND FINDINGS: Through the use of phylogenetic reconstruction, we demonstrate that pedigreed, rope-building cyanobacteria from various habitats do not form a monophyletic group. This is consistent with the hypothesis that rope-building ability was fixed independently in several discrete clades, likely through processes of convergent evolution or lateral transfer. Because rope-building cyanobacteria share the ability to colonize geologically unstable sedimentary substrates, such as subtidal and intertidal marine sediments and non-vegetated soils, it is also likely that this supracellular differentiation capacity imparts a particular fitness advantage in such habitats. The physics of sediment and soil erosion in fact predict that threads in the 50-200 microm size range will attain optimal characteristics to stabilize such substrates on contact. CONCLUSIONS: Rope building is a supracellular morphological adaptation in filamentous cyanobacteria that allows them to colonize physically unstable sedimentary environments, and to act as successful pioneers in the biostabilization process.

  2. How Roebling did it: Building the world's first wire-rope suspension aqueduct in 1840s Pittsburgh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Donald L.

    2006-05-01

    The noted bridge designed John Roebling introduced his wire-rope suspension concept in Pittsburgh on a wooden aqueduct. His design was later implemented in bridges in Pittsburgh and elsewhere, including New York's Brooklyn Bridge. This article describes Roebling's work based on reviews of his notes and other historical documents.

  3. Liquid rope coiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Ribe; M. Habibi; D. Bonn

    2012-01-01

    A thin stream or rope of viscous fluid falling from a sufficient height onto a surface forms a steadily rotating helical coil. Tabletop laboratory experiments in combination with a numerical model for slender liquid ropes reveal that finite-amplitude coiling can occur in four distinct regimes (visco

  4. Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boris Filippov; Olesya Martsenyuk; Abhishek K. Srivastava; Wahab Uddin

    2015-03-01

    In the early 1990s, it was found that the strongest disturbances of the space–weather were associated with huge ejections of plasma from the solar corona, which took the form of magnetic clouds when moved from the Sun. It is the collisions of the magnetic clouds with the Earth's magnetosphere that lead to strong, sometimes catastrophic changes in space–weather. The onset of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is sudden and no reliable forerunners of CMEs have been found till date. The CME prediction methodologies are less developed compared to the methods developed for the prediction of solar flares. The most probable initial magnetic configuration of a CME is a flux rope consisting of twisted field lines which fill the whole volume of a dark coronal cavity. The flux ropes can be in stable equilibrium in the coronal magnetic field for weeks and even months, but suddenly they lose their stability and erupt with high speed. Their transition to the unstable phase depends on the parameters of the flux rope (i.e., total electric current, twist, mass loading, etc.), as well as on the properties of the ambient coronal magnetic field. One of the major governing factors is the vertical gradient of the coronal magnetic field, which is estimated as decay index (). Cold dense prominence material can be collected in the lower parts of the helical flux tubes. Filaments are, therefore, good tracers of the flux ropes in the corona, which become visible long before the beginning of the eruption. The perspectives of the filament eruptions and following CMEs can be estimated by a comparison of observed filament heights with calculated decay index distributions. The present paper reviews the formation of magnetic flux ropes, their stable and unstable phases, eruption conditions, and also discusses their physical implications in the solar corona.

  5. Wire ropes tension, endurance, reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Feyrer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to present the methods used to calculate the most important parameters for ropes, and to explain how they are applied on the basis of numerous sample calculations. The book, based on the most important chapters of the German book DRAHTSEILE, has been updated to reflect the latest developments, with the new edition especially focusing on computational methods for wire ropes. Many new calculations and examples have also been added to facilitate the dimensioning and calculation of mechanical characteristics of wire ropes. This book offers a valuable resource for all those working with wire ropes, including construction engineers, operators and supervisors of machines and installations involving wire ropes.

  6. CONDITION MONITORING AND FAULT DIAGNOSIS FOR TENSION UNBALANCE OF ROPES IN MULTI-ROPE FRICTION WINDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兆建; 王勤贤; 任芳

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyzes the reasons of the tension unbalance of the ropes in multi-rope friction winder, introduces the method of an on-line monitoring rope tensions with a testing device developed by authors, and proposes the criteria of the fault diagnosis and the method of adjustment for the tension unbalance of the ropes, which is important to the theoretical study on the tension unbalance of the ropes and the maintenance of multi-rope winder.

  7. On sphere-filling ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlach, Henryk

    2010-01-01

    What is the longest rope on the unit sphere? Intuition tells us that the answer to this packing problem depends on the rope's thickness. For a countably infinite number of prescribed thickness values we construct and classify all solution curves. The simplest ones are similar to the seamlines of a tennis ball, others exhibit a striking resemblance to Turing patterns in chemistry, or to ordered phases of long elastic rods stuffed into spherical shells.

  8. Experience with testing hoisting ropes for mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrzanski, R.; Jasinski, J.; Milcarz, T.

    1987-03-01

    Evaluates design, operation and wear of 123 hoisting ropes used on 71 hoists in the Zabrze mine union. Flattened ropes with triangular strands and round-strand ropes (T, ST, S, WS, WK) are described. Laboratory tests show that fatigue wire breaking is the main cause of rope removal; irregular wire elongation and fluctuations of rope core are less significant. Three typical examples of hoisting rope failures are analyzed. Systems for magnetic inspection of hoisting ropes used by the laboratory of the Zabrze mine union are described: the MD-7, the MD-8, the DLS and the DLS-Rk with GP-2 measuring heads. Recommendations for rope inspection equipment and inspection procedure are made. 4 refs.

  9. Experimental Snap Loading of Synthetic Ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Hennessey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Large tensile forces, known as snap loads, can occur when a slack rope becomes taut. Such forces may damage the rope or masses connected to it. Experiments are described in which one end of a rope is attached to the top of a drop tower and the bottom end is attached to a weight. The weight is raised to a certain height and then released. The force at the top of the rope and the acceleration of the weight are recorded during the first snap load that occurs. Repeated drop tests are performed on each rope. The effects of the type of rope, drop height, drop weight, whether the rope has been subjected to static precycling, and the number of previous dynamic tests are examined. A mathematical model is proposed for the rope force as a function of the displacement and velocity of the weight.

  10. Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Priest, E R; Lee, L C

    1990-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference on the Physics of Magnetic Flux Ropes was held at the Hamilton Princess Hotel, Hamilton, Bermuda on March 27–31, 1989. Topics discussed ranged from solar flux ropes, such as photospheric flux tubes, coronal loops and prominences, to flux ropes in the solar wind, in planetary ionospheres, at the Earth's magnetopause, in the geomagnetic tail and deep in the Earth's magnetosphere. Papers presented at that conference form the nucleus of this book, but the book is more than just a proceedings of the conference. We have solicited articles from all interested in this topic. Thus, there is some material in the book not discussed at the conference. Even in the case of papers presented at the conference, there is generally a much more detailed and rigorous presentation than was possible in the time allowed by the oral and poster presentations.

  11. FEASIBILITY AND EXPERIMENT ANALYSIS OF FOUR-ROPES FRICTION HOIST WITHOUT ROPE GROOVES CUTTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广丰; 张国忠; 佟刚; 李文华; 华青松

    2000-01-01

    Based on theoretical analysis and experiment, when the difference between the ropes length is ensured, the radius difference between the rope grooves and the difference of the rope strain of a double-rope friction hoist will decrease with the increasing of hoisting times. Then the rope grooves cutting are not needed. If the connection form of the ropes or the structure of the frictional wheel of a four-ropes friction hoist are changed into as a double-ropes hoists, the hoist rope grooves will not need to be cut as well, and the working time will be saved and the service life of the rope lining will be lengthened also.

  12. 30 CFR 56.19054 - Rope guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rope guides. 56.19054 Section 56.19054 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Conveyances § 56.19054 Rope guides. Where rope guides...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19054 - Rope guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rope guides. 57.19054 Section 57.19054 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Conveyances § 57.19054 Rope guides. Where rope...

  14. Strawberry Shortcake and Other Jumping Rope Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Polly K.; Taylor, Michaell K.

    Information, guidelines, and activities for jumping rope are given. A short history of jumping rope explains how it evolved from a spring ritual for men to a play activity involving mostly young girls. Physical and cultural reasons are given as to why jumping rope has been more a sport for girls than for boys. Research studies are noted which show…

  15. Learning the Ropes with Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Sarah; Rex, Ted

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a lesson plan that uses materials such as rope, drinking water, and straws in a classroom activity to teach elementary students about electrical circuits in a "hands on/minds on" fashion. Students first experiment with bulbs, wires, and switches, then they do an activity with simulating electricity through a circuit…

  16. Roping and wrapping carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Kevin D.; O'Connell, Michael J.; Boul, Peter; Ericson, Lars M.; Casavant, Michael J.; Walters, Deron A.; Huffman, Chad; Saini, Rajesh; Wang, Yuhuang; Haroz, Erik; Billups, Edward W.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2001-11-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes can be dispersed into solvents by ultrasonication to the point that primarily individual tubes, cut to a few hundred nanometers in length, are present. However, when such dispersions are filtered to a thick mat, or paper, only tangles of uniform, seemingly endless ropes are observed. The factors contributing to this "roping" phenomenon, akin to aggregation or crystallization, will be discussed. We have developed methods for generating "super-ropes" more than twenty times the diameter of those formed by filtration, involving the extraction of nanotube material from an oleum dispersion. Nanotubes have been solubilized in water, largely individually, by non-covalently wrapping them with linear polymers. The general thermodynamic drive for this wrapping involves the polymer disrupting both the hydrophobic interface with water and the smooth tube-tube interaction in aggregates. The nanotubes can be recovered from their polymeric wrapping by changing their solvent system. This solubilization process opens the door to solution chemistry on pristine nanotubes, as well as their introduction into biologically relevant systems.

  17. Self-organization in magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Vyacheslav S.

    2014-06-01

    This cross-disciplinary special issue on 'Self-organization in magnetic flux ropes' follows in the footsteps of another collection of manuscripts dedicated to the subject of magnetic flux ropes, a volume on 'Physics of magnetic flux ropes' published in the American Geophysical Union's Geophysical Monograph Series in 1990 [1]. Twenty-four years later, this special issue, composed of invited original contributions highlighting ongoing research on the physics of magnetic flux ropes in astrophysical, space and laboratory plasmas, can be considered an update on our state of understanding of this fundamental constituent of any magnetized plasma. Furthermore, by inviting contributions from research groups focused on the study of the origins and properties of magnetic flux ropes in a variety of different environments, we have attempted to underline both the diversity of and the commonalities among magnetic flux ropes throughout the solar system and, indeed, the universe. So, what is a magnetic flux rope? The answer will undoubtedly depend on whom you ask. A flux rope can be as narrow as a few Larmor radii and as wide as the Sun (see, e.g., the contributions by Heli Hietala et al and by Angelous Vourlidas). As described below by Ward Manchester IV et al , they can stretch from the Sun to the Earth in the form of interplanetary coronal mass ejections. Or, as in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment described by David Schaffner et al , they can fit into a meter-long laboratory device tended by college students. They can be helical and line-tied (see, e.g., Walter Gekelman et al or J Sears et al ), or toroidal and periodic (see, e.g., John O'Bryan et al or Philippa Browning et al ). They can form in the low plasma beta environment of the solar corona (Tibor Török et al ), the order unity beta plasmas of the solar wind (Stefan Eriksson et al ) and the plasma pressure dominated stellar convection zones (Nicholas Nelson and Mark Miesch). In this special issue, Setthivoine You

  18. Dynamics of liquid rope coiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehdi; Maleki, Maniya; Golestanian, Ramin; Ribe, Neil M.; Bonn, Daniel

    2006-12-01

    We present a combined experimental and numerical investigation of the coiling of a liquid “rope” falling on a solid surface, focusing on three little-explored aspects of the phenomenon: The time dependence of “inertio-gravitational” coiling, the systematic dependence of the radii of the coil and the rope on the experimental parameters, and the “secondary buckling” of the columnar structure generated by high-frequency coiling. Inertio-gravitational coiling is characterized by oscillations between states with different frequencies, and we present experimental observations of four distinct branches of such states in the frequency-fall height space. The transitions between coexisting states have no characteristic period, may take place with or without a change in the sense of rotation, and usually (but not always) occur via an intermediate “figure of eight” state. We present extensive laboratory measurements of the radii of the coil and of the rope within it, and show that they agree well with the predictions of a “slender-rope” numerical model. Finally, we use dimensional analysis to reveal a systematic variation of the critical column height for secondary buckling as a function of (dimensionless) flow rate and surface tension parameters.

  19. Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights

  20. 构建跳绳大众锻炼等级评价标准的研究%The Research on Building the Evaluation Standard of the Mass Exercise Level of Rope Skipping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳霞; 张巍; 吕韶钧

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to choose the suitable popular exercise evaluation criteria,regulating the rope skipping technique content and establishing the rope skipping mass exercise rating standard.The paper adopted the research methods of material analysis and expert interview,questionnaire survey,education testing method and video analysis research and come to following conclusions:1) The rope skipping mass exercise level evaluation standard of evaluation content was defined as one minute single rope jump and 10 people following "8" word jump in three minutes with basic action criterias and difficulty movement criterias.2) The rope skipping mass exercise standard rank evaluation system was defined.The system was mainly divided into three stages of nine grades with hierarchical standard modes: standard-reaching partly through a deviation method is used to determine the evaluation criteria of each level and technique evaluation part is to define the evaluation standard of each level though the number of the basic movement and difficult movement completed.3) The study makes an analysis on the reliability of the data source and differences between genders to finally define the grading standards from 1 to 9 in the evaluation.%为了选择适合大众锻炼的跳绳评价指标,规范跳绳技术内容,建立跳绳大众锻炼等级标准。采用资料分析法、专家访谈法、问卷调查法、教育测试法、录像分析法进行研究,得出结论:1)确定跳绳大众锻炼等级评价标准的测评内容为1 min单人绳跳及3 min10人长绳"8"字跳、基本动作类指标和难度动作类指标。2)确定跳绳大众锻炼标准等级评价体系,主要分为三段九级,建立逐级递进的等级评价标准模式:达标部分通过离差法确定各个等级的评价标准,技评部分通过完成基本动作和难度动作数量来确定各个等级评价标准。3)对数据来源的可靠性以及男女之间差异进行了分

  1. Assessment of elevator rope using Hall Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4 mm and 1 mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2 mm in depth at 4 mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  2. Assesment of elevator rope using hall sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4mm and 1mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2mm in depth at 4mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  3. Cool and hot flux ropes, their helicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindos, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    We will review recent indirect and direct evidence for the existence of magnetic flux ropes in the solar atmosphere. Magnetic flux ropes may appear as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped (sigmoidal) structures in regions that are likely to erupt, and may also show in nonlinear force-free field extrapolations that use data from photospheric vector magnetograms as boundary condition. The availability of high sensitivity data recorded with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution in hot EUV wavelengths by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has revealed the existence of coherent structures identified as hot flux ropes. In this presentation, we will review the properties of both cool and hot flux ropes with an emphasis on the frequency of their occurrence in large flares and on their magnetic helicity content.

  4. The finite element modeling of spiral ropes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Accurate understanding the behavior of spiral rope is complicated due to their complex geometry and complex contact conditions between the wires. This study proposed the finite element models of spiral ropes subjected to tensile loads. The parametric equations developed in this paper were implemented for geometric modeling of ropes. The 3D geometric models with different twisting manner, equal diameters of wires were generated in details by using Pro/ENGINEER software. The results of the present finite element analysis were on an acceptable level of accuracy as compared with those of theoretical and experimental data. Further development is ongoing to analysis the equivalent stresses induced by twisting manner of cables. The twisting manner of wires was important to spiral ropes in the three wire layers and the outer twisting manner of wires should be contrary to that of the second layer, no matter what is the first twisting manner of wires.

  5. Wire rope improvement program. Final report. [For draglines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Anderson, W.E.; Beeman, G.H.; Dudder, G.B.; Erickson, R.; Glaeser, W.A.; Jentgen, R.L.; Rice, R.R.; Strope, L.A.

    1981-09-01

    Activities in five major areas were undertaken during the WRIP: experiments using PNL-developed bend-over-sheave fatigue test machines to generate data on which to base a model for predicting large-diameter rope performance from that of small-diameter ropes; bend-over-sheave fatigue testing to determine differences in rope failure rates at varying rope loads; analyses to determine how wire ropes actually fail; development of a load sensor to record and quantity operational loads on drag and hoist ropes; and technology transfer activities to disseminate useful program findings to coal mine operators. Data obtained during the 6-year program support are included. High loads on wire ropes are damaging. As an adjunct, however, potentially useful countermeasures to high loads were identified. Large-diameter rope bend-over-sheave performance can be predicted from small-diameter rope test behavior, over some ranges.

  6. Numerical Simulations of a Flux Rope Ejection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. Pagano; D. H. Mackay; S. Poedts

    2015-03-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most violent phenomena observed on the Sun. One of the most successful models to explain CMEs is the flux rope ejection model, where a magnetic flux rope is expelled from the solar corona after a long phase along which the flux rope stays in equilibrium while magnetic energy is being accumulated. However, still many questions are outstanding on the detailed mechanism of the ejection and observations continuously provide new data to interpret and put in the context. Currently, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) are providing new insights into the early phase of CME evolution. In particular, observations show the ejection of magnetic flux ropes from the solar corona and how they evolve into CMEs. However, these observations are difficult to interpret in terms of basic physical mechanisms and quantities, thus, we need to compare equivalent quantities to test and improve our models. In our work, we intend to bridge the gap between models and observations with our model of flux rope ejection where we consistently describe the full life span of a flux rope from its formation to ejection. This is done by coupling the global non-linear force-free model (GNLFFF) built to describe the slow low- formation phase, with a full MHD simulation run with the software MPI-AMRVAC, suitable to describe the fast MHD evolution of the flux rope ejection that happens in a heterogeneous regime. We also explore the parameter space to identify the conditions upon which the ejection is favoured (gravity stratification and magnetic field intensity) and we produce synthesised AIA observations (171 Å and 211 Å). To carry this out, we run 3D MHD simulation in spherical coordinates where we include the role of thermal conduction and radiative losses, both of which are important for determining the temperature distribution of the solar corona during a CME. Our model of flux

  7. Dimensioning of ropes and rope drives on large surface mining equipment. [German Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessiger, R.

    1984-10-01

    The VBK 0019 TAKRAF manufacturer's safety requirements for heavy surface mining equipment are explained which will be introduced as a revision of the 1974 TGL 13472 industrial regulation in the GDR. According to VBK 0019, records are to be kept on technical safety and on rope service life. Technical safety is determined by comparison of existing and required safety values. Formulae for calculating these values are provided as well as a list of required safety values of 5 movable rope types on surface mining equipment. A formula is also given for calculating rope service life by focusing on rope diameter and design of strands. Safety values for non-moving suspension ropes are also listed. 4 references.

  8. Research on Orbital Plasma Electrodynamics (ROPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.

    1998-01-01

    This final report summarizes some of the important scientific contributions to the Research on Orbital Plasma Electrodynamics (ROPE) investigation, to the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) mission, and to NASA that resulted from the work carried out under this contract at Carmel Research Center. These include Dr. Intriligator's participation in the PIT for the TSS-1R simulations and flight, her participation in ROPE team meetings and IWG meetings, her scientific analyses, and her writing and submitting technical papers to scientific journals. The scientific analyses concentrated on the characterization of energetic ions and their possible relation to pickup ion effects, correlation of particle and other effects (e.g., magnetic field, satellite surface), and collaboration with theorists including with ROPE co-investigators. In addition, scientific analyses were carried out of the effects due to satellite gas releases.

  9. Teaching Jump Rope to Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Schedlin, Haley; Pierce, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents strategies for jumping rope for children with visual impairments. Giving choices related to the types of rope and the use of mats is important. In addition, using appropriate instructional strategies and modifications will make jumping rope a skill that the children will enjoy and will lead to their involvement in other…

  10. Influences on lifetime of wire ropes in traction lifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, W.

    2016-05-01

    Traction lifts are complex systems with rotating and translating moving masses, springs and dampers and several system inputs from the lifts and the users. The wire ropes are essential mechanical elements. The mechanical properties of the ropes in use depend on the rope construction, the load situation, nonlinearities and the lift dimensions. The mechanical properties are important for the proper use in lifts and the ride quality. But first of all the wire ropes (for all other suspension means as well) have to satisfy the safety relevant requirements sufficient lifetime, reliable determination of discard and sufficient and limited traction capacity. The lifetime of the wire ropes better the number of trips until rope discard depends on a lot of parameters of the rope and the rope application eg use of plastic deflection sheaves and reverse bending layouts. New challenges for rope lifetime are resulting from the more or less open D/d-ratio limits possible by certificates concerning the examination of conformity by notified bodies. This paper will highlight the basics of wire rope technology, the endurance and lifetime of wire ropes running over sheaves, and the different influences from the ropes and more and more important from the lift application parameters. Very often underestimated are the influences of transport, storage, installation and maintenance. With this background we will lead over to the calculation methods of wire rope lifetime considering the actual findings of wire rope endurance research. We'll show in this paper new and innovative facts as the influence of rope length and size factor in the lifetime formular, the reduction of lifetime caused by traction grooves, the new model for the calculation in reverse bending operations and the statistically firmed possibilities for machine roomless lifts (MRL) under very small bending conditions.

  11. Kinematic analysis of rope skipper's stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Ghani, Nor Atikah; Rambely, Azmin Sham

    2014-06-01

    There are various kinds of jumping that can be done while performing rope skipping activity. This activity was always associated with injury. But, if the rope skipper can perform the activity in a right way, it is believed that the injury might be reduced. The main purpose of this paper is to observe the stability of rope skipper from a biomechanics perspective, which are the centre of mass, angle at the ankle, knee and hip joints and also the trajectory for the ipsilateral leg between the two types of skip which is one leg and two legs. Six healthy, physically active subject, two males and four females (age: 8.00±1.25 years, weight: 17.90±6.85 kg and height: 1.22±0.08 m) participated in this study. Kinematic data of repeated five cycles of rope skipping activity was captured by using Vicon Nexus system. Based on the data collected, skipping with two legs shows more stable behavior during preparation, flight and landing phases. It is concluded that landing on the balls of the feet, lowering the trajectory positions of the feet from the ground as well as flexion of each joint which would reduce the injury while landing.

  12. Coronal Magnetic Flux Rope Equilibria and Magnetic Helicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using a 2.5-dimensional (2.5-D) ideal MHD model, this paper ana lyzes the equilibrium properties of coronal magnetic flux ropes in a bipolar ambient magnetic field. It is found that the geometrical features of the magnetic flux rope,including the height of the rope axis, the half-width of the rope, and the length of the vertical current sheet below the rope, are determined by a single magnetic parameter, the magnetic helicity, which is the sum of the self-helicity of the rope and the mutual helicity between the rope field and the ambient magnetic field. All the geometrical parameters increase monotonically with increasing magnetic helicity.The implication of this result in solar active phenomena is briefly discussed.

  13. 29 CFR 1910.66 - Powered platforms for building maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... used to supply electrical power and/or control current for equipment or to provide voice communication... suspended scaffolds used for construction work and covered under subpart L of 29 CFR part 1926. Building... regularly spaced building anchors. Lanyard means a flexible line of rope, wire rope or strap which is...

  14. Distribution of wire deformation within strands of wire ropes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun; GE Shi-rong; ZHANG De-kun

    2008-01-01

    Using ANSYS software, we developed a modeling program for several kinds of wire ropes with metal cores and built a geometric model for the 6x19 IWS wire rope. Through proper grid partitioning, a finite element model for calculating the deformation of wire rope was obtained. Completely constraining one end of the wire rope and applying an axial force to the other end, we established the boundary conditions for solving the model. In addition, we numerically simulated the stress and deformation of the wire, obtaining the deformation distribution of each wire within the wire rope under different laying directions.At the end, a tensile test of the 6x19 IWS wire rope was carried out and the results of simulation and experiment compared.

  15. Simulating Idealized Flux Ropes with the Flux Rope Insertion Method: A Parameter Space Exploration of Currents and Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savcheva, Antonia; Tassev, Svetlin; DeLuca, Edward E.; Gibson, Sarah; Fan, Yuhong

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of the 3D magnetic filed structure at the time of major solar eruptions is vital to the understanding of the space weather effects of these eruptions. Multiple data-constrained techniques that reconstruct the 3D coronal field based on photospheric magnetograms have been used to achieve this goal. In particular, we have used the flux rope insertion method to obtain the coronal magnetic field of multiple regions containing flux ropes or sheared arcades based on line-of-sight magnetograms and X-ray and EUV observations of coronal loops. For the purpose of developing statistical measures of the goodness of fit of these models to the observations, here we present our modeling of flux ropes based on synthetic magnetograms obtained from aFan & Gibson emerging flux rope simulation. The goal is to study the effect of of different input flux rope parameters on the geometry of currents, field line connectivity, and topology, in a controled setting. For this purpose we create a large grid of models with the flux rope insertion method with different combinations of axial and poloidal flux, which give us different morphology of the flux rope. We create synthetic images of these flux ropes in AIA passbands with the FORWARD forward-fitting code. The present parametric study will later be used to get a better handle on the initial condition for magnetofrictional and MHD simulations of observed regions containing flux ropes, such as sigmoids and polar-crown filaments.

  16. Nonlinear oscillations of coalescing magnetic flux ropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkov, Dmitrii Y; Nakariakov, Valery M; Rowlands, George

    2016-05-01

    An analytical model of highly nonlinear oscillations occurring during a coalescence of two magnetic flux ropes, based upon two-fluid hydrodynamics, is developed. The model accounts for the effect of electric charge separation, and describes perpendicular oscillations of the current sheet formed by the coalescence. The oscillation period is determined by the current sheet thickness, the plasma parameter β, and the oscillation amplitude. The oscillation periods are typically greater or about the ion plasma oscillation period. In the nonlinear regime, the oscillations of the ion and electron concentrations have a shape of a narrow symmetric spikes. PMID:27300993

  17. Synthetic radio views on simulated solar flux ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, Alexey; Xia, Chun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we produce synthetic radio views on simulated flux ropes in the solar corona, where finite-beta magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations serve to mimic the flux rope formation stages, as well as their stable endstates. These endstates represent twisted flux ropes where balancing Lorentz forces, gravity and pressure gradients determine the full thermodynamic variation throughout the flux rope. The obtained models are needed to quantify radiative transfer in radio bands, and allow us to contrast weak to strong magnetic field conditions. Field strengths of up to 100 G in the flux rope yield the radio views dominated by optically thin free-free emission. The forming flux rope shows clear morphological changes in its emission structure as it deforms from an arcade to a flux rope, both on disk and at the limb. For an active region filament channel with a field strength of up to 680 G in the flux rope, gyroresonance emission (from the third-fourth gyrolayers) can be detected and even dominates over free-...

  18. POST OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY EDEMA AFTER ATTEMPTED NYLON ROPE SUICIDAL HANGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Survival after nylon rope suicidal hanging is a rare occurance . We describe here a patient who attempted suicide by nylon rope hanging and developed post obstructive pulmonary edema was managed successfully . Patient recovered completely with ventilatory support in next 60 hours without any neurological deficit.This case highlights an unusual complication of hanging and its recovery.

  19. Muscle Activity during Unilateral Vs. Bilateral Battle Rope Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, J.; Martin, F.; Colado, J. C.;

    2015-01-01

    Calatayud, J, Martin, F, Colado, JC, Benitez, JC, Jakobsen, MD, and Andersen, LL. Muscle activity during unilateral vs. bilateral battle rope exercises. J Strength Cond Res 29(10): 2854-2859, 2015High training intensity is important for efficient strength gains. Although battle rope training is m...

  20. Flux ropes in the magnetic solar convection zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, S. B. F.

    2006-01-01

    meshes of over 4 million grid points): A uniformly twisted buoyant "toroidal" flux rope is placed near the bottom of an adiabatically stratified atmosphere. Inside the atmosphere a "poloidal" magnetic layer is placed, into which the flux rope ascends. It is shown that the twisted magnetic field...

  1. Experimental study of a linear/non-linear flux rope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHaas, Timothy; Gekelman, Walter; Van Compernolle, Bart [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Flux ropes are magnetic structures of helical field lines, accompanied by spiraling currents. Commonly observed on the solar surface extending into the solar atmosphere, flux ropes are naturally occurring and have been observed by satellites in the near earth and in laboratory environments. In this experiment, a single flux rope (r = 2.5 cm, L = 1100 cm) was formed in the cylindrical, magnetized plasma of the Large Plasma Device (LaPD, L = 2200 cm, r{sub plasma} = 30 cm, n{sub o} = 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −3}, T{sub e} = 4 eV, He). The flux rope was generated by a DC discharge between an electron emitting cathode and anode. This fixes the rope at its source while allowing it to freely move about the anode. At large currents (I > πr{sup 2}B{sub 0}c/2 L), the flux rope becomes helical in structure and oscillates about a central axis. Under varying Alfven speeds and injection current, the transition of the flux rope from stable to kink-unstable was examined. As it becomes non-linear, oscillations in the magnetic signals shift from sinusoidal to Sawtooth-like, associated with elliptical motion of the flux rope; or the signal becomes intermittent as its current density increases.

  2. Generation and Analysis of Wire Rope Digital Radiographic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhlov, S.; Anpilogov, P.; Batranin, A.; Osipov, S.; Zhumabekova, Sh; Yadrenkin, I.

    2016-06-01

    The paper is dealt with different structures of the digital radiographic system intended for wire rope radiography. The scanning geometry of the wire rope is presented and the main stages of its digital radiographic image generation are identified herein. Correction algorithms are suggested for X-ray beam hardening. A complex internal structure of the wire rope is illustrated by its 25 mm diameter image obtained from X-ray computed tomography. The paper considers the approach to the analysis of digital radiographic image algorithms based on the closeness of certain parameters (invariants) of all unit cross-sections of the reference wire rope or its sections with the length equaling to the lay. The main invariants of wire rope radiographic images are identified and compared with its typical defects.

  3. The modelling and analysis of the mechanics of ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, C M

    2014-01-01

    This book considers the modelling and analysis of the many types of ropes, linear fibre assemblies. The construction of these structures is very diverse and in the work these are considered from the modelling point of view. As well as the conventional twisted structures, braid and plaited structures and parallel assemblies are modelled and analysed, first for their assembly and secondly for their mechanical behaviour. Also since the components are assemblies of components, fibres into yarns, into strands, and into ropes the hierarchical nature of the construction is considered. The focus of the modelling is essentially toward load extension behaviour but there is reference to bending of ropes, encompassed by the two extremes, no slip between the components and zero friction resistance to component slip. Friction in ropes is considered both between the rope components, sliding, sawing and scissoring, and within the components, dilation and distortion, these latter modes being used to model component set, the p...

  4. Downward catastrophe of solar magnetic flux ropes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Quanhao; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui

    2016-01-01

    2.5D time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models in Cartesian coordinates were used in previous studies to seek MHD equilibria involving a magnetic flux rope embedded in a bipolar, partially open background field. As demonstrated by these studies, the equilibrium solutions of the system are separated into two branches: the flux rope sticks to the photosphere for solutions at the lower branch but is suspended in the corona for those at the upper branch. Moreover, a solution originally at the lower branch jumps to the upper, as the related control parameter increases and reaches a critical value, and the associated jump is here referred to as upward catastrophe. The present paper advances these studies in three aspects. First, the magnetic field is changed to be force-free. The system still experiences an upward catastrophe with an increase in each control parameter. Secondly, under the force-free approximation, there also exists a downward catastrophe, characterized by a jump of a solution from the u...

  5. Forces in Erupting Flux Ropes: CMEs and Failed Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James

    2016-05-01

    A range of dynamical behaviors that can be exhibited by a quasi-statically evolving flux rope is studied. Starting with a CME-like flux rope in equilibrium balanced by the ambient coronal pressure (non-force-free) and an overlying coronal magnetic field (Bc), the poloidal flux is slowly increased, on a timescale much longer than the eruptive timescale of several to tens of minutes. In this configuration, the overlying field Bc provides an external downward restraining force, constituting an effective potential barrier. Slowly increasing poloidal flux causes the flux rope to gradually rise, following a sequence of quasi-static equilibria. As the apex of the flux rope rises past a critical height Z*, slightly higher than the peak of the potential barrier Bc(Z), it expands on a faster, dynamical (Alfvenic) timescale determined by the magnetic field and geometry of the flux rope. The expanding flux rope may reach a new equilibrium at height Z1. Observationally, this behavior would be recognized as a ``failed eruption.'' The new equilibrium flux rope is established if the magnetic tension force due to the toroidal magnetic field component Bt can balance the outward hoop force due to the poloidal component Bp. The flux rope may also expand without reaching a new equilibrium, provided a sufficiennt amount of poloidal flux is injected on a dynamical timescale so that the tension force cannot balance the hoop force. This scenario would result in a CME eruption. The influence of the poloidal flux injection, the Bc(Z) profile, and boundary conditions on the quantitative balance of the forces in an expanding flux rope is elucidated. Potentially observable consequences of the difference scenarios/models are discussed.Work supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Research Program

  6. ROPE: Recoverable Order-Preserving Embedding of Natural Language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widemann, David P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Eric X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-11

    We present a novel Recoverable Order-Preserving Embedding (ROPE) of natural language. ROPE maps natural language passages from sparse concatenated one-hot representations to distributed vector representations of predetermined fixed length. We use Euclidean distance to return search results that are both grammatically and semantically similar. ROPE is based on a series of random projections of distributed word embeddings. We show that our technique typically forms a dictionary with sufficient incoherence such that sparse recovery of the original text is possible. We then show how our embedding allows for efficient and meaningful natural search and retrieval on Microsoft’s COCO dataset and the IMDB Movie Review dataset.

  7. Downward Catastrophe of Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, Yuming; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui

    2016-07-01

    2.5-dimensional time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models in Cartesian coordinates were used in previous studies to seek MHD equilibria involving a magnetic flux rope embedded in a bipolar, partially open background field. As demonstrated by these studies, the equilibrium solutions of the system are separated into two branches: the flux rope sticks to the photosphere for solutions at the lower branch but is suspended in the corona for those at the upper branch. Moreover, a solution originally at the lower branch jumps to the upper, as the related control parameter increases and reaches a critical value, and the associated jump is here referred to as an upward catastrophe. The present paper advances these studies in three aspects. First, the magnetic field is changed to be force-free; the system still experiences an upward catastrophe with an increase in each control parameter. Second, under the force-free approximation, there also exists a downward catastrophe, characterized by the jump of a solution from the upper branch to the lower. Both catastrophes are irreversible processes connecting the two branches of equilibrium solutions so as to form a cycle. Finally, the magnetic energy in the numerical domain is calculated. It is found that there exists a magnetic energy release for both catastrophes. The Ampère's force, which vanishes everywhere for force-free fields, appears only during the catastrophes and does positive work, which serves as a major mechanism for the energy release. The implications of the downward catastrophe and its relevance to solar activities are briefly discussed.

  8. The dynamic behaviour of a non-stationary elevator compensating rope system under harmonic and stochastic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moving slender elastic elements such as ropes, cables and belts are pivotal components of vertical transportation systems such as traction elevators. Their lengths vary within the host building structure during the elevator operation which results in the change of the mass and stiffness characteristics of the system. The structure of modern high-rise buildings is flexible and when subjected to loads due to strong winds and earthquakes it vibrates at low frequencies. The inertial load induced by the building motion excites the flexible components of the elevator system. The compensating ropes due to their lower tension are particularly affected and undergo large dynamic deformations. The paper focuses on the presentation of the non-stationary model of a building-compensating rope system and on the analysis to predict its dynamic response. The excitation mechanism is represented by a harmonic process and the results of computer simulations to predict transient resonance response are presented. The analysis of the simulation results leads to recommendations concerning the selection of the weight of the compensation assembly to minimize the effects of an adverse dynamic response of the system. The scenario when the excitation is represented as a narrow-band stochastic process with the state vector governed by stochastic equations is then discussed and the stochastic differential equations governing the second-order statistical moments of the state vector are developed.

  9. Pre-Stressed Rope Reinforced Anti-Sliding Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun; WANG Chenghua

    2006-01-01

    Pre-stressed rope reinforced anti-sliding pile is a composite anti-sliding structure. It is made up of pre-stressed rope and general anti-sliding pile. It can bring traditional anti-sliding pile's retaining performance into full play, and to treat with landslide fast and economically. The difference between them is that the pre-stressed rope will transfix the whole anti-sliding pile through a prearranged pipe in this structure. The working mechanics, the design method and economic benefit are studied. The results show that the pre-stressed rope reinforced anti-sliding pile can treat with the small and middle landslides or high slopes well and possess the notable advantage of technology and economic.

  10. Fretting wear of steel wires in hoisting ropes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the fretting wear of steel wires in hoisting ropes, specimens were made of 6 ( 19 point contact ropes. A model for the fretting wear was developed and a fretting wear test rig was designed in laboratory. A series of experiments were performed on this test rig. The wear volume was taken as a characteristic parameter to describe the fretting wear in relation to the contact load, reciprocating cycles and amplitude. Moreover, the wear mechanisms were discussed in the fretting process.

  11. Unsteady wandering magnetic field lines, turbulence and laboratory flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, T.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Liu, D.; Pulliam, D.; Lazarian, A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe earth bound laboratory experiment investigations of patchy, unsteady, bursty, patchy magnetic field structures that are unifying features of magnetic reconnection and turbulence in helio, space and astro physics. Macroscopic field lines occupy cross sectional areas, fill up three dimensional (3D) volumes as flux tubes. They contain mass with Newtonian dynamics that follow magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) equations of motion. Flux rope geometry can be ubiquitous in laminar reconnection sheet geometries that are themselves unstable to formation of secondary "islands" that in 3D are really flux ropes. Flux ropes are ubiquitous structures on the sun and the rest of the heliosphere. Understanding the dynamics of flux ropes and their mutual interactions offers the key to many important astrophysical phenomena, including magnetic reconnection and turbulence. We describe laboratory investigations on RSX, where 3D interaction of flux ropes can be studied in great detail. We use experimental probes inside the the flux ropes to measure the magnetic and electric fields, current density, density, temperatures, pressure, and electrostatic and vector plasma potentials. Macroscopic magnetic field lines, unsteady wandering characteristics, and dynamic objects with structure down to the dissipation scale length can be traced from data sets in a 3D volume. Computational approaches are finally able to tackle simple 3D systems and we sketch some intriguing simulation results that are consistent with 3D extensions of typical 2D cartoons for magnetic reconnection and turbulence.

  12. Coronal Flux Rope Equilibria in Closed Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Wang; You-Qiu Hu

    2003-01-01

    Using a 2.5-dimensional ideal MHD model in Cartesian coordinates, weinvestigate the equilibrium properties of coronal magnetic flux ropes in backgroundmagnetic fields that are completely closed. The background fields are produced by adipole, a quadrupole, and an octapole, respectively, located below the photosphereat the same depth. A magnetic flux rope is then launched from below the photo-sphere, and its magnetic properties, i.e., the annular magnetic flux φp and the axialmagnetic flux φz, are controlled by a single emergence parameter. The whole sys-tem eventually evolves into equilibrium, and the resultant flux rope is characterizedby three geometrical parameters: the height of the rope axis, the half-width of therope, and the length of the vertical current sheet below the rope. It is found thatthe geometrical parameters increase monotonically and continuously with increasingφ p and φz: no catastrophe occurs. Moreover, there exists a steep segment in theprofiles of the geometrical parameters versus either φp or φz, and the faster thebackground field decays with height, the larger both the gradient and the growthamplitude within the steep segment will be.

  13. Multiple coexisting states of liquid rope coiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, N. M.; Huppert, H. E.; Hallworth, M. A.; Habibi, M.; Bonn, Daniel

    2006-05-01

    A thin ‘rope’ of viscous fluid falling from a sufficient height onto a surface forms a series of regular coils. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally a curious feature of this instability: the existence of multiple states with different frequencies at a fixed value of the fall height. Using a numerical model based on asymptotic ‘thin rope’ theory, we determine curves of coiling frequency Omega vs. fall height H as functions of the fluid viscosity nu, the diameter d of the injection hole, the volumetric injection rate Q, and the acceleration due to gravity g. In addition to the three coiling modes previously identified (viscous, gravitational and inertial), we find a new multivalued ‘inertio-gravitational’ mode that occurs at heights intermediate between gravitational and inertial coiling. In the limit when the rope is strongly stretched by gravity and Pi_1 {equiv} (nu(5/g) Q(3)(1/5} {≫)) 1, inertio-gravititational coiling occurs in the height range O(Pi_1(-1/6}) {≤) H(g/nu(2)(1/3} {≤)) O(Pi_1(-5/48) ). The frequencies of the individual branches are proportional to (g/H)(1/2) , and agree closely with the eigenfrequencies of a whirling liquid string with negligible resistance to bending and twisting. The number of coexisting branches scales as Pi_1(5/32) . The predictions of the numerical model are in excellent agreement with laboratory experiments performed by two independent groups using different apparatus and working fluids. The experiments further show that interbranch transitions in the inertio-gravitational regime occur via an intermediate state with a ‘figure of eight’ geometry that changes the sense of rotation of the coiling.

  14. Tribological Aspects of the Process of Winding the Steel Rope Around the Winch Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matejić, , , ,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Proper winding of the steel rope around the winch drum is great importance, mostly for: prolonging the service life of the rope, reduction of deformations of the body and the sides of the drum if the winding of the rope is multilayered, increasing of the safety factors, easier unwinding of the rope while lowering the load, even running of the drive unit, etc. The focus of this paper is on the analysis of the friction which occurs in the process of winding and unwinding the rope around the winch drum. Friction force is in its highest intensity when the rope passes from one layer to another, if the winding of the rope is multilayered. As the result of the research, certain mechanisms of winding of the rope from the aspects of the friction force were obtained, and the effects of the forces on the sides of the drum were analyzed.

  15. Propagation of Ultrasonic Guided Waves in Composite Multi-Wire Ropes

    OpenAIRE

    Renaldas Raisutis; Rymantas Kazys; Liudas Mazeika; Vykintas Samaitis; Egidijus Zukauskas

    2016-01-01

    Multi-wire ropes are widely used as load-carrying constructional elements in bridges, cranes, elevators, etc. Structural integrity of such ropes can be inspected by using non-destructive ultrasonic techniques. The objective of this work was to investigate propagation of ultrasonic guided waves (UGW) along composite multi-wire ropes in the cases of various types of acoustic contacts between neighboring wires and the plastic core. The modes of UGW propagating along the multi-wire ropes were ide...

  16. Roping in 6111 aluminum alloys with various iron contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, H. [Novelis Global Technology Centre, Novelis Inc., P.O. Box 8400, Kingston, Ont., K7L 5L9 (Canada)]. E-mail: haiou.jin@novelis.com; Lloyd, D.J. [Novelis Global Technology Centre, Novelis Inc., P.O. Box 8400, Kingston, Ont., K7L 5L9 (Canada)

    2005-08-25

    The development of surface roughness and roping after straining and its correlation with grain size and texture were investigated in AA6111 aluminum alloys with various Fe contents, using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) in SEM, X-ray diffraction, and 3D non-contact profilometry. It has been demonstrated that the spatial distribution of texture components is a critical factor for roping. When the {l_brace}0 0 1{r_brace}<1 0 0> (cube) and {l_brace}0 1 1{r_brace}<1 0 0> (Goss) texture components are banded along the rolling direction (RD) and alternately distributed in the transverse direction (TD), intensive roping develops when the sheet is stretched in the TD regardless of grain size. During rolling the cube and Goss are metastable orientations in AA6111 and form cube and Goss bands along the RD. These bands are the preferred nucleation sites for recrystallization, resulting in the banded structure being retained in the final solutionised sheet. Increasing the Fe content leads to a finer grain size and lower strain induced surface roughness, but roping is insensitive to the Fe content and simply dependent on the degree of cold rolling prior to solutionising.

  17. A Hot Flux Rope Observed by SDO/AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparna, V.; Tripathi, Durgesh

    2016-03-01

    A filament eruption was observed on 2010 October 31 in the images recorded by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) in its Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) channels. The filament showed a slow-rise phase followed by a fast rise and was classified to be an asymmetric eruption. In addition, multiple localized brightenings which were spatially and temporally associated with the slow-rise phase were identified, leading us to believe that the tether-cutting mechanism initiated the eruption. An associated flux rope was detected in high-temperature channels of AIA, namely 94 and 131 Å, corresponding to 7 and 11 MK plasma respectively. In addition, these channels are also sensitive to cooler plasma corresponding to 1-2 MK. In this study, we have applied the algorithm devised by Warren et al. to remove cooler emission from the 94 Å channel to deduce only the high-temperature structure of the flux rope and to study its temporal evolution. We found that the flux rope was very clearly seen in the clean 94 Å channel image corresponding to Fe xviii emission, which corresponds to a plasma at a temperature of 7 MK. This temperature matched well with that obtained using Differential Emission Measure analysis. This study provides important constrains in the modeling of the thermodynamic structure of the flux ropes in coronal mass ejections.

  18. Buoyant Magnetic Flux Ropes and Convection: Evolution Prior to Emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorch, S. B. F.

    2003-10-01

    We have performed detailed numerical 3-d simulations of the interaction of buoyantly ascending twisted magnetic flux ropes and solar-like stratified convection (with surface cells similar to solar supergranules in size). Results are presented for three different cases -- corresponding to different amounts of initial field line twist -- that represents fundamentally different types of instabilities: the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability in which case the flux rope disrupts and network patches are formed at surface cell boundaries; the kink instability that has been proposed as a mechanism for forming tightly packed δ-type spots; a stable flux rope where neither of the former instabilities arise, and the behavior of which is similar to classical text book flux tubes, except from a flux-loss due to the advective action of the convective flows. The simulations thus support the idea that the magnetic flux observed at the surface in bipolar regions are smaller, ceteris paribus, than that of the dynamo generated flux ropes near the bottom of the convection zone. Please note that this material is also available as an online htmladdnormallink{web-talk}{http://www.astro.su.se/ dorch/talks/01_CS12/}

  19. Counterstreaming electrons in small interplanetary magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H. Q.; Zhao, G. Q.; Wang, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Small interplanetary magnetic flux ropes (SIMFRs) are commonly observed by spacecraft at 1 AU, and their origin still remains disputed. We investigated the counterstreaming suprathermal electron (CSE) signatures of 106 SIMFRs measured by Wind during 1995-2005. We found that 79 (75%) of the 106 flux ropes contain CSEs, and the percentages of counterstreaming vary from 8% to 98%, with a mean value of 51%. CSEs are often observed in magnetic clouds (MCs), and this indicates these MCs are still attached to the Sun at both ends. CSEs are also related to heliospheric current sheets (HCSs) and the Earth's bow shock. We divided the SIMFRs into two categories: The first category is far from HCSs, and the second category is in the vicinity of HCSs. The first category has 57 SIMFRs, and only 7 of 57 ropes have no CSEs. This ratio is similar to that of MCs. The second category has 49 SIMFRs; however, 20 of the 49 events have no CSEs. This ratio is larger than that of MCs. These two categories have different origins. One category originates from the solar corona, and most ropes are still connected to the Sun at both ends. The other category is formed near HCSs in the interplanetary space.

  20. Relaxation Processes within Flux Ropes in Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telloni, D.; Carbone, V.; Perri, S.; Bruno, R.; Lepreti, F.; Veltri, P.

    2016-08-01

    Flux ropes are localized structures in space plasma whose tube-like organized magnetic configuration can be well approximated by a force-free field model. Both numerical simulations and simple models suggest that the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can relax toward a minimum energy state, where magnetic helicity is conserved, characterized by force-free magnetic fields (Taylor relaxation). In this paper, we evaluate MHD rugged invariants within more than 100 flux ropes identified in the solar wind at 1 AU, showing that the magnetic and cross-helicity content carried out by these structures tend to be “attracted” toward a particular subphase in the parameter plane. The final configuration of the MHD rugged invariants in the parameter plane suggests indeed that flux ropes represent well-organized structures coming from the dynamical evolution of MHD turbulent cascade. These observational results, along with a simple model based on a truncated set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for both the velocity and magnetic field Fourier coefficients, thus, support a scenario in which the flux ropes naturally come out from the ideal MHD decay to large-scale magnetic field in space plasmas, probably governed by relaxation processes similar to those observed in laboratory plasmas.

