WorldWideScience

Sample records for build operate transfer

  1. Knowledge transfer from building operation to construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Chatzilazarou, Stamatia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how knowledge that derives from operation and maintenance of buildings can be stored and transferred in order to be reused in a future building project? Design/methodology/approach: The paper is theoretically based on knowledge management with a particular focus...... different tools and adopted several processes, aiming to the integration of the knowledge they possess from many years of operation and maintenance of the existing buildings. However, there are many situations, where the tools and processes do not work efficiently, and therefore the knowledge transfer...... on interdepartmental knowledge transfer between departments responsible for operation and management and departments responsible for building projects in organisations with large and fast changing building portfolios. The paper includes a case study of the FM organisation of the Technical University of Denmark...

  2. Transferring Knowledge from Building Operation to Design: A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle Lohmann; Jensen, Per Anker; Gregg, Jay Sterling

    literature review, it is found, that the theoretical approach in the reviewed articles has a significant impact on the level of how applicable the recommendations are in practice. Furthermore, a list of identified tools to enable knowledge transfer is provided, including POE, PPP and building commissioning....... Knowing that the list lacks inputs from cultural and organizational theory, the paper suggests that further research should focus on taking these suggestions to an operational level for the benefit of FM, building clients and design teams. Furthermore, it is found that major concepts that could...... be considered helpful to secure operational knowledge in design, such as Soft Landings and certification schemes like DGNB, are almost absent in the selected literature. This indicates that they are not recognized, and therefore not researched, as methods for knowledge transfer. Several countries, such as US...

  3. Build-operate-transfer Outsourcing Contracts in Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely used in the engineering and construction industry and has recently spread into the service industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets, India in particular, are now offering BOT outsourcing contracts in which...... the client firms are allotted call options, i.e. the right, but not the obligation, to transfer pre-specified assets from the service provider. As such, BOT outsourcing contracts seems to be an interesting contractual novelty that combines the advantages of outsourced and captive offshoring operations....... In this paper we investigate under which circumstances a BOT outsourcing contract (i.e. a contract where the client firm exercises its call option) is beneficial, or the opposite, to the emerging market vendor firm. Whether BOT outsourcing contracts are boon or bane to an emerging market vendor basically hinges...

  4. Maintaining operational excellence: building capability beyond knowledge transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramjist, S. [Ontario Power Generation, Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, Bowmanville, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the issues relating to human resources and maintaining capabilities in an organization. The sustaining elements are: vision and plan for excellence; invest in the plant; invest in human capital; find and fix problems. There is much discussion about knowledge transfer and retention that is mainly focused on technical attributes and proficiency. We are losing more people with the requisite managerial and leadership capability than we can develop and backfill at a Time when our industry is facing increased competition and decreased margins. We are vulnerable because this Increases our dependence on augmented staff for certain key leadership roles. Previous methods for developing people will take too long and does not appeal to current generation. A solution, not the only solution, but the one we have chosen is initial hiring of operators, maintainers and engineers, internal promotion for key roles (FLM, FSOS, Shift Supervisor, Section Manager, ANO) and focus on all three aspects of capability and looking for leadership traits. Look for ambition, drive, initiative and motivation. Identify, separate and stream. Take specific measures to accelerate growth.

  5. Managing urban wastewater in China: a survey of build-operate-transfer contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, O.D.; Zhang, M.S.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a nationwide field survey of wastewater plants under build-operate-transfer ( BOT) contracts in China. The survey yielded information on contracting parties, size, duration and location of 37 BOT contracts. The key findings are that municipal governments feature as first

  6. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... and that sustainable building operation can pave the way for sustainable building renovation. This paper discusses the use of sustainability building operation in Danish housing estates: Which tools, methods and technologies is being used, where are the barriers and where are the potentials? We define sustainable...

  7. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer"--a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs in developing countries: initial lessons from the balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Merrell, Ronald C; Doarn, Charles R; Hadeed, George J; Bekteshi, Flamur; Lecaj, Ismet; Boucha, Kathe; Hajdari, Fatmir; Hoxha, Astrit; Koshi, Dashurije; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja; Berisha, Blerim; Novoberdaliu, Kadri; Imeri, Arben; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2009-12-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in Kosova has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in the Balkans. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy, "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services in developing countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs, was discussed. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the healthcare infrastructure. The endpoint is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program will be transitioned to the national Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Albania, Macedonia, and other countries around the world. The IBOT model has been effective in creating

  8. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer" - a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs not only in the developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat

    2011-01-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in the Balkans has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in Kosova. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy developed by IVeH "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services not only in developing countries, but in developed countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs is described. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the very core of healthcare infrastructure. The end point is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova and Albania has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program is transitioned to the Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Macedonia, Montenegro and other countries

  9. Digital Handover of Data from Building Projects to Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2006-01-01

    and construction and on the other side in building opera-tion and facilities management. In Denmark the government has launched a development program called Digital Construction and one of the projects concerns specifying require-ments for building clients in relation to digital handover of data from construction......The development of computer based facilities management has not developed as rapid as expected by most professionals, mainly due to lack of interoperability between IT sys-tems. This is particularly a problem with the transfer of data between IT systems used on the one side in building design...... pro-jects to building operation. This project started in 2004 with research and analyses fol-lowed by development of a proposal for client requirements and in 2005 a first test on a real construction project has been carried out. After revision of the requirements a second test will be started early...

  10. Augmented reality building operations tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2014-09-09

    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  11. Transfer operators for $\\Gamma_{0}$

    CERN Document Server

    Hilgert, J; Movasati, H

    2003-01-01

    In this article we report on a surprising relation between the transfer operators for the congruence subgroups $\\Gamma_{0}(n)$ and the Hecke operators on the space of period functions for the modular group $\\PSL (2,\\mathbb{Z})$. For this we study special eigenfunctions of the transfer operators with eigenvalues $\\mp 1$, which are also solutions of the Lewis equations for the groups $\\Gamma_{0}(n)$ and which are determined by eigenfunctions of the transfer operator for the modular group $\\PSL (2,\\mathbb{Z})$. In the language of the Atkin-Lehner theory of old and new forms one should hence call them old eigenfunctions or old solutions of Lewis equation. It turns out that the sum of the components of these old solutions for the group $\\Gamma_{0}(n)$ determine for any $n$ a solution of the Lewis equation for the modular group and hence also an eigenfunction of the transfer operator for this group. Our construction gives in this way linear operators in the space of period functions for the group $\\PSL (2,\\mathbb{Z...

  12. Knowledge transfer from facilities management to building projects: A typology of transfer mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a typology of mechanisms for knowledge transfer from Facilities Management (FM) to building projects. One of the problems in the building industry is a limited degree of learning. The development of professional FM can be the missing link to bridge the gap...... between building operation and building design. To fulfill this role facilities managers not only need the necessary competences but also appropriate methods and tools to be able to influence the building project. The research is based on literature reviews as well as various empirical studies...

  13. Building Fitnes for Transfer - Transfering Manufacturing Knowledge Across Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove

    2009-01-01

    A key problem of manufacturing transfer remains that it is often difficult to explain what a company really knows, or why what it does really works. Still, practice indicates that attention is focused on planning the physical move and on the knowledge associated with normal operations. Introducti...

  14. Heat and mass transfer in building services design

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Building design is increasingly geared towards low energy consumption. Understanding the fundamentals of heat transfer and the behaviour of air and water movements is more important than ever before. Heat and Mass Transfer in Building Services Design provides an essential underpinning knowledge for the technology subjects of space heating, water services, ventilation and air conditioning. This new text: *provides core understanding of heat transfer and fluid flow from a building services perspective *complements a range of courses in building services engineering *

  15. Building an Ethical Advertising Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plopper, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Discusses three of the more significant ethical problems related to the advertising operation of student and commercial publications: (1) explaining circulation to potential advertisers; (2) negotiating special deals; and (3) following through with quality and distribution. (MS)

  16. Autonomous Data Transfer Operations for Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repaci, Max; Baker, Paul; Brosi, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Automating the data transfer operation can significantly reduce the cost of moving data from a spacecraft to a location on Earth. Automated data transfer methods have been developed for the terrestrial Internet. However, they often do not apply to the space environment, since in general they are based on assumptions about connectivity that are true on the Internet but not on space links. Automated file transfer protocols have been developed for use over space links that transfer data via store-and-forward of files or segments of files. This paper investigates some of the operational concepts made possible by these protocols.

  17. Mass Transfer Operations for the Practicing Engineer

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Part of the Essential Engineering Calculations Series, this book presents step-by-step solutions of the basic principles of mass transfer operations, including sample problems and solutions and their applications, such as distillation, absorption, and stripping. Presenting the subject from a strictly pragmatic point of view, providing both the principles of mass transfer operations and their applications, with clear instructions on how to carry out the basic calculations needed, the book also covers topics useful for readers taking their professional exams.

  18. 19 CFR 147.13 - Transfer to fair building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Procedure for Importation § 147.13 Transfer to fair building. (a... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer to fair building. 147.13 Section 147.13... to articles for a fair. (b) After entry. Upon the entry being made, a permit may be issued by the...

  19. Simulation Tests in Whole Building Heat and Moisture Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Woloszyn, Monika

    2006-01-01

    An important part of the International Energy Agency project, ECBCS, Annex 41 is about modelling the integral heat, air and moisture transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings”. Such modelling deals with all most relevant elements of buildings: The indoor air, the building envelope...

  20. Metal transfer and build-up in friction and cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, V D

    1956-01-01

    Metal Transfer and Build-up in Friction and Cutting aims to systematize our knowledge of the metal build-up, to describe some of the investigations past and present carried out in SFTI (Tomsk), and to make an effort to explain a number of the phenomena in cutting, scratching, and sliding from the point of view of metal transfer theory. The book opens with a chapter on the temperature of the rubbing interface of two solids. This temperature is needed in order to elucidate the nature of the formation of a build-up in scratching, cutting, and sliding. Separate chapters follow on the seizure phen

  1. A planning framework for transferring building energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B C; Brown, M A; Mohler, B L; Wilde, M; Abel, F H

    1990-07-01

    Accelerating the adoption of new and existing cost-effective technologies has significant potential to reduce the energy consumed in US buildings. This report presents key results of an interlaboratory technology transfer planning effort in support of the US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT). A guiding assumption for planning was that OBT's R D program should forge linkages with existing programs whose goals involved enhancing energy efficiency in buildings. An ad hoc Technology Transfer Advisory Group reviewed the existing analysis and technology transfer program, brainstormed technology transfer approaches, interviewed DOE program managers, identified applicable research results, and developed a framework that management could use in deciding on the best investments of technology transfer resources. Representatives of 22 organizations were interviewed on their views of the potential for transferring energy efficiency technologies through active linking with OBT. The report describes these programs and interview results; outlines OBT tools, technologies, and practices to be transferred; defines OBT audiences; identifies technology transfer functions and presents a framework devised using functions and audiences; presents some 60 example technology transfer activities; and documents the Advisory Group's recommendations. 37 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Positive transfer operators and decay of correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Baladi, Viviane

    2000-01-01

    Although individual orbits of chaotic dynamical systems are by definition unpredictable, the average behavior of typical trajectories can often be given a precise statistical description. Indeed, there often exist ergodic invariant measures with special additional features. For a given invariant measure, and a class of observables, the correlation functions tell whether (and how fast) the system "mixes", i.e. "forgets" its initial conditions.This book, addressed to mathematicians and mathematical (or mathematically inclined) physicists, shows how the powerful technology of transfer operators,

  3. Universal Library for Building Radar Operator Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karankevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of the development of a software library, used for building software interfaces for radars being developed in BMSTU Radioelectronic Technics Scientific and Research Institute. The library is a software application library written in C++ using Qt and OpenGL libraries.The article describes the requirements, that the library is supposed to meet, in particular — cross-platform capabilities and versatility of the solution. The data types, that library uses, are described. The description of theinterface elements developed is shown, and some pictures of their operation are given.The article shows the main interface elements used. They are: «Matrix» that shows twodimensional data, «Waterfall», that is used for time scanning of the parameter specified, and «Plan Position Indicator» that shows circular scan from surveillance radar without geometric distortions.The part «Library implementation» shows the example of radiolocation station interface, that was based on this library, used in the working model of ultrashortpulse radar. Some results of the operation of this interface are also shown. The experiment shows the system working with two people in the field. As people start to move, the system becomes capable of distinguishing moving targets and stationary surface. The article shows the system operation the same way as the system operator can see it through his interface.The conclusion contains brief results of the development, the sphere of application of the software, and the prospects of the further development of the library.

  4. Energy efficient building design. A transfer guide for local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  5. Operations and Maintenance Cost for Stratified Buildings: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Che-Ghani Nor Zaimah; Myeda Nik Elyna; Ali Azlan Shah

    2016-01-01

    Building maintenance is essential in preserving buildings’ appearance and performance. It needs to upkeep the building performance to prolong its value and building life cycle. Malaysia is still lacking in managing cost for building operation and maintenance. It has been found that the cost for housing maintenance is high due to poor maintenance practices. In order to get better understanding on how to manage the cost, this study reviews the contributing factors that affecting operation and m...

  6. Diagnostics for building commissioning and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebald, A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Piette, M.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this CIEE multi-year project is to develop and apply state-of-the-art continuous building performance measurement and supporting information processing and data visualization technologies. These technologies will diagnose problems in the performance of building energy systems and provide owners and managers with reliable, decision-oriented information. CIEE`s goal is to assist building owners and property managers in effectively reducing energy use through improving O and M practices and implementing opportunities for cost-effective investments in improved building energy systems. The system is being developed as a collaborative effort among researchers, building owners, utilities, and private industry. It will employ state of-the-art techniques for data collection, processing, analysis, presentation and interpretation.

  7. Operational Safety Requirements Neutron Multiplier Facility in 329 Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EA. Lepel

    1992-10-01

    The operational safety requirements (OSRs) presented in this report define the conditions, safe boundaries and management control needed for safely operating the Neutron Multiplier Facility in the 329 Building Annex.

  8. Heat- and moisture transfer at the exterior of the building envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Mikkel Kristian

    1996-01-01

    Introductory lecture note relating the theory of convective heat and moisture transfer to applications in building physics.......Introductory lecture note relating the theory of convective heat and moisture transfer to applications in building physics....

  9. Operation and maintenance of the technical installations in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.(red.)

    The report contains twelve papers from a seminar on operation and maintenance, held at the Danish Building Research Institute in October 1976. The papers deal, among other things, with dimensioning and balancing of pipesystems, design of ventilating systems for adequate operation and maintenance......, cost and quality in maintenance, maintenance service companies, as well as organization and training for building services maintenance....

  10. Operation and maintenance of the technical installations in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.(red.)

    The report contains twelve papers from a seminar on operation and maintenance, held at the Danish Building Research Institute in October 1976. The papers deal, among other things, with dimensioning and balancing of pipesystems, design of ventilating systems for adequate operation and maintenance,......, cost and quality in maintenance, maintenance service companies, as well as organization and training for building services maintenance.......The report contains twelve papers from a seminar on operation and maintenance, held at the Danish Building Research Institute in October 1976. The papers deal, among other things, with dimensioning and balancing of pipesystems, design of ventilating systems for adequate operation and maintenance...

  11. Alternative schemes for low-footprint operating systems building

    OpenAIRE

    Rippert, Christophe; Deville, Damien; Grimaud, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents two ways of building dedicated embedded operating systems. The constructive approach consists in starting from a minimal kernel and adding abstractions as they are needed, whereas the destructive approach promotes the idea of customizing an existing operating system by removing unnecessary abstractions. We compare these two approaches on the example of building an embedded Java operating system and discuss the pros and cons of each method. We conclude by exhibiting the wea...

  12. Toward a Nation-Building Operating Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    Pollock, III, “Organizations as agents of Mobilization: How Does Group Activity Affect Political Participation ?,” American Journal of political...to evolve in purpose, is essential to assimilating new social forces and conditions into constructive political participation . Complexity mobilizes... political participation and builds consensus within a local constituency, and then aggregates the local constituencies into regional and national

  13. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  14. Identification of the capillary transfer coefficient in porous building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, J.; Jarošová, P.

    2013-10-01

    Physical description of the capillary transfer of water (or other liquids) in porous building material comes out from the thermomechanical principle of mass balance and from the Fick law, nonlinear only in the multiplicative capillary transfer coefficient. However, such seemingly simple formulation leads to the non-trivial theory of solvability and convergence of sequences of approximate solutions even for direct problems. The analysis of inverse problems relies on various simplified approaches, whose mutual relations, including those to the related direct problems, are not very transparent: some additional least squares, regression, etc. tricks are often hidden in computational algorithms. This paper demonstrates the general formulation, containing most identification approaches used in practice as certain special cases, both those using the 3-dimensional integration and those relying on (semi-)analytical formulae relying on the very special geometrical configurations. An illustrative example shows the possibility of implementation of the sketched algorithms in the MATLAB environment.

  15. Reducing the operational energy demand in buildings using building information modeling tools and sustainability approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Shoubi, Mojtaba Valinejad; Shoubi, Masoud Valinejad; Bagchi, Ashutosh; Barough, Azin Shakiba

    2015-01-01

    A sustainable building is constructed of materials that could decrease environmental impacts, such as energy usage, during the lifecycle of the building. Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been identified as an effective tool for building performance analysis virtually in the design stage. The main aims of this study were to assess various combinations of materials using BIM and identify alternative, sustainable solutions to reduce operational energy consumption. The amount of energy con...

  16. NET-ZERO ENERGY BUILDING OPERATOR TRAINING PROGRAM (NZEBOT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizendine, Anthony; Byars, Nan; Sleiti, Ahmad; Gehrig, Bruce; Lu, Na

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Net-Zero Energy Building Operator Training Program (NZEBOT) was to develop certificate level training programs for commercial building owners, managers and operators, principally in the areas of energy / sustainability management. The expected outcome of the project was a multi-faceted mechanism for developing the skill-based competency of building operators, owners, architects/engineers, construction professionals, tenants, brokers and other interested groups in energy efficient building technologies and best practices. The training program draws heavily on DOE supported and developed materials available in the existing literature, as well as existing, modified, and newly developed curricula from the Department of Engineering Technology & Construction Management (ETCM) at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (UNC-Charlotte). The project goal is to develop a certificate level training curriculum for commercial energy and sustainability managers and building operators that: 1) Increases the skill-based competency of building professionals in energy efficient building technologies and best practices, and 2) Increases the workforce pool of expertise in energy management and conservation techniques. The curriculum developed in this project can subsequently be used to establish a sustainable energy training program that can contribute to the creation of new “green” job opportunities in North Carolina and throughout the Southeast region, and workforce training that leads to overall reductions in commercial building energy consumption. Three energy training / education programs were developed to achieve the stated goal, namely: 1. Building Energy/Sustainability Management (BESM) Certificate Program for Building Managers and Operators (40 hours); 2. Energy Efficient Building Technologies (EEBT) Certificate Program (16 hours); and 3. Energy Efficent Buildings (EEB) Seminar (4 hours). Training Program 1 incorporates the following

  17. Heat transfer characteristics of building walls using phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Pasek, A. D.; Indartono, Y. S.; Pratomo, A. W.

    2017-03-01

    Minimizing energy consumption in air conditioning system can be done with reducing the cooling load in a room. Heat from solar radiation which passes through the wall increases the cooling load. Utilization of phase change material on walls is expected to decrease the heat rate by storing energy when the phase change process takes place. The stored energy is released when the ambient temperature is low. Temperature differences at noon and evening can be utilized as discharging and charging cycles. This study examines the characteristics of heat transfer in walls using phase change material (PCM) in the form of encapsulation and using the sleeve as well. Heat transfer of bricks containing encapsulated PCM, tested the storage and released the heat on the walls of the building models were evaluated in this study. Experiments of heat transfer on brick consist of time that is needed for heat transfer and thermal conductivity test as well. Experiments were conducted on a wall coated by PCM which was exposed on a day and night cycle to analyze the heat storage and heat release. PCM used in these experiments was coconut oil. The measured parameter is the temperature at some points in the brick, walls and ambient temperature as well. The results showed that the use of encapsulation on an empty brick can increase the time for thermal heat transfer. Thermal conductivity values of a brick containing encapsulated PCM was lower than hollow bricks, where each value was 1.3 W/m.K and 1.6 W/m.K. While the process of heat absorption takes place from 7:00 am to 06:00 pm, and the release of heat runs from 10:00 pm to 7:00 am. The use of this PCM layer can reduce the surface temperature of the walls of an average of 2°C and slows the heat into the room.

  18. Building Sustainable Development through Technology Transfer in a Romanian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin S. Vac

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve university and commercial ties with industry, many universities operate a technology transfer office (TTO as a vehicle to support the creation of spin-off companies. Run effectively, the TTO can define roles and responsibilities, structures and processes that support the creation and development of new ventures. The challenge for universities is to create TTOs with the right skill set. This paper aims to analyze the TTO activities to support transforming research outputs into commercialization in the context of the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Cluj-Napoca, Romania (UASVMCN. Throughout this paper, different commercialization channels, the roles of technology transfer offices and multiple associative structures are further discussed with a special focus on agricultural open innovations and technologies. This study contributes to sustainable development of both Academia and agricultural Industry research, development and commercialization activities by illustrating current innovation and technology transfer activities produced by UASVMCN and its own TTO as a catalyst entity, a new model in Romania, so that the Academia-TTO-Economy partners association draw a functional and productive triple helix. In order to assess the sustainability of using the above-mentioned TTO, the methodological tools involving analysis are implemented. Finally, this paper states that correct operating of a university TTO is a real opportunity for technology transfer, both from the perspective of an alternative to research funding or entrepreneurship, and from the cultural perspective of the university correlation to the current trends in research, innovation and technology transfer, on a unique and entrepreneurial European market.

  19. Operation and maintenance of the technical installations in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.(red.)

    The report contains twelve papers from a seminar on operation and maintenance, held at the Danish Building Research Institute in October 1976. The papers deal, among other things, with dimensioning and balancing of pipesystems, design of ventilating systems for adequate operation and maintenance...

  20. Operation and maintenance of the technical installations in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.(red.)

    The report contains twelve papers from a seminar on operation and maintenance, held at the Danish Building Research Institute in October 1976. The papers deal, among other things, with dimensioning and balancing of pipesystems, design of ventilating systems for adequate operation and maintenance,...

  1. 75 FR 20598 - Public Buildings Service; Prospect Island, Sacramento Delta, Solano County, CA; Transfer of Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Public Buildings Service; Prospect Island, Sacramento Delta, Solano County, CA; Transfer of...), notice is hereby given that: 1. The General Services Administration transferred 1253 acres of land...

  2. Extracting Operating Modes from Building Electrical Load Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, S.; Polese, L. G.; Rader, E.; Sheppy, M.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical techniques for characterizing electrical energy use now play a key role in reducing electricity consumption, particularly miscellaneous electrical loads, in buildings. Identifying device operating modes (mode extraction) creates a better understanding of both device and system behaviors. Using clustering to extract operating modes from electrical load data can provide valuable insights into device behavior and identify opportunities for energy savings. We present a fast and effective heuristic clustering method to identify and extract operating modes in electrical load data.

  3. Integrity and efficiency in LNG transfer operations with flexible hoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, E. van; Twerda, A.

    2014-01-01

    The work presented contributes to the LNG supply chain by the development of a validated calculation model for corrugated flexible hoses or pipes developed for LNG Transfer. The model builds upon experience gained by TNO Technical Sciences (Fluid Dynamics) in a large number of flow tests carried out

  4. Reducing the operational energy demand in buildings using building information modeling tools and sustainability approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Valinejad Shoubi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable building is constructed of materials that could decrease environmental impacts, such as energy usage, during the lifecycle of the building. Building Information Modeling (BIM has been identified as an effective tool for building performance analysis virtually in the design stage. The main aims of this study were to assess various combinations of materials using BIM and identify alternative, sustainable solutions to reduce operational energy consumption. The amount of energy consumed by a double story bungalow house in Johor, Malaysia, and assessments of alternative material configurations to determine the best energy performance were evaluated by using Revit Architecture 2012 and Autodesk Ecotect Analysis software to show which of the materials helped in reducing the operational energy use of the building to the greatest extent throughout its annual life cycle. At the end, some alternative, sustainable designs in terms of energy savings have been suggested.

  5. Energy management handbook for building operating engineers student workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The handbook provides operating engineers with the basic information needed to implement specific energy conservation opportunities, and additional information is presented relative to the formulation and development of the energy management plan. Chapters are entitled: The Need for Energy Management (International Factors, The US Energy Situation, Energy and the Building Owner); The Fundamentals of Energy Consumption in Buildings (Energy Basics, Heat Basics, Heat Flow and the Building Envelope, Air and Comfort, Factors Affecting Energy Use In Buildings); Principles of Energy Conservation (Building Energy Consumption Characteristics); Planning the Energy Management Program (Obtaining Commitment and Support, Establishing the Energy Use Index, Organizing to Develop the Plan, Developing and Implementing the Plan); Conducting a Survey of Facilities and Operations (The Energy Audit, Preparation of Building and Systems Profile, Measurement and Instrumentation); Guidelines for Energy Conservation (Operator ECO's, Owner ECO'S); Developing the Draft Final Plan (Analyze Survey Findings, Putting the Plan on Paper, Review and Submit); Implementing the Program (Developing the Final Plan, Implementing the Plan, Monitoring and Updating the Program). A glossary is included and specific information on degree days and cooling hours for some selected cities and a computer energy study data for the New York Hilton are included in appendices. (MCW)

  6. Operational test report for 2706-T complex liquid transfer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENZEL, H.R.

    1999-09-01

    This document is the Operational Test Report (OTR). It enters the Record Copy of the W-259 Operational Test Procedure (HNF-3610) into the document retrieval system. Additionally, the OTR summarizes significant issues associated with testing the 2706-T waste liquid transfer and storage system.

  7. A model technology transfer program for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1996-08-01

    In August 1992, the Energy Research Center (ERC) at the University of Kansas was awarded a contract by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a technology transfer regional model. This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program.

  8. Monitoring data transfer latency in CMS computing operations

    CERN Document Server

    Bonacorsi, D; Magini, N; Sartirana, A; Taze, M; Wildish, T

    2015-01-01

    During the first LHC run, the CMS experiment collected tens of Petabytes of collision and simulated data, which need to be distributed among dozens of computing centres with low latency in order to make efficient use of the resources. While the desired level of throughput has been successfully achieved, it is still common to observe transfer workflows that cannot reach full completion in a timely manner due to a small fraction of stuck files which require operator intervention.For this reason, in 2012 the CMS transfer management system, PhEDEx, was instrumented with a monitoring system to measure file transfer latencies, and to predict the completion time for the transfer of a data set. The operators can detect abnormal patterns in transfer latencies while the transfer is still in progress, and monitor the long-term performance of the transfer infrastructure to plan the data placement strategy.Based on the data collected for one year with the latency monitoring system, we present a study on the different fact...

  9. 47 CFR 90.1430 - Local public safety build-out and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Local public safety build-out and operation. 90... public safety build-out and operation. (a) The Upper 700 MHz D Block licensee and the Operating Company... exclusive right to build and operate the Shared Wireless Broadband Network. (b) Rights to early build-out in...

  10. Model for Ground-Coupled Heat and Moisture Transfer from Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.

    2003-06-01

    An important factor in soil heat transfer that is often over looked is the effect of moisture, which can vary the effective thermal conductivity by a factor of ten. The objective of this research was to investigate the ground-coupled heat and moisture transfer from buildings, and to develop results and tools to improve energy simulation of ground-coupled heat transfer.

  11. Early warning of atmospheric regime transitions using transfer operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantet, Alexis; Dijkstra, Henk

    2015-04-01

    The existence of persistent midlatitude atmospheric regimes, such as blocking events, with time scales larger than 5-10 days and indications of preferred transition paths between them motivates the development of early-warning indicators of regime transitions. Here, we use a barotropic model of the northern midlatitudes winter flow to study such meta-stable regimes. We look at estimates of transfer operators acting on densities evolving on a reduced phase space spanned by the first Empirical Orthogonal Functions of the streamfunction and develop an early-warning indicator of zonal to blocked flow transition. The study of the spectra of transfer operators estimated for different lags reveals a multi-level structure in the flow as well as the effect of memory on the reduced dynamics due to past interactions between the resolved and unresolved variables. The slowest motions in the reduced phase space are thereby found to have time scales larger than 8 days and to behave as Markovian for larger lags. These motions are associated with meta-stable regimes and their transitions and can be detected as almost-invariant sets of the transfer operator. The early-warning indicator is based on the action on an initial density of products of the transfer operators estimated for sufficiently long lags, making use of the semi-group property of these operators and shows relatively good Peirce skill score. From the energy budget of the model, we are able to explain the meta-stability of the regimes and the existence of preferred transition paths as the manifestation of barotropic instability. Finally, even though the model is highly simplified, the skill of the early warning indicator is promising, suggesting that the transfer operator approach can be used in parallel to an operational deterministic model for stochastic prediction or to assess forecast uncertainty.

  12. Applications of Optimal Building Energy System Selection and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; DeForest, Nicholas; Donadee, Jon; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; Lai, Judy

    2011-04-01

    Berkeley Lab has been developing the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) for several years. Given load curves for energy services requirements in a building microgrid (u grid), fuel costs and other economic inputs, and a menu of available technologies, DER-CAM finds the optimum equipment fleet and its optimum operating schedule using a mixed integer linear programming approach. This capability is being applied using a software as a service (SaaS) model. Optimisation problems are set up on a Berkeley Lab server and clients can execute their jobs as needed, typically daily. The evolution of this approach is demonstrated by description of three ongoing projects. The first is a public access web site focused on solar photovoltaic generation and battery viability at large commercial and industrial customer sites. The second is a building CO2 emissions reduction operations problem for a University of California, Davis student dining hall for which potential investments are also considered. And the third, is both a battery selection problem and a rolling operating schedule problem for a large County Jail. Together these examples show that optimization of building u grid design and operation can be effectively achieved using SaaS.

  13. Demonstration of the Whole-Building Diagnostician in a Single-Building Operator Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Bauman, Nathan N.; Pratt, Robert G.; Brambley, Michael R.

    2003-03-31

    This report on documents the results of the single-building-operator, on-line, demonstration of the Whole-Building Diagnostician, conducted at the Symphony Towers building in San Diego, California. The on-line test was designed to evaluate the Outdoor-Air Economizer (OAE) diagnostic module’s capabilities to automatically and continually diagnose operational problems with air-handling units (AHUs). As part of this demonstration, all four AHUs at Symphony Towers were monitored. The measured data that were collected on a continuous basis included: 1) outdoor-air temperature, 2) return-air temperature, 3) mixed-air temperature, 4) supply-air temperature, 5) chilled-water valve position, 6) supply-fan status, 7) outdoor-air relative humidity, and 8) return-air relative humidity.

  14. On transfer operators for continued fractions with restricted digits

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkinson, Oliver; Gonzalez, Luis Felipe; Urba'nski, Mariusz

    2003-01-01

    For any non-empty subset I of the natural numbers, let {Lambda}I denote those numbers in the unit interval whose continued fraction digits all lie in I. Define the corresponding transfer operator\\ud \\ud Formula.\\ud \\ud for Formula, where Re (rß) = {theta}I is the abscissa of convergence of the series Formula.\\ud \\ud When acting on a certain Hilbert space HI, rß, we show that the operator LI, rß is conjugate to an integral operator KI, rß. If furthermore rß is real, then KI, rß is selfadjoint,...

  15. Energy Conservation Through Heat Transfer Treatment In Buildings Case Study Building B At The British University In Egypt Bue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar M. Sheweka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the most important problem facing the world is the problem of energy. Egypt needs about 20 more than the power station provides to avoid the electricity shortage 1 But it is not only about energy production a part of the current problem solution is to save energy and reduce the energy consumption through the building envelope. At this study the researchers are intending to reduce the heat transfer from outside the buildings to inside through the walls by using different types of thermal walls insulations. A discussion for each type will be held with its impact on energy consumption rate used in cooling process. Building B at the British University in Egypt has been selected and thermal wall insulation strategies were applied to achieve the best kind of thermal wall insulation preventing the heat transfer from outside to inside the building. A simulation study has been conducted to calculate the amount of heat entering the building in the summer and how much energy does the air condition consume to cool the building spaces for each kind of thermal wall. The research ended up with different recommendations and conclusions for buildings with sustainable approaches in arid climate regions.

  16. Travelling energy systems: knowledge transfer for energy efficiency and conservation from European to Australian building projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria (Tema Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Inst. for Sustainable Futures, Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency and conservation in the Australian built environment have not yet been implemented to any great extent. Despite favourable prerequisites, such as vast windswept unpopulated areas suitable for wind power and many hours of direct sunlight in most populated areas, electricity is mainly generated by burning brown coal and buildings are poorly equipped for hot summers and cool winters. Australia urgently needs to convert to alternative energy sources and implement energy efficiency measures, since its carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world. In a recent major redevelopment in Sydney, the Carlton and United Brewery (CUB) site knowledge of energy efficiency and conservation measures used in European buildings was transferred and implemented in local designs and infrastructure. This knowledge came mainly from urban planning and developments in London, but also from high-profile architectural firms based in Paris and Germany. The arrival of this knowledge in Australia led to phases when the knowledge was translated and enacted in local spaces and the constituent ideas were transformed into action. The present research is based on ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in which the planning and design of the CUB site was observed. The results of the study identify barriers to and opportunities for energy system knowledge transfer between different cultures and local spaces. Substantial time must be spent overcoming cultural barriers, so the involved parties can start talking the same language. This is not only true for stakeholders operating in different continents, but for stakeholders operating in different local arenas in the same country.

  17. Characterization of the 309 building fuel transfer pit and storage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, N.S.

    1998-03-19

    This document identifies radiological, chemical and physical conditions inside the Fuel Transfer Pit and Fuel Storage Basins. These spaces are located inside the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor structure (309 Building.) The fuel handling and storage feature of the PRTR were primarily located in these spaces. The conditions were assessed as part of overall 309 Building transition.

  18. Environmental impacts during the operational phase of residential buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    To date, the focus in the field of sustainable building has been on new building design. However, existing residential buildings inflict great environmental burden through three causes: continuous energy consumption, regular building maintenance and replacements. This publication analyses and

  19. Orbit transfer operations for the Space Shuttle era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, H. P.

    1979-01-01

    Orbit transfer operations are reviewed relative to the objectives, operational factors, and crew model concepts of future mission requirements. The review is based on studies presently underway and on projected needs and goals of the Space Shuttle era. Numerous tradeoff studies and further analyses are needed before the best form of the manned geostationary vehicle becomes fixed. However, the Shuttle can provide the necessary low-orbit logistics service for dispatching manned geostationary missions on as frequent a schedule as will be needed to serve the advanced geostationary satellites of the near future.