  1. A HOT FLUX ROPE OBSERVED BY SDO/AIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparna, V.; Tripathi, Durgesh, E-mail: aparnav@iucaa.in [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag—4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2016-03-01

    A filament eruption was observed on 2010 October 31 in the images recorded by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) in its Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) channels. The filament showed a slow-rise phase followed by a fast rise and was classified to be an asymmetric eruption. In addition, multiple localized brightenings which were spatially and temporally associated with the slow-rise phase were identified, leading us to believe that the tether-cutting mechanism initiated the eruption. An associated flux rope was detected in high-temperature channels of AIA, namely 94 and 131 Å, corresponding to 7 and 11 MK plasma respectively. In addition, these channels are also sensitive to cooler plasma corresponding to 1–2 MK. In this study, we have applied the algorithm devised by Warren et al. to remove cooler emission from the 94 Å channel to deduce only the high-temperature structure of the flux rope and to study its temporal evolution. We found that the flux rope was very clearly seen in the clean 94 Å channel image corresponding to Fe xviii emission, which corresponds to a plasma at a temperature of 7 MK. This temperature matched well with that obtained using Differential Emission Measure analysis. This study provides important constrains in the modeling of the thermodynamic structure of the flux ropes in coronal mass ejections.

  2. Photospheric flux cancellation and associated flux rope formation and eruption

    CERN Document Server

    Green, L M; Wallace, A J; 10.1051/0004-6361/201015146

    2010-01-01

    We study an evolving bipolar active region that exhibits flux cancellation at the internal polarity inversion line, the formation of a soft X-ray sigmoid along the inversion line and a coronal mass ejection. The evolution of the photospheric magnetic field is described and used to estimate how much flux is reconnected into the flux rope. About one third of the active region flux cancels at the internal polarity inversion line in the 2.5~days leading up to the eruption. In this period, the coronal structure evolves from a weakly to a highly sheared arcade and then to a sigmoid that crosses the inversion line in the inverse direction. These properties suggest that a flux rope has formed prior to the eruption. The amount of cancellation implies that up to 60% of the active region flux could be in the body of the flux rope. We point out that only part of the cancellation contributes to the flux in the rope if the arcade is only weakly sheared, as in the first part of the evolution. This reduces the estimated flux...

  3. Pull-pull position control of dual motor wire rope transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Quan; Jiao, Zongxia; Yan, Liang; Yu, Qian; Shang, Yaoxing

    2016-08-01

    Wire rope transmission is very efficient because of the small total moving object mass. The wire rope could only transmit pulling force. Therefore it has to be kept in a tightened state during transmission; in high speed applications the dynamic performance depends on the rope's stiffness, which can be adjusted by the wire rope tension. To improve the system dynamic performance output, this paper proposes a novel pull-pull method based on dual motors connected by wire ropes, for precise, high speed position control applications. The method can regulate target position and wire rope tension simultaneously. Wire ropes remain in a pre-tightening state at all times, which prevents the influence of elasticity and reduces the position tracking error in the changing direction process. Simulations and experiments were conducted; the results indicate that both position precision and superior dynamic performance can be synchronously achieved. The research is relevant to space craft precision pointing instruments.

  4. Modeling the Initiation of the 2006 December 13 Coronal Mass Ejection in AR 10930: The Structure and Dynamics of the Erupting Flux Rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuhong

    2016-06-01

    We carry out a 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulation to model the initiation of the coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2006 December 13 in the emerging δ-sunspot active region NOAA 10930. The setup of the simulation is similar to a previous simulation by Fan, but with a significantly widened simulation domain to accommodate the wide CME. The simulation shows that the CME can result from the emergence of a east–west oriented twisted flux rope whose positive, following emerging pole corresponds to the observed positive rotating sunspot emerging against the southern edge of the dominant pre-existing negative sunspot. The erupting flux rope in the simulation accelerates to a terminal speed that exceeds 1500 km s‑1 and undergoes a counter-clockwise rotation of nearly 180° such that its front and flanks all exhibit southward directed magnetic fields, explaining the observed southward magnetic field in the magnetic cloud impacting the Earth. With continued driving of flux emergence, the source region coronal magnetic field also shows the reformation of a coronal flux rope underlying the flare current sheet of the erupting flux rope, ready for a second eruption. This may explain the build up for another X-class eruptive flare that occurred the following day from the same region.

  5. Extensor Pollicis Longus Rupture after Mini TightRope Suspensionplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharaman, Mani; Vitale, Mark A; Desai, Kapil; Crowe, John F

    2016-05-01

    Background Arthritis of the first carpometacarpal (CMC) joint has been surgically treated in multiple ways with varying levels of success as measured by subjective and objective measures. Trapeziectomy with numerous variations in suspensionplasty comprises one of the more commonly used surgical procedures. Recently, the Mini TightRope apparatus has been utilized as a new method for achieving suspensionplasty, and as such lacks significant review of use and safety in the literature. Case Description An extensor pollicis longus (EPL) rupture following a trapeziectomy and Mini TightRope suspensionplasty for CMC arthritis of the thumb is presented. The patient successfully underwent an extensor indicis proprius (EIP) to EPL transfer to treat this complication. Literature Review There is well-established documentation of injury to the extensor tendons from orthopedic hardware such as volar locking plates. Regarding use of the Mini TightRope apparatus, guidelines for placement of the suture button include caution to place the button away from the EPL tendon to minimize the chance of tendon irritation. Additionally, FiberWire sutures, a component of the apparatus, have been shown to demonstrate soft tissue reactions with adjacent inflammatory response. Published reports on adverse events utilizing this device have been limited to case reports including an index metacarpal fracture. Clinical Relevance The aim of this case report was to cite an occurrence of EPL rupture following its use and discuss the possibilities of its direct contribution. PMID:27104081

  6. Literature Review of Research on the Technology of Wire Rope Nondestructive Inspection in China and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Jie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As consumables in mine, wire ropes have great significance for safe operation of coal mines. The complex structure makes the nondestructive testing particularly difficult. This paper summarizes the existing methods of analysis at home and abroad from the perspective of strong magnetic and weakly magnetic; introduces the main methods of wire rope at the present, including principle and current status. At last, several critical problems in nondestructive testing of wire rope are discussed.

  7. DO THE LEGS OF MAGNETIC CLOUDS CONTAIN TWISTED FLUX-ROPE MAGNETIC FIELDS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, M. J. [Space and Atmospheric Electricity Group, Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading RG6 6BB (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-20

    Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) characterized primarily by a smooth rotation in the magnetic field direction indicative of the presence of a magnetic flux rope. Energetic particle signatures suggest MC flux ropes remain magnetically connected to the Sun at both ends, leading to widely used model of global MC structure as an extended flux rope, with a loop-like axis stretching out from the Sun into the heliosphere and back to the Sun. The time of flight of energetic particles, however, suggests shorter magnetic field line lengths than such a continuous twisted flux rope would produce. In this study, two simple models are compared with observed flux rope axis orientations of 196 MCs to show that the flux rope structure is confined to the MC leading edge. The MC “legs,” which magnetically connect the flux rope to the Sun, are not recognizable as MCs and thus are unlikely to contain twisted flux rope fields. Spacecraft encounters with these non-flux rope legs may provide an explanation for the frequent observation of non-MC ICMEs.

  8. Towards a Data-Optimized Coronal Magnetic Field Model (DOC-FM): Simulating Flux Ropes with the Flux Rope Insertion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmasse, K.; DeLuca, E. E.; Savcheva, A. S.; Gibson, S. E.; Fan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the 3D magnetic filed structure at the time of major solar eruptions is vital or understanding of the space weather effects of these eruptions. Multiple data-constrained techniques that reconstruct the 3D coronal field based on photospheric magnetograms have been used to achieve this goal. In particular, we have used the flux rope insertion method to obtain the coronal magnetic field of multiple regions containing flux ropes or sheared arcades based on line-of-sight magnetograms and X-ray and EUV observations of coronal loops. For the purpose of developing statistical measures of the goodness of fit of these models to the observations, here we present our modeling of flux ropes based on synthetic magnetograms obtained from Fan & Gibson emerging flux rope simulation. The goal is to reproduce the flux rope structure from a given time step of the MHD simulations based only on the photospheric magnetogram and synthetic forward modeled coronal emission obtained from the same step of the MHD simulation. For this purpose we create a large grid of models with the flux rope insertion method with different combinations of axial and poloidal flux, which give us different morphology of the flux rope. Then we compare the synthetic coronal emission with the shape of the current distribution and field lines from the models to come up with a best fit. This fit is then tested using the statistical methods developed by our team.

  9. Rope Transport Systems as Elements for Urban and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Simeone

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility and mobility have an important role in urban and regional development strategies, in a particular way for the touristic uses of territories. Transport infrastructures constitute in fact necessary elements for the use of urban areas, but assume an extra function related to the valorization of the territory. Furthermore structures for mobility are a component of the touristic supply system especially the rope transport structures that offer dynamic and unique point of views. Cable ways in urban area have this characteristic more than other rope transport systems. Starting from this assume, the article describes four projects developed in the last years in Campania Region and a transport system carry out in Perugia. The five study cases demonstrate how an increasing attention rope transport technology is diffusing in different contest especially for tourism uses. The first case is the Giffoni Valle Piana inclined lift that should connect the city centre in the valley with the medieval Castle. This project is strictly related to a general touristic strategy of the whole municipality. The second project regards the Ravello-Minori cable way and the objective to offer a sustainable alternative to the private car for travelling around two of the most beautiful areas in the Amalfi coast. The third project is located in the centre of the city of Naples and regards a cable way for the connection between the principal museums of the metropolitan area: the National and the Capodimonte museums. The new infrastructure is well integrated in the multimodal transport network and will offer spectacular visuals for tourists and residents. The Perugia Minimetro is the fourth study case and constitute an example of good integration between sustainable transport and urban planning development. The last project is the Fisciano people mover that has the aim of connecting two university campus with the interchange station of the National rail network. The

  10. Jump Rope Skills for Fun and Fitness in Grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels Hernandez, Barbara L.; Gober, Donna; Boatwright, Douglas; Strickland, George

    2009-01-01

    A jump rope is a remarkable piece of exercise equipment. It is inexpensive and easy to store, and it can be used by a wide variety of age groups to improve cardiovascular fitness, increase agility, and tone the body's muscles all at the same time. Consequently, the teaching of jump rope skills is highly suitable for physical education classes in…

  11. Evidence for helical kink instability in the Venus magnetic flux ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, R. C.; Russell, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    Empirical models of the magnetic field structure of flux ropes found in the Venus ionosphere are seen as suggesting that the ropes are unstable to long-wavelength (more than 100 km) helical-kink perturbations. The onset of such an instability can explain the apparent volume distribution of flux ropes with altitude, as well as their orientation as a function of altitude. In the subsolar region, the fraction of volume occupied by flux ropes increases from approximately 20 percent at high altitudes to more than 50 percent at low altitudes; this is a greater increase than would be expected if ropes convect downward as simple straight horizontal cylinders. The helical kink instability raises the fractional volume occupied by ropes by turning the originally straight, horizontal flux tubes into corkscrew-shaped structures as they convect to lower altitudes. It is noted that this instability also explains why high altitude ropes tend to be horizontal and low altitude ropes appear to have almost any orientation.

  12. Direct ultimate disposal of spent fuel. Simulation of shaft transport. Study of rope slippage (TA 10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test results show that rope slippage does occur occasionally in Koepe hoists, mainly with hinged loads. The countermeasures chosen in most cases include modification of the rope lubrication (coefficient of friction), of load ratios S1/S2, (ballast, reduction of payload), or organisational measures (maintenance). Results and data are reported giving evidence that with the proposed, additional measures for preventing or managing rope slippage, the designed Koepe hoist for hinged payloads up to 85 t can be operated safely without risk of damage caused by rope slippage. It is also proven that there is no need to change ballast in case of transport of varying payloads, as this will not create the risk of undue rope slippage. (orig./HP)

  13. Multiple Triangulation Analysis: another approach to determine the orientation of magnetic flux ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-Z. Zhou

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Another approach (Multiple Triangulation Analysis, MTA is presented to determine the orientation of magnetic flux rope, based on 4-point measurements. A 2-D flux rope model is used to examine the accuracy of the MTA technique in a theoretical way. It is found that the precision of the estimated orientation is dependent on both the spacecraft separation and the constellation path relative to the flux rope structure. However, the MTA error range can be shown to be smaller than that of the traditional MVA technique. As an application to real Cluster data, several flux rope events on 26 January 2001 are analyzed using MTA, to obtain their orientations. The results are compared with the ones obtained by several other methods which also yield flux rope orientation. The estimated axis orientations are shown to be fairly close, suggesting the reliability of the MTA method.

  14. Rope NDT as means to raise safety of crane and elevator use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel rope NDT by magnetic flaw detectors is usual for mine hoist inspection through the world. But it is no ordinary by crane and especially by elevator inspection. However, magnetic NDT statistic data of 60 crane and 227 elevator ropes in use shows that about 23% of crane and 9% of elevator ropes should be discarded in accordance with actual discarding criterion in Russia. Russian State Rules for crane safe exploitation require the magnetic NDT while periodically inspection. But not all the inspecting companies meet it in Russia, contenting themselves by visual inspection only. This is not objective and does not provide rope inner faults detection. That is a reason of rope break rather high percentage in general statistics of crane accidents and damages. Investigation of accidents with crane ropes in Moscow region in 2001 shows that they would de prevented by the magnetic NDT fulfilled timely. The elevator rope NDT problem is not so sharp but attention should de attracted to it to raise safety of elevators. (author)

  15. Structures of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes and comparison with their solar sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang [Department of Space Science/CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Qiu, Jiong [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Dasgupta, B.; Khare, A.; Webb, G. M., E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu, E-mail: qiu@physics.montana.edu [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    Whether a magnetic flux rope is pre-existing or formed in situ in the Sun's atmosphere, there is little doubt that magnetic reconnection is essential to release the flux rope during its ejection. During this process, the question remains: how does magnetic reconnection change the flux-rope structure? In this work, we continue with the original study of Qiu et al. by using a larger sample of flare-coronal mass ejection (CME)-interplanetary CME (ICME) events to compare properties of ICME/magnetic cloud (MC) flux ropes measured at 1 AU and properties of associated solar progenitors including flares, filaments, and CMEs. In particular, the magnetic field-line twist distribution within interplanetary magnetic flux ropes is systematically derived and examined. Our analysis shows that, similar to what was found before, for most of these events, the amount of twisted flux per AU in MCs is comparable with the total reconnection flux on the Sun, and the sign of the MC helicity is consistent with the sign of the helicity of the solar source region judged from the geometry of post-flare loops. Remarkably, we find that about half of the 18 magnetic flux ropes, most of them associated with erupting filaments, have a nearly uniform and relatively low twist distribution from the axis to the edge, and the majority of the other flux ropes exhibit very high twist near the axis, up to ≳ 5 turns per AU, which decreases toward the edge. The flux ropes are therefore not linearly force-free. We also conduct detailed case studies showing the contrast of two events with distinct twist distribution in MCs as well as different flare and dimming characteristics in solar source regions, and discuss how reconnection geometry reflected in flare morphology may be related to the structure of the flux rope formed on the Sun.

  16. Flux rope proxies and fan-spine structures in active region NOAA 11897

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y. J.; Li, T.; Zhang, J.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Flux ropes are composed of twisted magnetic fields and are closely connected with coronal mass ejections. The fan-spine magnetic topology is another type of complex magnetic fields. It has been reported by several authors, and is believed to be associated with null-point-type magnetic reconnection. Aims: We try to determine the number of flux rope proxies and reveal fan-spine structures in the complex active region (AR) NOAA 11897. Methods: Employing the high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), we statistically investigated flux rope proxies in NOAA AR 11897 from 14 November 2013 to 19 November 2013 and display two fan-spine structures in this AR. Results: For the first time, we detect flux rope proxies of NOAA 11897 for a total of 30 times in four different locations during this AR's transference from solar east to west on the disk. Moreover, we notice that these flux rope proxies were tracked by active or eruptive material of filaments 12 times, while for the remaining 18 times they appeared as brightenings in the corona. These flux rope proxies were either tracked in both lower and higher temperature wavelengths or only detected in hot channels. None of these flux rope proxies was observed to erupt; they faded away gradually. In addition to these flux rope proxies, we detect for the first time a secondary fan-spine structure. It was covered by dome-shaped magnetic fields that belong to a larger fan-spine topology. Conclusions: These new observations imply that many flux ropes can exist in an AR and that the complexity of AR magnetic configurations is far beyond our imagination. Movies 1-8 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Experimental investigation of pressure fluctuations caused by a vortex rope in a draft tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, O.; Ruprecht, A.; Göde, E.; Riedelbauch, S.

    2012-11-01

    In the last years hydro power plants have taken the task of power-frequency control for the electrical grid. Therefore turbines in storage hydro power plants often operate outside their optimum. If Francis-turbines and pump-turbines operate at off-design conditions, a vortex rope in the draft tube can develop. The vortex rope can cause pressure oscillations. In addition to low frequencies caused by the rotation of the vortex rope and the harmonics of these frequencies, pressure fluctuations with higher frequencies can be observed in some operating points too. In this experimental investigation the flow structure and behavior of the vortex rope movement in the draft tube of a model pump-turbine are analyzed. The investigation focuses on the correlation of the pressure fluctuation frequency measured at the draft tube wall with the movement of the vortex rope. The movement of the vortex rope is analyzed by the velocity field in the draft tube which was measured with particle image velocimetry. Additionally, the vortex rope movement has been analyzed with the captures of high-speed-movies from the cavitating vortex rope. Besides the rotation of the vortex rope due to pressure fluctuation with low frequencies the results of the measurement also show a correlation between the rotation of the elliptical or deformed rope cross-section and the higher frequency pressure pulsation. An approximation shows that the frequencies of the pressure fluctuation and the movement of the vortex rope are also connected with the velocity of the flow. Taking into account the size and position of the cavitating vortex core as well as the velocity at the position of the surface of the cavitating vortex core the time-period of the rotation of the vortex core can be approximated. The results show that both, the low frequency pressure fluctuation and the higher frequency pressure fluctuation are correlating with the vortex rope movement. With this estimation, the period of the higher frequency

  18. Load carrying capacity of keyed joints reinforced with high strength wire rope loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so......-called wire boxes which are embedded in the precast wall elements. Once the joint is grouted with mortar, the boxes will function as shear keys and the overlapping wire loops will function as transverse reinforcement that replaces the U-bars. This paper presents a rigid-plastic upper bound model to determine...

  19. Load Carrying Capacity of Keyed Joints Reinforced with High Strength Wire Rope Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so......-called wire boxes which are embedded in the precast wall elements. Once the joint is grouted with mortar, the boxes will function as shear keys and the overlapping wire loops will function as transverse reinforcement that replaces the U-bars. This paper presents a rigid-plastic upper bound model to determine...

  20. Movement analysis on steel wire rope of continuous conveyor with disc-tube assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Li-jun; SHI Shu-lin; REN Li-yi

    2004-01-01

    The steel wire rope of continuous conveyor with disc-tube assembly is droved by the driving wheel. When the driving wheel rotates, the gear is combined to the connection disc in turn, promoting the connection disc to move in succession. Turning the whirling torque of driving wheel into the straight-line traction force. When the steel wire rope is winded by the driving wheel some winded along the circumference, others winded along the straight line. Used motion subject law, this article analyses the change of the velocity and the acceleration of the steel wire rope in the straight movement, and observe the mathematics' model of velocity and acceleration.

  1. Design of strain tension sensor of steel wire rope used in the coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Jin, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    According to the dynamic tension testing requirements of the multi-rope winder rope, this paper designs the sensor used to measure the tension of steel wire rope directly. The sensor uses the strain shear measuring principle, and has many features with small size, big measuring range, easy to install, don't change the structure of connected devices and so on. Application of the finite element analysis software makes the structure of the sensor optimized, and then enhance the static and dynamic performance of the sensor.

  2. A rope-net support system for the liquid scintillator detector for the SNO+ experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialek, A.; Chen, M.; Cleveland, B.; Gorel, P.; Hallin, A.; Harvey, P. J.; Heise, J.; Kraus, C.; Krauss, C. B.; Lawson, I.; Ng, C. J.; Pinkney, B.; Rogowsky, D. M.; Sibley, L.; Soluk, R.; Soukup, J.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.

    2016-08-01

    The detector for the SNO+ experiment consists of 780 000 kg of liquid scintillator contained in an acrylic vessel that is surrounded by water. A mechanical system has been installed to counteract the 1.25 MN of buoyant force on the acrylic and prevent the vessel from moving. The system is a rope net, designed using a Finite Element Analysis to calculate the amount of stress on the acrylic induced by the ropes, hydrostatic pressures and gravity. A dedicated test was performed to measure strains in the acrylic arising from the complex geometry of the knots in the rope system. The ratio between measured and FEA calculated strains was 1.3.

  3. A supra-cellular model for coupling of bone resorption to formation during remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pennypacker, Brenda L;

    2014-01-01

    of the osteoclasts. Here we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis, by comparing the osteoclast-canopy interface in response to two types of bone resorption inhibitors in rabbit lumbar vertebrae. The bisphosphonate alendronate, an inhibitor leading to low bone formation levels, reduces the extent of canopy...... coverage above osteoclasts. This effect is in accordance with its toxic action on periosteoclastic cells. In contrast, odanacatib, an inhibitor preserving bone formation, increases the extent of the osteoclast-canopy interface. Interestingly, these distinct effects correlate with how fast bone formation...... osteoblasts from the canopy is induced by osteoclastic factors, thereby favoring initiation of bone formation. They lead to a model where the osteoclast-canopy interface is the physical site where coupling of bone resorption to bone formation occurs....

  4. Shapes of minimal-energy DNA ropes condensed in confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiber, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Shapes of a single, long DNA molecule condensed in a confinement of a virus capsid are described as conformations optimizing a model free energy functional accounting for the interplay between the bending energy of the DNA and the surface energy of the DNA bundled in a “rope”. The rope is formed by bundled DNA brought together by (self-)attractive interactions. The conformations predicted by the model depend on the shape of the confinement, the total amount of the packed DNA but also on the relative contributions of the bending and surface energies. Some of the conformations found were not predicted previously, but many previously proposed DNA conformations, some of which are seemingly contradictory, were found as the solutions of the model. The results show that there are many possible packing conformations of the DNA and that the one which realizes in a particular virus depends on the capsid geometry and the nature of condensing agents.

  5. Flux Rope Formation Preceding Coronal Mass Ejection Onset

    CERN Document Server

    Green, L M

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the evolution of a sigmoidal (S shaped) active region toward eruption, which includes a coronal mass ejection (CME) but leaves part of the filament in place. The X-ray sigmoid is found to trace out three different magnetic topologies in succession: a highly sheared arcade of coronal loops in its long-lived phase, a bald-patch separatrix surface (BPSS) in the hours before the CME, and the first flare loops in its major transient intensity enhancement. The coronal evolution is driven by photospheric changes which involve the convergence and cancellation of flux elements under the sigmoid and filament. The data yield unambiguous evidence for the existence of a BPSS, and hence a flux rope, in the corona prior to the onset of the CME.

  6. Shapes of minimal-energy DNA ropes condensed in confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiber, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Shapes of a single, long DNA molecule condensed in a confinement of a virus capsid are described as conformations optimizing a model free energy functional accounting for the interplay between the bending energy of the DNA and the surface energy of the DNA bundled in a “rope”. The rope is formed by bundled DNA brought together by (self-)attractive interactions. The conformations predicted by the model depend on the shape of the confinement, the total amount of the packed DNA but also on the relative contributions of the bending and surface energies. Some of the conformations found were not predicted previously, but many previously proposed DNA conformations, some of which are seemingly contradictory, were found as the solutions of the model. The results show that there are many possible packing conformations of the DNA and that the one which realizes in a particular virus depends on the capsid geometry and the nature of condensing agents. PMID:27364168

  7. Turbulence analysis of an experimental flux rope plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffner, D A; Wan, A; Brown, M R

    2013-01-01

    We have previously generated elongated Taylor double-helix flux rope plasmas in the SSX MHD wind tunnel. These plasmas are remarkable in their rapid relaxation (about one Alfv\\'en time) and their description by simple analytical Taylor force-free theory despite their high plasma beta and high internal flow speeds. We report on the turbulent features observed in these plasmas including frequency spectra, autocorrelation function, and probability distribution functions of increments. We discuss here the possibility that the turbulence facilitating access to the final state supports coherent structures and intermittency revealed by non-Gaussian signatures in the statistics. Comparisons to a Hall-MHD simulation of the SSX MHD wind tunnel show similarity in several statistical measures.

  8. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyuan Wu

    Full Text Available The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn't been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect.

  9. MMS observations of small magnetic flux ropes in the near-tail (X > -11 Re)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, J. A.; Poh, G.; Le, G.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Anderson, B. J.; Fischer, D.; Plaschke, F.; Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Kepko, L.; Chutter, M.; Le Contel, O.; Torbert, R. B.; Nakamura, R.; Magnes, W.; Baumjohann, W.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is the most important energy conversion process in the Earth's magnetotail. Flux ropes are helical magnetic structures created by multiple X-line reconnection in the tail current sheet in the presence of a guide field in the east - west direction. Many numerical simulations predict that the formation of small flux ropes, referred to as secondary islands, takes place as reconnection transitions from the slow Sweet-Parker mode to fast reconnection with inertial scale neutral points. High time resolution MMS magnetic and electric fields measurements are near ideal for the investigation of secondary island - type flux ropes carried Earthward from downstream reconnnection sites, as well as their interaction with the strong dipolar magnetic fields of the inner magnetosphere. We present and analyze initial MMS magnetic field measurements of small flux ropes in the near-tail during the commissioning phase while the spacecraft were in a "string-­of-­pearls" configuration.

  10. Dynamic High-speed Knotting of a Rope by a Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Yamakawa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest an entirely new strategy for the dexterous manipulation of a linear flexible object, such as rope or a cable, with a high-speed manipulator. We deal with a flexible rope as one example of the linear flexible object. The strategy involves manipulating the object at high-speed. By moving the robot at high-speed, we can assume that the dynamic behaviour of the flexible rope can be obtained by performing algebraic calculations of the high- speed robot motion. Based on this assumption, we derive a dynamic deformation model of the flexible rope and confirm the validity of the proposed model. Then we perform a simulation of dynamic, high-speed knotting based on the proposed model. We also discuss the possibility of forming the knot based on a simple analysis model. Finally, we show experimental results demonstrating dynamic, high-speed knotting with a high-speed manipulator.

  11. Evolution of flux ropes in the magnetotail: A three-dimensional global hybrid simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flux ropes in the Earth's magnetotail are widely believed to play a crucial role in energy transport during substorms and the generation of energetic particles. Previous kinetic simulations are limited to the local-scale regime, and thus cannot be used to study the structure associated with the geomagnetic field and the global-scale evolution of the flux ropes. Here, the evolution of flux ropes in the magnetotail under a steady southward interplanetary magnetic field are studied with a newly developed three-dimensional global hybrid simulation model for dynamics ranging from the ion Larmor radius to the global convection time scales. Magnetic reconnection with multiple X-lines is found to take place in the near-tail current sheet at geocentric solar magnetospheric distances x=−30RE∼−15RE around the equatorial plane (z=0). The magnetotail reconnection layer is turbulent, with a nonuniform structure and unsteady evolution, and exhibits properties of typical collisionless fast reconnection with the Hall effect. A number of small-scale flux ropes are generated through the multiple X-line reconnection. The diameter of the flux ropes is several RE, and the spatial scale of the flux ropes in the dawn-dusk direction is on the order of several RE and does not extend across the entire section of the magnetotail, contrary to previous models and MHD simulation results and showing the importance of the three-dimensional effects. The nonuniform and unsteady multiple X-line reconnection with particle kinetic effects leads to various kinds of flux rope evolution: The small-scale flux ropes propagate earthward or tailward after formation, and eventually merge into the near-Earth region or the mid-/distant-tail plasmoid, respectively. During the propagation, some of the flux ropes can be tilted in the geocentric solar magnetospheric (x,y) plane with respect to the y (dawn-dusk) axis. Coalescence between flux ropes is also observed. At the same time, the evolution of the

  12. Advanced signal processing methods applied to guided waves for wire rope defect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Peter W.; Rostami, Javad

    2016-02-01

    Steel wire ropes, which are usually composed of a polymer core and enclosed by twisted wires, are used to hoist heavy loads. These loads are different structures that can be clamshells, draglines, elevators, etc. Since the loading of these structures is dynamic, the ropes are working under fluctuating forces in a corrosive environment. This consequently leads to progressive loss of the metallic cross-section due to abrasion and corrosion. These defects can be seen in the forms of roughened and pitted surface of the ropes, reduction in diameter, and broken wires. Therefore, their deterioration must be monitored so that any unexpected damage or corrosion can be detected before it causes fatal accident. This is of vital importance in the case of passenger transportation, particularly in elevators in which any failure may cause a catastrophic disaster. At present, the widely used methods for thorough inspection of wire ropes include visual inspection and magnetic flux leakage (MFL). Reliability of the first method is questionable since it only depends on the operators' eyes that fails to determine the integrity of internal wires. The later method has the drawback of being a point by point and time-consuming inspection method. Ultrasonic guided wave (UGW) based inspection, which has proved its capability in inspecting plate like structures such as tubes and pipes, can monitor the cross-section of wire ropes in their entire length from a single point. However, UGW have drawn less attention for defect detection in wire ropes. This paper reports the condition monitoring of a steel wire rope from a hoisting elevator with broken wires as a result of corrosive environment and fatigue. Experiments were conducted to investigate the efficiency of using magnetostrictive based UGW for rope defect detection. The obtained signals were analyzed by two time-frequency representation (TFR) methods, namely the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and the Wavelet analysis. The location of

  13. On the upper part load vortex rope in Francis turbine: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, C.; Zobeiri, A.; Maruzewski, P.; Avellan, F.

    2010-08-01

    The swirling flow developing in Francis turbine draft tube under part load operation leads to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 times the runner rotational frequency resulting from the so-called vortex breakdown. For low cavitation number, the flow features a cavitation vortex rope animated with precession motion. Under given conditions, these pressure fluctuations may lead to undesirable pressure fluctuations in the entire hydraulic system and also produce active power oscillations. For the upper part load range, between 0.7 and 0.85 times the best efficiency discharge, pressure fluctuations may appear in a higher frequency range of 2 to 4 times the runner rotational speed and feature modulations with vortex rope precession. It has been pointed out that for this particular operating point, the vortex rope features elliptical cross section and is animated of a self-rotation. This paper presents an experimental investigation focusing on this peculiar phenomenon, defined as the upper part load vortex rope. The experimental investigation is carried out on a high specific speed Francis turbine scale model installed on a test rig of the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The selected operating point corresponds to a discharge of 0.83 times the best efficiency discharge. Observations of the cavitation vortex carried out with high speed camera have been recorded and synchronized with pressure fluctuations measurements at the draft tube cone. First, the vortex rope self rotation frequency is evidenced and the related frequency is deduced. Then, the influence of the sigma cavitation number on vortex rope shape and pressure fluctuations is presented. The waterfall diagram of the pressure fluctuations evidences resonance effects with the hydraulic circuit. The time evolution of the vortex rope volume is compared with pressure fluctuations time evolution using image processing. Finally, the influence of the Froude number on the vortex rope shape and

  14. Semi-Active Control of the Sway Dynamics for Elevator Ropes

    OpenAIRE

    Benosman, Mouhacine

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the problem of rope sway dynamics control for elevator systems. We choose to actuate the system with a semi-active damper mounted on the top of the elevator car. We propose nonlinear controllers based on Lyapunov theory, to actuate the semi-active damper and stabilize the rope sway dynamics. We study the stability of the proposed controllers, and test their performances on a numerical example.

  15. Behavioral and Physiological Responses of Calves to Marshalling and Roping in a Simulated Rodeo Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sinclair

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodeos are public events at which stockpeople face tests of their ability to manage cattle and horses, some of which relate directly to rangeland cattle husbandry. One of these is calf roping, in which a calf released from a chute is pursued by a horse and rider, who lassoes, lifts and drops the calf to the ground and finally ties it around the legs. Measurements were made of behavior and stress responses of ten rodeo-naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider, and ten rodeo-experienced calves that were roped. Naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider traversed the arena slowly, whereas rodeo-experienced calves ran rapidly until roped. Each activity was repeated once after two hours. Blood samples taken before and after each activity demonstrated increased cortisol, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in both groups. However, there was no evidence of a continued increase in stress hormones in either group by the start of the repeated activity, suggesting that the elevated stress hormones were not a response to a prolonged effect of the initial blood sampling. It is concluded that both the marshalling of calves naïve to the roping chute by stockpeople and the roping and dropping of experienced calves are stressful in a simulated rodeo calf roping event.

  16. Flux rope proxies and fan-spine structures in active region NOAA 11897

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Y J; Zhang, J

    2016-01-01

    Employing the high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), we statistically investigate flux rope proxies in NOAA AR 11897 from 14-Nov-2013 to 19-Nov-2013 and display two fan-spine structures in this AR. For the first time, we detect flux rope proxies of NOAA 11897 for total 30 times in 4 different locations. These flux rope proxies were either tracked in both lower and higher temperature wavelengths or only detected in hot channels. Specially, none of these flux rope proxies was observed to erupt, but just faded away gradually. In addition to these flux rope proxies, we firstly detect a secondary fan-spine structure. It was covered by dome-shaped magnetic fields which belong to a larger fan-spine topology. These new observations imply that considerable amounts of flux ropes can exist in an AR and the complexity of AR magnetic configuration is far beyond our imagination.

  17. Catastrophe of coronal magnetic flux ropes in fully open magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Guoqiang(李国强); HU; Youqiu(胡友秋)

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophe of coronal magnetic flux ropes is closely related to solar explosive phenomena, such as prominence eruptions, coronal mass ejections, and two-ribbon solar flares. Using a 2-dimensional, 3-component ideal MHD model in Cartesian coordinates, numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the equilibrium property of a coronal magnetic flux rope which is embedded in a fully open background magnetic field. The flux rope emerges from the photosphere and enters the corona with its axial and annular magnetic fluxes controlled by a single "emergence parameter". For a flux rope that has entered the corona, we may change its axial and annular fluxes artificially and let the whole system reach a new equilibrium through numerical simulations. The results obtained show that when the emergence parameter, the axial flux, or the annular flux is smaller than a certain critical value, the flux rope is in equilibrium and adheres to the photosphere. On the other hand, if the critical value is exceeded, the flux rope loses equilibrium and erupts freely upward, namely, a catastrophe takes place. In contrast with the partly-opened background field, the catastrophic amplitude is infinite for the case of fully-opened background field.

  18. The expected imprint of flux rope geometry on suprathermal electrons in magnetic clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Owens

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic clouds are a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections characterized by a smooth rotation in the magnetic field direction, which is interpreted as a signature of a magnetic flux rope. Suprathermal electron observations indicate that one or both ends of a magnetic cloud typically remain connected to the Sun as it moves out through the heliosphere. With distance from the axis of the flux rope, out toward its edge, the magnetic field winds more tightly about the axis and electrons must traverse longer magnetic field lines to reach the same heliocentric distance. This increased time of flight allows greater pitch-angle scattering to occur, meaning suprathermal electron pitch-angle distributions should be systematically broader at the edges of the flux rope than at the axis. We model this effect with an analytical magnetic flux rope model and a numerical scheme for suprathermal electron pitch-angle scattering and find that the signature of a magnetic flux rope should be observable with the typical pitch-angle resolution of suprathermal electron data provided ACE's SWEPAM instrument. Evidence of this signature in the observations, however, is weak, possibly because reconnection of magnetic fields within the flux rope acts to intermix flux tubes.

  19. Propagation of Ultrasonic Guided Waves in Composite Multi-Wire Ropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaldas Raisutis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-wire ropes are widely used as load-carrying constructional elements in bridges, cranes, elevators, etc. Structural integrity of such ropes can be inspected by using non-destructive ultrasonic techniques. The objective of this work was to investigate propagation of ultrasonic guided waves (UGW along composite multi-wire ropes in the cases of various types of acoustic contacts between neighboring wires and the plastic core. The modes of UGW propagating along the multi-wire ropes were identified using modelling, the dispersion curves were calculated using analytical and semi-analytical finite element (SAFE techniques. In order to investigate the effects of UGW propagation, the two types of the acoustic contact between neighboring wires were simulated using the 3D finite element method (FE as well. The key question of investigation was estimation of the actual boundary conditions between neighboring wires (solid or slip and the real depth of penetration of UGW into the overall cross-section of the rope. Therefore, in order to verify the results of FE modelling, the guided wave penetration into strands of multi-wire rope was investigated experimentally. The performed modelling and experimental investigation enabled us to select optimal parameters of UGW to be used for non-destructive testing.

  20. Slow Rise and Partial Eruption of a Double-Decker Filament. II. Modeling by a Double Flux Rope Equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Kliem, Bernhard; Titov, Viacheslav S; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A; Liu, Rui; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haimin

    2014-01-01

    Force-free equilibria containing two vertically arranged magnetic flux ropes of like chirality and current direction are considered as a model for split filaments/prominences and filament-sigmoid systems. Such equilibria are constructed analytically through an extension of the methods developed in Titov & D\\'emoulin (1999) and numerically through an evolutionary sequence including shear flows, flux emergence, and flux cancellation in the photospheric boundary. It is demonstrated that the analytical equilibria are stable if an external toroidal (shear) field component exceeding a threshold value is included. If this component decreases sufficiently, then both flux ropes turn unstable for conditions typical of solar active regions, with the lower rope typically being unstable first. Either both flux ropes erupt upward, or only the upper rope erupts while the lower rope reconnects with the ambient flux low in the corona and is destroyed. However, for shear field strengths staying somewhat above the threshold...

  1. The numerical research of runner cavitation effects on spiral vortex rope in draft tube of Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Zhou, L. J.; Wang, Z. W.

    2015-12-01

    The spiral cavitating vortex rope developed in the draft tube of Francis turbine under part load condition maybe causes serious pressure fluctuations and power swings, which threatens the safety and stability of the power plant operations. Many works have been performed to explore the mechanisms of it. In this paper, the runner cavitation and spiral vortex rope under part load conditions were studied to investigate the relations of runner cavitation and the spiral vortex rope. The results proved the existence of obvious interaction between them. The swirl flow at the runner outlet plays an important role in the formation of vortex rope. And the periodic procession of vortex rope in turn intensifies the uneven pressure distribution near the runner outlet and causes the asymmetric cavitation on the runner blades, which then give rise to the modification of swirl flow at the runner blades and thereby affects the characteristics of vortex rope.

  2. Hooked flare ribbons and flux-rope related QSL footprints

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jie; Aulanier, Guillaume; Schmieder, Brigitte; Pariat, Etienne; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    We studied the magnetic topology of active region 12158 on 2014 September 10 and compared it with the observations before and early in the flare which begins at 17:21 UT (SOL2014-09-10T17:45:00). Our results show that the sigmoidal structure and flare ribbons of this active region observed by SDO/AIA can be well reproduced from a Grad-Rubin non linear force free field extrapolation method. Various inverse-S and -J shaped magnetic field lines, that surround a coronal flux rope, coincide with the sigmoid as observed in different extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, including its multi-threaded curved ends. Also, the observed distribution of surface currents in the magnetic polarity where it was not prescribed is well reproduced. This validates our numerical implementation and set-up of the Grad-Rubin method. The modeled double inverse-J shaped Quasi-Separatrix Layer (QSL) footprints match the observed flare ribbons during the rising phase of the flare, including their hooked parts. The spiral-like shape of the latt...

  3. Slow rise and partial eruption of a double-decker filament. II. A double flux rope model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Force-free equilibria containing two vertically arranged magnetic flux ropes of like chirality and current direction are considered as a model for split filaments/prominences and filament-sigmoid systems. Such equilibria are constructed analytically through an extension of the methods developed in Titov and Démoulin and numerically through an evolutionary sequence including shear flows, flux emergence, and flux cancellation in the photospheric boundary. It is demonstrated that the analytical equilibria are stable if an external toroidal (shear) field component exceeding a threshold value is included. If this component decreases sufficiently, then both flux ropes turn unstable for conditions typical of solar active regions, with the lower rope typically becoming unstable first. Either both flux ropes erupt upward, or only the upper rope erupts while the lower rope reconnects with the ambient flux low in the corona and is destroyed. However, for shear field strengths staying somewhat above the threshold value, the configuration also admits evolutions which lead to partial eruptions with only the upper flux rope becoming unstable and the lower one remaining in place. This can be triggered by a transfer of flux and current from the lower to the upper rope, as suggested by the observations of a split filament in Paper I. It can also result from tether-cutting reconnection with the ambient flux at the X-type structure between the flux ropes, which similarly influences their stability properties in opposite ways. This is demonstrated for the numerically constructed equilibrium.

  4. Skin-layer of the eruptive magnetic flux rope in large solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichigin, G. N.; Miroshnichenko, L. I.; Sidorov, V. I.; Yazev, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of observations of large solar flares made it possible to propose a hypothesis on existence of a skin-layer in magnetic flux ropes of coronal mass ejections. On the assumption that the Bohm coefficient determines the diffusion of magnetic field, an estimate of the skin-layer thickness of ~106 cm is obtained. According to the hypothesis, the electric field of ~0.01-0.1 V/cm, having the nonzero component along the magnetic field of flux rope, arises for ~5 min in the surface layer of the eruptive flux rope during its ejection into the upper corona. The particle acceleration by the electric field to the energies of ~100 MeV/nucleon in the skin-layer of the flux rope leads to their precipitation along field lines to footpoints of the flux rope. The skin-layer presence induces helical or oval chromospheric emission at the ends of flare ribbons. The emission may be accompanied by hard X-ray radiation and by the production of gamma-ray line at the energy of 2.223 MeV (neutron capture line in the photosphere). The magnetic reconnection in the corona leads to a shift of the skin-layer of flux rope across the magnetic field. The area of precipitation of accelerated particles at the flux-rope footpoints expands in this case from the inside outward. This effect is traced in the chromosphere and in the transient region as the expanding helical emission structures. If the emission extends to the spot, a certain fraction of accelerated particles may be reflected from the magnetic barrier (in the magnetic field of the spot). In the case of exit into the interplanetary space, these particles may be recorded in the Earth's orbit as solar proton events.

  5. Effects of fishing rope strength on the severity of large whale entanglements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Amy R; Robbins, Jooke; Landry, Scott; McKenna, Henry A; Kraus, Scott D; Werner, Timothy B

    2016-04-01

    Entanglement in fixed fishing gear affects whales worldwide. In the United States, deaths of North Atlantic right (Eubalaena glacialis) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) have exceeded management limits for decades. We examined live and dead whales entangled in fishing gear along the U.S. East Coast and the Canadian Maritimes from 1994 to 2010. We recorded whale species, age, and injury severity and determined rope polymer type, breaking strength, and diameter of the fishing gear. For the 132 retrieved ropes from 70 cases, tested breaking strength range was 0.80-39.63 kN (kiloNewtons) and the mean was 11.64 kN (SD 8.29), which is 26% lower than strength at manufacture (range 2.89-53.38 kN, mean = 15.70 kN [9.89]). Median rope diameter was 9.5 mm. Right and humpback whales were found in ropes with significantly stronger breaking strengths at time of manufacture than minke whales (Balaenoptera acuturostrata) (19.30, 17.13, and 10.47 mean kN, respectively). Adult right whales were found in stronger ropes (mean 34.09 kN) than juvenile right whales (mean 15.33 kN) and than all humpback whale age classes (mean 17.37 kN). For right whales, severity of injuries increased since the mid 1980s, possibly due to changes in rope manufacturing in the mid 1990s that resulted in production of stronger ropes at the same diameter. Our results suggest that broad adoption of ropes with breaking strengths of ≤ 7.56 kN (≤ 1700 lbsf) could reduce the number of life-threatening entanglements for large whales by at least 72%, and yet could provide sufficient strength to withstand the routine forces involved in many fishing operations. A reduction of this magnitude would achieve nearly all the mitigation legally required for U.S. stocks of North Atlantic right and humpback whales. Ropes with reduced breaking strength should be developed and tested to determine the feasibility of their use in a variety of fisheries.

  6. Effects of fishing rope strength on the severity of large whale entanglements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Amy R; Robbins, Jooke; Landry, Scott; McKenna, Henry A; Kraus, Scott D; Werner, Timothy B

    2016-04-01

    Entanglement in fixed fishing gear affects whales worldwide. In the United States, deaths of North Atlantic right (Eubalaena glacialis) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) have exceeded management limits for decades. We examined live and dead whales entangled in fishing gear along the U.S. East Coast and the Canadian Maritimes from 1994 to 2010. We recorded whale species, age, and injury severity and determined rope polymer type, breaking strength, and diameter of the fishing gear. For the 132 retrieved ropes from 70 cases, tested breaking strength range was 0.80-39.63 kN (kiloNewtons) and the mean was 11.64 kN (SD 8.29), which is 26% lower than strength at manufacture (range 2.89-53.38 kN, mean = 15.70 kN [9.89]). Median rope diameter was 9.5 mm. Right and humpback whales were found in ropes with significantly stronger breaking strengths at time of manufacture than minke whales (Balaenoptera acuturostrata) (19.30, 17.13, and 10.47 mean kN, respectively). Adult right whales were found in stronger ropes (mean 34.09 kN) than juvenile right whales (mean 15.33 kN) and than all humpback whale age classes (mean 17.37 kN). For right whales, severity of injuries increased since the mid 1980s, possibly due to changes in rope manufacturing in the mid 1990s that resulted in production of stronger ropes at the same diameter. Our results suggest that broad adoption of ropes with breaking strengths of ≤ 7.56 kN (≤ 1700 lbsf) could reduce the number of life-threatening entanglements for large whales by at least 72%, and yet could provide sufficient strength to withstand the routine forces involved in many fishing operations. A reduction of this magnitude would achieve nearly all the mitigation legally required for U.S. stocks of North Atlantic right and humpback whales. Ropes with reduced breaking strength should be developed and tested to determine the feasibility of their use in a variety of fisheries. PMID:26183819

  7. Evidence of flux rope and sigmoid in Active Regions prior eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Brigitte; Aulanier, Guillaume; Janvier, Miho; Bommier, Veronique; Dudik, Jaroslav; Gilchrist, Stuart; Zhao, Jie

    2016-07-01

    In the solar corona, the magnetic field is dominant, and the current density vector is nearly aligned with the magnetic field lines for strong and stressed field regions. Stressed and highly twisted flux ropes are at the origin of eruptive events such as flares and coronal mass ejections, which inject material into the interplanetary medium. The standard three dimensional (3D) flare model predicts the complex evolution of flare loops and the flux rope before the eruption. Flux ropes are not directly observed in the corona, however it has started to be possible to detect their footprints in the photosphere. Recent high spatial and temporal resolution spectro-polarimeters have allowed us to compute the photospheric electric currents and follow their evolution. Characteristics pattern like J-shaped ribbons indicate the presence of a flux rope before the flare. The results confirm the predictions of the 3D MHD standard model of eruptive flares. It is interesting to compare the magnetic helicity of the ejected flux rope with the in situ measurements of the corresponding ICME at L1. We will show some examples (February 15 2011, July 12 2012, Sept 10 2014).

  8. Temperature evolution of magnetic flux rope in a failed solar eruption

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Hongqiang; Cheng, Xin; Chen, Yao; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we report for the first time the detailed temperature evolution process of the magnetic flux rope in a failed solar eruption. Occurred on January 05, 2013, the flux rope was impulsively accelerated to a speed of ~ 400 km/s in the first minute, then decelerated and came to a complete stop in two minutes. The failed eruption resulted in a large-size high-lying (~ 100 Mm above the surface) high-temperature "fire ball" sitting in the corona for more than two hours. The time evolution of the thermal structure of the flux rope was revealed through the differential emission measure analysis technique, which produced temperature maps using observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board Solar Dynamic Observatory. The average temperature of the flux rope steadily increased from ~ 5 MK to ~ 10 MK during the first nine minutes of the evolution, which was much longer than the rise time (about three minutes) of the associated soft X-ray flare. We suggest that the flux rope be heated by the ...

  9. Evolution of the magnetic helicity flux during the formation and eruption of flux ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, P. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Zuccarello, F. P. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma-Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Guglielmino, S. L.; Zuccarello, F., E-mail: paolo.romano@oact.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia—Sezione Astrofisica, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-10-20

    We describe the evolution and the magnetic helicity flux for two active regions (ARs) since their appearance on the solar disk: NOAA 11318 and NOAA 11675. Both ARs hosted the formation and destabilization of magnetic flux ropes. In the former AR, the formation of the flux rope culminated in a flare of C2.3 GOES class and a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed by Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment. In the latter AR, the region hosting the flux rope was involved in several flares, but only a partial eruption with signatures of a minor plasma outflow was observed. We found a different behavior in the accumulation of the magnetic helicity flux in the corona, depending on the magnetic configuration and on the location of the flux ropes in the ARs. Our results suggest that the complexity and strength of the photospheric magnetic field is only a partial indicator of the real likelihood of an AR producing the eruption of a flux rope and a subsequent CME.

  10. Key technique of a detection sensor for coal mine wire ropes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-yao; XU Zhao; HUA Gang; TIAN Jie; ZHOU Bing-bing; LU Yan-hong; CHEN Feng-jun

    2009-01-01

    Wire ropes, employed extensively in coal mine hoists and transportation systems are subject to damage due to wear,corrosion and fatigue. The extent of damage and the carrying capacity of ropes are closely related to the sense of safety by staff and equipments. Magnetic flux leakage detection method (MFL), as an effective method, is these days widely used in detection of bro-ken strands of wire ropes. In order to improve the accuracy of detection of flaws in wire ropes by magnetic flux leakage (MFL), the effect of the distance between a sensor and the surface of a wire rope (i.e., lift-off) on detection by magnetic flux leakage was in-vestigated. An analysis of the main principles for the choice of lift-off is described by us and a new method that improves the struc-ture of the detector is proposed from the point of view of the design of a magnetic circuit, to restrain the impact of fluctuations of sensor lift-off. The effect of this kind of method is validated by simulation and computation. The results show that the detection sensitivity is markedly increased by this method. Furthermore, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be increased by over 28%. This method will lend itself to offer reliable scientific information to optimize the structure of excitation devices and improve the accu-racy of MFL detection.

  11. A plasma β transition within a propagating flux rope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savani, N. P. [George Mason University, Faifax, VA (United States); Vourlidas, A.; Linton, M. G. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Shiota, D. [Computational Astrophysics Laboratory, Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kusano, K. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Lugaz, N. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Rouillard, A. P. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Plantologie, Universit de Toulouse (UPS) (France)

    2013-12-20

    We present a 2.5 dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a magnetic flux rope (FR) propagating in the heliosphere and investigate the cause of the observed sharp plasma β transition. Specifically, we consider a strong internal magnetic field and an explosive fast start, such that the plasma β is significantly lower in the FR than in the sheath region that is formed ahead. This leads to an unusual FR morphology in the first stage of propagation, while the more traditional view (e.g., from space weather simulations like Enlil) of a pancake-shaped FR is observed as it approaches 1 AU. We investigate how an equipartition line, defined by a magnetic Weber number, surrounding a core region of a propagating FR, can demarcate a boundary layer where there is a sharp transition in the plasma β. The substructure affects the distribution of toroidal flux, with the majority of the flux remaining in a small core region that maintains a quasi-cylindrical structure. We quantitatively investigate a locus of points where the kinetic energy density of the relative inflow field is equal to the energy density of the transverse magnetic field (i.e., effective tension force). The simulation provides compelling evidence that at all heliocentric distances the distribution of toroidal magnetic flux away from the FR axis is not linear, with 80% of the toroidal flux occurring within 40% of the distance from the FR axis. Thus, our simulation displays evidence that the competing ideas of a pancaking structure observed remotely can coexist with a quasi-cylindrical magnetic structure seen in situ.

  12. Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.

  13. ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT DISLOCATION BY TIGHT ROPE TECHNIQUE (ARTHREX®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    GÓmez Vieira, Luis Alfredo; Visco, Adalberto; Daneu Fernandes, Luis Filipe; GÓmez Cordero, Nicolas Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Presenting the arthroscopic treatment by Tight Rope - Arthrex® system for acute acromioclavicular dislocation and to evaluate results obtained with this procedure. Methods: Between August 2006 and May 2007, 10 shoulders of 10 patients with acute acromioclavicular dislocation were submitted to arthroscopic repair using the Tight Rope - Arthrex® system. Minimum follow-up was 12 months, with a mean of 15 months. Age ranged from 26 to 42, mean 34 years. All patients were male. Radiology evaluation was made by trauma series x-ray. The patients were assisted in the first month weekly and after three months after the procedure. Clinical evaluation was based on the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) criteria. Results: All patients were satisfied after the arthroscopic procedure and the mean UCLA score was 32,5. Conclusion: The arthroscopic treatment by Tight Rope – Arthrex® system for acute acromioclavicular dislocation showed to be an efficient technique. PMID:26998453

  14. Topology of magnetic flux ropes and formation of fossil flux transfer events and boundary layer plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L. C.; Ma, Z. W.; Fu, Z. F.; Otto, A.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanism for the formation of fossil flux transfer events and the low-level boundary layer within the framework of multiple X-line reconnection is proposed. Attention is given to conditions for which the bulk of magnetic flux in a flux rope of finite extent has a simple magnetic topology, where the four possible connections of magnetic field lines are: IMF to MSP, MSP to IMF, IMF to IMF, and MSP to MSP. For a sufficient relative shift of the X lines, magnetic flux may enter a flux rope from the magnetosphere and exit into the magnetosphere. This process leads to the formation of magnetic flux ropes which contain a considerable amount of magnetosheath plasma on closed magnetospheric field lines. This process is discussed as a possible explanation for the formation of fossil flux transfer events in the magnetosphere and the formation of the low-latitude boundary layer.

  15. Magnetar giant flares in multipolar magnetic fields. II. Flux rope eruptions with current sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lei [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Yu, Cong, E-mail: muduri@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: cyu@ynao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Object, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2014-11-20

    We propose a physical mechanism to explain giant flares and radio afterglows in terms of a magnetospheric model containing both a helically twisted flux rope and a current sheet (CS). With the appearance of a CS, we solve a mixed boundary value problem to get the magnetospheric field based on a domain decomposition method. We investigate properties of the equilibrium curve of the flux rope when the CS is present in background multipolar fields. In response to the variations at the magnetar surface, it quasi-statically evolves in stable equilibrium states. The loss of equilibrium occurs at a critical point and, beyond that point, it erupts catastrophically. New features show up when the CS is considered. In particular, we find two kinds of physical behaviors, i.e., catastrophic state transition and catastrophic escape. Magnetic energy would be released during state transitions. This released magnetic energy is sufficient to drive giant flares, and the flux rope would, therefore, go away from the magnetar quasi-statically, which is inconsistent with the radio afterglow. Fortunately, in the latter case, i.e., the catastrophic escape, the flux rope could escape the magnetar and go to infinity in a dynamical way. This is more consistent with radio afterglow observations of giant flares. We find that the minor radius of the flux rope has important implications for its eruption. Flux ropes with larger minor radii are more prone to erupt. We stress that the CS provides an ideal place for magnetic reconnection, which would further enhance the energy release during eruptions.

  16. The anchors of steel wire ropes, testing methods and their results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krešák

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic and thermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobile steel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. First measurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methods are shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widely used magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presents a problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enable increased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  17. In-Situ TEM-STM Observations of SWCNT Ropes/Tubular Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, F.; Lebron-Colon, M.; Ferreira, P. J.; Fonseca, L. F.; Meador, M. A.; Marin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) prepared by the HiPco process were purified using a modified gas phase purification technique. A TEM-STM holder was used to study the morphological changes of SWCNT ropes as a function of applied voltage. Kink formation, buckling behavior, tubular transformation and eventual breakdown of the system were observed. The tubular formation was attributed to a transformation from SWCNT ropes to multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) structures. It is likely mediated by the patching and tearing mechanism which is promoted primarily by the mobile vacancies generated due to current-induced heating and, to some extent, by electron irradiation.

  18. Study on mechanism of fiber grouted material in pre-stressed anchor rope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Siming; QIAO Jianping; WANG Chenghua

    2003-01-01

    The fiber grouted material can reinforce the tension strength, shear strength as well as the index of fracture ductile, and remarkably improve the endurance of pre-stressed anchor rope under long-time loading. As a result, it has the better application foreground. Based on the shear log model and Hashin-Shtrikman upper and lower limited theorem, we have studied the mechanism of fiber grouted material applied in pre-stressed anchor rope and material property, and analyzed the effect of resistance strength of bond, resistance distribution of anchor section and the loading-deformation relationship of anchor body.

  19. Scented guide ropes as a method to enhance brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) trap capture success on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, L.C.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Yackel Adams, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Current methods for controlling the invasive Brown Treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam include a modified minnow trap with a live mouse lure. We investigated the effects on capture success of augmenting these traps with scented guide ropes leading to trap entrances. Initial screening of scent preferences was based on time spent in scented and unscented arms of a Y-maze. Preferences of large and small snakes were scored for six different prey scents (live and carrion gecko, skink, and mouse). Large snakes spent more time in the maze arm scented with live gecko and carrion gecko, whereas small snakes spent more time in the arm scented with carrion mouse and carrion gecko. After the laboratory study, a pilot trapping session was conducted in the field using three treatments (live mouse-scented ropes, carrion gecko-scented ropes, and carrion mouse-scented ropes) and two controls (traps with unscented guide ropes and those with no ropes attached). Contrary to laboratory results, live mouse-scented ropes were most effective. We conducted a second trapping session using live mouse-scented ropes as well as the two controls used in the pilot study. For snakes of below-average to average condition, the number of captures for traps with live mouse-scented ropes was higher than for traps with no ropes. However, for snakes of above-average condition, there were no differences in capture rates between trap treatments. Overall, treatment effects were weaker than latent individual heterogeneity and the influence of snake body size, with large snakes trapped more readily. ?? 2011 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  20. Is flux rope a necessary condition for the progenitor of coronal mass ejections?

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Y; Chen, P F

    2015-01-01

    A magnetic flux rope structure is believed to exist in most coronal mass ejections (CMEs). However, it has been long debated whether the flux rope exists before eruption or is formed during eruption via magnetic reconnection. The controversy has been continuing because of our lack of routine measurements of the magnetic field in the pre-eruption structure, such as solar filaments. However, recently an indirect method was proposed to infer the magnetic field configuration based on the sign of helicity and the bearing direction of the filament barbs. In this paper, we apply this method to two erupting filament events, one on 2014 September 2 and the other on 2011 March 7, and find that the first filament is supported by a magnetic flux rope and the second filament is supported by a sheared arcade, i.e., the first one is an inverse-polarity filament and the second one is a normal-polarity filament. With the identification of the magnetic configurations in these two filaments, we stress that a flux rope is not a ...

  1. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of flow around three-stranded rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wan, Rong; Huang, Liuyi; Zhao, Fenfang; Sun, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Three-stranded rope is widely used in fishing gear and mooring system. Results of numerical simulation are presented for flow around a three-stranded rope in uniform flow. The simulation was carried out to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of pressure and velocity fields of steady incompressible laminar and turbulent wakes behind a three-stranded rope. A three-cylinder configuration and single circular cylinder configuration are used to model the three-stranded rope in the two-dimensional simulation. The governing equations, Navier-Stokes equations, are solved by using two-dimensional finite volume method. The turbulence flow is simulated using Standard κ-ɛ model and Shear-Stress Transport κ-ω (SST) model. The drag of the three-cylinder model and single cylinder model is calculated for different Reynolds numbers by using control volume analysis method. The pressure coefficient is also calculated for the turbulent model and laminar model based on the control surface method. From the comparison of the drag coefficient and the pressure of the single cylinder and three-cylinder models, it is found that the drag coefficients of the three-cylinder model are generally 1.3-1.5 times those of the single circular cylinder for different Reynolds numbers. Comparing the numerical results with water tank test data, the results of the three-cylinder model are closer to the experiment results than the single cylinder model results.

  2. Prediction of Heart Rates on a Ropes Course from Simple Physical Measures. Research Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Simon; Montelpare, William

    1995-01-01

    This study identified the highest heart rates attained on a ropes course for a corporate population; examined relationships between highest heart rate and other physical measures (basal heart rate, blood pressure, height, weight, body girths, cholesterol, maximum number of pushups, and heart rate after brisk walk); and developed an equation for…

  3. The Impact of Rope Jumping Exercise on Physical Fitness of Visually Impaired Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Chien; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of rope jumping exercise on the health-related physical fitness of visually impaired students. The participants' physical fitness was examined before and after the training. The exercise intensity of the experimental group was controlled with Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) (values…

  4. An analytical study on the static vertical stiffness of wire rope isolators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, P. S.; Rahman, M. E.; Ho, Lau Hieng [Curtin University Sarawak, Miri (Malaysia); Moussa, Leblouba [University of Sharjah, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-01-15

    The vibrations caused by earthquake ground motions or the operations of heavy machineries can affect the functionality of equipment and cause damages to the hosting structures and surrounding equipment. A Wire rope isolator (WRI), which is a type of passive isolator known to be effective in isolating shocks and vibrations, can be used for vibration isolation of lightweight structures and equipment. The primary advantage of the WRI is that it can provide isolation in all three planes and in any orientation. The load-supporting capability of the WRI is identified from the static stiffness in the loading direction. Static stiffness mainly depends on the geometrical and material properties of the WRI. This study develops an analytical model for the static stiffness in the vertical direction by using Castigliano's second theorem. The model is validated by using the experimental results obtained from a series of monotonic loading tests. The flexural rigidity of the wire ropes required in the model is obtained from the transverse bending test. Then, the analytical model is used to conduct a parametric analysis on the effects of wire rope diameter, width, height, and number of turns (loops) on vertical stiffness. The wire rope diameter influences stiffness more than the other geometric parameters. The developed model can be accurately used for the evaluation and design of WRIs.

  5. Combining Diffusive Shock Acceleration with Acceleration by Contracting and Reconnecting Small-scale Flux Ropes at Heliospheric Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, J. A.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.; Khabarova, O. V.

    2016-08-01

    Computational and observational evidence is accruing that heliospheric shocks, as emitters of vorticity, can produce downstream magnetic flux ropes and filaments. This led Zank et al. to investigate a new paradigm whereby energetic particle acceleration near shocks is a combination of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) with downstream acceleration by many small-scale contracting and reconnecting (merging) flux ropes. Using a model where flux-rope acceleration involves a first-order Fermi mechanism due to the mean compression of numerous contracting flux ropes, Zank et al. provide theoretical support for observations that power-law spectra of energetic particles downstream of heliospheric shocks can be harder than predicted by DSA theory and that energetic particle intensities should peak behind shocks instead of at shocks as predicted by DSA theory. In this paper, a more extended formalism of kinetic transport theory developed by le Roux et al. is used to further explore this paradigm. We describe how second-order Fermi acceleration, related to the variance in the electromagnetic fields produced by downstream small-scale flux-rope dynamics, modifies the standard DSA model. The results show that (i) this approach can qualitatively reproduce observations of particle intensities peaking behind the shock, thus providing further support for the new paradigm, and (ii) stochastic acceleration by compressible flux ropes tends to be more efficient than incompressible flux ropes behind shocks in modifying the DSA spectrum of energetic particles.

  6. Confined partial filament eruption and its reformation within a stable magnetic flux rope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Kayshap, Pradeep; Uddin, Wahab [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital 263 002, Uttarakhand (India); Srivastava, Abhishek K.; Dwivedi, B. N. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Filippov, Boris [Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chandra, Ramesh [Department of Physics, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital 263 002, Uttarakhand (India); Choudhary, Debi Prasad, E-mail: navin@aries.res.in, E-mail: njoshi98@gmail.com [California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present observations of a confined partial eruption of a filament on 2012 August 4, which restores its initial shape within ≈2 hr after eruption. From the Global Oscillation Network Group Hα observations, we find that the filament plasma turns into dynamic motion at around 11:20 UT from the middle part of the filament toward the northwest direction with an average speed of ≈105 km s{sup –1}. A little brightening underneath the filament possibly shows the signature of low-altitude reconnection below the filament eruptive part. In Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 Å images, we observe an activation of right-handed helically twisted magnetic flux rope that contains the filament material and confines it during its dynamical motion. The motion of cool filament plasma stops after traveling a distance of ≈215 Mm toward the northwest from the point of eruption. The plasma moves partly toward the right foot point of the flux rope, while most of the plasma returns after 12:20 UT toward the left foot point with an average speed of ≈60 km s{sup –1} to reform the filament within the same stable magnetic structure. On the basis of the filament internal fine structure and its position relative to the photospheric magnetic fields, we find filament chirality to be sinistral, while the activated enveloping flux rope shows a clear right-handed twist. Thus, this dynamic event is an apparent example of one-to-one correspondence between the filament chirality (sinistral) and the enveloping flux rope helicity (positive). From the coronal magnetic field decay index, n, calculation near the flux rope axis, it is evident that the whole filament axis lies within the domain of stability (i.e., n < 1), which provides the filament stability despite strong disturbances at its eastern foot point.

  7. The modified forced-swim test in rats: influence of rope- or straw-suspension on climbing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, H; Tsuda, A; Ida, Y; Tanaka, M

    1988-01-01

    We modified Porsolt's forced-swim test by suspending ropes or straws above the water in order to investigate a possible relationship between immobility and perceived escape responses from water. In this modified test, it was demonstrated clearly that rats reduced their duration of immobility and attempted to climb up the suspended ropes or straws. Most rats which had remained immobile during a 5-min test period in the forced-swim test, exhibited such climbing responses within 5-10 min of rope-suspension. Despite the suspension of ropes, however, some rats showed immobile postures and did not respond to the rope. On the other hand, straws were used in order to produce sliding and prevent climbing when the animals attempted to climb. There were no differences in immobility during either rope- or straw-suspension. It seems that the climbing behavior displayed by forced-swimming rats is due to a "pseudo-escape" effect produced by the suspension of an object above the water. The present findings were interpreted as further evidence for the notion that immobility in forced-swimming rats does not necessarily imply "behavioral despair," but rather an emotional reaction to an inescapable stressor.

  8. Dynamic topology and flux rope evolution during non-linear tearing of 3D null point current sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyper, P. F., E-mail: peterw@maths.dundee.ac.uk; Pontin, D. I., E-mail: dpontin@maths.dundee.ac.uk [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    In this work, the dynamic magnetic field within a tearing-unstable three-dimensional current sheet about a magnetic null point is described in detail. We focus on the evolution of the magnetic null points and flux ropes that are formed during the tearing process. Generally, we find that both magnetic structures are created prolifically within the layer and are non-trivially related. We examine how nulls are created and annihilated during bifurcation processes, and describe how they evolve within the current layer. The type of null bifurcation first observed is associated with the formation of pairs of flux ropes within the current layer. We also find that new nulls form within these flux ropes, both following internal reconnection and as adjacent flux ropes interact. The flux ropes exhibit a complex evolution, driven by a combination of ideal kinking and their interaction with the outflow jets from the main layer. The finite size of the unstable layer also allows us to consider the wider effects of flux rope generation. We find that the unstable current layer acts as a source of torsional magnetohydrodynamic waves and dynamic braiding of magnetic fields. The implications of these results to several areas of heliophysics are discussed.

  9. Testing a solar coronal magnetic field extrapolation code with the Titov-Démoulin magnetic flux rope model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang

    2016-01-01

    In the solar corona, the magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure that accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of the magnetic field from boundary data has been the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information about the corona. As a result, the ability to reliably recover the coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov & Démoulin, which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding a semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By only using the vector field at the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field can be reconstructed with high accuracy. In particular, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade, i.e., the “hyperbolic flux tube” and “bald patch separatrix surface,” are also reliably reproduced. By this test, we demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code can be applied to recovering the magnetic flux rope in the solar corona as long as the vector magnetogram satisfies the force-free constraints.

  10. Testing a solar coronal magnetic field extrapolation code with the Titov–Démoulin magnetic flux rope model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the solar corona, the magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure that accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of the magnetic field from boundary data has been the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information about the corona. As a result, the ability to reliably recover the coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov and Démoulin, which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding a semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By only using the vector field at the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field can be reconstructed with high accuracy. In particular, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade, i.e., the “hyperbolic flux tube” and “bald patch separatrix surface,” are also reliably reproduced. By this test, we demonstrate that our CESE–MHD–NLFFF code can be applied to recovering the magnetic flux rope in the solar corona as long as the vector magnetogram satisfies the force-free constraints. (paper)

  11. New Catalytic Proportions for Syntheses of SWNT Bundles (Ropes) and Its Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Tong; DAI Jian-feng

    2006-01-01

    The single-walled carbon nanotube(SWNT) bundles and ropes have been prepared by using the anode arc discharge plasma to evaporate the graphite rods which contain Fe,Co and Ni powders as catalyst in He atmosphere. Many purifying methods are used for the products. It indicates that the synthesis of SWNTs has been greatly affected by the preparation parameters of catalyzer,the buffer gas and its pressure,the arc current intensity,etc. The optimal condition for preparing SWNTs in our case has been proposed. The forming mechanism of the SWNTs bundles and ropes is also studied qualitatively. The evaporated single graphite sheet tends to reduce its active energy.

  12. Quantitative Inspection of Remanence of Broken Wire Rope Based on Compressed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juwei; Tan, Xiaojiang

    2016-01-01

    Most traditional strong magnetic inspection equipment has disadvantages such as big excitation devices, high weight, low detection precision, and inconvenient operation. This paper presents the design of a giant magneto-resistance (GMR) sensor array collection system. The remanence signal is collected to acquire two-dimensional magnetic flux leakage (MFL) data on the surface of wire ropes. Through the use of compressed sensing wavelet filtering (CSWF), the image expression of wire ropes MFL on the surface was obtained. Then this was taken as the input of the designed back propagation (BP) neural network to extract three kinds of MFL image geometry features and seven invariant moments of defect images. Good results were obtained. The experimental results show that nondestructive inspection through the use of remanence has higher accuracy and reliability compared with traditional inspection devices, along with smaller volume, lighter weight and higher precision. PMID:27571077

  13. On the Role of Repetitive Magnetic Reconnections in Evolution of Magnetic Flux Ropes in Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R.; Joshi, Bhuwan; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2016-10-01

    Parker's magnetostatic theorem, extended to astrophysical magnetofluids with large magnetic Reynolds number, supports ceaseless regeneration of current sheets and, hence, spontaneous magnetic reconnections recurring in time. Consequently, a scenario is possible where the repeated reconnections provide an autonomous mechanism governing emergence of coherent structures in astrophysical magnetofluids. In this work, such a scenario is explored by performing numerical computations commensurate with the magnetostatic theorem. In particular, the computations explore the evolution of a flux rope governed by repeated reconnections in a magnetic geometry resembling bipolar loops of solar corona. The revealed morphology of the evolution process—including onset and ascent of the rope, reconnection locations, and the associated topology of the magnetic field lines—agrees with observations, and thus substantiates physical realizability of the advocated mechanism.

  14. 3D Prominence-hosting Magnetic Configurations: Creating a Helical Magnetic Flux Rope

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Chun; Guo, Yang

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic configuration hosting prominences and their surrounding coro- nal structure is a key research topic in solar physics. Recent theoretical and observational studies strongly suggest that a helical magnetic flux rope is an es- sential ingredient to fulfill most of the theoretical and observational requirements for hosting prominences. To understand flux rope formation details and obtain magnetic configurations suitable for future prominence formation studies, we here report on three-dimensional isothermal magnetohydrodynamic simulations including finite gas pressure and gravity. Starting from a magnetohydrostatic corona with a linear force-free bipolar magnetic field, we follow its evolution when introducing vortex flows around the main polarities and converging flows towards the polarity inversion line near the bottom of the corona. The con- verging flows bring feet of different loops together at the polarity inversion line and magnetic reconnection and flux cancellation happens. Inflow and outflow...

  15. Solar prominences embedded in flux ropes: morphological features and dynamics from 3D MHD simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Terradas, J; Luna, M; Oliver, R; Ballester, J L; Wright, A N

    2015-01-01

    The temporal evolution of a solar prominence inserted in a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope is investigated numerically. Using the model of Titov Demoulin (1999) under the regime of weak twist, the cold and dense prominence counteracts gravity by modifying the initially force-free magnetic configuration. In some cases a quasi-stationary situation is achieved after the relaxation phase, characterized by the excitation of standing vertical oscillations. These oscillations show a strong attenuation with time produced by the mechanism of continuum damping due to the inhomogeneous transition between the prominence and solar corona. The characteristic period of the vertical oscillations does not depend strongly on the twist of the flux rope. Nonlinearity is the responsible for triggering the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated to the vertical oscillations and that eventually produces horizontal structures. Contrary to other configurations in which the longitudinal axis of the prominence is permeated by a pe...

  16. Ion‐scale secondary flux ropes generated by magnetopause reconnection as resolved by MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, T. D.; Cassak, P. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Haggerty, C.; Malakit, K.; Shay, M. A.; Mistry, R.; Øieroset, M.; Russell, C. T.; Slavin, J. A.; Argall, M. R.; Avanov, L. A.; Burch, J. L.; Chen, L. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; Ergun, R. E.; Giles, B. L.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Moore, T. E.; Nakamura, R.; Paterson, W.; Pollock, C.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Wang, S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract New Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations of small‐scale (~7 ion inertial length radius) flux transfer events (FTEs) at the dayside magnetopause are reported. The 10 km MMS tetrahedron size enables their structure and properties to be calculated using a variety of multispacecraft techniques, allowing them to be identified as flux ropes, whose flux content is small (~22 kWb). The current density, calculated using plasma and magnetic field measurements independently, is found to be filamentary. Intercomparison of the plasma moments with electric and magnetic field measurements reveals structured non‐frozen‐in ion behavior. The data are further compared with a particle‐in‐cell simulation. It is concluded that these small‐scale flux ropes, which are not seen to be growing, represent a distinct class of FTE which is generated on the magnetopause by secondary reconnection. PMID:27635105

  17. Quantitative Inspection of Remanence of Broken Wire Rope Based on Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwei Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most traditional strong magnetic inspection equipment has disadvantages such as big excitation devices, high weight, low detection precision, and inconvenient operation. This paper presents the design of a giant magneto-resistance (GMR sensor array collection system. The remanence signal is collected to acquire two-dimensional magnetic flux leakage (MFL data on the surface of wire ropes. Through the use of compressed sensing wavelet filtering (CSWF, the image expression of wire ropes MFL on the surface was obtained. Then this was taken as the input of the designed back propagation (BP neural network to extract three kinds of MFL image geometry features and seven invariant moments of defect images. Good results were obtained. The experimental results show that nondestructive inspection through the use of remanence has higher accuracy and reliability compared with traditional inspection devices, along with smaller volume, lighter weight and higher precision.

  18. Effects of wire rope in a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste shaft accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the empirical test program conducted on a 1/22-scale model of the WIPP facility. The model was designed to study the actions and effects of the wire rope used in the Koepe or friction-type hoist planned for use in the WIPP waste shaft during various accident scenarios. It is assumed that the hoist cable breaks and the cab (or shaft conveyance) falls to the bottom of the shaft during such an accident. The report gives the results of the study and makes recommendations for a continuing program of testing and redesign of the shaft to mitigate the effects of such an accident. The wire rope is shown to act as a good shock-absorbing material

  19. Spatial distribution of Mercury's flux ropes and reconnection fronts: MESSENGER observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W. J.; Fu, S. Y.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; Zong, Q. G.; Poh, G. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2016-08-01

    We perform a statistical study of flux ropes and reconnection fronts based on MErcury Surface, Space ENviroment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) magnetic field and plasma observations to study the implications for the spatial distribution of reconnection sites in Mercury's near magnetotail. The results show important differences of temporal and spatial distributions as compared to Earth. We have surveyed the plasma sheet crossings between -2 RM and -3 RM downtail from the planet, i.e., the location of Near-Mercury Neutral Line (NMNL). Plasma sheets were defined to be regions with β ≥ 0.5. Using this definition, 39 flux ropes and 86 reconnection fronts were identified in the plasma sheet. At Mercury, the distributions of flux ropes and reconnection fronts show clear dawn-dusk asymmetry with much higher occurrence rate on the dawnside plasma sheet than on the duskside. This suggests that magnetic reconnection in Mercury's magnetotail occurs more frequently in the dawnside than in the duskside plasma sheet, which is different than the observations in Earth's magnetotail showing more reconnection signatures in the duskside plasma sheet. The distribution of plasma sheet thickness shows that plasma sheet near the midnight is the thinnest part and does not show obvious asymmetry. Thus, the reasons that cause magnetic reconnection to preferentially occur on the dawnside of the magnetotail at Mercury may not be the plasma sheet thickness and require further study. The peak occurrence rates of flux ropes and reconnection fronts in Mercury's plasma sheet are ~ 60 times higher than that of Earth's values, which we interpret to be due to the highly variable magnetospheric conditions at Mercury. Such higher occurrence rate of magnetic reconnection would generate more plasma flows in the dawnside plasma sheet than in the duskside. These plasma flows would mostly brake and initiate the substorm dipolarization on the postmidnight sector at Mercury rather than the

  20. Hydroacoustic Modeling of a Cavitation Vortex Rope for a Francis Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic machines subject to off-design operation involve the presence of cavitating flow regimes in the draft tube. The cavitation vortex rope at part load conditions is described as an excitation source for the hydraulic system, and interactions between this excitation source and system eigenfrequency may result in resonance phenomena and induce a draft tube surge and electrical power swings. To accurately predict and simulate a part load resonance, proper modeling of the draft tube is cri...

  1. Dynamics of the cavitation precessing vortex rope for Francis turbines at part load operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Favrel, Arthur Tristan

    2016-01-01

    The massive penetration of the existing electrical grid by renewable energy sources requires a continuous extension of the operating range of hydroelectric powerplants, which can lead to cavitation flow instabilities inducing undesirable mechanical vibrations and large fluctuations of pressure and output power, putting at risk the structural integrity of the machine and ultimately the grid stability. A typical example is the development of a cavitation precessing vortex rope at the outlet of ...

  2. Effectiveness of rope bridge arboreal overpasses and faunal underpasses in providing connectivity for rainforest fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Goosem, Miriam; Weston, Nigel; Bushnell, Sally

    2005-01-01

    Rope bridge overpasses and faunal underpasses were effective in restoring rainforest habitat connectivity for many tropical rainforest species that suffer high levels of road mortality or that avoid large clearings, such as those for roads, and, therefore, suffer barrier effects. Faunal underpasses furnished with logs and rocks to provide cover were constructed in 2001 at a hotspot for tree-kangaroo mortality. The narrow road and 120-m-wide strip of abandoned pasture divided two blocks of rai...

  3. Roping, Corralling and Branding Silos of Information: Old West Techniques for a New World

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Cheryl D.; Williams, Randy; Woolcott, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Isolated silos of information are somewhat outdated in today's fast paced, Google-ized search environment. At Utah State University Libraries, we are creating strategies for aggregating unique primary source materials form multiple institutions and creating uber-collections that preserve institutional-level branding. Modeling our efforts on Indiana University's and the American Folklore Society's OpenFolklore Initiative, we are "roping" the oral histories (and associated materials) of America...

  4. Magnetar giant flares in multipolar magnetic fields. I. Fully and partially open eruptions of flux ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lei [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Yu, Cong, E-mail: muduri@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: cyu@ynao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Object, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2014-04-01

    We propose a catastrophic eruption model for the enormous energy release of magnetars during giant flares, in which a toroidal and helically twisted flux rope is embedded within a force-free magnetosphere. The flux rope stays in stable equilibrium states initially and evolves quasi-statically. Upon the loss of equilibrium, the flux rope cannot sustain the stable equilibrium states and erupts catastrophically. During the process, the magnetic energy stored in the magnetosphere is rapidly released as the result of destabilization of global magnetic topology. The magnetospheric energy that could be accumulated is of vital importance for the outbursts of magnetars. We carefully establish the fully open fields and partially open fields for various boundary conditions at the magnetar surface and study the relevant energy thresholds. By investigating the magnetic energy accumulated at the critical catastrophic point, we find that it is possible to drive fully open eruptions for dipole-dominated background fields. Nevertheless, it is hard to generate fully open magnetic eruptions for multipolar background fields. Given the observational importance of the multipolar magnetic fields in the vicinity of the magnetar surface, it would be worthwhile to explore the possibility of the alternative eruption approach in multipolar background fields. Fortunately, we find that flux ropes may give rise to partially open eruptions in the multipolar fields, which involve only partial opening of background fields. The energy release fractions are greater for cases with central-arcaded multipoles than those with central-caved multipoles that emerged in background fields. Eruptions would fail only when the centrally caved multipoles become extremely strong.

  5. Twist accumulation and topology structure of a solar magnetic flux rope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Cheng, X. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhao, J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Pariat, E., E-mail: guoyang@nju.edu.cn [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Université Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France)

    2013-12-20

    To study the buildup of a magnetic flux rope before a major flare and coronal mass ejection (CME), we compute the magnetic helicity injection, twist accumulation, and topology structure of the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field, which is derived by the nonlinear force-free field model. The Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory observed a series of confined flares without any CME before a major flare with a CME at 23:02 UT on 2005 January 15 in active region NOAA 10720. We derive the vector velocity at eight time points from 18:27 UT to 22:20 UT with the differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetic fields, which were observed by the Digital Vector Magnetograph at Big Bear Solar Observatory. The injected magnetic helicity is computed with the vector magnetic and velocity fields. The helicity injection rate was (– 16.47 ± 3.52) × 10{sup 40} Mx{sup 2} hr{sup –1}. We find that only about 1.8% of the injected magnetic helicity became the internal helicity of the magnetic flux rope, whose twist increasing rate was –0.18 ± 0.08 Turns hr{sup –1}. The quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) of the 3D magnetic field are computed by evaluating the squashing degree, Q. We find that the flux rope was wrapped by QSLs with large Q values, where the magnetic reconnection induced by the continuously injected magnetic helicity further produced the confined flares. We suggest that the flux rope was built up and heated by the magnetic reconnection in the QSLs.

  6. Relationship Between Jump Rope Double Unders and Sprint Performance in Elementary Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Demura, Shinichi; Omoya, Masashi

    2015-11-01

    According to dynamic analyses of muscle contraction, jump rope is a typical stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) movement. It has been reported that the relationship with SSC is higher in double unders than in single unders (basic jumps); however, the relationship between jump rope and sprint performances has not been extensively studied. To clarify this relationship in elementary schoolchildren, we compared the sprint speed and SSC ability of children who were grouped according to gender and ability. The subjects were 143 elementary fifth and sixth graders (78 boys, 65 girls). The consecutive maximal number of double unders, reactivity index (index of SSC ability) by Myotest, and 20-m sprint time were measured. According to the mean of jump rope records, the children were divided into a superior ability group (more than average + 0.5 SD) and an inferior ability group (less than average - 0.5 SD) for each gender. In both genders, a significant difference was found in the 20-m sprint time between the inferior and superior ability groups. The times for the superior ability groups (boys, 3.75 ± 0.23 seconds; girls, 4.02 ± 0.24 seconds) were excellent compared with the inferior ability groups (boys, 4.17 ± 0.32 seconds; girls, 4.23 ± 0.21 seconds). This effect size was higher in boys (1.44) than in girls (0.93). The reactivity index in the superior ability group was excellent compared with that in the inferior ability group. In conclusion, children who perform better in double unders are also faster during a 20-m sprint run. This tendency may be higher in boys. Classic jump rope training, such as double unders, should be effective as elementary plyometrics for improving the sprint ability of children.

  7. Laboratory Performance Of Evaporative Cooler Using Jute Fiber Ropes As Cooling Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K.Kulkarni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaporative coolers use a variety of cooling media like wood wool, cellulose, aspen. This paper analyses the performance of jute fiber ropes as alternative cooling media. They are capable of retaining high moisture and have a large wetted surface area. Hot and dry air is allowed to flow over the wet jute rope bank tightly held between two plates which are integral part of two tanks. The inlet conditions of air varied from 30.5 0C dry bulb temperature and 52 % relative humidity to 34.5 0C dry bulb temperature and 32 % relative humidity. Outlet temperature of air is measured and saturation efficiency and cooling capacity are calculated. The outlet dry bulb temperature is obtained between 25.8 0C and 26.2 0C.The saturation efficiencies range from 69 % to 59 % and the cooling capacity is obtained between 6173 kJ/h and 11979 kJ/h. Thus jute fiber ropes prove to be a good alternative cooling media in evaporative cooler

  8. Potential Magnetic Field around a Helical Flux-rope Current Structure in the Solar Corona

    CERN Document Server

    Petrie, G J D

    2007-01-01

    We consider the potential magnetic field associated with a helical electric line current flow, idealizing the near-potential coronal field within which a highly localized twisted current structure is embedded. It is found that this field has a significant axial component off the helical magnetic axis where there is no current flow, such that the flux winds around the axis. The helical line current field, in including the effects of flux rope writhe, is therefore more topologically complex than straight line and ring current fields sometimes used in solar flux rope models. The axial flux in magnetic fields around confined current structures may be affected by the writhe of these current structures such that the field twists preferentially with the same handedness as the writhe. This property of fields around confined current structures with writhe may be relevant to classes of coronal magnetic flux rope, including structures observed to have sigmoidal forms in soft X-rays and prominence magnetic fields. For ex...

  9. Magnetar Giant Flares in Multipolar Magnetic Fields --- II. Flux Rope Eruptions With Current Sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We propose a physical mechanism to explain giant flares and radio afterglows in terms of a magnetospheric model containing both a helically twisted flux rope and a current sheet (CS). With the appearance of CS, we solve a mixed boundary value problem to get the magnetospheric field based on a domain decomposition method. We investigate properties of the equilibrium curve of the flux rope when the CS is present in background multipolar fields. In response to the variations at the magnetar surface, it quasi-statically evolves in stable equilibrium states. The loss of equilibrium occurs at a critical point and, beyond that point, it erupts catastrophically. New features show up when the CS is considered. Especially, we find two kinds of physical behaviors, i.e., catastrophic state transition and catastrophic escape. Magnetic energy would be released during state transitions. The released magnetic energy is sufficient to drive giant flares. The flux rope would go away from the magnetar quasi-statically, which is ...

  10. [Vehicle-assisted suicide with a nylon rope causing complete decapitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blässer, Katharina; Tatschner, Thomas; Bohnert, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The present case deals with the unusual suicide method of a 36-year-old man who fastened one end of a nylon rope to a tree, guided the other end into a van through the open tailgate and placed the loop round his neck. Then he stepped on the accelerator. Before, he had marked the point on the ground where the rope would tighten. As the rope tightened complete decapitation occurred at a speed of about 35 km/h. Autopsy showed a nearly circular abrasion zone around the site of transection slightly ascending towards the nape, a fracture of the cervical spine between the 3rd and 4th vertebra and a fracture of the thoracic spine between the 7th and 8th vertebra. The test for air embolism of the heart was positive. Macroscopically, no evidence of blood aspiration was found. Histological investigation showed general anaemia and minor blood aspiration in the lungs. Wound morphology was largely in line with the injury patterns described after decapitation in the literature. However, our results differed in that blood aspiration was discernible only under the microscope and there was a second fracture of the spine. Decapitation as a suicide method is an expression of enormous autoaggression and is categorized as a "hard" suicide method. It is used predominantly by men and its occurrence in the spectrum of suicidal actions is rare. Police investigations revealed that the man had led a sort of double life with a sexually motivated background and had suffered from depressive episodes.

  11. SOLAR PROMINENCES EMBEDDED IN FLUX ROPES: MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES AND DYNAMICS FROM 3D MHD SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Luna, M. [Instituto de Astrofsíca de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Wright, A. N., E-mail: jaume.terradas@uib.es [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    The temporal evolution of a solar prominence inserted in a three-dimensional magnetic flux rope is investigated numerically. Using the model of Titov and Démoulin under the regime of weak twist, the cold and dense prominence counteracts gravity by modifying the initially force-free magnetic configuration. In some cases a quasi-stationary situation is achieved after the relaxation phase, characterized by the excitation of standing vertical oscillations. These oscillations show a strong attenuation with time produced by the mechanism of continuum damping due to the inhomogeneous transition between the prominence and solar corona. The characteristic period of the vertical oscillations does not depend strongly on the twist of the flux rope. Nonlinearity is responsible for triggering the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability associated with the vertical oscillations and that eventually produces horizontal structures. Contrary to other configurations in which the longitudinal axis of the prominence is permeated by a perpendicular magnetic field, like in unsheared arcades, the orientation of the prominence along the flux rope axis prevents the development of Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities and therefore the appearance of vertical structuring along this axis.

  12. A novel method for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of steel wire rope sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Yang-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Rapid development of steel wire rope industry has led to the generation of large quantities of pickling sludge, which causes significant ecological problems and considerable negative environmental effects. In this study, a novel method was proposed for harmless disposal and resource reutilization of the steel wire rope sludge. Based on the method, two steel wire rope sludges (the Pb sludge and the Zn sludge) were firstly extracted by hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and then mixed with the hydrochloride acid extracting solution of aluminum skimmings to produce composite polyaluminum ferric flocculants. The optimum conditions (acid concentration, w/v ratio, reaction time, and reaction temperature) for acid extraction of the sludges were studied. Results showed that 97.03 % of Pb sludge and 96.20 % of Zn sludge were extracted. Leaching potential of the residues after acid extraction was evaluated, and a proposed treatment for the residues had been instructed. The obtained flocculant products were used to purify the real domestic wastewater and showed an equivalent or better performance than the commercial ones. This method is environmental-friendly and cost-effective when compared with the conventional sludge treatments. PMID:27417326

  13. Ropes parks as a way of increase of the motor activity of students [Verevochnye parki kak sredstvo povysheniia dvigatel'noj aktivnosti uchashchejsia molodezhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozіna Zh.L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and physiological reasons of attractiveness of rope parks are considered for studying young people. 25 sources of network are analysed in the Internet. The questionnaire of 52 visitors of rope park is conducted (youths in age 16-19 years. It is set that overcoming of rope obstacles helps to get the necessary physical loading. Also to get feelings, characteristic for the extreme types of sport. It is found out that overcoming of rope obstacles helps people to be delivered from fear before difficulties and agitation before important events.

  14. Slipping Magnetic Reconnection of Flux Rope Structures as a Precursor to an Eruptive X-class Solar Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ting; Hou, Yijun; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We present the quasi-periodic slipping motion of flux rope structures prior to the onset of an eruptive X-class flare on 2015 March 11, obtained by the \\emph{Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph} (\\emph{IRIS}) and the \\emph{Solar Dynamics Observatory} (\\emph{SDO}). The slipping motion occurred at the north part of the flux rope and seemed to successively peel off the flux rope. The speed of the slippage was 30$-$40 km s$^{-1}$, with an average period of 130$\\pm$30 s. The Si {\\sc iv} 1402.77 {\\AA} line showed a redshift of 10$-$30 km s$^{-1}$ and a line width of 50$-$120 km s$^{-1}$ at the west legs of slipping structures, indicative of reconnection downflow. The slipping motion lasted about 40 min and the flux rope started to rise up slowly at the late stage of the slippage. Then an X2.1 flare was initiated and the flux rope was impulsively accelerated. One of the flare ribbons swept across a negative-polarity sunspot and the penumbral segments of the sunspot decayed rapidly after the flare. We studied the m...

  15. Radio Diagnostics of Electron Acceleration Sites During the Eruption of a Flux Rope in the Solar Corona

    CERN Document Server

    Carley, Eoin P; Gallagher, Peter T

    2016-01-01

    Electron acceleration in the solar corona is often associated with flares and the eruption of twisted magnetic structures known as flux ropes. However, the locations and mechanisms of such particle acceleration during the flare and eruption are still subject to much investigation. Observing the exact sites of particle acceleration can help confirm how the flare and eruption are initiated are initiated and how they evolve. Here we use the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly to analyse a flare and erupting flux rope on 2014-April-18, while observations from the Nancay Radio Astronomy Facility allows us to diagnose the sites of electron acceleration during the eruption. Our analysis shows evidence for a pre-formed flux rope which slowly rises and becomes destabilised at the time of a C-class flare, plasma jet and the escape of >75 keV electrons from rope center into the corona. As the eruption proceeds, continued acceleration of electrons with energies of ~5 keV occurs above the flux rope for a period over 5 minutes. A...

  16. Jump Rope Training: Balance and Motor Coordination in Preadolescent Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athos Trecroci, Luca Cavaggioni, Riccardo Caccia, Giampietro Alberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available General physical practice and multidimensional exercises are essential elements that allow young athletes to enhance their coordinative traits, balance, and strength and power levels, which are linked to the learning soccer-specific skills. Jumping rope is a widely-used and non-specific practical method for the development of athletic conditioning, balance and coordination in several disciplines. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a short-term training protocol including jumping rope (JR exercises on motor abilities and body balance in young soccer players. Twenty-four preadolescent soccer players were recruited and placed in two different groups. In the Experimental group (EG, children performed JR training at the beginning of the training session. The control group (CG, executed soccer specific drills. Harre circuit test (HCT and Lower Quarter Y balance test (YBT-LQ were selected to evaluate participant’s motor ability (e.g. ability to perform rapidly a course with different physical tasks such as somersault and passages above/below obstacles and to assess unilateral dynamic lower limb balance after 8 weeks of training. Statistical analysis consisted of paired t-test and mixed analysis of variance scores to determine any significant interactions. Children who performed jumping rope exercises showed a significant decrease of 9% (p 0.05, ES = 0.05-0.2 from pre- to post-training. A training-by-group interaction was found for the composite score in both legs (p 0.14. Our findings demonstrated that JR practice within regular soccer training enhanced general motor coordination and balance in preadolescent soccer players. Therefore, the inclusion of JR practice within regular soccer training session should encouraged to improve children’s motor skills.

  17. Slipping Magnetic Reconnection Triggering a Solar Eruption of a Triangle-flag Flux Rope

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ting; Jun ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    We firstly report the simultaneous activities of a slipping motion of flare loops and a slipping eruption of a flux rope in 131 {\\AA} and 94 {\\AA} channels on 2014 February 02. The east hook-like flare ribbon propagated slippingly at a speed of about 50 km s$^{-1}$, which lasted about 40 min and extended by more than 100 Mm, but the west flare ribbon moved in the opposite direction with a speed of 30 km s$^{-1}$. At the later phase of the flare activity, a "bi-fan" system of flare loops was w...

  18. Catastrophe versus instability for the eruption of a toroidal solar magnetic flux rope

    CERN Document Server

    Kliem, B; Forbes, T G; Priest, E R; Török, T

    2014-01-01

    The onset of a solar eruption is formulated here as either a magnetic catastrophe or as an instability. Both start with the same equation of force balance governing the underlying equilibria. Using a toroidal flux rope in an external bipolar or quadrupolar field as a model for the current-carrying flux, we demonstrate the occurrence of a fold catastrophe by loss of equilibrium for several representative evolutionary sequences in the stable domain of parameter space. We verify that this catastrophe and the torus instability occur at the same point; they are thus equivalent descriptions for the onset condition of solar eruptions.

  19. Calculation of rope winding drums in the construction of shaft hoists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbass, A.

    1984-12-01

    Three computer programs are described for calculating mechanical forces on large rope winding drums with diameters ranging from 3 to 6 m. The SEITRO program is used by the TAKRAF manufacturer to prove drum stability, as required by the TGL 13500 industrial standard. The two other programs determine mechanical stress distribution in the drum construction. Accuracy of these drum stability measurements is higher than those obtained by manual calculations. Various diagrams are provided showing stress distribution on the drum's surface as well as inside discs during drum start-up and braking. 8 references.

  20. Evolution of the Coronal Magnetic Configurations Including a Current-Carrying Flux Rope in Response to the Change in the Background Field

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hong-Juan; Gong, Jian-Cun; Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We investigate equilibrium height of the flux rope, and its internal equilibrium in a realistic plasma environment by carrying out numerical simulations of the evolution of systems including a current-carrying flux rope. We find that the equilibrium height of the flux rope is approximately a power-law function of the relative strength of the background field. Our simulations indicate that the flux rope can escape more easily from a weaker background field. This further confirms the catastrophe in the magnetic configuration of interest can be triggered by decrease of strength of the background field. Our results show that it takes some time to reach internal equilibrium depending on the initial state of the flux rope. The plasma flow inside the flux rope due to the adjustment for the internal equilibrium of the flux rope remains small and does not last very long when the initial state of the flux rope commences from the stable branch of the theoretical equilibrium curve. This work also confirms the influence o...

  1. Replacement of steel cable with synthetic rope in mountain logging operations in Castanea sativa Mill. coppice stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Canga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective of this study was to evaluate skidding from stump area to roadside with a tracked skidder (Caterpillar 3DG XL using two different types of cable (steel or synthetic.Area of study: NW of Spain.Material and methods: A time study was performed to calculate productivity for the two types of cable and two regression models were fitted to predict the productive and cycle time of the tracked skidder.Research highlights: An increase of 12.53% in productivity (m3/SMH and improvements in working conditions using synthetic rope were found.Keywords: Chestnut; synthetic rope; time study; tracked skidder.

  2. Quantum Knots and Lattices, or a Blueprint for Quantum Systems that Do Rope Tricks

    CERN Document Server

    Lomonaco, Samuel J

    2009-01-01

    Using the cubic honeycomb (cubic tessellation) of Euclidean 3-space, we define a quantum system whose states, called quantum knots, represent a closed knotted piece of rope, i.e., represent the particular spatial configuration of a knot tied in a rope in 3-space. This quantum system, called a quantum knot system, is physically implementable in the same sense as Shor's quantum factoring algorithm is implementable. To define a quantum knot system, we replace the standard three Reidemeister knot moves with an equivalent set of three moves, called respectively wiggle, wag, and tug, so named because they mimic how a dog might wag its tail. We argue that these moves are in fact more "physics friendly" because, unlike the Reidemeister moves, they respect the differential geometry of 3-space, and moreover they can be transformed into infinitesimal moves. These three moves wiggle, wag, and tug generate a unitary group, called the lattice ambient group, which acts on the state space of the quantum system. The lattice a...