  20. Building technology transfer within research universities an entrepreneurial approach

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Rory P

    2014-01-01

    For the past number of years, academic entrepreneurship has become one of the most widely studied topics in the entrepreneurship literature. Yet, despite all the research that has been conducted to date, there has not been a systematic attempt to analyze critically the factors which lie behind successful business spin-offs from university research. In this book, a group of academic thought-leaders in the field of technology transfer examine a number of areas critical to the promotion of start-ups on campus. Through a series of case studies, they examine current policies, structures, program initiatives and practices of fourteen international universities to develop a theory of successful academic entrepreneurship, with the aim of helping other universities to enhance the quality of their university transfer programs. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students working on innovation, entrepreneurship and technology transfer, as well as senior managers and policymakers.

  1. Build clean-operate clean-plant wide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocki, P.; Schneider, B. [Babcock & Wilcox Canada Limited, Cambridge, Ontario (Canada); Roberts, J. [CANTECH Associates Ltd., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Operate Clean - Build Clean’ Programs have been established for decades and are not new. And while many of us are involved in measures from inspection to repair to replacement which relate to the achievement and maintenance of cleanness and to legacy issues related thereto, the basic principles involved are not always, despite their simplicity and their direct relationship to our day-to-day experience, well understood. This paper is all about establishing a basis for easy dialogue around corrosion product transport and cleanliness generally, rather than about the science of the subject. The principles involved relate to all systems throughout the plant which contain fluids. We focus here on steam generators and the steam cycle or secondary heat transport system as an example because of its criticality and its sensitivity to the parameters involved. The single operate clean parameter that we need to initially focus on is ‘corrosion product transport’ (CPT). CPT and its consequences relate directly to the experience of every one of us who has had anything to do with deposition, its monitoring, inspection, water-lancing and cleaning – or with the understanding of where and how such deposition occurs – or with the fluid mechanics of steam generator functional and thermal hydraulic architecture – or with their replacement or repair as a consequence of deposition. Boiler chemistry of course involves more than CPT. It also relates to tube corrosion by aggressive species, to susceptibility to flow-accelerated corrosion etc, but get a grip on CPT and all else starts to make sense. This paper approaches operate-clean from the basics while endeavoring to relate to the day-today experience base of anyone who has ever inspected for or dealt with deposition. To that end; i. First comes familiarization with the steam cycle conditions – all based on the steam-cycle diagram with which the above-mentioned conditions are individually introduced via a component-wise

  2. Influence of the convective surface transfer coefficients on the Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) building performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted...... HAM conditions. The paper focuses on the influence of the interior surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients, and investigates its effect on the hygrothermal performance. The parameter study showed that the magnitude of the convective surface transfer coefficients have a relatively large...... influence on the predicted hygrothermal conditions at the surface of a building component and on the heat and vapour exchange with the indoor environment....

  3. Expediting the transfer of evidence into practice: building clinical partnerships*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Tamara; Gagnon, Anita J.

    2000-01-01

    A librarian/clinician partnership was fostered in one hospital through the formation of the Evidence-based Practice Committee, with an ulterior goal of facilitating the transfer of evidence into practice. The paper will describe barriers to evidence-based practice and outline the committee's strategies for overcoming these barriers, including the development and promotion of a Web-based guide to evidence-based practice specifically designed for clinicians (health professionals). Educational strategies for use of the Web-based guide will also be addressed. Advantages of this partnership are that the skills of librarians in meeting the needs of clinicians are maximized. The evidence-based practice skills of clinicians are honed and librarians make a valuable contribution to the knowledgebase of the clinical staff. The knowledge acquired through the partnership by both clinicians and librarians will increase the sophistication of the dialogue between the two groups and in turn will expedite the transfer of evidence into practice. PMID:10928710

  4. United States Army Special Operations Forces and Building Enduring Partner Enabler Capacity in Operation Enduring Freedom-Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    38 v ACRONYMS AFP Armed Forces of the Philippines ARSOF Army Special Operations Forces BPC Build Partner Capacity CTFP...USASOC Approach to Building Partner Capacity USASOC’s primary responsibility in building partner capacity ( BPC ) is leading US Special Operations...Command’s (USSOCOM) operations to co-develop allied partners’ security capacity. Specifically, USASOC is USSOCOM’s force provider for executing BPC

  5. Observations of DNA transfer within an operational Forensic Biology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Duncan; Abarno, Damien; Rowe, Emily; Rask-Nielsen, Lauren

    2016-07-01

    Advances in technology to both generate and interpret DNA profiles has seen the expansion of the ability to provide opinions about results obtained from very low levels of starting biological material. The response in court has been to question the mode by which the DNA came to be on an item, rather than questioning its presence. This brings into play a number of real-world aspects such as transfer of biological material, persistence of biological material on items, shedding ability of individuals, just to name a few. There have been a number of studies that investigate different aspects relating the mode of DNA deposition and transfer, mostly under tightly controlled conditions. We add to this knowledge pool by investigating the extent to which individuals at Forensic Science SA (FSSA) deposit their DNA on objects throughout the floor of the building where DNA examinations take place. We find that the results obtained in our minimally controlled study allow us to comment on a number of published concepts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Study to Compare the Cost of Operation and Maintenance in Green Building Index (GBI and Non-Green Building Index (Non-GBI Rated Building in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lee Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urges for sustainable development had pushed the government and professional bodies to respond and react by implementing regulations where possible to direct development in that manner. However, the outcome in most financial conferences and dialogues on sustainable buildings flagged on high construction and maintenance cost. Thus, this study is conducted to collect and analyze actual building operation and maintenance cost between GBI and Non-GBI rated buildings in Malaysia which are more than 2 years fully operated buildings. There are two categories of selected buildings which are residential and non-residential type of building. Each category of the building consists of similar building’s characteristic such as geographic location, mode of operation, building heights, total numbers of floors and units. The scope of building’s maintenance for this study is mainly on wear and tear of the wall painting, electrical light fittings, ceiling panels, roofing system and mechanical services like water pump system are recorded for their replacement frequency of service and the cost involved within a consistent period of 12 months operation at cost percentage saving of 78.9% and 40.4% for residential and non-residential buildings respectively compare against Non-GBI rated buildings. Electricity consumption for GBI rated buildings are lower than Non-GBI rated buildings which recorded at the cost variance of 23.8% and 6.3% and water consumption at 35.9% and 44.0% for the above mentioned two main categories of selected case study buildings. Results from this study conclude major savings on residential buildings category in term of maintenance cost and electricity consumption for GBI rated buildings. Whereby, non-residential category of buildings, GBI rated building had been proven to obtain significant savings in terms of maintenance cost and water consumption.

  7. Building a pipeline of talent for operating radio observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Lory M.

    2016-07-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory's (NRAO) National and International Non-Traditional Exchange (NINE) Program teaches concepts of project management and systems engineering in a focused, nine-week, continuous effort that includes a hands-on build project with the objective of constructing and verifying the performance of a student-level basic radio instrument. The combination of using a project management (PM)/systems engineering (SE) methodical approach based on internationally recognized standards in completing this build is to demonstrate clearly to the learner the positive net effects of following methodical approaches to achieving optimal results. It also exposes the learner to basic radio science theory. An additional simple research project is used to impress upon the learner both the methodical approach, and to provide a basic understanding of the functional area of interest to the learner. This program is designed to teach sustainable skills throughout the full spectrum of activities associated with constructing, operating and maintaining radio astronomy observatories. NINE Program learners thereby return to their host sites and implement the program in their own location as a NINE Hub. This requires forming a committed relationship (through a formal Letter of Agreement), establishing a site location, and developing a program that takes into consideration the needs of the community they represent. The anticipated outcome of this program is worldwide partnerships with fast growing radio astronomy communities designed to facilitate the exchange of staff and the mentoring of under-represented1 groups of learners, thereby developing a strong pipeline of global talent to construct, operate and maintain radio astronomy observatories.

  8. Experimental study of dynamic effects in moisture transfer in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    of the moisture transfer processes involved. The available evidence primarily stems from imbibition and drainage experiments on soils however, and compared to many other porous media, these tests consider rather permeable materials with relatively dominant liquid transport at comparatively large (de...... in building materials. Drying and ad-/desorption tests are executed on two building materials, in which moisture contents and moisture potentials are measured simultaneously. These are translated into dynamic retention relations and dynamic storage coefficients, which both distinctly demonstrate that moisture...... transfer in building materials, similar to moisture transfer in soils, is not free of dynamic effects. The findings imply that the widely accepted static theory for moisture storage in porous media is not generally valid and should be corrected for the occurrences of dynamic effects. Considering...

  9. Building capacity and transferring knowledge: The Teasdale-Corti ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-28

    Jan 28, 2011 ... But she decided the best use of her time and talents was to ensure the ongoing legacy of the Lacor Hospital and her parents, securing support and funding for its outreach. She is now president of The Piero & Lucille Corti Foundation, which concentrates on raising the hospital's operating funds. "The best ...

  10. Horizontal gene transfer: building the web of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy, Shannon M; Huang, Jinling; Gogarten, Johann Peter

    2015-08-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the sharing of genetic material between organisms that are not in a parent-offspring relationship. HGT is a widely recognized mechanism for adaptation in bacteria and archaea. Microbial antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity are often associated with HGT, but the scope of HGT extends far beyond disease-causing organisms. In this Review, we describe how HGT has shaped the web of life using examples of HGT among prokaryotes, between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and even between multicellular eukaryotes. We discuss replacement and additive HGT, the proposed mechanisms of HGT, selective forces that influence HGT, and the evolutionary impact of HGT on ancestral populations and existing populations such as the human microbiome.

  11. Mayer Transfer Operator Approach to Selberg Zeta Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    These notes are based on three lectures given by the second author at Copenhagen University (October 2009) and at Aarhus University, Denmark (December 2009). We mostly present here a survey of results of Dieter Mayer on relations between Selberg and Smale-Ruelle dynamical zeta functions. In a spe......These notes are based on three lectures given by the second author at Copenhagen University (October 2009) and at Aarhus University, Denmark (December 2009). We mostly present here a survey of results of Dieter Mayer on relations between Selberg and Smale-Ruelle dynamical zeta functions....... In a special situation the dynamical zeta function is defined for a geodesic flow on a hyperbolic plane quotient by an arithmetic cofinite discrete group. More precisely, the flow is defined for the corresponding unit tangent bundle. It turns out that the Selberg zeta function for this group can be expressed...... in terms of a Fredholm determinant of a classical transfer operator of the flow. The transfer operator is defined in a certain space of holomorphic functions and its matrix representation in a natural basis is given in terms of the Riemann zeta function and the Euler gamma function....

  12. Modeling of Heat Transfer in Rooms in the Modelica "Buildings" Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zuo, Wangda [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nouidui, Thierry Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the room heat transfer model in the free open-source Modelica \\Buildings" library. The model can be used as a single room or to compose a multizone building model. We discuss how the model is decomposed into submodels for the individual heat transfer phenomena. We also discuss the main physical assumptions. The room model can be parameterized to use different modeling assumptions, leading to linear or non-linear differential algebraic systems of equations. We present numerical experiments that show how these assumptions affect computing time and accuracy for selected cases of the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140- 2007 envelop validation tests.

  13. Heat transfer performance uniformity factor for the basement floor made of brick vaults in historic buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murgul Vera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper exposes the calculation of Heat transfer performance uniformity factor for the basement floor made of brick vaults in residential historic buildings. It was determined that the temperature pattern on the floor surface of the premise could be characterized as uniform one. Heat transfer performance uniformity factor for the considered basement floor design can be ignored during the thermotechnical calculations. Thermal resistance calculation is performed for the overlap structure with the smallest thickness.

  14. Experience Building and Operating the CMS Tier-1 Computing Centres

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, M; Bonacorsi, D; Brew, C; Charlot, C; Huang, Chih-Hao; Colling, D; Dumitrescu, C; Fagan, D; Fassi, F; Fisk, I; Flix, J; Giacchetti, L; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Gowdy, S; Grandi, C; Gutsche, O; Hahn, K; Holzman, B; Jackson, J; Kreuzer, P; Kuo, C M; Mason, D; Pukhaeva, N; Qin, G; Quast, G; Rossman, P; Sartirana, A; Scheurer, A; Schott, G; Shih, J; Tader, P; Thompson, R; Tiradani, A; Trunov, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Collaboration relies on 7 globally distributed Tier-1 computing centres located at large universities and national laboratories for a second custodial copy of the CMS RAW data and primary copy of the simulated data, data serving capacity to Tier-2 centres for analysis, and the bulk of the reprocessing and event selection capacity in the experiment. The Tier-1 sites have a challenging role in CMS because they are expected to ingest and archive data from both CERN and regional Tier-2 centres, while they export data to a global mesh of Tier-2s at rates comparable to the raw export data rate from CERN. The combined capacity of the Tier-1 centres is more than twice the resources located at CERN and efficiently utilizing this large distributed resources represents a challenge. In this article we will discuss the experience building, operating, and utilizing the CMS Tier-1 computing centres. We will summarize the facility challenges at the Tier-1s including the stable operations of CMS services, the ability ...

  15. A model technology transfer program for independent operators: Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program. The original Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) activities, upon which the KTTM is based, were developed and tested for Kansas and have proved to be effective in assisting independent operators in utilizing technology. Through joint activities of TORP and the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), the KTTM was developed and documented for application in other oil-producing regions. During the course of developing this model, twelve documents describing the implementation of the KTTM were developed as deliverables to DOE. These include: (1) a problem identification (PI) manual describing the format and results of six PI workshops conducted in different areas of Kansas, (2) three technology workshop participant manuals on advanced waterflooding, reservoir description, and personal computer applications, (3) three technology workshop instructor manuals which provides instructor material for all three workshops, (4) three technologies were documented as demonstration projects which included reservoir management, permeability modification, and utilization of a liquid-level acoustic measuring device, (5) a bibliography of all literature utilized in the documents, and (6) a document which describes the KTTM.

  16. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was to use the operational experience at the launch site to identify, describe and quantify the operational impacts of the various configurations on the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and/or space station launch sites. Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) configurations are being developed/defined by contractor teams. Lacking an approved configuration, the KSC Study Team defined a Reference Configuration to be used for this study. This configuration then become the baseline for the identification of the facilities, personnel and crew skills required for processing the OTV in a realistic manner that would help NASA achieve the lowest possible OTV life cycle costs. As the study progressed, researchers' initial apraisal that the vehicle, when delivered, would be a sophisticated, state-of-the-art vehicle was reinforced. It would be recovered and reused many times so the primary savings to be gained would be in the recurring-cycle of the vehicle operations--even to the point where it would be beneficial to break from tradition and make a significant expenditure in the development of processing facilities at the beginning of the program.

  17. Open conformal systems and perturbations of transfer operators

    CERN Document Server

    Pollicott, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this book is on open conformal dynamical systems corresponding to the escape of a point through an open Euclidean ball. The ultimate goal is to understand the asymptotic behavior of the escape rate as the radius of the ball tends to zero. In the case of hyperbolic conformal systems this has been addressed by various authors. The conformal maps considered in this book are far more general, and the analysis correspondingly more involved. The asymptotic existence of escape rates is proved and they are calculated in the context of (finite or infinite) countable alphabets, uniformly contracting conformal graph-directed Markov systems, and in particular, conformal countable alphabet iterated function systems. These results have direct applications to interval maps, meromorphic maps and rational functions. Towards this goal the authors develop, on a purely symbolic level, a theory of singular perturbations of Perron--Frobenius (transfer) operators associated with countable alphabet subshifts of finite t...

  18. Operation and maintenance of the SOL-DANCE building solar system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-29

    The Sol-Dance building solar heating system consists of 136 flat plate solar collectors divided evenly into two separate building systems, each providing its total output to a common thermal storage tank. An aromatic base transformer oil is circulated through a closed loop consisting of the collectors and a heat exchanger. Water from the thermal storage tank is passed through the same heat exchanger where heat from the oil is given up to the thermal storage. Back-up heat is provided by air source heat pumps. Heat is transferred from the thermal storage to the living space by liquid-to-air coils in the distribution ducts. Separate domestic hot water systems are provided for each building. The system consists of 2 flat plate collectors with a single 66 gallon storage tank with oil circulated in a closed loop through an external tube and shell heat exchanger. Some problems encountered and lessons learned during the project construction are listed as well as beneficial aspects and a project description. As-built drawings are provided as well as system photographs. An acceptance test plan is provided that checks the collection, thermal storage, and space and water heating subsystems and the total system installation. Predicted performance data are tabulated. Details are discussed regarding operation, maintenance, and repair, and manufacturers data are provided. (LEW)

  19. The Effect of Anisotropy of Building Materials on the Moisture Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drchalová

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of anisotropy of building materials on the moisture transfer in the design of envelope parts of building structures is studied. Two typical fibre containing plate building materials produced in the Czech Republic, Dekalux and Dekalit P, are chosen for the demonstration of this effect. Experimental results show that while for lighter Dekalit P, an order of magnitude difference in the moisture diffusivities k for the two basic orientations, i.e. along and across the plate, is observed, for the heavier Dekalux the differences in k are within the errorbar of the experimental method. As follows from the experimental results, compacting of surface layers of the plates of light fibred materials is very favorable from the point of view of moisture penetration but one should keep in mind that any local damage of the surface layer can result in a considerably faster moisture transfer in the direction along the plate.

  20. Operational Research for Developing Countries - a case of transfer of technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Ravn, Hans V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with some fundamental aspects of the process of transfer of operational research from the industrialized countries to the Third World. Two complementary conceptions of operational research are identified: technical and social operational research. The main contribution...

  1. Technology transfer for DOE's office of buildings and community systems: assessment and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Jones, D.W.; Kolb, J.O.; Snell, S.A.

    1986-07-01

    The uninterrupted availability of oil supplies over the past several years and the moderation of energy price increases has sent signals to consumers and decision-makers in the buildings industry that the ''energy crisis'' is over. As a result, efforts to promote energy-conserving technologies must emphasize benefits other than BTU savings. The improved ambience of daylit spaces and the lower first costs associated with installing down-sized HVAC systems in ''tight'' buildings are examples of benefits which are likely to more influential than estimates of energy saved. Successful technology transfer requires that an R and D product have intrinsic value and that these values be effectively communicated to potential users. Active technology transfer programs are more effective than passive ones. Transfer activities should involve more than simply making information available to those who seek it. Information should be tailored to meet the needs of specific user groups and disseminated through those channels which users normally employ. In addition to information dissemination, successful technology transfer involves the management of intellectual property, including patented inventions, copyrights, technical data, and rights to future inventions. When the public can best benefit from an invention through commercialization of a new product, the exclusivity necessary to protect the investment from copiers should be provided. Most federal technology transfer programs concentrate on information exchange and largely avoid intellectual property transfers.

  2. Radiation protection in transference of radioactive wastes among buildings of an intermediary deposit; Radioprotecao na transferencia de rejeitos radioativos entre edificios de um deposito intermediario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitake, Malvina Boni; Suzuki, Fabio Fumio, E-mail: mbmitake@ipen.b, E-mail: ffsuzuki@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/-CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Radioprotecao

    2011-10-26

    This paper describes the planning of radioprotection realized for transfer operation of radioactive wastes from two old buildings for a one of the new buildings. For planning purposes the operation was divided into nine stages and, for evaluation of collective dose, it was considered various relevant factors. The result of radioprotection optimization it was expected a total collective dose of 58.6 mSv per person. The measured dose per dosemeter of direct reading was of 3.9 mSv per person. These difference among the values is due to conservative factors used in the calculation

  3. How to use Building Information Systems for a transition towards Sustainable Building Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itard, L.C.M.; Joosstens, F; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    BIM Building Information Model or Modelling connects many different information
    systems from various actors during the building construction process with each
    other in one easily accessible and understandable model. BIM assures an effective
    and efficient building construction process by

  4. Review of Current Data Exchange Practices: Providing Descriptive Data to Assist with Building Operations Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingood, W.; Stein, J.; Considine, T.; Sloup, C.

    2011-05-01

    Retailers who participate in the U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEA) identified the need to enhance communication standards. The means are available to collect massive numbers of buildings operational data, but CBEA members have difficulty transforming the data into usable information and energy-saving actions. Implementing algorithms for automated fault detection and diagnostics and linking building operational data to computerized maintenance management systems are important steps in the right direction, but have limited scalability for large building portfolios because the algorithms must be configured for each building.

  5. Numerical simulation of heat transfer through the building facades of buildings located in the city of Bechar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Missoum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the transient heat transfer in a multi-layered building wall through the facades of the buildings located in the city of Bechar (south-west Algeria. The physical model is presented to find the variation of the transient temperature in these structures and the heat flux through these elements, which depends on the air temperature of the inner surface and the instantaneous climatic conditions of the air outside. Comsol Multiphysics based on the finite element method is designed to perform numerical simulations. The measured hourly ambient air temperatures and the solar radiation flux on the horizontal surface for the city of Bechar Algeria are using during the hottest period (July 2015, and also using the properties Thermodynamics of each component of the structure. The validation of the analytical model with this simulation is verified in this document. The calculations carried out for different multilayer building walls which are commonly used in the south of Algeria to determine the thermal behavior of these structures and the influence of radiation heat flux on these elements.

  6. A co-operating solver approach to building simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, J.A.; Tang, D. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Energy Systems Research Unit

    2004-07-01

    Multi-domain modelling is necessary to properly study whole building performance in terms of energy efficiency, comfort levels and indoor air quality. Users of programs such as the ESP-r system must identify the required domains for relevant design questions. Models must also be developed to interpret the large amounts of data obtained from simulations. Interdomain processes include the modelling of detailed air flow and dynamic building temperature variations with respect to heating, lighting, ventilation, moisture, HVAC, and electrical power flow. This paper presented a model that allows designers to optimize the design of such energy systems without unnecessary simplification of the real building response. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  7. A bisindolylmaleimide-naphthalimide building block for the construction of the energy transfer cassette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaochuan; Shi, Ruijuan; Jin, Yingchun; Lou, Yan; Ge, Qingshan; Li, Mengmeng; Kim, Hyungjoo; Son, Young-A

    2014-10-01

    Double build-in chromophores with naphthalimide and bisindolylmaleimide incorporating to one molecule were synthesized efficiently and characterized fully. Its spectral properties were investigated. Effective intramolecular energy transfer together with the strong emission in solution and solid state were discussed in terms of its electronic structures. Optimized structure and frontier molecular orbital were calculated based on D3(mol) platform. Obviously electron delocalization before and after excitation was observed according to the molecular orbital calculation, which corresponds to the mechanism of excitation energy transfer through space occurred in the donor-linker-acceptor molecular system. The opto-physical properties of the dye indicated potential application of electro-optical materials.

  8. Experimental investigations of heat transfer in thermo active building systems in combination with suspended ceilings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Maria Alonso; Hviid, Christian Anker; Weitzmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    buildings to cover acoustic requirements hinders the use of TABS. To measure the reduction of the heat capacity, several experiments are performed in a room equipped with TABS in the upper deck and mixing ventilation. The heat transfer is measured for different suspended ceiling covering percentages...... that the ventilation rate has a high influence on the convective heat capacity. When the ventilation rate is increased from 1.7 h-1 to 2.9 h-1, the heat transfer coefficient increases up to 16% for the same occupancy and suspended ceiling layout....

  9. The influence of surface treatment on mass transfer between air and building material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwiatkowski, Jerzy; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    The processes of mass transfer between air and building structure and in the material influence not only the conditions within the material but also inside the connected air spaces. The material which absorbs and desorbs water vapour can be used to moderate the amplitude of indoor relative humidity...... and therefore to participate in the improvement of the indoor air quality and energy saving. Many parameters influence water vapour exchange between indoor air and building material. The aim of this work is to present the change of mass transfer under different climatic and material conditions. The measurements...... for the experiments: gypsum board and calcium silicate. The wallpaper and paint were used as finishing materials. Impact of the following parameters for changes of RH was studied: coating, temperature and air movement. The measurements showed that acryl paint (diffusion open) can significantly decrease mass uptake...

  10. Advancing metropolitan planning for operations : the building blocks of a model transportation plan incorporating operations : a desk reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This publication is a resource designed to enable transportation planners and their planning partners to build a transportation plan that includes operations objectives, performance measures, and strategies that are relevant to their region, that ref...

  11. Conservative modelling of the moisture and heat transfer in building components under atmospheric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Blocken, Bert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2007-01-01

    While the transfer equations for moisture and heat in building components are currently undergoing standardisation, atmospheric boundary conditions, conservative modelling and numerical efficiency are not addressed. In a first part, this paper adds a comprehensive description of those boundary...... conditions, emphasising wind-driven rain and vapour exchange, the main moisture supply and removal mechanism, respectively. In the second part the numerical implementation is tackled, with specific attention to the monotony of the spatial discretisation, and to the mass and energy conservation...

  12. An easy-to-build remote laboratory with data transfer using the Internet School Experimental System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, František; Lustig, František; Dvořák, Jiří; Ožvoldová, Miroslava

    2008-07-01

    The present state of information communication technology makes it possible to devise and run computer-based e-laboratories accessible to any user with a connection to the Internet, equipped with very simple technical means and making full use of web services. Thus, the way is open for a new strategy of physics education with strongly global features, based on experiment and experimentation. We name this strategy integrated e-learning, and remote experiments across the Internet are the foundation for this strategy. We present both pedagogical and technical reasoning for the remote experiments and outline a simple system based on a server-client approach, and on web services and Java applets. We give here an outline of the prospective remote laboratory system with data transfer using the Internet School Experimental System (ISES) as hardware and ISES WEB Control kit as software. This approach enables the simple construction of remote experiments without building any hardware and virtually no programming, using a paste and copy approach with typical prebuilt blocks such as a camera view, controls, graphs, displays, etc. We have set up and operate at present seven experiments, running round the clock, with more than 12 000 connections since 2005. The experiments are widely used in practical teaching of both university and secondary level physics. The recording of the detailed steps the experimentor takes during the measurement enables detailed study of the psychological aspects of running the experiments. The system is ready for a network of universities to start covering the basic set of physics experiments. In conclusion we summarize the results achieved and experiences of using remote experiments built on the ISES hardware system.

  13. An easy-to-build remote laboratory with data transfer using the Internet School Experimental System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauer, Frantisek; Ozvoldova, Miroslava [Trnava University, Faculty of Pedagogy, Department of Physics, Trnava (Slovakia); Lustig, Frantisek; Dvorak, JirI [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Didactics of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic)], E-mail: fschauer@ft.utb.cz

    2008-07-15

    The present state of information communication technology makes it possible to devise and run computer-based e-laboratories accessible to any user with a connection to the Internet, equipped with very simple technical means and making full use of web services. Thus, the way is open for a new strategy of physics education with strongly global features, based on experiment and experimentation. We name this strategy integrated e-learning, and remote experiments across the Internet are the foundation for this strategy. We present both pedagogical and technical reasoning for the remote experiments and outline a simple system based on a server-client approach, and on web services and Java applets. We give here an outline of the prospective remote laboratory system with data transfer using the Internet School Experimental System (ISES) as hardware and ISES WEB Control kit as software. This approach enables the simple construction of remote experiments without building any hardware and virtually no programming, using a paste and copy approach with typical prebuilt blocks such as a camera view, controls, graphs, displays, etc. We have set up and operate at present seven experiments, running round the clock, with more than 12 000 connections since 2005. The experiments are widely used in practical teaching of both university and secondary level physics. The recording of the detailed steps the experimentor takes during the measurement enables detailed study of the psychological aspects of running the experiments. The system is ready for a network of universities to start covering the basic set of physics experiments. In conclusion we summarize the results achieved and experiences of using remote experiments built on the ISES hardware system.

  14. 40 CFR 267.1101 - What design and operating standards must my containment building meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dust emissions under § 267.1102(d). (2) The unit is designed and operated in a fashion that assures... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What design and operating standards... FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Containment buildings § 267.1101 What design and operating...

  15. The effect of the thermal inertia on the thermal transfer in building wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahcene, Lahcene; Cheknane, Ali; Bekkouche, SMA.; Sahel, Djemal

    2017-11-01

    In a hot and dry climate, the design and construction of buildings involve the adoption of combination between shape of building envelope and construction materials. The objective of this work is to study the thermal behavior of a multilayer wall submitted to varying climatic conditions. We have proposed four configurations of an element of an outer wall. A numerical simulation was used to understand the phenomenon of thermal inertia, especially its influence on the resulting temperatures. The study is based on the modeling of heat transfer in a 2D unsteady-state using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The comparison of numerical results was affected with an available experimental data and shows a satisfactory agreement. In addition, this work highlights the importance of the study of the thermal inertia of the wall in order to ensure a comfortable indoor climate of building located in hot and dry climate.

  16. 78 FR 52457 - Transfers of Operating Authority Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... reflecting contract and common carrier operating authority designations in definition of ``motor carrier..., 74 FR 2895 (January 16, 2009). Taking account of these industry and operating authority realities...

  17. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building

  18. Funds Transfer Operations: Boon or Bane to the Viability of Rural Financial Intermediaries?

    OpenAIRE

    Lamberte, Mario B.; Relampagos, Julius P.

    1989-01-01

    As far as the policies are concerned, the government has been successful in reversing the flow of loanable funds in favor of rural areas through maintenance of agricultural loan quota and deposit retention policies. This paper examines the structure of funds transfer operations of rural-based branches of banks, the factors that determine the volume of transferred funds from one branch to another and the impact of funds transfer operations on the savings mobilization efforts of rural-based fin...

  19. Operation Provide Hope: Nation-Building Through Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    attended.16 This gathering marked the first attempt by any country to try to orchestrate multinational assistance programs to the NIS.17 “President...Victor Storms Provides Defibrillator Training to Ukrainian Nurses at Simferopol Municipal Clinical Hospital, September 2010.61 Supporting the...the role of healthcare in nation-building. RAND’s team of experts including political scientists, physicians, and economists examined past attempts

  20. Optimization of heat saving in buildings using unsteady heat transfer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedinec Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the energy consumption growth rate is increasingly becoming one of the main challenges for ensuring sustainable development, particularly in the buildings as the largest end-use sector in many countries. Along this line, the aim of this paper is to analyse the possibilities for energy savings in the construction of new buildings and reconstruction of the existing ones developing a tool that, in terms of the available heating technologies and insulation, provides answer to the problem of optimal cost effective energy consumption. The tool is composed of an unsteady heat transfer model which is incorporated into a cost-effective energy saving optimization. The unsteady heat transfer model uses annual hourly meteorological data, chosen as typical for the last ten-year period, as well as thermo physical features of the layers of the building walls. The model is tested for the typical conditions in the city of Skopje, Macedonia. The results show that the most cost effective heating technology for the given conditions is the wood fired stove, followed by the inverter air-conditioner. The centralized district heating and the pellet fired stoves are the next options. The least cost effective option is the panel that uses electricity. In this paper, the optimal insulation thickness is presented for each type of heating technology.

  1. ANALYSIS OF SUFFICIENCY OF THE BEARING CAPACITY OF BUILDING STRUCTURES OF OPERATING SITES OF MAIN BUILDINGS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseeva Ekaterina Leonidovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon examination of eleven main buildings of power plants, analysis of defects and damages of building structures was performed. Thereafter, the damageability of principal bearing structures of main buildings of thermal plants was analyzed. It was identified that the fastest growing defects and damages were concentrated in the structures of operating sites. The research of the rate of development of the most frequent damages and defects made it possible to conclude that internal corrosion of the reinforcing steel was the most dangerous defect, as far as the reinforced concrete elements of operating sites were concerned. Methods of mathematical statistics were applied to identify the reinforcing steel development pattern inside reinforced concrete elements of floors of operating sites. It was identified that the probability of corrosion of reinforced concrete elements of operating sites was distributed in accordance with the demonstrative law. Based on these data, calculation of strength of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams was performed in terms of their regular sections, given the natural loads and the realistic condition of structures. As a result, dependence between the bearing capacity reserve ratio and the corrosion development pattern was identified for reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of operating sites. In order to analyze the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of building structures of operating sites in relation to their time in commission, equations were derived to identify the nature of dependence between the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of the operating sites and their time in commission.

  2. Functional Calculus via Transference, Double Operator Integrals and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, J.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of several aspects of the theory of functional calculus. This theory considers the combination of an operator A and a function f(z) of a variable z, resulting in an operator f(A). One then attempts to study properties of the operator f(A) in terms of properties

  3. Africa Command: Building a Foundation of Operational Interagency Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piacenti, Chad E

    2007-01-01

    Interagency cooperation has been a recognized deficiency for many years. The National Security Act of 1947 and the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 helped to streamline military operations and chains of command...

  4. RADON CONCENTRATION IN THE AIR OF NEWLY BUILT AND OPERATING BUILDINGS IN THE ROSTOV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu Soloviev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues of radon accumulation in the air of dwellings and public buildings in the Rostov region. It is shown that radon concentration in the air of commissioned buildings does not depend on the season when the investigation was carried out, while equivalent equilibrium volumetric activity of radon in the operating buildings is approximately twice higher during the cold period, then during the hot period of a year.

  5. Self-pacing direct memory access data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A

    2015-02-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for self-pacing DMA data transfer operations for nodes in a parallel computer that include: transferring, by an origin DMA on an origin node, a RTS message to a target node, the RTS message specifying an message on the origin node for transfer to the target node; receiving, in an origin injection FIFO for the origin DMA from a target DMA on the target node in response to transferring the RTS message, a target RGET descriptor followed by a DMA transfer operation descriptor, the DMA descriptor for transmitting a message portion to the target node, the target RGET descriptor specifying an origin RGET descriptor on the origin node that specifies an additional DMA descriptor for transmitting an additional message portion to the target node; processing, by the origin DMA, the target RGET descriptor; and processing, by the origin DMA, the DMA transfer operation descriptor.

  6. Personalized building-embedded and wearable monitoring infrastructures with mediated data transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design, prototype implementation and results of two cooperating infrastructures for a vital sign-based multimodal monitoring. The building-embedded and wearable systems provide complementary measurements in human and share a data transfer channel where possible. Managed by the common server, both systems are configurable in order to follow the subject's state and specific needs. Indoor and outdoor tests for various subjects shows significant savings (up to 80%) of communication costs and extention (up to 42%) of the wearable system autonomy.

  7. Chaining direct memory access data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2010-09-28

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for chaining DMA data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer that include: receiving, by an origin DMA engine on an origin node in an origin injection FIFO buffer for the origin DMA engine, a RGET data descriptor specifying a DMA transfer operation data descriptor on the origin node and a second RGET data descriptor on the origin node, the second RGET data descriptor specifying a target RGET data descriptor on the target node, the target RGET data descriptor specifying an additional DMA transfer operation data descriptor on the origin node; creating, by the origin DMA engine, an RGET packet in dependence upon the RGET data descriptor, the RGET packet containing the DMA transfer operation data descriptor and the second RGET data descriptor; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine to a target DMA engine on the target node, the RGET packet.

  8. 75 FR 20364 - Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property... hereby given that: 1. The General Services Administration transferred 4.2 acres of land and improvements...

  9. Multifamily Building Operator Job/Task Analysis and Report: September 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    The development of job/task analyses (JTAs) is one of three components of the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals project and will allow industry to develop training resources, quality assurance protocols, accredited training programs, and professional certifications. The Multifamily Building Operator JTA identifies and catalogs all of the tasks performed by multifamily building operators, as well as the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform the identified tasks.