  3. A 7~MK hot Flux Rope Observed by SDO/AIA

    CERN Document Server

    Aparna, V

    2016-01-01

    A filament eruption was observed on October 31, 2010 in the images recorded by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) in its Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) channels. The filament showed a slow rise phase followed by a fast rise and was classified to be an asymmetric eruption. In addition, multiple localized brightening which was spatially and temporally associated with the slow rise phase were identified leading us to believe that the tether-cutting mechanism to be the cause of the initiation of the eruption. An associated flux rope was detected in high temperature channels of AIA namely 94\\r{A} and 131\\r{A} corresponding to 7 MK and 11 MK plasma respectively. In addition, these channels are also sensitive to cooler plasma corresponding to ~1-2 MK. In this study we have applied the algorithm devised by Warren et al. (2012) to remove cooler emission from the 94\\r{A} channel to deduce only the high temperature structure of the flux rope and to study its temporal evolutio...

  4. Dynamos and anti-dynamos as thin magnetic flux ropes in Riemannian spaces

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, L Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Two examples of magnetic anti-dynamos in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are given. The first is a 3D metric conformally related to Arnold cat fast dynamo metric: ${ds_{A}}^{2}=e^{-{\\lambda}z}dp^{2}+e^{{\\lambda}z}dq^{2}+dz^{2}$ is shown to present a behaviour of non-dynamos where the magnetic field exponentially decay in time. The curvature decay as z-coordinates increases without bounds. Some of the Riemann curvature components such as $R_{pzpz}$ also undergoes dissipation while component $R_{qzqz}$ increases without bounds. The remaining curvature component $R_{pqpq}$ is constant on the torus surface. The other anti-dynamo which may be useful in plasma astrophysics is the thin magnetic flux rope or twisted magnetic thin flux tube which also behaves as anti-dynamo since it also decays with time. This model is based on the Riemannian metric of the magnetic twisted flux tube where the axis possesses Frenet curvature and torsion. Since in this last example the Frenet torsion of the axis of the rope is almost zero, o...

  5. Study of kefir grains application in sourdough bread regarding rope spoilage caused by Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzourani, I; Plessas, S; Saxami, G; Alexopoulos, A; Galanis, A; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2014-01-15

    Sourdough breads prepared with kefir grains resulted in appearance of rope spoilage at the 15th day of bread storage, while the control samples (sourdough breads prepared with wild microflora) were spoiled approximately at the 7th day. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis confirmed the above macroscopic observation since Bacillus spp. were detected on sourdough breads prepared with kefir grains at the 15th day of bread storage. The content of organic acids that play synergistic role regarding the enhancement of bread self life was also determined. Lactic acid concentration of sourdough breads prepared with kefir grains were approximately 41-82% higher than the control samples, while acetic acid concentration was about 0.5-1-fold higher respectively. The concentration of some other organic acids studied was also found in higher levels (up to 0.06μg/g) than the control samples. These findings could probably explain the stability of breads prepared with kefir grains against rope spoilage.

  6. Mechanical discrete simulator of the electro-mechanical lift with n:1 roping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, F. J.; Herrera, I.

    2016-05-01

    The design process of new products in lift engineering is a difficult task due to, mainly, the complexity and slenderness of the lift system, demanding a predictive tool for the lift mechanics. A mechanical ad-hoc discrete simulator, as an alternative to ‘general purpose’ mechanical simulators is proposed. Firstly, the synthesis and experimentation process that has led to establish a suitable model capable of simulating accurately the response of the electromechanical lift is discussed. Then, the equations of motion are derived. The model comprises a discrete system of 5 vertically displaceable masses (car, counterweight, car frame, passengers/loads and lift drive), an inertial mass of the assembly tension pulley-rotor shaft which can rotate about the machine axis and 6 mechanical connectors with 1:1 suspension layout. The model is extended to any n:1 roping lift by setting 6 equivalent mechanical components (suspension systems for car and counterweight, lift drive silent blocks, tension pulley-lift drive stator and passengers/load equivalent spring-damper) by inductive inference from 1:1 and generalized 2:1 roping system. The application to simulate real elevator systems is proposed by numeric time integration of the governing equations using the Kutta-Meden algorithm and implemented in a computer program for ad-hoc elevator simulation called ElevaCAD.

  7. On the twists of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes observed at 1 AU

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yuming; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chi, Yutian

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are one kind of fundamental structures in the solar physics, and involved in various eruption phenomena. Twist, characterizing how the magnetic field lines wind around a main axis, is an intrinsic property of MFRs, closely related to the magnetic free energy and stableness. So far it is unclear how much amount of twist is carried by MFRs in the solar atmosphere and in heliosphere and what role the twist played in the eruptions of MFRs. Contrasting to the solar MFRs, there are lots of in-situ measurements of magnetic clouds (MCs), the large-scale MFRs in interplanetary space, providing some important information of the twist of MFRs. Thus, starting from MCs, we investigate the twist of interplanetary MFRs with the aid of a velocity-modified uniform-twist force-free flux rope model. It is found that most of MCs can be roughly fitted by the model and nearly half of them can be fitted fairly well though the derived twist is probably over-estimated by a factor of 2.5. By applying the mod...

  8. Structure, Stability, and Evolution of Magnetic Flux Ropes from the Perspective of Magnetic Twist

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Rui; Titov, Viacheslav S; Chen, Jun; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Haimin; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Wiegelmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of NOAA Active Region 11817 during 2013 August 10--12, when it developed a complex field configuration and produced four confined, followed by two eruptive, flares. These C-and-above flares are all associated with a magnetic flux rope (MFR) located along the major polarity inversion line, where shearing and converging photospheric flows are present. Aided by the nonlinear force-free field modeling, we identify the MFR through mapping magnetic connectivities and computing the twist number $\\mathcal{T}_w$ for each individual field line. The MFR is moderately twisted ($|\\mathcal{T}_w| < 2$) and has a well-defined boundary of high squashing factor $Q$. We found that the field line with the extremum $|\\mathcal{T}_w|$ is a reliable proxy of the rope axis, and that the MFR's peak $|\\mathcal{T}_w|$ temporarily increases within half an hour before each flare while it decreases after the flare peak for both confined and eruptive flares. This pre-flare increase in $|\\mathcal{T}_w|$ has li...

  9. Flavor production in PB(160 AGEV) on PB collisions: Effect of color ropes and hadronic rescattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collective interactions in the preequilibrium quark matter and hadronic resonance gas stage of ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied in the framework fo the transport theoretical approach RQMD. The paper reviews string fusion into color ropes and hadronic rescattering which serve as models for these interactions. Hadron production in central Pb(160 AGeV) on Pb collisions has been calculated. The changes of the final flavor composition are more pronounced than in previous RQMD studies of light ion induced reactions at 200 AGeV. The ratio of created quark pairs s anti s/(u anti u+d anti d) is enhanced by a factor of 2.4 in comparison to pp results. Color rope formation increases the initially produced antibaryons to 3 times the value in the 'NN mode', but only one quarter of the produced antibaryons survives because of subsequent strong absorption. The differences in the final particle composition for Pb on Pb collisions compared to S induced reactions are attributed to the hadronic resonance gas stage which is baryon-richer and lasts longer. (orig.)

  10. A Circular-cylindrical Flux-rope Analytical Model for Magnetic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Linton, M. G.; Hidalgo, M. A.; Vourlidas, A.; Savani, N. P.; Szabo, A.; Farrugia, C.; Yu, W.

    2016-05-01

    We present an analytical model to describe magnetic flux-rope topologies. When these structures are observed embedded in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) with a depressed proton temperature, they are called Magnetic Clouds (MCs). Our model extends the circular-cylindrical concept of Hidalgo et al. by introducing a general form for the radial dependence of the current density. This generalization provides information on the force distribution inside the flux rope in addition to the usual parameters of MC geometrical information and orientation. The generalized model provides flexibility for implementation in 3D MHD simulations. Here, we evaluate its performance in the reconstruction of MCs in in situ observations. Four Earth-directed ICME events, observed by the Wind spacecraft, are used to validate the technique. The events are selected from the ICME Wind list with the magnetic obstacle boundaries chosen consistently with the magnetic field and plasma in situ observations and with a new parameter (EPP, the Electron Pitch angle distribution Parameter) which quantifies the bidirectionally of the plasma electrons. The goodness of the fit is evaluated with a single correlation parameter to enable comparative analysis of the events. In general, at first glance, the model fits the selected events very well. However, a detailed analysis of events with signatures of significant compression indicates the need to explore geometries other than the circular-cylindrical. An extension of our current modeling framework to account for such non-circular CMEs will be presented in a forthcoming publication.

  11. Circular-cylindrical flux-rope analytical model for Magnetic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Linton, Mark; Hidalgo, Miguel A.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Savani, Neel P.; Szabo, Adam; Farrugia, Charlie; Yu, Wenyuan

    2016-05-01

    We present an analytical model to describe magnetic flux-rope topologies. When these structures are observed embedded in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) with a depressed proton temperature, they are called Magnetic Clouds ( MCs). The model extends the circular-cylindrical concept of Hidalgo et al. (2000) by introducing a general form for the radial dependence of the current density. This generalization provides information on the force distribution inside the flux rope in addition to the usual parameters of MC geometrical information and orientation.The generalized model provides flexibility for implementation in 3D MHD simulations. Here, we evaluate its performance in the reconstruction of MCs in in-situ observations. Four Earth directed ICME events, observed by the Wind spacecraft, are used to validate the technique. The events are selected from the ICME Wind list with the magnetic obstacle boundaries chosen consistently with the magnetic fi eld and plasma in situ observations and with a new parameter (EPP, Electron Pitch angle distribution Parameter) which quantifies the bidirectionally of theplasma electrons. The goodness of the fit is evaluated with a single correlation parameter to enable comparative analysis of the events. In general, at first glance, the model fits the selected events very well. However, a detailed analysis of events with signatures of significant compression indicates the need to explore geometries other than the circular-cylindrical.

  12. Eruption of the magnetic flux rope in a fast decayed active region

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shangbin; Liu, Jihong

    2013-01-01

    An isolated and fast decayed active region (NOAA 9729) was observed when passing through solar disk. There is only one CME related with it that give us a good opportunity to investigate the whole process of the CME. Filament in this active region rises up rapidly and then hesitates and disintegrates into flare loops. The rising filament from EIT images separates into two parts just before eruption. A new filament reforms several hours later after CME and the axis of this new one rotates clockwise about 22 degrees comparing with that of the former one. We also observed a bright transient J-shaped X-ray sigmoid immediately appears after filament eruption. It quickly develops into a soft X-ray cusp and rises up firstly then drops down. Two magnetic cancelation regions have been observed clearly just before filament eruption. Moreover, the magnetic flux rope erupted as the magnetic helicity approach the maximum and the normalized helicity is -0.036 when the magnetic flux rope erupted, which is close to the predic...

  13. Eddy Current Nondestructive and Quantitative Detection of Wire Rope Based on Back Propagation Neural Network%基于BP神经网络的钢丝绳电涡流无损定量检测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继惠; 刘丹; 何悦海; 曹青松

    2012-01-01

    Wire rope has been widely used in building, tourism, transportation and other related fields. Its safety problems caused by the defects that result from wire-breaking and wear attract so much in our community. The detection schematic of dual probe low frequency piercing eddy current was adopted to detect wire rope defects. The phase difference and peak-peak difference of response signal which related to excitation signal were selected to be characteristic quantities. Based on the digital algorithm about peak-to-peak and duty principle, the characteristic value of signal was calculated. For the eddy current non-destructiye and quantitative detecting of wire rope, the BP neural network was used for automatically distinguish defects, the network structure was designed to get neural network models by offline training method based on the input and output of network. Measuring the experiment data, the identification results show the neural network can be used to effectively identify the condition and number of defects. A new idea for wire rope non-destructive and quantitative detecting is supported.%钢丝绳在建筑、旅游、运输等行业中已得到了广泛应用,由其断丝、磨损等缺陷所引起的安全隐患备受人们关注.采用双探头低频透射式钢丝绳电涡流无损检测方案,选取感应信号相对于激励信号的峰-峰值差和相位差作为特征量,采用数字式峰-峰值算法和占空比原理计算信号特征量.应用BP神经网络对钢丝绳缺陷进行自动识别,以钢丝绳型号及其缺陷特征量为网络输入,以是否存在断丝及断丝数量为网络输出,通过离线训练方法获取神经网络辨识模型.对实验数据进行识别,结果表明BP神经网络能对断丝缺陷及其数量进行有效的定性及定量识别.

  14. Evaluation of rope shovel operators in surface coal mining using a Multi-Attribute Decision-Making model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vukotic Ivana; Kecojevic Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Rope shovels are used to dig and load materials in surface mines. One of the main factors that influence the production rate and energy consumption of rope shovels is the performance of the operator. This paper presents a method for evaluating rope shovel operators using the Multi-Attribute Decision-Making (MADM) model. Data used in this research were collected from an operating surface coal mine in the southern United States. The MADM model consists of attributes, their weights of importance, and alter-natives. Shovel operators are considered the alternatives. The energy consumption model was developed with multiple regression analysis, and its variables were included in the MADM model as attributes. Preferences with respect to min/max of the defined attributes were obtained with multi-objective opti-mization. Multi-objective optimization was conducted with the overall goal of minimizing energy con-sumption and maximizing production rate. Weights of importance of the attributes were determined by the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The overall evaluation of operators was performed by one of the MADM models, i.e., PROMETHEE II. The research results presented here may be used by mining professionals to help evaluate the performance of rope shovel operators in surface mining.

  15. Testing a Solar Coronal Magnetic Field Extrapolation Code with the Titov-Demoulin Magnetic Flux Rope Model

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    In the solar corona, magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of magnetic field from boundary data is the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information of the corona. As a result, the ability of reliable recovering coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code (CESE-MHD-NLFFF, Jiang & Feng 2012) is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov & Demoulin (1999), which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding an semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By using only the vector field in the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field is reconstructed with high accuracy. Especially, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rop...

  16. A Tiny Eruptive Filament as a Flux-Rope Progenitor and Driver of a Large-Scale CME and Wave

    CERN Document Server

    Grechnev, V V; Kochanov, A A; Kuzmenko, I V; Prosovetsky, D V; Egorov, Ya I; Fainshtein, V G; Kashapova, L K

    2016-01-01

    A solar eruptive event SOL2010-06-13 observed with SDO/AIA has been discussed in the contexts of the CME gebesis and an associated EUV transient in terms of a shock driven by the apparent CME rim. We have revealed in this event an erupting flux rope, studied its properties, and detected wave signatures inside the developing CME. These findings have allowed us to establish new features in the genesis of the CME and associated EUV wave and to reconcile all of the episodes into a causally-related sequence. (1) A hot 11 MK flux rope developed from a compact filament, accelerated up to 3 km/s$^2$ 1 min before a hard X-ray burst and earlier than other structures, reached 420 km/s, and decelerated to 50 km/s. (2) The CME development was driven by the flux rope. Closed structures above the rope got sequentially involved in the expansion from below upwards, came closer together, and disappeared to reveal their envelope, the rim, which became the outer boundary of the cavity. The rim was associated with the separatrix ...

  17. The non-linear evolution of magnetic flux ropes: 3. effects of dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Farrugia

    Full Text Available We study the evolution (expansion or oscillation of cylindrically symmetric magnetic flux ropes when the energy dissipation is due to a drag force proportional to the product of the plasma density and the radial speed of expansion. The problem is reduced to a single, second-order, ordinary differential equation for a damped, non-linear oscillator. Motivated by recent work on the interplanetary medium and the solar corona, we consider polytropes whose index, γ, may be less than unity. Numerical analysis shows that, in contrast to the small-amplitude case, large-amplitude oscillations are quasi-periodic with frequencies substantially higher than those of undamped oscillators. The asymptotic behaviour described by the momentum equation is determined by a balance between the drag force and the gradient of the gas pressure, leading to a velocity of expansion of the flux rope which may be expressed as (1/2γr/t, where r is the radial coordinate and t is the time. In the absence of a drag force, we found in earlier work that the evolution depends both on the polytropic index and on a dimensionless parameter, κ. Parameter κ was found to have a critical value above which oscillations are impossible, and below which they can exist only for energies less than a certain energy threshold. In the presence of a drag force, the concept of a critical κ remains valid, and when κ is above critical, the oscillatory mode disappears altogether. Furthermore, critical κ remains dependent only on γ and is, in particular, independent of the normalized drag coefficient, ν*. Below critical κ, however, the energy required for the flux rope to escape to infinity depends not only on κ (as in the conservative force case but also on ν*. This work indicates how under certain conditions a small change in the viscous drag coefficient or the initial energy may alter the evolution drastically. It is thus important

  18. Use of coconut fibre reinforced concrete and coconut-fibre ropes for seismic-resistant construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali, Majid

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake-resistant and economical housing is the most desirable need in rural areas of developing countries. These regions often suffer significant loss of life during a seismic event. To enable an efficient and cost-effective solution, a new concept of construction, i.e. a wallette of interlocking blocks with movability at the interface and rope reinforcement, is investigated. The novel interlocking block is made of coconut fibre reinforced concrete (CFRC. The reason for using coconut fibre is their highest toughness amongst natural fibres. This paper describes the in-plane behaviour of the interlocking wallette under earthquake loadings. The wallette response is measured in terms of induced acceleration, block uplift, top maximum relative displacement and rope tension. The applied earthquake loadings cannot produce any damage in the structure, i.e. blocks and/or ropes. The response of the wallette is explained in detail along with correlation of materials aspect with structural behaviour.En las zonas rurales de los países en desarrollo, entre las características principales que deben reunir las viviendas es que sean tanto económicas como sismoresistentes, ya que en estas zonas la pérdida de vidas humanas debido a los terremotos es aun elevada. A fin de hallar una solución que cumple con estos requisitos de manera técnica y económicamente efectiva, se ha investigado un nuevo concepto constructivo: un murete de bloques conjugados con movilidad en el interfaz y reforzado con cuerda. Este novedoso bloque conjugable está realizado en hormigón reforzado con fibra de coco (CFRC, elegida por su alta tenacidad, la mayor de entre las fibras naturales. El artículo describe el comportamiento dentro del plano del murete conjugado frente a las cargas sísmicas. La respuesta de esta estructura se ha medido en función de la aceleración inducida, el levantamiento de los bloques, el desplazamiento relativo máximo y la tensión de las cuerdas

  19. Multi-Wavelength Observations of a Flux Rope Failed in the Eruption and Associated M-Class Flare from NOAA AR 11045

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Pankaj; A.K. Srivastava; Filippov, B.; Erdelyi, R.; Uddin, Wahab

    2011-01-01

    We present the multi-wavelength observations of a flux rope that was trying to erupt from NOAA AR 11045 and the associated M-class solar flare on 12 February 2010 using space and ground based observations from TRACE, STEREO, SOHO/MDI, Hinode/XRT and BBSO. While the flux rope was rising from the active region, an M1.1/2F class flare was triggered nearby one of its footpoints. We suggest that the flare triggering was due to the reconnection of a rising flux rope with the surrounding low-lying m...

  20. On the Characteristics of Footpoints of Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes during the Eruption

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, X

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the footpoints of four erupted magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that appear as sigmoidal hot channels prior to the eruptions in the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly high temperaure passbands. The simultaneous Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager observations disclose that one footpoint of the MFRs originates in the penumbra or penumbra edge with a stronger magnetic field, while the other in the moss region with a weaker magnetic field. The significant deviation of the axis of the MFRs from the main polarity inversion lines and associated filaments suggests that the MFRs have ascended to a high altitude, thus being distinguishable from the source sigmoidal ARs. The more interesting thing is that, with the eruption of the MFRs, the average inclination angle and direct current at the footpoints with stronger magnetic field tend to decrease, which is suggestive of a straightening and untwisting of the magnetic field in the MFR legs. Moreover, the associated flare ribbons also display an interesting evolution. Th...

  1. Trunk Muscle Activation and Estimating Spinal Compressive Force in Rope and Harness Vertical Dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret; Dai, Boyi; Zhu, Qin; Humphrey, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Rope and harness vertical dance takes place off the floor with the dancer suspended from his or her center of mass in a harness attached to a rope from a point overhead. Vertical dance represents a novel environment for training and performing in which expected stresses on the dancer's body are different from those that take place during dance on the floor. Two male and eleven female dancers with training in vertical dance performed six typical vertical dance movements with electromyography (EMG) electrodes placed bilaterally on rectus abdominus, external oblique, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi. EMG data were expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). A simplified musculoskeletal model based on muscle activation for these four muscle groups was used to estimate the compressive force on the spine. The greatest muscle activation for erector spinae and latissimus dorsi and the greatest trunk compressive forces were seen in vertical axis positions where the dancer was moving the trunk into a hyper-extended position. The greatest muscle activation for rectus abdominus and external oblique and the second highest compressive force were seen in a supine position with the arms and legs extended away from the center of mass (COM). The least muscle activation occurred in positions where the limbs were hanging below the torso. These movements also showed relatively low muscle activation compression forces. Post-test survey results revealed that dancers felt comfortable in these positions; however, observation of some positions indicated insufficient muscular control. Computing the relative contribution of muscles, expressed as muscle activation and estimated spinal compression, provided a measure of how much the muscle groups were working to support the spine and the rest of the dancer's body in the different movements tested. Additionally, identifying typical muscle recruitment patterns in each movement will help identify key exercises

  2. Structure, Stability, and Evolution of Magnetic Flux Ropes from the Perspective of Magnetic Twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Kliem, Bernhard; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Chen, Jun; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Haimin; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Wiegelmann, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the evolution of NOAA Active Region (AR) 11817 during 2013 August 10-12, when it developed a complex field configuration and produced four confined, followed by two eruptive, flares. These C-and-above flares are all associated with a magnetic flux rope (MFR) located along the major polarity inversion line, where shearing and converging photospheric flows are present. Aided by the nonlinear force-free field modeling, we identify the MFR through mapping magnetic connectivities and computing the twist number {{ T }}w for each individual field line. The MFR is moderately twisted (| {{ T }}w| \\lt 2) and has a well-defined boundary of high squashing factor Q. We found that the field line with the extremum | {{ T }}w| is a reliable proxy of the rope axis, and that the MFR's peak | {{ T }}w| temporarily increases within half an hour before each flare while it decreases after the flare peak for both confined and eruptive flares. This pre-flare increase in | {{ T }}w| has little effect on the AR's free magnetic energy or any other parameters derived for the whole region, due to its moderate amount and the MFR's relatively small volume, while its decrease after flares is clearly associated with the stepwise decrease in the whole region's free magnetic energy due to the flare. We suggest that {{ T }}w may serve as a useful parameter in forewarning the onset of eruption, and therefore, the consequent space weather effects. The helical kink instability is identified as the prime candidate onset mechanism for the considered flares.

  3. A Tiny Eruptive Filament as a Flux-Rope Progenitor and Driver of a Large-Scale CME and Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, V. V.; Uralov, A. M.; Kochanov, A. A.; Kuzmenko, I. V.; Prosovetsky, D. V.; Egorov, Y. I.; Fainshtein, V. G.; Kashapova, L. K.

    2016-04-01

    A solar eruptive event SOL2010-06-13 observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has been extensively discussed in the contexts of the CME development and an associated extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave-like transient in terms of a shock driven by the apparent CME rim. Continuing the analysis of this event, we have revealed an erupting flux rope, studied its properties, and detected wave signatures inside the developing CME. These findings have allowed us to establish new features in the genesis of the CME and associated EUV wave and to reconcile all of the episodes into a single causally related sequence. i) A hot 11 MK flux rope developed from the structures initially associated with a compact filament system. The flux rope expanded with an acceleration of up to 3 km s-2 one minute before a hard X-ray burst and earlier than any other structures, reached a velocity of 420 km s-1, and then decelerated to about 50 km s-1. ii) The CME development was driven by the expanding flux rope. Closed coronal structures above the rope got sequentially involved in the expansion from below upwards, came closer together, and apparently disappeared to reveal their common envelope, the visible rim, which became the outer boundary of the cavity. The rim was probably associated with the separatrix surface of a magnetic domain, which contained the pre-eruptive filament. iii) The rim formation was associated with a successive compression of the upper active-region structures into the CME frontal structure (FS). When the rim was formed, it resembled a piston. iv) The disturbance responsible for the consecutive CME formation episodes was excited by the flux rope inside the rim, and then propagated outward. EUV structures arranged at different heights started to accelerate, when their trajectories in the distance-time diagram were crossed by that of the fast front of this disturbance. v) Outside the rim and FS, the disturbance propagated like

  4. The effect of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters with different rope protocols in sport rock climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicle Aras

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters in sport rock climbing. For this aim, before performing the top-rope and lead climbing, the anxiety inventory was used in sport rock climbers. Afterwards, the selected physiological parameters were recorded during the climbing.Four female and 22 male, totally 26 middle level rock climber were participated to the study. The mean age of the subjects was 27.73 ± 6.67, climbing years 6.61 ±4.84 and lead climbing age was 5.71 ±4.34. In order to eliminate force loss differences between top-rope and lead climbing, top rope climbing was designed as if it is a lead climbing. The second rope was connected on the waist of the athletes during top-rope climbing and they clipped it to expresses such as leading. The ascents were perforformed on 15 m high climbing wall. The route was rated as VI grad (Unıon Internationale des Association d’Alpinisme.During both climbing hearth rate was recorded and energy consumption was measured by portable gas analyzer as MET and VO2ml.min.kg units. Though gas analyzer VE, RER were measured. When two types of climbing trial compared, results indicated that there were statistically significant mean difference between CSAI-2 subscales cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self confidence. When physiological parameters examined in terms of two different types of climbing, results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in HR values. However, there were significant differences found between VO2ml.min.kg, VE, RER, and MET values.There wasn’t found significant difference in climbing times between two trials. This result shows us that we designed the ascents successfully and could eliminate the physical differences both lead and top-rope climbing. We observed on the same work load of two climbing trials more oxygen consumption, energy expenditure and anxiety scores during leading. This

  5. The effect of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters with different rope protocols in sport rock climbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicle Aras

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of falling anxiety on selected physiological parameters in sport rock climbing. For this aim, before performing  the top-rope and lead climbing, the anxiety inventory was used in sport rock climbers. Afterwards, the selected physiological parameters were recorded during the climbing. Four female and 22 male, totally 26 middle level rock climber were participated to the study. The mean age of the subjects was 27.73 ± 6.67, climbing years 6.61 ±4.84 and lead climbing age was 5.71 ±4.34.  In order to eliminate force loss differences between top-rope and lead climbing, top rope climbing was designed as if it is a lead climbing. The second rope was connected on the waist of the athletes during top-rope climbing and they clipped it to expresses such as leading. The ascents were perforformed on 15 m high climbing wall. The route was rated as VI grad (Unıon Internationale des Association d’Alpinisme. During both climbing  hearth rate was recorded and energy consumption was measured by portable gas analyzer as MET and VO2ml.min.kg units. Though gas analyzer VE, RER were measured.  When two types of climbing trial compared, results indicated that there were statistically significant mean difference between CSAI-2 subscales cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self confidence. When physiological parameters examined in terms of two different types of climbing, results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in HR values. However, there were significant differences found between VO2ml.min.kg, VE, RER, and MET values. There wasn’t found significant difference in climbing times between two trials. This result shows us that we designed the ascents successfully and could eliminate the physical differences both lead and top-rope climbing. We observed on the same work load of two climbing trials more oxygen consumption, energy expenditure and anxiety scores during leading

  6. Hydraulic Resistance Analysis in Towed Wire Rope Modeling%水下缆索环流阻力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马爱民; 徐德民

    2011-01-01

    Underwater, the motion of unsynunetrical construction wire rope brings circumfluence which causes side hydraulic resistance and non-liner relationship between tangent and normal resistances.In this case the widely used velocity arithmetic will be failure.A new arithmetic is developed based on the way of reference frame transforming.The arithmetic can directly obtained the three hydraulic resistance components and be suitable for all kinds of ropes.In the new method, it can be avoided to compute the angle between velocity and rope and angle' s sign problem does not exist.According to the new arithmetic the two models had been built under the velocity frame and rope body frame.The new arithmetic have been applied in the finite dynamic model of a wire rope underwater towed system.The simulation results accord with the motion process of typical unsymmetrical construction wire rope in water and the model correctness has been proven.%研究水下缆索系统优化问题,非对称缆在流体中存在的环流,不仅产生侧向阻力,同时导致切向力和法向力之间呈现非线性关系,使速度投影法失效.为解决上述问题,提出一种根据坐标变换的算法,可将原始阻力直接获得三个阻力分量,适用于各种缆型的阻力计算;同时能避免缆流夹角的求解和符号处理问题,使算法得到了简化.在速度和缆体两种坐标系下,依据算法分别建立了相应的阻力计算模型.基于水下缆索有限段动力学模型,对典型非对称缆索水下运动过程进行了仿真,结果表明能正确反映缆索的水下运动规律,并证明了模型的正确性,解决了水下缆索存在的问题.

  7. Hydro-acoustic resonance behavior in presence of a precessing vortex rope: observation of a lock-in phenomenon at part load Francis turbine operation

    OpenAIRE

    Favrel, Arthur; Landry, Christian; Müller, Andres; Yamamoto, Keita; Avellan, François

    2014-01-01

    Francis turbines operating at part load condition experience the development of a cavitating helical vortex rope in the draft tube cone at the runner outlet. The precession movement of this vortex rope induces local convective pressure fluctuations and a synchronous pressure pulsation acting as a forced excitation for the hydraulic system, propagating in the entire system. In the draft tube, synchronous pressure fluctuations with a frequency different to the precession frequency may also be o...

  8. Discussion on Rope-dyeing Process of Bromindigo Denim%溴靛蓝牛仔布束状染色工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振波

    2015-01-01

    本文阐述了溴靛蓝牛仔布束状染色的工艺配方、化料方法及染色操作注意事项,对影响染色效果的因素进行了分析。%This paper expounds the technical formula, liquid mixing method and matters needing attention in rope-dyeing of bromindigo denim. The inlfuencing factors of rope-dyeing are analyzed.

  9. Analysis of the part load helical vortex rope of a Francis turbine using on-board sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duparchy, F.; Favrel, A.; Lowys, P.-Y.; Landry, C.; Müller, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2015-12-01

    The cavitation helical vortex rope arising at Francis turbine partial load induces pressure fluctuations at the rope precession frequency, which can be decomposed into two components; the convective one and the synchronous one. The latter acts as an excitation source for the hydraulic system and is amplified in case of resonance. The present paper aims to highlight the impact of both components on the mechanical behaviour of the runner by performing on-board measurements. It is shown that the use of on-board pressure sensors enables to naturally separate the components of the pressure fluctuations. In addition, the synchronous component has little impact on the mechanical behaviour of the runner, even for the case in which hydro-acoustic resonance occurs.

  10. On the role of repetitive magnetic reconnections in evolution of magnetic flux-ropes in solar corona

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Sanjay; Joshi, Bhuwan; Smolarkiewicz, P K

    2016-01-01

    Parker's magnetostatic theorem extended to astrophysical magnetofluids with large magnetic Reynolds number supports ceaseless regeneration of current sheets and hence, spontaneous magnetic reconnections recurring in time. Consequently, a scenario is possible where the repeated reconnections provide an autonomous mechanism governing emergence of coherent structures in astrophysical magnetofluids. In this work, such a scenario is explored by performing numerical computations commensurate with the magnetostatic theorem. In particular, the computations explore the evolution of a flux-rope governed by repeated reconnections in a magnetic geometry resembling bipolar loops of solar corona. The revealed morphology of the evolution process, including onset and ascent of the rope, reconnection locations and the associated topology of the magnetic field lines, agrees with observations, and thus substantiates physical realisability of the advocated mechanism.

  11. Initiation and Eruption Process of Magnetic Flux Rope from Solar Active Region NOAA 11719 to Earth Directed-CME

    OpenAIRE

    Vemareddy, P.; Zhang, J.(High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA)

    2014-01-01

    An eruption event launched from solar active region (AR) NOAA 11719 is investigated based on coronal EUV observations and photospheric magnetic field measurements obtained from Solar Dynamic Observatory. The AR consists of a filament channel originating from major sunspot and its south section is associated with inverse-S sigmoidal system as observed in AIA passbands. We regard the sigmoid as the main body of the flux rope (FR). There also exists a twisted flux bundle crossing over this FR. T...

  12. The effect of rope and an activation ball on the performance of harmful social behaviors in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    A widespread problem in the housing of captive animals is the occurrence and development of abnormal behaviors. In the pig breeding industry the abnormal behaviors causing the biggest welfare problems are stereotypies such as tail-biting, ear-biting, equipment-biting and belly-nosing. In this study a rope and an activation ball were tested as curative treatments to reduce the performance of these stereotypies by inducing the underlying innate behaviors. A total of 141 pigs spread over 18 pens...

  13. Testing the efficacy of a chilli-tobacco rope fence as a deterrent against crop-raiding elephants

    OpenAIRE

    Chelliah, K; G Kannan; Kundu, S.; Abilash, N; Madhusudan, A; Baskaran, N; Sukumar, R.

    2010-01-01

    Chilli-based repellents have shown promise as deterrents against crop-raiding elephants in Africa. We experimented with ropes coated with chilli-based repellent as a cheap alternative to existing elephant cropraid deterrent methods in India. Three locations (Buxa Tiger Reserve, Wyanad Wildlife Sanctuary and Hosur Forest Division) representing varying rainfall regimes from high to low, and with histories of intense elephant-agriculture conflict, were selected for the experiments that were cond...

  14. Realizing one-dimensional quantum and high-frequency transport features in aligned single-walled carbon nanotube ropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ncube, Siphephile; Chimowa, George; Chiguvare, Zivayi; Bhattacharyya, Somnath, E-mail: Somnath.Bhattacharyya@wits.ac.za [Nano-Scale Transport Physics Laboratory, School of Physics and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2014-07-14

    The superiority of the electronic transport properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) ropes over SWNT mats is verified from low temperature and frequency-dependent transport. The overall change of resistance versus in nanotube mats shows that 3D variable range hopping is the dominant conduction mechanism within the 2–300 K range. The magneto-resistance (MR) is found to be predominantly negative with a parabolic nature, which can also be described by the hopping model. Although the positive upturn of the MR at low temperatures establishes the contribution from quantum interference, the inherent quantum transport in individual tubes is suppressed at elevated temperatures. Therefore, to minimize multi-channel effects from inter-tube interactions and other defects, two-terminal devices were fabricated from aligned SWNT (extracted from a mat) for low temperature transport as well as high-frequency measurements. In contrast to the mat, the aligned ropes exhibit step-like features in the differential conductance within the 80–300 K temperature range. The effects of plasmon propagation, unique to one dimension, were identified in electronic transport as a non-universal power-law dependence of the differential conductance on temperature and source-drain voltage. The complex impedance showed high power transmission capabilities up to 65 GHz as well as oscillations in the frequency range up to 30 GHz. The measurements suggest that aligned SWNT ropes have a realistic potential for high-speed device applications.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-Coated Poly(l-Lactic Acid Fibers and Their Braided Rope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Furuike

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel chitosan (CS-coated poly(l-lactic acid (PLA fibers (CS–PLA were prepared by reaction of an alkali and CS under heat treatment without a chemical binder. These treatments induced hydrolysis on the PLA surface, formation of ionic bonds between the carboxyl groups of the PLA surface and the amino groups of CS, and dehydration between the carboxyls and amines. The prepared fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and mechanical strength tests. The presence of CS on the fiber surface was observed by the visual test of CS–PLA with amido black 10B and confirmed by the amine ratio obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The coating thickness of CS on the surface of the PLA fibers was approximately 28 nm, as determined from calculations based on the results of Kjeldahl nitrogen analysis and elemental analysis. The degradation properties of CS–PLA were also investigated. These properties were apparently enhanced by hydrophilicity resulting from the CS-coating treatment. Furthermore, braided ropes prepared using CS–PLA became tight with increasing number of core ropes. Results indicate that the objective tensile strength and flexibility of the braided rope could be controlled by adjusting the number of core fibers.

  16. A finite element model for independent wire rope core with double helical geometry subjected to axial loads

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cengiz Erdonmez; C Erdem Imrak

    2011-12-01

    Due to the complex geometry of wires within a wire rope, it is difficult to model and analyse independent wire rope core accurately (IWRC). In this paper, a more realistic three-dimensional modelling approach and finite element analysis of wire ropes are explained. Single helical geometry is enough to model simple straight strand while IWRC has a more complex geometry by inclusion of double helical wires in outer strands. Taking the advantage of the double helical wires, three-dimensional IWRCs modelling is applied for both right regular lay and lang lay IWRCs. Wire-by-wire based results are gathered by using the proposed modelling and analysis method under various loading conditions. Illustrative examples are given for those show the accuracy and the robustness of the present FE analysis scheme with considering frictional properties and contact interactions between wires. FE analysis results are compared with the analytical and available test results and show reasonable agreement with a simpler and more practical approach.

  17. Realizing one-dimensional quantum and high-frequency transport features in aligned single-walled carbon nanotube ropes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superiority of the electronic transport properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) ropes over SWNT mats is verified from low temperature and frequency-dependent transport. The overall change of resistance versus in nanotube mats shows that 3D variable range hopping is the dominant conduction mechanism within the 2–300 K range. The magneto-resistance (MR) is found to be predominantly negative with a parabolic nature, which can also be described by the hopping model. Although the positive upturn of the MR at low temperatures establishes the contribution from quantum interference, the inherent quantum transport in individual tubes is suppressed at elevated temperatures. Therefore, to minimize multi-channel effects from inter-tube interactions and other defects, two-terminal devices were fabricated from aligned SWNT (extracted from a mat) for low temperature transport as well as high-frequency measurements. In contrast to the mat, the aligned ropes exhibit step-like features in the differential conductance within the 80–300 K temperature range. The effects of plasmon propagation, unique to one dimension, were identified in electronic transport as a non-universal power-law dependence of the differential conductance on temperature and source-drain voltage. The complex impedance showed high power transmission capabilities up to 65 GHz as well as oscillations in the frequency range up to 30 GHz. The measurements suggest that aligned SWNT ropes have a realistic potential for high-speed device applications.

  18. In-situ observations of flux ropes formed in association with a pair of spiral nulls in magnetotail plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruilong; Pu, Zuyin; Chen, Li-Jen; Fu, Suiyan; Xie, Lun; Wang, Xiaogang; Dunlop, Malcolm; Bogdanova, Yulia V.; Yao, Zhonghua; Xiao, Chijie; He, Jiansen; Fazakerley, Andrew N.

    2016-05-01

    Signatures of secondary islands are frequently observed in the magnetic reconnection regions of magnetotail plasmas. In this paper, magnetic structures with the secondary-island signatures observed by Cluster are reassembled by a fitting-reconstruction method. The results show three-dimensionally that a secondary island event can manifest the flux rope formed with an As-type null and a Bs-type null paired via their spines. We call this As-spine-Bs-like configuration the helically wrapped spine model. The reconstructed field lines wrap around the spine to form the flux rope, and an O-type topology is therefore seen on the plane perpendicular to the spine. Magnetized electrons are found to rotate on and cross the fan surface, suggesting that both the torsional-spine and the spine-fan reconnection take place in the configuration. Furthermore, detailed analysis implies that the spiral nulls and flux ropes were locally generated nearby the spacecraft in the reconnection outflow region, indicating that secondary reconnection may occur in the exhaust away from the primary reconnection site.

  19. Dosimetry on ocular brachytherapy with ROPES plaque with Iodine-125 and Palladium-103 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is an alternative to ocular enucleation. However, the irradiation of ocular region can bring deleterious effects due to the high doses, mainly in the lens, retina and in the bone structures in growth phase. Brachytherapy instead of teletherapy looks for departuring absorbed doses in tumor minimizing doses in the lens and the adjacent tissues of the eyeball (orbital region), avoiding deleterious effects. Thus, a three-dimensional computational model of ocular area was developed to simulate orbital irradiation with ROPES ophthalmologic plaque placed on the sclera surface filled to ten iodine-125 seeds, and palladium-103 seeds. Simulations are performed on the MCNP5 code. The computational simulation allows evaluating how the dose rates are spatially distributed in the orbital volume. The results are normalized to 100% at the maximum dose on the tumor base, and by the applied source activity. The maximum dose is found onto the eyeball, in the vitreous. The present model represents an advance in simulating and predicting absorbed dose on ocular brachytherapy. (author)

  20. Dosimetry on ocular brachytherapy with ROPE plaque with iodine125 and palladium-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is an alternative to ocular enucleation. However, the irradiation of ocular region can bring deleterious effects due to the high doses, mainly in the lens, retina and in the bone structures in growth phase. Brachytherapy instead of teletherapy looks for departing absorbed doses in tumor minimizing doses in the lens and the adjacent tissues of the eyeball (orbital region), avoiding deleterious effects. Thus, a three-dimensional computational model of ocular area was developed to simulate orbital irradiation with ROPES ophthalmologic plaque placed on the sclera surface filled to ten iodine-125 seeds, and palladium-103 seeds. Simulations are performed on the MCNP5 code. The computational simulation allows evaluating how the dose rates are spatially distributed in the orbital volume. The results are normalized to 100% at the maximum dose on the tumor base, and by the applied source activity. The maximum dose is found onto the eyeball, in the vitreous. The present model represents an advance in simulating and predicting absorbed dose on ocular brachytherapy. (author)

  1. Formation of a Double-decker Magnetic Flux Rope in the Sigmoidal Solar Active Region 11520

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, X; Zhang, J; Sun, X D; Guo, Y; Wang, Y M; Kliem, B; Deng, Y Y

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the formation of a magnetic flux rope (MFR) that erupted on 2012 July 12 and caused a strong geomagnetic storm event on July 15. Through analyzing the long-term evolution of the associated active region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, it is found that the twisted field of an MFR, indicated by a continuous S-shaped sigmoid, is built up from two groups of sheared arcades near the main polarity inversion line half day before the eruption. The temperature within the twisted field and sheared arcades is higher than that of the ambient volume, suggesting that magnetic reconnection most likely works there. The driver behind the reconnection is attributed to shearing and converging motions at magnetic footpoints with velocities in the range of 0.1--0.6 km s$^{-1}$. The rotation of the preceding sunspot also contributes to the MFR buildup. Extrapolated three-dimensional non-linear force-free field s...

  2. Formation of Solar Delta Active Regions:Twist and Writhe of Magnetic Ropes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Qi Zhang

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the process of formation of delta configuration in some well-known super active regions based on photospheric vector magnetogram observations. It is found that the magnetic field in the initial developing stage of some delta active regions shows a potential-like configuration in the solar atmosphere,the magnetic shear develops mainly near the magnetic neutral line with magnetic islands of opposite polarities, and the large-scale photospheric twisted field forming gradually later. Some results are obtained: (1) The analysis of magnetic writhe of whole active regions cannot be limited in the strong field of sunspots, because the contribution of the fraction of decayed magnetic field is non-negligible. (2) The magnetic model of kink magnetic ropes, supposed to be generated in the subatmosphere,is not consistent with the evolution of large-scale twisted photospheric transverse magnetic field and not entirely consistent with the relationship with magnetic shear in some delta active regions. (3) The proposition is that the large-scale delta active regions are formed from contribution by small-scale non-potential magnetic flux bundles generated in the subatmosphere.

  3. Multiwavelength observation of a large-scale flux rope eruption above kinked mini-filament

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    We analyse multiwavelength observations of a western limb flare (C3.9) occurred in AR NOAA 111465 on 30 April 2012. The high resolution images recorded by SDO/AIA 304, 1600 \\AA\\ and Hinode/SOT H$\\alpha$ show the activation of a mini-filament (rising speed$\\sim$40 km s$^{-1}$) associated with kink instability and the onset of a C-class flare near the southern leg of the filament. The first magnetic reconnection occurred at one of the footpoints of the filament causing the breaking of its southern leg. The filament shows unwinding motion of the northern leg and apex in the counterclockwise direction and failed to erupt. A flux-rope (visible only in hot channels, i.e., AIA 131 and 94 \\AA\\ channels and Hinode/SXT) structure was appeared along the neutral line during the second magnetic reconnection taking place above the kinked filament. Formation of the RHESSI hard X-ray source (12-25 keV) above the kinked filament and simultaneous appearance of the hot 131 \\AA\\ loops associated with photospheric brightenings (A...

  4. Determination of aerobic work and power on a rope-braked cycle ergometer by direct measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Rae S; Franklin, Kathryn L; Baker, Julien S; Davies, Bruce

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the power and work outputs of a cycle ergometer using the manufacturer's guidelines, with calculations using direct flywheel velocity and brake torque. A further aim was to compare the values obtained with those supplied by the manufacturer. A group of 10 male participants were asked to pedal a Monark 824E ergometer at a constant cadence of 60 r/min for a period of 3 min against a resistive mass of 3 kg. The flywheel velocity was measured using a tachometer. The brake force was determined by measuring the tension in the rope on either side of the flywheel. The calculated mean power was 147.45 +/- 6.5 W compared with the Monark value of 183 +/- 3.7 W. The difference between the methods for power estimation was 18% and was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The mean work done by the participants during the 3 min period was found to be 26 460 +/- 1145 J compared with the Monark value of 33,067 +/- 648 J (p < 0.01). The Monark formulae currently used to determine the power and work done by a participant overestimates the actual values required to overcome the resistance. There findings have far-reaching implications in the physiological assessment of athletic, sedentary, and diseased populations. PMID:16900228

  5. Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes Using Iron Forbidden Line

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, X

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we present Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Fe XXI 1354.08 A forbidden line emission of two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that caused two fast coronal mass ejections with velocities of $\\ge$1000 km s$^{-1}$ and strong flares (X1.6 and M6.5) on 2014 September 10 and 2015 June 22, respectively. The EUV images at the 131 A and 94 A passbands provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal that both MFRs initially appear as suspended hot channel-like structures. Interestingly, part of the MFRs is also visible in the Fe XXI 1354.08 forbidden line, even prior to the eruption, e.g., for the SOL2014-09-10 event. However, the line emission is very weak and that only appears at a few locations but not the whole structure of the MFRs. This implies that the MFRs could be comprised of different threads with different temperatures and densities, based on the fact that the formation of the Fe XXI forbidden line requires a critical temperature ($\\sim$11.5 MK) and dens...