  10. The Golden Gate: Building Bridges Between Research and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lacey L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has discussed the ongoing dilemma of implementing research-based findings in an applied setting. This panel will discuss lessons learned from various examples where bridges have been forged between research and operations, and examine ways to promote and achieve similar collaborations in other areas in the future.

  11. Proposition of updating the method used in calculating the heat demand based on a new concept of design outdoor temperature and of building – soil boundary heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan CONSTANTINESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimensioning of the heating systems equipping new and existing buildings, in the case of their energy-related upgrading is an extremely important activity in the context of reaching the targets of the European Directive 31 /2010 / UE concerning the Buildings Energy Performance (PEC. The accurate determination, phenomenological based, of the buildings thermal response leads to determining the climatic parameters representative for the climatic zones and for the buildings structure.Unlike the EN 12831: 2003 European Regulation, the design outdoor temperature in the conditions of Romania’s various zones was determined by the identification of the thermal response specific to the transient conditions of the heat transfer through the composite structures of the opaque and glazing closing components with the thermal response in idealized, steadystate conditions; thus, the design outdoor temperature was determined, which is conditioned by an acceptable discomfort during the coldest pentads of a 48 years climatic statistics (1961-2008. The climatic parameter which generates the modeling similitude is the virtual outdoor temperature which allows the use of the steady-state conditions mathematical formalism in issues of heat transfer in transient conditions. A dependency relation between the design indoor temperature, identical to the resulting indoor temperature (different from the operational temperature and the air volume average temperature is emphasized.Special attention is given to the heat transfer at the building-soil boundary, in the form of various practical solutions (buildings the basement of which is not directly heated, equipped or not with heating systems, directly heated and occupied, as well as buildings on plinths; in all the cases, the solutions approached are specific to the envelope which is or not thermally insulated.

  12. Advanced system design and operation of GEOTABS buildings design and operation of GEOTABS systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bockelman, Franziska; Soldaty, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    This guidebook provides comprehensive information on GEOTABS systems. It is intended to support building owners, architects and engineers in an early design stage showing how GEOTABS can be integrated into their building concepts. It also gives many helpful advices from experienced engineers that have designed, built and run GEOTABS systems.

  13. Hard Hats, Octopuses and Rubber Boots- Operational Managers in Building Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses Operation management (OM) in the production of buildings. It is initially contended that OM needs to be improved, from a theoretical and practical perspective. Departing from a criticism of present modeling and management of processes it is suggested to develop an understanding...... of the steps and interdependencies in the process. The field study shows a vast amount of interruptions in operational managers work at the building site. The site managers studied typically worked with four main activities and were interrupted some 126 times during a workday. The prime reason...... of the importance of human resources in tackling complexity, fragmentation and disturbances in the building industry. Theoretical models too often either rely on neat operational analysis models or refrain from such order by merely referring to the chaos of building processes. The paper seeks to place itself...

  14. Experience with the use of building commissioning advisor - from design to operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    with the client's requirements. However, experience and knowledge of the impact of the commissioning process on the construction process and the building's performance in practice is still insufficient. In order to shed light on the role of energy commissioning in construction and on how well it functions......The increased focus on building energy performance has intensified the need to ensure consistency between energy requirements, design, construction processes and operation in construction projects. With the introduction of the new Danish DS 3090 standard, "The commissioning process in buildings...... - installations services in new buildings and major renovations" it is expected that this consistency can be ensured. Building Commissioning is a comprehensive quality-assurance process that can be used to ensure and document that a building's systems and installations are designed, installed and tested to comply...

  15. Numerical analysis of heat, air, and moisture transfers in a wooden building material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnasri Faiza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to predict the hygrothermal behavior of massive wood panel considered as bio-based building material. In this context, we developed a macroscopic model coupled no linear heat, air, and moisture transfers that incorporates simultaneously the effect of thermal diffusion and infiltration phenomenon on the building material. The model inputs parameters were evaluated experimentally according to the recognized standards of material’s characterization. Therefore, numerous series of hygrothermal calculation were carried out on the 1-D and 2-D configuration in order to assess the dimensionless effect on such wooden material. Two types of boundary conditions were considered and examined. The first are at the material scale of wood drying process. The second type of conditions is at the wall scale, where the conditions of the building ambiance are considered. Moreover, the model sensitivity to the driving potentials coupling and to the parameters variability was considered and examined. It has been found that the coupling in the model had a remarkable impact on both kinetics of temperature and moisture content.

  16. Online trust building through third party trust transfer and third party protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandoko, Wanda; Saleh Abbas, Bahtiar; Budiastuti, Dyah; Kosala, Raymond

    2017-03-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an online trust building mechanism for SME (Small Medium Enterprise). Trust is very important in e-commerce. The nature of online shopping has a greater uncertainty than offline shopping. Seeing as there is an uncertainty that can produce risks, a prospective buyer’s trust is needed. A lot of people’s unwillingness to shop online is caused by their lack of trust toward e-commerce. E-commerce is said to be one of the ways for SME to compete with bigger companies. However, building trust requires immense time and cost. SME with limited resources may experience difficulties in building trust just with their own resources. Base on literature research that needs to be validated in next research, we found that trust can be built through trust transfer from the reputable and well-known trust-mark issuer, and third party protection such as escrow account service and credit card issuer.

  17. Forecasting ofuseful life of the structures of a production building during operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pshenichkina Valeriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a probabilistic concept of practical evaluation of the individual resource of structures of industrial buildings and structures in operation. The results of calculation of a monolithic reinforced concrete overpass for safety and durability are given. The quantitative values of the resource are obtained for a given security of operability.

  18. An application of Jacquet-Langlands correspondence to transfer operators for geodesic flows on Riemann surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    In the paper as a new application of the Jacquet-Langlands correspondence we connect the transfer operators for different cofinite Fuchsian groups by comparing the corresponding Selberg zeta functions....

  19. Selberg zeta functions and transfer operators an experimental approach to singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Markus Szymon

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a method for evaluating Selberg zeta functions via transfer operators for the full modular group and its congruence subgroups with characters. Studying zeros of Selberg zeta functions for character deformations allows us to access the discrete spectra and resonances of hyperbolic Laplacians under both singular and non-singular perturbations. Areas in which the theory has not yet been sufficiently developed, such as the spectral theory of transfer operators or the singular perturbation theory of hyperbolic Laplacians, will profit from the numerical experiments discussed in this book. Detailed descriptions of numerical approaches to the spectra and eigenfunctions of transfer operators and to computations of Selberg zeta functions will be of value to researchers active in analysis, while those researchers focusing more on numerical aspects will benefit from discussions of the analytic theory, in particular those concerning the transfer operator method and the spectral theory of hyperbolic spac...

  20. Sensitivity analysis for daily building operation from the energy and thermal comfort standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Marko G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy performance of buildings is one of the most important tasks for reaching sustainability. Assessing building energy consumption is performed more often with specialized simulation tools. Sensitivity analysis proved to be a valuable tool for creating more reliable and realistic building energy models and better buildings. This paper briefly describes the methodology for running global sensitivity analysis and tools that can be used, and presents the results of such an analysis conducted for winter period, daily, on input variables covering a real building's operation, control and occupant related parameters that affect both thermal comfort and heating energy consumption. Two sets of inputs were created. The only difference between these sets is an addition of clothing insulation and occupant heat gain as input variables. The reference building was simulated for three distinctive winter weeks. Two additional input variables have an effect especially on thermal comfort, but they do not disturb the relative order of other influential input variables. The common influential variables for both energy consumption and thermal comfort were identified and are: air handling unit sup-ply temperature and airflow rate and control system related parameters. This can help in future research into implementing the simulation-assisted optimized operation in real buildings. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  1. Relative significance of heat transfer processes to quantify tradeoffs between complexity and accuracy of energy simulations with a building energy use patterns classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarinejad, Mohammad

    This dissertation develops rapid and accurate building energy simulations based on a building classification that identifies and focuses modeling efforts on most significant heat transfer processes. The building classification identifies energy use patterns and their contributing parameters for a portfolio of buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is "Building classification can provide minimal required inputs for rapid and accurate energy simulations for a large number of buildings". The critical literature review indicated there is lack of studies to (1) Consider synoptic point of view rather than the case study approach, (2) Analyze influence of different granularities of energy use, (3) Identify key variables based on the heat transfer processes, and (4) Automate the procedure to quantify model complexity with accuracy. Therefore, three dissertation objectives are designed to test out the dissertation hypothesis: (1) Develop different classes of buildings based on their energy use patterns, (2) Develop different building energy simulation approaches for the identified classes of buildings to quantify tradeoffs between model accuracy and complexity, (3) Demonstrate building simulation approaches for case studies. Penn State's and Harvard's campus buildings as well as high performance LEED NC office buildings are test beds for this study to develop different classes of buildings. The campus buildings include detailed chilled water, electricity, and steam data, enabling to classify buildings into externally-load, internally-load, or mixed-load dominated. The energy use of the internally-load buildings is primarily a function of the internal loads and their schedules. Externally-load dominated buildings tend to have an energy use pattern that is a function of building construction materials and outdoor weather conditions. However, most of the commercial medium-sized office buildings have a mixed-load pattern, meaning the HVAC system and operation schedule dictate

  2. The experience of building and operating COMPASS RICH-1

    CERN Document Server

    Birsa, R; Rocco, E; Schiavon, P; Kramer, D; Schroder, W; Dafni, T; Tessarotto, F; Bressan, A; Schill, C; Deschamps, H; Mann, A; Sozzi, F; Colantoni, M; Dibiase, N; Abbon, P; Svec, M; Delagnes, E; Ketzer, B; Joosten, R; Steiger, L; Ciliberti, P; Konigsmann, K; Maggiora, A; Kolosov, V N; Giorgi, M; Sbrizzai, G; Nahle, O; Kunne, F; Sulc, M; Teufel, A; Paul, S; Neyret, D; Rebourgeard, P; Menon, G; Dalla Torre, S; Hagemann, R; Slunecka, M; Martin, A; Magnon, A; Takekawa, S; Finger, M; Bradamante, F; Heinsius, F H; Nerling, F; Gerassimov, S; Polak, J; Alexeev, M; Pizzolotto, C; Chiosso, M; Gobbo, B; Angerer, H; Denisov, O; Ferrero, A; Baum, G; Franco, C; Lehmann, A; Bordalo, P; Duic, V; Konorov, I; Mutter, A; Levorato, S; Robinet, F; von Harrach, D; Fischer, H; Schoenmeier, P; Pesaro, G; Wollny, H; Panzieri, D

    2011-01-01

    COMPASS RICH-1 is a large size gaseous Imaging Cherenkov Detector providing hadron identification in the range from 3 to 55 GeV/c, in the wide acceptance spectrometer of the COMPASS Experiment at CERN SPS. It uses a 3 m long C(4)F(10) radiator, a 21 m(2) large VUV mirror surface and two kinds of photon detectors: MAPMTs and MWPCs with CsI photocathodes, covering a total of 5.5 m(2). It is in operation since 2002 and its performance has increased in time thanks to progressive optimization and mostly to a major upgrade which was implemented in 2006. The main characteristics of COMPASS RICH-1 components are described and some specific aspects related to the radiator gas system, the mirror alignment, the MWPC electrical stability and the readout electronics are discussed. Some key features of the event reconstruction and the PID analysis are presented together with results from the COMPASS RICH-1 performance characterization study. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The experience of building and operating COMPASS RICH-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbon, P.; Alexeev, M.; Angerer, H.; Baum, G.; Birsa, R.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Colantoni, M.; Dafni, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Delagnes, E.; Denisov, O.; Deschamps, H.; Dibiase, N.; Duic, V.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Gerassimov, S.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Hagemann, R.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Joosten, R.; Ketzer, B.; Kolosov, V. N.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Kramer, D.; Kunne, F.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Mann, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Mutter, A.; Nähle, O.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pesaro, G.; Pizzolotto, C.; Polak, J.; Rebourgeard, P.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schoenmeier, P.; Schröder, W.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Svec, M.; Takekawa, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Wollny, H.

    2011-05-01

    COMPASS RICH-1 is a large size gaseous Imaging Cherenkov Detector providing hadron identification in the range from 3 to 55 GeV/ c, in the wide acceptance spectrometer of the COMPASS Experiment at CERN SPS. It uses a 3 m long C 4F 10 radiator, a 21 m 2 large VUV mirror surface and two kinds of photon detectors: MAPMTs and MWPCs with CsI photocathodes, covering a total of 5.5 m 2. It is in operation since 2002 and its performance has increased in time thanks to progressive optimization and mostly to a major upgrade which was implemented in 2006. The main characteristics of COMPASS RICH-1 components are described and some specific aspects related to the radiator gas system, the mirror alignment, the MWPC electrical stability and the readout electronics are discussed. Some key features of the event reconstruction and the PID analysis are presented together with results from the COMPASS RICH-1 performance characterization study.

  4. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  5. Re-considering the Concept of Peace-building from Strategic Perspectives on International Peace Operations

    OpenAIRE

    篠田, 英朗

    2002-01-01

    This essay aims to reconsider and refine the concept of peace building in light ofpractical and strategic interests of international peace operations. Peace-buildinggenerally refers to activities to solidify structures for stable peace in conflict riddensociety. As it is understood to include so many divergent activities conducted byinternational organizations, governments, NGOs and so on, it tends to lack coherentperspectives. As a result, the contents of peace-building remain ambiguous. The...

  6. Comparative Education and Research Capacity Building: Reflections on International Transfer and the Significance of Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Crossley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in comparative and international education, along with a fundamental reconceptualisation of this distinctive multidisciplinary field of study. The nature and significance of these developments are explored with particular reference to their implications for broader research capacity building initiatives worldwide. In doing so, a critique of the international transfer of globally dominant research modalities and strategies is presented--along with arguments for increased attention to context sensitivity in both international development cooperation and educational research in general. Illustrative examples that support these arguments are drawn from the author's own research, from an analysis of emergent educational policy debates in the UK, and from related studies being carried out in Malaysia. In concluding, the strategic role of comparative research traditions and perspectives in a rapidly globalizing world is highlighted, while supporting the promotion of new initiative and research centres for comparative and international education.

  7. Operational Planning of Low-Energy District Heating Systems Connected to Existing Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on low-energy District Heating (DH) systems operating in low-temperatures such as 55°C in terms of supply and 25°C in terms of return in connection with existing buildings. Since the heat loss from the network has a significant impact in case of supplying heat to low-energy h...... the buildings. Since the existing buildings were considered to be renovated to low-energy class, the operational planning was simultaneously modelled for both present high-demand and future low-demand situations of the same case area........ The response of the radiator heating systems at different levels of supply temperature was used to form the operational planning of the low-energy DH system, which determined the design parameters of the low-energy DH network in terms of overall mass flow requirement and the return temperature from...

  8. Building capacity in health facility management: guiding principles for skills transfer in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahn Bernice T

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management training is fundamental to developing human resources for health. Particularly as Liberia revives its health delivery system, facility and county health team managers are central to progress. Nevertheless, such management skills are rarely prioritized in health training, and sustained capacity building in this area is limited. We describe a health management delivery program in which a north and south institution collaborated to integrate classroom and field-based training in health management and to transfer the capacity for sustained management development in Liberia. Methods We developed and implemented a 6-month training program in health management skills (i.e. strategic problem solving, financial management, human resource management and leadership delivered by Yale University and Mother Patern College from Liberia, with support from the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Over three 6-month cycles, responsibility for course instruction was transferred from the north institution to the south institution. A self-administered survey was conducted of all participants completing the course to measure changes in self-rated management skills, the degree to which the course was helpful and met its stated objectives, and faculty members' responsiveness to participant needs as the transfer process occurred. Results Respondents (n = 93, response rate 95.9% reported substantial improvement in self-reported management skills, and rated the helpfulness of the course and the degree to which the course met its objectives highly. Levels of improvement and course ratings were similar over the three cohorts as the course was transferred to the south institution. We suggest a framework of five elements for implementing successful management training programs that can be transferred and sustained in resource-limited settings, including: 1 use a short-course format focusing on four key skill areas with practical tools; 2 include

  9. Observed Wind Speed at Weather Station and Heat Transfer Coefficient of External Surface of the Building in Summer and Winter

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 定教; コバヤシ, サダノリ; Sadanori, KOBAYASHI

    1994-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficient of the external surface of the building used for thermal load calculations was proposed by Dr. Watanabe et at. in about 1934. In those days the main purpose of studies focused on heating; recently calculations in respect to cooling have been increasing in importance, calling attention to the heat transfer coefficient in summer in relation to the wind speed. In this paper I studied summer and winter wind speeds based on observation results of a weather station, an...

  10. Project Management Plan/Progress Report UT/GTKS Training Program Development for Commercial Building Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-03-31

    Universidad del Turabo (UT), in a collaborative effort with Global Turn Key Services, Inc. (GTKS), proposed to develop a training program and a commercialization plan for the development of Commercial Building Operators (CBOs). The CBOs will operate energy efficient buildings to help maintain existing buildings up to their optimal energy performance level, and ensure that net-zero-energy buildings continuously operate at design specifications, thus helping achieve progress towards meeting BTP Strategic Goals of creating technologies and design approaches that enable net-zero-energy buildings at low incremental costs by 2025. The proposed objectives were then: (1) Develop a Commercial Building Operator (CBO) training program and accreditation that will in turn provide a certification to participants recognized by Accreditation Boards such as the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP) and Leadership in Energy & Environmental Designs (LEED). (2) Develop and implement a commercialization and sustainability plan that details marketing, deployment, financial characterization, job placement, and other goals required for long-term sustainability of the project after the funding period. (3) After program development and deployment, provide potential candidates with the knowledge and skill sets to obtain employment in the commercial building green energy (net-zero-energy building) job market. The developed CBO training program will focus on providing skills for participants, such as displaced and unemployed workers, to enter the commercial building green energy (net-zeroenergy building) job market. This course was designed to allow a participant with minimal to no experience in commercial building green technology to obtain the required skill sets to enter the job market in as little as 12 weeks of intensive multi-faceted learning. After completion of the course, the CBO staff concluded the participant will meet minimum established accreditation

  11. Potential soil contaminant levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at industrial facilities employing heat transfer operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    Certain manufacturing facilities formerly used large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fluids in heat transfer operations. At many of these locations, operations have also involved PCB-containing electrical equipment. Commonly, over many years of plant operations, spills and leaks have resulted in PCB soil contamination. Dioxins and furans have been associated with PCB contamination in both the technical and popular press. Consequently, the need for analyses for dioxins and furans must be evaluated at locations where soils are contaminated with PCBs. This report presents an evaluation of potential dioxin and furan soil contamination based on heat transfer operations and spills from electrical equipment. The following five scenarios were examined for dioxin and furan contamination: (1) impurities in heat transfer fluids, (2) formation during heat transfer operations, (3) pyrolysis of heat transfer fluids, (4) impurities in dielectric fluids, and (5) pyrolysis of dielectric fluids. The potential contamination with dioxins and furans was calculated and compared with a 20 ppb guideline that has been used by the Centers for Disease Control for dioxin in subsoil. The results demonstrated that dioxins are formed only under pyrolytic conditions and only from the trichlorobenzenes present in dielectric fluids. Furans are found as impurities in PCB fluids but, as with dioxins, are not formed in significant quantities except during pyrolysis. Fortunately, pyrolytic conditions involving PCB fluids and soil contamination are unlikely; therefore, analyses for dioxin and furan contamination in soils will rarely be needed.

  12. An Electronic Structure Approach to Charge Transfer and Transport in Molecular Building Blocks for Organic Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Heidi Phillips

    A fundamental understanding of charge separation in organic materials is necessary for the rational design of optoelectronic devices suited for renewable energy applications and requires a combination of theoretical, computational, and experimental methods. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD)DFT are cost effective ab-initio approaches for calculating fundamental properties of large molecular systems, however conventional DFT methods have been known to fail in accurately characterizing frontier orbital gaps and charge transfer states in molecular systems. In this dissertation, these shortcomings are addressed by implementing an optimally-tuned range-separated hybrid (OT-RSH) functional approach within DFT and TDDFT. The first part of this thesis presents the way in which RSH-DFT addresses the shortcomings in conventional DFT. Environmentally-corrected RSH-DFT frontier orbital energies are shown to correspond to thin film measurements for a set of organic semiconducting molecules. Likewise, the improved RSH-TDDFT description of charge transfer excitations is benchmarked using a model ethene dimer and silsesquioxane molecules. In the second part of this thesis, RSH-DFT is applied to chromophore-functionalized silsesquioxanes, which are currently investigated as candidates for building blocks in optoelectronic applications. RSH-DFT provides insight into the nature of absorptive and emissive states in silsesquioxanes. While absorption primarily involves transitions localized on one chromophore, charge transfer between chromophores and between chromophore and silsesquioxane cage have been identified. The RSH-DFT approach, including a protocol accounting for complex environmental effects on charge transfer energies, was tested and validated against experimental measurements. The third part of this thesis addresses quantum transport through nano-scale junctions. The ability to quantify a molecular junction via spectroscopic methods is crucial to their

  13. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms to Improve Small- and Medium-Size Commercial Building Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Small- and medium-sized (<100,000 sf) commercial buildings (SMBs) represent over 95% of the U.S. commercial building stock and consume over 60% of total site energy consumption. Many of these buildings use rudimentary controls that are mostly manual, with limited scheduling capability, no monitoring or failure management. Therefore, many of these buildings are operated inefficiently and consume excess energy. SMBs typically utilize packaged rooftop units (RTUs) that are controlled by an individual thermostat. There is increased urgency to improve the operating efficiency of existing commercial building stock in the U.S. for many reasons, chief among them is to mitigate the climate change impacts. Studies have shown that managing set points and schedules of the RTUs will result in up to 20% energy and cost savings. Another problem associated with RTUs is short-cycling, where an RTU goes through ON and OFF cycles too frequently. Excessive cycling can lead to excessive wear and lead to premature failure of the compressor or its components. The short cycling can result in a significantly decreased average efficiency (up to 10%), even if there are no physical failures in the equipment. Also, SMBs use a time-of-day scheduling is to start the RTUs before the building will be occupied and shut it off when unoccupied. Ensuring correct use of the zone set points and eliminating frequent cycling of RTUs thereby leading to persistent building operations can significantly increase the operational efficiency of the SMBs. A growing trend is to use low-cost control infrastructure that can enable scalable and cost-effective intelligent building operations. The work reported in this report describes three algorithms for detecting the zone set point temperature, RTU cycling rate and occupancy schedule detection that can be deployed on the low-cost infrastructure. These algorithms only require the zone temperature data for detection. The algorithms have been tested and validated using

  14. The use of social media for improving sustainable energy and building operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Helene Hjort

    2015-01-01

    This paper will draw perspectives of the experiences from the housing estate “Eight House”, using the social intranet media “Borigo”. How can Social Intranet Media support sustainable building operation with an overall aim of improving the residents’ sustainable practice? Can local operational ma...... managers of the residential area function as change agents in the process? What kind of process is needed? Can the use of social media support communities of practice?...

  15. Various methods of heat supply for a building which is operated periodically during the year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małetka, Marek; Laska, Marta

    2017-11-01

    Stand-alone buildings operated periodically require heat supply for hot water and heating purposes to be carefully analyzed in terms of the technical capabilities, the energy and financial outlays. The paper presents the analysis of heat supply for hot water purposes and central heating in the stand-alone cloakroom building located in Poland. The analysis is undertaken for different variants of heat delivery for a building from electric heaters, gas boiler and district heating solutions to renewable sources applications, namely solar panels and heat pumps. For each solution, usage of usable, final and primary energy was calculated. Also the financial analysis for investments and energy costs were carried out. This analysis has been done in according to SPBT and NPV method for different levels of building use.

  16. Various methods of heat supply for a building which is operated periodically during the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małetka Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand-alone buildings operated periodically require heat supply for hot water and heating purposes to be carefully analyzed in terms of the technical capabilities, the energy and financial outlays. The paper presents the analysis of heat supply for hot water purposes and central heating in the stand-alone cloakroom building located in Poland. The analysis is undertaken for different variants of heat delivery for a building from electric heaters, gas boiler and district heating solutions to renewable sources applications, namely solar panels and heat pumps. For each solution, usage of usable, final and primary energy was calculated. Also the financial analysis for investments and energy costs were carried out. This analysis has been done in according to SPBT and NPV method for different levels of building use.

  17. Integrating experiences from operations into engineering design: modelling knowledge transfer in the offshore oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Paravizo, Esdras

    2017-01-01

    Summative Statement: Integrating human factors and users’ experiences in design projects is a well-known challenge. This study focus on the specific challenges for transferring these experiences and how using a knowledge transfer model can help this integration on the design of high-risk productive...... on the operating units, 2) transformed into an engineering design context, 3) transferred to the appropriate project team members, and finally 4) applied throughout the design process of new installations. It is a fourstep process involving challenges going from not having specific performance indicators...... of knowledge registered in the systems without standards to categorise and store this knowledge, to being difficult to access and retrieve the knowledge in the systems. Discussion: Transferring knowledge and experiences from users brings human factors into play and modelling the knowledge transfer process...

  18. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  19. Developing a next-generation community college curriculum forenergy-efficient high-performance building operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, Peter; Kyriakopedi, Nick; Mills, Evan; Haves, Philip; Otto, Roland J.; Piette, Mary Ann; Xu, Peng; Diamond, Rick; Frost, Chuck; Deringer, Joe

    2004-05-01

    The challenges of increased technological demands in today's workplace require virtually all workers to develop higher-order cognitive skills including problem solving and systems thinking in order to be productive. Such ''habits of mind'' are viewed as particularly critical for success in the information-based workplace, which values reduced hierarchy, greater worker independence, teamwork, communications skills, non-routine problem solving, and understanding of complex systems. The need is particularly compelling in the buildings arena. To scope the problem, this paper presents the results of interviews and focus groups--conducted by Oakland California's Peralta Community College District and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory--in which approximately 50 industry stakeholders discussed contemporary needs for building operator education at the community college level. Numerous gaps were identified between the education today received by building operators and technicians and current workplace needs. The participants concurred that many of the problems seen today in achieving and maintaining energy savings in buildings can be traced to inadequacies in building operation and lack of awareness and knowledge about how existing systems are to be used, monitored, and maintained. Participants and others we interviewed affirmed that while these issues are addressed in various graduate-level and continuing education programs, they are virtually absent at the community college level. Based on that assessment of industry needs, we present a new curriculum and innovative simulation-based learning tool to provide technicians with skills necessary to commission and operate high-performance buildings, with particular emphasis on energy efficiency and indoor environmental quality in the context of HVAC&R equipment and control systems.

  20. Effect of operating temperature on styrene mass transfer characteristics in a biotrickling filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnian, Parham; Zamir, Seyed Morteza; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2017-05-01

    To study the effect of operating temperature on styrene mass transfer from gas to liquid phase in biotrickling filters (BTFs), overall mass transfer coefficient (KL a) was calculated through fitting test data to a general mass balance model under abiotic conditions. Styrene was used as the volatile organic compound and the BTF was packed with a mixture of pall rings and pumice. Operating temperature was set at 30°C and 50°C for mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. KL a values increased from 54 to 70 h-1 at 30°C and from 60 to 90 h-1 at 50°C, respectively, depending on the countercurrent gas to liquid flow ratio that varied in the range of 7.5-32. Evaluation of styrene mass transfer capacity (MTC) showed that liquid-phase mass transfer resistance decreased as the flow ratio increased at constant temperature. MTC also decreased with an increase in operating temperature. Both gas-liquid partition coefficient and KL a increased with increasing temperature; however the effect on gas-liquid partition coefficient was more significant and served to increase mass transfer limitations. Thermophilic biofiltration on the one hand increases mass transfer limitations, but on the other hand may enhance the biodegradation rate in favor of enhancing BTFs' performance.

  1. Improving HVAC operational efficiency in small-and medium-size commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woohyun; Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Small- and medium-size (<100,000 sf) commercial buildings (SMBs) represent over 95% of the U.S. commercial building stock and consume over 60% of total site energy consumption. Many of these buildings use rudimentary controls that are mostly manual, with limited scheduling capability, no monitoring, or failure management. Therefore, many of these buildings are operated inefficiently and consume excess energy. SMBs typically use packaged rooftop units (RTUs) that are controlled by an individual thermostat. There is increased urgency to improve the operating efficiency of existing commercial building stock in the United States for many reasons, chief among them being to mitigate the climate change impacts. Studies have shown that managing set points and schedules of the RTUs will result in up to 20% energy and cost savings. Another problem associated with RTUs is short cycling, when an RTU goes through ON and OFF cycles too frequently. Excessive cycling can lead to excessive wear and to premature failure of the compressor or its components. Also, short cycling can result in a significantly decreased average efficiency (up to 10%), even if there are no physical failures in the equipment. Ensuring correct use of the zone set points and eliminating frequent cycling of RTUs thereby leading to persistent building operations can significantly increase the operational efficiency of the SMBs. A growing trend is to use low-cost control infrastructure that can enable scalable and cost-effective intelligent building operations. The work reported in this paper describes two algorithms for detecting the zone set point temperature and RTU cycling rate that can be deployed on the low-cost infrastructure. These algorithms only require the zone temperature data for detection. The algorithms have been tested and validated using field data from a number of RTUs from six buildings in different climate locations. Overall, the algorithms were successful in detecting the set points and ON

  2. Towards a complete determination of the spectrum of a transfer operator associated with intermittency

    CERN Document Server

    Prellberg, T

    2003-01-01

    The physical phenomenon of intermittency can be investigated via the spectral analysis of a transfer operator associated with the dynamics of an interval map with indifferent fixed point. For an example of such an intermittent map, the Farey map, we give a simple proof that the transfer operator is self-adjoint on a suitably defined Hilbert space and characterize its spectrum. Using a suitable first-return map, we present a highly efficient numerical method for the determination of all the eigenvalues, including those embedded in the continuous spectrum.

  3. Tube-side mass transfer for hollow fibre membrane contactors operated in the low Graetz range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C Y; Mercer, E; Kamranvand, F; Williams, L; Kolios, A; Parker, A; Tyrrel, S; Cartmell, E; McAdam, E J

    2017-02-01

    Transformation of the tube-side mass transfer coefficient derived in hollow fibre membrane contactors (HFMC) of different characteristic length scales (equivalent diameter and fibre length) has been studied when operated in the low Graetz range (Gzmass transfer is generally described by the Graetz problem (Sh=3.67) which assumes that the concentration profile comprises a constant shape over the fibre radius. In this study, it is experimentally evidenced that this assumption over predicts mass transfer within the low Graetz range. Furthermore, within the low Gz range (below 2), a proportional relationship between the experimentally determined mass transfer coefficient (Kov ) and the Graetz number has been identified. For Gz numbers below 2, the experimental Sh number approached unity, which suggests that mass transfer is strongly dependent upon diffusion. However, within this diffusion controlled region of mass transfer, tube-side fluid velocity remained important. For Gz numbers above 2, Sh could be satisfactorily described by extension to the Lévêque solution, which can be ascribed to the constrained growth of the concentration boundary layer adjacent to the fibre wall. Importantly this study demonstrates that whilst mass transfer in the low Graetz range does not explicitly conform to either the Graetz problem or classical Lévêque solution, it is possible to transform the experimentally derived overall mass transfer coefficient (Kov ) between characteristic length scales (dh and L). T h is was corroborated by comparison of the empirical relationship determined in this study (Sh=0.36Gz) with previously published studies operated in the low Gz range. This analysis provides important insight for process design when slow tube-side flows, or low Schmidt numbers (coincident with gases) constrain operation of hollow fibre membrane contactors to the low Gz range.

  4. Experimental verification of an energy consumption signal tool for operational decision support in an office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlak, Gregory S.; Henze, Gregor P.; Hirsch, Adam I.; Florita, Anthony R.; Dodier, Robert H.

    2016-12-01

    This paper demonstrates an energy signal tool to assess the system-level and whole-building energy use of an office building in downtown Denver, Colorado. The energy signal tool uses a traffic light visualization to alert a building operator to energy use which is substantially different from expected. The tool selects which light to display for a given energy end-use by comparing measured energy use to expected energy use, accounting for uncertainty. A red light is only displayed when a fault is likely enough, and abnormal operation costly enough, that taking action will yield the lowest cost result. While the theoretical advances and tool development were reported previously, it has only been tested using a basic building model and has not, until now, been experimentally verified. Expected energy use for the field demonstration is provided by a compact reduced-order representation of the Alliance Center, generated from a detailed DOE-2.2 energy model. Actual building energy consumption data is taken from the summer of 2014 for the office building immediately after a significant renovation project. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a first look at the building following its major renovation compared to the design intent. The tool indicated strong under-consumption in lighting and plug loads and strong over-consumption in HVAC energy consumption, which prompted several focused actions for follow-up investigation. In addition, this paper illustrates the application of Bayesian inference to the estimation of posterior parameter probability distributions to measured data. Practical discussion of the application is provided, along with additional findings from further investigating the significant difference between expected and actual energy consumption.

  5. CMS Data transfer operations after the first years of LHC collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaselis, Rapolas [Vilnius U.; Piperov, S. [Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res.; Magini, N. [CERN; Flix, J. [Madrid, CIEMAT; Gutsche, O. [Fermilab; Kreuzer, P. [Aachen, Tech. Hochsch.; Yang, M. [MIT; Liu, S. [Fermilab; Ratnikova, N. [KIT, Karlsruhe, IKP; Sartirana, A. [Ecole Polytechnique; Bonacorsi, D. [INFN, Bologna; Letts, J. [UC, San Diego

    2012-01-01

    CMS experiment utilizes distributed computing infrastructure and its performance heavily depends on the fast and smooth distribution of data between different CMS sites. Data must be transferred from the Tier-0 (CERN) to the Tier-1s for processing, storing and archiving, and time and good quality are vital to avoid overflowing CERN storage buffers. At the same time, processed data has to be distributed from Tier-1 sites to all Tier-2 sites for physics analysis while Monte Carlo simulations sent back to Tier-1 sites for further archival. At the core of all transferring machinery is PhEDEx (Physics Experiment Data Export) data transfer system. It is very important to ensure reliable operation of the system, and the operational tasks comprise monitoring and debugging all transfer issues. Based on transfer quality information Site Readiness tool is used to create plans for resources utilization in the future. We review the operational procedures created to enforce reliable data delivery to CMS distributed sites all over the world. Additionally, we need to keep data and meta-data consistent at all sites and both on disk and on tape. In this presentation, we describe the principles and actions taken to keep data consistent on sites storage systems and central CMS Data Replication Database (TMDB/DBS) while ensuring fast and reliable data samples delivery of hundreds of terabytes to the entire CMS physics community.

  6. CMS Data Transfer operations after the first years of LHC collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    CMS experiment possesses distributed computing infrastructure and its performance heavily depends on the fast and smooth distribution of data between different CMS sites. Data must be transferred from the Tier-0 (CERN) to the Tier-1 for storing and archiving, and time and good quality are vital to avoid overflowing CERN storage buffers. At the same time, processed data has to be distributed from Tier-1 sites to all Tier-2 sites for physics analysis while MonteCarlo simulations synchronized back to Tier-1 sites for further archival. At the core of all transferring machinery is PhEDEx (Physics Experiment Data Export) data transfer system. It is very important to ensure reliable operation of the system, and the operational tasks comprise monitoring and debugging all transfer issues. Based on transfer quality information Site Readiness tool is used to create plans for resources utilization in the future. We review the operational procedures created to enforce reliable data delivery to CMS distributed sites all ov...

  7. 40 CFR 63.126 - Transfer operations provisions-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Transformed by chemical reaction into materials that are not organic hazardous air pollutants; (iii... Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and... connected to a common header, or to compress and route to a process collected hazardous air pollutants...

  8. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Air Flow, Heat Transfer and Thermal Comfort in Buildings with Different Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabanskis A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of temperature, humidity and air flow velocity is performed in 5 experimental buildings with the inner size of 3×3×3 m3 located in Riga, Latvia. The buildings are equipped with different heating systems, such as an air-air heat pump, air-water heat pump, capillary heating mat on the ceiling and electric heater. Numerical simulation of air flow and heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation is carried out using OpenFOAM software and compared with experimental data. Results are analysed regarding the temperature and air flow distribution as well as thermal comfort.

  9. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Air Flow, Heat Transfer and Thermal Comfort in Buildings with Different Heating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanskis, A.; Virbulis, J.

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of temperature, humidity and air flow velocity is performed in 5 experimental buildings with the inner size of 3×3×3 m3 located in Riga, Latvia. The buildings are equipped with different heating systems, such as an air-air heat pump, air-water heat pump, capillary heating mat on the ceiling and electric heater. Numerical simulation of air flow and heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation is carried out using OpenFOAM software and compared with experimental data. Results are analysed regarding the temperature and air flow distribution as well as thermal comfort.

  10. Modeling of building structures when transferring dynamic effects through the soil mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Banakh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors influenced on strength parameters of constructions of exploiting buildings in difficult engineergeological conditions are analysed. Influence of dynamic forces, including forces from a public transport on the exploiting building is shown. The features of account of such influences at forming of calculation models of building are investigated. Recommendations of the design of work of constructions taking into account the deformed scheme of building at dynamic influences are resulted.

  11. Premium cost optimization of operational and maintenance of green building in Indonesia using life cycle assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Yusuf; Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Basten, Van; Budiman, Rachmat; Riswanto

    2017-06-01

    Building has a big impact on the environmental developments. There are three general motives in building, namely the economy, society, and environment. Total completed building construction in Indonesia increased by 116% during 2009 to 2011. It made the energy consumption increased by 11% within the last three years. In fact, 70% of energy consumption is used for electricity needs on commercial buildings which leads to an increase of greenhouse gas emissions by 25%. Green Building cycle costs is known as highly building upfront cost in Indonesia. The purpose of optimization in this research improves building performance with some of green concept alternatives. Research methodology is mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approaches through questionnaire surveys and case study. Assessing the successful of optimization functions in the existing green building is based on the operational and maintenance phase with the Life Cycle Assessment Method. Choosing optimization results were based on the largest efficiency of building life cycle and the most effective cost to refund.

  12. Selected Aspects Of Building, Operation And Environmental Impact Of Offshore Wind Power Electric Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mroziński Adam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes essence of work of offshore wind power electric plants and crucial aspects of their building and operating. Prospects for development of global, European and domestic markets of offshore wind power industry have been delineated. A comparative analysis of environmental impact of an offshore and land-based 2MW wind power electric plant has been performed by using LCA method and Ecoindex – 99 (Ekowskaźnik 99 modelling.

  13. Radiative transfer solutions for coupled atmosphere ocean systems using the matrix operator technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollstein, André; Fischer, Jürgen

    2012-05-01

    Accurate radiative transfer models are the key tools for the understanding of radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and ocean, and for the development of remote sensing algorithms. The widely used scalar approximation of radiative transfer can lead to errors in calculated top of atmosphere radiances. We show results with errors in the order of±8% for atmosphere ocean systems with case one waters. Variations in sea water salinity and temperature can lead to variations in the signal of similar magnitude. Therefore, we enhanced our scalar radiative transfer model MOMO, which is in use at Freie Universität Berlin, to treat these effects as accurately as possible. We describe our one-dimensional vector radiative transfer model for an atmosphere ocean system with a rough interface. We describe the matrix operator scheme and the bio-optical model for case one waters. We discuss some effects of neglecting polarization in radiative transfer calculations and effects of salinity changes for top of atmosphere radiances. Results are shown for the channels of the satellite instruments MERIS and OLCI from 412.5 nm to 900 nm.

  14. SY-101 Rapid Transfer Project Low Temperature Operations Review and Recommendations to Support Lower Temperature Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HICKMAN, G.L.

    2000-01-10

    The lower temperature limit for the 241 SY-101 RAPID transfer project is currently set at 20 F Based on the analysis and recommendations in this document this limit can be lowered to 0 F. Analysis of all structures systems and components (SSCs) indicate that a reduction in operating temperature may be achieved with minor modifications to field-installed equipment. Following implementation of these changes it is recommended that the system requirements be amended to specify a temperature range for transfer or back dilute evolutions of 0 F to 100 F.

  15. Prediction of operational characteristics of a dc non-transferred arc plasma torch using similarity criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadikkeettil, Yugesh; Ravi, Ganesh; Ramachandran, Kandasamy

    2017-10-01

    The operational characteristics of a dc non-transferred arc plasma torch have been predicted using the techniques of dynamic similarity. The torch used has a distinct design incorporating both axial plasma generating gas and a shroud gas that initially forms a cold boundary layer but eventually takes part in the plasma formation. The current-voltage characteristics are correlated with electrode heat losses and plasma power for different gas flow conditions using the techniques of dynamic similarity. It is shown that this torch can operate in various power levels at high electro-thermal efficiencies. Unique dimensionless numbers are created for its wide operating regimes. The voltage and operational characteristics are predicted using these numbers for a number of experimental conditions, which are in good agreement with actual experimental results. Predictions are made on the limits of operational characteristics of this torch and class of torches at higher powers.

  16. Countable Alphabet Random Subhifts of Finite Type with Weakly Positive Transfer Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Volker; Urbański, Mariusz

    2015-09-01

    We deal with countable alphabet locally compact random subshifts of finite type (the latter merely meaning that the symbol space is generated by an incidence matrix) under the absence of big images property and under the absence of uniform positivity of the transfer operator. We first establish the existence of random conformal measures along with good bounds for the iterates of the Perron-Frobenius operator. Then, using the technique of positive cones and proving a version of Bowen's type contraction (see Equilibrium states and the ergodic theory of Anosov diffeomorphisms, 1975), we also establish a fairly complete thermodynamical formalism. This means that we prove the existence and uniqueness of fiberwise invariant measures (giving rise to a global invariant measure) equivalent to the fiberwise conformal measures. Furthermore, we establish the existence of a spectral gap for the transfer operators, which in the random context precisely means the exponential rate of convergence of the normalized iterated transfer operator. This latter property in a relatively straightforward way entails the exponential decay of correlations and the Central Limit Theorem.

  17. Heat Transfer through Cable Insulation of Nb–Ti Superconducting Magnets Operating in He II

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P

    2013-01-01

    The operation of Nb–Ti superconducting magnets in He II relies on superfluidity to overcome the severe thermal barrier represented by the cable electrical insulation. In wrapped cable insulations, like those used for the main magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator, the micro-channels network created by the insulation wrappings allows to efficiently transfer the heat deposited or generated in the cable to the He bath. In this paper, available experimental data of heat transfer through polyimide electrical insulation schemes are analyzed. A steady-state thermal model is developed to describe the insulation of the LHC main dipole magnets and the Enhanced Insulation proposed for the High Luminosity LHC upgrade (HL-LHC), according to the relevant geometric parameters. The model is based on the coupled mechanisms of heat transfer through the bulk of the dielectric insulation and through micro-channels between the insulation tapes. A good agreement is found between calculations and tests p...

  18. Pacing a data transfer operation between compute nodes on a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN

    2011-09-13

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for pacing a data transfer between compute nodes on a parallel computer that include: transferring, by an origin compute node, a chunk of an application message to a target compute node; sending, by the origin compute node, a pacing request to a target direct memory access (`DMA`) engine on the target compute node using a remote get DMA operation; determining, by the origin compute node, whether a pacing response to the pacing request has been received from the target DMA engine; and transferring, by the origin compute node, a next chunk of the application message if the pacing response to the pacing request has been received from the target DMA engine.

  19. Off-resonance frequency operation for power transfer in a loosely coupled air core transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudiere, Matthew B

    2012-11-13

    A power transmission system includes a loosely coupled air core transformer having a resonance frequency determined by a product of inductance and capacitance of a primary circuit including a primary coil. A secondary circuit is configured to have a substantially same product of inductance and capacitance. A back EMF generating device (e.g., a battery), which generates a back EMF with power transfer, is attached to the secondary circuit. Once the load power of the back EMF generating device exceeds a certain threshold level, which depends on the system parameters, the power transfer can be achieved at higher transfer efficiency if performed at an operating frequency less than the resonance frequency, which can be from 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency.

  20. Environment-Adaptive Coassembly/Self-Sorting and Stimulus-Responsiveness Transfer Based on Cholesterol Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Pengyao; Tham, Huijun Phoebe; Li, Peizhou; Chen, Hongzhong; Xiang, Huijing; Zhao, Yanli

    2018-01-01

    Manipulating the property transfer in nanosystems is a challenging task since it requires switchable molecular packing such as separate aggregation (self-sorting) or synergistic aggregation (coassembly). Herein, a unique manipulation of self-sorting/coassembly aggregation and the observation of switchable stimulus-responsiveness transfer in a two component self-assembly system are reported. Two building blocks bearing the same cholesterol group give versatile topological structures in polar and nonpolar solvents. One building block (cholesterol conjugated cynanostilbene, CCS) consists of cholesterol conjugated with a cynanostilbene unit, and the other one (C 10 CN) is comprised of cholesterol connected with a naphthalimide group having a flexible long alkyl chain. Their assemblies including gel, crystalline plates, and vesicles are obtained. In gel and crystalline plate phases, the self-sorting behavior dominates, while synergistic coassembly occurs in vesicle phase. Since CCS having the cyanostilbene group can respond to the light irradiation, it undergoes light-induced chiral amplification. C 10 CN is thermally responsive, whereby its supramolecular chirality is inversed upon heating. In coassembled vesicles, it is interestingly observed that their responsiveness can be transferred by each other, i.e., the C 10 CN segment is sensitive to the light irradiation, while CCS is thermoresponsive. This unprecedented behavior of the property transfer may shine a light to the precise fabrication of smart materials.

  1. Helping to build and rebuild secure lives and futures: financial transfers from parents to adult children and grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, Jenny; Campbell, Lori; Denton, Margaret; Joshi, Anju; Davies, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores intergenerational financial transfers from parents to adult children and grandchildren within a life course perspective. Research on intergenerational financial transfers has been sparse, and little is known about the financial support older Canadians provide to family members or about the meaning of that assistance. Survey data from a convenience sample of older Canadians was analysed to determine the types of financial assistance older persons provide, what motivates them to provide this assistance, and what meanings such transfers have for the older persons themselves. Findings suggest that it is often events and transitions in the lives of adult children that shape the financial assistance that is needed and given within these families. Older parents demonstrate a strong desire to help their children and grandchildren through important or difficult transitions to "build or rebuild secure lives and futures". Parents' assistance is also influenced by their own family history of assistance and their desire to pass on an early inheritance during their lifetime.

  2. Unit operations for gas-liquid mass transfer in reduced gravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Allen, David T.

    1992-01-01

    Basic scaling rules are derived for converting Earth-based designs of mass transfer equipment into designs for a reduced gravity environment. Three types of gas-liquid mass transfer operations are considered: bubble columns, spray towers, and packed columns. Application of the scaling rules reveals that the height of a bubble column in lunar- and Mars-based operations would be lower than terrestrial designs by factors of 0.64 and 0.79 respectively. The reduced gravity columns would have greater cross-sectional areas, however, by factors of 2.4 and 1.6 for lunar and Martian settings. Similar results were obtained for spray towers. In contract, packed column height was found to be nearly independent of gravity.

  3. [Median nerve constrictive operation combined with tendon transfer to treat brain paralysis convulsive deformity of hand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shanjun; Zhou, Tianjian

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the median nerve constrictive operation combined with tendon transfer to treat the brain paralysis convulsive deformity of the hand. The clinical data from 21 cases with brain paralysis convulsive deformity of the hand were analyzed retrospectively between August 2009 and April 2012. Of them, there were 13 males and 8 females with an average age of 15 years (range, 10-29 years). The causes of the convulsive cerebral palsy included preterm deliveries in 11 cases, hypoxia asphyxia in 7, traumatic brain injury in 2, and encephalitis sequela in 1. The disease duration was 2-26 years (mean, 10.6 years). All the 21 patients had cock waists, crooking fingers, and contracture of adductors pollicis, 12 had the forearm pronation deformity. According to Ashworth criteria, there were 2 cases at level I, 5 cases at level II, 8 cases at level III, 4 cases at level IV, and 2 cases at level V. All patients had no intelligence disturbances. The forearm X-ray film showed no bone architectural changes before operation. The contraction of muscle and innervation was analyzed before operation. The median nerve constrictive operation combined with tendon transfer was performed. The functional activities and deformity improvement were evaluated during follow-up. After operation, all the patients' incision healed by first intension, without muscle atrophy and ischemic spasm. All the 21 cases were followed up 1.5-4.5 years (mean, 2.3 years). No superficial sensory loss occurred. The effectiveness was excellent in 13 cases, good in 6 cases, and poor in 2 cases, with an excellent and good rate of 90.4% at last follow-up. The median nerve constrictive operation combined with tendon transfer to treat brain paralysis convulsive deformity of the hand can remove and prevent the recurrence of spasm, achieve the orthopedic goals, to assure the restoration of motor function and the improvement of the life quality.

  4. MEMS-Based Boiler Operation from Low Temperature Heat Transfer and Thermal Scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leland Weiss

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing world-wide energy use and growing population growth presents a critical need for enhanced energy efficiency and sustainability. One method to address this issue is via waste heat scavenging. In this approach, thermal energy that is normally expelled to the environment is transferred to a secondary device to produce useful power output. This paper investigates a novel MEMS-based boiler designed to operate as part of a small-scale energy scavenging system. For the first time, fabrication and operation of the boiler is presented. Boiler operation is based on capillary action that drives working fluid from surrounding reservoirs across a heated surface. Pressure is generated as working fluid transitions from liquid to vapor in an integrated steamdome. In a full system application, the steam can be made available to other MEMS-based devices to drive final power output. Capillary channels are formed from silicon substrates with 100 µm widths. Varying depths are studied that range from 57 to 170 µm. Operation of the boiler shows increasing flow-rates with increasing capillary channel depths. Maximum fluid mass transfer rates are 12.26 mg/s from 170 µm channels, an increase of 28% over 57 µm channel devices. Maximum pressures achieved during operation are 229 Pa.

  5. Potential Use of Radiant Walls to Transfer Energy Between two Building Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    Due to a reduced energy demand in low energy buildings, low temperature heating and high temperature cooling can be used to control thermal comfort. Nevertheless, highly varying heat loads due to solar radiation can create sometimes an imbalanced energy demand inside the building. Instead of being...

  6. Taking the High Road to Transfer: Building Bridges between English and Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Dianne; Lahar, Cindy J.; Susman, David

    2009-01-01

    Do students transfer the skills that they learn in English 101 to other courses and contexts? Often, it seems that they do not--or, at least, that the transfer is not visible or readily apparent. On the positive side, however, one may underestimate the complex nature of many of the tasks that students undertake, often for the first time, in the…

  7. Operation and maintenance of the Sol-Dance Building solar system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaultney, J.R.

    1980-07-29

    A 16,400 square foot general office facility has its primary heating provided by a flat plate solar system using hydronic storage and water-to-air transfer coils for distribution. Backup heat is provided by 10 individually controlled air source heat pumps ranging from 3 tons to 5 tons in capacity. These heat pumps also contain electric resistive elements for use during extremely low ambient temperatures. Cooling is also provided by the heat pumps. Each of the two buildings contains a separate domestic hot water system. Primary heat is provided by a closed loop solar unit with electric elements providing backup heat. A 10,000 gallon black steel water tank provides heat storage.

  8. Prediction of prestressing losses for long term operation of nuclear reactor buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillard G.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Prestressed concrete is used in nuclear reactor buildings to guarantee containment and structural integrity in case of an accident. Monitoring and operating experience over 40 years has shown that prestressing losses can be much greater than the design estimation based on the usual standard laws. A method was developed to determine the realistic residual prestress level in structures, in particular for those where no embedded instrumentation was installed, taking into account in situ measurement results rather than design characteristics. The results can enable the owner to justify extending the lifespan while guaranteeing adequate safety and to define and plan adequate maintenance actions.

  9. Simulation of The Heat Transfer Process Inside The Thatch Walls with The Aim of Saving Energy in The Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Baseri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The insulation is one of the emphasized methods in recent years to reduce energy consumption in buildings. As an insulator, thatch has the advantages such as the accessibility of the site, the least energy consumption in its construction (low cost, recyclability and compatible with the nature and the environment. The aim of this study is determining of the heat transfer coefficient and thatch mechanical properties So that due to its advantages it used as insulation and thereby reducing energy consumption in buildings considered and used. In this study, the heat transfer process in a cylindrical turn of thatch was studied. In the conducted experiments the temperature changes inside a cylinder turn were determined for different values of the ratio of the Straw to the used soil and then the obtained results were simulated using the version 2.4 of the COMSOL software. The compressive strength and mechanical properties of thatch were tested. By increasing the consumed Straw weight of 50 to 90 kg per 1 cubic meter of soil, the heat conductivity coefficient from about 1.1 decreased to about 0.3 (W/m K, the contraction percentage decreased and the porous, the compressive strength and the thatch deformability increased in the failure. Thermal insulation and the mechanical properties of the thatch were improved by the mixing of appropriate ratio of straw to soil in the construction of thatch. It can be used in the plaster of the walls and the internal and external ceilings of the building.

  10. Empirical Validation of Heat Transfer Performance Simulation of Graphite/PCM Concrete Materials for Thermally Activated Building System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hee Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the heat capacity in lightweight construction materials, a phase change material (PCM can be introduced to building elements. A thermally activated building system (TABS with graphite/PCM concrete hollow core slab is suggested as an energy-efficient technology to shift and reduce the peak thermal load in buildings. An evaluation of heat storage and dissipation characteristics of TABS in graphite/PCM concrete has been conducted using dynamic simulations, but empirical validation is necessary to acceptably predict the thermal behavior of graphite/PCM concrete. This study aimed to validate the thermal behavior of graphite/PCM concrete through a three-dimensional transient heat transfer simulation. The simulation results were compared to experimental results from previous studies of concrete and graphite/PCM concrete. The overall thermal behavior for both materials was found to be similar to experiment results. Limitations in the simulation modeling, which included determination of the indoor heat transfer coefficient, assumption of constant thermal conductivity with temperature, and assumption of specimen homogeneity, led to slight differences between the measured and simulated results.

  11. Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Pilot-Scale Bioventing System at Building 8200, Fort Carson, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Manual has been created as a guide for monitoring and maintaining the performance of the pilot-scale bioventing blower system and vent well plumbing at Building 8200, Fort Carson, Colorado Bioventing...

  12. Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Expanded-Scale Bioventing System at Building 8200, Fort Carson, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    This operations and maintenance (O&M) manual has been created as a guide for monitoring and maintaining the performance of the expanded-scale bioventing blower system at Building 8200, Fort Carson, Colorado...

  13. Implementation of conduct of operations at Paducah uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) sampling and transfer facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penrod, S.R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the initial planning and actual field activities associated with the implementation of {open_quotes}Conduct of Operations{close_quotes}, Conduct of Operations is an operating philosophy that was developed through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Conduct of Operations covers many operating practices and is intended to provide formality and discipline to all aspects of plant operation. The implementation of these operating principles at the UF{sub 6} Sampling and Transfer Facility resulted in significant improvements in facility operations.

  14. Implementation of conduct of operations at Paducah uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) sampling and transfer facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penrod, S.R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the initial planning and actual field activities associated with the implementation of {open_quotes}Conduct of Operations{close_quotes}. Conduct of Operations is an operating philosophy that was developed through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Conduct of Operations covers many operating practices and is intended to provide formality and discipline to all aspects of plant operation. The implementation of these operating principles at the UF{sub 6} Sampling and Transfer Facility resulted in significant improvements in facility operations.

  15. Manipulation of operating configuration of cool air supply in buildings for reduction of cooling energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shaharin A.; Rashid, Mohd Syazwan Ab; Hassan, Ahmad Hadi

    2012-06-01

    The cooling energy in different rooms can be different particularly if there are rooms that are very seldom occupied. With uncertainties in the cost and availability of local and global energy nowadays, it is imperative that a study on the actual cooling load of a building system be performed to reduce the energy consumption. In this paper, the effect of manipulation of the operating configuration of the cool air supply system is studied experimentally and also by computer simulation on selected occupied air-conditioned areas. The study is mainly conducted by re-configuring the damper opening and mode of control depending on the trend of occupancy throughout a typical working day for a selected zone within a campus building. The potential savings in energy as a result of the proposed strategy are estimated based on computer simulation. The results are compared with those of the experiment. The study reveals that there are significant potentials for savings in the cooling energy of the buildings.

  16. Moisture transfer and change in strength during the construction of earthen buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder, H.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of rammed earth projects constructed in recent years in Germany and abroad testify to the high level of architectural interest in this material, not only in our country. Rammed earth has been “rediscovered”, in particular by young architects, due to its unique materiality and fascinating and individual surface aesthetics. In connection with the realisation of two rammed earth projects realised in Thuringia, Germany, in 2003/2004 some questions arose concerning the process of moisture transfer and changes in strength properties during construction. The earthen building standards detail only very rough estimates of drying times for rammed earth walls. The idea arose to develop a test programme for investigating the aspect of drying time with regard to the change in material strength in rammed earth walls, as well as for elaborating general aspects of testing procedures for rammed earth in standards. The paper presents results of a laboratory programme that attempts to approach this very complex problem. A series of test specimens were produced and the unconfined compressive strength was determined after different drying times varying from 7 to 90 days. The moisture content of the test specimens also was varied: at OMC (Proctor test and above and below the OMC.

    Una serie de proyectos de tierra apisonada construidos en los últimos años en Alemania y en el extranjero dan testimonio del alto nivel de interés arquitectónico en este material, no solo en nuestro país. La tierra apisonada ha sido “redescubierta”, en particular por los arquitectos jóvenes, debido a su materialidad única y fascinante y la estética singular de su superficie. En relación con la realización de dos proyectos de tierra apisonada realizados en Turingia, Alemania, en el período 2003/2004 surgieron algunas preguntas sobre el proceso de transferencia de la humedad y los cambios en las propiedades de resistencia durante la construcción. Las

  17. OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES IN MIXING AND TRANSFER OF HIGH YIELD STRESS SLUDGE WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.; Bhatt, P.

    2009-12-07

    The ability to mobilize and transport non-Newtonian waste is essential to advance the closure of highly radioactive storage tanks. Recent waste removal operations from Tank 12H at the Savannah River Site (SRS) encountered sludge mixtures with a yield stress too high to pump. The waste removal equipment for Tank 12H was designed to mobilize and transport a diluted slurry mixture through an underground 550m long (1800 ft) 0.075m diameter (3 inch) pipeline. The transfer pump was positioned in a well casing submerged in the sludge slurry. The design allowed for mobilized sludge to enter the pump suction while keeping out larger tank debris. Data from a similar tank with known rheological properties were used to size the equipment. However, after installation and startup, field data from Tank 12H confirmed the yield stress of the slurry to exceed 40 Pa, whereas the system is designed for 10 Pa. A revision to the removal strategy was required, which involved metered dilution, blending, and mixing to ensure effective and safe transfer performance. The strategy resulted in the removal of over 255,000 kgs of insoluble solids with four discrete transfer evolutions for a total transfer volume of 2400 m{sup 3} (634,000 gallons) of sludge slurry.

  18. Calculation and validation of heat transfer coefficient for warm forming operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Kaab; Butcher, Clifford; Worswick, Michael

    2017-10-01

    In an effort to reduce the weight of their products, the automotive industry is exploring various hot forming and warm forming technologies. One critical aspect in these technologies is understanding and quantifying the heat transfer between the blank and the tooling. The purpose of the current study is twofold. First, an experimental procedure to obtain the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) as a function of pressure for the purposes of a metal forming simulation is devised. The experimental approach was used in conjunction with finite element models to obtain HTC values as a function of die pressure. The materials that were characterized were AA5182-O and AA7075-T6. Both the heating operation and warm forming deep draw were modelled using the LS-DYNA commercial finite element code. Temperature-time measurements were obtained from both applications. The results of the finite element model showed that the experimentally derived HTC values were able to predict the temperature-time history to within a 2% of the measured response. It is intended that the HTC values presented herein can be used in warm forming models in order to accurately capture the heat transfer characteristics of the operation.

  19. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Quenching of curcumine fluorescence by thionine, both immobilised in cellulose acetate occurs in accordance with the Forster mechanism of energy transfer. The rate constant of energy transfer for this donor - acceptor pair is found to be 9.4 x 109 L ' mol S1 with R0 = 37±1 Б. When this donor - acceptor pair is ...

  20. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart G of... - Transfer Operations-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements for Complying With 98...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permit and all operating days when insufficient monitoring data are collected f—PR. All recovery devices... operating days when insufficient monitoring data are collected f—PR. All control devices and vapor balancing... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer Operations-Monitoring...

  1. Straight to the Operating Room: An Emergent Surgery Track for Acute Testicular Torsion Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Michelle K; Sheth, Kunj R; Menon, Vani S; Ostrov, Lauren; Hennes, Halim; Singla, Nirmish; Koral, Korgun; Schlomer, Bruce J; Baker, Linda A

    2018-01-01

    To assess the effect of implementing an emergency surgery track for testicular torsion transfers. We hypothesized that transferring children from other facilities diagnosed with torsion straight to the operating room (STOR) would decrease ischemia time, lower costs, and reduce testicular loss. Demographics, arrival to incision time, hospital cost in dollars, and testicular outcome (determined by testicular ultrasound) at follow-up were retrospectively compared in all patients transferred to our tertiary care children's hospital with a diagnosis of testicular torsion from 2012 to 2016. Clinical data for STOR and non-STOR patients were compared by Wilcoxon rank-sum, 2-tailed t test, or Fisher exact test as appropriate. Sixty-eight patients met inclusion criteria: 35 STOR and 33 non-STOR. Children taken STOR had a shorter median arrival to incision time (STOR: 54 minutes vs non-STOR: 94 minutes, P  STOR: $3882 vs non-STOR: $4419, P STOR patients and 48.4% of non-STOR patients achieved surgery within 6 hours of symptom onset. Testicular salvage rates in STOR and non-STOR patients were not significantly different (STOR: 68.4% vs non-STOR: 36.8%, P = .1), but follow-up was poor. STOR decreased arrival to incision time and hospital cost but did not affect testicular loss. The bulk of ischemia time in torsion transfers occurred before arrival at our tertiary care center. Further interventions addressing delays in diagnosis and transfer are needed to truly improve testicular salvage rates in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Generating Excitement: Build Your Own Generator to Study the Transfer of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kurt; Rommel-Esham, Katie; Farthing, Dori; Sheldon, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The transfer of energy from one form to another can be difficult to understand. The electrical energy that turns on a lamp may come from the burning of coal, water falling at a hydroelectric plant, nuclear reactions, or gusts of wind caused by the uneven heating of the Earth. The authors have developed and tested an exciting hands-on activity to…

  3. Building a Bridge of Understanding: How Barriers to Training Participation Become Barriers to Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. C.; McCracken, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to look at the issues concerning barriers that managers face in relation to participation in training and transfer of training, which have become increasingly important to HRD scholars and practitioners. To date, these areas have largely been examined independently. This paper aims to argue that there is an…

  4. Building an Understanding of Heat Transfer Concepts in Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottis, Katharyn E. K.; Prince, Michael J.; Vigeant, Margot A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the distinctions among heat, energy and temperature can be difficult for students at all levels of instruction, including those in engineering. Misconceptions about heat transfer have been found to persist, even after students successfully complete relevant coursework. New instructional methods are needed to address these…

  5. Investigating the Transferability of Calibrated Microsimulation Parameters for Operational Performance Analysis in Roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Gallelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsimulation models are widespread for the analysis of roundabouts operational performance providing realistic modelling of vehicle movements. These models are based on many independent parameters to describe traffic and driver behaviour, which need to be calibrated in order to better match field data. In practice, despite the well-recognized importance of calibration and validation processes, simulation is conducted under default values because of difficulties in field data collection and deficiency in available guidelines. These issues can be faced by using transferability methodologies that allow applying the parameters calibrated for a case study to other similar locations. Therefore, this paper investigates the suitability of the transferability procedure adopting both the application-based and estimation-based approaches, by considering two roundabouts and a microsimulation tool. A Genetic Algorithm technique was used to determine the best estimates of these model parameters. After that, the authors compared field-measured with simulated queue lengths, considering four different scenarios. The results show that the application of Wiedemann 99 parameters calibrated for the first case study to the second one allows reducing the RMSNE more than 50%, thus confirming an acceptable level of transferability of these parameters between the two case studies.

  6. AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF OPERATIONAL CONTROL HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING OF BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRENKO A. O.

    2016-08-01

    accuracy manage experimentally investigate the electrical field in the liquid conducting medium as an analog of the thermal field [7, 8]. Isolation of previously solved problems. Known methods for modeling are approximate and have drawbacks that reduce the accuracy and limited scope. Therefore, one way to obtain effective thermal solutions is a simulation of thermal processes with further analysis of the results. It was suggested that the thermal field in the room to simulate electric field in the plating bath, and the analog heat flux between surfaces of any room space assumed current density between the surfaces of the model. The smaller the distance between the selected measurement points, the more accurate will be recreated actual picture patterns in the electric field and hence the thermal field in the room [7, 8]. But this method does not enable to take into account all the possible variations that affect the formation of indoor climate. Working with models that use an electric field to the heat radiation transfer simulations showed a significant labor input in the input model of the initial information and the removal of the simulation results. Objectives. Describe the behavior of the system (the influence of the microclimate of the environment and the geometric dimensions of the room, and thermal performance building envelopes, and the location of the premises (Orientation, and many other factors in the indoor climate of buildings, to build theories and hypotheses that could explain the behavior, which It will be observed to use the theory for predicting the future behavior of the system, that is, those factors that can be caused by a change in the system or change the way of its functioning. Conclusions. The proposed approach to addressing the issues raised will reveal the point of interaction between the different elements and factors that affect the indoor climate of buildings for different purposes. In the future, use the simulation method to study changes in

  7. Comparative Study of DC and AC Microgrids in Commercial Buildings Across Different Climates and Operating Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fregosi, Daniel; Ravula, Sharmila; Brhlik, Dusan; Saussele, John; Frank, Stephen; Bonnema, Eric; Scheib, Jennifer; Wilson, Eric

    2015-06-07

    Bosch has developed and demonstrated a novel direct current (DC) microgrid system that maximizes the efficiency of locally generated photovoltaic energy while offering high reliability, safety, redundancy, and reduced cost compared to equivalent alternating current (AC) systems. Several demonstration projects validating the system feasibility and expected efficiency gains have been completed and additional ones are in progress. This paper gives an overview of the Bosch DC microgrid system and presents key results from a large simulation study done to estimate the energy savings of the Bosch DC microgrid over conventional AC systems. The study examined the system performance in locations across the United States for several commercial building types and operating profiles. It found that the Bosch DC microgrid uses generated PV energy 6%-8% more efficiently than traditional AC systems.

  8. Orthognathic positioning system: intraoperative system to transfer virtual surgical plan to operating field during orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, John W; Figueroa, Alvaro A

    2013-05-01

    To introduce the concept and use of an occlusal-based "orthognathic positioning system" (OPS) to be used during orthognathic surgery. The OPS consists of intraoperative occlusal-based devices that transfer virtual surgical planning to the operating field for repositioning of the osteotomized dentoskeletal segments. The system uses detachable guides connected to an occlusal splint. An initial drilling guide is used to establish stable references or landmarks. These are drilled on the bone that will not be repositioned adjacent to the osteotomy line. After mobilization of the skeletal segment, a final positioning guide, referenced to the drilled landmarks, is used to transfer the skeletal segment according to the virtual surgical planning. The OPS is digitally designed using 3-dimensional computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and manufactured with stereolithographic techniques. Virtual surgical planning has improved the preoperative assessment and, in conjunction with the OPS, the execution of orthognathic surgery. The OPS has the possibility to eliminate the inaccuracies commonly associated with traditional orthognathic surgery planning and to simplify the execution by eliminating surgical steps such as intraoperative measuring, determining the condylar position, the use of bulky intermediate splints, and the use of intermaxillary wire fixation. The OPS attempts precise translation of the virtual plan to the operating field, bridging the gap between virtual and actual surgery. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL CALIBRATION OF UNDERGROUND HEAT TRANSFER MODELS UNDER A WINERY BUILDING IN A RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tinti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground temperature and hydrogeological conditions are key parameters for many engineering applications, such as the design of building basements and underground spaces and the assessment of shallow geothermal energy potential. Especially in urban areas, in the very shallow depths, it is diffi cult to fi nd natural undisturbed underground thermal conditions because of anthropic interventions. The assessment of underground behaviour in disturbed conditions will become more and more relevant because of increasing awareness to energy effi ciency and renewable energy topics. The purpose of this paper is to show a three-dimensional representation - based on models calibrated on experimental data - of the underground thermal behaviour aff ected by a building in a rural area in Italy. Temperature varies in space and time and it depends on ground, climate and building characteristics, and all these parameters are taken into account by the seasonal periodic modelling implemented. The results obtained in a context of low urbanization indirectly suggest the importance of these eff ects in dense urban areas; taking greater account of these aspects could lead to improvements in the design of underground spaces and geo-exchanger fi elds for geothermal energy exploitation.

  10. Building and Deploying Remotely Operated Vehicles in the First-Year Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien-Gayes, A.; Fuss, K.; Gayes, P.