  6. 浮绳式网箱框架纲波浪力特性的初步试验研究%Preliminary Experimental Study of the Wave Force Properties on the Ropes in Frame of Floating Rope Cage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马家志; 吴佳兴; 宋伟华; 木下健

    2011-01-01

    结合生产的实际需要,沿海浮绳式网箱生产的作用日益突出,因而研究其水动力特性非常重要。根据这一需要,采用预加张力的直交系泊方法,依据目前柔性浮绳式网箱尺寸和渔具模型试验方法设计、制作了一个柔性浮绳式网箱模型(1 m×1 m×1 m),并进行了水槽试验。试验工况为规则波,周期为0.8~2.0 s(间隔0.2 s),波高为50~250 mm(间隔40 mm)。在不同波浪周期、波高下,根据测量数据,分析研究作用在浮绳式网箱框架纲上波浪力的特性。试验结果表明:波浪力的变化与波浪特性相似,呈周期性、不对称变化,垂直于波浪方向的2根框架纲的波浪力峰值比与波浪方向平行的2根框架纲的稍小。框架纲上的波浪力不是同步变化的,存在一定相位差,但由于框架纲是柔性绳索制成的,因而能承受由于不同相位波浪力产生的扭矩剪切作用,证明了波浪作用下HDPE网箱常受到破坏而浮绳式网箱安然无恙的事实。最后,就水流和波浪共同作用下的网箱水动力学进行了试验研究,发现波流共同作用下的水动力值并不是单独在纯流和纯波下的水动力的值的简单相加,而存在一修正项。%With the practical needs of production,coastal floating rope cage has increasingly prominent role.Thus,it is important and meaningful to carry out study of the hydrodynamic properties of a floating rope cage system under the effects waves in order to design better cages.A model of the floating rope cage(1 m×1 m×1 m)was designed according to the dimension of deep-sea cage in the method of pre-tensioned orthogonal mooring.The experiment was done in flume.The regular waves were generated in the experiment,with wave periodvarying from 0.8 to 2.0 s(0.2 s interval)and the wave height from 50 to 250 mm(40 mm interval).The wave force was surveyed by tension transducer linked together with the computer.Then the data was

  7. Tratamento artroscópico da luxação acromio-clavicular pelo método "tight rope" (arthrex® Arthroscopic treatment of acromioclavicular joint dislocation by tight rope technique (arthrex®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo Gómez Vieira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar a técnica cirúrgica artroscópica pelo método "Tight Rope" e a avaliação dos resultados com esta técnica no tratamento da luxação acrômio-clavicular aguda. MÉTODOS: entre agosto de 2006 e maio de 2007, 10 ombros de 10 pacientes com luxação acrômio-clavicular aguda foram submetidos a tratamento artroscópcio pela técnica Tight Rope-Arthrex®. O seguimento mínimo foi de 12 meses, com média de 15 meses. A idade variou de 26 e 42 anos com média de 34 anos. Todos os pacientes eram do sexo masculino. Todos os pacientes foram atendidos na fase aguda da lesão sendo avaliados por radiologia simples (série trauma. Os pacientes foram acompanhados semanalmente no primeiro mês e a cada três meses após o procedimento artroscópico. A avaliação clínica foi feita por meio dos critérios da University of Califórnia at Los Angeles (UCLA. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes operados agudamente encontravam-se satisfeitos com os resultados do tratamento cirúrgico artroscópico com uma média de 32,5 pontos na escala de avaliação da UCLA. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento artroscópico da luxação acrômio-clavicular aguda pelo método "Tight Rope" é uma técnica cirúrgica minimamente invasiva que mostrou-se eficiente para o tratamento destas lesões.OBJECTIVE: Presenting the arthroscopic treatment by Tight Rope - Arthrex® system for acute acromioclavicular dislocation and to evaluate results obtained with this procedure. METHODS: Between August 2006 and May 2007, 10 shoulders of 10 patients with acute acromioclavicular dislocation were submitted to arthroscopic repair using the Tight Rope - Arthrex® system. Minimum follow-up was 12 months, with a mean of 15 months. Age ranged from 26 to 42, mean 34 years. All patients were male. Radiology evaluation was made by trauma series x-ray. The patients were assisted in the first month weekly and after three months after the procedure. Clinical evaluation was based on the University

  8. Slippage power transmission technology on the wire rope%钢丝绳上滑移输电技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭伟; 张维钧

    2012-01-01

    According to the actual project demand, the paper designs an electric cable trolley which is able to glide freely on the wire rope. The trolley features novel style, and its structure has a function of preventing wire rope to jump from the slot of wheel. Electric cable trolley can only glide on the wire rope under haulage cable' s dragging. Slippage power transmission technology on the wire rope is based on the electric cable trolley which is able to transmit power to the long-distance equipment which moves in the three-dimensional space and is dragged by wire ropes.%为了满足特定的工程需要,设计了一种能在钢丝绳上滑移的电缆小车,该电缆小车型式新颖,结构上具备防止钢丝绳脱槽的功能,电缆小车在牵引绳的牵引下拖拽着电缆只能沿承载它的钢丝绳方向运动.以该电缆小车为基础的钢丝绳上滑移输电技术能实现向被钢丝绳牵引并作空间移动的设备进行长距离输电.

  9. Formation of a double-decker magnetic flux rope in the sigmoidal solar active region 11520

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we address the formation of a magnetic flux rope (MFR) that erupted on 2012 July 12 and caused a strong geomagnetic storm event on July 15. Through analyzing the long-term evolution of the associated active region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, it is found that the twisted field of an MFR, indicated by a continuous S-shaped sigmoid, is built up from two groups of sheared arcades near the main polarity inversion line a half day before the eruption. The temperature within the twisted field and sheared arcades is higher than that of the ambient volume, suggesting that magnetic reconnection most likely works there. The driver behind the reconnection is attributed to shearing and converging motions at magnetic footpoints with velocities in the range of 0.1-0.6 km s–1. The rotation of the preceding sunspot also contributes to the MFR buildup. Extrapolated three-dimensional non-linear force-free field structures further reveal the locations of the reconnection to be in a bald-patch region and in a hyperbolic flux tube. About 2 hr before the eruption, indications of a second MFR in the form of an S-shaped hot channel are seen. It lies above the original MFR that continuously exists and includes a filament. The whole structure thus makes up a stable double-decker MFR system for hours prior to the eruption. Eventually, after entering the domain of instability, the high-lying MFR impulsively erupts to generate a fast coronal mass ejection and X-class flare; while the low-lying MFR remains behind and continuously maintains the sigmoidicity of the active region.

  10. Bending fatigue and its evaluation of ropes used in equipment for recovery of rare metals from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Masao; Kasai, Noboru; Seko, Noriaki; Hasegawa, Shin; Takeda, Hayato; Katakai, Akio; Sugo, Takanobu [Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    Recovery experiment of rare metals such as vanadium and uranium in seawater was carried out in the offing of Mutsu-works to evaluate the performance of the adsorbent which was synthesized by radiation induced graft-polymerization. In September 1999, we set equipment for dipping 100 kg adsorbents into seawater and instruments for selective elution of adsorbed metal. The present report clarified the primary factor which cuts a cushion-buoy-mounting-rope (CBMR) of the equipment for the recovery of the significant metals from seawater after 7 months' experiment, and then described its countermeasure. The CBMR plays the role installing the cushion buoy onto the horizontal rope in the sea. There are two CBMRs for each buoy and totally 16. Four cases of the cutting occurred in the cushion buoys placed outside. These cushion buoys have been installed in September, 1999, and it already passed through 7 months until the rope-cutting accident. Horizontal swings and rotation motions with a short period were observed especially in the cushion buoy placed outside. Therefore, the CBMR was cut by the unexpected bending fatigue which was caused by these bending and twist with the small angle. Fatigue estimation was equivalent for the cutting level when strength was calculated by considering bending fatigue in addition to the tension fatigue of the CBMR. The present polyethylene CBMRs were replaced by the nylon ones having excellent characteristic against bending fatigue. lt was calculated that tension and bending fatigue strength of the nylon CBMR were enough to maintain its strength during the test period for 2 years. (author)

  11. Predicting Changes in High-Intensity Intermittent Running Performance with Acute Responses to Short Jump Rope Workouts in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Buchheit

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to 1 examine whether individual HR and RPE responses to a jump rope workout could be used to predict changes in high-intensity intermittent running performance in young athletes, and 2 examine the effect of using different methods to determine a smallest worthwhile change (SWC on the interpretation of group-average and individual changes in the variables. Before and after an 8-week high-intensity training program, 13 children athletes (10.6 ± 0.9 yr performed a high-intensity running test (30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test, VIFT and three jump rope workouts, where HR and RPE were collected. The SWC was defined as either 1/5th of the between-subjects standard deviation or the variable typical error (CV. After training, the large ~9% improvement in VIFT was very likely, irrespective of the SWC. Standardized changes were greater for RPE (very likely-to-almost certain, ~30-60% changes, ~4-16 times >SWC than for HR (likely-to-very likely, ~2-6% changes, ~1-6 times >SWC responses. Using the CV as the SWC lead to the smallest and greatest changes for HR and RPE, respectively. The predictive value for individual performance changes tended to be better for HR (74-92% than RPE (69%, and greater when using the CV as the SWC. The predictive value for no-performance change was low for both measures (<26%. Substantial decreases in HR and RPE responses to short jump rope workouts can predict substantial improvements in high-intensity running performance at the individual level. Using the CV of test measures as the SWC might be the better option.

  12. Radiographic changes in the operative treatment of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocation – tight rope technique vs. K-wire fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operative treatment of higher degree acromioclavicular joint luxation is common. A new option is made available by the tight rope technique. It claims to provide adequate outcome with the use of a minimally invasive technique. First clinical studies justified its medical use, but the equivalence to established surgical methods remains unclear. We therefore analyzed radiographic data from patients that were treated with the tight rope system (TR) and compared them to those treated with K-wires (KW) fixation. Retrospective study with inclusion criteria: surgery for acromioclavicular joint luxation between 2004 and 2011, classified as Rockwood type III, no concomitant injury, first event injury. We compared pre- and post-operative X-rays with those taken at the end of treatment. Clinical data from follow-ups and radiographic data were evaluated. The main outcome variable was the remaining distance between the acromion and clavicle (ACD), as well as the coracoid process and clavicle (CCD). 27 patients (TR: n=16; KW: n=11) with comparable demographics and injury severity were included. Surgery reduced ACD (TR: p=0.002; KW: p<0.001) and CCD (TR: p=0.001; KW: p=0.003). Heterotopic ossification or postoperative osteolysis was not significantly associated with either one of the procedures. Three patients (18.75%) in the TR group showed impaired wound healing, migrating K-wires were recorded in 2 patients (18.2%) and impingement syndrome occurred in 1 patient (9.1%) with K-wires. Posttraumatic arthritis was not seen. There was a loss of reduction in 2 cases within the TR-group (12.51%) and 1 in the KW-group (9.1%). At last follow up, ACD and CCD were wider in both groups compared to the healthy side. This study shows that the Tight rope system is an effective alternative in the treatment of higher degree acromioclavicular luxation and comparable to the established methods

  13. A remarkably quick habituation and high use of a rope bridge by an endangered marsupial, the western ringtail possum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yokochi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rope bridges are being increasingly installed worldwide to mitigate the negative impacts of roads on arboreal animals. However, monitoring of these structures is still limited and an assessment of factors influencing the crossing behaviours is lacking. We monitored the use of a rope bridge near Busselton, Western Australia by the endangered western ringtail possums (Pseudocheirus occidentalis in order to identify the patterns of use and factors influencing the crossings. We installed motion sensor cameras and microchip readers on the bridge to record the crossings made by individual animals, and analysed these crossing data using generalised linear models that included factors such as days since the installation of the bridge, breeding season, wind speed, minimum temperature and moonlight. Possums started investigating the bridge even before the installation was completed, and the first complete crossing was recorded only 36 days after the installation, which is remarkably sooner than arboreal species studied in other parts of Australia. The possums crossed the bridge increasingly over 270 days of monitoring at a much higher rate than we expected (8.87 ± 0.59 complete crossings per night. Possums crossed the bridge less on windy nights and warm nights probably due to the risk of being blown away and heat stress on warmer days. Crossings also decreased slightly on brighter nights probably due to the higher risk of predation. Breeding season did not influence the crossings. Pseudocheirus occidentalis habituated to the bridge very quickly, and our results demonstrate that rope bridges have a potential as an effective mitigation measure against the negative impacts of roads on this species. More studies and longer monitoring, as well as investigating whether crossing results in the restoration of gene flow are then needed in order to further assess the true conservation value of these crossing structures.

  14. 碳纤维绳材试验研究与分析%Experiment Research on Carbon Fiber Rope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文成; 王建华; 白金增; 黄琮

    2011-01-01

    Because of the presence of resin based materials, it is not easy to change the shape of FRP bars. At the same time, bending at the steering block caused strength reduction. In short, FRP bars are not suitable for in - body curve prestressed reinforcement. Carbon Fiber Ropes don't have resin curing process,it has the characteristics of high modulus, high strength, bending ability and so on,it can applied to imposing prestressing force for concrete structures. The strength characteristic of the parallel - layout carbon fiber bundles and its experimental phenomena was introduced in this paper. We manufactured test carbon fiber ropes to do tension test. In order to anchor, we cured the both ends of the samples to a shape matching with the anchors where the middle part of the ropes did not contain epoxy resin. According to the study of the failure patterns, we learnt that : all failure occurred near curing interface. Fiber utilization rate is low, but the strength of fine specimen is higher than that of the thick specimen(Large diameter, low intensity). The average strength is lower than calculated values. The existence of the curing interface reduced the strength of the ropes. Fiber utilization rate would be better if we improve the production process and tension anchorage technology.%FRP筋由于已完成固化,不易改变形状;FRP筋的弯折损伤又会造成强度折减,因此FRP筋不利于布置为体内曲线预应力筋.纯纤维绳没有经过树脂固化工序,具有模量高、强度高、抗折能力强等特点,可用于结构中为混凝土施加预应力.本文基于平行布置碳纤维绳展开,分析了其强度性质和试验表现,通过纤维绳试件拉伸强度试验总结得到:两端固化中间自由的纤维绳,其破坏均在固化界面;试样纤维强度利用率较低,但细试件要高于粗试件.纤维绳拉伸试验中,受固化界面的影响,绳子破坏强度低于其计算值.欲提高纤维强度利用效率,需改进绳

  15. Fruit Thinning in Organic Apple Growing with optimized Strategies including natural Spray Products and Rope-Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Weibel, Franco P.; Chevillat, Véronique S.; Rois, Elena; Tschabold, Jean-Luc; Stadler, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our study was to find new thinning methods for organic apple production able to fulfil the standards of Bio Suisse, the main label organisation of the organic food sector in Switzerland. The 17 trials reported were carried out during flowering period in the years 2003, 2004 and 2005 on the cultivars ‘Pinova’, ‘Gala’, ‘Maigold’, ‘Elstar’, ‘Breaburn’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Otava’ at different sites. The results confirm the good efficiency of mechanical thinning with the rope th...

  16. [Lisfranc dislocation fracture: Dynamic examination under anesthesia and minimally invasive stabilization with mini-TightRope®].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regauer, M; Baumbach, S; Brumann, M; Mutschler, W; Polzer, H

    2015-08-01

    As Lisfranc joint injuries are rare and standard radiographic examinations can be difficult to interpret the correct diagnosis is often initially overlooked. Delayed treatment frequently results in painful and disabling arthritis, consequently, primary targeted diagnostics are essential for the functional outcome. We report on a patient with a Lisfranc fracture dislocation, with the injury severity only becoming obvious by dynamic examination with the patient under anesthesia. Due to the massive swelling we performed a minimally invasive primary stabilization using one K-wire and a mini-TightRope®. PMID:25519821

  17. Validation of mathematical models for predicting the swirling flow and the vortex rope in a Francis turbine operated at partial discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuibin, P. A.; Okulov, V. L.; Susan-Resiga, R. F.; Muntean, S.

    2010-08-01

    The vortex rope in a hydro turbine draft tube is one the main and strong sources of pulsations in non-optimal modes of hydro turbine operation. We examine the case of a Francis turbine model operated at partial discharge, where a strong precessing vortex rope is developed in the discharge cone downstream the runner. Available experimental data provide the circumferentially averaged axial and circumferential velocity profiles, as well as the vortex rope geometry, precessing frequency, and the level of pressure fluctuation at the wall. The mathematical models presented in this paper can correctly recover all this information without actually computing the full three-dimensional unsteady flow in the hydraulic turbine. As a result, we provide valuable mathematical tools for assessing the turbine behaviour at off-design operating regimes in the early stages of runner design, with computational effort several orders of magnitude less than the current approaches of simulating the complex turbine flow.

  18. Pigs suffering from injurious behaviours like flank biting and tail biting are more interested to manipulate a novel rope than uninjured control animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Ettema, K.

    2014-01-01

    Injurious behaviours in pigs may involve persistent or forceful biting in specific body parts and may result in wounds of the pigs’ tails, ears, flanks and legs. Such behaviours, which may lead to progressive tissue damage, are difficult to counteract. On a commercial farm 22 groups of pigs with wounds on flanks (n = 16) and tails (n = 6) were matched with 22 control groups without wounds. All groups were provided with a novel rope, applied as a ‘tail chew test’. Interaction with the rope was...

  19. Dipolarization fronts as earthward propagating flux ropes: A three-dimensional global hybrid simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S.; Lu, Q.; Lin, Y.; Wang, X.; Ge, Y.; Wang, R.; Zhou, M.; Fu, H.; Huang, C.; Wu, M.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Dipolarization fronts (DFs) as earthward propagating flux ropes (FRs) in the Earth's magnetotail are presented and investigated with a three-dimensional (3-D) global hybrid simulation for the first time. In the simulation, several small-scale earthward propagating FRs are found to be formed by multiple X-line reconnection in the near-tail. During their earthward propagation, the magnetic field Bz of the FRs becomes highly asymmetric due to the imbalance of the reconnection rates between the multiple X-lines. At the later stage, when the FRs approach the near-Earth dipole-like region, the anti-reconnection between the southward/negative Bz of the FRs and the northward geomagnetic field leads to the erosion of the southward magnetic flux of the FRs, which further aggravates the Bz asymmetry. Eventually, the FRs merge into the near-Earth region through the anti-reconnection. These earthward propagating FRs can fully reproduce the observational features of the DFs, e.g., a sharp enhancement of Bz preceded by a smaller amplitude Bz dip, an earthward flow enhancement, the presence of the electric field components in the normal and dawn-dusk directions, and ion energization. Our results show that the earthward propagating FRs can be used to explain the DFs observed in the magnetotail. The thickness of the DFs is on the order of several ion inertial lengths, and the electric field normal to the front is found to be dominated by the Hall physics. During the earthward propagation from the near-tail to the near-Earth region, the speed of the FR/DFs increases from ~150km/s to ~1000km/s. The FR/DFs can be tilted in the GSM xy plane with respect to the y (dawn-dusk) axis and only extend several RE in this direction. Moreover, the structure and evolution of the FRs/DFs are non-uniform in the dawn-dusk direction, which indicates that the DFs are essentially 3-D.

  20. Two-pole support with isolating cross-arm rope for 330 kV overhead transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnosov, A.I.; Komarov, L.L.; Vinogradov, D.E.

    1985-08-01

    An anchor segment of the 330 kV overhead transmission line in the Kola peninsula is the first one in the USSR where rope joining the two poles of a support structure across the top and suspending the three symmetric conductors of a 3-0 system is used as a flexible cross-arm, 13 such cross-arms having been installed along that segment. They are designed for carrying 2xAS300/39 and 2xAS400/51 conductors with ice load (regions I,II) in heavy wind (region III). Glass insulators are strung on the rope, 28 separating the center conductor from each outer conductor and 16 separating each outer conductor from the pole on its side, another design variant being available for use of plastic insulators. Such a cross-arm offers several technical and economic advantages over conventional rigid guys, smaller mass and simpler construction with 3.3 times fewer bolts being the major ones. It also requires a shorter erection platform and a shallower foundation in grounds which swell appreciably. On the other hand, however, it requires a wider clearance, unconventional means of access to conductors, corrective adjustment of erection procedures, and special labor skills such as handling of insulators. Since relatively few operations are involved, entire supports can be preassembled in sheds.

  1. EVOLUTION OF A MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE AND ITS OVERLYING ARCADE BASED ON NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELD EXTRAPOLATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic phenomena indicative of slipping reconnection and magnetic implosion were found in a time series of nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolations for the active region 11515, which underwent significant changes in the photospheric fields and produced five C-class flares and one M-class flare over five hours on 2012 July 2. NLFFF extrapolation was performed for the uninterrupted 5 hour period from the 12 minute cadence vector magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory. According to the time-dependent NLFFF model, there was an elongated, highly sheared magnetic flux rope structure that aligns well with an Hα filament. This long filament splits sideways into two shorter segments, which further separate from each other over time at a speed of 1-4 km s–1, much faster than that of the footpoint motion of the magnetic field. During the separation, the magnetic arcade arching over the initial flux rope significantly decreases in height from ∼4.5 Mm to less than 0.5 Mm. We discuss the reality of this modeled magnetic restructuring by relating it to the observations of the magnetic cancellation, flares, a filament eruption, a penumbra formation, and magnetic flows around the magnetic polarity inversion line

  2. Self-flip Technique of the TightRope RT Button for Soft-Tissue Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harato, Kengo; Niki, Yasuo; Toyoda, Takashi; Kamata, Yusaku; Masumoto, Ko; Otani, Toshiro; Suda, Yasunori

    2016-04-01

    The TightRope RT (Arthrex, Naples, FL) is a suspensory device for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. However, there is a potential risk of the button being pulled too far off the lateral femoral cortex into the soft tissue because the adjustable loop is long. The purpose of this article is to present an easy and safe technique for self-flip. As to the preparation of the graft, we draw the first line in the loop of the TightRope RT at the same length as the femoral tunnel, and we draw the second line 7 mm longer than the length of the femoral tunnel as a self-flip line. Concerning passing of the graft, the side sutures are pulled from the lateral side. We stop pulling the sutures just at the self-flip line by holding the graft at the tibial end. The side suture is inclined to the medial side with strong pulling of the suture at full extension of the knee. Then the surgeon pulls the tibial end of the graft to feel a secure positioning of the button on the lateral femoral cortex. Although it has limitations, the present technique is easy and certainly helps surgeons achieve appropriate positioning of the button. PMID:27462539

  3. Formation and Eruption of a Small Flux Rope in the Chromosphere Observed by NST, IRIS, and SDO

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pankaj; Wang, Haimin; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Using high-resolution images from 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO), we report the direct evidence of chromospheric reconnection at the polarity inversion line (PIL) between two small opposite polarity sunspots. Small jet-like structures (with velocities of ~20-55 km/s) were observed at the reconnection site before the onset of the first M1.0 flare. The slow rise of untwisting jets was followed by the onset of cool plasma inflow (~10 km/s) at the reconnection site, causing the onset of a two-ribbon flare. The reconnection between two sheared J-shaped cool H$\\alpha$ loops causes the formation of a small twisted flux rope (S shaped) in the chromosphere. In addition, Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) magnetograms show the flux cancellation (both positive and negative) during the first M1.0 flare. The emergence of negative flux and cancellation of positive flux (with shear flows) continue until the successful eruption of the flux rope. The newly formed chromospheric flux ro...

  4. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  5. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  6. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  7. Design of Handheld Wire Rope Laser Cutting System%手提式钢缆激光切割系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琼; 杨晟; 王英

    2012-01-01

    This article mainly introduce a handheld laser cutting system for wire rope which used for fiber transferring. By the use of pulsed solid laser,we chose fibers as flexible transmission, designed a special clamping apparatus for rope cutting. Furthermore, we also did some research on its cutting technologies. With the optimized discharge current, pulsed frequency, pulsed width and assisted gas pressure, this system now can meet cutting requirements up to diameter 12 mm wire rope which affords a new approach to rope cutting field.%介绍了一种手提式光纤传输钢缆激光切割系统.以脉冲固体激光器作为光源,采用光纤进行柔性传输,设计了切割钢缆的专用夹具,研究了钢缆的切割工艺.通过优化放电电流、脉冲频率、脉冲宽度、辅助气压等参数,该系统可满足直径12 mm内的钢缆的切割要求,提供了切割钢缆的新方法.

  8. Microwave imaging of a hot flux rope structure during the pre-impulsive stage of an eruptive M7.7 solar flare

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Z; Huang, G; Nakajima, H; Song, H; Melnikov, V; Liu, W; Li, G; Chandrashekhar, K; Jiao, F

    2016-01-01

    Corona structures and processes during the pre-impulsive stage of solar eruption are crucial to understanding the physics leading to the subsequent explosive energy release. Here we present the first microwave imaging study of a hot flux rope structure during the pre-impulsive stage of an eruptive M7.7 solar flare, with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) at 17 GHz. The flux rope is also observed by the SDO/AIA in its hot passbands of 94 and 131 \\AA\\. In the microwave data, it is revealed as an overall arcade-like structure consisting of several intensity enhancements bridged by generally weak emissions, with brightness temperatures ($T_B$) varying from ~10,000~K to ~20,000 K. Locations of microwave intensity enhancements along the structure remain relatively fixed at certain specific parts of the flux rope, indicating that the distribution of emitting electrons is affected by the large scale magnetic configuration of the twisted flux rope. Wavelet analysis shows a pronounced 2-min period of the microwave $T_...

  9. MICROWAVE IMAGING OF A HOT FLUX ROPE STRUCTURE DURING THE PRE-IMPULSIVE STAGE OF AN ERUPTIVE M7.7 SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhao; Chen, Yao; Song, Hongqiang; Chandrashekhar, Kalugodu; Jiao, Fangran [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Huang, Guangli [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Nanjing, 210008 (China); Nakajima, Hiroshi [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, NAOJ, 462-2 Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Melnikov, Victor [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation); Liu, Wei [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Li, Gang, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Corona structures and processes during the pre-impulsive stage of solar eruption are crucial to understanding the physics leading to the subsequent explosive energy release. Here we present the first microwave imaging study of a hot flux rope structure during the pre-impulsive stage of an eruptive M7.7 solar flare, with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph at 17 GHz. The flux rope is also observed by the SDO/AIA in its hot passbands of 94 and 131 Å. In the microwave data, it is revealed as an overall arcade-like structure consisting of several intensity enhancements bridged by generally weak emissions, with brightness temperatures (T{sub B}) varying from ∼10,000 K to ∼20,000 K. Locations of microwave intensity enhancements along the structure remain relatively fixed at certain specific parts of the flux rope, indicating that the distribution of emitting electrons is affected by the large-scale magnetic configuration of the twisted flux rope. Wavelet analysis shows a pronounced 2 minute period of the microwave T{sub B} variation during the pre-impulsive stage of interest. The period agrees well with that reported for AIA sunward-contracting loops and upward ejective plasmoids (suggested to be reconnection outflows). This suggests that both periodicities are controlled by the same reconnection process that takes place intermittently at a 2 minute timescale. We infer that at least a part of the emission is excited by non-thermal energetic electrons via the gyro-synchrotron mechanism. The study demonstrates the potential of microwave imaging in exploring the flux rope magnetic geometry and relevant reconnection process during the onset of solar eruption.

  10. A supra-cellular model for coupling of bone resorption to formation during remodeling: lessons from two bone resorption inhibitors affecting bone formation differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pia Rosgaard; Andersen, Thomas Levin; Pennypacker, Brenda L; Duong, Le T; Engelholm, Lars H; Delaissé, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-10

    The bone matrix is maintained functional through the combined action of bone resorbing osteoclasts and bone forming osteoblasts, in so-called bone remodeling units. The coupling of these two activities is critical for securing bone replenishment and involves osteogenic factors released by the osteoclasts. However, the osteoclasts are separated from the mature bone forming osteoblasts in time and space. Therefore the target cell of these osteoclastic factors has remained unknown. Recent explorations of the physical microenvironment of osteoclasts revealed a cell layer lining the bone marrow and forming a canopy over the whole remodeling surface, spanning from the osteoclasts to the bone forming osteoblasts. Several observations show that these canopy cells are a source of osteoblast progenitors, and we hypothesized therefore that they are the likely cells targeted by the osteogenic factors of the osteoclasts. Here we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis, by comparing the osteoclast-canopy interface in response to two types of bone resorption inhibitors in rabbit lumbar vertebrae. The bisphosphonate alendronate, an inhibitor leading to low bone formation levels, reduces the extent of canopy coverage above osteoclasts. This effect is in accordance with its toxic action on periosteoclastic cells. In contrast, odanacatib, an inhibitor preserving bone formation, increases the extent of the osteoclast-canopy interface. Interestingly, these distinct effects correlate with how fast bone formation follows resorption during these respective treatments. Furthermore, canopy cells exhibit uPARAP/Endo180, a receptor able to bind the collagen made available by osteoclasts, and reported to mediate osteoblast recruitment. Overall these observations support a mechanism where the recruitment of bone forming osteoblasts from the canopy is induced by osteoclastic factors, thereby favoring initiation of bone formation. They lead to a model where the osteoclast-canopy interface is the physical site where coupling of bone resorption to bone formation occurs. PMID:24333871

  11. Interaction of a pulsating vortex rope with the local velocity field in a Francis turbine draft tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A.; Bullani, A.; Dreyer, M.; Roth, S.; Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Avellan, F.

    2012-11-01

    Acoustic resonances in Francis turbines often define undesirable limitations to their operating ranges at high load. The knowledge of the mechanisms governing the onset and the sustenance of these instabilities in the swirling flow leaving the runner is essential for the development of a reliable hydroacoustic model for the prediction of system stability. The present work seeks to study experimentally the unstable draft tube flow by conducting a series of measurements on a reduced Francis Turbine model. The key physical parameters and their interaction with the hydraulic and mechanical system are studied and quantified. In particular, the evolution of the axial and tangential velocity components in the draft tube cone is analysed by means of Laser Doppler Anemometry. Combined with the calculation of the instantaneous vortex rope volume based on flow visualization and the measurement of the pressure fluctuations, the nature of the auto-oscillation in the draft tube flow is investigated.

  12. Initiation and Eruption Process of Magnetic Flux Rope from Solar Active Region NOAA 11719 to Earth Directed-CME

    CERN Document Server

    Vemareddy, P

    2014-01-01

    An eruption event launched from solar active region (AR) NOAA 11719 is investigated based on coronal EUV observations and photospheric magnetic field measurements obtained from Solar Dynamic Observatory. The AR consists of a filament channel originating from major sunspot and its south section is associated with inverse-S sigmoidal system as observed in AIA passbands. We regard the sigmoid as the main body of the flux rope (FR). There also exists a twisted flux bundle crossing over this FR. This overlying flux bundle transforms in shape similar to kink-rise evolution which has correspondence with rise motion of the FR. The emission measure and temperature along the FR exhibits increasing trend with its rising motion, indicating reconnection in the thinning current sheet underneath the FR. Net magnetic flux of the AR evaluated at north and south polarities showed decreasing behavior whereas the net current in these fluxes exhibits increasing trend. As the negative (positive) flux is having dominant positive (n...

  13. Growth-Prediction Model for Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis on Future Optimally Thinned Farm-Ropes in Great Belt (Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul S. Larsen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed BioEnergetic Growth (BEG model for blue mussels (Mytilus edulis, valid for juvenile mussels, has been further developed to an ‘extended model’ and an alternative ‘ad hoc BEG model’ valid for post-metamorphic mussels, where the latter accounts for changing ambient chl a concentration. It was used to predict the growth of M. edulis on optimally thinned farm-ropes in Great Belt (Denmark, from newly settled post-metamorphic mussels of an initial shell size of 0.8 mm to marketable juvenile 30–35 mm ‘mini-mussels’. Such mussels will presumably in the near future be introduced as a new Danish, smaller-sized consumer product. Field data for actual growth (from Day 0 = 14 June 2011 showed that size of ‘mini-mussel’ was reached on Day 109 (Oct 1 and length 38 mm on Day 178 (Dec 9 while the corresponding predictions using the extended model were Day 121 (Oct 13 and Day 159 (Nov 20. Similar results were obtained by use of the ad hoc BEG model which also demonstrated the sensitivity of growth prediction to levels of chl a concentration, but less to temperature. The results suggest that it is possible (when the conditions are optimal, i.e., no intraspecific competition ensured by sufficient thinning to produce ‘mini-mussels’ in Great Belt during one season, but not the usual marketable 45-mm mussels. We suggest that the prediction model may be used as a practical instrument to evaluate to what degree the actual growth of mussels on farm ropes due to intraspecific competition may deviate from the potential (optimal growth under specified chl a and temperature conditions, and this implies that the effect of thinning to optimize the individual growth by eliminating intraspecific competition can be rationally evaluated.

  14. A novel TMR-based MFL sensor for steel wire rope inspection using the orthogonal test method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B.; Wang, Y. J.; Liu, X. C.; He, C. F.

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) sensors, with their compact configuration and high sensitivity to small defects, have attracted much attention in recent years for the non-destructive testing of ferromagnetic structures. Tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) devices have superior performances in sensitivity and linear operation range over conventional magneto-resistive devices. In this paper, a commercial TMR device is employed for developing an electromagnet-based MFL sensor. The electromagnet magnetizer includes Helmholtz-like coils together with a custom-made magnetic shield. The orthogonal test method is applied to aid the structural parameter optimization to the magnetizer based on the finite element analysis results of magnetic field distribution. In this study a prototype of a TMR-based MFL sensor is developed, and its performances on detecting various types of defects are tested on a scanning apparatus. The experimental results show that the MFL signal induced by a blind hole with dimensions of 0.3 mm in both depth and diameter is detectable. In addition, two adjacent notches located more than 2.0 mm from each other can be clearly distinguished from the received MFL signal. The detectable angular detection range for a single TMR device is estimated as 52° in the tested linear shaft rod. The consistency between the simulated and received MFL signal induced by a row of notches inspires confidence in the proposed sensor design method, which in the future can be transplanted for TMR-based sensor array design. Finally, the TMR-based MFL sensor is used for detecting a flaw of a single broken wire with a diameter of 0.5 mm, and the induced MFL signal can be clearly recognized from the oscillation signal that is generated by the twisted rope surface. Therefore, the presented TMR-based MFL sensor has great potential for steel wire rope inspection with enhanced sensitivity to small defects, and it is capable of being integrated into production lines due to its compact

  15. Laboratory Building.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  16. Process and device for cutting a thin wall with an explosive rope. Procede et dispositif pour le decoupage d'une structure mince a l'aide d'un cordeau detonant de decoupe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duverger de Cuy, G.; Miachon, G.; Regnier, J.

    1986-08-08

    On the wall of the structure to be cut is fixed a hollow section defining with the wall a duct in which is introduced an inflatable tube bearing the explosive rope. Before firing the tube is inflated and the explosive rope is closely applied on the wall. Application is made to dismantling of radioactive containers, enclosure etc... minimizing the time of exposure to radiations for the personnel.

  17. The technical analysis of drilling wire rope breaking%钻井钢丝绳断裂原因的技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪践; 秦高建

    2001-01-01

    钻机提升系统的钻井钢丝绳在油田钻井过程中突然断裂,造成设备顿钻事故。通过对钢丝绳断裂部位、断口形貌、制造质量以及游动系统滑轮参数等调查情况进行分析,剖析了钢丝绳断裂产生的原因。%The drilling wire rope of a rig's hoisting system suddenly brokeduring drilling process,cause serious damage of equipment. Through analysis of the breaking location,shape of breaking section,manufacturing quality and sheave factor of hoisting system ,the breaking reason of the drilling wire rope is discussed.

  18. Validation of mathematical models for predicting the swirling flow and the vortex rope in a Francis turbine operated at partial discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuibin, P.A.; Okulov, Valery; Susan-Resiga, R.F.;

    2010-01-01

    The vortex rope in a hydro turbine draft tube is one the main and strong sources of pulsations in non-optimal modes of hydro turbine operation. We examine the case of a Francis turbine model operated at partial discharge, where a strong precessing vortex rope is developed in the discharge cone...... recover all this information without actually computing the full three-dimensional unsteady flow in the hydraulic turbine. As a result, we provide valuable mathematical tools for assessing the turbine behaviour at off-design operating regimes in the early stages of runner design, with computational effort...... several orders of magnitude less than the current approaches of simulating the complex turbine flow....

  19. Design of Single Rope Road Car Wheel Beam%浅议单绳索道人车托轮梁设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽平

    2015-01-01

    单绳索道人车是煤矿常见的运输工具,其可以减轻井下工人劳动强度,提高工作效率。介绍了煤矿井下单绳索道人车托轮梁在特定条件下的设计改进的情况,并与传统的托轮梁蹬梁方式在同等条件下进行了效果对比分析。%Single rope road car is common means of transport of coal mine, its use can reduce underground workers labor intensity, improve work efficiency. this paper introduces the coal mine car wheel road flyover single rope beam design improvement of under certain conditions,and compared with the traditional roller beam way off beam under the same conditions the effect comparison analysis.

  20. Fruit thinning in organic apple growing with optimized timing and combinations strategies including (new) natural spray products and mechanical rope-divices

    OpenAIRE

    Weibel, Franco P.; Chevillat, Véronique S.; Tschabold, Jean-Luc; Stadler, Walter

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to find new thinning methods for organic apple production able to fulfil the standards of Bio-Suisse, the main label organisation of the organic food sector in Switzerland. The 14 trials reported were carried out during flowering period in 2003 and 2004 on the cultivars Pinova, Gala, Maigold, Elstar, Golden Delicious and Otava at different sites. The results confirm the good efficiency of mechanical thinning with the rope thinner and the thinning potential of vinasse,...

  1. Fruit thinning in organic apple growing with optimized timing and combination strategies including (new) natural spray products and mechanical rope-devices

    OpenAIRE

    Weibel, Franco P.; Chevillat, Véronique S.; Tschabold, Jean-Luc; Stadler, Walter

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to find new thinning methods for organic apple production able to fulfil the standards of Bio-Suisse, the main label organisation of the organic food sector in Switzerland. The 14 trials reported were carried out during flowering period in 2003 and 2004 on the cultivars Pinova, Gala, Maigold, Elstar, Golden Delicious and Otava at different sites. The results confirm the good efficiency of mechanical thinning with the rope thinner and the thinning potential of vina...

  2. Building Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg; Isik Kulu-Glasgow

    2009-01-01

    The social inclusion of immigrants and ethnic minorities is a central issue in many European countries. Governments face challenges in ensuring housing for immigrants, delivering public services, promoting neighbourhood coexistence and addressing residential segregation. The Building Inclusion proje

  3. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family's native language) is taught as the child's second language through reading, writing, speech, and use of residual ... that parents can use to help their child learn language. There are many types of building blocks, and ...

  4. MAVEN observations of magnetic flux ropes with a strong field amplitude in the Martian magnetosheath during the ICME passage on 8 March 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takuya; Luhmann, Janet G.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Espley, Jared R.; Seki, Kanako; Brain, David A.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; McFadden, James P.; Mitchell, David L.; Mazelle, Christian; Harada, Yuki; Livi, Roberto; DiBraccio, Gina A.; Connerney, John E. P.; Andersson, Lailla; Jakosky, Bruce M.

    2016-05-01

    We present initial results of strong field amplitude flux ropes observed by Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission around Mars during the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) passage on 8 March 2015. The observed durations were shorter than 5 s and the magnetic field magnitudes peaked above 80 nT, which is a few times stronger than those usually seen in the magnetosheath barrier. These are the first unique observations that MAVEN detected such flux ropes with a strong field at high altitudes (>5000 km). Across these structures, MAVEN coincidentally measured planetary heavy ions with energies higher than a few keV. The spatial properties inferred from the Grad-Shafranov equation suggest that the speed of the structure can be estimated at least an order of magnitude faster than those previously reported quiet-time counterparts. Hence, the space weather event like the ICME passage can be responsible for generating the observed strong field, fast-traveling flux ropes.

  5. Long-duration magnetic clouds: a comparison of analyses using torus- and cylinder-shaped flux rope models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Marubashi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We identified 17 magnetic clouds (MCs with durations longer than 30 h, surveying the solar wind data obtained by the WIND and ACE spacecraft during 10 years from 1995 through 2004. Then, the magnetic field structures of these 17 MCs were analyzed by the technique of the least-squares fitting to force-free flux rope models. The analysis was made with both the cylinder and torus models when possible, and the results from the two models are compared. The torus model was used in order to approximate the curved portion of the MCs near the flanks of the MC loops. As a result, we classified the 17 MCs into 4 groups. They are (1 5 MC events exhibiting magnetic field rotations through angles substantially larger than 180° which can be interpreted only by the torus model; (2 3 other MC events that can be interpreted only by the torus model as well, though the rotation angles of magnetic fields are less than 180°; (3 3 MC events for which similar geometries are obtained from both the torus and cylinder models; and (4 6 MC events for which the resultant geometries obtained from both models are substantially different from each other, even though the observed magnetic field variations can be interpreted by either of the torus model or the cylinder model. It is concluded that the MC events in the first and second groups correspond to those cases where the spacecraft traversed the MCs near the flanks of the MC loops, the difference between the two being attributed to the difference in distance between the torus axis and the spacecraft trajectory. The MC events in the third group are interpreted as the cases where the spacecraft traversed near the apexes of the MC loops. For the MC events in the fourth group, the real geometry cannot be determined from the model fitting technique alone. Though an attempt was made to determine which model is more plausible for each of the MCs in this group by comparing the characteristics of associated bidirectional electron

  6. Wire Rope Defects with the Micro-magnetic NDT Technology%钢丝绳缺陷的微磁无损检测技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史荣; 魏英杰; 王劲东

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨微磁检测技术在钢丝绳无损探伤领域的应用,采用有限元法,分析了无外加磁场激励状态下利用钢丝绳自身剩余磁场实现断丝缺陷检测的可行性。计算了钢丝绳缺陷处及周围空气中的漏磁场强度、分布规律及可测性;论述了地磁场的影响,为微磁检测技术提供了理论依据。通过对钢丝绳微磁检测方法的实验研究,得出了不同断丝状态下漏磁场的检测结果及变化规律。给出了钢丝绳金属截面损失与检测系统输出量的函数关系,验证了微磁无损探伤技术的可行性与可靠性。%With the purpose of applying micromagnetic detection technology to nondestructive testing for wire ropes,the finite element method is used for analysis of the feasibility of the broken wire defects detection,using the residual magnetic field of the wire rope itself without extra magnetic field excitation. The wire rope defect points and the leakage magnetic field strength in surrounding air,distribution and the testability have been calculated. Then the influence of the geomagnetic field has been discussed,which is a theoretical basis for micromagnetic detection technology. Moreover,the testing results and the change laws in different broken wires states,as well as the functional relationship between the rope metal sectional area loss and the outputs of the detection system,are obtained through the experimental researches of micromagnetic detection method for wire ropes,that have verified the feasibility and reliability of micromagnetic nondestructive testing technology.

  7. Direct Evidence of an Eruptive, Filament-Hosting Magnetic Flux Rope Leading to a Fast Solar Coronal Mass Ejection

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Bin; Gary, Dale E

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are believed to be at the heart of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A well-known example is the prominence cavity in the low corona that sometimes makes up a three-part white-light CME upon its eruption. Such a system, which is usually observed in quiet-Sun regions, has long been suggested to be the manifestation of an MFR with relatively cool filament material collecting near its bottom. However, observational evidence of eruptive, filament-hosting MFR systems has been elusive for those originating in active regions. By utilizing multi-passband extreme-ultra-violet (EUV) observations from SDO/AIA, we present direct evidence of an eruptive MFR in the low corona that exhibits a hot envelope and a cooler core; the latter is likely the upper part of a filament that undergoes a partial eruption, which is later observed in the upper corona as the coiled kernel of a fast, white-light CME. This MFR-like structure exists more than one hour prior to its eruption, and displays successive ...

  8. Localization of the most amplified perturbation in a vortex rope located in Francis turbine at partial discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topor, Marcel; Bistrian, Diana A.

    2012-11-01

    The vortex rope in a hydro turbine draft cone is one the main and strong sources of pulsations in non-optimal modes of hydro turbine operation. The subject of this paper consists in development of a numerical procedure to study the absolute/convective hydrodynamic instability of the swirl flow downstream the Francis turbine runner by means of parallel computing. As an alternative to classical methods as finite volume and finite element methods, the present paper proposes a new approach of the analysis of the swirling flow based on the method of orthogonal decomposition. This method has the benefit of reducing the computational time compared to other techniques. The important point of this paper is that highlights the validation of the numerical results computed by means of the proposed technique with corresponding published results. Moreover, the algorithm provided the growth rate curve as function of mode number both in absolute and convective analysis, some presumptions on the streamwise development of the instability in the vortex thus being made.

  9. Formation of Magnetic Flux Ropes during Confined Flaring Well Before the Onset of a Pair of Major Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Chintzoglou, Georgios; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    NOAA Active Region (AR) 11429 was the source of twin super-fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The CMEs took place within a hour from each other, with the onset of the first taking place in the beginning of March 7, 2012. This AR fulfills all the requirements for a "super active region"; namely, Hale's law incompatibility and a $\\delta$-spot magnetic configuration. One of the biggest storms of Solar Cycle 24 to date ($D_{st}=-143$ nT) was associated with one of these events. Magnetic Flux Ropes (MFRs) are twisted magnetic structures in the corona, best seen in $\\sim$10 MK hot plasma emission and are often considered the core of erupting structures. However, their "dormant" existence in the solar atmosphere (i.e. prior to eruptions), is an open question. Aided by multi-wavelength observations (SDO/HMI/AIA and STEREO EUVI B) and a Non-Linear Force-Free (NLFFF) model for the coronal magnetic field, our work uncovers two separate, weakly-twisted magnetic flux systems which suggest the existence of pre-eruption MF...

  10. Direct evidence of an eruptive, filament-hosting magnetic flux rope leading to a fast solar coronal mass ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin; Gary, D. E. [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Bastian, T. S., E-mail: bin.chen@cfa.harvard.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are believed to be at the heart of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A well-known example is the prominence cavity in the low corona that sometimes makes up a three-part white-light (WL) CME upon its eruption. Such a system, which is usually observed in quiet-Sun regions, has long been suggested to be the manifestation of an MFR with relatively cool filament material collecting near its bottom. However, observational evidence of eruptive, filament-hosting MFR systems has been elusive for those originating in active regions. By utilizing multi-passband extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations from Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, we present direct evidence of an eruptive MFR in the low corona that exhibits a hot envelope and a cooler core; the latter is likely the upper part of a filament that undergoes a partial eruption, which is later observed in the upper corona as the coiled kernel of a fast, WL CME. This MFR-like structure exists more than 1 hr prior to its eruption, and displays successive stages of dynamical evolution, in which both ideal and non-ideal physical processes may be involved. The timing of the MFR kinematics is found to be well correlated with the energy release of the associated long-duration C1.9 flare. We suggest that the long-duration flare is the result of prolonged energy release associated with the vertical current sheet induced by the erupting MFR.

  11. A Full Study on the Sun-Earth Connection of an Earth-Directed CME Magnetic Flux Rope

    CERN Document Server

    Vemareddy, P

    2015-01-01

    We present an investigation of an eruption event of coronal mass ejection (CME) magnetic flux rope (MFR) from source active region (AR) NOAA 11719 on 11 April 2013 utilizing observations from SDO, STEREO, SOHO, and WIND spacecraft. The source AR consists of pre-existing sigmoidal structure stacked over a filament channel which is regarded as MFR system. EUV observations of low corona suggest a further development of this MFR system by added axial flux through tether-cutting reconnection of loops at the middle of sigmoid under the influence of continuous slow flux motions during past two days. Our study implies that the MFR system in the AR is initiated to upward motion by kink-instability and further driven by torus-instability. The CME morphology, captured in simultaneous three-point coronagraph observations, is fitted with Graduated Cylindrical Shell (GCS) model and discerns an MFR topology with orientation aligning with magnetic neutral line in the source AR. This MFR expands self-similarly and is found to...

  12. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    The main question that guides this paper is how governments are focusing (and must focus) on competence building (education and training) when designing and implementing innovation policies. With this approach, the paper aims at filling the gap between the existing literature on competences...... on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  13. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which...... evolves from a simple establishment of a contractual relationship to a central and strategic part of construction. The authors relate to cultural, ethical and social and behavioural sciences as the fundamental basis for analysis and understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the procurement system...

  14. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...

  15. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...

  16. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  17. Critical chain project management and drum-buffer-rope tools integration in construction industry - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Cyplik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of integrating the theory of constraints tools in reorganizing management system in a mechanical engineering company was presented in this article. The main aim of the concept is to enable the enterprise to satisfy the customers' expectations at reasonable costs, which allows for making a profit and creating an agile enterprise in the long run. Methods: Due to the individual character of the production process and service process in analyzed company, the described concept using theory of constraints project management (CCPM and manufacturing (DBR tools. The authors use performance levels conception to build an integration tool focused on the interaction and collaboration between different departments. The integration tool has been developed and verified in Polish manufacturing company. Results: In described model a tool compatible with CCPM operates on the level of the customer service process. Shop floor is controlled based on the DBR method. The authors hold that the integration of between TOC tools is of key importance. The integration of TOC tools dedicated to managing customer service and shop floor scheduling and controlling requires developing a mechanism for repeated transmitting the information between them. This mechanism has been developed. Conclusions: The conducted research showed that the developed tool integrating CCPM and DBR had a positive impact on the enterprise performance. It enables improving the company performance in meeting target group requirements by focusing on enhancing the efficiency of processes running in the company and tasks processed at particular work stations. The described model has been successfully implemented in one of the Polish mechanical engineering companies.

  18. Selection of flat rope for balance and matters needing attention in its use%平衡用扁钢丝绳选择及使用注意事项

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德英; 邵宏宇; 唐晓枫; 李广宇

    2013-01-01

    平衡用扁钢丝绳虽然不承受提升载荷,但在提升系统中占据非常重要的位置.如果扁钢丝绳出现问题,同样会影响提升系统正常工作,从而造成停产甚至更大损失.介绍扁钢丝绳的选择要求:首绳与扁尾绳的重量要匹配;根据确定的尾绳重量按照标准中给出的扁钢丝绳参考重量来选择重量最接近的结构和尺寸;表面尽量选择A类镀锌,防腐蚀效果好;涂油产品所涂油脂的种类应根据实际需要进行选择;确定公称抗拉强度时要按照一定的安全系数进行校核;编织方式根据扁钢丝绳结构确定.使用中应加强对扁钢丝绳的检查与维护,防止卡板损伤、坠物砸伤、钢丝绳扭结缠绕、撞伤以及严重锈蚀等,确保提升系统的安全.%Although flat rope don' t bear lifting load,it occupy very important position in lifting system,if the rope go wrong,it can affect lifting system to cause stop producing,even more loss.The selection requirements are introduced:the weight of front rope matched with that of tail rope; according to confirmed tail rope weight and the reference weight given by standard to select structure and size with proximal weight; to select A class galvanizing rope as far as possible,for its good anticorrosion effect; according to practical demands to choose greases for needing oiled products; according to certain safety coefficient to check as confirming normal tensile strength; braid mode according to flat rope structure to determine.Strengthening flat rope checking and maintaining in use,to prevent locking plate damage,injured by falling objects,wire rope winding with twist together,crush injure and serious corrosion,assure lifting system safety.