    2007-12-01

    Coastal Carolina University has committed to improving student retention and success in Mathematics and Science through a pilot program to engage first-year students in an applied and investigative project as part of the University's First-Year Experience (FYE). During the fall 2007 semester, five pilot sections of FYE classes, consisting of students from the College of Natural and Applied Sciences are building and deploying Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs). These ROV-based classes are designed to: accelerate exploration of the broad fields of science and mathematics; enlist interest in technology by engaging students in a multi-stepped, interdisciplinary problem solving experience; explore science and mathematical concepts; institute experiential learning; and build a culture of active learners to benefit student success across traditional departmental boundaries. Teams of three students (forty teams total) will build, based on the MIT Sea Perch design, and test ROVs in addition to collecting data with their ROVs. Various accessories attached to the vehicles for data collection will include temperature and light sensors, plankton nets and underwater cameras. The first-year students will then analyze the data, and the results will be documented as part of their capstone projects. Additionally, two launch days will take place on two campus ponds. Local middle and high school teachers and their students will be invited to observe this event. The teams of students with the most capable and successful ROVs will participate in a workshop held in November 2007 for regional elementary, middle and high school teachers. These students will give a presentation on the building of the ROVs and also provide a hands-on demonstration for the workshop participants. These activities will ensure an incorporation of service learning into the first semester of the freshmen experience. The desired outcomes of the ROV-based FYE classes are: increased retention at the postsecondary

  11. Mitigating mountain hazards in Austria – legislation, risk transfer, and awareness building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holub

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Embedded in the overall concept of integral risk management, mitigating mountain hazards is pillared by land use regulations, risk transfer, and information. In this paper aspects on legislation related to natural hazards in Austria are summarised, with a particular focus on spatial planning activities and hazard mapping, and possible adaptations focussing on enhanced resilience are outlined. Furthermore, the system of risk transfer is discussed, highlighting the importance of creating incentives for risk-aware behaviour, above all with respect to individual precaution and insurance solutions. Therefore, the issue of creating awareness through information is essential, which is presented subsequently. The study results in recommendations of how administrative units on different federal and local levels could increase the enforcement of regulations related to the minimisation of natural hazard risk. Moreover, the nexus to risk transfer mechanisms is provided, focusing on the current compensation system in Austria and some possible adjustments in order to provide economic incentives for (private investments in mitigation measures, i.e. local structural protection. These incentives should be supported by delivering information on hazard and risk target-oriented to any stakeholder involved. Therefore, coping strategies have to be adjusted and the interaction between prevention and precaution has to be highlighted. The paper closes with recommendations of how these efforts could be achieved, with a particular focus on the situation in the Republic of Austria.

  12. Development of Benchmarks for Operating Costs and Resources Consumption to be Used in Healthcare Building Sustainability Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the last decade of the twentieth century, the healthcare industry is paying attention to the environmental impact of their buildings and therefore new regulations, policy goals, and Building Sustainability Assessment (HBSA methods are being developed and implemented. At the present, healthcare is one of the most regulated industries and it is also one of the largest consumers of energy per net floor area. To assess the sustainability of healthcare buildings it is necessary to establish a set of benchmarks related with their life-cycle performance. They are both essential to rate the sustainability of a project and to support designers and other stakeholders in the process of designing and operating a sustainable building, by allowing the comparison to be made between a project and the conventional and best market practices. This research is focused on the methodology to set the benchmarks for resources consumption, waste production, operation costs and potential environmental impacts related to the operational phase of healthcare buildings. It aims at contributing to the reduction of the subjectivity found in the definition of the benchmarks used in Building Sustainability Assessment (BSA methods, and it is applied in the Portuguese context. These benchmarks will be used in the development of a Portuguese HBSA method.

  13. Nonstationary heat and mass transfer in the multilayer building construction with ventilation channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkov, N. S.

    2017-11-01

    Results of numerical modeling of the coupled nonstationary heat and mass transfer problem under conditions of a convective flow in facade system of a three-layer concrete panel for two different constructions (with ventilation channels and without) are presented. The positive effect of ventilation channels on the energy and humidity regime over a period of 12 months is shown. Used new method of replacement a solid zone (requiring specification of porosity and material structure, what complicates process of convergence of the solution) on quasi-solid in form of a multicomponent mixture (with restrictions on convection and mass fractions).

  14. HVAC modifications and computerized energy analysis for the Operations Support Building at the Mars Deep Space Station at Goldstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, A.; Stelzmuller, P.

    1986-01-01

    The key heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) modifications implemented at the Mars Deep Space Station's Operation Support Building at Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) in order to reduce energy consumption and decrease operating costs are described. An energy analysis comparison between the computer simulated model for the building and the actual meter data was presented. The measurement performance data showed that the cumulative energy savings was about 21% for the period 1979 to 1981. The deviation from simulated data to measurement performance data was only about 3%.

  15. Impact of gamma-irradiation on some mass transfer driven operations in food processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, N.K. [Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020 (India)]. E-mail: nkrastogi@cftri.com

    2005-08-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation pretreatment on some mass transfer driven operations such as dehydration, osmotic dehydration and rehydration, commonly used in food processing, was studied. Applied irradiation up to 12.0 kGy resulted in decrease in hardness of the samples, as indicated by texture analysis. The effective diffusion coefficients of water and solute determined for dehydration, osmotic dehydration as well as for rehydration using a Fickian diffusion model. The effective diffusion coefficients for water (in case of osmotic dehydration and dehydration) and solid diffusion (in case of osmotic dehydration) were found to increase exponentially with doses of gamma-irradiation (G) according to an equation of the form D=A exp(-B/G), where A and B are constants. Microstructures of irradiated-carrot samples revealed that the exposure of carrot to gamma irradiation resulted in the breakage of cell wall structure, thereby causing softening of irradiated samples and facilitating mass transfer during dehydration and osmotic dehydration. The rehydration characteristics showed that gamma-irradiated sample did not absorb as much water as control, probably due to loss of cell integrity.

  16. Impact of gamma-irradiation on some mass transfer driven operations in food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, N. K.

    2005-08-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation pretreatment on some mass transfer driven operations such as dehydration, osmotic dehydration and rehydration, commonly used in food processing, was studied. Applied irradiation up to 12.0 kGy resulted in decrease in hardness of the samples, as indicated by texture analysis. The effective diffusion coefficients of water and solute determined for dehydration, osmotic dehydration as well as for rehydration using a Fickian diffusion model. The effective diffusion coefficients for water (in case of osmotic dehydration and dehydration) and solid diffusion (in case of osmotic dehydration) were found to increase exponentially with doses of gamma-irradiation ( G) according to an equation of the form D= A exp(- B/ G), where A and B are constants. Microstructures of irradiated-carrot samples revealed that the exposure of carrot to gamma irradiation resulted in the breakage of cell wall structure, thereby causing softening of irradiated samples and facilitating mass transfer during dehydration and osmotic dehydration. The rehydration characteristics showed that gamma-irradiated sample did not absorb as much water as control, probably due to loss of cell integrity.

  17. A direct electron transfer-based glucose/oxygen biofuel cell operating in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coman, V.; Gorton, L. [Department of Analytical Chemistry/Biochemistry, Lund University, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Ludwig, R. [Research Centre Applied Biocatalysis, 8010 Graz (Austria); Department of Food Sciences and Technology, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, 1190 Wien (Austria); Harreither, W.; Haltrich, D. [Department of Food Sciences and Technology, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, 1190 Wien (Austria); Ruzgas, T. [Biomedical Laboratory Science, Health and Society, Malmoe University, 20506 Malmoe (Sweden); Laboratory of Chemical Enzymology, A.N. Bach Institute of Biochemistry, 119071 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shleev, S.

    2010-02-15

    We report on the fabrication and characterisation of the very first direct electron transfer-based glucose/oxygen biofuel cell (BFC) operating in neutral glucose-containing buffer and human serum. Corynascus thermophilus cellobiose dehydrogenase and Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase were used as anodic and cathodic bioelements, respectively. The following characteristics of the mediator-, separator- and membrane-less, a priori, non-toxic and simple miniature BFC, was obtained: an open-circuit voltage of 0.62 and 0.58 V, a maximum power density of ca. 3 and 4 {mu}W cm{sup -2} at 0.37 and 0.19 V of cell voltage, in phosphate buffer and human serum, respectively. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Free tissue transfer in patients with sickle cell disease: Considerations for multi-disciplinary peri-operative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lilli; Seth, Rohit; Rhodes, Elizabeth; Alousi, Mohammed; Sivakumar, Bran

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an increasingly common condition in the UK. The safety of free tissue transfer in these patients is controversial, and no specific guidelines exist. The aim of this paper is to create recommendations for the plastic surgical multidisciplinary team for use in the assessment and management of SCD patients undergoing free tissue transfer and reconstruction. A literature review was performed in PubMed of 'sickle [TiAb] AND plast* adj3 surg*. Sickle cell disease is explained, as is the relative peri-operative risk in different genotypes of SCD. Acute and chronic manifestations of SCD are described by system, for consideration at pre-operative assessment and post-operative review. The evidence surrounding free tissue transfer and SCD is discussed and the outcomes in published cases summarised. An algorithm for peri-operative multi-disciplinary management is outlined and justified. Free tissue transfer theoretically carries a high risk of a crisis, due not only to long anaesthetic times, but the potential requirement for tourniquet use, and the relatively hypoxic state of the transferred tissue. This paper outlines a useful, practical algorithm to optimise the safety of free tissue transfer in patients with SCD. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Post-operative monitoring of free muscle transfers by Laser Doppler Imaging: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschumi, Christian; Seyed Jafari, S Morteza; Rothenberger, Jens; Van de Ville, Dimitri; Keel, Marius; Krause, Fabian; Shafighi, Maziar

    2015-10-01

    Despite different existing methods, monitoring of free muscle transfer is still challenging. In the current study we evaluated our clinical setting regarding monitoring of such tissues, using a recent microcirculation-imaging camera (EasyLDI) as an additional tool for detection of perfusion incompetency. This study was performed on seven patients with soft tissue defect, who underwent reconstruction with free gracilis muscle. Beside standard monitoring protocol (clinical assessment, temperature strips, and surface Doppler), hourly EasyLDI monitoring was performed for 48 hours. Thereby a baseline value (raised flap but connected to its vascular bundle) and an ischaemia perfusion value (completely resected flap) were measured at the same point. The mean age of the patients, mean baseline value, ischaemia value perfusion were 48.00 ± 13.42 years, 49.31 ± 17.33 arbitrary perfusion units (APU), 9.87 ± 4.22 APU, respectively. The LDI measured values in six free muscle transfers were compatible with hourly standard monitoring protocol, and normalized LDI values significantly increased during time (P theatre 17 hours after the operation, where an unsalvageable flap loss was detected. All normalized LDI values of this flap were under the ischaemia perfusion level and the trend was significantly descending during time (P < 0.001, r = -0.870). Due to the capability of early detection of perfusion incompetency, LDI may be recommended as an additional post-operative monitoring device for free muscle flaps, for early detection of suspected failing flaps and for validation of other methods. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The Building Blocks for JWST I and T (Integrations and Test) to Operations - From Simulator to Flight Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatig, Curtis; Ochs, William; Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Adams, Cynthia; Wasiak, Francis; Jones, Ronald; Jackson, Wallace

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project has an extended integration and test (I&T) phase due to long procurement and development times of various components as well as recent launch delays. The JWST Ground Segment and Operations group has developed a roadmap of the various ground and flight elements and their use in the various JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project s building block approach to the eventual operational systems, while not new, is complex and challenging; a large-scale mission like JWST involves international partners, many vendors across the United States, and competing needs for the same systems. One of the challenges is resource balancing so simulators and flight products for various elements congeal into integrated systems used for I&T and flight operations activities. This building block approach to an incremental buildup provides for early problem identification with simulators and exercises the flight operations systems, products, and interfaces during the JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project has completed some early I&T with the simulators, engineering models and some components of the operational ground system. The JWST Project is testing the various flight units as they are delivered and will continue to do so for the entire flight and operational system. The JWST Project has already and will continue to reap the value of the building block approach on the road to launch and flight operations.

  1. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRO CA

    2011-07-15

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is

  2. Experimental Determination of Operating and Maximum Power Transfer Efficiencies at Resonant Frequency in a Wireless Power Transfer System using PP Network Topology with Top Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Hema; Pillai, K. P. P.; Bindu, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    A two-port network model for a wireless power transfer system taking into account the distributed capacitances using PP network topology with top coupling is developed in this work. The operating and maximum power transfer efficiencies are determined analytically in terms of S-parameters. The system performance predicted by the model is verified with an experiment consisting of a high power home light load of 230 V, 100 W and is tested for two forced resonant frequencies namely, 600 kHz and 1.2 MHz. The experimental results are in close agreement with the proposed model.

  3. A Novel Method for Measuring the Diffusion, Partition and Convective Mass Transfer Coefficients of Formaldehyde and VOC in Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jianyin; Huang, Shaodan; Zhang, Yinping

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion coefficient (Dm) and material/air partition coefficient (K) are two key parameters characterizing the formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC) sorption behavior in building materials. By virtue of the sorption process in airtight chamber, this paper proposes a novel method to measure the two key parameters, as well as the convective mass transfer coefficient (hm). Compared to traditional methods, it has the following merits: (1) the K, Dm and hm can be simultaneously obtained, thus is convenient to use; (2) it is time-saving, just one sorption process in airtight chamber is required; (3) the determination of hm is based on the formaldehyde and VOC concentration data in the test chamber rather than the generally used empirical correlations obtained from the heat and mass transfer analogy, thus is more accurate and can be regarded as a significant improvement. The present method is applied to measure the three parameters by treating the experimental data in the literature, and good results are obtained, which validates the effectiveness of the method. Our new method also provides a potential pathway for measuring hm of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) by using that of VOC. PMID:23145156

  4. GENERAL ASPECTS RELATED TO THE TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, THE MAIN SOURCE OF INNOVATION AND DEVELOPMENT AMONG ECONOMIC OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Maier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient actions carried out in technology transfer bring major benefits to all parties involved in the process.Increasing the technological endowment through the process of technological transfer from research to industrycontributes significantly to the improving of the economic growth rate at the national and regional levels.Universities and research institutions as providers of knowledge are able to supplement their incomes andachieve financial autonomy in order to conduct entrepreneurial activities and research. They can also obtainother collateral benefits such as attracting research contracts sponsored by some economic operators, the abilityto hire and retain top personnel and researchers. Romania, in terms of technology transfer and innovationactivities among economic operators, is still trying to catch the significant gap compared to other Europeancountries. In these conditions technology transfer processes must be well understood and put into practice bothat research institutions as well as at the economic agents.

  5. Integration of a hygrothermal transfer model for envelope in a building energy simulation model: experimental validation of a HAM-BES co-simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroukhi, M. Y.; Abahri, K.; Belarbi, R.; Limam, K.

    2017-06-01

    The present paper focuses on studying a new methodology to predict the overall behavior of buildings, which combines two simulation tools: COMSOL Multiphysicsand TRNSYS. The first software is used for the modeling of heat, air and moisture transfer in multilayer porous walls (HAM model—Heat, Air and Moisture transfer), and the second is used to simulate the hygrothermal behavior of the building (BES model—Building Energy Simulation). The combined software applications dynamically solve the mass and energy conservation equations of the two physical models. In this context, a coupled heat, air and mass transfer model is proposed. This model incorporates simultaneously the diffusive, convective and conductive effects on the building elements. Heat transfer is considered in the strongly coupled situation where the mass and heat flux are temperature, vapor pressure and total pressure dependents. The model input parameters are evaluated experimentally through the development of various experimental prototypes in the laboratory. Thereafter, an experimental setup has been established in order to evaluate the hygrothermal process of building walls. The experimental procedure consists to follow the temperature and relative humidity evolutions within the envelope thickness, submitted to controlled and fixed boundary conditions. Finally, using the developed experimental device, comparison between experimental data and numerical solution of the HAM-BES co-simulation platform was undertaken. Results showed good agreement with acceptable errors margins.

  6. Active implantable medical device EMI assessment for wireless power transfer operating in LF and HF bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2016-06-21

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) imposed on active implantable medical devices by wireless power transfer systems (WPTSs) is discussed based upon results of in vitro experiments. The purpose of this study is to present comprehensive EMI test results gathered from implantable-cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators exposed to the electromagnetic field generated by several WPTSs operating in low-frequency (70 kHz-460 kHz) and high-frequency (6.78 MHz) bands. The constructed in vitro experimental test system based upon an Irnich's flat torso phantom was applied. EMI test experiments are conducted on 14 types of WPTSs including Qi-compliant system and EV-charging WPT system mounted on current production EVs. In addition, a numerical simulation model for active implantable medical device (AIMD) EMI estimation based on the experimental test system is newly proposed. The experimental results demonstrate the risk of WPTSs emitting intermittent signal to affect the correct behavior of AIMDs when operating at very short distances. The proposed numerical simulation model is applicable to obtain basically the EMI characteristics of various types of WPTSs.

  7. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells under Operation Mode Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC mode to the water electrolysis (WE mode. The model is coupled with an electrochemical reaction. The proton exchange membrane (PEM is selected as the solid electrolyte of the URFC. The work is motivated by the need to elucidate the complex mass transfer and electrochemical process under operation mode switching in order to improve the performance of PEM URFC. A set of governing equations, including conservation of mass, momentum, species, and charge, are considered. These equations are solved by the finite element method. The simulation results indicate the distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, water mass fraction, and electrolyte potential response to the transient phenomena via saltation under operation mode switching. The hydrogen mass fraction gradients are smaller than the oxygen mass fraction gradients. The average mass fractions of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen and product (water exhibit evident differences between each layer in the steady state of the FC mode. By contrast, the average mass fractions of the reactant (water and products (oxygen and hydrogen exhibit only slight differences between each layer in the steady state of the WE mode. Under either the FC mode or the WE mode, the duration of the transient state is only approximately 0.2 s.

  8. Synergetic Effect between Lighting Efficiency Enhancement and Building Energy Reduction Using Alternative Thermal Operating System of Indoor LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Lip Ahn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the synergetic effect between light-emitting diode (LED lighting efficiency and building energy savings in heating and cooling using an alternative thermal operating system (ATOS of indoor LED lighting integrated with the ventilation system of a building as an active cooling device. The heat generated from LED lighting and the indoor lighting illuminance were experimentally determined. The indoor heat gains in cooling and heating periods were determined using measurement data; the annual energy savings of an office building in heating and cooling were calculated through simulation. The LED lighting illuminance increased by approximately 40% and the lighting contribution for indoor heat gain was 7.8% in summer, while 69.8% in winter with the ATOS. Consequently, the annual total energy use of the office building could be reduced by 5.9%; the energy use in cooling and heating was reduced by 18.4% and 3.3%, respectively.

  9. A multi-compartment mass transfer model applied to building vapor intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brian L.; Chan, Wanyu R.

    2011-12-01

    We develop a systematic approach to model steady-state advective and diffusive fluxes, as well as phase changes, between multi-media environmental compartments. The approach results in four simple rules for constructing mass transfer coefficients. Results are analogous to electrical circuit theory with resistors, including variable resistors or potentiometers, in parallel and series. This general approach lends itself particularly well to vapor intrusion calculations where there are multi-media compartments involving groundwater, soil, and air. In addition to showing that the model reduces to the well-known Johnson & Ettinger model in limiting cases, we illustrate its simplicity and ease of use with several examples: (1) an example of how multiple partition coefficients collapse into a single partition coefficient illustrated by a three-phase problem involving tar, water, and air, (2) determination of when the presence of a basement significantly lowers first floor exposures, and (3) addition of diffusion in the saturated zone to the model to investigate whether the resistance associated with this compartment can be neglected. We conclude that if the water table is truly steady, this resistance would be very significant. Therefore, a vapor intrusion model that neglects both water table fluctuations and diffusion in groundwater is ignoring important physical phenomena.

  10. Managing Asbestos in Place: A Building Owner's Guide to Operations and Maintenance Programs for Asbestos-Containing Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Instructions for building owners on the selection and application of appropriate asbestos control and abatement actions are presented in this guidebook. Chapter 1 offers background information on the asbestos problem. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and scope of an operations and maintenance (O&M) program. The third chapter discusses planning…

  11. Legionellosis prevention in building water and HVAC systems a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk

    CERN Document Server

    Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Pitera, Luca Alberto; Angermann, Jean Pierre; Izard, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This Guidebook is a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk of legionellosis in building water and HVAC systmes. It is devided into several themes such as: Air conditioning of the air (by water – humidification), Production of hot water for washing (fundamentally but not only hot water for washing) and Evaporative cooling tower.

  12. Stability improvement of an operational two-way satellite time and frequency transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jiun; Fujieda, Miho; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Tseng, Wen-Hung; Tsao, Hen-Wai

    2016-04-01

    To keep national time accurately coherent with coordinated universal time, many national metrology institutes (NMIs) use two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) to continuously measure the time difference with other NMIs over an international baseline. Some NMIs have ultra-stable clocks with stability better than 10-16. However, current operational TWSTFT can only provide frequency uncertainty of 10-15 and time uncertainty of 1 ns, which is inadequate. The uncertainty is dominated by the short-term stability and the diurnals, i.e. the measurement variation with a period of one day. The aim of this work is to improve the stability of operational TWSTFT systems without additional transmission, bandwidth or increase in signal power. A software-defined receiver (SDR) comprising a high-resolution correlator and successive interference cancellation associated with open-loop configuration as the TWSTFT receiver reduces the time deviation from 140 ps to 73 ps at averaging time of 1 h, and occasionally suppresses diurnals. To study the source of the diurnals, TWSTFT is performed using a 2  ×  2 earth station (ES) array. Consequently, some ESs sensitive to temperature variation are identified, and the diurnals are significantly reduced by employing insensitive ESs. Hence, the operational TWSTFT using the proposed SDR with insensitive ESs achieves time deviation to 41 ps at 1 h, and 80 ps for averaging times from 1 h to 20 h.

  13. Mapping radiation transfer through sea ice using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, M.; Katlein, C.

    2013-05-01

    Transmission of sunlight into and through sea ice is of critical importance for sea-ice associated organisms and photosynthesis because light is their primary energy source. The amount of visible light transferred through sea ice contributes to the energy budget of the sea ice and the uppermost ocean. However, our current knowledge on the amount and distribution of light under sea ice is still restricted to a few local observations, and our understanding of light-driven processes and interdisciplinary interactions is still sparse. The main reasons are that the under-ice environment is difficult to access and that measurements require large logistical and instrumental efforts. Hence, it has not been possible to map light conditions under sea ice over larger areas and to quantify spatial variability on different scales. Here we present a detailed methodological description for operating spectral radiometers on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) under sea ice. Recent advances in ROV and radiation-sensor technology have allowed us to map under-ice spectral radiance and irradiance on floe scales within a few hours of station time. The ROV was operated directly from the sea ice, allowing for direct relations of optical properties to other sea-ice and surface features. The ROV was flown close to the sea ice in order to capture small-scale variability. Results from the presented data set and similar future studies will allow for better quantification of light conditions under sea ice. The presented experiences will support further developments in order to gather large data sets of under-ice radiation for different ice conditions and during different seasons.

  14. Mapping radiation transfer through sea ice using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nicolaus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of sunlight into and through sea ice is of critical importance for sea-ice associated organisms and photosynthesis because light is their primary energy source. The amount of visible light transferred through sea ice contributes to the energy budget of the sea ice and the uppermost ocean. However, our current knowledge on the amount and distribution of light under sea ice is still restricted to a few local observations, and our understanding of light-driven processes and interdisciplinary interactions is still sparse. The main reasons are that the under-ice environment is difficult to access and that measurements require large logistical and instrumental efforts. Hence, it has not been possible to map light conditions under sea ice over larger areas and to quantify spatial variability on different scales. Here we present a detailed methodological description for operating spectral radiometers on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV under sea ice. Recent advances in ROV and radiation-sensor technology have allowed us to map under-ice spectral radiance and irradiance on floe scales within a few hours of station time. The ROV was operated directly from the sea ice, allowing for direct relations of optical properties to other sea-ice and surface features. The ROV was flown close to the sea ice in order to capture small-scale variability. Results from the presented data set and similar future studies will allow for better quantification of light conditions under sea ice. The presented experiences will support further developments in order to gather large data sets of under-ice radiation for different ice conditions and during different seasons.

  15. INFLUENCE OF NON-PERFORATED SCREEN LOCATION ON HEAT TRANSFER PROCESS IN BUILDING ENCLOSING PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sizov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is recommended to have a vapor-proof barrier on the internal side of heat insulation system in multi-layer building enclosing parts in order to ensure protection of a heat-insulation layer against humidification because relative humidity of internal air is generally higher than external one and diffusion of water steam is directed from premises outside. While having a barrier with high vapor permeability a part of moisture can be accumulated in the structure and heat insulation core and difference of actual and maximum possible partial pressures leads to condensate formation. In order to improve thermal properties of enclosing parts the necessity arises to create a vapor-proof protection screen. It complies with the design of a panel with a vapor-proof screen in the form of non-perforated aluminium foil. The given screen located at internal panel layer prevents penetration of water vapor from premises into enclosing part and heat insulation layer. In such a case condensation zones and, consequently, their moistening can occur in some layers of enclosing parts according to their thermal and physical characteristics. The paper contains a calculation of thermal and moisture regime of the enclosing parts with vapor-proof layer (non-perforated aluminium foil located in enclosing part core between various layers. An analysis of thermal and moisture regime diagrams for multi-layer external enclosing part demonstrates that the part of non-perforated screen (aluminium foil located between internal concrete layer and perforated heat insulation layer is considered the most rational one. At the same time other screens between separate layers are perforated.

  16. Building Transferable Knowledge and Skills through an Interdisciplinary Polar Science Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, L. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Albert, M. R.; Ayres, M.

    2015-12-01

    Modern graduate education must extend beyond disciplinary content to prepare students for diverse careers in science. At Dartmouth, a graduate program in Polar Environmental Change uses interdisciplinary study of the polar regions as a core from which students develop skills and knowledge for tackling complex environmental issues that require cooperation across scientific disciplines and with educators, policy makers, and stakeholders. Two major NSF-funded initiatives have supported professional development for graduate students in this program, including an IGERT (Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship) and leadership of JSEP's (Joint Science Education Project) Arctic Science Education Week in Greenland. We teach courses that emphasize the links between science and the human dimensions of environmental change; host training sessions in science communication; invite guest speakers who work in policy, academia, journalism, government research, etc.; lead an international field-based training that includes policy-focused meetings and a large outreach component; provide multiple opportunities for outreach and collaboration with local schools; and build outreach and education into graduate research programs where students instruct and mentor high school students. Students from diverse scientific disciplines (Ecology, Earth Science, and Engineering) participate in all of the above, which significantly strengthens their interdisciplinary view of polar science and ability to communicate across disciplines. In addition, graduate students have developed awareness, confidence, and the skills to pursue and obtain diverse careers. This is reflected in the fact that recent graduates have acquired permanent and post-doctoral positions in academic and government research, full-time teaching, and also in post-docs focused on outreach and science policy. Dartmouth's interdisciplinary approach to graduate education is producing tomorrow's leaders in science.

  17. Occupancy pattern in office buildings : consequences for HVAC system design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvarsson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    The main objectives with the work presented in this thesis have been: (a) to contribute to an increased understanding of the consequences that the occupancy pattern can have on the indoor climate and for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system design and operation; and (b) to investigate how typical occupancy patterns can look like in office buildings. The occupancy pattern in an office is a function of the floor layout of the building, and the user organisation(s) occupying it and their way of working. The combination of these two, will decide how the users occupy the building, which in turn is an important design prerequisite/constraint for the HVAC system design process. There are many assessments related to indoor climate and HVAC that involve considerations of the occupancy pattern, reaching from estimates of internal heat and pollution loads to deciding on an appropriate control strategy of HVAC systems, or estimating the energy saving potential with demand controlled ventilation. A few numerical measures have been used to describe different aspects of the occupancy pattern. The zone based occupancy factor (OFz) expresses the ratio between the number of occupied sub-zones/rooms in a zone and the total number of sub-zones/rooms in the zone. OFz does not take the number of people into account, only whether a sub-zone/room is occupied or unoccupied. OFz can be used both to express instantaneous occupancy levels and averages over time. Superscript is used to specify the time, or time period, that the measure refers to. For instance, 06 18,wd OFz means the average OFz between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. on working days, while the 95th percentile of OFz6{sub 1}8,wd , means the 95th percentile of all instantaneous values (one or five minute averages in the case studies) of OFz that have occurred during the same time period. The utilisation rate (UR) expresses the fraction of time that a room is occupied, within a specific time period. It is important to

  18. Knowledge transfer & exchange through social networks: building foundations for a community of practice within tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huerta Tim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health services and population health innovations advance when knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE occurs among researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and consumers using high-quality evidence. However, few KTE models have been evaluated in practice. Communities of practice (CoP – voluntary, self-organizing, and focused groups of individuals and organizations – may provide one option. This paper outlines an approach to lay the foundation for a CoP within the area of Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATI. The objectives of the study were to provide a data-driven foundation to inform decisions about organizing a CoP within the geographically diverse, multi-disciplinary WATI group using evaluation and social network methodologies. Methods A single-group design was employed using a survey of expectations, knowledge, and interpersonal WATI-related relationships administered prior to a meeting of the WATI group followed by a 3-week post-meeting Web survey to assess short-term impact on learning and networking outcomes. Results Twenty-three of 27 WATI attendees (85% from diverse disciplinary and practice backgrounds completed the baseline survey, with 21 (91% of those participants completing the three-week follow-up. Participants had modest expectations of the meeting at baseline. A social network map produced from the data illustrated a centralized, yet sparse network comprising of interdisciplinary teams with little trans-sectoral collaboration. Three-week follow-up survey results showed that participants had made new network connections and had actively engaged in KTE activities with WATI members outside their original network. Conclusion Data illustrating both the shape and size of the WATI network as well as member's interests and commitment to KTE, when shared and used to frame action steps, can positively influence the motivation to collaborate and create communities of practice. Guiding KTE planning through

  19. Diabetes reversal via gene transfer: building on successes in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerace D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dario Gerace,1,* Rosetta Martiniello-Wilks,1,2,* Ann M Simpson1 1School of Medical and Molecular Biosciences, Centre for Health Technologies, 2Translational Cancer Research Group, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia  *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Type 1 diabetes (T1D is caused by the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. People with T1D manage their hyperglycemia using daily insulin injections; however, this does not prevent the development of long-term diabetic complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and various macrovascular disorders. Currently, the only "cure" for T1D is pancreas transplantation or islet-cell transplantation; however, this is hampered by the limited number of donors and the requirement for life-long immunosuppression. As a result, the need for alternative therapies is vital. One of the strategies employed to correct T1D is the use of gene transfer to generate the production of an “artificial” β-cell that is capable of secreting insulin in response to fluctuating glucose concentrations that normally occurs in people without T1D. The treatment of many diseases using cell and gene therapy is generating significant attention in the T1D research community; however, for a cell therapy to enter clinical trials, success and safety must first be shown in an appropriate animal model. Animal models have been used in diabetes research for over a century, have improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetes, and have led to the discovery of useful drugs for the treatment of the disease. Currently, the nonobese diabetic mouse is the animal model of choice for the study of T1D as it most closely reflects disease development in humans. The aim of this review is to evaluate the success of cell and gene therapy to reverse T1D in animal models for future clinical application. Keywords: β-cell transcription factors, animal

  20. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

  1. Reviewing the Role of Stakeholders in Operational Research: Opportunities for Group Model Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van

    2013-01-01

    Stakeholders have always received much attention in system dynamics, especially in the group model building tradition, which emphasizes the deep involvement of a client group in building a system dynamics model. In organizations, stakeholders are gaining more and more attention by managers who try

  2. Nonlinear bioheat transfer models and multi-objective numerical optimization of the cryosurgery operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryashov, Nikolay A.; Shilnikov, Kirill E. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Department of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    Numerical computation of the three dimensional problem of the freezing interface propagation during the cryosurgery coupled with the multi-objective optimization methods is used in order to improve the efficiency and safety of the cryosurgery operations performing. Prostate cancer treatment and cutaneous cryosurgery are considered. The heat transfer in soft tissue during the thermal exposure to low temperature is described by the Pennes bioheat model and is coupled with an enthalpy method for blurred phase change computations. The finite volume method combined with the control volume approximation of the heat fluxes is applied for the cryosurgery numerical modeling on the tumor tissue of a quite arbitrary shape. The flux relaxation approach is used for the stability improvement of the explicit finite difference schemes. The method of the additional heating elements mounting is studied as an approach to control the cellular necrosis front propagation. Whereas the undestucted tumor tissue and destucted healthy tissue volumes are considered as objective functions, the locations of additional heating elements in cutaneous cryosurgery and cryotips in prostate cancer cryotreatment are considered as objective variables in multi-objective problem. The quasi-gradient method is proposed for the searching of the Pareto front segments as the multi-objective optimization problem solutions.

  3. Teaching Mass Transfer and Filtration Using Crossflow Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Unit Operations Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Daniel; McCutcheon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A crossflow reverse osmosis (RO) system was built for a senior-level chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Intended to teach students mass transfer fundamentals related to membrane separations, students tested several commercial desalination membranes, measuring water flux and salt rejections at various pressures, flow rates, and…

  4. Improvement of operational properties of shell limestone building materials by polysulfide solution impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSALIMOV Ismail Alexandrovich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The data of studies on the effectiveness of impregnation with polysulfide solutions of shell limestone used as facing and wall material, as well as for the manufacture of road products are presented. Modification of the limestone with the impregnating composition «Akvastat» created by the authors which is sulfur-containing water-based solution of calcium polysulfide containing alcohols and surfactants, can significantly reduce water absorption and increase durability of limestone. Impregnating composition on the basis of calcium polysulfide possesses density of 1.22–1.24 g/cm3, the infiltrant penetrates into the pore structure of limestone to a depth of 4 cm or more, depending on the density and structure of the sample. While the material is drying, sulfur nanoparticles are crystallized from the polysulfide solution in its pores. They partially fill pore space and form protective durable insoluble hydrophobic coating that impedes the penetration of water into the pores of the limestone, but preserves its vapor permeability, which is important for wall and decoration materials. The evaluation of protective coatings was performed with laser particle size analyzer, scanning probe microscope and a diffractometer. It showed that the average size of the particles forming the protective coating is in the range of 20–25 nm, the particles shape is spherical, the particles are elemental sulfur with orthorhombic structure of the crystal lattice. The processing of shell limestone with calcium polysulphide solution provides formation of coating based on nanosized sulfur on the surface of stone pores. The coating partially fills the pore space and, as it is hydrophobic, reduces the water absorption of the samples by a factor of 5–8, increases their average density by 22–27%, strength in 1,2–1,3 times, the softening factor by 6–19%, that makes possible to predict the increase of the durability of building materials based on shell limestone to 1

  5. Operative temperature drifts and occupant satisfaction with thermal environment in three office buildings using radiant heating/ cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse operative temperature drifts and occupant satisfaction with thermal environment in office buildings utilizing embedded radiant heating/cooling systems. Three office buildings were investigated: Town Hall in Viborg, Denmark (floor area 19400 m2), IDOM......, Madrid, Spain (16000 m2), TiFS, Padua, Italy (2200 m2). Continuous measurements of operative temperature were conducted at four workplaces in each building for one year. Occupants’ satisfaction was assessed by internet based questionnaire. Results showed that mostly exceeded limits were those for 4-hour...... drift (0.8 K/h), which were exceeded at least in 2% and up to 52% of occupied time in investigated buildings. Limits for hourly and 2-hour drifts were exceeded in max. 2% of occupied time. Median values were in ranges of 0.12-0.29 K/h, 0.18-0.52 K/h and 0.27-0.84 K/h for 1, 2 and 4-hour drifts...