  19. Direct ultimate disposal of spent fuel. Simulation of shaft transport. Study of rope slippage (TA 10); Direkte Endlagerung ausgedienter Brennelemente DEAB. Simulation des Schachttransportes. Untersuchungen zum Seilrutsch (TA 10)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filbert, W. [comp.; Simmich, K. [Siemag Transplan GmbH, Netphen (Germany); Weber, H. [Siemag Transplan GmbH, Netphen (Germany); Gerlach, A. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany); Sindern, W. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1994-03-01

    The test results show that rope slippage does occur occasionally in Koepe hoists, mainly with hinged loads. The countermeasures chosen in most cases include modification of the rope lubrication (coefficient of friction), of load ratios S{sub 1}/S{sub 2}, (ballast, reduction of payload), or organisational measures (maintenance). Results and data are reported giving evidence that with the proposed, additional measures for preventing or managing rope slippage, the designed Koepe hoist for hinged payloads up to 85 t can be operated safely without risk of damage caused by rope slippage. It is also proven that there is no need to change ballast in case of transport of varying payloads, as this will not create the risk of undue rope slippage. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Die Ergebnisse der Studie zeigen, dass Seilrutschvorfaelle an Treibscheibenfoerderanlagen - und dies vorrangig bei Einhaengelasten - vereinzelt aufgetreten sind. Als Gegenmassnahmen wurden in den meisten Faellen Modifizierungen der Seilschmierverhaeltnisse (Reibwert Seil/Futter), der Seillastverhaeltnisse S{sub 1}/S{sub 2} (Ballast, Reduzierung der Nutzlast) oder organisatorische Massnahmen (Wartung) durchgefuehrt. Unter Beruecksichtigung der vorgeschlagenen zusaetzlich seilrutschvermeidenden oder -beherrschenden Massnahmen und der Auslegungsdaten ist eine Treibscheibenanlage fuer Einhaengelasten bis 85 t seilrutschsicher realisierbar. Ebenso ist nachgewiesen, dass auf einen Ballastwechsel zum Transport unterschiedlicher Nutzlasten ohne Rueckwirkungen auf die Seilrutschsicherheit der Anlage verzichtet werden kann. (orig./HP)

  20. On the Origin of Coronal Mass Ejections: How Does the Emergence of a Magnetic Flux Rope Reorganize the Solar Corona?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussev, I. I.; Galsgaard, K.; Lugaz, N.; Sokolov, I.

    2010-12-01

    The physical causes leading to the occurrence of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun have been debated for almost four decades now. One of the leading mechanisms suggests that a CME may occur as the result of the emergence of a twisted magnetic flux rope from the convection zone into the solar corona. This process have been investigated by a number of researchers over the years, and it has been demonstrated that an eruption of the coronal magnetic field can in principle occur. The majority of these studies, however, involve some ad-hoc prescription of the electric field at the photosphere resembling flux emergence, and they neglect the ambient coronal magnetic field. In addition, most of these flux-emergence simulations are performed in a Cartesian domain, which extends only to a few dozen pressure scale-heights into the corona. Thus, it is difficult to assess the role of boundary driving and limited computational domain on the resulting evolution of the erupting coronal magnetic field. In this paper, we present a new model of CMEs that mitigates these two effects. To achieve this, we couple the "local" magnetic-flux-emergence (MFE) model of Archontis et al. (2004) with a global MHD model of the solar corona and solar wind. The model coupling is performed using the Space Weather Modeling Framework. In the coupled model, the MFE simulation provides time-dependent boundary conditions for all MHD quantities into the global model, where the physical coupling is done at the photospheric boundary. The physical evolution of the system is followed using the BATS-R-US "ideal" MHD code well beyond the complete emergence of the magnetic flux from the convection zone. We discuss the dynamics of the flux emergence process and the related response of the pre-existing coronal magnetic field in the context of CME production.

  1. Initiation and Eruption Process of Magnetic Flux Rope from Solar Active Region NOAA 11719 to Earth-directed CME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemareddy, P.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    An eruption event launched from the solar active region (AR) NOAA 11719 is investigated based on coronal EUV observations and photospheric magnetic field measurements obtained from the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The AR consists of a filament channel originating from a major sunspot and its south section is associated with an inverse-S sigmoidal system as observed in Atmospheric Imaging Assembly passbands. We regard the sigmoid as the main body of the flux rope (FR). There also exists a twisted flux bundle crossing over this FR. This overlying flux bundle transforms in shape similar to kink-rise evolution, which corresponds with the rise motion of the FR. The emission measure and temperature along the FR exhibits an increasing trend with its rising motion, indicating reconnection in the thinning current sheet underneath the FR. Net magnetic flux of the AR, evaluated at north and south polarities, showed decreasing behavior whereas the net current in these fluxes exhibits an increasing trend. Because the negative (positive) flux has a dominant positive (negative) current, the chirality of AR flux system is likely negative (left handed) in order to be consistent with the chirality of inverse S-sigmoidal FR. This analysis of magnetic fields of the source AR suggests that the cancelling fluxes are prime factors of the monotonous twisting of the FR system, reaching to a critical state to trigger kink instability and rise motion. This rise motion may have led to the onset of the torus instability, resulting in an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection, and the progressive reconnection in the thinning current sheet beneath the rising FR led to the M6.5 flare.

  2. Evaluation of the potential end use of oils produced by the ROPE copyright process from California tar sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.

    1989-12-01

    The oil products produced by the rope process from Process Development Unit (PDU) run SPR-111 were evaluated for potential end use. This run was a five-day test using Arroyo Grande tar sand from California as the feed to the PDU. The distillate from knockout {number sign}2 was hydrotreated to produce a series of process intermediates. One of the intermediates was evaluated as a feedstock for the production of transportation fuels. The heavy product oil was distilled to produce a residue that was evaluated as an asphalt. Analysis of a selected process intermediate shows that it is not suitable for the production of gasoline or for use as a gasoline-blending feedstock. The process intermediate was not suitable for the production of aviation turbine fuels because of a high concentration of alkanes. However, the presence of alkanes does make the oil valuable as a feedstock for the production of diesel fuel. The heavy oil product as received from the PDU is not suitable for the production of an asphaltic material because it contains a large amount of very fine solid material. However, after filtration and distillation, the application of ASTM D-3381 specification tests to the +410{degree}C residue shows that all of the requirements are met except for the trichloroethylene solubility requirement. This value is below specification because a small amount of mineral matter was not removed during the filtrations process. Also, the residue had a very high aging index. Results from successive freeze-thaw cycling also show that the residue is comparable to petroleum asphalts when it is coated on the same appropriate aggregate. 14 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. INITIATION AND ERUPTION PROCESS OF MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE FROM SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 11719 TO EARTH-DIRECTED CME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An eruption event launched from the solar active region (AR) NOAA 11719 is investigated based on coronal EUV observations and photospheric magnetic field measurements obtained from the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The AR consists of a filament channel originating from a major sunspot and its south section is associated with an inverse-S sigmoidal system as observed in Atmospheric Imaging Assembly passbands. We regard the sigmoid as the main body of the flux rope (FR). There also exists a twisted flux bundle crossing over this FR. This overlying flux bundle transforms in shape similar to kink-rise evolution, which corresponds with the rise motion of the FR. The emission measure and temperature along the FR exhibits an increasing trend with its rising motion, indicating reconnection in the thinning current sheet underneath the FR. Net magnetic flux of the AR, evaluated at north and south polarities, showed decreasing behavior whereas the net current in these fluxes exhibits an increasing trend. Because the negative (positive) flux has a dominant positive (negative) current, the chirality of AR flux system is likely negative (left handed) in order to be consistent with the chirality of inverse S-sigmoidal FR. This analysis of magnetic fields of the source AR suggests that the cancelling fluxes are prime factors of the monotonous twisting of the FR system, reaching to a critical state to trigger kink instability and rise motion. This rise motion may have led to the onset of the torus instability, resulting in an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection, and the progressive reconnection in the thinning current sheet beneath the rising FR led to the M6.5 flare

  4. INITIATION AND ERUPTION PROCESS OF MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE FROM SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 11719 TO EARTH-DIRECTED CME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vemareddy, P. [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Badi Road, Dewali, Udaipur 313 001 (India); Zhang, J., E-mail: vema@prl.res.in [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    An eruption event launched from the solar active region (AR) NOAA 11719 is investigated based on coronal EUV observations and photospheric magnetic field measurements obtained from the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The AR consists of a filament channel originating from a major sunspot and its south section is associated with an inverse-S sigmoidal system as observed in Atmospheric Imaging Assembly passbands. We regard the sigmoid as the main body of the flux rope (FR). There also exists a twisted flux bundle crossing over this FR. This overlying flux bundle transforms in shape similar to kink-rise evolution, which corresponds with the rise motion of the FR. The emission measure and temperature along the FR exhibits an increasing trend with its rising motion, indicating reconnection in the thinning current sheet underneath the FR. Net magnetic flux of the AR, evaluated at north and south polarities, showed decreasing behavior whereas the net current in these fluxes exhibits an increasing trend. Because the negative (positive) flux has a dominant positive (negative) current, the chirality of AR flux system is likely negative (left handed) in order to be consistent with the chirality of inverse S-sigmoidal FR. This analysis of magnetic fields of the source AR suggests that the cancelling fluxes are prime factors of the monotonous twisting of the FR system, reaching to a critical state to trigger kink instability and rise motion. This rise motion may have led to the onset of the torus instability, resulting in an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection, and the progressive reconnection in the thinning current sheet beneath the rising FR led to the M6.5 flare.

  5. Magnetic Flux Rope Shredding by Quasi-Separatrix Layers: The Detrimental Effects of Magnetic Topology on Solar Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintzoglou, Georgios; Stenborg, Guillermo; Savcheva, Antonia; Vourlidas, Angelos; Tassev, Svetlin; Tun Beltran, Samuel

    2016-07-01

    We present the analysis of an unusual failed eruption event observed in high cadence and in many wavelengths during the campaign in support of the VAULT2.0 sounding rocket launch. The refurbished Very high Angular resolution Ultraviolet Telescope (VAULT2.0) is a Lyalpha (1216AA) spectroheliograph launched on September 30, 2014. The objective of the VAULT2.0 project is the study of the chromosphere-corona interface. The observing campaign targeted active region AR 12172 and was closely coordinated with the textsl{Hinode/} and textsl{IRIS/} missions and several ground-based observatories (NSO/IBIS an SOLIS, and BBSO) ). A filament eruption accompanied by small level heating (at the GOES C-class level) occurred around the VAULT2.0 launch. No CME was observed. The eruption and its source region, however, was recorded by the campaign instruments in all atmospheric heights ranging from the photosphere to the corona in high cadence and spatial resolution. This is a rare occasion which enables us to perform a comprehensive investigation on a failed eruption. We find that a rising Magnetic Flux Rope-like (MFR) structure was destroyed during its interaction with the overlying magnetic field creating downflows of cool plasma and diffuse hot coronal structures reminiscent of 'spines'. We employ MHD simulations to show that the magnetic topology of the overlying field is responsible for the destruction of the MFR. Our unique observations suggest that the magnetic topology of the corona is a key ingredient for a successful eruption.

  6. Building Letters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Cabinet是种十分吸引人却很简单的衬线字体,是由一名匿名字体设计师专门为Building Letters最新的资金筹集活动所设计的。这个Building Letters包中包含一个CDROM,有32种字体,以及一本专门设计的杂志和两张由Eboy和Emigre所设计的海报。字体光盘样例是由世界顶级的字体设计师们设计的.

  7. Model Building

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, Paul H.

    1997-01-01

    In this talk I begin with some general discussion of model building in particle theory, emphasizing the need for motivation and testability. Three illustrative examples are then described. The first is the Left-Right model which provides an explanation for the chirality of quarks and leptons. The second is the 331-model which offers a first step to understanding the three generations of quarks and leptons. Third and last is the SU(15) model which can accommodate the light leptoquarks possibly...

  8. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  9. The Effect of an Eight-Week Rope Skipping Exercise Program on Interleukin-10 and C-Reactive Protein in Overweight and Obese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The different effects of exercise on obesity in obese adolescents have not sufficiently been studied. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of an eight-week rope skipping exercise on interleukin-10 (IL-10 and C-reactive protein (CRP in obese and overweight adolescents. Patients and Methods In this semi-experimental study, using purposive convenience sampling 30 overweight and obese teens were randomly divided into two groups: the experimental (height 165.28 cm; weight 85.53 kg and age 13.73 years old and control (height 164.54 cm; weight 83.02 kg and age 13.93 years old groups. Then the experimental group performed the eight-week rope skipping exercise program while the control group did not receive any intervention and was only following up. Before and after the exercise, the variables including weight, fat percentage, body mass index (BMI and the maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2max in both groups were measured. To assess the amount of serum IL-10, CRP, 48 hours before and after the exercise, fasting blood samples were taken during the two-stage mode. The correlated t-test and the independent t-test were used to compare the intragroup and intergroup relationships, respectively. Results There was no significant change in the serum levels of IL-10 (P > 0.05; however, the intragroup comparison in the experimental group showed a significant increase in serum levels of IL.10 (P < 0.05. Moreover, the variables of the weight, BMI, fat percentage, V02max and CRP were significantly changed (P < 0.05. Conclusions A rope skipping protocol increases the anti-inflammatory index, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, and improves the body compounds and immune system of the obese and overweight teens.

  10. A THEMIS Survey of Flux Ropes and Traveling Compression Regions: Location of the Near-Earth Reconnection Site During Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, S. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Auster, H. U.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2011-01-01

    A statistical study of flux ropes and traveling compression regions (TCRs) during the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) second tail season has been performed. A combined total of 135 flux ropes and TCRs in the range GSM X approx -14 to -31 R(sub E) were identified, many of these occurring in series of two or more events separated by a few tens of seconds. Those occurring within 10 min of each other were combined into aggregated reconnection events. For the purposes of this survey, these are most likely the products of reconnect ion occurring simultaneously at multiple, closely spaced x-lines as opposed to statistically independent episodes of reconnection. The 135 flux ropes and TCRs were grouped into 87 reconnection events; of these, 28 were moving tailward and 59 were moving Earthward. The average location of the near-Earth x-line determined from statistical analysis of these reconnection events is (X(sub GSM), Y*(sub GSM)) = (-30R(sub E), 5R(sub E)), where Y* includes a correction for the solar aberration angle. A strong east-west asymmetry is present in the tailward events, with >80% being observed at GSM Y* > O. Our results indicate that the Earthward flows are similarly asymmetric in the midtail region, becoming more symmetric inside - 18 R(sub E). Superposed epoch analyses indicate that the occurrence of reconnection closer to the Earth, i.e., X > -20 R(sub E), is associated with elevated solar wind velocity and enhanced negative interplanetary magnetic field B(sub z). Reconnection events taking place closer to the Earth are also far more effective in producing geomagnetic activity, judged by the AL index, than reconnection initiated beyond X approx -25 R(sub E).

  11. Hydro-acoustic resonance behavior in presence of a precessing vortex rope: observation of a lock-in phenomenon at part load Francis turbine operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Müller, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2014-03-01

    Francis turbines operating at part load condition experience the development of a cavitating helical vortex rope in the draft tube cone at the runner outlet. The precession movement of this vortex rope induces local convective pressure fluctuations and a synchronous pressure pulsation acting as a forced excitation for the hydraulic system, propagating in the entire system. In the draft tube, synchronous pressure fluctuations with a frequency different to the precession frequency may also be observed in presence of cavitation. In the case of a matching between the precession frequency and the synchronous surge frequency, hydro-acoustic resonance occurs in the draft tube inducing high pressure fluctuations throughout the entire hydraulic system, causing torque and power pulsations. The risk of such resonances limits the possible extension of the Francis turbine operating range. A more precise knowledge of the phenomenon occurring at such resonance conditions and prediction capabilities of the induced pressure pulsations needs therefore to be developed. This paper proposes a detailed study of the occurrence of hydro-acoustic resonance for one particular part load operating point featuring a well-developed precessing vortex rope and corresponding to 64% of the BEP. It focuses particularly on the evolution of the local interaction between the pressure fluctuations at the precession frequency and the synchronous surge mode passing through the resonance condition. For this purpose, an experimental investigation is performed on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine, including pressure fluctuation measurements in the draft tube and in the upstream piping system. Changing the pressure level in the draft tube, resonance occurrences are highlighted for different Froude numbers. The evolution of the hydro-acoustic response of the system suggests that a lock-in effect between the excitation frequency and the natural frequency may occur at low Froude number, inducing a hydro

  12. Hydro-acoustic resonance behavior in presence of a precessing vortex rope: observation of a lock-in phenomenon at part load Francis turbine operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis turbines operating at part load condition experience the development of a cavitating helical vortex rope in the draft tube cone at the runner outlet. The precession movement of this vortex rope induces local convective pressure fluctuations and a synchronous pressure pulsation acting as a forced excitation for the hydraulic system, propagating in the entire system. In the draft tube, synchronous pressure fluctuations with a frequency different to the precession frequency may also be observed in presence of cavitation. In the case of a matching between the precession frequency and the synchronous surge frequency, hydro-acoustic resonance occurs in the draft tube inducing high pressure fluctuations throughout the entire hydraulic system, causing torque and power pulsations. The risk of such resonances limits the possible extension of the Francis turbine operating range. A more precise knowledge of the phenomenon occurring at such resonance conditions and prediction capabilities of the induced pressure pulsations needs therefore to be developed. This paper proposes a detailed study of the occurrence of hydro-acoustic resonance for one particular part load operating point featuring a well-developed precessing vortex rope and corresponding to 64% of the BEP. It focuses particularly on the evolution of the local interaction between the pressure fluctuations at the precession frequency and the synchronous surge mode passing through the resonance condition. For this purpose, an experimental investigation is performed on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine, including pressure fluctuation measurements in the draft tube and in the upstream piping system. Changing the pressure level in the draft tube, resonance occurrences are highlighted for different Froude numbers. The evolution of the hydro-acoustic response of the system suggests that a lock-in effect between the excitation frequency and the natural frequency may occur at low Froude number, inducing a hydro

  13. 跳绳对中学生肺活量的影响%The effection on Vital Capacity of Rope Skipping for Middle School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范珍妹

    2012-01-01

    Rope skipping is one of sports which can improve the respiratory cycle, long jump rope can improve the vital capacity. Taking the students of Class three Grade two as the research objects, it uses the SPSS13. 0 software system to process the before and after training vital capacity test scores after a year planned training. The results show: Before training and after training vital capacity results were significant differenees~ Prove: Long rope skipping exercises has a certain influence on the improvement of the vital capacity of the secondary school students.%很多体育项目可以改善呼吸系统的循环,跳绳是其中的一项,通过长时间的跳绳运动可以提高肺活量的成绩。以初二(3)班学生为研究对象,经过一年有计划的训练,把他们训练前和训练后肺活量的测试成绩采用SPSS13.0软件系统进行统计处理,结果显示:训练前和训练后他们肺活量的综合成绩有显著性的差异。实验证明:长时间的跳绳练习对中学生肺活量的提高有一定的影响。

  14. 运用微量物证技术鉴定汽车吊钢丝绳断裂原因%Using Trace Material Evidence Identification for Car Hanging Wire Rope Fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏志伟; 张强; 李锋

    2015-01-01

    Through share split testing of the 20-ton crane wire rope,microstructure analysis,fracture surface analysis to analysis the fracture of the wire rope,showed he wire rope wear serious,the direct cause of the fracture is a number of broken stocks.%通过对20吨汽车起重机钢丝绳进行拆股检测、断口分析、显微组织分析检测,分析钢丝绳断裂原因,结果表明钢丝绳的磨损严重,存在多处断股是其断裂的直接原因。

  15. FROM FRAYED ROPE TO TIGHT STRINGS: NEGOTIATING NON-PROFIT GOVERNANCE IN A NEOLIBERAL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ready, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberal policies have created economic disparities and increased the gap between the rich and the poor in Canada. The Mulroney government initiated neoliberal revisions to the Canadian social welfare state as it quietly changed complex regulations that impacted the welfare and well-being of Canadians. This government worked “by stealth” and with little consultation to dismantle key components of the social welfare state, while publicly pronouncing its sacred value. In Ontario, neoliberal policies are identified with the Harris government’s visible and public attack on the poor, on women and on those marginalized by race. The Harris government made significant cuts to services offered by non-governmental organizations (NGOs and, in particular, to women’s organizations and advocacy groups. This paper examines the impact of neoliberalism by exploring changes through such policies in the relationship between the state and non-profit organizations in Ontario. It is based on initial findings from qualitative research conducted in 2010 and 2011 with three YWCA organizations. It characterizes a shift from the way NGO-state relationships were depicted by Katherine Scott in 2003 as a “frayed rope” about to break, to being represented by an image of multiple “tight strings.” This research forms part of a dissertation examining how the neoliberal policies that have reduced government support for, and downloaded responsibilities to, the non-profit sector have affected the capacity of community-based women’s organizations to implement a feminist agenda in their work with women. The timeframe studied, from 2003 to 2008, builds on the now extensive scholarly research on the impact of neoliberal policies that occurred from 1995 to 2003, the years led by Progressive Conservative Premiers Mike Harris and Ernie Eves. It closely examines continuities and discontinuities between the two governments, revealing many dangers for women buried in

  16. Determinación del límite de rotura de un cable por Método de los Elementos Finitos. // Determination of resistance load on steel wire rope by Finite Elements Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aguilar Parés

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En ocasiones, se desconocen las características originales de un cable de acero. En estos casos, generalmente se estima ellímite de rotura de un cable a partir del límite de rotura de un alambre del cable. En el presente trabajo, se propone emplearun método para estimar el límite de rotura del cable en base al modelado del cordón mediante elementos finitos. En elcontenido se explica detalladamente el procedimiento y es ejemplificado. El procedimiento es iniciado con el dibujo delcable en un programa de diseño gráfico parámetrico y posteriormente se describen las características generales delmodelado con un programa especializado en el Método de Elementos Finitos. En el análisis se incluye la influencia delcontacto entre los alambres que forman el cordón. Por último, se comparan los resultados obtenidos para el límite de roturadel cable con los datos declarados por el fabricante. Con este procedimiento fueron obtenidos valores mediante modeladodel cable con diferencias entre el 11% al 2,5% en relación al límite de rotura declarado por los fabricantes. Las diferenciasfueron evidenciadas en dependencia de la calidad del mallado empleado.Palabras claves: Cables de acero, elementos finitos, carga límite de rotura._________________________________________________________________________Abstract:In occasions, the original characteristics of steel wire rope are unknown. In these cases, could be estimated the resistanceof the wire rope knowing the wire resistance. In this proposal method for estimating the resistance load of steel wire thecord of the wire rope is modelling using finite elements. Procedure is explained and a sample with a selected wire rope ispresented. It is started with the drawing of the wire rope by professional software. General characteristics of themodelling are described with FEM software. In the analysis, the contact influence in the wires of the cord is included.Lastly, the obtained results of the resistance

  17. 中频感应加热处理在提高航空钢丝绳疲劳性能中的运用%Application of medium frequency induction heating treatment to improve aircraft wire rope fatigue performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马明刚; 唐章国; 吴炳章

    2013-01-01

    为提高航空钢丝绳的疲劳寿命,应消除钢丝绳生产中产生的捻制应力.现有消除应力的方法主要有机械矫直、旋转矫直、油回火处理,但均不能有效消除钢丝绳的内应力.将金属回复理论运用于航空用钢丝绳的研发中,成功开发出用于航空钢丝绳消除应力的专用中频感应加热处理设备,采用此设备对6×19+ IWS-5.1航空钢丝绳进行研制.经过160℃,收线速度25 m/min中频感应加热处理后,钢丝绳无松散、无起壳现象,平直度较好,通条力学性能稳定,疲劳次数达16万次,破断拉力在22.3 kN以上,远高于YB/T 5197-2005《航空用钢丝绳》中相应指标的要求.%In order to improve the fatigue life of aircraft wire rope,the twist stress generated in wire rope production should be eliminated.The current methods to eliminate stress are mainly mechanical straightening,rotation straightening,oil-tempered treatment,but all can' t eliminate inner stress in rope effectively.Apply metal restore theory to aircraft wire rope development,the special medium frequency induction heating equipment for eliminating aircraft wire rope stress was developed successfully.Adopting the equipment to develop 6 × 19 + IWS-5.1 aircraft wire rope,after medium frequency induction heating at 160 ℃ and 25 m/min speed,the wire rope has no loose,no flake,straightness is better,constant quality,fatigue number is up to 160 thousand times,break force is above 22.3 kN,far more super to the requirement of corresponding index of YB/T 5197-2005 aircraft wire rope.

  18. Analysis on Optimum Anchorage Angle of Anchoring Bars (Ropes)%锚杆(索)最佳锚固角的取值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明杰

    2013-01-01

      In the protection design of highway slope engineering , the anchorage design of anchoring bars (ropes) are more commonly protection method, while the anchorage angle in the design of anchoring bars (ropes) is a key parameter, which related to the stability and economy in whole anchoring slope engi-neering.Through the influences of anchorage angle on anchored slope engineering safety and economy , the comprehensive analysis is carried out,and the expression formula of optimum anchorage angle is deter-mined, finally through the engineering examples ,it verifies the practicality of optimum anchorage angle .%  在公路边坡工程的防护设计中,锚杆(索)的锚固设计是较常用的防护形式,而在锚杆(索)的设计中锚固角是很关键的一个参数,关系到整个锚固边坡工程的稳定性和经济性。该文通过综合分析锚杆(索)的锚固角对锚固边坡工程的安全性和经济性两方面的影响,确定了锚杆(索)最佳锚固角的表达式,并通过工程实例验证了最佳锚固角的实用性。

  19. Modeling the initiation of the 2006 December 13 coronal mass ejection in AR 10930: the structure and dynamics of the erupting flux rope

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    We carry out a three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulation to model the initiation of the coronal mass ejection (CME) on 13 December 2006 in the emerging {\\delta}-sunspot active region NOAA 10930. The setup of the simulation is similar to a previous simulation by Fan (2011), but with a significantly widened simulation domain to accommodate the wide CME. The simulation shows that the CME can result from the emergence of a east-west oriented twisted flux rope whose positive, following emerging pole corresponds to the observed positive rotating sunspot emerging against the southern edge of the dominant pre-existing negative sunspot. The erupting flux rope in the simulation accelerates to a terminal speed that exceeds 1500 km/s and undergoes a counter-clockwise rotation of nearly 180 degrees such that its front and flanks all exhibit southward directed magnetic fields, explaining the observed southward magnetic field in the magnetic cloud impacting the Earth. With continued driving of flux emergence, ...

  20. Multi-point shock and flux rope analysis of multiple interplanetary coronal mass ejections around 2010 August 1 in the inner heliosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Möstl, C; Kilpua, E K J; Jian, L K; Liu, Y; Eastwood, J; Harrison, R A; Webb, D F; Temmer, M; Odstrcil, D; Davies, J A; Rollett, T; Luhmann, J G; Nitta, N; Mulligan, T; Jensen, E A; Forsyth, R; Lavraud, B; De Koning, C A; Veronig, A M; Galvin, A B; Zhang, T L; Anderson, B J

    2012-01-01

    We present multi-point in situ observations of a complex sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which may serve as a benchmark event for numerical and empirical space weather prediction models. On 2010 August 1, instruments on various space missions (Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar-TErrestrial-RElations-Observatory) monitored several CMEs originating within tens of degrees from solar disk center. We compare their imprints on four widely separated locations, spanning 120 degree in heliospheric longitude, with radial distances from the Sun ranging from MESSENGER (0.38 AU) to Venus Express (VEX, at 0.72 AU) to Wind, ACE and ARTEMIS near Earth, and STEREO-B close to 1 AU. Calculating shock and flux rope parameters at each location points to a non-spherical shape of the shock, and shows the global configuration of the interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which have interacted, but do not seem to have merged. VEX and STEREO-B observed similar magnetic flux ropes (MF...

  1. Effect of Wire Rope Grease Composition on Its Water Resistance%钢丝绳脂组成对抗水性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟; 王越

    2015-01-01

    The effects of different viscosity of base oils,primary thickeners,auxiliary thickeners,content of adhesives on the performance of water resistance of the steel wire rope greases were studied by using the determination method of grease resistant to water spray.The results indicate that the water resistance of the steel wire rope grease is significantly improved with the increasing of base oil viscosity,especially when the viscosity is in 25~56 mm2/s.Polypropylene is better than Poly Ethylene as the primary thickener in terms of improving the water resistance.As an auxiliary thickener of the steel wire rope greases,the more the number of microcrystalline wax additives,the better the resistance to water is,but this effect will be tended to flatten when the microcrystalline wax content is more than 4%. Along with increasing in the number of grease ad⁃hesive polyisobutylene(PIB)or olefin copolymer(OCP)in proportion,the water resistance of steel wire rope grease is im⁃proved.But when the percentage of grease adhesive is more than 5%,the water resistance becomes worse.Polyisobutylene (PIB)is better than olefin copolymer(OCP)in improving the water resistance of the steel wire rope grease.%应用润滑脂抗水喷雾性测定方法,研究基础油黏度、主稠化剂及辅助稠化剂、黏附剂添加量对钢丝绳脂抗水性能的影响。结果表明:随着基础油黏度的增加,钢丝绳脂的抗水性能有明显改善,尤其是黏度为25~56 mm2/s时改善效果最显著;聚丙烯类主稠化剂在改善钢丝绳脂的抗水性能方面优于聚乙烯类;随着辅助稠化剂微晶蜡添加量的增加,钢丝绳脂抗水性能提高,但微晶蜡质量分数大于4%抗水性能改善效果趋于平缓;随着黏附剂聚异丁烯( PIB)、烯烃共聚物( OCP )添加量的增加,钢丝绳脂抗水性能提高,但黏附剂质量分数大于5%时会导致抗水性能变差;聚异丁烯(PIB)对钢丝绳脂抗水性能

  2. 马鞍山长江公路大桥悬索桥先导索过江施工技术%River-Crossing Construction for Pilot Ropes of Suspension Bridge of Maanshan Changjiang River Highway Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李猛; 朱小金

    2015-01-01

    马鞍山长江公路大桥左汊主桥为主跨2×1080 m的三塔两跨悬索桥,主缆牵引系统采用先导索过江架设,先导索设计总长2600 m ,分2段,每段1300 m。针对桥址江面宽、悬索桥需两跨过江、跨越长江“黄金航道”、安全要求高、工期紧等因素,对先导索过江方案进行比选,确定该桥先导索采用飞艇过江牵引方案架设。采用T C08X‐2.4G型遥控氦气飞艇牵引先导索,选用φ2 mm迪尼玛绳作为一级导索,采用被动放索装置的力矩电机被动放出先导索。首先由北岸向中塔飞行过江,形成北跨初级牵引系统;然后由中塔向南岸飞行,形成南跨初级牵引系统;最后由人工和卷扬机配合完成1~5级先导索替换,完成先导索过江。飞艇牵引过程中,进行飞行控制、先导索垂度控制和安全控制,保证先导索飞艇过江顺利实施。实践表明,在长江江面不封航情况下,采用飞艇过江牵引方案可以实现先导索安全可靠过江。%The left main bridge of the Maanshan Changjiang River Highway Bridge is a three‐tower suspension bridge with two main spans each of 1 080 m. The traction system for the main cables was erected by using pilot ropes which needed threading across the river .The pilot rope had a total design length of 2 600 m ,which was divided into two sections ,each measuring 1 300 m . Given the fact that the river is wide at the bridge site ,the suspension bridge needs two main spans to cross the river ,more critically ,the suspension bridge crosses the golden navigation channel of Changjiang River ,its safety requirements are demanding and construction schedule is tight ,it is determined via scheme comparison and selection that the pilot ropes be erected by using airship to guide the ropes to cross the river .The TC08X‐2 .4G remote‐controlled helium airship was adopted to guide the pilot ropes .Theφ2 mm Dyneema rope was used as the first

  3. An experimental research on the rope skipping to improve heterosexual undergraduates’physical performance%跳绳对提高不同性别大学生体能成绩的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔京转; 马慧敏; 周皎

    2014-01-01

    The article takes 60 common college students as object of study,lets whom rope skipping on PE class in 10 weeks. The result shows that add rope skipping to P.E. heterosexual undergraduates have obvious improvement in physical than before; at the same weight, the heart rate of heterosexual undergraduates declines, cardio-pulmonary function reclines; the improvement of boy students’ 1000m physical performance has obvious correlation to 4min rope skipping, the improvement of girl students’800m physical performance has little correlation to 4min rope skipping.%以60名普通大学生为研究对象,在体育课中实施10周的跳绳运动干预,结果发现:在体育课中加入跳绳,不同性别的大学生实验后较实验前体能成绩明显提高;在同等负荷条件下,不同性别大学生心率下降,心肺功能均有所提高;男生1000m体能成绩的提高与4min跳绳有明显的相关,女生800m成绩的提高与4min跳绳不存在相关性。

  4. 调度绞车排绳机构的设计方法及在ADAMS中的仿真分析%Design method of rope-arranging mechanism of scheduling winch and its simulation in ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏小立; 廉自生; 魏忠良

    2013-01-01

    针对煤矿用调度绞车跳绳、咬绳的问题,通过链传动和运用大减速比标准减速器将卷筒的运动按照一定的传动比进行变速,驱动圆柱凸轮机构运动,并将运动形式由转动变为圆柱凸轮从动件直线运动,实现调度绞车的排绳.基于该方法在SolidWorks中建立排绳机构模型,并在ADAMS中进行仿真分析,验证其可行性.%In view of the problem of scheduling winch in collieries such as rope tying and rope stacking,chain transmission and standard reducer with large reduction ratio were applied to make the winch drum move as variable speed as to fixed transmission ratio,so as to drive the cylindrical cam mechanism.Thus the rotation altered to linear movement of the cylindrical cam as driven part,so as to realize the winch rope arrangement.The rope-arranging mechanism was modeled by the method in SolidWorks,and simulated in ADAMSA.Its feasibility was verified.

  5. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  6. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  7. Recovery of an evolving magnetic flux rope in the solar wind: Decomposing spatial and temporal variations from single-spacecraft data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, H.; Sonnerup, B.; Hu, Q.; Nakamura, T.

    2013-12-01

    We present a novel single-spacecraft data analysis method for decomposing spatial and temporal variations of physical quantities at points along the path of a spacecraft in spacetime. The method is designed for use in the reconstruction of slowly evolving two-dimensional, magneto-hydrostatic structures (Grad-Shafranov equilibria) in a space plasma. It is an extension of the one developed by Sonnerup and Hasegawa [2010] and Hasegawa et al. [2010], in which it was assumed that variations in the time series of data, recorded as the structures move past the spacecraft, are all due to spatial effects. In reality, some of the observed variations are usually caused by temporal evolution of the structure during the time it moves past the observing spacecraft; the information in the data about the spatial structure is aliased by temporal effects. The purpose here is to remove this time aliasing from the reconstructed maps of field and plasma properties. Benchmark tests are performed by use of synthetic data taken by a virtual spacecraft as it traverses, at a constant velocity, a slowly growing magnetic flux rope in a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of magnetic reconnection. These tests show that the new method can better recover the spacetime behavior of the flux rope than does the original version, in which time aliasing effects had not been removed. An application of the new method to a solar wind flux rope, observed by the ACE spacecraft, suggests that it was evolving in a significant way during the ~17 hour interval of the traversal. References Hasegawa, H., B. U. Ö. Sonnerup, and T. K. M. Nakamura (2010), Recovery of time evolution of Grad-Shafranov equilibria from single-spacecraft data: Benchmarking and application to a flux transfer event, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A11219, doi:10.1029/2010JA015679. Sonnerup, B. U. Ö., and H. Hasegawa (2010), On slowly evolving Grad-Shafranov equilibria, J. Geophys. Res., 115, A11218, doi:10.1029/2010JA015678. Magnetic

  8. 某河口闸门钢丝绳检测的案例和思考%Case Study for the Inspection of Steel Wire Rope of a River Gate and the Thinking Caused by it

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建芹; 黄凯; 董信华; 林波

    2011-01-01

    某河口闸门应用钢丝绳进行启闭,传统的采用人工目视和触摸的方法可靠性差且危险。介绍了一种采用基于虚拟仪器的电磁检测技术对钢丝绳进行检测的案例,如仪器的检测原理、检测路径的设计、检测结果以及判断标准。实例证实了钢丝绳电磁虚拟检测技术的可行性。最后,基于目前日益增长的钢丝绳检测需求,以及并不广泛的检测现状,建议应该重视钢丝绳检测技术的猿产及应踊。%The open and close of the gate of a river were finished by steel wire ropes, whose testing was carrleu out by the traditional artificial methods of visual and touching methods, resulting in poor reliability and dangerous consequence. Virtual instrument-based equipment with electromagnetic technology was used for the wire rope testing. The testing principle, path design, testing results and accepting standards were introduced. The testing case proved the feasibility of the virtual electromagnetic wire rope testing technique. Finally, based on the current growing wire rope testing needs, as well as the not so satisfied testing status, a suggestion was proposed that more attention and more application promotion should be paid to wire rope testing technology.

  9. Building trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Activate' is the energy magazine for secondary schools and is part of the Education Programme which is managed on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum by AEA Technology. activate is the flagship communication device between the British Nuclear Industry Forum's Education Programme and secondary schools in the UK. It was developed from a previous publication, Nuclear Bulletin. There is a need for the nuclear industry to build trust with teachers and students in the UK, where for a long time, everything that the industry has said, written or printed has been disregarded by school teachers as propaganda. Over the last few years the industry has put in a great deal of effort to position itself as a provider of educationally sound and socially acceptable information. 'Activate' was an evolution of this idea and there was a hole in the market for a lively, activity and article based magazine that could be used in the classroom. The target audience is principally teachers of science, mathematics and geography, but also includes teachers of art,, English and history with students of between 11 and 18. The results were very positive in that teachers appreciated the colourful and lively nature of activate and they felt that it provided information and opinions in an un biased and non-propagandist way. Their comments about layout, number of activities style of presentation were taken into account and during the summer of 1994 activate was remodelled ready for re launch in September. The feedback so far is good with more teachers signing up every week to receive their own free copy

  10. Lateral Knee Pain after Outside-in Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using the TightRope RT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, So; Nakayama, Shuichi; Nakazato, Keisuke; Fukubayashi, Toru; Okinaga, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) TightRope RT (TR) was recently introduced as a novel cortical suspension device for ACL reconstruction. It has an adjustable graft loop that gives the surgeon some advantages during ACL reconstruction. We report three patients who required removal of the TR after an outside-in anatomical ACL reconstruction because of lateral knee pain. We assumed that the knee pain was associated with friction between the TR button of the posterolateral bundle and iliotibial band (ITB). Placing the TR button close to the lateral epicondyle and tissue interposition between the TR button and lateral femoral cortex may be potential risk factors for ITB irritation. Therefore, we recommend not placing the TR button close to the top of the lateral epicondyle and reducing the tissue interposition between the TR button and lateral femoral cortex as much as possible. PMID:26955618

  11. Lateral Knee Pain after Outside-in Anatomic Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using the TightRope RT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kohei; Kuribayashi, So; Nakayama, Shuichi; Nakazato, Keisuke; Fukubayashi, Toru; Okinaga, Shuji

    2016-03-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) TightRope RT (TR) was recently introduced as a novel cortical suspension device for ACL reconstruction. It has an adjustable graft loop that gives the surgeon some advantages during ACL reconstruction. We report three patients who required removal of the TR after an outside-in anatomical ACL reconstruction because of lateral knee pain. We assumed that the knee pain was associated with friction between the TR button of the posterolateral bundle and iliotibial band (ITB). Placing the TR button close to the lateral epicondyle and tissue interposition between the TR button and lateral femoral cortex may be potential risk factors for ITB irritation. Therefore, we recommend not placing the TR button close to the top of the lateral epicondyle and reducing the tissue interposition between the TR button and lateral femoral cortex as much as possible. PMID:26955618

  12. 生产凿井两用落地多绳提升井架设计%Design for Production-Sinking Ground Multi-Rope Hoisting Headgear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江声述

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes the method concerning the design of production-sinking ground multi-rope hoisting headgear pursuant to the engineering practice,and works out the design outlines in five respects.Process requirement,structural layout,sectional design for headgear elements,method for making shop drawings and foundation design.%本文根据工程实例,总结了生产凿井两用落地多绳提升井架设计方法。从工艺要求;结构布置原则;井架杆件截面设计;加工图作图方法;基础设计等5方面介绍了设计要领。

  13. MULTI-POINT SHOCK AND FLUX ROPE ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AROUND 2010 AUGUST 1 IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moestl, C.; Liu, Y.; Luhmann, J. G. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Farrugia, C. J. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Kilpua, E. K. J. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, FI-00560 Helsinki (Finland); Jian, L. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Eastwood, J. P.; Forsyth, R. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Harrison, R. A.; Davies, J. A. [RAL Space, Harwell Oxford, Didcot (United Kingdom); Webb, D. F. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, Newton, MA (United States); Temmer, M.; Rollett, T.; Veronig, A. M. [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Odstrcil, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Nitta, N. [Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Mulligan, T. [Space Science Applications Laboratory, The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA (United States); Jensen, E. A. [ACS Consulting, Houston, TX (United States); Lavraud, B. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Universite de Toulouse (UPS), F-31400 Toulouse (France); De Koning, C. A., E-mail: christian.moestl@uni-graz.at [NOAA/SWPC, Boulder, Colorado (United States); and others

    2012-10-10

    We present multi-point in situ observations of a complex sequence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which may serve as a benchmark event for numerical and empirical space weather prediction models. On 2010 August 1, instruments on various space missions, Solar Dynamics Observatory/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar-TErrestrial-RElations-Observatory (SDO/SOHO/STEREO), monitored several CMEs originating within tens of degrees from the solar disk center. We compare their imprints on four widely separated locations, spanning 120 Degree-Sign in heliospheric longitude, with radial distances from the Sun ranging from MESSENGER (0.38 AU) to Venus Express (VEX, at 0.72 AU) to Wind, ACE, and ARTEMIS near Earth and STEREO-B close to 1 AU. Calculating shock and flux rope parameters at each location points to a non-spherical shape of the shock, and shows the global configuration of the interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which have interacted, but do not seem to have merged. VEX and STEREO-B observed similar magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), in contrast to structures at Wind. The geomagnetic storm was intense, reaching two minima in the Dst index ( Almost-Equal-To - 100 nT), and was caused by the sheath region behind the shock and one of two observed MFRs. MESSENGER received a glancing blow of the ICMEs, and the events missed STEREO-A entirely. The observations demonstrate how sympathetic solar eruptions may immerse at least 1/3 of the heliosphere in the ecliptic with their distinct plasma and magnetic field signatures. We also emphasize the difficulties in linking the local views derived from single-spacecraft observations to a consistent global picture, pointing to possible alterations from the classical picture of ICMEs.

  14. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halle, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  15. Danish building typologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper

    The objective of TABULA is to develop a harmonised building typology for European countries. Each national building typology will consist of a set of residential model buildings with characteristic energy-related properties (element areas of the thermal building envelope, U-values, supply system...... efficiencies). The model buildings will each represent a specific construction period of the country in question and a specific building size. Furthermore the number of buildings, flats and the overall floor areas will be given, which are represented by the different building types of the national typologies....

  16. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put......There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...

  17. The Building Commissioning Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, John A.; Casault, Rick

    This book discusses building commissioning, which is the process of certifying that a new facility meets the required specifications. As buildings have become more complex, the traditional methods for building start-up and final acceptance have been proven inadequate, and building commissioning has been developed, which often necessitates the use…

  18. Global building physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or ‘global’, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. This brief article reports the keynote...

  19. Global Building Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    High ambitions are set for the building physics performance of buildings today. No single technology can achieve fulfilment of these ambitions alone. Integrated, multi-facetted solutions and optimization are necessary. A holistic, or “global”, technological perspective is needed, which includes all...... aspects of the building as defined in building engineering. We live in an international society and building solutions are developed across country borders. Building physics is a global theme. The International Association of Building Physics has global appeal. The keynote lecture and this brief paper...

  20. Retrofitting Listed Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a case study where the energy demand for a listed building constructed in 1900 is reduced. Many older buildings are listed and have restrictions that include the entire building or that include only its exterior. For the building presented, only its exterior facade is listed...... of the local urban environment and therefore listed. The reduced energy demand, related to individual measures, is estimated and building physics requirements are addressed together with the economic options for evaluating the profitability....

  1. Discussion on skillful use rope supplementary equation taking two kinematics problem as an example%以两道运动学问题为例谈巧用绳子列补充方程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭波

    2016-01-01

    This PaPer introduced the characteristics of roPe without quality,non-recoverable elongation in theory mechanics,taking two simPle ki-nematics issues as an examPle,elaborated through the characteristics of roPe,solves the Problem of multiPle objects by the roPe connected,had certain reference value to solve similar Problems.%介绍了理论力学中绳子不计质量、不可伸长的特点,以两道简单的运动学问题为例,阐述了通过绳子的特点,解决多物体由绳子相连的问题,对类似问题的解决方法有一定的参考价值。

  2. ICT Enhanced Buildings Potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes and gives example on how Information and Communication, ICT, can and will enhance and support the building functional systems defined from client and end-user needs and requirements. The building systems may be derived from functional requirements on buildings such as usability...... and security on highest level with sub-systems definitions on lever levels. Building functional sub-systems may be defined for user comfort, indoor-climate, evacuation, space configuration, aesthetics, O&M etc. These building systems are supported by Information and Communication Technology, ICT, and building...... with focus on virtual building models support, new services and user environment definitions and development, virtual spaces and augmented reality, intelligent building components, application ontologies, and ICT systems integration to illustrate ICT enhanced buildings potentials and R&D needs.  ...

  3. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is essential...

  4. Two Issues About the Design of Compensating Ropes Tensioning Pulleys for the High-speed Lift%高速电梯补偿绳张紧装置设计中的两个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周传勇

    2012-01-01

    Be directed at the compensating ropes tensioning pulleys of high-speed elevator, this paper puts forward the calculation and selection method of compensating ropes tensioning weight. Besides, analyzed the working state of compensating ropes tensioning pulleys and anti-rebound device in the condition of elevator emergency brake, and built the relevant dynamics equation, according to the relevant mathematics deduce and analysis, obtained the calculation method of reaction force of anti-rebound device.%针对高速电梯补偿绳张紧装置,提出了补偿绳张紧重量的计算和选取方法。详细分析了电梯紧急制动状态下补偿绳张紧装置及防跳装置的工作状态,并建立了相应的动力学方程,通过相关数学推导和分析得出了防跳装置动作反力的计算方法。

  5. 基于PLC的矿用调度绞车自动排绳装置的设计%Design of automatic rope-arranging device of mine dispatching winch based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 何永续; 薛忠和; 周志红

    2012-01-01

    设计了自动排绳装置,以解决井下调度绞车因钢丝绳缠绕不均匀而易引发事故的问题。通过在绞车卷筒处安装速度传感器,并将其旋转信号输入PLC中以控制步进电动机转速,从而控制丝杠旋转,使滑块相应做直线运动,实现自动排绳。%An automatic rope-arranging device was designed to avoid the accidents due to uneven winding of the wire rope onto the dispatching winch. After mounting the speed sensor on the winch drum, its rotary signals transmitted into PLC to control the rotary speed of the stepping motor so as to control the rotation of the lead screw, thus the sliding block moved correspondingly in line so as to realize automatic rope arrangement.