  6. Experimental investigation of the influence of the air jet trajectory on convective heat transfer in buildings equipped with air-based and radiant cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2015-01-01

    -state and dynamic conditions. With the air-based cooling system, a dependency of the convective heat transfer on the air jet trajectory has been observed. New correlations have been developed, introducing a modified Archimedes number to account for the air flow pattern. The accuracy of the new correlations has been...... evaluated to±15%. Besides the study with an air-based cooling system, the convective heat transfer with a radiant cooling system has also been investigated. The convective flow at the activated surface is mainly driven by natural convection. For other surfaces, the complexity of the flow and the large......The complexity and diversity of airflow in buildings make the accurate definition of convective heat transfer coefficients (CHTCs) difficult. In a full-scale test facility, the convective heat transfer of two cooling systems (active chilled beam and radiant wall) has been investigated under steady...

  7. Large Scale Commissioning and Operational Experience with Tier-2 to Tier-2 Data Transfer Links in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Letts, James

    2010-01-01

    Tier-2 to Tier-2 data transfers have been identified as a necessary extension of the CMS computing model. The Debugging Data Transfers (DDT) Task Force in CMS was charged with commissioning Tier-2 to Tier-2 PhEDEx transfer links beginning in late 2009, originally to serve the needs of physics analysis groups for the transfer of their results between the storage elements of the Tier-2 sites associated with the groups. PhEDEx is the data transfer middleware of the CMS experiment. For analysis jobs using CRAB, the CMS Remote Analysis Builder, the challenges of remote stage out of job output at the end of the analysis jobs led to the introduction of a local fallback stage out, and will eventually require the asynchronous transfer of user data over essentially all of the Tier-2 to Tier-2 network using the same PhEDEx infrastructure. In addition, direct file sharing of physics and Monte Carlo simulated data between Tier-2 sites can relieve the operational load of the Tier-1 sites in the original CMS Computing Model...

  8. Novel HDD-type SNDM ferroelectric data storage system aimed at high-speed data transfer with single probe operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranaga, Yoshiomi; Uda, Tomoya; Kurihashi, Yuichi; Tanaka, Kenkou; Cho, Yasuo

    2007-12-01

    In this study, several read/write tests were conducted using a novel ferroelectric data storage test system equipped with a spindle motor, targeted at high-speed data transfer using a single probe head. A periodically inverted signal can be read out correctly with a bit rate of 100 kbps using this test system, and 10 Mbps data transfer is also possible during writing operations. The effect of a dc-offset voltage applied to the writing waveform with high-speed probe scanning is discussed. In addition, a novel noncontact probe height control technique was adopted to solve the problem of tip abrasion.

  9. Nuclear fission energy: new build, operation, fuel cycle and decommissioning in the international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niessen, Stefan [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Over 60 nuclear power reactors are in construction today and over 400 are connected to the grid. The presentation will show where. A nuclear new build project involves a team of several thousand people. Some pictures from ongoing new build projects will illustrate this. Using concrete examples from the AREVA group, the nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mines in Niger, Kazakhstan or Canada to chemical conversion, enrichment and fuel manufacturing will be explained. Also the recycling of used fuel and the fabrication of MOX fuel is addressed. The presentation closes with an overview on decommissioning and final storage projects.

  10. A Novel Control Strategy of DFIG Based on the Optimization of Transfer Trajectory at Operation Points in the Islanded Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Zengqiang Mi; Liqing Liu; He Yuan; Ping Du; Yuliang Wan

    2016-01-01

    A novel control strategy based on the optimization of transfer trajectory at operation points for DFIG is proposed. Aim of this control strategy is to reduce the mechanical fatigue of DFIG caused by the frequent adjustment of rotating speed and pitch angle when operating in the islanded power system. Firstly, the stability of DFIG at different operation points is analyzed. Then an optimization model of transfer trajectory at operation points is established, with the minimum synthetic adjustme...

  11. Operations Strategy Development in Project-based Production – a building contractor implements Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study how operations strategy innovation occurs in project-based production and organisation. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal case study encompassing the processes at the company headquarters and in two projects using Lean. Findings: The operations strategy development...... commences at a middle level in the organisation, is underpinned and embedded in production projects, and only after several years becomes embedded in the corporate operations strategy. The projects use Lean principles in a differentiated manner. Research limitations/implications: A qualitative case study...... operations strategy development. Originality/value: The present study contributes to the small body of studies of operations strategy development processes by providing insight into how project-based companies renew their operations strategy. Key words: Lean, Construction, Operations Strategy, Political...

  12. Non-LTE radiative transfer with lambda-acceleration - Convergence properties using exact full and diagonal lambda-operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the convergence properties of Lambda-acceleration methods for non-LTE radiative transfer problems in planar and spherical geometry. Matrix elements of the 'exact' A-operator are used to accelerate convergence to a solution in which both the radiative transfer and atomic rate equations are simultaneously satisfied. Convergence properties of two-level and multilevel atomic systems are investigated for methods using: (1) the complete Lambda-operator, and (2) the diagonal of the Lambda-operator. We find that the convergence properties for the method utilizing the complete Lambda-operator are significantly better than those of the diagonal Lambda-operator method, often reducing the number of iterations needed for convergence by a factor of between two and seven. However, the overall computational time required for large scale calculations - that is, those with many atomic levels and spatial zones - is typically a factor of a few larger for the complete Lambda-operator method, suggesting that the approach should be best applied to problems in which convergence is especially difficult.

  13. DETERMINATION OF MAIN OUTPUT PARAMETERS FOR HYDROFICATED CONSTRUCTION AND ROAD-BUILDING MACHINES AT OPERATIONAL STAGE OF THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Maximenko

    2014-01-01

    fact must be taken account while creating a machine and using it for its intended operational purpose and ensuring its operating capability. The proposed methodology for maintaining and restoration of operating capability of construction and road-building machines was published previously [3]. The paper proposes a methodology for its implementation on the basis of expenses for machine manufacturing and dynamics of main output parameters at the operational stage of its life cycle.

  14. Thermo-active building systems and sound absorbers: Thermal comfort under real operation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Benjamin; Rage, Nils; Chigot, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Radiant systems are established today and have a high ecological potential in buildings while ensuring thermal comfort. Free-hanging sound absorbers are commonly used for room acoustic control, but can reduce the heat exchange when suspended under an active slab. The aim of this study is to evalu...

  15. Notes on LCW Activation Calculation for Neutron Imaging Operations in the North Cave of Building 194

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-20

    This note estimates the amount of activation that could be produced in the Facilities-provided Low Conductivity Water (LCW) that is proposed to be used for cooling of electromagnets and beam stops in the Neutron Imaging (NI) accelerator project in the North Cave of Building 194.

  16. By, With, and Through: The Theory and Practice of Special Operations Capacity-Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Battalion (Batallon Conjunto de Fuerzas Especiales) BPC building partner capacity BRCNA Conternarcotics Brigade (Brigade Contra el Narcotrafica) CAO...Act of 1961 FARC Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia ( Fuerzas Armandas Revolucionares de Colombia) FHA foreign humanitarian assistance FID...violence and insurgencies ongoing since the 1960s, the Colombian government was near collapse under the pressure of the Fuerzas Armandas Revolucionares

  17. Final Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1107, analyzing the environmental effects relating to the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SLAC is a national facility operated by Stanford University, California, under contract with DOE. The center is dedicated to research in elementary particle physics and in those fields that make use of its synchrotron facilities. The objective for the construction and operation of an office building is to provide adequate office space for existing SLAC Waste Management (WM) personnel, so as to centralize WM personnel and to make WM operations more efficient and effective. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  18. Analysis of Radiation Levels Associated with Operation of the RHIC Transfer Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, A. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-13

    This note is intended to document calculations of prompt radiation dose in regions exterior to the berm which now exists over the Transfer Line between the AGS and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  19. Operational modal analysis of a steel-frame, low-rise building with L-shaped construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlo, Rodrigo; Tarazaga, Pablo A.; Kasarda, Mary E.

    2017-04-01

    The Goodwin Hall Smart Infrastructure facility at Virginia Tech is a five-story "smart building" with an integrated network of 213 wired accelerometers. We utilize a subset of 68 sensors to perform high-resolution Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) of the structure under windy conditions. The low-rise, L-shaped construction and high mass, high stiffness properties of Goodwin Hall provide a unique case study in comparison to typical cases of building OMA in literature, which generally feature high-rise buildings with rectangular architectures. Our work focuses on data acquisition and feature extraction, which are two critical steps within a complete structural health monitoring approach. Our detailed methodology establishes guidelines for sensor selection and data processing applicable to this and more general cases. Modal parameters extraction using Stochastic Subspace Identification shows the first four natural frequencies, damping values, participation factors and mode shapes of the building. We hypothesize that high damping values and large differences in the participation of fundamental modes are related to the nature of the wind excitation.

  20. Study by similarity of wind influence on mass transfers in complex buildings; Etude par similitude de l'influence du vent sur les transferts de masse dans les batiments complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, Nicolas

    2011-12-05

    Residential and industrial buildings equipped with a ventilation system are complex facilities, where various heat and mass transfers could occur according to the operating conditions. In order to study these mass transfers, a methodology has been developed so as to carry out reduced-scale experiments for the study of isothermal flows, in steady or transient state. This methodology has been numerically and experimentally validated on simple configurations, and then applied to two standard configurations, representing nuclear facilities. The wind influence on mass transfers inside these configurations, in normal, damaged (stopping ventilation) or accidental (internal overpressure) situations, has been studied in the Jules Verne climatic wind tunnel of the CSTB. The wind effects, coupled or not with an internal overpressure, can lead to a partial or a total loss of the pollutant's containment inside buildings. Moreover, the wind turbulence can bring about instantaneous reversal leakage flow-rates, which cannot be identified in steady state. In addition, the study of transient phenomena has highlighted the low influence of the branch inertia on transient flows, for typical values of real facilities. Finally, tracer tests have been carried out in order to study the pollutant dispersion inside a standard configuration subjected to wind, mechanical ventilation and internal overpressure effects. The reliability of the zonal code SYLVIA, used notably to support safety assessment in nuclear buildings, has been analyzed from these experimental results. The modelling of the physical phenomena experimentally observed has been validated, in steady and transient states. However, limitations have been identified for the study of pollutant dispersion, due to hypothesis used in SYLVIA code, as in all zonal codes (homogenous concentration inside rooms, instantaneous propagation inside branches and rooms). (author)

  1. Experimental demonstration of building and operating QoS-aware survivable vSD-EONs with transparent resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Guo, Jiannan; Kong, Bingxin; Yin, Heqing; Zhu, Zuqing

    2017-06-26

    Software-defined elastic optical networks (SD-EONs) provide operators more flexibility to customize their optical infrastructures dynamically. By leveraging infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS), virtual SD-EONs (vSD-EONs) can be realized to further enhance the adaptivity of SD-EONs and shorten the time-to-market of new services. In this paper, we design and demonstrate the building and operating of quality-of-service (QoS) aware survivable vSD-EONs that are equipped with transparent data plane (DP) resiliency. Specifically, when slicing a vSD-EON, our network hypervisor (NHV) chooses to use "1:1" virtual link (VL) protection or on-demand VL remapping as the DP restoration scheme, according to the service-level agreement (SLA) between the vSD-EON's operator and the infrastructure provider (InP). Then, during an actual substrate link (SL) failure, the NHV realizes automatic DP restoration that is transparent to the controllers of vSD-EONs. We build a network testbed to demonstrate the creation of QoS-aware survivable vSD-EONs, the activation of lightpaths in the vSD-EONs to support upper-layer applications, and the automatic and simultaneous QoS-aware DP restorations during an SL failure. The experimental results indicate that our vSD-EON slicing system can build QoS-aware survivable vSD-EONs on-demand, operate them to set up lightpaths for carrying real application traffic, and facilitate differentiated DP restorations during SL failures to recover the vSD-EONs' services according to their SLAs.

  2. Gas hold-up and oxygen mass transfer in three pneumatic bioreactors operating with sugarcane bagasse suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperança, M N; Cunha, F M; Cerri, M O; Zangirolami, T C; Farinas, C S; Badino, A C

    2014-05-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a low-cost and abundant by-product generated by the bioethanol industry, and is a potential substrate for cellulolytic enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of air flow rate (QAIR), solids loading (%S), sugarcane bagasse type, and particle size on the gas hold-up (εG) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) in three different pneumatic bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Concentric tube airlift (CTA), split-cylinder airlift (SCA), and bubble column (BC) bioreactor types were tested. QAIR and %S affected oxygen mass transfer positively and negatively, respectively, while sugarcane bagasse type and particle size (within the range studied) did not influence kLa. Using large particles of untreated sugarcane bagasse, the loop-type bioreactors (CTA and SCA) exhibited higher mass transfer, compared to the BC reactor. At higher %S, SCA presented a higher kLa value (0.0448 s−1) than CTA, and the best operational conditions in terms of oxygen mass transfer were achieved for %S 27.0 L min−1. These results demonstrated that pneumatic bioreactors can provide elevated oxygen transfer in the presence of vegetal biomass, making them an excellent option for use in three-phase systems for cellulolytic enzyme production by filamentous fungi.

  3. Co-Operative Schools: Building Communities in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The recent progress of "co-operative schools" both confirms and disrupts many assumptions surrounding contemporary compulsory schooling. The term itself refers to an eclectic array of schools, both primary and secondary, of which there were, by June 2012, almost 300 in England that have adopted co-operative values, in terms of…

  4. Building the Bridge between Operations and Outcomes : Modelling and Evaluation of Health Service Provider Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Mahdavi (Mahdi)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The PhD research has two objectives: - To develop generally applicable operational models which allow developing the evidence base for health service operations in provider networks. - To contribute to the evidence base by validating the model through

  5. [Physiologic and hygienic characteristics of the work of road-building machine operators in hot climate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnev, V M; Rykova, I V

    1996-01-01

    Constructing automobile roads in hot climate area, operators of road construction machines face high neuropsychic loads, heating microclimate, intensive noise and vibration, workplace pollution with dust, carbon and nitrogen oxides, bacteria and fungi. Those factors induce marked stress of central nervous functions, thermoregulatory processes and cardiovascular system of the operators.

  6. Targeted neurosurgical outreach: 5-year follow-up of operative skill transfer and sustainable care in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenas, Vincent J; Hahn, Edward J; Aryan, Henry E; Levy, Michael V; Jandial, Rahul

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of operative skill transfer in the context of targeted pediatric outreach missions. In addition, the ability to implement surgical care improvements that are sustainable is investigated. Three 1-week targeted neurosurgical missions were performed (2004-2006) to teach neuroendoscopy, which included donation of the necessary equipment so newly acquired surgical skills could be performed by local neurosurgeons in between and after the departure of the mission team. After the targeted missions were completed, 5 years of neuroendoscopy case follow-up data were obtained. After performing pediatric neurosurgery missions in 2004-2006, with a focus on teaching neuroendoscopy, the host team demonstrated the sustainability of our didactic efforts in the subsequent 5 years by performing cases independently for their citizens. To date, a total of 196 operations have been performed in the past 5 years independent of any visiting team. Effective operative skill transfer to host neurosurgeons can be accomplished with limited international team visits utilizing a targeted approach that minimizes expenditures on personnel and capital. With the priority being teaching of an operative technique, as opposed to perennially performing operations by the mission team, sustainable surgical care was achieved after missions officially concluded.

  7. Influence of the operational environment on biological firmness of building composites

    OpenAIRE

    V.T. Erofeev; A.D. Bogatov; S.N. Bogatova; S.V. Kaznacheev; V.F. Smirnov

    2012-01-01

    In modern conditions durability and reliability of buildings are demanded more and more. According to it the special attention starts to be given to the danger of biological degradation of materials and constructions.Microorganisms are capable to occupy the surfaces of all tested kinds of widely used binding agents. However, the specific and quantitative compositions of microorganisms are various under identical service conditions.Having compared the quantity of kinds and types of the fungi d...

  8. Towards building equitable health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons from case studies on operational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolhurst Rachel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published practical examples of how to bridge gaps between research, policy and practice in health systems research in Sub Saharan Africa are scarce. The aim of our study was to use a case study approach to analyse how and why different operational health research projects in Africa have contributed to health systems strengthening and promoted equity in health service provision. Methods Using case studies we have collated and analysed practical examples of operational research projects on health in Sub-Saharan Africa which demonstrate how the links between research, policy and action can be strengthened to build effective and pro-poor health systems. To ensure rigour, we selected the case studies using pre-defined criteria, mapped their characteristics systematically using a case study development framework, and analysed the research impact process of each case study using the RAPID framework for research-policy links. This process enabled analysis of common themes, successes and weaknesses. Results 3 operational research projects met our case study criteria: HIV counselling and testing services in Kenya; provision of TB services in grocery stores in Malawi; and community diagnostics for anaemia, TB and malaria in Nigeria. Political context and external influences: in each case study context there was a need for new knowledge and approaches to meet policy requirements for equitable service delivery. Collaboration between researchers and key policy players began at the inception of operational research cycles. Links: critical in these operational research projects was the development of partnerships for capacity building to support new services or new players in service delivery. Evidence: evidence was used to promote policy dialogue around equity in different ways throughout the research cycle, such as in determining the topic area and in development of indicators. Conclusion Building equitable health systems means

  9. Costs and Operating Dynamics of Integrating Distributed Energy Resources in Commercial and Industrial Buildings with Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Robert Joseph

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions have increased the pressure to shift energy conversion paradigms from current forms to more sustainable methods, such as through the use of distributed energy resources (DER) at industrial and commercial buildings. This dissertation is concerned with the optimal design and dispatch of a DER system installed at an industrial or commercial building. An optimization model that accurately captures typical utility costs and the physical constraints of a combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system is designed to size and operate a DER system at a building. The optimization model is then used with cooperative game theory to evaluate the financial performance of a CCHP investment. The CCHP model is then modified to include energy storage, solar powered generators, alternative fuel sources, carbon emission limits, and building interactions with public and fleet PEVs. Then, a separate plugin electric vehicle (PEV) refueling model is developed to determine the cost to operate a public Level 3 fast charging station. The CCHP design and dispatch results show the size of the building load and consistency of the thermal loads are critical to positive financial performance. While using the CCHP system to produce cooling can provide savings, heat production drives positive financial performance. When designing the DER system to reduce carbon emissions, the use of renewable fuels can allow for a gas turbine system with heat recovery to reduce carbon emissions for a large university by 67%. Further reductions require large photovoltaic installations coupled with energy storage or the ability to export electricity back to the grid if costs are to remain relatively low. When considering Level 3 fast charging equipment, demand charges at low PEV travel levels are sufficiently high to discourage adoption. Integration of the equipment can reduce demand charge costs only if the building maximum demand does not coincide

  10. An experimental data set for benchmarking 1-D, transient heat and moisture transfer models of hygroscopic building materials. Part II: Experimental, numerical and analytical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, Prabal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Osanyintola, Olalekan F. [XXL Engineering Ltd., 101-807 Manning Road NE, Calgary, AB (Canada); Olutimayin, Stephen O.; Simonson, Carey J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents the experimental results on spruce plywood and cellulose insulation using the transient moisture transfer (TMT) facility presented in Part I [P. Talukdar, S.O. Olutmayin, O.F. Osanyintola, C.J. Simonson, An experimental data set for benchmarking 1-D, transient heat and moisture transfer models of hygroscopic building materials-Part-I: experimental facility and property data, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, in press, doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2007.03.026] of this paper. The temperature, relative humidity and moisture accumulation distributions within both materials are presented following different and repeated step changes in air humidity and different airflow Reynolds numbers above the materials. The experimental data are compared with numerical data, numerical sensitivity studies and analytical solutions to increase the confidence in the experimental data set. (author)

  11. Building a computer-aided design capability using a standard time share operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes how an integrated system of engineering computer programs can be built using a standard commercially available operating system. The discussion opens with an outline of the auxiliary functions that an operating system can perform for a team of engineers involved in a large and complex task. An example of a specific integrated system is provided to explain how the standard operating system features can be used to organize the programs into a simple and inexpensive but effective system. Applications to an aircraft structural design study are discussed to illustrate the use of an integrated system as a flexible and efficient engineering tool. The discussion concludes with an engineer's assessment of an operating system's capabilities and desirable improvements.

  12. A study of proposed semi-parallel and complete parallel operations of the Canyon and concentration Buildings, 200 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollenbach, S.A.

    1949-04-14

    Due to a forecasted increase in pile area production as well as a possible decrease in batch size of the separations process, an increase in the capacities of the separations plants is indicated. It is the purpose of this report to review this relationship in the light of existing data and to determine how this additional capacity can best be attained through the use of either the proposed semiparallel or complete parallel methods of operation. Emphasis will necessarily be given to consideration of cost, timing, use of minimum buildings and equipment, and the obtaining of optimum production time cycles.

  13. A Procedure for Building Product Models in Intelligent Agent-based OperationsManagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Riis, Jesper; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a procedure for building product models to support the specification processes dealing with sales, design of product variants and production preparation. The procedure includes, as the first phase, an analysis and redesign of the business processes that are to be supported...... for the business processes they support, and properly structured and documented in order to facilitate the maintenance and further development of the systems. The research has been carried out at the Centre for Industrialisation of Engineering, Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Technical University...

  14. A Low-energy Building under Arctic Conditions - Experiences After Five Years of Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Vladyková, Petra; Kotol, Martin

    2011-01-01

    , advanced windows, a ventilation system with heat recovery, and a solar collector that supplies a significant proportion of the domestic hot water. A very ambitious target was set for the annual energy consumption for heating, which was less than half of the value for permissible heat consumption according...... matches the expectations regarding low energy consumption and a high indoor climatic standard. The house did not meet the anticipated low target for energy consumption, and some reasons have been found which could explain why. Insufficient air-tightness of the building envelope, malfunction of some...

  15. Multidisciplinary co-operation in building design according to urbanistic zoning and seismic microzonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bostenaru Dan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research and practice in seismology and urban planning interfere concerning the impact of earthquakes on urban areas. The roles of sub-area wide or typological divisions of the town were investigated with the methodology of regression, regarding their contribution to urban earthquake risk management. The inductive data set comprised recovery, preparedness, mitigation and resilience planning. All timely constituted planning types are refound today as layers, as the zoning results are used by differently backgrounded actors: local authorities, civil protection, urban planners, civil engineers. In resilience planning, the urban system is complexly theoretised, then integratedly approached. The steady restructuring process of the urban organism is evident in a dynamic analysis. Although expressed materially, the 'urban-frame' is realised spiritually, space adaptation being also social. A retrospective investigation of the role of resilient individual buildings within the urban system of Bucharest, Romania, was undertaken, in order to learn systemic lessons considering the street, an educational environment. (Information in the study and decision making process stay in a reciprocal relationship, both being obliged in the (information of the public opinion. For a complete view on resilience, both zoning types, seismic and urbanistic, must be considered and through their superposition new sub-area wide divisions of the town appear, making recommendations according to the vulnerability of the building type.

  16. Dynamic simulation and optimal real-time operation of CHP systems for buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hee Jin

    Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CHP) systems have been widely recognized as a key alternative for electric and thermal energy generation because of their outstanding energy efficiency, reduced environmental emissions, and relative independence from centralized power grids. The systems provide simultaneous onsite or near-site electric and thermal energy generation in a single, integrated package. As CHP becomes increasingly popular worldwide and its total capacity increases rapidly, the research on the topics of CHP performance assessment, design, and operational strategy become increasingly important. Following this trend of research activities to improve energy efficiency, environmental emissions, and operational cost, this dissertation focuses on the following aspects: (a) performance evaluation of a CHP system using a transient simulation model; (b) development of a dynamic simulation model of a power generation unit that can be effectively used in transient simulations of CHP systems; (c) investigation of real-time operation of CHP systems based on optimization with respect to operational cost, primary energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions; and (d) development of optimal supervisory feed-forward control that can provide realistic real-time operation of CHP systems with electric and thermal energy storages using short-term weather forecasting. The results from a transient simulation of a CHP system show that technical and economical performance can be readily evaluated using the transient model and that the design, component selection, and control of a CHP system can be improved using this model. The results from the case studies using optimal real-time operation strategies demonstrate that CHP systems with an energy dispatch algorithm have the potential to yield savings in operational cost, primary energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions with respect to a conventional HVAC system. Finally, the results from the case study using a

  17. Operations and Maintenance Manual for Expanded Bioventing System, Site SS-41, Former Building Number 93 (Fuel Pumping Station Number 3), Charleston Air Force Base, Charleston, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Manual has been created as a guide for monitoring and maintaining the performance of the expanded bioventing blower systems and vent well plumbing at Site SS-41 (Former Building...

  18. Meta-Analysis of Long Thoracic Nerve Decompression and Neurolysis Versus Muscle and Tendon Transfer Operative Treatments of Winging Scapula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2017-08-01

    Injury to long thoracic and the spinal accessory nerves can cause winging scapula as a result of weakness and paralysis of the trapezius and serratus anterior muscles. Although these nerve and muscle operations have been reported to correct winging scapula due to various causes, there is no report on comparing the outcomes of these procedures in peer-reviewed Pubmed-indexed literature. In this article, we compared the improvements in the restoration of shoulder functions in winging scapula patients after long thoracic nerve decompression (LTND) in our present study with outcomes of muscle and tendon transfer operations published in the literature (Aetna cited articles). Twenty-five winging scapula patients met the inclusion criteria, who had LTND and neurolysis at our clinic since 2008. Electromyographic evaluation of the brachial plexus and long thoracic nerve distribution was performed preoperatively for all our patients in this study. Operating surgeon (R.K.N.) examined all patients and measured pre- and postoperative range of motion of the affected shoulder. The mean follow-up was 23 months (range, 13-46 months). Age of our patients in this study at the time of surgery was between 13 and 63 years. These patients had winging scapula between 5 days (tennis injury) and several years before surgery and some were unknown. Shoulder flexion and abduction improved to an average of 163˚ ( P muscle and tendon transfer procedures in the Pubmed-indexed (Aetna cited) literature. This meta-analysis suggests that nerve surgeries such as LTND and neurolysis are effective techniques in correcting winging scapula in comparison with muscle transfer operations.

  19. Understanding Behavior: Application of the Reasoned-Action Approach in Legitimacy- Building Influence Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    baby, which allowed me to focus more on this thesis. I am also grateful to my parents who have always supported me in everything I’ve pursued and...communists found themselves operating in a hostile environment whose population saw them as puppets of the Soviet Union. The leaders knew from the onset that...Psychological Operations 2001-2010, 82–83. 129 Ibid., 91–92. 130 Ibid., 82–83. 131 Interviews with Pashtun cultural advisors, 2012. 39 The other

  20. Building Pathways to Transfer: Community Colleges That Break the Chain of Failure for Students of Color. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This study followed all freshman community college students in California who had demonstrated the intent to transfer from 1996, 1997, and 1998. Outcomes were assessed for each of the three entering cohorts after six years (2002-2004) and students were linked with their high schools of origin and the 4-year colleges to which they transferred. The…

  1. 77 FR 72889 - Aerotest Operations, Inc., Consideration of Indirect Transfer and Conforming Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... the Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor (ARRR) currently held by Aerotest Operations, Inc... Operating License No. R-98 for the Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor (ARRR) currently held by... appearance under 10 CFR 2.315(a), by making an oral or written statement of his or her position on the issues...

  2. Building Generalized Inverses of Matrices Using Only Row and Column Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Most students complete their first and only course in linear algebra with the understanding that a real, square matrix "A" has an inverse if and only if "rref"("A"), the reduced row echelon form of "A", is the identity matrix I[subscript n]. That is, if they apply elementary row operations via the Gauss-Jordan algorithm to the partitioned matrix…

  3. Extend EnergyPlus to Support Evaluation, Design, and Operation of Low Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Heejin; Wang, Weimin; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Yun, Kyung Tae; Glazer, Jason; Scheier, Larry; Srivastava, Viraj; Gowri, Krishnan

    2011-12-21

    During FY10-11, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in collaboration with the EnergyPlus development team implemented the following high priority enhancements to support the simulation of high performance buildings: (1) Improve Autosizing of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Components; (2) Life-Cycle Costing to Evaluate Energy Efficiency Upgrades; (3) Develop New Model to Capture Transformer Losses; (4) Enhance the Model for Electric Battery Storage; and (5) Develop New Model for Chiller-Tower Optimization. This report summarizes the technical background, new feature development and implementation details, and testing and validation process for these enhancements. The autosizing, life-cycle costing and transformer model enhancements/developments were included in EnergyPlus release Version 6.0, and the electric battery model development will be included in Version 7.0. The model development of chiller-tower optimization will be included in a later version (after Version 7.0).

  4. Thermal Comfort and HVAC Systems Operation Challenges in a Modern Office Building - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemethova, Ema; Stutterecker, Werner; Schoberer, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the indoor environment conditions in the new-built office building, Energetikum, and consequently suggest the control strategies, which can lead to determination of critical areas and elimination of thermal discomfort. Representative offices have been selected and equipped with portable sensor groups for monitoring of the indoor environment parameters. Contribution is presenting the data obtained from 6 selected rooms during 3 reference weeks - heating, transition and cooling period. The measured results indicate overheating of the rooms, particularly in the ones with the large glazed areas with higher solar gains. The values of indoor air temperature during heating and transition period could not meet the normative criteria according to standard EN 15251:2007 (the cat. II.) during 13 % - 49 % of evaluated time intervals. Consequently, the simulation model of the selected office was created and is pointing to the possibilities of the control system improvement, which can lead to an elimination of the problem with overheating.

  5. Environmental assessment of the CIESOL solar building after two years operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlles, Francisco J; Rosiek, Sabina; Muñoz, Ivan; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-05-01

    Life cycle assessment is applied to assess the environmental benefits and trade-offs of a solar-assisted heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system installed in the CIESOL building in Almeria (southeastern Spain). The environmental performance of this system is compared to that of a conventional HVAC system using a heat pump. The study evaluates these systems from cradle to grave, and the impact assessment includes, in addition to the CML2001 method, an impact category dealing with impacts on freshwater resources. The results show that the solar-assisted HVAC involves lower impacts in many impact categories, achieving, as an example, a reduction of 80% in greenhouse-gas emissions. On the other hand, key weak points of this system are the production of capital goods, but specially water use for cooling, due to its high impact on freshwater resources. Minimization of water requirements should be a priority for further development of this promising technology.

  6. Operational risk in bank governance and control: How to save capital requirement through a risk transfer strategy. Evidences from a simulated case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Scannella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Operational risk management in banking has assumed such importance during the last decade. It has become increasingly important to measure, manage, and assess the impact of operational risk in the economics of banking. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how an effective operational risk management provides mitigating effects on capital-at-risk in banking. The paper provides evidences that an implementation of an operational risk transfer strategy reduces bank capital requirement. The paper adopts the loss distribution approach, the Monte Carlo simulation, and copula methodologies to estimate the regulatory capital and simulate an operational risk transfer strategy in banking.

  7. Building Operations Efficiencies into NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Davis, Stephan R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration guides the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) challenging missions that expand humanity's boundaries and open new routes to the space frontier. With the Agency's commitment to complete the International Space Station (ISS) and to retire the venerable Space Shuttle by 2010, the NASA Administrator commissioned the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in 2005 to analyze options for safe, simple, cost-efficient launch solutions that could deliver human-rated space transportation capabilities in a timely manner within fixed budget guidelines. The Exploration Launch Projects (ELP) Office, chartered by the Constellation Program in October 2005, has been conducting systems engineering studies and business planning to successively refine the design configurations and better align vehicle concepts with customer and stakeholder requirements, such as significantly reduced life-cycle costs. As the Agency begins the process of replacing the Shuttle with a new generation of spacecraft destined for missions beyond low-Earth orbit to the Moon and Mars, NASA is designing the follow-on crew and cargo launch systems for maximum operational efficiencies. To sustain the long-term exploration of space, it is imperative to reduce the $4 billion NASA typically spends on space transportation each year. This paper gives toplevel information about how the follow-on Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is being designed for improved safety and reliability, coupled with reduced operations costs. These methods include carefully developing operational requirements; conducting operability design and analysis; using the latest information technology tools to design and simulate the vehicle; and developing a learning culture across the workforce to ensure a smooth transition between Space Shuttle operations and Ares vehicle development.

  8. Fabrication and room temperature operation of semiconductor nano-ring lasers using a general applicable membrane transfer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fan; Yu, Yueyang; Amiri, Seyed Ebrahim Hashemi; Quandt, David; Bimberg, Dieter; Ning, C. Z.

    2017-04-01

    Semiconductor nanolasers are potentially important for many applications. Their design and fabrication are still in the early stage of research and face many challenges. In this paper, we demonstrate a generally applicable membrane transfer method to release and transfer a strain-balanced InGaAs quantum-well nanomembrane of 260 nm in thickness onto various substrates with a high yield. As an initial device demonstration, nano-ring lasers of 1.5 μm in outer diameter and 500 nm in radial thickness are fabricated on MgF2 substrates. Room temperature single mode operation is achieved under optical pumping with a cavity volume of only 0.43λ03 (λ0 in vacuum). Our nano-membrane based approach represents an advantageous alternative to other design and fabrication approaches and could lead to integration of nanolasers on silicon substrates or with metallic cavity.

  9. CERN Central Library : 2000 year old technology transfer. Two fragments of columns from a Roman building discovered during excavations for the PS in 1956 have prominent places in the Library where they can be enjoyed by all

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    CERN Central Library : 2000 year old technology transfer. Two fragments of columns from a Roman building discovered during excavations for the PS in 1956 have prominent places in the Library where they can be enjoyed by all

  10. Regional approach to building operational level capacity for disaster planning: the case of the Eastern Africa region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeyo, W; Mayega, R W; Orach, G C; Kiguli, J; Mamuya, S; Tabu, J S; Sena, L; Rugigana, E; Mapatano, M; Lewy, D; Mock, N; Burnham, G; Keim, M; Killewo, J

    2013-06-01

    The Eastern Africa region is regularly affected by a variety of disasters ranging from drought, to human conflict and population displacement. The magnitude of emergencies and response capacities is similar across the region. In order to strengthen public health disaster management capacities at the operational level in six countries of the Eastern Africa region, the USAID-funded leadership project worked through the HEALTH Alliance, a network of seven schools of public health from six countries in the region to train district-level teams. To develop a sustainable regional approach to building operational level capacity for disaster planning. This project was implemented through a higher education leadership initiative. Project activities were spear-headed by a network of Deans and Directors of public health schools within local universities in the Eastern Africa region. The leadership team envisioned a district-oriented systems change strategy. Pre-service and in-service curricula were developed regionally and district teams were formed to attend short training courses. Project activities began with a situational analysis of the disaster management capacity at national and operational levels. The next steps were chronologically the formation of country training teams and training of trainers, the development of a regional disaster management training curriculum and training materials, the cascading of training activities in the region, and the incorporation of emerging issues into the training curriculum. An evaluation model included the analysis of preparedness impact of the training program. The output from the district teams was the creation of individual district-level disaster plans and their implementation. This 4-year project focused on building operational level public health emergency response capacity, which had not previously been part of any national program. Use of the all-hazard approach rather than a scenario-based contingency planning led to the

  11. Transfer of Flexible Ureteroscopic Stone-Extraction Skill from a Virtual Reality Simulator to the Operating Theatre: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloosh, Mehdi; Noureldin, Yasser A; Andonian, Sero

    2016-10-01

    To assess the learning curve of flexible ureteroscopic stone extraction using the UroMentor™ simulator and transfer of flexible ureteroscopic stone extraction skills to the operating theatre. After obtaining ethics approval, urology Post-Graduate Trainees (PGTs) from Post-Graduate Years (PGYs) 1 to 4 were recruited. During phase I, participants completed 3 weekly 1-hour training sessions on the UroMentor simulator practicing task 10, where two stones from the left proximal ureter and renal pelvis were extracted using a basket. Objective assessments by the simulator and subjective assessments using the validated Ureteroscopy-Global Rating Scale (URS-GRS) were used to establish the learning curve. During phase II, the URS-GRS tool was used to assess performance of participants in the operating theatre. URS-GRS scores obtained on the simulator and in the operating theatre were correlated. In phase I, eight urology PGTs (PGY1-4) with mean age of 27.8 ± 2 (25-31) years participated in the study. PGTs practiced a total of 52 times, with a mean operative time of 14.6 ± 4.3 minutes and a mean fluoroscopy time of 10.4 ± 12 seconds. Competency in task 10 was achieved after seven trials on the UroMentor simulator. In phase II, 5 PGTs were assessed during 55 consecutive flexible ureteroscopic stone extraction in the operating theatre. The mean operative time was 51.4 ± 15.2 minutes and the mean fluoroscopy time was 29 ± 6 seconds. There was a significant positive correlation between URS-GRS scores obtained on the simulator and in the operating theatre (r = 0.9, p = 0.03), thus establishing predictive validity of performance on the UroMentor simulator. Competency in task 10 on the UroMentor simulator (flexible ureteroscopic stone extraction) was achieved after seven trials. Since there was a strong positive correlation between URS-GRS scores on the simulator and in the operating theatre, the skills obtained on the simulator could be

  12. Development of Logistics for Building Radiation Storm Shelters and Their Operational Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three years NASA has been studying the operational effectiveness and astronaut protection efficacy of numerous radiation protection shelters for use in space exploration activities outside of earth's magnetosphere. The work presented was part of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) RadWorks Storm Shelter project. This paper is a summary of the concept development activities of this third year. Fabricated items were integrated into mock up deep space habitat vehicle sections for operational evaluations. Two full scale human-in-loop simulations were designed, fabricated, and implemented through an Institutional Review Board approved solicited participant assessment process. Fabricated items are described, along with usage scenarios of two protection approaches. Existing ISS type logistics along with proposed variations of those logistics were used. Preliminary Discrete Event Simulation (DES) work is noted to be useful in quantifying and documenting operational performance measures for the two primary shelter methods, including some characterization of radiation dose accumulation over a mission timeline. The project also performed correlation analyses between effective radiation dose and the Risk of Exposure Induced Death (REID) to show that concept level work may be able to include such a performance metric in early stages of mission scenario habitat design trade space investigation.

  13. Robust and Resilient Services – How to design, build and operate them

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J; McCance, G; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2007-01-01

    Grid infrastructures require a high degree of fault tolerance and reliability. This can only be achieved by careful planning and detailed implementation. We describe on-going work within the WLCG project to build and run highly reliable services. Following the "a priori" analysis based on the services and service levels listed in the Memorandum of Understanding that sites participating in WLCG have signed[1], this paper provides an "a posteriori" analysis following over 2 years of production service. This work covers not only the services deployed at the Tier0 centre at CERN - which has the most stringent service requirements related to the acquisition of the raw data, the initial processing phase and the distribution of raw and processed data to Tier1 sites, but also a similar analysis for Tier1 and major Tier2 sites. The latter will be covered at a workshop that will take place shortly before the EELA conference and so will be very up-to-date.

  14. Constructing Nucleon Operators on a Lattice for Form Factors with High Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Gambhir, Arjun S. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Musch, Bernhard U. [Univ. of Regensburg (Germany); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We present preliminary results of computing nucleon form factor at high momentum transfer using the 'boosted' or 'momentum' smearing. We use gauge configurations generated with N f = 2 + 1dynamical Wilson-clover fermions and study the connected as well as disconnected contributions to the nucleon form factors. Our initial results indicate that boosted smearing helps to improve the signal for nucleon correlators at high momentum. However, we also find evidence for large excited state contributions, which will likely require variational analysis to isolate the boosted nucleon ground state.

  15. Instructor's Manual for Teaching and Practical Courses on Design of Systems and Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    Presented are guidelines for instructors of two courses in the design, installation, and operation of solar heating and cooling systems. These courses are: (1) Design of Systems, and (2) Sizing, Installation, and Operation of Systems. Limited in scope to active solar systems for residential buildings, these courses place primary emphasis upon…

  16. Building a normative decision support system for clinical and operational risk management in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornalba, Chiara; Bellazzi, Roberto G; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a decision support system for risk management in hemodialysis (HD) departments. The proposed system exploits a domain ontology to formalize the problem as a Bayesian network. It also relies on a software tool, able to automatically collect HD data, to learn the network conditional probabilities. By merging prior knowledge and the available data, the system allows to estimate risk profiles both for patients and HD departments. The risk management process is completed by an influence diagram that enables scenario analysis to choose the optimal decisions that mitigate a patient's risk. The methods and design of the decision support tool are described in detail, and the derived decision model is presented. Examples and case studies are also shown. The tool is one of the few examples of normative system explicitly conceived to manage operational and clinical risks in health care environments.

  17. 33 CFR 160.113 - Prohibition of vessel operation and cargo transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... does not pose a threat to the marine environment, and that such entry is necessary for the safety of..., or serious repair problems creates reason to believe that the vessel may be unsafe or pose a threat to the marine environment. (b) The authority to issue orders prohibiting operation of the vessels or...

  18. Integrity, safety and efficiency in LNG transfer: impact of emergency shutdown and release operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, E. van; Driessen, F.P.G.; Nennie, E.D.; Remans, D.; Smeulers, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Caused by the global increase of demand for natural gas the interest in offshore liquefaction, transport and re-gasification grows rapidly. The installations that are presently developed are in essence copies of the onshore systems that are already many years in operation. However, the fact that the

  19. 33 CFR 127.301 - Persons in charge of shoreside transfer operations: Qualifications and certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons in charge of shoreside... Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT...: Qualifications and certification. (a) No person may serve, and the operator of the waterfront facility handling...

  20. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  1. Building on 50 Years of Mission Operations Experience for a New Era of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Jay F.; Singer, Christopher E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. National Space Policy, I the 14-nation Global Exploration Strategy,2 and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) 2006 Strategic Plan3 provide foundational direction for far-ranging missions, from safely flying the Space Shuttle and completing construction of the International Space Station by 2010, to fielding a next generation space transportation system consisting of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle!Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle!Altair Lunar Lander (fig. 1). Transportation beyond low-Earth orbit will open the frontier for a lunar outpost, where astronauts will harness in-situ resources while exploring this 4 billion-year-old archaeological site, which may hold answers to how the Earth and its satellite were formed. Ultimately, this experience will pave the way for the first human footprint on Mars. In October 2007, NASA" announced assignments for this lunar exploration work.4 The Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for designing, developing, testing, and evaluating the Ares I and Ares V, which are Space Shuttle derived launch vehicles, along with a number of lunar tasks. The Marshall Center's Engineering Directorate provides the skilled workforce and unique manufacturing, testing, and operational infrastructure needed to deliver space transportation solutions that meet the requirements stated in the Constellation Architecture Requirements Document (CARD). While defining design reference missions to the Station and the Moon, the CARD includes goals that include reducing recurring and nonrecurring costs, while increasing safety and reliability. For this reason, future systems are being designed with operability considerations and lifecycle expenses as independent variables in engineering trade studies.

  2. Thermal power transfer system using applied potential difference to sustain operating pressure difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep (Inventor); Fujita, Toshio (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A thermal power transfer system using a phase change liquid gas fluid in a closed loop configuration has a heat exchanger member connected to a gas conduit for inputting thermal energy into the fluid. The pressure in the gas conduit is higher than a liquid conduit that is connected to a heat exchanger member for outputting thermal energy. A solid electrolyte member acts as a barrier between the gas conduit and the liquid conduit adjacent to a solid electrolyte member. The solid electrolyte member has the capacity of transmitting ions of a fluid through the electrolyte member. The ions can be recombined with electrons with the assistance of a porous electrode. An electrical field is applied across the solid electrolyte member to force the ions of the fluid from a lower pressure liquid conduit to the higher pressure gas conduit.

  3. Effects of Design/Operating Parameters and Physical Properties on Slag Thickness and Heat Transfer during Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insoo Ye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviors of the slag layers formed by the deposition of molten ash onto the wall are important for the operation of entrained coal gasifiers. In this study, the effects of design/operation parameters and slag properties on the slag behaviors were assessed in a commercial coal gasifier using numerical modeling. The parameters influenced the slag behaviors through mechanisms interrelated to the heat transfer, temperature, velocity, and viscosity of the slag layers. The velocity profile of the liquid slag was less sensitive to the variations in the parameters. Therefore, the change in the liquid slag thickness was typically smaller than that of the solid slag. The gas temperature was the most influential factor, because of its dominant effect on the radiative heat transfer to the slag layer. The solid slag thickness exponentially increased with higher gas temperatures. The influence of the ash deposition rate was diminished by the high-velocity region developed near the liquid slag surface. The slag viscosity significantly influenced the solid slag thickness through the corresponding changes in the critical temperature and the temperature gradient (heat flux. For the bottom cone of the gasifier, steeper angles were favorable in reducing the thickness of the slag layers.

  4. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-11-02

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

  5. Operational Limitations for Demolition of a Highly Alpha-Contaminated Building – Modeled Versus Measured Air and Surface Activity Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppo, James G.; Napier, Bruce A.; Lloyd, Earl R.; Mantooth, Daniel S.; Minette, Michael J.; Mattlin, Ellen M.

    2007-03-08

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha-emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha-contaminated building, 232-Z, included a pre-demolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Post-demolition modeling was also conducted based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of the 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimation of emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

  6. Two 175 ton geothermal chiller heat pumps for leed platinum building technology demonstration project. Operation data, data collection and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolo, Daniel [Johnson Controls, Inc., Glendale, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The activities funded by this grant helped educate and inform approximately six thousand individuals who participated in guided tours of the geothermal chiller plant at Johnson Controls Corporate Headquarters in Glendale, Wisconsin over the three year term of the project. In addition to those who took the formal tour, thousands more were exposed to hands-on learning at the self-service video kiosks located in the headquarters building and augmented reality tablet app that allowed for self-guided tours. The tours, video, and app focused on the advantages of geothermal heat pump chillers, including energy savings and environmental impact. The overall tour and collateral also demonstrated the practical application of this technology and how it can be designed into a system that includes many other sustainable technologies without sacrificing comfort or health of building occupants Among tour participants were nearly 1,000 individuals, representing 130 organizations identified as potential purchasers of geothermal heat pump chillers. In addition to these commercial clients, tours were well attended by engineering, facilities, and business trade groups. This has also been a popular tour for groups from Universities around the Midwest and K-12 schools from Wisconsin and Northern Illinois A sequence of operations was put into place to control the chillers and they have been tuned and maintained to optimize the benefit from the geothermal water loop. Data on incoming and outgoing water temperature and flow from the geothermal field was logged and sent to DOE monthly during the grant period to demonstrate energy savings.

  7. Comparative Study of DC and AC Microgrids in Commercial Buildings Across Different Climates and Operating Profiles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fregosi, D.; Ravula, S.; Brhlik, D.; Saussele, J.; Frank, S.; Bonnema, E.; Scheib, J.; Wilson, E.

    2015-04-22

    Bosch has developed and demonstrated a novel DC microgrid system designed to maximize utilization efficiency for locally generated photovoltaic energy while offering high reliability, safety, redundancy, and reduced cost compared to equivalent AC systems. Several demonstration projects validating the system feasibility and expected efficiency gains have been completed and additional ones are in progress. This work gives an overview of the Bosch DC microgrid system and presents key results from a large simulation study done to estimate the energy savings of the Bosch DC microgrid over conventional AC systems. The study examined the system performance in locations across the United States for several commercial building types and operating profiles and found that the Bosch DC microgrid uses generated PV energy 6%–8% more efficiently than traditional AC systems.

  8. Effect of Variation of Operational Regimes in Building Environment on Results of its Energy and Exergy Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshchuk, Volodymyr

    2017-03-01

    For further development of the dynamic exergy analysis within built environment the work proposes to take into account stochastic nature of variations of operational regimes. Using the probability theory and statistics methods, the set of parameters considered as relevant for uncertainty conditions are presented. It is shown that characteristics of buildings (insulation, window performance, heat recovery, etc.) and type of the heating system have undoubtedly a strong influence not only on the energy/exergy demand and consumption but also on the sensitivity of the energy/exergy parameters to variations of external conditions. According to the results obtained after implementations of energy efficient solutions coefficient of variation of energy/exergy-based parameters can be increased up to two times.

  9. Effect of Variation of Operational Regimes in Building Environment on Results of its Energy and Exergy Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshchuk Volodymyr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For further development of the dynamic exergy analysis within built environment the work proposes to take into account stochastic nature of variations of operational regimes. Using the probability theory and statistics methods, the set of parameters considered as relevant for uncertainty conditions are presented. It is shown that characteristics of buildings (insulation, window performance, heat recovery, etc. and type of the heating system have undoubtedly a strong influence not only on the energy/exergy demand and consumption but also on the sensitivity of the energy/exergy parameters to variations of external conditions. According to the results obtained after implementations of energy efficient solutions coefficient of variation of energy/exergy-based parameters can be increased up to two times.

  10. [An alternative to the usual operating microscope and loupe magnification for free microvascular tissue transfer. Varioscope AF3-A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiummariello, S; Alfano, C; Fioramonti, P; Scuderi, N

    2005-12-01

    Free microvascular tissue transfers have become today a key instrument for the surgical treatment of wide loss of tissue, but their employment implies mandatory use of the right visual magnification means. Until now these instruments were mainly loupes and operating microscopes. Our study is focusing on the use of a new visual system--Varioscope AF3-A--in the reconstructive microsurgery field. Varioscope AF3-A (Life Optics, Vienna, Austria) has been employed in our Institute in 10 microvascular reconstructions, where different free flaps were used in head and neck reconstruction. All the flaps took and only one developed a partial necrosis. We have also noticed, by using this new instrument, a learning curve with a progressive contraction of the operating time. In all cases we have operated on 2 mm caliber vessels or more and on tissues that didn't previously undergo radiation therapy. The employment of a visual magnification mean, as Varioscope AF3-A, allows autofocus (from 3.6X to 7.2X) and a wide vision. It can be easily used with substantial advantages for the surgeon in performing microvascular anastomosis. Partial drawbacks are the equipment high cost and weight, compared to the loupes and a stronger ocular stress due to the continuous autofocus compared to the static operating microscopes.

  11. Applied patent RFID systems for building reacting HEPA air ventilation system in hospital operation rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented.

  12. Comparison of oxygen transfer parameters and oxygen demands in bioreactors operated at low and high dissolved oxygen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mines, Richard O; Callier, Matthew C; Drabek, Benjamin J; Butler, André J

    2017-03-21

    The proper design of aeration systems for bioreactors is critical since it can represent up to 50% of the operational and capital cost at water reclamation facilities. Transferring the actual amount of oxygen needed to meet the oxygen demand of the wastewater requires α- and β-factors, which are used for calculating the actual oxygen transfer rate (AOTR) under process conditions based on the standard oxygen transfer rate (SOTR). The SOTR is measured in tap water at 20°C, 1 atmospheric pressure, and 0 mg L -1 of dissolved oxygen (DO). In this investigation, two 11.4-L bench-scale completely mixed activated process (CMAS) reactors were operated at various solid retention times (SRTs) to ascertain the relationship between the α-factor and SRT, and between the β-factor and SRT. The second goal was to determine if actual oxygen uptake rates (AOURs) are equal to calculated oxygen uptake rates (COURs) based on mass balances. Each reactor was supplied with 0.84 L m -1 of air resulting in SOTRs of 14.3 and 11.5 g O 2 d -1 for Reactor 1 (R-1) and Reactor 2 (R-2), respectively. The estimated theoretical oxygen demands of the synthetic feed to R-1 and R-2 were 6.3 and 21.9 g O 2 d -1 , respectively. R-2 was primarily operated under a dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation and high nitrogen loading to determine if nitrification would be inhibited from a nitrite buildup and if this would impact the α-factor. Nitrite accumulated in R-2 at DO concentrations ranging from 0.50 to 7.35 mg L -1 and at free ammonia (FA) concentrations ranging from 1.34 to 7.19 mg L -1 . Nonsteady-state reaeration tests performed on the effluent from each reactor and on tap water indicated that the α-factor increased as SRT increased. A simple statistical analysis (paired t-test) between AOURs and COURs indicated that there was a statistically significant difference at 0.05 level of significance for both reactors. The ex situ BOD bottle method for estimating AOUR appears to be invalid in

  13. Operational modal analysis of a high-rise multi-function building with dampers by a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yanchun; Lu, Xilin; Lu, Wensheng

    2017-03-01

    The field non-destructive vibration test plays an important role in the area of structural health monitoring. It assists in monitoring the health status and reducing the risk caused by the poor performance of structures. As the most economic field test among the various vibration tests, the ambient vibration test is the most popular and is widely used to assess the physical condition of a structure under operational service. Based on the ambient vibration data, modal identification can help provide significant previous study for model updating and damage detection during the service life of a structure. It has been proved that modal identification works well in the investigation of the dynamic performance of different kinds of structures. In this paper, the objective structure is a high-rise multi-function office building. The whole building is composed of seven three-story structural units. Each unit comprises one complete floor and two L shaped floors to form large spaces along the vertical direction. There are 56 viscous dampers installed in the building to improve the energy dissipation capacity. Due to the special feature of the structure, field vibration tests and further modal identification were performed to investigate its dynamic performance. Twenty-nine setups were designed to cover all the degrees of freedom of interest. About two years later, another field test was carried out to measure the building for 48 h to investigate the performance variance and the distribution of the modal parameters. A Fast Bayesian FFT method was employed to perform the modal identification. This Bayesian method not only provides the most probable values of the modal parameters but also assesses the associated posterior uncertainty analytically, which is especially relevant in field vibration tests arising due to measurement noise, sensor alignment error, modelling error, etc. A shaking table test was also implemented including cases with and without dampers, which assists

  14. Protecting buildings from bomb damage: transfer of blast-effects mitigation technologies from military to civilian applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feasibility of Applying Blast-Mitigating Technolog

    1995-01-01

    ... to Civilian Applications Committee on Feasibility of Applying Blast-Mitigating Technologies and Design Methodologies from Military Facilities to Civilian Buildings Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1995 Copyrightoriginal r...

  15. Mathematical modeling of the heat transfer for determining the depth of thawing basin buildings with long service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirditov, Ivan; Stepanov, Sergei

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a numerical study of the problem of determining a thawing basin in the permafrost soil for buildings with a long service life is carried out using two methods, with the formulas of set of rules 25.13330.2012 "Soil bases and foundations on permafrost soils" and using a mathematical model.

  16. Oxygen-Reducing Biocathodes Operating with Passive Oxygen Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Xue

    2013-02-19

    Oxygen-reducing biocathodes previously developed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have required energy-intensive aeration of the catholyte. To avoid the need for aeration, the ability of biocathodes to function with passive oxygen transfer was examined here using air cathode MFCs. Two-chamber, air cathode MFCs with biocathodes produced a maximum power density of 554 ± 0 mW/m 2, which was comparable to that obtained with a Pt cathode (576 ± 16 mW/m2), and 38 times higher than that produced without a catalyst (14 ± 3 mW/m2). The maximum current density with biocathodes in this air-cathode MFC was 1.0 A/m2, compared to 0.49 A/m2 originally produced in a two-chamber MFC with an aqueous cathode (with cathode chamber aeration). Single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs with the same biocathodes initially produced higher voltages than those with Pt cathodes, but after several cycles the catalytic activity of the biocathodes was lost. This change in cathode performance resulted from direct exposure of the cathodes to solutions containing high concentrations of organic matter in the single-chamber configuration. Biocathode performance was not impaired in two-chamber designs where the cathode was kept separated from the anode solution. These results demonstrate that direct-air biocathodes can work very well, but only under conditions that minimize heterotrophic growth of microorganisms on the cathodes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Solar powered electric propulsion orbit transfer vehicle design and operational effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaru, M. M.; Boyarski, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility and cost effectiveness for using solar powered electric propulsion orbit transfer vehicles (EOTV) to move Block 3 NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites from LEO to a 10,900 nm orbit were determined. The electric propulsion systems considered were present and 1990's technology ion engines using mercury, xenon or argon for a propellant. A systems cost model which combines payload, power sources, trajectory, and earth-to-LEO launch parameters with algorithms characterizing the electric propulsion system was used. The least costly systems which had a triptime equal to or less than 90 days were determined. These systems were then compared with the PAM D-II, Centaur-G, and IUS in terms of total deployment costs for 28 GPS satellites launched at a rate of four per year for seven years. The study found that a reusable EOTV with 12 mercury ion engines powered by gallium arsenide concentrator arrays could perform the mission for 57 percent of the cost of the cheapest chemical system.

  18. Magnetic Interference Estimation on HIE-ISOLDE’s Beam Transfer Lines Diagnostic Box Stepper Motors’ Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Farantatos, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the HIE-ISOLDE project is to expand the physics programme compared to that of REX-ISOLDE. In total, 13 Diagnostic Boxes shall be installed in close proximity to the horizontal/vertical corrector magnets (steerers).The steerers’ shall have a maximum integrated magnetic field of 9.1 Tmm and their stray magnetic field could potentially cause perturbations to the nominal operation of the Diagnostic Boxes’ Stepper Motors due to magnetic interference. In the present report, the maximum stray magnetic field interference numerical calculation method in the volume occupied by the stepper motors is presented, followed by estimation results.

  19. Rational engineering of Geobacter sulfurreducens electron transfer components: a foundation for building improved Geobacter-based bioelectrochemical technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana M Dantas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiheme cytochromes have been implicated in Geobacter sulfurreducens (Gs extracellular electron transfer (EET. These proteins are potential targets to improve EET and enhance bioremediation and electrical current production by Gs. However, the functional characterization of multiheme cytochromes is particularly complex due to the co-existence of several microstates in solution, connecting the fully reduced and fully oxidized states. Over the last decade, new strategies have been developed to characterize multiheme redox proteins functionally and structurally. These strategies were used to reveal the functional mechanism of Gs multiheme cytochromes and also to identify key residues in these proteins for EET. In previous studies, we set the foundations for enhancement of the EET abilities of Gs by characterizing a family of five triheme cytochromes (PpcA-E. These periplasmic cytochromes are implicated in electron transfer between the oxidative reactions of metabolism in the cytoplasm and the reduction of extracellular terminal electron acceptors at the cell’s outer surface. The results obtained suggested that PpcA can couple e-/H+ transfer, a property that might contribute to the proton electrochemical gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane for metabolic energy production. The structural and functional properties of PpcA were characterized in detail and used for rational design of a family of 23 single site PpcA mutants. In this review, we summarize the functional characterization of the native and mutant proteins. Mutants that retain the mechanistic features of PpcA and adopt preferential e-/H+ transfer pathways at lower reduction potential values compared to the wild-type protein were selected for in vivo studies as the best candidates to increase the electron transfer rate of Gs. For the first time Gs strains have been manipulated by the introduction of mutant forms of essential proteins with the aim to develop and improve

  20. Towards building artificial light harvesting complexes: enhanced singlet-singlet energy transfer between donor and acceptor pairs bound to albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Challa V; Duff, Michael R

    2008-12-01

    Specific donor and acceptor pairs have been assembled in bovine serum albumin (BSA), at neutral pH and room temperature, and these dye-protein complexes indicated efficient donor to acceptor singlet-singlet energy transfer. For example, pyrene-1-butyric acid served as the donor and Coumarin 540A served as the acceptor. Both the donor and the acceptor bind to BSA with affinity constants in excess of 2x10(5) M(-1), as measured in absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectral titrations. Simultaneous binding of both the donor and the acceptor chromophores was supported by CD spectra and one chromophore did not displace the other from the protein host, even when limited concentrations of the host were used. For example, a 1:1:1 complex between the donor, acceptor and the host can be readily formed, and spectral data clearly show that the binding sites are mutually exclusive. The ternary complexes (two different ligands bound to the same protein molecule) provided opportunities to examine singlet-singlet energy transfer between the protein-bound chromophores. Donor emission was quenched by the addition of the acceptor, in the presence of limited amounts of BSA, while no energy transfer was observed in the absence of the protein host, under the same conditions. The excitation spectra of the donor-acceptor-host complexes clearly show the sensitization of acceptor emission by the donor. Protein denaturation, as induced by the addition of urea or increasing the temperature to 360 K, inhibited energy transfer, which indicate that protein structure plays an important role. Sensitization also proceeded at low temperature (77 K) and diffusion of the donor or the acceptor is not required for energy transfer. Stern-Volmer quenching plots show that the quenching constant is (3.1+/-0.2)x10(4) M(-1), at low acceptor concentrations (light harvesting, conversion and storage.

  1. Aeration optimization through operation at low dissolved oxygen concentrations: Evaluation of oxygen mass transfer dynamics in different activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Haitao; Qi, Lu; Liu, Guoqiang; Zhang, Yuankai; Fan, Qiang; Wang, Hongchen

    2017-05-01

    In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) using the activated sludge process, two methods are widely used to improve aeration efficiency - use of high-efficiency aeration devices and optimizing the aeration control strategy. Aeration efficiency is closely linked to sludge characteristics (such as concentrations of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and microbial communities) and operating conditions (such as air flow rate and operational dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations). Moreover, operational DO is closely linked to effluent quality. This study, which is in reference to WWTP discharge class A Chinese standard effluent criteria, determined the growth kinetics parameters of nitrifiers at different DO levels in small-scale tests. Results showed that the activated sludge system could meet effluent criteria when DO was as low as 0.3mg/L, and that nitrifier communities cultivated under low DO conditions had higher oxygen affinity than those cultivated under high DO conditions, as indicated by the oxygen half-saturation constant and nitrification ability. Based on nitrifier growth kinetics and on the oxygen mass transfer dynamic model (determined using different air flow rate (Q' air ) and mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) values), theoretical analysis indicated limited potential for energy saving by improving aeration diffuser performance when the activated sludge system had low oxygen consumption; however, operating at low DO and low MLVSS could significantly reduce energy consumption. Finally, a control strategy coupling sludge retention time and MLVSS to minimize the DO level was discussed, which is critical to appropriate setting of the oxygen point and to the operation of low DO treatment technology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Process model comparison and transferability across bioreactor scales and modes of operation for a mammalian cell bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Stephen; Shirsat, Nishikant; Whelan, Jessica; Glennon, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A Monod kinetic model, logistic equation model, and statistical regression model were developed for a Chinese hamster ovary cell bioprocess operated under three different modes of operation (batch, bolus fed-batch, and continuous fed-batch) and grown on two different bioreactor scales (3 L bench-top and 15 L pilot-scale). The Monod kinetic model was developed for all modes of operation under study and predicted cell density, glucose glutamine, lactate, and ammonia concentrations well for the bioprocess. However, it was computationally demanding due to the large number of parameters necessary to produce a good model fit. The transferability of the Monod kinetic model structure and parameter set across bioreactor scales and modes of operation was investigated and a parameter sensitivity analysis performed. The experimentally determined parameters had the greatest influence on model performance. They changed with scale and mode of operation, but were easily calculated. The remaining parameters, which were fitted using a differential evolutionary algorithm, were not as crucial. Logistic equation and statistical regression models were investigated as alternatives to the Monod kinetic model. They were less computationally intensive to develop due to the absence of a large parameter set. However, modeling of the nutrient and metabolite concentrations proved to be troublesome due to the logistic equation model structure and the inability of both models to incorporate a feed. The complexity, computational load, and effort required for model development has to be balanced with the necessary level of model sophistication when choosing which model type to develop for a particular application. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  3. Design and operation of ventilation in low energy residences – A survey on code requirements and building reality from six European countries and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Bocanegra-Yanez, Maria; Rojas, Gabriel; Zukowska-Tejsen, Daria

    One of the key objectives of the IEA Annex 68 research programme entitled “Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings” is to provide a generic guideline for the design and operation of ventilation in residential buildings. Modern and refurnished domestic buildings...... involved in the Annex. There were two main objectives, firstly, to describe and analyse a transition between actual requirements (national building codes and standards) and current practice. Secondly, to investigate current barriers and challenges regarding installation of mechanical ventilation...... resulting from poor construction, lack of commissioning and/or maintenance....

  4. Tool coupling for the design and operation of building energy and control systems based on the Functional Mock-up Interface standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouidui, Thierry Stephane; Wetter, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes software tools developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) that can be coupled through the Functional Mock-up Interface standard in support of the design and operation of building energy and control systems. These tools have been developed to address the gaps and limitations encountered in legacy simulation tools. These tools were originally designed for the analysis of individual domains of buildings, and have been difficult to integrate with other tools for runtime data exchange. The coupling has been realized by use of the Functional Mock-up Interface for co-simulation, which standardizes an application programming interface for simulator interoperability that has been adopted in a variety of industrial domains. As a variety of coupling scenarios are possible, this paper provides users with guidance on what coupling may be best suited for their application. Furthermore, the paper illustrates how tools can be integrated into a building management system to support the operation of buildings. These tools may be a design model that is used for real-time performance monitoring, a fault detection and diagnostics algorithm, or a control sequence, each of which may be exported as a Functional Mock-up Unit and made available in a building management system as an input/output block. We anticipate that this capability can contribute to bridging the observed performance gap between design and operational energy use of buildings.

  5. Development and Experimental Benchmark of Simulations to Predict Used Nuclear Fuel Cladding Temperatures during Drying and Transfer Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Miles [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Radial hydride formation in high-burnup used fuel cladding has the potential to radically reduce its ductility and suitability for long-term storage and eventual transport. To avoid this formation, the maximum post-reactor temperature must remain sufficiently low to limit the cladding hoop stress, and so that hydrogen from the existing circumferential hydrides will not dissolve and become available to re-precipitate into radial hydrides under the slow cooling conditions during drying, transfer and early dry-cask storage. The objective of this research is to develop and experimentallybenchmark computational fluid dynamics simulations of heat transfer in post-pool-storage drying operations, when high-burnup fuel cladding is likely to experience its highest temperature. These benchmarked tools can play a key role in evaluating dry cask storage systems for extended storage of high-burnup fuels and post-storage transportation, including fuel retrievability. The benchmarked tools will be used to aid the design of efficient drying processes, as well as estimate variations of surface temperatures as a means of inferring helium integrity inside the canister or cask. This work will be conducted effectively because the principal investigator has experience developing these types of simulations, and has constructed a test facility that can be used to benchmark them.

  6. Two 100 m Invar® Transfer Lines at CERN : Design Principles and Operating Experience for Helium Refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Claudet, S; Millet, F; Roussel, E; Sengelin, J P

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of helium for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN, will require a large variety of transfer lines. At the time of qualification of possible technologies, Invar® was investigated as potential material for internal tubes. Intensive developments were made in industry to qualify the use of Invar® M93 and its associated welding parameters. Although all tests showed good perspective, the risk associated with the lack of proven reference turned out to be dissuasive with respect to the possible cost savings for the LHC cryogenic system. However, since DN100 transfer lines were necessary for the supply and return of a test facility over a distance of 100 m, an Invar® based solution was considered, as repair or exchange would have been less dramatic than in the LHC accelerator tunnel. After recalling the technical requirements, the required material qualification will be presented as well as the design principles and operating features. This equipment has been first cooled-down to 4.5 K and acc...

  7. Building America Case Study: Impact of Slab-Foundation Heat Transfer on Space-Conditioning Energy Use in Florida, Cocoa, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Parker, E. Martin

    2016-12-01

    Heat transfer to slab foundations has remained an area of building science with poor understanding over the last three decades of energy efficiency research. This is somewhat surprising since the area of floors in single family homes is generally equal to wall, or windows or attics which have been extensively evaluated. Research that has been done has focused in the impact of slab on grade foundations and insulation schemes on heat losses associated with heating in predominantly heating dominated climates. Slab on grade construction is very popular in cooling-dominated southern states where it accounts for 77 percent of new home floors according to U.S. Census data in 2014. There is a widespread conception that tile flooring, as opposed to carpet, makes for a cooler home interior in warm climates. Empirical research is needed as building energy simulations such as DOE-2 and EnergyPlus rely on simplified models to evaluate these influences. BA-PIRC performed experiments over an entire year from 2014-2015 in FSEC's Flexible Residential Test Facilities (FRTF) intended to assess for the first time 1) slab on grade influence in a cooling dominated climate, and 2) how the difference in a carpeted vs. uncarpeted building might influence heating and cooling. Two identical side by side residential buildings were evaluated, the East with pad and carpet and the west with a bare slab floor. A highly detailed grid of temperature measurements were taken on the slab surface at various locations as well as at depths of 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 feet.

  8. Information transfer in multidisciplinary operating room teams: a simulation-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumin, David; Skilton, Carmen; Weller, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Communication of clinically relevant information between members of the operating room (OR) team is critical for safe patient care. Formal communication processes, such as briefing, sign in and time out, are designed to promote this. We investigated patterns of communication of clinically relevant information between OR staff in simulated surgical scenarios, to identify factors associated with effective information sharing. We focused on the influence of precase briefing, sign in and time out, which we defined as formal team communications. Twenty teams of six participated in two scenarios during a day-long course. Participants each received unique, clinically relevant items of information (information probes) prior to simulations and were tested postscenario on recall of the information in the probe. Using videos of the simulations, we coded each time an information probe was mentioned against a structured framework. Of the 145 instances where a probe was mentioned at least once, 75 (51.7%) were mentioned during a formal team communication. However, there were 89 instances of a possible 234 (38%) where a probe was never mentioned. Some team members were more likely to mention the information than others. When probes were mentioned during formal team communications, significantly more team members were attentive (1.4 vs 2.3; ptime out in the Surgical Safety Checklist, our findings suggest suboptimal transmission of information between team members and unequal contributions of information by different professional groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Transferable Training Modules: Building Environmental Education Opportunities With and for Mexican Community Health Workers (Promotores de Salud).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Vea, Lourdes; Field, James A; Baker, Paul B; Gandolfi, A Jay; Maier, Raina M

    Community health workers (promotores de salud) have the ability to empower communities to mitigate negative health outcomes. Current training efforts in environmental topics are lacking. This project addressed this gap by developing 4 transferable training modules on environmental health. By applying a series of surveys, interviews, and trainings, we evaluated their relevance. Partners provided favorable feedback for 3 of the 4 modules. It was also learned that the development method could be improved by engaging technically trained promotores de salud in the role of co-creators. This project has implications for environmental justice communities as it can lessen information disparities.