  6. 浅析跳绳教学中动作技能反馈的研究%The Rope Skipping Movement Skills in Teaching Feedback of Shallow Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙贵龙; 于洋

    2014-01-01

    along with our country economy development, people's living standard has obvious enhancement.People in the fast pace of the current era background,this exercise pressure grow with each passing day,more attention has been given to.Rope skipping is a more"people first"sport,not limited by age in any environment and exercise groups,there are many advantages.In rope skipping teaching rational use of movement skill feedback information,help to optimize the teaching effect,accelerate the progress of teaching and improve students'autonomous learning ability,make the teaching more scientific skipping regulation.In this paper,the types of feedback,on the action of skipping teaching skills basic feedback model,feedback the formation process and the role of feedback principle are described.%随着我国的经济不断发展,人的生活水平获得了明显的提高。人们在当前的快节奏时代背景下,压力与日俱增,由此健身运动被赋予了更多的关注。跳绳是一种较为“亲民”的体育项目,不受任何环境和锻炼人群的年龄限制,有着诸多的优势。在跳绳教学中合理的运用运动技能反馈信息,有利于优化教学效果、加快教学进度和提高学生自主学习能力,使得跳绳教学调控更加的科学化。该文将对跳绳教学中动作技能的反馈类型、基本反馈模式、反馈形成的过程和反馈作用的原则等进行阐述。

  7. Applied building physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hens, Hugo S L C

    2012-01-01

    The energy crises of the 1970s, persisting moisture problems, complaints about sick buildings, thermal, visual and olfactory discomfort, and the move towards more sustainability in building construction have pushed Building Physics to the forefront of building innovation. The societal pressure to diminish energy consumption in buildings without impairing usability acted as a trigger to activate the whole notion of performance based design and construction. As with all engineering sciences, Building Physics is oriented towards application, which is why, after a first book on fundamentals this s

  8. How Does Physical Activity Help Build Healthy Bones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight-bearing physical activities include: Walking, jogging, or running Playing tennis or racquetball Playing field hockey Climbing stairs Jumping rope and other types of jumping Playing basketball Dancing Hiking Playing soccer Lifting weights Swimming and bicycling are not weight- ...

  9. Comfort control in buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Castilla, Maria del Mar; Rodriguez, Francisco de Asis

    2014-01-01

    This book describes both concepts and development of advanced comfort control systems in buildings, with significant energy saving, and attention to thermal, visual and indoor air quality. The concepts are proven through real tests in a bioclimatic building.

  10. Building the Korogwe Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Richard, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania.......An illustrated description of the building of a biomedical research laboratory in Korogwe, Tanzania....

  11. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  12. Robotic buildings(s)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic building to be in the last decade prototypically implemented. In this context, robotic building implies both physically built robotic environments and robotically supp

  13. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  14. Requirements for existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012.......This report collects energy performance requirements for existing buildings in European member states by June 2012....

  15. Integrated Building Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: Building health management is an important part in running an efficient and cost-effective building. Many problems in a building’s system can go...

  16. Allegheny County Building Footprints

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled roof outlines of buildings. All near orthogonal corners are square. Buildings that are less than 400 square feet...

  17. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  18. Building Materials Property Table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  19. Evidence of the Solar EUV hot channel as a magnetic flux rope from remote-sensing and in-situ observations

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Hongqiang; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Xin; Wang, Bing; Hu, Qiang; Li, Gang; Wang, Yuming

    2015-01-01

    Hot channels (HCs), high temperature erupting structures in the lower corona of the Sun, have been proposed as a proxy of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) since their initial discovery. However, it is difficult to make definitive proof given the fact that there is no direct measurement of magnetic field in the corona. An alternative way is to use the magnetic field measurement in the solar wind from in-situ instruments. On 2012 July 12, an HC was observed prior to and during a coronal mass ejection (CME) by the AIA high-temperature images. The HC is invisible in the EUVI low-temperature images, which only show the cooler leading front (LF). However, both the LF and an ejecta can be observed in the coronagraphic images. These are consistent with the high temperature and high density of the HC and support that the ejecta is the erupted HC. In the meanwhile, the associated CME shock was identified ahead of the ejecta and the sheath through the COR2 images, and the corresponding ICME was detected by \\textit{ACE}, showi...

  20. Development of Flow and Heat Transfer Models for the Carbon Fiber Rope in Nozzle Joints of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Ewing, M. E.; Mathias, E. C.; Heman, J.; Smith, C.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed for modeling both gas dynamics and heat transfer inside the carbon fiber rope (CFR) for applications in the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motor joints. Specifically, the CFR is modeled using an equivalent rectangular duct with a cross-section area, friction factor and heat transfer coefficient such that this duct has the same amount of mass flow rate, pressure drop, and heat transfer rate as the CFR. An equation for the friction factor is derived based on the Darcy-Forschheimer law and the heat transfer coefficient is obtained from pipe flow correlations. The pressure, temperature and velocity of the gas inside the CFR are calculated using the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Various subscale tests, both cold flow and hot flow, have been carried out to validate and refine this CFR model. In particular, the following three types of testing were used: (1) cold flow in a RSRM nozzle-to-case joint geometry, (2) cold flow in a RSRM nozzle joint No. 2 geometry, and (3) hot flow in a RSRM nozzle joint environment simulator. The predicted pressure and temperature history are compared with experimental measurements. The effects of various input parameters for the model are discussed in detail.

  1. A magnetic boundary layer creating a quasi-cylindrical substructure within a propagating flux rope leading to a plasma beta transition

    CERN Document Server

    Savani, Neel P; Shiota, D; Linton, M G; Kusano, K; Lugaz, N; Rouillard, A P

    2013-01-01

    We present a 2.5D MHD simulation of a magnetic flux rope (FR) propagating in the heliosphere and investigate the cause of the observed sharp plasma beta transition. Specifically, we consider a strong internal magnetic field and an explosive fast start, such that the plasma beta is significantly lower in the FR than the sheath region that is formed ahead. This leads to an unusual FR morphology in the first stage of propagation, while the more traditional view (e.g. from space weather simulations like Enlil) of a `pancake' shaped FR is observed as it approaches 1 AU. We investigate how an equipartition line, defined by a magnetic Weber number, surrounding a core region of a propagating FR can demarcate a boundary layer where there is a sharp transition in the plasma beta. The substructure affects the distribution of toroidal flux, with the majority of the flux remaining in a small core region which maintains a quasi-cylindrical structure. Quantitatively, we investigate a locus of points where the kinetic energy...

  2. Building the ISS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石继忠; 李秀霞

    2007-01-01

    Have you seen people building houses?To build a house,you need workers.They use their hands,tools and machines to put everything together. Building the ISS is almost the same.The difference is that the workers are astronauts.They

  3. Future Green Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, David; Lund, Henrik;

    Efficient buildings are essential for an affordable Danish energy supply in 2050. The purpose of this report is to describe the contribution and role of the building sector in a 100% renewable energy future, as well as the transitions that are necessary in the building sector to support this chan...

  4. Marine Building Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Westby, Ola

    2006-01-01

    This textbook is all about building of ships, platforms and other offshore installations. The geometry and functions of systems and structures are explained as an introduction to management and technology at shipyards and building sites. Both loadbearing structures, outfitting and installation of accommodation are included. Project management, production planning, cost calculations, building methods, discipline knowledge (welding, painting, insulation, mechanical, piping etc.), fabrication te...

  5. Building with History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel; Adams, Charlotte; Green, Adrian;

    2014-01-01

    on the thermal and energetic properties of historic buildings, as distinct from their social meaning and use. A similar separation between the physi- cal building and its social use is inherent in methodologies such as energy audits that constitute key devices through which buildings are institution- ally...

  6. Building Order in the Building Company Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Krivdová, Magdaléna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to describe an organization of a building order, and to show its key phases. The individual phases of how a order is completed in a company are shown on practical examples. The first two chapters deal with the current situation of today's construction industry; consequently, the reasons for introducing the principles of project management into the construction business practice are mentioned. The third chapter is devoted to the description of a building order. It...

  7. Controlling the intelligent building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlanc, R.J.

    1985-08-01

    Companies will be able to locate in intelligent buildings that offer access to a variety of sophisticated communications equipment, at the heart of which are building controls that ensure a comfortable and safe working environment for the occupants. Future buildings will include advanced telephones or workstations with built-in building control sensors for temperature, light level, and security. Advanced telecommunication systems may have telephone cabinets with built-in control functions which eliminate the need for discrete control systems. The owners and tenants will both enjoy benefits if the controls are carefully selected and designed so that they integrate into a single building package.

  8. Net zero energy buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, J., Email: jyri.nieminen@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    Two net zero apartment buildings with basically similar architecture have been built in Finland, in Kuopio (latitude 62.90) and in Jaervenpaeae (latitude 60.50). The aim was to test the possibilities to build zero energy buildings at high latitudes. The Kuopio case is a student hostel and the Jaervenpaeae case a home for elderly people. The total energy demand in the buildings are 102 MWh for Kuopio and 94.3 for Jaervenpaeae corresponding to 48 and 45 and kWh/gross-m2. The buildings utilise district heat and are connected to the local grid. The renewable energy production bases in the Kuopio case on solar heat and photovoltaics. The Kuopio building has been finished in 2010 and the Jaervenpaeae building in 2011. (orig.)

  9. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  10. Dancing the tight rope on the nanoscale—Calibrating a heat flux sensor of a scanning thermal microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppstech, K.; Könne, N.; Worbes, L.; Hellmann, D.; Kittel, A.

    2015-11-01

    We report on a precise in situ procedure to calibrate the heat flux sensor of a near-field scanning thermal microscope. This sensitive thermal measurement is based on 1ω modulation technique and utilizes a hot wire method to build an accessible and controllable heat reservoir. This reservoir is coupled thermally by near-field interactions to our probe. Thus, the sensor's conversion relation V th ( QGS ∗ ) can be precisely determined. Vth is the thermopower generated in the sensor's coaxial thermocouple and QGS ∗ is the thermal flux from reservoir through the sensor. We analyze our method with Gaussian error calculus with an error estimate on all involved quantities. The overall relative uncertainty of the calibration procedure is evaluated to be about 8% for the measured conversion constant, i.e., (2.40 ± 0.19) μV/μW. Furthermore, we determine the sensor's thermal resistance to be about 0.21 K/μW and find the thermal resistance of the near-field mediated coupling at a distance between calibration standard and sensor of about 250 pm to be 53 K/μW.

  11. Dancing the tight rope on the nanoscale--Calibrating a heat flux sensor of a scanning thermal microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppstech, K; Könne, N; Worbes, L; Hellmann, D; Kittel, A

    2015-11-01

    We report on a precise in situ procedure to calibrate the heat flux sensor of a near-field scanning thermal microscope. This sensitive thermal measurement is based on 1ω modulation technique and utilizes a hot wire method to build an accessible and controllable heat reservoir. This reservoir is coupled thermally by near-field interactions to our probe. Thus, the sensor's conversion relation V(th)(Q(GS)*) can be precisely determined. V(th) is the thermopower generated in the sensor's coaxial thermocouple and Q(GS)* is the thermal flux from reservoir through the sensor. We analyze our method with Gaussian error calculus with an error estimate on all involved quantities. The overall relative uncertainty of the calibration procedure is evaluated to be about 8% for the measured conversion constant, i.e., (2.40 ± 0.19) μV/μW. Furthermore, we determine the sensor's thermal resistance to be about 0.21 K/μW and find the thermal resistance of the near-field mediated coupling at a distance between calibration standard and sensor of about 250 pm to be 53 K/μW. PMID:26628160

  12. Dancing the tight rope on the nanoscale--Calibrating a heat flux sensor of a scanning thermal microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppstech, K; Könne, N; Worbes, L; Hellmann, D; Kittel, A

    2015-11-01

    We report on a precise in situ procedure to calibrate the heat flux sensor of a near-field scanning thermal microscope. This sensitive thermal measurement is based on 1ω modulation technique and utilizes a hot wire method to build an accessible and controllable heat reservoir. This reservoir is coupled thermally by near-field interactions to our probe. Thus, the sensor's conversion relation V(th)(Q(GS)*) can be precisely determined. V(th) is the thermopower generated in the sensor's coaxial thermocouple and Q(GS)* is the thermal flux from reservoir through the sensor. We analyze our method with Gaussian error calculus with an error estimate on all involved quantities. The overall relative uncertainty of the calibration procedure is evaluated to be about 8% for the measured conversion constant, i.e., (2.40 ± 0.19) μV/μW. Furthermore, we determine the sensor's thermal resistance to be about 0.21 K/μW and find the thermal resistance of the near-field mediated coupling at a distance between calibration standard and sensor of about 250 pm to be 53 K/μW.

  13. Building for animal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to limit the radiation dose to persons working with animal husbandry in severe fallout situations, it was considered necessary to make an inventory of the Swedish livestock buildings as to number, location, use and size. These data as well as data on geometry of buildings, building material and thickness of the material in walls and roofs are given in the present work. On the basis of the mentioned data, calculations were made of the shielding factors of different types of livestock buildings. The collected data can also be used in preparedness planning in relation to housing facilities for livestock and location and size of animal production in situations of crises or war. The calculations show shielding factors for different types of livestock buildings of normal ground area within the range of 0.18-0.71. The higher value indicates a fairly poor shielding effect. The inventory and the calculations show that in those regions in Sweden where the main part of the livestock is managed, the types of buildings are, however, characterized by radiation shielding factors of 0.3-0.4. Calculation were also made of the radiation level inside the buildings following decontamination of roofs or of surrounding ground. Ground decontamination only, i.e., removal of the upper contaminated surface layer, will reduce the radiation level inside the building. For most buildings the radius of the surrounding area to be decontaminated has to be 15-30 times larger than the width of the building in order to achieve a 50 percentage reduction of the radiation level inside the building. For buildings of medium or large size and with thick walls the radiation contribution from the roof is greater than the radiation from the ground, and regardless of the size of the ground areas decontaminated the radiation level inside these buildings will only be reduced by 20-30%. 15 refs, 11 figs, 14 tabs

  14. Building perservation practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    of architects and planners is primarily to reconcile the conservation prospects with the future use of buildings and sites. They intermediary the site through selections of the narratives, and in practice the restoration or transformation projects becomes a communication of the selected story, utilized...... planning? In this paper I will focus on the communication of the architects working with building preservation and planning, how they communicate the building, the interventions and the storytelling in practice. The methods used by the architects are based on a practice, where some skills are learned...... through education, such as documentation of buildings and the restoration as a way of communicating the architect's intervention on the building, meanwhile the communication of the buildings history is seen as a "natural" skill and the methods are not questioned in the practice. The storytelling has today...

  15. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... building operation as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green accounting', by applying policies for sustainability etc. The paper is based on case studies...

  16. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  17. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  18. Building valve amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or

  19. Healthy Buildings '88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Healthy Buildings '88 Conference focuses on the technical solutions and functional requirements contributing to Healthy Buildings for people to live and work in. The main object of the Conference is to give architects, consultants, real-estate owners and manufacturers of building materials recommendations on choice of materials and choice of systems and on how to combine materials and systems. The program includes overview lectures, plenary symposia with invited speakers, workshops, poster presentations and an exhibition of scientific, educational and technical material. One part of the conference is devoted to the problem of radon in residential buildings

  20. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  1. 基于磁桥路的钢丝绳LMA型损伤检测试验研究%Study on LMA detection of steel ropes based on magnetic bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯军政; 王军; 谭继文

    2012-01-01

    Based on the bridge magnetic detection principle,an equivalent magnetic circuit model of wire ropes LMA-type damage is established,and linear relationship between metal cross-sectional area with magnetic flux density of the magnetic bridge is theoretically analyzed in the paper.Based on the principle of Hall element,a magnetic bridge of magnetic induction detector is produced.Through testing under the conditions of varying cross-sectional area of metal wire,the Hall voltages are detected;a rope metal detecting cross-sectional area and the Hall voltage linear equations are established and the rope LMA-based quantitative detection of damage is achieved.%基于磁桥路检测原理,建立了钢丝绳LMA型损伤等效磁路模型,分析了钢丝绳金属截面积与磁桥路的磁感应强度之间的关系,并推导出了两者的理论方程式;基于霍尔元件的霍尔效应原理,制作了磁桥路的磁感应强度检测器,通过试验,获得了不同钢丝绳金属截面积(即不同损伤)条件下的霍尔检测电压,由此,建立了钢丝绳金属截面积与霍尔检测电压的线性方程式,实现了钢丝绳LMA型损伤的定量检测.

  2. 基于霍尔阵列传感器的钢丝绳缺陷定量检测技术的研究%The Research on Quantitative Inspection Technology to Wire Rope Defect Based on Hall Sensor Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 张东来; 周智慧

    2012-01-01

    The induction coil sensor is traditionally used in the wire rope nondestructive inspection.As the output of coil sensor is related to the velocity of the wire rope,the signal will be compressed or stretched in different velocities.The impact of the velocity can be effectively overcome with Hall sensors.In this paper,a wire rope non-destructive system that is based on Hall sensor array is designed.This system achieves not only the accurate axial positioning of the defect,but also the circumferential distribution of the defect.The dimension for defect detection is improved in more details.Meanwhile,local pixel sum of magnetic flux leakage binary image is utilized to implement the quantitative measurement of defects.The result shows the good performance of the system.%传统的钢丝绳无损检测装置采用感应线圈作为传感器,但由于线圈传感器的输出与钢丝绳的运动速度相关,使用霍尔传感器可有效地克服钢丝绳运动速度的影响。设计了一种基于霍尔阵列传感器的钢丝绳无损检测系统,系统不仅可实现缺陷在钢丝绳轴向的准确定位,且可实现对不同周向位置的缺陷的检测,提高了钢丝绳缺陷检测的维度,并通过二值化漏磁图像的局部像素和来实现缺陷大小的定量,取得了良好的检测效果。

  3. I-125 ROPES eye plaque dosimetry: Validation of a commercial 3D ophthalmic brachytherapy treatment planning system and independent dose calculation software with GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poder, Joel; Corde, Stéphanie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the dose distributions for different Radiation Oncology Physics and Engineering Services, Australia (ROPES) type eye plaques loaded with I-125 (model 6711) seeds using GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films, in order to verify the dose distributions in the Plaque Simulator™ (PS) ophthalmic 3D treatment planning system. The brachytherapy module of RADCALC{sup ®} was used to independently check the dose distributions calculated by PS. Correction factors were derived from the measured data to be used in PS to account for the effect of the stainless steel ROPES plaque backing on the 3D dose distribution.Methods: Using GafChromic{sup ®} EBT3 films inserted in a specially designed Solid Water™ eye ball phantom, dose distributions were measured three-dimensionally both along and perpendicular to I-125 (model 6711) loaded ROPES eye plaque's central axis (CAX) with 2 mm depth increments. Each measurement was performed in full scatter conditions both with and without the stainless steel plaque backing attached to the eye plaque, to assess its effect on the dose distributions. Results were compared to the dose distributions calculated by Plaque Simulator™ and checked independently with RADCALC{sup ®}.Results: The EBT3 film measurements without the stainless steel backing were found to agree with PS and RADCALC{sup ®} to within 2% and 4%, respectively, on the plaque CAX. Also, RADCALC{sup ®} was found to agree with PS to within 2%. The CAX depth doses measured using EBT3 film with the stainless steel backing were observed to result in a 4% decrease relative to when the backing was not present. Within experimental uncertainty, the 4% decrease was found to be constant with depth and independent of plaque size. Using a constant dose correction factor of T= 0.96 in PS, where the calculated dose for the full water scattering medium is reduced by 4% in every voxel in the dose grid, the effect of the plaque backing was

  4. Buildings for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Regional Inst. for School Building Research, Colombo (Sri Lanka).

    The quarterly review for October and December 1967 of the Asian Regional Institute for School Building Research at Colombo, Ceylon--(1) reviews two main activities of a cost and space utilization study and a report of the workshop of the directors and UNESCO experts on regional educational buildings, (2) describes a method for determining teacher…

  5. Building a Better Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  6. Building: Food for thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraïm Rodríguez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sculpture presented by Efraïm Rodríguez for the conference is titled “pequeño arquitecto” (The Little Architect, a figure which represents a child building a tower with pieces of classical children’s block building toys; the child itself is built out of the same sculpted materials.

  7. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  8. Electromagnetically shielded building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to a building having an electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system utilizing electromagnetic waves, and more particularly to an electromagnetically shielded building for enhancing the electromagnetic shielding performance of an external wall. 6 figs

  9. School Building Defect Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahli M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In providing a conducive learning environment for the student, the school building must be in good condition. This paper is evaluating the existing condition of primary school building in Sarawak, Malaysia. It focuses on building defects pattern for school building. The primary data collection is from the school building condition survey with involvement of 24 primary schools. The schools have been selected using simple random sampling and stratified sampling (of school age as the variable of selection. The reporting method is based on Condition Survey Protocol (CSP 1 Matrix. Data analysis covers descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysis carried out found that the overall 4,725 defects have been identified. The building defect pattern is mainly on Ground Level of 3,176 defects, the highest number of defects components found on walls (798. 16.2% defects are cracks from 11 common defects and most of all the highest score of defects based on age of the building were the building in the range of 11 to 20 years.

  10. Integrated Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    In the first half of the 20th century, HVAC systems and artificial lighting were developed to meet indoor comfort needs. Before the introduction of mechanical systems, climate - not building style or appearance - was the major determinant of building form. Comfort was achieved through passive means...

  11. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...... project for calculations in the SESAM model....

  12. Body-building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正In recent years, more and more people spare no pains to join in the body-building group. People begin to take part in various fitness clubs or fitness centers in their spare time. This shows body-building has become an indispensable part of many people’s life.

  13. Building a Data Warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elliott

    2002-01-01

    Describes how to build a data warehouse, using the Schools Interoperability Framework (www.sifinfo.org), that supports data-driven decision making and complies with the Freedom of Information Act. Provides several suggestions for building and maintaining a data warehouse. (PKP)

  14. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  15. Dancing building prevents collapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, R.

    2007-01-01

    In future, anybody caught inside a building during an earthquake need no longer fear the roof collapsing on them. Thanks to the use of composite materials, all the building will do is dance along, riding the waves of the earthquake. At least, according to Professor Ir. Adriaan Beukers of the Aerospa

  16. Energy Performance of Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    emissions in the coming years. By approving the Energy Performance in Buildings Directive the European Union has taken a strong leadership role in promoting energy efficiency in buildings in Europe, and the Directive will be the most powerful instrument developed to date for the building sector in Europe...... programme (ECCP) was established in June 2000 to help identify the most environmentally cost-effective measures enabling the EU to meet its target under the Kyoto Protocol, namely an 8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2012. Energy use in buildings accounts for almost half of all CO......-effective energy saving potential of between 22% and 40% of the energy consumption in the sector by the year 2020. The paper presents the European approach to improve sustainability in the building sector, which has a very high potential for considerable reduction of energy consumption and green house gas...

  17. CERN's newest building

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    With a growing number of users looking for offices, the shortage of space has become acute, particularly for physicists. Building 42, inaugurated on Friday 11 February, offers almost 300 new work-spaces and a particularly pleasant working environment.   Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research (left), Rolf Heuer , CERN Director-General (centre), and Mark Muller, President of the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and Head of the Department of Construction and Information Technology (right) at the opening of Building 42 on 11 February, 2011.   Construction work for the new Building 42 began in January 2009, thanks to support from the Swiss foundation FIPOI (Fondation des immeubles pour les organisations internationales). After two years of work, the building, an extension of Building 40, is ready to accommodate physicists from around the world who have come to work on the LHC. "We had more than 25 external contractors working...

  18. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  19. Energy management systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lush, D.M.

    1979-07-01

    An investigation is made of the range of possibilities available from three types of systems (automatic control devices, building envelope, and the occupants) in buildings. The following subjects are discussed: general (buildings, design and personnel); new buildings (envelope, designers, energy and load calculations, plant design, general design parameters); existing buildings (conservation measures, general energy management, air conditioned buildings, industrial buildings); man and motivation (general, energy management and documentation, maintenance, motivation); automatic energy management systems (thermostatic controls, optimized plant start up, air conditioned and industrial buildings, building automatic systems). (MCW)

  20. Building Software with Gradle

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Studer, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation, we will give an overview of the key concepts and main features of Gradle, the innovative build system that has become the de-facto standard in the enterprise. We will cover task declaration and task graph execution, incremental builds, multi-project builds, dependency management, applying plugins, extracting reusable build logic, bootstrapping a build, and using the Gradle daemon. By the end of this talk, you will have a good understanding of what makes Gradle so powerful yet easy to use. You will also understand why companies like Pivotal, LinkedIn, Google, and other giants with complex builds count on Gradle. About the speakers Etienne is leading the Tooling Team at Gradleware. He has been working as a developer, architect, project manager, and CTO over the past 15 years. He has spent most of his time building software products from the ground up and successfully shipping them to happy customers. He had ...

  1. Building Sustainability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Koukkari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Although social, economic, and cultural indicators are of substantial importance to the concept of sustainable building, this concept is usually related to environmental characteristics. Any building level assessment method is complex and involves contradictory aspects. Moreover, emphasizing qualitative criteria only increases confusion. R&D and standardization are thus concentrated to transparency and usability of the environmental methods. Other directions of research aim at performance-based design and methods to take regional and cultural aspects into account. In this paper, the perspectives of the sustainability assessment of a whole building are presented, based on a state of the art, feasibility study on performance analysis and the development of an extended life-cycle assessment for buildings. Using various tools, and based on the case studies of building sustainability assessment, environmental indicators were often shown to be of lesser importance than the other, soft ones. The first steps in the development of a building sustainability assessment method for Portuguese residential buildings will be presented and discussed in the end.

  2. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  3. INL Green Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  4. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...... Construction Of Technology theory as a frame for the studies. It is concluded that it is not possible to develop a common set of indicators that all the central actors in the building sector find acceptable - at least not in a near future. Different sets of solutions are, however, outlined in the thesis...

  5. Mycotoxins in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    as in future energy efficient buildings. It brings together different disciplinary points of view on indoor mold, ranging from physics and material science to microbiology and health sciences. The contents have been outlined according to three main issues: Fundamentals, particularly addressing the crucial...... for avoiding adverse health effects is the prevention (or minimization) of persistent dampness and microbial growth on interior surfaces and in building structures. This book aims to describe the fundamentals of indoor mold growth as a prerequisite to tackle mold growth in the existing building stock as well...

  6. The corporate brand building

    OpenAIRE

    Wisterová, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The target of this master's thesis is to follow the process of corporate brand building of the company Starkl zahradník, to analyse it and to suggest possible improvements. The thesis is divided into four main sections. The first section deals with the theoretical aspects of the corporate brand building. The second section observes the process of brand building of the brand Starkl zahradník. The third section deals with the survey that was carried out and analyse its results. This survey was ...

  7. Building Social Web Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Building a web application that attracts and retains regular visitors is tricky enough, but creating a social application that encourages visitors to interact with one another requires careful planning. This book provides practical solutions to the tough questions you'll face when building an effective community site -- one that makes visitors feel like they've found a new home on the Web. If your company is ready to take part in the social web, this book will help you get started. Whether you're creating a new site from scratch or reworking an existing site, Building Social Web Applications

  8. 矿用无极绳连续牵引车掉道检测系统设计%Design of derail detection system of mine endless rope continuous tractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 曾庆良; 王栋

    2014-01-01

    针对无极绳连续牵引车运行过程中容易发生掉道且不易被发现的问题,设计了一套无极绳连续牵引车掉道检测装置。提出了通过直接检测梭车轮对距轨道距离来判断梭车在轨状态的方法,然后通过对各类型传感器的比较选定了电感式接近开关作为检测元件,最后根据实际使用情况为其设计了安装保护装置,并对梭车运行中的通过角进行了验算。%Aiming at the problem of the easy derail and the dififcult detection of the endless rope continuous tractor in the process of vehicle operation, designed a set of derail detection device of the endless rope continuous tractor, proposed by the directly detecting the distance between the shuttle wheel and the rail to estimate the shuttle car in orbit, after compared various types of sensors, selected inductive proximity switches as the detecting element, ifnally according to the actual use, designed the installation of protective devices, and checked the passing angle of the shuttle car in operation.

  9. Building Technologies Program Key Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-15

    The Building Technologies Program (BTP) employs a balanced approach to making buildings more energy efficient. The three pillars of our program, research and development (R&D), market stimulation, and building and equipment standards, help meet our strategic vision.

  10. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... or environmental thinking and this finds expression in new approaches to the design of building facades, roofs, atria. Another is that new software simulation tools have changed energy assumptions and hence building forms. In a fast evolving arena, the book shows how architects are reshaping their practices....... Branding via LEED and BREEAM has taken green ideas to China and other emerging economies. The globalization of sustainability and of architectural practice is an important strand of the new edition....

  11. Helping clients build credit

    OpenAIRE

    Vikki Frank

    2007-01-01

    Until now people who repaid loans from community groups had not been on credit bureaus’ radar. Now Credit Builders Alliance is partnering with Experian to help clients of community lenders build strong credit histories.

  12. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  13. Buildings Sector Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  14. Building Services Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinzi, Michele; Romeo, Carlo; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund;

    2015-01-01

    of the description of 5 main technologies: condensing boilers, heat pumps, ventilation systems, lighting and photovoltaic systems. For each technology chapter there is the same content list: an introduction, a brief technology description, some advantages and disadvantages, market penetration and utilisation, energy......This guideline on Building Services Systems is one of four guidelines produced by the School of the Future project. The other three guidelines cover: Building Construction Elements, Improved Indoor Environmental Quality and Concepts for Zero Emission Schools. This guideline consists...

  15. Building Peaceful Borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's efforts to build a harmonious world begin with establishing peaceful borders with its neighbors China's recent contribution to the world of international relations is the promotion of "building a harmonious world together," put forward by President Hu Jintao at the 60th anniversary of the UN in September 2005. As the core of the country's peaceful foreign policy in the new era, this approach has been well received and widely discussed in the international community. Meanwhile, Chinese foreign pol...

  16. Building Materials in Arctic Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2005-01-01

    Building in the artic requires special attention on the appropriateness of building materials. The harsh climate makes execution difficult and sets unusual requirements for the pure material properties. In addition, there is a lack of choice of good, natural building materials in the arctic....... This results in high transport costs. The building materials situation in Greenland may potentially be improved by intensifying the reuse of building materials or by promoting the local production of building materials....

  17. Building Services Requests Subsystem (BSRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Lotus Notes workflow application used for the submission, processing, tracking and reporting of building service related requiests. Enables regional office building...

  18. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  19. Moral Relativism on the Ropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Mel; Gabler, Norma

    1987-01-01

    Finds that most current public school sex education programs and all values clarification programs are based on moral relativism and are intellectually indefensible because they are (1) methodologically defective, (2) present tautologies instead of values, (3) depend on circular reasoning, and (4) undemocratic. (NKA)

  20. 旁压(夹绳)式起重量限制器引起起重机带电的原因分析与对策%The Reason Analysis and Countermeasures of the Crane Electriifcation Caused by Side Pressure (Clip Rope) Weight Limiter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武善军; 李顺荣; 马舜; 张世阔; 周俊坚; 叶剑锋

    2014-01-01

    Side pressure (clip rope) weight limiter which uses rope force as signal output would cause an electric shock easily. In this paper, the correct installation methods and principles of weight limit of side pressure (clip rope) weight limiter are analyzed. The electric shock risks and hazards caused by improper use of current side pressure (clip rope) weight limiter is analyzed. Countermeasure to avoid accidents and the intrinsically safe measures are proposed.%采用钢丝绳受力作为信号输出的旁压(夹绳)式起重量限制器易引起触电事故,本文分析了旁压(夹绳)式起重量限制器的正确安装方法及限重原理,剖析了现有旁压(夹绳)式起重量限制器使用不当引发起重机触电风险及危害,提出了避免事故的对策及做到本质安全的相关措施。

  1. Development of two Danish building typologies for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    performance of the residential building stock. Overall, the typologies consist of two types of building models—real example models and average designed models. The main purpose of developing the building typologies was to establish a tool able to calculate different energy-saving scenarios for the entire...... residential building stock. To make such calculations of scenarios, similar average designed building models were established based on extracted average values from the Danish Energy Performance Certification Scheme database. The two building typologies had the same overall composition, i.e., three main...... building types: single-family houses, terraced houses and blocks of flats. Each main building type is presented for nine periods representing age, typical building tradition and insulation levels. Finally, an energy balance model of the residential building stock was devised to validate the average...

  2. SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A REPORT OF A PROGRAM HELD AS PART OF THE BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1962 SPRING CONFERENCE ON THE SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING DESIGN. TOPICS DISCUSSED ARE--(1) SOLAR ENERGY DATA APPLICABLE TO BUILDING DESIGN, (2) THERMAL EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON MAN, (3) SOLAR EFFECTS ON ARCHITECTURE, (4) SOLAR EFFECTS ON BUILDING COSTS, (5) SELECTION OF…

  3. Buildings for advanced technology

    CERN Document Server

    Teague, E; Murday, James

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the design and construction of buildings for nanoscale science and engineering research. The information provided in this book is useful for designing and constructing buildings for such advanced technologies as nanotechnology, nanoelectronics and biotechnology. The book outlines the technology challenges unique to each of the building environmental challenges outlined below and provides best practices and examples of engineering approaches to address them: • Establishing and maintaining critical environments: temperature, humidity, and pressure • Structural vibration isolation • Airborne vibration isolation (acoustic noise) • Isolation of mechanical equipment-generated vibration/acoustic noise • Cost-effective power conditioning • Grounding facilities for low electrical interference • Electromagnetic interference (EMI)/Radio frequency interference (RFI) isolation • Airborne particulate contamination • Airborne organic and chemical contamination • Environment, safety a...

  4. On building Information Warehouses

    CERN Document Server

    Laha, Arijit

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important goals of information management (IM) is supporting the knowledge workers in performing their works. In this paper we examine issues of relevance, linkage and provenance of information, as accessed and used by the knowledge workers. These are usually not adequately addressed in most of the IT based solutions for IM. Here we propose a non-conventional approach for building information systems for supporting the knowledge workers which addresses these issues. The approach leads to the ideas of building Information Warehouses (IW) and Knowledge work Support Systems (KwSS). Such systems can open up potential for building innovative applications of significant impact, including those capable of helping organizations in implementing processes for double-loop learning.

  5. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  6. Building information deduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten; Beetz, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show...... of a model, differences in separate models or models from different point of time. Current BIM tools support both modes only in a rudimentary form. This paper discusses current modes of information query within and across BIM models, shows beneficial scenarios for building and planning practice through...... that in practice models are no longer solely observed as culmination of knowledge in a 3d representation of future built structures, but as a source of information in itself. Experienced users of BIM want to Find Information within a model or across a set of these and Compare models in order to evaluate states...

  7. Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Bourrelle, J.S.;

    2011-01-01

    , (4) the type of energy balance, (5) the accepted renewable energy supply options, (6) the connection to the energy infrastructure and (7) the requirements for the energy efficiency, the indoor climate and in case of gird connected ZEB for the building–grid interaction. This paper focuses......The concept of Zero Energy Building (ZEB) has gained wide international attention during last few years and is now seen as the future target for the design of buildings. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires...... clear and consistent definition and a commonly agreed energy calculation methodology. The most important issues that should be given special attention before developing a new ZEB definition are: (1) the metric of the balance, (2) the balancing period, (3) the type of energy use included in the balance...

  8. 开发纯净钢冶炼技术生产高强度钢丝绳用钢%Developing clean steel smelting technology to produce steel for high strength wire rope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秉喜; 郭大勇

    2013-01-01

    According to the demands of developing high strength wire rope,adopting a series of high carbon clean steel smelting technology such as hot metal predesulphurization,slag-blocked tapping,LF furnace high basicity slag washing deep desulphurizing and vacuum degassing(VD) to produce the steel for high strength wire ropes.Mass fraction of S and P in steel are 100 millionth and 60 millionth respectively,the mass fraction of O and N are 15 millionth and 24 millionth respectively,the B and D class inclusions which harm wire drawing more are controlled at 1.0 class and 0.5 class respectively,the maximum inclusion size is 11.6 micron.The tensile strength of diameter 8.0 mm wire rod produced reach 1190 MPa,reduction of area is 40%,the tensile strength of diameter 2.4 mm galvanizing steel wire is over 1670 MPa,torsion is over 25 times,which satisfy the demands of GB/T 8919-1996 to produce 1670 ~ 1770 MPa class high strength galvanizing wire ropes.%根据钢丝绳向高强度发展的要求,采用铁水预脱硫、挡渣出钢、LF炉高碱度渣洗深脱硫及VD真空脱气精炼等一系列高碳纯净钢冶炼技术生产高强度钢丝绳用钢.钢中P,S质量分数分别为100×10-6和60×10-6,O,N质量分数分别为15×10-6和24×10-6,对拉拔生产危害较大的B,D类夹杂分别控制在1.0级和0.5级,夹杂物最大尺寸为11.6μm.生产的φ8.0 mm盘条抗拉强度达1190 MPa,断面收缩率为40%,φ2.4 mm镀锌钢丝抗拉强度超过1670MPa,扭转大于25次,完全满足GB/T 8919-1996生产1670~1770 MPa级高强度镀锌钢丝绳的要求.

  9. 从"飞石索"看纳西族原始体育的起源%Origin of primitive sports of Naxi Nationality from the perspective of "fly-stone rope"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和春云; 谭华

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to its unique geographic location and national development history, to this day Naxi nationality has conserved "fly-stone rope" - a complex tool produced in the mid Paleolithic Age, as well as folklores, primitive rituals and amusements closely related to "fly-stone rope" in the ancient Dongba Scripture and folk customs of Naxi nationality, which provided ample information for revealing the myth about the origin of primitive sports of Naxi nationality. By using theories and research methods in cultural anthropology and history, and by analyzing a lot of information collected via field investigation and literature retrieval, the authors represented the process of develop- ment of "fly-stone rope" gradually evolving from an ancient hunting and battling tool into a primitive sport via witchcraft and then being passed on to this day, and put forward the opinion that primitive sports of Naxi nationality originated from witchcraft.%纳西族因其独特的地理位置和民族发展历史,至今得以保存产生于旧石器中期的复合工具--"飞石索",并在纳西族古老的东巴经及民俗活动中大量保存了与"飞石索"密切相关的民间传说、原始宗教仪式及娱乐活动,为揭开纳西族原始体育起源之谜,提供丰厚的材料.运用文化人类学、历史学的理论和研究方法,分析整理田野调查、查阅文献收集到的大量资料,再现了"飞石索"从远古狩猎、战争工具.通过原始巫术逐渐演变成原始体育并流传至今的发展变化过程,并提出了纳西族原始体育起源于巫术的观点.

  10. Carbon Efficient Building Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellervo Matilainen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the Finnish legislation have focused on energy use and especially on energy used for heating space in buildings. However, in many cases this does not lead to the optimal concept in respect to minimizing green house gases. This paper studies how CO2 emission levels are affected by different measures to reduce energy use in buildings. This paper presents two real apartment buildings with different options of energy efficiency and power sources. The calculations clearly show that in the future electricity and domestic hot water use will have high importance in respect to energy efficiency, and therefore also CO2 equivalent (eq emissions. The importance increases when the energy efficiency of the building increases. There are big differences between average Finnish production and individual power plants; CO2 eq emissions might nearly double depending on the energy source and the power plant type. Both a building with an efficient district heating as a power source, and a building with ground heat in addition to nuclear power electricity as a complimentary electricity source performed very similarly to each other in respect to CO2 eq emissions. However, it is dangerous to conclude that it is not important which energy source is chosen. If hypothetically, the use of district heating would dramatically drop, the primary energy factor and CO2 eq emissions from electricity would rise, which in turn would lead to the increase of the ground heat systems emissions. A problem in the yearly calculations is that the fact that it is very important, sometimes even crucial, when energy is needed, is always excluded.

  11. Climate Responsive Buildings in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, M.; Amato, A.; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work within the framework of the Annex44 of the International Energy Agency (IEA...

  12. Architecture Building Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ Leading architectural design and engineering firm, Skidmore,Owings, & Merrill (SOM), is renowned for pushing the envelope, masterminding some of the world's most cutting edge and enduring structural masterpieces - America's tallest building, the Sears Tower,in the firm's home city of Chicago, the 88-story Jinmao Tower in Shanghai, and the Freedom Tower in New York City, successor to the fallen World Trade Center complex,are among the well known projects in its building portfolio. SOM's next high profile assignment, the Pearl River Tower, in Guangzhou is one no less worthy of this tradition.

  13. PV cool-build

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, B.; Nuh, D.

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to develop a method for calculating the operating temperature of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) modules/laminates which are estimated to operate above ambient temperature. The aim of the study was to minimise the temperature of the BIPV in order to increase the production of clean electricity. Details are given of a series of indoor experiments, computer modelling, and outdoor measurements. The production of a readily available, user-friendly design guide for architects and building designers is discussed.

  14. Building global learning communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averill Gordon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning communities around a community of practice of learning researchers and practitioners. The results include the development of a framework for utilising mobile social media to support collaborative curriculum development across international boundaries. We conclude that this framework is potentially transferrable to a range of educational contexts where the focus is upon student-generated mobile social media projects.

  15. Ecology Beyond Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers t...... to put on the dwindling supply of raw materials rather than the immidiate problems of energy consumption for which there are solutions within reach. With the emphasis on a more far-reaching approach, he places buildings in a wider context of ecological thinking and systems....

  16. Building the perfect PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This popular Build-It-Yourself (BIY) PC book covers everything you want to know about building your own system: Planning and picking out the right components, step-by-step instructions for assembling your perfect PC, and an insightful discussion of why you'd want to do it in the first place. Most big brand computers from HP, Dell and others use lower-quality components so they can meet their aggressive pricing targets. But component manufacturers also make high-quality parts that you can either purchase directly, or obtain through distributors and resellers. Consumers and corporations

  17. STUDY ON THE ROPE SYSTEM “DOUBLE-CRANE AND FIVE-HOIST POINT” FOR THE WHOLE ERECTION OF THE LARGE-SCALE SLENDER R.C.COLUMN%大型细长钢筋混凝土柱整体吊装“双机五点吊” 绳系方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树堂; 李占军

    2001-01-01

    The rope system “double-crane and five-hoist-point-”for the wholeerection of the large-scale slender R.C.column is studied with respect to its best configuration、best hoist point and best rope element height(corresponding to best rope element length),so as to complete efficiently the whole erection of the large scale R.C.slender columns in the construction of the large and middle scale thermal power plant.Based on the criterion “Minimizing the bending strain energy of the hoist”,the best hoist points of the hoist are determined.Further,the best configuration and best rope element height of the rope system have been given.The results of this paper are reference and use for the whole erection of the large-scale slender R.C.column.%研究大型细长钢筋混凝土(R.C.)柱整体吊装“双机五点吊”绳系方案的最优绳系型式、最优吊点位置、最优绳元高度(对应最优绳长),以解决大中型火电厂的大型细长钢筋混凝土柱整体吊装问题.基于“吊装弯曲应变能力最小”准则确定了吊件最优吊点,进而获得最优绳系型式和最优绳元高度.研究结果可供大型细长钢筋混凝土柱整体吊装施工参考.

  18. Building the quantum network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show how quantum key distribution (QKD) techniques can be employed within realistic, highly secure communications systems, using the internet architecture for a specific example. We also discuss how certain drawbacks in existing QKD point-to-point links can be mitigated by building QKD networks, where such networks can be composed of trusted relays or untrusted photonic switches. (author)

  19. Moisture conditions in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can be the...

  20. Customer loyalty building

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on the customer loyalty. It gives an example of CRM project which aims to build the loyalty of customers to some brand or product so the customer would return to the company and would be satisfied with all products and services he get.

  1. Building Project Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Wiewiora, Anna

    This research investigates the development of project competence, and particularly, three related dynamic capabilities (shifting, adapting, leveraging) that contribute to project competence development. In doing so, we make use of the emerging literature on knowledge governance and theorize how...... of dynamic capability building promoting project competence development....

  2. Building for International Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    When completed next August, the LG Beijing Tower project is sureto be one of the most high-end buildings in Beijing. With a meticulous attention to detail, planners know the ins and outs of the city's business momentum.The LG Beijing Tower will utilize an integrated networking system to ensure safety,efficiency and comfort.

  3. Ecology Beyond Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers...

  4. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report, drawn up at the request of the former Minister of Public Health and Environmental Affairs of the Netherlands, discusses the potential radiological consequences for the population of the Netherlands of using waste materials as building materials in housing construction. (Auth.)

  5. Building a Twig Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    In this classroom activity, students build a phylogeny for woody plant species based on the morphology of their twigs. Using any available twigs, students can practice the process of cladistics to test evolutionary hypotheses for real organisms. They identify homologous characters, determine polarity through outgroup comparison, and construct a…

  6. Building Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  7. Life between buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Jan

    2001-01-01

    A classic is republished. Life between Buildings was first published in 1971. This book - frequently revised over the years - is still the best source for understanding how people use public spaces in our cities. Published in many languages, it is a standard textbook in Architecture and Planning...

  8. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  9. Checklist for Physics Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Physics, New York, NY.

    This booklet was written to encourage close communication between architect and client and to assist planners of physics facilities in providing important features of building design. Some 300 items considered important are listed Also included is a list of 17 references related to facility construction (many available free of charge. A companion…

  10. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  11. Fire Protection for Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  12. Building a Better CTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Geoffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    This article features the new Framework of Essential Skills of the K-12 CTO of the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN). This latest, version 2.0 iteration of the skills framework builds upon work the organization did earlier this decade. This time CoSN, a professional association for district technology leaders, reached out to a variety of…

  13. Building Satellites is Easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Phyllis Nimmo

    1996-01-01

    'Building Satellites' is a story about Jim Marsh's recovery from a severe head injury told by his wife Phyllis from the moment she learned of its happening, through the ups and downs of a lengthy rehabilitation, until his return to work and daily living. It continues on, however, and narrates his battle with the more insidious Grave's disease. Told in the first person, 'Building Satellites' vividly portrays Phyllis's thoughts and feelings throughout this experience with scrupulous honestly. This is a story worth reading for many reasons. First of all, Jim was an accomplished scientist, respected by his colleagues both in this country and abroad. Secondly, it narrates the many stages of his recovery from head injury with detailed readable accuracy; it informs us as well as inspires. Finally, 'Building Satellites" also tells us the story of Phyllis Marsh's remarkable creative response to this crisis. It narrates her personal experiences as she progresses through the strange and somewhat bizarre world of medicine and rehabilitation, guided by a few basic beliefs, which she learned as a child in Iowa, that provided her with the strength to endure. 'Building Satellites' seems to reaffirm our unconscious, but settled conviction, that when confornted overnight with adversity, we are somehow given the means for coping, supported by our basic beliefs, strengthened by family and friends, and eventually learning to accept any outcome.

  14. Building Bridges to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasta, Stephanie; Scott, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Describes a theme cycle called "Building Bridges to China" developed for third grade students that focuses on the similarities between the lives of children and families in China and the United States. Explains that the theme cycle addresses the National Geography Standards and three of the National Council for the Social Studies standards. (CMK)

  15. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  16. 锚索支护技术在采场不稳固地段的应用%The application of anchor rope- supporting technology at unstable district of stope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷明辉

    2011-01-01

    在采场不稳固地段应用锚索支护技术,能优化井下采场结构参数,提高采场顶板支护强度,提高矿石回收率。减少矿产资源损失,节约采场维修成本,增加采场人员和设备作业安全性,提高矿山企业经济和社会效益。%It can optimize the structure parameters of down - hole stope, increase supporting strength of top tray, improve recovery of ore, reduce resource loss, save stope maintaining cost, enhance operation safety of staff and equipment, improve economic and social benefit of a mine enterprise to use anchor rope - supporting technology at unstable district of stope.

  17. Factors influencing the rope tension of saury stick-held lift nets%基于模型试验的秋刀鱼舷提网纲索张力性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石永闯; 朱清澄; 张衍栋; 花传祥; 周文博

    2016-01-01

    根据2014年11—12月进行的秋刀鱼(Cololabis saira)舷提网静水槽模型试验测定的网具数据,通过多元线性回归分析了模型网绞收过程中的张力变化,以及绞网速度和下纲配重与模型网网具张力的关系,试图研究涤纶材料的模型网网具起网张力性能。试验结果表明:(1)模型网侧纲、下纲的张力在绞网过程中随时间均呈逐渐增加的趋势,在绞网过程即将结束时张力达到最大值。(2)模型网侧纲、下纲张力均随绞网速度的提高而增加,并随着绞网速度的提高增速加快,不同绞网速度组之间张力变化存在显著性差异(P<0.05);当绞网速度在0.12~0.36 m/s之间时,网具张力变化比较稳定;绞网速度在0.36~0.60 m/s时网具张力增加的幅度较大。模型网侧纲、下纲张力随下纲配重的增加逐渐提高,但影响并不显著。%We evaluated the influence of haul speed and leadline weight on net tension inCololabis saira stick-held lift nets. Tests were carried out in a water tank using a scale model net in November–December, 2014. The tension on the siderope and leadline of the model net increased with haul time. The tension approached a maximum near the end of the haul. The tension on the model net siderope and leadline increased as the hauling speed increased and the rate of increase in net speed accelerated as the hauling speed increased. The hauling speed at 0.36–0.60 m/s had a significant effect on rope tension (P<0.05), while at hauling speed of 0.12–0.36 m/s, the change in rope tension was stable. The tension in the model net sideline and the leadline increased when the lead-line weight increased, though there was no effect on rope tension. Our observations provide insight into ways to improve rope tension performance and a reference for fishing operations.

  18. Deactivation of Building 7602

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored research and development programs in Building 7602 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1984. This work focused on development of advanced technology for processing nuclear fuels. Building 7602 was used for engineering-scale tests using depleted and natural uranium to simulate the nuclear fuel. In April 1994 the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) sent supplemental FY 1994 guidance to ORNL stating that in FY 1995 and beyond, Building 7602 is considered surplus to NE programs and missions and shall be shut down (deactivated) and maintained in a radiologically and industrially safe condition with minimal surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M). DOE-NE subsequently provided FY 1995 funding to support the deactivation activities. Deactivation of Building 7602 was initiated on October 1, 1994. The principal activity during the first quarter of FY 1995 was removal of process materials (chemicals and uranium) from the systems. The process systems were operated to achieve chemical solution concentrations needed for reuse or disposal of the solutions prior to removal of the materials from the systems. During this phase of deactivation the process materials processed and removed were: (1) Uranyl nitrate solution 30,178 L containing 4490 kg of uranium; (2) Nitric acid (neutralized) 9850 L containing less than 0.013 kg of uranium; (3) Organic solution 3346 L containing 265 kg of uranium; (4) Uranium oxide powder 95 kg; and (5) Miscellaneous chemicals. At the end of December 1994, the process systems and control systems were shut down and deactivated. Disposition of the process materials removed from the process systems in Building 7602 proved to be the most difficult part of the deactivation. An operational stand down and funding reductions at Y-12 prevented planned conversion of the uranyl nitrate solution to depleted uranium oxide powder. This led to disposal of the uranyl nitrate solution as waste

  19. PROGRESS IN ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, L.W.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1982-12-01

    Recent accomplishments in buildings energy research by the diverse groups in the Energy Efficient Buildings Program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) are summarized. We review technological progress in the areas of ventilation and indoor air quality, buildings energy performance, computer modeling, windows, and artificial lighting. The need for actual consumption data to track accurately the improving energy efficiency of buildings is being addressed by the Buildings Energy Data (BED) Group at LBL. We summarize results to date from our Building Energy Use Compilation and Analysis (BECA) studies, which include time trends in the energy consumption of new commercial and new residential buildings, the measured savings being attained by both commercial and residential retrofits, and the cost-effectiveness of buildings energy conservation measures. We also examine recent comparisons of predicted vs. actual energy usage/savings, and present the case for building energy use labels.

  20. Building a Model Astrolabe

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hands-on introduction to the medieval astrolabe, based around a working model which can be constructed from photocopies of the supplied figures. As well as describing how to assemble the model, I also provide a brief explanation of how each of its various parts might be used. The printed version of this paper includes only the parts needed to build a single model prepared for use at latitudes around 52{\\deg}N, but an accompanying electronic file archive includes equivalent images which can be used to build models prepared for use at any other latitude. The vector graphics scripts used to generate the models are also available for download, allowing customised astrolabes to be made.

  1. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Musall, Eike;

    2010-01-01

    The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...... and how the Net ZEB status should be calculated differs in most countries. This paper presents an overview of Net ZEBs energy calculation methodologies proposed by organisations representing eight different countries: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Norway, Switzerland and the USA. The different...... parameters used in the calculations are discussed and the various renewable supply options considered in the methodologies are summarised graphically. Thus, the paper helps to understand different existing approaches to calculate energy balance in Net ZEBs, highlights the importance of variables selection...

  2. Building and using binoscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on both homemade and commercial products, this book provides the reader with simple and straightforward information about the modelling and building of binoscopes. Binoscopes can be thought of as binoculars enlarged to the size of telescopes: essentially, a combination of the two. Constructing a binoscope is easier than most people think, but it still demands attention to detail and proper background knowledge. The author goes on to provide additional information about how to understand the products currently on the market, should the reader choose to purchase a binoscope instead of building one. Lastly, the book also compares binoscopes with telescopes in great detail, outlining the differences the reader can expect to see in the night sky from using both. The celestial views obtained with a binoscope, compared to a single telescope of the same aperture, are a very different experience and well worth the effort.

  3. Building synthetic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Inniss, Mara C.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    Cellular memory – conversion of a transient signal into a sustained response – is a common feature of biological systems. Synthetic biologists aim to understand and reengineer such systems in a reliable and predictable manner. Synthetic memory circuits have been designed and built in vitro and in vivo based on diverse mechanisms such as oligonucleotide hybridization, recombination, transcription, phosphorylation, and RNA editing. Thus far, building these circuits has helped us explore the bas...

  4. BUILD UP Skills Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsingdal, Charlotte Vartou; Lauridsen, Vagn Holk; Hougaard, Karsten Frøhlich;

    opfyldelsen af 2020-målene, skal de rette kompetencer inden for energief-fektivitet og brug af vedvarende energi være til stede blandt de udførende i bygge- og an-lægsbranchen. Det er på denne baggrund, at Europa-Kommissionen har igangsat Build Up Skills projektet på tværs af Europa. Formålet med denne...

  5. Building a professional portfolio.

    OpenAIRE

    Arhippainen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Building a professional portfolio is a thesis report with buiding a professional portfolio for the author with a background in graphic design and event management with main interest on aesthetics side. This report describes the main process of selecting materials, planning and actually producing the portfolio. In addition to the portfolio there is a chapter with inspection on LinkedIn and other social medias when planning for jobsearch. Altogether it is many channels and a combination of ...

  6. Work at Building 513

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of IT's preparations to meet the challenge of LHC computing, a new chilled water production unit is being constructed for the Computer Centre. The air conditioning work will start in mid-January and last until June 2006. During this period, access to the car park of Building 513 will be restricted. Please consult the plan for details of the area affected by the work. With apologies for the inconvenience. IT Department

  7. Work at Building 513

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2006-01-01

    As part of IT's preparations to meet the challenge of LHC computing, a new chilled water production unit is being constructed for the Computer Centre. The air conditioning work will start in mid-January and last until June 2006. During this period access to the car park of Building 513 will be restricted. Please consult the plan for details of the area affected by the work. With apologies for the inconvenience, IT Department

  8. NRC new sustainable building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' The National Research Council Institute For Fuel Cell Innovation is relocating to a purpose-built 71,343 sq. Ft. (6598 sq. M) Research, Testing, Evaluation, and Industry Incubation Facility in the spring of 2006. The new facility will contain Hydrogen-ready laboratories, the existing relocated Hydrogen Safe Environmental Test Chamber, a hydrogen vehicle maintenance bay, a hydrogen vehicle refuelling station, and the following demonstration projects and features: 1. A Ground Source Heat Pump: This long-proven natural-source heating and cooling technology to provide climate control for the new IFCI's atrium and galleria. It is being designed by Keen Engineering of North Vancouver, BC. 2. 5 KW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System: Fuelled by natural gas and in the future, from biomass, the fuel cell will also produce approximately 15 kW of waste heat, which will be captured and used to supply heat for the building. The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell will be supplied by Fuel Cell Technologies in Kingston, ON. 3. LEED Building certification: Attaining LEED 'green building' certification is considered an important complement to the plans for the new NRC-IFCI, because it will provide respected third-party verification of government's commitment to efficient building design and construction. Project architects Bunting Coady of Vancouver, BC believe the IFCI has strong potential to earn gold LEED certification. 4. Photovoltaic hydrogen source for back-up power fuel cell system: A photovoltaic array will capture energy from sunlight to power an electrolyzer that will produce and store hydrogen for a PEM fuel cell emergency backup power system. The electrolyzer will be provided by Hydrogenics of Mississauga, ON. Photovoltaics are being designed and installed by the British Columbia Institute of Technology. (author)

  9. Thermal evaluation of buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Barajas, Luís M; Roset Calzada, Jaime; La Ferla, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    To COST ACTION TU 1104 "Smart Energy Regions" Prof. Aleksandra Djukic and Prof. Aleksandra Krstic-Furundzic of the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Belgrade, Serbia, that gave us the opportunity of be part of the training school imparted from Monday 20th to Thursday 23rd April 2015, where we can teach the topic. The convenience of the use of environmental building evaluation tools, to know design conditions and thermal behavior, by using bioclimatic strategies fo...

  10. Building retrofit for cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, H.

    1979-11-01

    The impact of high fuel prices on retrofit in the urban sector is discussed. Then, the benefits of a strong urban retrofit program are enumerated. Institutional, financial, informational, and attitudinal barriers that stand in the way of widespread implementation of energy conservation retrofit are discussed. Policy tools which can be used to implement a retrofit program consist of tax breaks, financing arrangements, mandatory building efficiency standards, and education programs.

  11. Building for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burberry, P.

    1978-01-01

    Ways in which buildings may be designed to increase thermal efficiency are discussed, giving first of all examples of thermal design in relation to climate. How the building itself may be designed to take advantage of solar energy and the ways in which heat loss takes place are described; the effect of design variables such as siting, volume, and insulation is shown. The book also reviews the development of thermal regulations for health and comfort and, more recently, energy conservation. It discusses the possitilities and difficulties of legislation for energy saving. The UK regulations are given in detail together with descriptions of the FHA and ASHRAE recommendations for the USA and the lastest Scandinavian norms. The author argues that no significant cost need be involved in many of the aspects of thermal design, e.g., shape and fenestration; and that these factors should automatically be taken into account by designers. Even existing buildings can be adapted in various respects to save energy consumption. The book concludes with an explanation of calculation methods for U-values, heat loss, plant sizing, seasonal heat requirements, and other procedures, amply illustrated with tables and graphs.

  12. Allegheny County Building Footprint Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains photogrammetrically compiled roof outlines of buildings. All near orthogonal corners are square. Buildings that are less than 400 square feet...

  13. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF THE BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Bocharnikov, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    The subject of bachelor’s thesis is about energy efficiency of the building. Much attention is being paid to energy saving problems all over the world. In the first part it theoretic base for thermal performance requirements of buildings. It includes main positions of Russian requirements for thermal performance. Also it is about general types of building envelope. The second part is about energy audit of buildings. In this part there is an energy efficiency assessment methodology. Energy eff...

  14. Upcoming renovations in Building 63

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    La Poste will close its doors in Building 63 on Friday, 28 November. It moves to Building 510 and where it will open on 1 December (see picture).   UNIQA will close its HelpDesk in Building 63 on Wednesday, 26 November and will re-open the next day in Building 510. La Poste and UNIQA are expected to return to their renovated office space between April and May 2015.

  15. Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Salasovich, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.

  16. Extensive Renovation of Heritage Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Møller, Eva B.; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    In the debate on whether or not heritage buildings should be included in work to mitigate climate change impacts, it is important to assess the impact of these buildings. Therefore the results of an extensive energy upgrading of a listed complex was studied. Climate change and measures to mitigat...... a far more vulnerable building and change its robustness to withstand moisture and user behaviour....

  17. Classification of Building Object Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    be managed by software applications and on the basis of building models. Classification systems with taxonomies of building object types have many application opportunities but can still be beneficial in data exchange between building construction partners. However, this will be performed by new methods...... and in strong connection with databases holding a wide range of object types....

  18. Building a leadership brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2007-01-01

    How do some firms produce a pipeline of consistently excellent managers? Instead of concentrating merely on strengthening the skills of individuals, these companies focus on building a broad organizational leadership capability. It's what Ulrich and Smallwood--cofounders of the RBL Group, a leadership development consultancy--call a leadership brand. Organizations with leadership brands take an "outside-in" approach to executive development. They begin with a clear statement of what they want to be known for by customers and then link it with a required set of management skills. The Lexus division of Toyota, for instance, translates its tagline--"The pursuit of perfection"--into an expectation that its leaders excel at managing quality processes. The slogan of Bon Secours Health System is "Good help to those in need." It demands that its managers balance business skills with compassion and caring. The outside-in approach helps firms build a reputation for high-quality leaders whom customers trust to deliver on the company's promises. In examining 150 companies with strong leadership capabilities, the authors found that the organizations follow five strategies. First, make sure managers master the basics of leadership--for example, setting strategy and grooming talent. Second, ensure that leaders internalize customers' high expectations. Third, incorporate customer feedback into evaluations of executives. Fourth, invest in programs that help managers hone the right skills, by tapping customers to participate in such programs. Finally, track the success of efforts to build leadership bench strength over the long-term. The result is outstanding management that persists even when individual executives leave. In fact, companies with the strongest leadership brands often become "leader feeders"--firms that regularly graduate leaders who go on to head other companies. PMID:17642128

  19. Effect of Combined Plant-Rope Ecological Floating Beds on Improvement of Eutrophic Water Quality%植物-生物绳组合生态浮床对富营养化水体的净化效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚娟; 刘存歧; 王军霞; 孙磊; 李洪波; 吴亦红

    2012-01-01

    在白洋淀富营养化水体构筑蕹菜(Ipomoea aquatica)浮床-生物绳组合系统一段时间后,带回实验室做静态分析,研究生物绳对微生物富集后对富营养化水体的改善效果.结果表明,蕹菜浮床、蕹菜-聚苯乙烯纤维绳组合浮床、蕹菜,麻绳组合浮床对水中TN、NH4+-N、TP和DIP均有较好的去除效果,蕹菜浮床对水中TN、NH4+-N、TP和DIP的去除率为39.09%、44.55%、63.68%和53.70%,而蕹菜-聚苯乙烯纤维绳组合浮床、蕹菜-麻绳组合浮床的去除率分别为49.46%、67.79%、54.72%、50.62%和60.43%、70.05%、71.70%、64.20%,可见组合式浮床比蕹菜浮床的氮磷去除能力更强,而且以蕹菜-麻绳组合浮床的净化效果最好.其中,蕹菜浮床、蕹菜-聚苯乙烯纤维绳组合浮床和蕹菜—麻绳组合浮床的植物去氮贡献率分别为36.13%、32.15%和27.11%,去磷贡献率分别为71.85%、87.07%和74.34%,表明浮床中植物吸收只去除了系统中一部分N,微生物的脱氮途径占主导作用;而对P的去除,本试验结果显示植物吸收起主要作用.可见,该组合生态浮床是改善富营养化水体的有效方法.%Recently, lake eutrophication has become a serious concern and its causes and controls have attracted growing attention worldwide. In the experiments described here, we have used Ipomoea aquatica as an experimental plant for use with ecological floating beds. Three kinds of combined ecological floating bed systems were constructed by hanging two kinds of rope (hemp and PST) below the beds, and their effectiveness for improving water quality was investigated. The results showed that the plant ecological floating bed, plant-PST- rope combined bed, and plant-hemp-rope combined bed provided significant removal effects on TN, NH/-N, TP and DIP. Removal efficiencies were 39.09% , 49.46% and 60.43% , 44. 55% , 67.79% and 70.05% , 63. 68% , 54. 72% and 71. 70% , and 53. 70% , 50. 62

  20. Sustainable Development and Green Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Sinha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Global sustainability goals have led to the development of the green building movement. The Green Building Program, stemming from the movement, has had unprecedented success as it provides a quantifiable metric to people’s efforts towards sustainable development. Sustainable development and green buildings are often used interchangeably. Although, sustainable development and green buildings are related, they are not the same. This paper provides an overview of how green building relates to sustainable development practices. Sustainability also governs decisions concerning building materials. A comprehensive explanation of what constitutes a green building material is discussed and how renewable material like wood fare in the deciding criteria. There are many green building rating systems in place. United States Green Building Council administered Leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED is the global market leader in the rating systems. LEED is a commendable and grand effort in moving towards sustainable development by converting the built environment green. However, it does have certain pitfalls and challenges. Some of these challenges are with respect to policies on material selection and performance monitoring. The materials used in a project are considered at a common starting point and no consideration is given to the life cycle performance of the material. Statements concerning sustainability require validation, and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA is a tool that can provide such validity. This paper presents how beneficial it can be, when included, in the bigger scheme of green building rating systems and introduces an integrated design concept for green buildings.

  1. Building Web Reputation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Randy

    2010-01-01

    What do Amazon's product reviews, eBay's feedback score system, Slashdot's Karma System, and Xbox Live's Achievements have in common? They're all examples of successful reputation systems that enable consumer websites to manage and present user contributions most effectively. This book shows you how to design and develop reputation systems for your own sites or web applications, written by experts who have designed web communities for Yahoo! and other prominent sites. Building Web Reputation Systems helps you ask the hard questions about these underlying mechanisms, and why they're critical

  2. Building Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    department (Dept. of Environment, Technology and Social Studies, Roskilde University), and has originally in another version been presented in the book “Miljøregulering - tværvidenskabelige studier (Environmental Regulation. Interdisciplinary Studies)” (Holm, Kjærgård & Pedersen eds. 1997, in Danish) written......We will in this paper approach the challenge of building integrated environmental studies by presenting a crude frame of analysis which take into account both the physical aspects and the social-discursive articulations of environmental problems. This framework partly mirrors the approach of our...

  3. Building Regional Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    a dominating position in the global marketfor industrial enzymes from 1870-2004. The case of industrial enzymes shows how aregion has been able to build sustainable competitive advantages from its distinctivecompetencies. This is done through a mixture of outsourcing and in sourcing ofcompetencies, knowledge......This paper analyzes the foundations of regional knowledge and its long-term impact onthe region's companies' and how a particular knowledge has developed an ability tostay competitive within a specific technological field. The case illustrates how theCopenhagen region has been able to develop...

  4. ECOLOGICAL BUILDING DESIGN DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vakili-Ardebili

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable building design process is driven on the basis of a range of design eco-indicators. Consideration of a multitude of eco-determinants, such as environment, economy, resources, energy consumption and society values in addition to design characteristics and contexts, makes the process of ecological design even more complex. A large number of eco-drivers are extracted from the literature and current design practices. To gain a better insight on eco-design determinants, a survey focusing on the use of eco-design drivers has been conducted with various architects in the UK. The factor analysis method was used to remove redundant data from the survey. Through the factor analysis approach, 115 eco-determinants are grouped into six main clusters. This article presents the process, analysis and findings of this work. The extracted eco-indicators and their associated clusters can be used to improve the process of ecological building design. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0096 Source: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, Volume 6, Number 2, 2010 , pp. 111-131(21

  5. 矿用钢丝在腐蚀介质环境下的微动行为研究%Fretting Behaviors of Steel Wires as Hoisting Ropes for Coal Mine in Corrosive Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈燕; 张德坤; 王崧全; 张泽峰; 葛世荣

    2011-01-01

    钢丝绳中钢丝的锈蚀、磨损或断裂是造成矿井用钢丝绳失效的主要形式.以6×19点接触式提升钢丝绳为研究对象,在自制的微动摩擦磨损试验机上开展钢丝在腐蚀介质环境下的微动磨损试验研究.考察钢丝在模拟矿井淋水腐蚀介质中的微动运行特性,通过磨痕测量微动磨损量,采用光学显微镜、扫描电镜和能谱仪对钢丝的微动损伤机理进行分析.结果表明:腐蚀介质影响钢丝的微动运行区域,在干摩擦和中性腐蚀介质下运行于混合区,而在酸性和碱性腐蚀介质下运行于滑移区;腐蚀介质明显降低钢丝的摩擦系数,其中酸性介质下的摩擦系数最小,约为0.36;腐蚀与磨损的交互作用显著加速了材料的流失,酸性腐蚀介质下钢丝的磨痕深度最大;钢丝在干摩擦条件下的损伤机制以材料的塑性变形、粘附涂抹和摩擦氧化为主,而在腐蚀介质环境下的损伤机制转变为磨粒磨损和化学腐蚀.%The main failure modes of steel wires as hoisting ropes used in coal mine were rust, wear and break of steel wires. The fretting wear tests of steel wires as hoisting ropes in corrosive media were conducted on a self - made fretting wear test rig using the 6 × 19 point contact rope as speciemen. The fretting behaviors of steel wires under dry condition and three media (the main component was trickling water in mine) were reviewed. The fretting wear losses were caculated and damage mechanisms of steel wires were analyzed by using optical microscopy ( OM ), scanning electron microscopy ( SEM )with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that corrosive media had impact on the fretting regime,i.e. mixed fretting regime in air and neutral corrosive media while slip fretting regime in acid and alkaline corrosive media.The friction coefficients were reduced significantly due to the lubrication of corrosive media and the lowest was about 0. 39 in acid corrosive media

  6. 临近深基坑的高边坡稳定性动态监测及险情分析%Analysis of slip-risk and dynamic monitoring of a high building slope fringed a deep-founding pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启云; 谷淡平; 张家生; 熊智彪

    2011-01-01

    The paper intends to report our analysis of slip-risk and dynamic monitoring of a high building slop fringed a deep-founding pit. In our paper, we trial-used the combination of a single row of artificially-dug-up piles and pre-stressed anchor rope as the barcing system for the foundation pit in the complicated surroundings, with soil nail wall put on partial side. A slope was supposed to be built near the southern side of the pit supported with an anchor-plate retaining structure. In the process of excavation, monitoring was to be done to see if any horizontal displacement, deformation of deep soil took place with the axial load of anchor rope getting loose or any technical data and code dispatched from the demand. The pit-monitoring results we have found indicate that the pile-anchor system helps to control the deformation effectively, whereas the axial load of anchor rope was discovered fluctuating to increase or decrease in the process of excavation with the average change being about 11%. The slope monitoring results show that the axial load of the rope has somewhat enhanced due to the rainfall. In addition, the pre-stressed loss after being locked was found to exceed 10% because of intensive stretching of the adjoining ropes, the rotative boring of the anchor rope against the stabilization and deformation-increase of the unstable slope. In the process of excavation, the deformation in some parts was found too big and resulted in a dangerous state. While keeping tracing the dangerous state of the side of the foundation pit, we have depicting the deformation and the unstable part of the anchoring device with its axial loading in a close way. As a result of comprehensive analysis, design, construction and monitoring, we have concluded that dangerous situation took place for the reason that the overbreak, explosive excavation, rainfall and so on are all the factors contribute to the hazardous state. Seeing there exist all these problems, we have proposed

  7. Irregular Shaped Building Design Optimization with Building Information Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Xia Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is to recognise the function of Building Information Modelling (BIM in design optimization for irregular shaped buildings. The study focuses on a conceptual irregular shaped “twisted” building design similar to some existing sculpture-like architectures. Form and function are the two most important aspects of new buildings, which are becoming more sophisticated as parts of equally sophisticated “systems” that we are living in. Nowadays, it is common to have irregular shaped or sculpture-like buildings which are very different when compared to regular buildings. Construction industry stakeholders are facing stiff challenges in many aspects such as buildability, cost effectiveness, delivery time and facility management when dealing with irregular shaped building projects. Building Information Modelling (BIM is being utilized to enable architects, engineers and constructors to gain improved visualization for irregular shaped buildings; this has a purpose of identifying critical issues before initiating physical construction work. In this study, three variations of design options differing in rotating angle: 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees are created to conduct quantifiable comparisons. Discussions are focused on three major aspects including structural planning, usable building space, and structural constructability. This research concludes that Building Information Modelling is instrumental in facilitating design optimization for irregular shaped building. In the process of comparing different design variations, instead of just giving “yes or no” type of response, stakeholders can now easily visualize, evaluate and decide to achieve the right balance based on their own criteria. Therefore, construction project stakeholders are empowered with superior evaluation and decision making capability.

  8. Parameters of Upgrading Existing Building into a Green Building

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. Rupali Kapure; Dr.R.K.Jain

    2014-01-01

    Before turning to specific programs for upgrading buildings, it’s important to understand the market dynamics of greening existing buildings. From a macroeconomic perspective, energy efficiency upgrades represent the most cost-effective way to meet growing energy demands. From a microeconomic perspective, recent studies have shown that energy-efficient and certified green buildings merit higher market values, greater rents, and higher occupancies. From a corporate sustainabili...

  9. Towards more Manageable Coastal Building; Initial Coastal Building Construction Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Roslan Talib; Mohd Z. Sulieman

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: As we may not be aware that the coastal construction is different from inland construction. Building in a coastal environment is different from building in an inland area. In general, buildings in coastal areas must be designed and built to withstand higher loads due to its more extreme conditions. Nowadays, the issue of global warming, uncertainty of global weather and the climate change effect indirectly creating the coastal area with much more expose to extreme condition...

  10. Parameters of Upgrading Existing Building into a Green Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Rupali Kapure

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Before turning to specific programs for upgrading buildings, it’s important to understand the market dynamics of greening existing buildings. From a macroeconomic perspective, energy efficiency upgrades represent the most cost-effective way to meet growing energy demands. From a microeconomic perspective, recent studies have shown that energy-efficient and certified green buildings merit higher market values, greater rents, and higher occupancies. From a corporate sustainability viewpoint, greening existing buildings is a direct way to reduce a company’s carbon footprint. As a result, corporate real estate managers in the United States have begun to decide in favour of greening both owned and leased buildings, seeing many economic benefits from this switch. Green buildings offer many marketing benefits for building owners and tenants, including opportunities for creating new green “brands” and also “future-proofing” their real estate against both future energy price increases and also value erosion as the trend toward green buildings continues to grow. Marketing benefits will vary by geographic location, building and tenant type, and other factors, but they are present in all privately owned real estate.

  11. Building America Case Study: Solar Water Heating in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Aldrich and J. Williamson

    2016-05-01

    Solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems have been installed on buildings for decades, but because of relatively high costs they have not achieved significant market penetration in most of the country. As more buildings move towards zero net energy consumption, however, many designers and developers are looking more closely at SDHW. In multifamily buildings especially, SDHW may be more practical for several reasons: (1) When designing for zero net energy consumption, solar water heating may be part of the lowest cost approach to meet water heating loads. (2.) Because of better scale, SDHW systems in multifamily buildings cost significantly less per dwelling than in single-family homes. (3) Many low-load buildings are moving away from fossil fuels entirely. SDHW savings are substantially greater when displacing electric resistance water heating. (4) In addition to federal tax incentives, some states have substantial financial incentives that dramatically reduce the costs (or increase the benefits) of SDHW systems in multifamily buildings. With support form the U.S. DOE Building America program, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with a developer in western Massachusetts to evaluate a SDHW system on a 12-unit apartment building. Olive Street Development completed construction in spring of 2014, and CARB has been monitoring performance of the water heating systems since May 2014.

  12. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  13. Guidelines for Building Science Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Cheryn E.; Rashkin, Samuel; Huelman, Pat

    2015-03-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) residential research and demonstration program, Building America, has triumphed through 20 years of innovation. Partnering with researchers, builders, remodelers, and manufacturers to develop innovative processes like advanced framing and ventilation standards, Building America has proven an energy efficient design can be more cost effective, healthy, and durable than a standard house. As Building America partners continue to achieve their stretch goals, they have found that the barrier to true market transformation for high performance homes is the limited knowledge-base of the professionals working in the building industry. With dozens of professionals taking part in the design and execution of building and selling homes, each person should have basic building science knowledge relevant to their role, and an understanding of how various home components interface with each other. Instead, our industry typically experiences a fragmented approach to home building and design. After obtaining important input from stakeholders at the Building Science Education Kick-Off Meeting, DOE created a building science education strategy addressing education issues preventing the widespread adoption of high performance homes. This strategy targets the next generation and provides valuable guidance for the current workforce. The initiative includes: • Race to Zero Student Design Competition: Engages universities and provides students who will be the next generation of architects, engineers, construction managers and entrepreneurs with the necessary skills and experience they need to begin careers in clean energy and generate creative solutions to real world problems. • Building Science to Sales Translator: Simplifies building science into compelling sales language and tools to sell high performance homes to their customers. • Building Science Education Guidance: Brings together industry and academia to solve problems related to

  14. Spintronics: Conceptual Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    The purpose of this introduction to spintronics is to provide some elementary description of its conceptual building blocks. Thus, it is intended for a newcomer to the field. After recalling rudimentary descriptions of spin precession and spin relaxation, spin-dependent transport is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. This suffices to introduce key notions such as the spin asymmetry of the conductivities in the two-current model, the spin diffusion length, and spin accumulation. Two basic mechanisms of spin relaxation are then presented, one arising from spin-orbit scattering and the other from electron-magnon collisions. Finally, the action of a spin-polarized current on magnetization is presented in a thermodynamics framework. This introduces the notion of spin torque and the characteristic length scale over which the transverse spin polarization of conduction electron decays as it is injected into a magnet.

  15. Renovating the Main Building

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    CERN's "Main Building" is exactly that. The Organization's central hub, with hundreds of staff and visitors passing through its doors every day, will soon be getting a well-earned facelift. Refurbishment work will proceed in phases, starting with the Salle des Pas Perdus, the concourse between the Council Chamber and the Main Auditorium. By the end of August, informal seating areas will be installed, electronic display panels will provide practical information and improved sound insulation will enhance conditions in the auditoria and surrounding meeting rooms.   In light green the area that will undergo the facelift. Work will start in July. The ground floor is home to the entrance to Restaurant No. 1, the bank, the post office, the travel agent, the Users Office, the Staff Association, the notice boards etc. Step up to the first floor to access CERN's largest lecture theatre, the Council Chamber and its "Pas Perdus" lobby. Everyone who works at or visits CERN i...

  16. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... and judicial setting of the individual country. However, in spite of the different origins, the systems seem to merge into a global model serving some basic societal needs. The paper presents an outline of this development towards a global model for sustainable land administration infrastructures...... of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional...

  17. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...... efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...

  18. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... building in land management is not only a question of establishing a sufficient technological level or sufficient economic resources. It is mainly a question of understanding the interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of land administration systems, and understanding the need for human resource...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures.    This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...

  19. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  20. User Driven Innovative Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Sørensen, Kristian Birch; Steffensen, K. G.;

    2009-01-01

    to the broad introduction of advanced information and communication technology (ICT). VICMET is a general method for user involvement in every phase of the construction process and with a unique setup for each type of user. VICMET can use already created information in the building process and emphasis...... that the users are the key to next level of successful building projects. VICMET defines four spaces to support the activities in a innovative/creative design process; The Contextual Inquiry Space, the Conceptual Modeling and Game Space, the Functional Building Systems (FBS) Consolidation Space, and the Solution......During recent years there has been an ever-increasing focus on the possibilities to change the building process to raise quality on the final building products as well as on the activities of actors involved in the building process. One reason for this interest is the new opportunities evolving due...

  1. Energy Innovations for Healthy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward

    2016-09-23

    Healthy buildings provide high indoor environmental quality for occupants while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. This project advanced the development and marketability of envisioned healthy, energy-efficient buildings through studies that evaluated the use of emerging technologies in commercial and residential buildings. For commercial buildings, the project evaluated energy consumption and user experiences with a prototype Personalized Environmental Controls Systems (PECS) that enable individuals to control of conditions in their immediate surroundings within a larger office suite. For residential buildings, the project evaluated a variety of domestic hot water (DHW) technologies. The project also included outreach and education concerning energy efficiency in buildings, including resources required for homebuilders to participate in DOE’s Builders Challenge.

  2. Building better boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, David A

    2004-05-01

    Companies facing new requirements for governance are scrambling to buttress financial-reporting systems, overhaul board structures--whatever it takes to comply. But there are limits to how much good governance can be imposed from the outside. Boards know what they ought to be: seats of challenge and inquiry that add value without meddling and make CEOs more effective but not all-powerful. A board can reach that goal only if it functions as a high-performance team, one that is competent, coordinated, collegial, and focused on an unambiguous goal. Such entities don't just evolve; they must be constructed to an exacting blueprint--what the author calls board building. In this article, Nadler offers an agenda and a set of tools that boards can use to define and achieve their objectives. It's important for a board to conduct regular self-assessments and to pay attention to the results of those analyses. As a first step, the directors and the CEO should agree on which of the following common board models best fits the company: passive, certifying, engaged, intervening, or operating. The directors and the CEO should then analyze which business tasks are most important and allot sufficient time and resources to them. Next, the board should take inventory of each director's strengths to ensure that the group as a whole possesses the skills necessary to do its work. Directors must exert more influence over meeting agendas and make sure they have the right information at the right time and in the right format to perform their duties. Finally, the board needs to foster an engaged culture characterized by candor and a willingness to challenge. An ambitious board-building process, devised and endorsed both by directors and by management, can potentially turn a good board into a great one. PMID:15146740

  3. Building better boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, David A

    2004-05-01

    Companies facing new requirements for governance are scrambling to buttress financial-reporting systems, overhaul board structures--whatever it takes to comply. But there are limits to how much good governance can be imposed from the outside. Boards know what they ought to be: seats of challenge and inquiry that add value without meddling and make CEOs more effective but not all-powerful. A board can reach that goal only if it functions as a high-performance team, one that is competent, coordinated, collegial, and focused on an unambiguous goal. Such entities don't just evolve; they must be constructed to an exacting blueprint--what the author calls board building. In this article, Nadler offers an agenda and a set of tools that boards can use to define and achieve their objectives. It's important for a board to conduct regular self-assessments and to pay attention to the results of those analyses. As a first step, the directors and the CEO should agree on which of the following common board models best fits the company: passive, certifying, engaged, intervening, or operating. The directors and the CEO should then analyze which business tasks are most important and allot sufficient time and resources to them. Next, the board should take inventory of each director's strengths to ensure that the group as a whole possesses the skills necessary to do its work. Directors must exert more influence over meeting agendas and make sure they have the right information at the right time and in the right format to perform their duties. Finally, the board needs to foster an engaged culture characterized by candor and a willingness to challenge. An ambitious board-building process, devised and endorsed both by directors and by management, can potentially turn a good board into a great one.

  4. Sustainability in Energy and Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnane, Oliver; Basu, Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED Cardiff This paper presents a new methodology for characterising the energy performance of buildings suitable for city-scale, top-down energy modelling. Building properties that have the greatest impact on simulated energy performance were identified via a review of sensitivity analysis studies. The methodology greatly simplifies the description of a building to decrease labour and simulation processing overheads. The methodology will be used in the EU FP7 INDICATE project whi...

  5. Building Integration of Aerogel Glazings

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Tao; Jelle, Bjørn Petter; Gustavsen, Arild

    2016-01-01

    The recent building practices have shown that aerogel glazings can be used as a multifunctional building envelope component for different purposes. Nevertheless, the distinctive physical properties and energy performance of aerogel glazings suggest that building integration of aerogel glazings may create architectural challenges, aesthetic problems, as well as concerns on their durability and environmental impact, thus highlighting the importance of developing guidelines to regulate the use o...

  6. Energy-efficient timber buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Zbašnik-Senegačnik, Martina; Kitek Kuzman, Manja

    2015-01-01

    The choice of materials for a building with high energy efficiency becomes much more important and strategies for reducing the use of primary energy for the production of materials and components becomes key. The positive trend towards wooden construction is dictated by international guidelines, where a wooden building is an important starting point, not only for low-energy, but also low-emission building with exceptional health and safety aspects. In Europe, the most comprehensiv...

  7. Guidelines on Building Regulations 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thse guidelines clarify and intepret the provisions of the Building Regulations of 2008 (BR08). The Guidelines, which match BR08 in terms of organisation into Parts, are accompanied by the full text of the regulations and the explanatory notes issued by the Danish Enterprise and Construction...... climate, energy consumotion and services. The Guidelines are aimed at all professionals involved in building projects, particularly building design consultants, contractors and municipal application officers....

  8. Descent in buildings (AM-190)

    CERN Document Server

    Mühlherr, Bernhard; Weiss, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Descent in Buildings begins with the resolution of a major open question about the local structure of Bruhat-Tits buildings. The authors then put their algebraic solution into a geometric context by developing a general fixed point theory for groups acting on buildings of arbitrary type, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for the residues fixed by a group to form a kind of subbuilding or "form" of the original building. At the center of this theory is the notion of a Tits index, a combinatorial version of the notion of an index in the relative theory of algebraic groups. These results

  9. Electric Propulsion Research Building (EPRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electric Propulsion Research Building (EPRB) capability centers on its suite of vacuum chambers, which are configured to meet the unique requirements related to...

  10. Lifetime environmental impact of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Mequignon, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This work discusses the impact of the life of buildings on? sustainable development methods.?The study of the lifespan of the building is used to assess and?manage the environmental impacts associated?with all the stages of a product's life, from raw material extraction?through to repair, maintenance and?? 'end of life' scenarios. While several papers have discussed thegreenhouse gas emissions of buildings,?less research has been done on how these are affected by the lifespan?of the building. This book serves to?highlight the pertinence of this factor and contributes to providing?new ideas on

  11. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    U.S. and China are the world’s top two economics. Together they consumed one-third of the world’s primary energy. It is an unprecedented opportunity and challenge for governments, researchers and industries in both countries to join together to address energy issues and global climate change. Such joint collaboration has huge potential in creating new jobs in energy technologies and services. Buildings in the US and China consumed about 40% and 25% of the primary energy in both countries in 2010 respectively. Worldwide, the building sector is the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emission. Better understanding and improving the energy performance of buildings is a critical step towards sustainable development and mitigation of global climate change. This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  12. Energy Innovations for Healthy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Healthy buildings provide high indoor environmental quality for occupants while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. This project advanced the development and marketability of envisioned healthy, energy-efficient buildings through studies that evaluated the use of emerging technologies in commercial and residential buildings. The project also provided resources required for homebuilders to participate in DOE’s Builders Challenge, concomitant with the goal to reduce energy consumption in homes by at least 30% as a first step toward achieving envisioned widespread availability of net-zero energy homes by 2030. In addition, the project included outreach and education concerning energy efficiency in buildings.

  13. Building guide : how to build Xyce from source code.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric Richard; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Sholander, Peter E.; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Verley, Jason C.

    2013-08-01

    While Xyce uses the Autoconf and Automake system to configure builds, it is often necessary to perform more than the customary %E2%80%9C./configure%E2%80%9D builds many open source users have come to expect. This document describes the steps needed to get Xyce built on a number of common platforms.

  14. Digital Handover of Data from Building Projects to Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2006-01-01

    and construction and on the other side in building opera-tion and facilities management. In Denmark the government has launched a development program called Digital Construction and one of the projects concerns specifying require-ments for building clients in relation to digital handover of data from construction...

  15. Building envelope for New Buildings and Energy Renovation of Existing Buildings. Project results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Rose, Jørgen; Esbensen, Peter Kjær;

    1999-01-01

    , a group of scientists at the Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, have started a research project to develop better solutions for new building and energy renovation.The publication report the status after the first 3 year of the Building Envelope Project with emphasis......At the energy conference in 1995, Denmark agreed on reducing the total CO2-emission by 20%. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to increase thermal insulation thickness both in new and retrofitted buildings.This will, for both cases, impose a series of building physics problems, as the knowledge...... on the following subjects:Scientific basis for calculation programs, Development of calculationsmethods for heat transfer, Development of new building envelope components, Roofing system based on wooden roof elements, Roofing system with drying properties, Moisture uptake and drying from brick constructions...

  16. Construction achievements at building in reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have constructed simultaneously four buildings, AB building, DB building, DC building, and KA building in the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Rokkasho village in Aomori. We were able to complete the massive and complicated building in the highest quality by the method of prefabrication of site work in a short construction term. Moreover, also in the severe winter season, we practiced construction work intentionally. Consequently, we completed three buildings, AB building, DB building, and DC building without the trouble last year. (author)

  17. Virtual building environments (VBE) - Applying information modeling to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2004-06-21

    A Virtual Building Environment (VBE) is a ''place'' where building industry project staffs can get help in creating Building Information Models (BIM) and in the use of virtual buildings. It consists of a group of industry software that is operated by industry experts who are also experts in the use of that software. The purpose of a VBE is to facilitate expert use of appropriate software applications in conjunction with each other to efficiently support multidisciplinary work. This paper defines BIM and virtual buildings, and describes VBE objectives, set-up and characteristics of operation. It informs about the VBE Initiative and the benefits from a couple of early VBE projects.

  18. Design on the steel wire rope non-destructive magnetic flux leakage testing system based on FPGA%基于FPGA的钢丝绳漏磁无损检测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严鹏; 张宝生; 王学仁; 张志永

    2012-01-01

    A design scheme on the steel wire rope non-destructive magnetic flux leakage testing system based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is discussed. Peripheral circuits are designed and embedded IP soft-core are configured. Testing program is designed by C software language and VHDL hardware description language. It is indicated by the experiments that the testing system has the advantages such as low power consumption, high calculation capability, high accuracy and easy portability.%提出一种以现场可编程门阵列(FPGA)为硬件核心的钢丝绳漏磁无损检测系统设计方案,设计了外围电路并对嵌入式IP软核进行了配置。利用C语言和VHDL硬件描述语言编写了检测系统软件程序。实验表明该系统具有功耗低、运算能力强、精度高、便于携带等优点。

  19. INL High Performance Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer D. Morton

    2010-02-01

    High performance buildings, also known as sustainable buildings and green buildings, are resource efficient structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reduce solid waste and pollutants, and limit the depletion of natural resources while also providing a thermally and visually comfortable working environment that increases productivity for building occupants. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish this mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate high performance sustainable design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. Additionally, INL is a large consumer of energy that contributes to both carbon emissions and resource inefficiency. In the current climate of rising energy prices and political pressure for carbon reduction, this guide will help new construction project teams to design facilities that are sustainable and reduce energy costs, thereby reducing carbon emissions. With these concerns in mind, the recommendations described in the INL High Performance Building Strategy (previously called the INL Green Building Strategy) are intended to form the INL foundation for high performance building standards. This revised strategy incorporates the latest federal and DOE orders (Executive Order [EO] 13514, “Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance” [2009], EO 13423, “Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management” [2007], and DOE Order 430.2B, “Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy, and Transportation Management” [2008]), the latest guidelines, trends, and observations in high performance building construction, and the latest changes to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design

  20. Towards more Manageable Coastal Building; Initial Coastal Building Construction Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslan Talib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As we may not be aware that the coastal construction is different from inland construction. Building in a coastal environment is different from building in an inland area. In general, buildings in coastal areas must be designed and built to withstand higher loads due to its more extreme conditions. Nowadays, the issue of global warming, uncertainty of global weather and the climate change effect indirectly creating the coastal area with much more expose to extreme condition. Formulate initial guidelines with certain degree of details how coastal construction requirements are different from those for inland construction. Approach: Due to the exposure to higher loads and extreme conditions, these structures in coastal areas will cost more to design, construct, maintain, repair and insure. Proper and right usage of building materials including electrical and mechanical equipments, are crucial in order to minimize damage. Nowadays, the issue of global warming, uncertainty of global weather and the climate change effect indirectly creating the coastal area with much more expose to extreme condition. Feedback has been gathered from the government local engineers who are doing the management of the Government’s local buildings located along the coastal area of Peninsular Malaysia. Data findings through research method, discussion with the suppliers and discussion with coastal buildings maintenance crews also has been done. Results: The research finding discus the specific characteristics that makes for successful coastal buildings focusing in tropical region. Conclusion: We must accept on the idea of building in coastal areas will require more maintenance and upkeep. By having proper coastal building guideline may create more positive awareness in constructing better management coastal buildings and can save time and money to maintain the said structures.

  1. Capacity building for HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis PhD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.

    Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.

    Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this

  2. Maintenance Planning for Historic Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Plian; Dan Babor

    2008-01-01

    The key to good maintenance of historic buildings is a long-range maintenance plan. Long-range planning recognizes a responsibility to the future to prolong the useful life of a building by preserving it in its present condition and preventing or slowing deterioration and damage from natural or other causes.

  3. Energy efficiency of building envelope

    OpenAIRE

    V.M. Yakubson

    2014-01-01

    November, 12-13th, in Saint-Petersburg the 7th International congress "Energy efficiency. XXI century" took place. The reports were done in breakuo groups according to the various aspects of energy efficiency challenge: HVAC systems, water supply and sewerage systems, gas supply, energy metering. One of the grourps was devoted to thermophysics of buildings and energy effective design of building envelope.

  4. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  5. To Remodel or To Build?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Todd

    2009-01-01

    The question of remodeling an existing house to make it wheelchair accessible or building a new barrier-free house is a difficult decision. This article presents some initial questions and considerations followed by a list of pros and cons for remodeling an existing house vs. building a new house.

  6. Building Bounce-Back Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Zannini, Lou

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about building resilience--that ability to push through hardship to success, to rebound from failure, and to "keep on keepin' on" when things seem impossible. The author assert that lots of gifted and talented kids need help building their resilience. In today's world, when striving for mediocrity can seem like…

  7. IN SPHERE OF ROAD BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhov Oleg Fedorovich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, it is necessary to use concession bases of development of national transport systems more widely considering the importance of road building, and also that fact that interests of the state and managing subjects - participants of investment building activity have differently directed vectors.

  8. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

  9. Mould growth on building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog Nielsen, K.

    Mould growth in buildings is associated with adverse health effects among the occupants of the building. However actual growth only occurs in damp and water-damaged materials, and is an increasing problem in Denmark, due to less robust constructions, inadequate maintenance, and too little...

  10. Simulating Building Fires for Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo C.; Johnson, Randall P.

    1987-01-01

    Fire scenes for cinematography staged at relatively low cost in method that combines several existing techniques. Nearly realistic scenes, suitable for firefighter training, produced with little specialized equipment. Sequences of scenes set up quickly and easily, without compromising safety because model not burned. Images of fire, steam, and smoke superimposed on image of building to simulate burning of building.

  11. Biogas building directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeling, G.; Guldager, R.; Hilliges, G.; Tietjen, C.; Werner, U.; Guldager, H.; Sasse, L.

    The purpose of this book is to approach the people living and working in the rural regions of developing countries with a technology enabling them to use their resources by their proper means in a way that they dispose of a cheap and inexhaustible source of energy and fertilizer. These building directives for biogas plants shall concretely give the fundamental information for the use of this technology and be a practical support in do-it-yourself construction of biogas plants by its intelligible way of description owing to designs and popular language. These directives are part of a work performed by German and Indian experts during two years working up the biogas technology in countries of the Third World and in industrial countries. The regulations have been discussed at an international workshop in Bremen with more than 60 experts from countries of all continents meeting to discuss the application of biogas plants. The result has been documented in the ''Report on the International Biogas-Workshop Bremen''.

  12. Building an innovation factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargadon, A; Sutton, R I

    2000-01-01

    New ideas are the precious currency of the new economy, but generating them doesn't have to be a mysterious process. The image of the lone genius inventing from scratch is a romantic fiction. Businesses that constantly innovate have systematized the production and testing of new ideas, and the system can be replicated by practically any organization. The best innovators use old ideas as the raw materials for new ideas, a strategy the authors call knowledge brokering. The system for sustaining innovation is the knowledge brokering cycle, and the authors discuss its four parts. The first is capturing good ideas from a wide variety of sources. The second is keeping those ideas alive by playing with them, discussing them, and using them. Imagining new uses for old ideas is the third part--some knowledge brokers encourage cross-pollination by creating physical layouts that allow, or even force, people to interact with one another. The fourth is turning promising concepts into real services, products, processes, or business models. Companies can use all or part of the cycle. Large companies in particular desperately need to move ideas from one place to another. Some will want to build full-fledged consulting groups dedicated to internal knowledge brokering. Others can hire people who have faced problems similar to the companies' current problems. The most important lesson is that business leaders must change how they think about innovation, and they must change how their company cultures reflect that thinking. PMID:11183977

  13. Nuclear reactor building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed thereabove. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define therebetween an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin.

  14. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, Mary [Michigan Saves; Jackson, Robert [Michigan Energy Office

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  15. Building a crystal palace

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The end-caps of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) take shape as the first quadrant was completed on Wednesday 3 October. 1831 crystals, organised into five by five blocks named ‘supercrystals’, make up the first quadrant of Dee 1.With the 61,200-crystal barrel of its electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) complete, CMS is now building the endcaps, on the tenth anniversary of their initial design. Crystals for the endcaps were the last to be made, so the race is now on to have them all in place and ready for the turn-on of the LHC next year. Assembly of the first of eight quadrants began in June and crystal mounting was completed on Wednesday 3 October. Each crystal is transparent, has a volume just larger than a CERN coffee cup yet weighs a huge 1.5kg. 1831 of these lead tungstate crystals went into the first quadrant from a total 14,648 in the endcaps. The lead and tungsten account for 86% of each crystal’s weight, but as project leader Dave Cockerill expl...

  16. Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per; Andresen, Inger; Perino, Marco; van der Aa, Ad

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie with technologies that promote the integration of responsive building elements and building services in integrated building concepts. In order to address some of these issues an international research effort, IE...

  17. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  18. Data management for biofied building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kohta; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Recently, Smart houses have been studied by many researchers to satisfy individual demands of residents. However, they are not feasible yet as they are very costly and require many sensors to be embedded into houses. Therefore, we suggest "Biofied Building". In Biofied Building, sensor agent robots conduct sensing, actuation, and control in their house. The robots monitor many parameters of human lives such as walking postures and emotion continuously. In this paper, a prototype network system and a data model for practical application for Biofied Building is pro-posed. In the system, functions of robots and servers are divided according to service flows in Biofield Buildings. The data model is designed to accumulate both the building data and the residents' data. Data sent from the robots and data analyzed in the servers are automatically registered into the database. Lastly, feasibility of this system is verified through lighting control simulation performed in an office space.

  19. Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anita Lewis

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

  20. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....