  10. In-situ diagnostic tools for hydrogen transfer leak characterization in PEM fuel cell stacks part II: Operational applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroumand, Amir M.; Homayouni, Hooman; DeVaal, Jake; Golnaraghi, Farid; Kjeang, Erik

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a diagnostic tool for in-situ characterization of the rate and distribution of hydrogen transfer leaks in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks. The method is based on reducing the air flow rate from a high to low value at a fixed current, while maintaining an anode overpressure. At high air flow rates, the reduction in air flow results in lower oxygen concentration in the cathode and therefore reduction in cell voltages. Once the air flow rate in each cell reaches a low value at which the cell oxygen-starves, the voltage of the corresponding cell drops to zero. However, oxygen starvation results from two processes: 1) the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction which produces current; and 2) the chemical reaction between oxygen and the crossed over hydrogen. In this work, a diagnostic technique has been developed that accounts for the effect of the electrochemical reaction on cell voltage to identify the hydrogen leak rate and number of leaky cells in a fuel cell stack. This technique is suitable for leak characterization during fuel cell operation, as it only requires stack air flow and voltage measurements, which are readily available in an operational fuel cell system.

  11. An empirical determination of upper operational frequency limits of transferred electron mechanism in bulk GaAs and GaN through ensemble Monte Carlo particle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, S.; van Zyl, R. R.; Perold, W. J.

    2015-08-01

    The ensemble Monte Carlo particle simulation technique is used to determine the upper operational frequency limit of the transferred electron mechanism in bulk GaAs and GaN empirically. This mechanism manifests as a decrease in the average velocity of the electrons in the bulk material with an increase in the electric field bias, which yields the characteristic negative slope in the velocity-field curves of these materials. A novel approach is proposed whereby the hysteresis in the simulated dynamic, high-frequency velocity-field curves is exploited. The upper operational frequency limit supported by the material is defined as that frequency, where the average gradient of the dynamic characteristic curve over a radio frequency cycle approaches zero. Effects of temperature and doping level on the operational frequency limit are reported. The frequency limit thus obtained is also useful to predict the highest fundamental frequency of operation of transferred electron devices, such as Gunn diodes, which are based on materials that support the transferred electron mechanism. Based on the method presented here, the upper operational frequency limits of the transferred electron mechanism in bulk GaAs and GaN are 80 and 255 GHz, respectively, at typical doping levels and operating temperatures of Gunn diodes.

  12. Advanced research workshop "South Caucasus : making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Leedu Kaitseministeeriumi poolt 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses korraldatud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" arutati, kas ja kuidas on Lõuna-Kaukaasia regioonis võimalik rakendada Balti riikide julgeolekualase koostöö kogemusi

  13. eWaterCycle: Building an operational global Hydrological forecasting system based on standards and open source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Niels; Bierkens, Marc; Donchyts, Gennadii; van de Giesen, Nick; Hummel, Stef; Hut, Rolf; Kockx, Arno; van Meersbergen, Maarten; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Verlaan, Martin; Weerts, Albrecht; Winsemius, Hessel

    2015-04-01

    At EGU 2015, the eWaterCycle project (www.ewatercycle.org) will launch an operational high-resolution Hydrological global model, including 14 day ensemble forecasts. Within the eWaterCycle project we aim to use standards and open source software as much as possible. This ensures the sustainability of the software created, and the ability to swap out components as newer technologies and solutions become available. It also allows us to build the system much faster than would otherwise be the case. At the heart of the eWaterCycle system is the PCRGLOB-WB Global Hydrological model (www.globalhydrology.nl) developed at Utrecht University. Version 2.0 of this model is implemented in Python, and models a wide range of Hydrological processes at 10 x 10km (and potentially higher) resolution. To assimilate near-real time satellite data into the model, and run an ensemble forecast we use the OpenDA system (www.openda.org). This allows us to make use of different data assimilation techniques without the need to implement these from scratch. As a data assimilation technique we currently use (variant of) an Ensemble Kalman Filter, specifically optimized for High Performance Computing environments. Coupling of the model with the DA is done with the Basic Model Interface (BMI), developed in the framework of the Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) (csdms.colorado.edu). We have added support for BMI to PCRGLOB-WB, and developed a BMI adapter for OpenDA, allowing OpenDA to use any BMI compatible model. We currently use multiple different BMI models with OpenDA, already showing the benefits of using this standard. Throughout the system, all file based input and output is done via NetCDF files. We use several standard tools to be used for pre- and post-processing data. Finally we use ncWMS, an NetCDF based implementation of the Web Map Service (WMS) protocol to serve the forecasting result. We have build a 3D web application based on Cesium.js to visualize the output. In

  14. A Novel Control Strategy of DFIG Based on the Optimization of Transfer Trajectory at Operation Points in the Islanded Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengqiang Mi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel control strategy based on the optimization of transfer trajectory at operation points for DFIG is proposed. Aim of this control strategy is to reduce the mechanical fatigue of DFIG caused by the frequent adjustment of rotating speed and pitch angle when operating in the islanded power system. Firstly, the stability of DFIG at different operation points is analyzed. Then an optimization model of transfer trajectory at operation points is established, with the minimum synthetic adjustment amount of rotating speed and pitch angle as the objective function and with the balance of active power and the stability of operation points as the constraint conditions. Secondly, the wind speed estimator is designed, and the control strategy of pitch system is improved to cooperate with the indirect stator flux orientation control technology for rotor-side inverter control. Then by the coordination control of its rotating speed and pitch angle, an operation trajectory controller is established to ensure the islanded operation of DFIG along the optimal transfer trajectory. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed control strategy is technical feasibility with good performance.

  15. Scheduling of products transfer and storage operations at the refineries using fuzzy optimization; Escalonamento de operacoes de transferencia de produtos em refinarias usando otimizacao fuzzy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felizari, Luiz Carlos; Lueders, Ricardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Among important factors concerning control and management of industrial production, the programming of operations should be considered. The scheduling process takes in account the processing time of each operation, which is inherently uncertainty. This way, decisions in this activity should be supported by decision systems, especially those that use optimization techniques. This paper proposes a scheduling of transfer and storage operations in a refinery, considering tanks and pipelines. It aims to consider possible operation time delays by using fuzzy optimization techniques. The purpose is to consider characteristics such as soft constraints, not found in traditional models. In the mathematical model development, mixed integer linear programming (MILP) is used with continuous time approach. (author)

  16. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Transportation and operations analysis. [heavy lift launch and orbit transfer vehicles for orbital assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of transportation systems to support the operations required for the orbital assembly of a 5-gigawatt satellite is discussed as well as the construction of a ground receiving antenna (rectenna). Topics covered include heavy lift launch vehicle configurations for Earth-to LEO transport; the use of chemical, nuclear, and electric orbit transfer vehicles for LEO to GEO operations; personnel transport systems; ground operations; end-to-end analysis of the construction, operation, and maintenance of the satellite and rectenna; propellant production and storage; and payload packaging.

  17. Social multiplier effects: academics' and practitioners' perspective on the benefits of a tuberculosis operational research capacity-building program in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probandari, Ari; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2017-01-01

    The Tuberculosis Operational Research Group (TORG) implemented a capacity-building model involving academics and practitioners (i.e. clinicians or program staff) in an operational research (OR) team in Indonesia. This study explored academics' and practitioners' perspectives regarding the benefits of participating in a tuberculosis (TB) OR capacity-building program in Indonesia. We conducted a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 36 academics and 23 practitioners undertaking the TORG capacity-building program. We asked open-ended questions about their experience of the program. Data were analyzed via content analysis. The findings demonstrated the social multiplier effects of the OR capacity-building program. Both academics and practitioners reported perceived improvements in research knowledge, skills, and experience, and described additional individual- and institutional-level benefits. The individual-level benefits level included improvements in understanding of the TB program, motivation for research and self-satisfaction, the development/enhancement of individual networking, receipt of recognition, and new opportunities. The additional benefits reported at an institutional level included improvement in research curricula, in-house training, and program management and the development/enhancement of institutional partnerships. The program improved not only individuals' capacity for conducting OR but also the quality of the TB program management and public health education. OR should be included in research methodology curricula for postgraduate public health/disease control programs. The capacity-building model, in which academics and program staff collaborated within an OR team, should be promoted.

  18. How the Use of Remote Sensing is Transferred to Diverse User Communities Through Capacity Building at Columbia University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.; Bell, M. A.; Mantilla, G.; Thomson, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of capacity-building activities developed by the International Research Institute for Climate and Society to help diverse stakeholder communities use remote sensing to monitor climate and environmental factors that influence public health, natural disasters and food security. Teaching at a graduate level at Columbia University, at summer institutes and in counties, we developed training modules and case studies on how to combine remote sensing data to monitor precipitation, temperature, vegetation, and water bodies with climate information and field data (e.g. fires, infectious disease incidence, Desert Locusts) to 1) understand the relationship between climate, environmental factors and specific challenges to development and 2) provide methodologies and tools to forecast and better manage the problems. At Columbia University, we have developed a graduate course that provides the practical and theoretical foundations for the application of remote sensing techniques to the identification and monitoring of environmental change. We use the IRI Data Library, an online tool, to i) manage diverse data, ii) visualize data, iii) analyze remote sensing images and iii) combine data from different sources (e.g., fires, public health, natural disasters, agriculture). The IRI Data Library tool allows the users to analyze on-line climatic and environmental factors in relation to particular problems at various space and time scales. A Summer Institute on Climate Information for Public Health, first developed in 2008, has brought together experts from the public health and climate communities at the IRI to learn how to integrate climate and environmental factors with public health issues. In countries and regions, we also provide training for climate and public health working professionals in Madagascar, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Colombia and the Mercosur Region (including Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina).

  19. Type B accident investigation board report of the July 2, 1997 curium intake by shredder operator at Building 513 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    On July 2, 1997 at approximately 6:00 A.M., two operators (Workers 1 and 2), wearing approved personal protective equipment (PPE), began a shredding operation of HEPA filters for volume reduction in Building 513 (B-513) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The waste requisitions indicated they were shredding filters containing {le} 1 {micro}Ci of americium-241 (Am-241). A third operator (Worker 3) provided support to the shredder operators in the shredding area (hot area) from a room that was adjacent to the shredding area (cold area). At Approximately 8:00 A.M., a fourth operator (Worker 4) relieved Worker 2 in the shredding operation. Sometime between 8:30 A.M. and 9:00 A.M., Worker 3 left the cold area to make a phone call and set off a hand and foot counter in Building 514. Upon discovering the contamination, the shredding operation was stopped and surveys were conducted in the shredder area. Surveys conducted on the workers found significant levels of contamination on their PPE and the exterior of their respirator cartridges. An exit survey of Worker 1 was conducted at approximately 10:05 A.M., and found contamination on his PPE, as well as on the exterior and interior of his respirator. Contamination was also found on his face, chest, back of neck, hair, knees, and mustache. A nose blow indicated significant contamination, which was later determined to be curium-244.

  20. Noise-Induced Building Vibrations Caused by Concorde and Conventional Aircraft Operations at Dulles and Kennedy International Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W. H.; Stephens, D. G.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Holliday, B. G.; Ward, D. W.; Deloach, R.; Cawthorn, J. M.; Finley, T. D.; Lynch, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor noise levels resulting from aircraft flyovers and certain nonaircraft events were recorded, as were the associated vibration levels in the walls, windows, and floors at building test sites. In addition, limited subjective tests were conducted to examine the human detection and annoyance thresholds for building vibration and rattle caused by aircraft noise. Representative peak levels of aircraft noise-induced building vibrations are reported and comparisons are made with structural damage criteria and with vibration levels induced by common domestic events. In addition, results of a pilot study are reported which indicate the human detection threshold for noise-induced floor vibrations.

  1. The energetic concept in the administration building of the Federal Environmental Agency in Dessau. Technical innovation for a sustainable operation; Das energetische Konzept im Dienstgebaeude des Umweltbundesamtes in Dessau. Technische Innovationen fuer einen nachhaltigen Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The new office building of the Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) was implemented as a pilot project for environmentally sustainable construction with high-energy targets. In order to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels significantly, the building should have a very low power consumption and enable a sustainable operation. A mostly compact form of the building and a highly insulated building envelope are a first prerequisite.

  2. Analysis of the influence of operating conditions and geometric parameters on heat transfer in water-paraffin shell-and-tube latent thermal energy storage unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trp, Anica; Lenic, Kristian; Frankovic, Bernard [Faculty of Engineering, University of Rijeka, Vukovarska 58, HR-51000 Rijeka (Croatia)

    2006-11-15

    A transient heat transfer phenomenon during charging and discharging of the shell-and-tube latent thermal energy storage system has been analysed in this paper. The mathematical model, regarding the conjugate problem of transient forced convection and solid-liquid phase change heat transfer based on the enthalpy formulation, has been presented. A fully implicit two-dimensional control volume FORTRAN computer code has been developed for solving governing equations with initial and boundary conditions. The numerical model is validated with experimental data obtained by experimental investigations that have been performed on the test unit with technical grade paraffin as the phase change material (PCM) and water as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). Numerical predictions match the experimental results. This pointed out that the presented numerical procedure could be accurately used for transient heat transfer simulation. A series of numerical calculations have been done in order to analyse the influence of several HTF operating conditions and several geometric parameters on the heat transfer process inside the water-paraffin shell-and-tube latent thermal energy storage (LTES) unit. Numerical results, which could be used for operating conditions and geometry optimization, provide guidelines for the design of the latent thermal energy storage system. (author)

  3. Development of Numerical Heat Transfer and the Structural Model to Design Slim and Translucent Vacuum Layer Type Insulation Panels to Retrofitting Insulation in Existing Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors develop slim and light-weight vacuum insulation panels (VIPs by producing vacuum layers with spacers and plastic plates. The developed VIPs have the advantages of a low cost and easy installation, thus facilitating retrofitting insulation of existing buildings. In addition, one of the developed VIPs is slim and translucent so it can be easily used for windows in an internal installation. In this paper, the authors first propose a vacuum layer type slim translucent VIP and focus on a reasonable design method. Next, the authors introduce the design process in which the structural design is obtained with element mechanical analysis and a three-dimensional analysis is conducted for the VIP element. In the study, a heat transfer model is used to predict the insulation performance through finite element analysis (FEA. Subsequently, the authors perform an experiment to measure the thermal conductivity in a guarded hot plate apparatus to validate the performance prediction. Finally, case studies are performed to confirm how the different design conditions affect the insulation performance. The optimum design of the vacuum layer type slim and translucent VIP will have a sufficient structural strength to hold and maintain the vacuum layer. The thermal conductivity is approximately 0.007 W / ( m · K , which can effectively improve the insulation performance in applications.

  4. Simulation of energy use, human thermal comfort and office work performance in buildings with moderately drifting operative temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2011-01-01

    ) supplemented with CAV ventilation. Simulations comprised moderate, hot–dry and hot–humid climate. Heavy and light wall construction and two orientations of the building (east–west and north–south) were considered. Besides the energy use, also capability of examined systems to keep a certain level of thermal......Annual primary energy use in a central module of an office building consisting of two offices separated with a corridor was estimated by means of dynamic computer simulations. The simulations were conducted for conventional all-air VAV ventilation system and thermo active building system (TABS...... comfort was examined. The results showed that with the moderate climate, the TABS decreased the primary energy use by about 16% as compared with the VAV. With hot–humid climate, the portion of the primary energy saved by TABS was ca. 50% even with the supply air dehumidification taken into account...

  5. EXTEND OPERATION PROBLEMS AND RECONSTRUCTION OF LARGEPANEL FIVE-STOREY BUILDINGS OF 50-60-IES XX CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of the problem. In many regions is utilised housing, that age is more than half a century. According to the research materials of the analytical center of Ukrainian Cities Association there are 25,5 thousand houses built by first mass series project of large, block and brick buildings with a total area of 72 million M2 today in the state, rather those, that require reconstruction and modernization. In general, most of the housing stock of Ukraine is in a poor technical condition due to its deficient funding; it keeps the tendency of premature aging of the housing stock.One of the major problems of modern construction industry is the continuation of housing exploitation, in particular is it the building era of mass construction of 50-60-ies of XX century, called "Khrushchevki". According to the State Statistics Service of Ukraine the deterioration of residential buildings in Ukraine amounts to 47.2%, which makes us think of the immediate actions to occure this situation. The most acceptable way, at first viewe, seems the reconstruction of "Khrushchvki". However, the reconstruction is a complex problem that requires the construction industry solution due to the economic component, the social factor, the views of residents of these homes to create a technological and economical viable result. Analysis of publications. The problem of the "Khrushchevki" reconstruction is the subject of continual researches of leading builders of Ukraine. In the researchers' attention just as the technological problems [1 - 3], so economic components [4 - 6], in general, give an idea of the work scale required to overcome the impending crisis. The purpose of the article. Defining the main problems of exploatation of panel fivestory buildings of 50 - 60-ies twentieth century and their residents thoughts about existing inconvenience, as well as associated economic, technological and legal problems in the implementation of buildings reconstruction. Conclusions

  6. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF SOIL REMEDIATION ALTERNATIVES AT THE BUILDING 812 OPERABLE UNIT, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY SITE 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, C.; Miles, D.; Abitz, R.

    2009-08-14

    The Department of Energy Livermore Site Office requested a technical review of remedial alternatives proposed for the Building 812 Operable Unit, Site 300 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The team visited the site and reviewed the alternatives proposed for soil remediation in the draft RI/FS and made the following observations and recommendations. Based on the current information available for the site, the team did not identify a single technology that would be cost effective and/or ecologically sound to remediate DU contamination at Building 812 to current remedial goals. Soil washing is not a viable alternative and should not be considered at the site unless final remediation levels can be negotiated to significantly higher levels. This recommendation is based on the results of soil washing treatability studies at Fernald and Ashtabula that suggest that the technology would only be effective to address final remediation levels higher than 50 pCi/g. The technical review team identified four areas of technical uncertainty that should be resolved before the final selection of a preferred remedial strategy is made. Areas of significant technical uncertainty that should be addressed include: (1) Better delineation of the spatial distribution of surface contamination and the vertical distribution of subsurface contamination in the area of the firing table and associated alluvial deposits; (2) Chemical and physical characterization of residual depleted uranium (DU) at the site; (3) Determination of actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates to support risk modeling; and (4) More realistic estimation of cost for remedial alternatives, including soil washing, that were derived primarily from vendor estimates. Instead of conducting the planned soil washing treatability study, the team recommends that the site consider a new phased approach that combines additional characterization approaches and technologies to address the technical uncertainty in

  7. Final Environmental Assessment for the Naval Weapons Station Concord Port Terminal Operations and Administration Building, Concord, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    of Arizona, 1984 Years of Experience: 21 Karla L. Green, Document Specialist III A.S., Geology, Santa Barbara City College, 1986 Certified...neighboring houses. The building will be located in a well so that it will be barely visible from a distance. The design calls for a metal roof with a

  8. Heat Transfer Measurements through Thermally Enhanced Insulation Schemes for Nb-Ti Superconducting Magnets operating in He-II

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting magnets submitted to large heat loads, as the low-β quadrupoles for the LHC luminosity upgrade, need the development of new concepts of cable electrical insulation featuring a He-II porous wrapping scheme. This paper reports and discusses recent results of dedicated heat transfer measurements performed on different variants of such schemes, with emphasis on the heat transfer enhancements achievable with respect to the state-of-the-art insulation used for the main LHC magnets.

  9. Energy and Process Assessment Protocol for Industrial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    operation and maintenance procedures pertaining to building energy efficiency . _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ERDC

  10. Improvement in Patient Transfer Process From the Operating Room to the PICU Using a Lean and Six Sigma-Based Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleich, Stephen J; Nemergut, Michael E; Stans, Anthony A; Haile, Dawit T; Feigal, Scott A; Heinrich, Angela L; Bosley, Christopher L; Tripathi, Sandeep

    2016-08-01

    Ineffective and inefficient patient transfer processes can increase the chance of medical errors. Improvements in such processes are high-priority local institutional and national patient safety goals. At our institution, nonintubated postoperative pediatric patients are first admitted to the postanesthesia care unit before transfer to the PICU. This quality improvement project was designed to improve the patient transfer process from the operating room (OR) to the PICU. After direct observation of the baseline process, we introduced a structured, direct OR-PICU transfer process for orthopedic spinal fusion patients. We performed value stream mapping of the process to determine error-prone and inefficient areas. We evaluated primary outcome measures of handoff error reduction and the overall efficiency of patient transfer process time. Staff satisfaction was evaluated as a counterbalance measure. With the introduction of the new direct OR-PICU patient transfer process, the handoff communication error rate improved from 1.9 to 0.3 errors per patient handoff (P = .002). Inefficiency (patient wait time and non-value-creating activity) was reduced from 90 to 32 minutes. Handoff content was improved with fewer information omissions (P < .001). Staff satisfaction significantly improved among nearly all PICU providers. By using quality improvement methodology to design and implement a new direct OR-PICU transfer process with a structured multidisciplinary verbal handoff, we achieved sustained improvements in patient safety and efficiency. Handoff communication was enhanced, with fewer errors and content omissions. The new process improved efficiency, with high staff satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. User's guide for the computer program BUNYIP: building energy investigation package (Version 2. 0). Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, S.K.; Wooldridge, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The program consists of a heat-transfer model of a building, or part thereof, together with its associated building services system. In particular, the program is set up to calculate the energy consumed by the plant in providing the building occupants with heating and cooling and with humidification or dehumidification. The program accepts information on the building occupancy and operation, and estimates the actual energy consumed in fuelling the specified plant and the associated water and air distribution systems.

  12. Energy-Smart Building Choices: How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Smart Schools Team

    2001-08-06

    Most K-12 schools could save 25% of their energy costs by being smart about energy. Nationwide, the savings potential is $6 billion. While improving energy use in buildings and busses, schools are likely to create better places for teaching and learning, with better lighting, temperature control, acoustics, and air quality. This brochure, targeted to school facilities managers and business officials, describes how schools can become more energy efficient.

  13. Transfer Students in Higher Education: Building Foundations for Policies, Programs, and Services that Foster Student Success. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisel, Mark Allen, Ed.; Joseph, Sonya, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Transfer Students in Higher Education" presents what individuals know about transfer students, addresses assumptions and myths about the transfer experience, and explores the changing demographics of this student group. Adopting a student-centered approach, the monograph offers strategies to begin (and continue) the work of serving students and…

  14. Integrating Responsive Building Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Matthias; Amato, Alex; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    There is a global need for a more sustainable building development. About 50% of energy is used in buildings indicating that buildings provide a considerable potential for operational energy savings. Studies were conducted with the following objectives: to perform a state-of-the-art review...... of responsive building elements, of integrated building concepts and of environmental performance assessment methods to improve and optimize responsive building elements to develop and optimize new building concepts with integration of responsive building elements, HVAC-systems as well as natural and renewable...... energy strategies to develop guidelines and procedures for estimation of environmental performance of responsive building elements and integrated building concepts This paper introduces the ideas of this collaborative work and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put...

  15. Operations and Maintenance Manual for Expanded Bioventing System at Buildings 2034/2035, Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Manual has been created as a guide for monitoring and maintaining the performance of the full-scale bioventing blower system and vent well plumbing at Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB), Washington...

  16. Heat and Mass Transfer in a High-Porous Low-Temperature Thermal Insulation in Real Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikov Vyacheslav Yu.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in a high-porous low-temperature insulation in conditions of insulation freezing, a moisture migration to the front of phase transition and a condensation forming on an outer contour of interaction were obtained. Values of heat leakage were established.

  17. Influence of operational parameters on the fluid-side mass transfer resistance observed in a packed bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amir; Kangwa, Martin; Abo-Elwafa, Ahmed Gad; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The influence of mass transfer on productivity as well as the performance of packed bed bioreactor was determined by varying a number of parameters; flow rate, glucose concentration and polymers (chitosan). Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in chitosan and non-chitosan coated alginate beads to demonstrate the effect on external mass transfer by substrate consumption time, lag phase and ethanol production. The results indicate that coating has a significant effect on the lag phase duration, being 30-40 min higher than non-coated beads. After lag phase, no significant change was observed in both types of beads on consumption of glucose with the same flow rate. It was observed that by increasing flow rates; lag phase and glucose consumption time decreased. The reason is due to the reduction of external mass transfer as a result of increase in flow rate as glucose is easily transported to and from the beads surface by diffusion. It is observed that chitosan acts as barrier for transfer of substrate and products, in and out of beads, at initial time of fermentation as it shows longer lag phase for chitosan coated beads than non-coated. Glucose consumption at low flow rate was lower as compared to higher flow rates. The optimum combination of parameters consisting of higher flow rates 30-90 ml/min and between 10 and 20 g/l of glucose was found for maximum production of ethanol.

  18. 46 CFR 221.15 - Approval for transfer of registry or operation under authority of a foreign country or for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foreign country a Fishing Vessel, Fish Processing Vessel, or Fish Tender Vessel that has had its fishery...) of this section shall not be applicable to a change in ownership resulting from the death of the vessel owner, so long as notification of any such Transfer of ownership occurring by reason of death...

  19. The Operation and Impact of Participants' Trans-Expedition Reflective Practice: Structuring and Optimising the Transfer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Mark; Collins, Dave

    2014-01-01

    With gap year activities, including expeditions, for young people worth an estimated £2 billion annually, the subject of transfer (or ensuring that outcomes offer positive benefits to participants' general lives) from these experiences is an important topic in outdoor education. This paper argues that many of the claims for a positive behavioural…

  20. A Bayesian Network approach to the evaluation of building design and its consequences for employee performance and operational costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Lynge; Toftum, Jørn; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A Bayesian Network approach has been developed that can compare different building designs by estimating the effects of the thermal indoor environment on the mental performance of office workers. A part of this network is based on the compilation of subjective thermal sensation data...... that investments in improved indoor thermal conditions can be justified economically in most cases. The Bayesian Network provides a reliable platform using probabilities for modelling the complexity while estimating the effect of indoor climate factors on human beings, due to the different ways in which humans...

  1. System Performance Testing of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 13584

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy W.J.; Hopkins, Derek F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Thien, Michael G.; Kelly, Steven E.; Wooley, Theodore A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste acceptance parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument since 2010 for its ability to detect particle settling and determine critical velocity in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of =14 micrometers (μm). In 2012 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated under WRPS' System Performance test campaign to identify critical velocities for slurries that are expected to be encountered during Hanford tank waste retrieval operations or bounding for tank waste feed. This three-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP. (authors)

  2. System Performance Testing of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 13584

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Hopkins, Derek F.; Thien, Michael G.; Kelly, Steven E.; Wooley, Theodore A.

    2013-06-01

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste acceptance parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument since 2010 for its ability to detect particle settling and determine critical velocity in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of ≥14 micrometers (μm). In 2012 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated under WRPS’ System Performance test campaign to identify critical velocities for slurries that are expected to be encountered during Hanford tank waste retrieval operations or bounding for tank waste feed. This three-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP.

  3. Safety analysis--200 Area Savannah River Site: Separations Area operations Building 211-H Outside Facilities. Supplement 11, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The H-Area Outside Facilities are located in the 200-H Separations Area and are comprised of a number of processes, utilities, and services that support the separations function. Included are enriched uranium loadout, bulk chemical storage, water handling, acid recovery, general purpose evaporation, and segregated solvent facilities. In addition, services for water, electricity, and steam are provided. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Area Outside Facilities and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the SR Implementation Plan for DOE order 5481.1A. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the facility can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations, to the environment, and to operating personnel. In this report, risks are defined as the expected frequencies of accidents, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequences in person-rem. Following the summary description of facility and operations is the site evaluation including the unique features of the H-Area Outside Facilities. The facility and process design are described in Chapter 3.0 and a description of operations and their impact is given in Chapter 4.0. The accident analysis in Chapter 5.0 is followed by a list of safety related structures and systems (Chapter 6.0) and a description of the Quality Assurance program (Chapter 7.0). The accident analysis in this report focuses on estimating the risk from accidents as a result of operation of the facilities. The operations were evaluated on the basis of three considerations: potential radiological hazards, potential chemical toxicity hazards, and potential conditions uniquely different from normal industrial practice.

  4. Information transfer to out-of-hours co-operatives: a survey of general practitioners' views in relation to palliative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Fiona; Murphy, Marie; O'Brien, Tony

    2013-12-01

    In Ireland, weekend and night medical cover for community based patients is largely provided by general practice co-operatives. Doctors working in this service do not have direct access to patients' medical records which challenges continuity of care. This study investigates the opinion of general practitioners (GPs) on the potential value of a formalised method of information transfer regarding their palliative patients to out-of-hours GP co-operatives. The survey was designed to identify the information that is necessary to offer appropriate anticipated end-of-life care. A questionnaire was sent to all 414 GPs registered in the Irish Medical Directory in the southwest of Ireland. Data were analysed with Microsoft Excel and SPSS V.12.0. 52% response rate with exclusion of incomplete questionnaires allowed analysis of 212 data sets. Currently, 82% of GPs do not routinely transfer information pertaining to end-of-life issues to the out-of-hours service. Despite this, 96% would value a standardised way of transferring information. 67% felt they sometimes refer unnecessarily to hospital emergency departments due to lack of information. The most important items of information identified by study participants are as follows: ▸ Diagnosis (97%) ▸ Medications (94%) ▸ Patient insight (91%) ▸ Patient wishes regarding end-of-life care (90%) ▸ Anticipated problems and suggested management(90%). A structured format for information transfer regarding end-of-life care is deemed important by GPs when working on-call at night and weekends. Diagnosis, patient preference and management plans are valued.

  5. Building Special Operations Partnerships in Afghanistan and Beyond: Challenges and Best Practices from Afghanistan, Iraq, and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    minister—instead of the MOD.9 The OCINC was widely perceived to be a “ shadow headquarters” that was dedicated to pursuing a sectarian agenda.10...Colombian Labyrinth : The Synergy of SOF Partnership in Colombia 61 In response to the deteriorating situation, President Andres Pas- trana launched Plan...when coali- tion forces are exposed during operations, the British did not provide this capability to Afghan commanders. The “ shadow of withdrawal

  6. The effects of geometry and operational conditions on gas holdup, liquid circulation and mass transfer in an airlift reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouveia E.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In airlift reactors transport phenomena are achieved by pneumatic agitation and circulation occurs in a defined cyclic pattern through a loop. In the present work, the effect of geometrical relations on gas holdup and liquid velocity, and consequently on the gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient, was studied in a 6-liter airlift bioreactor with A D/A R = 0.63; A D, downcomer cross-sectional area, and A R, riser cross-sectional area. Measurements of the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa were taken in a water-air system using a modified sulfite oxidation method. Different conditions were examined by varying parameters such as superficial air velocity in the riser (U GR, bottom clearance (d1 and top clearance (d2. It was observed from the experimental results that d1 and d2 have a remarkable effect on kLa values. The effect is due to their influence on gas holdup and liquid velocity, consequently affecting kLa. Superficial air velocity in the riser (U GR ranged from 0.0126 to 0.0440 m.s-1 and kLa varied between 40 to 250 h-1, whereas gas holdup (e reached values up to 0.2. The volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa, gas holdup in the riser (eR and downcomer (eD and superficial liquid velocity in the riser (U LR for all the geometrical relations were successfully correlated with dimensionless numbers, namely, the Sherwood number (Sh and the Froude number (Fr as well as with geometrical relations such as the bottom space ratio (B = d1/D D and top space ratio (T = (d2 + D D/D D.

  7. Drinking water quality and formation of biofilms in an office building during its first year of operation, a full scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkinen, Jenni; Kaunisto, Tuija; Pursiainen, Anna; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Kusnetsov, Jaana; Riihinen, Kalle; Keinänen-Toivola, Minna M

    2014-02-01

    Complex interactions existing between water distribution systems' materials and water can cause a reduction in water quality and unwanted changes in materials, aging or corrosion of materials and formation of biofilms on surfaces. Substances leaching from pipe materials and water fittings, as well as the microbiological quality of water and formation of biofilms were evaluated by applying a Living Lab theme i.e. a research in a real life setting using a full scale system during its first year of operation. The study site was a real office building with one part of the building lined with copper pipes, the other with cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes thus enabling material comparison; also differences within the cold and hot water systems were analysed. It was found that operational conditions, such as flow conditions and temperature affected the amounts of metals leaching from the pipe network. In particular, brass components were considered to be a source of leaching; e. g. the lead concentration was highest during the first few weeks after the commissioning of the pipe network when the water was allowed to stagnate. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and microbially available phosphorus (MAP) were found to leach from PEX pipelines with minor effects on biomass of the biofilm. Cultivable and viable biomass (heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) levels in biofilms were higher in the cold than in the hot water system whereas total microbial biomass (total cell count (DAPI)) was similar with both systems. The type of pipeline material was not found to greatly affect the microbial biomass or Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria profiles (16s rRNA gene copies) after the first one year of operation. Also microbiological quality of water was found to deteriorate due to stagnation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Converter Compressor Building, SWMU 089, Hot Spot Areas 1, 2, and 5 Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    This Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report (OMMR) presents the findings, observations, and results from operation of the air sparging (AS) interim measure (IM) for Hot Spot (HS) Areas 1, 2, and 5 at the Converter Compressor Building (CCB) located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The objective of the IM at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5 is to decrease concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater in the treatment zones via AS to levels that will enable a transition to a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) phase. This OMMR presents system operations and maintenance (O&M) information and performance monitoring results since full-scale O&M began in June 2014 (2 months after initial system startup in April 2014), including quarterly performance monitoring events in July and October 2014 and January and May 2015. Based on the results to date, the AS system is operating as designed and is meeting the performance criteria and IM objective. The performance monitoring network is adequately constructed for assessment of IM performance at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5. At the March 2014 KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) Meeting, team consensus was reached for the design prepared for expansion of the system to treat the HS 4 area, and at the November 2014 KSCRT Meeting, team consensus was reached that HS 3 was adequately delineated horizontally and vertically and for selection of AS for the remedial approach for HS 3. At the July 2015 KSCRT meeting, team consensus was reached to continue IM operations in all zones until HSs 3 and 4 is operational, once HS 3 and 4 zones are operational discontinue operations in HS 1, 2, and 5 zones where concentrations are less than GCTLs to observe whether rebounding conditions occur. Team consensus was also reached to continue quarterly performance monitoring to determine whether operational zones achieve GCTLs and to continue annual IGWM of CCB-MW0012, CCBMW0013, and CCB-MW0056, located south of the treatment area. The

  9. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner, Wolf; Gacem, Riad; Anderlei, Tibor; Raven, Nicole; Schillberg, Stefan; Lattermann, Clemens; Büchs, Jochen

    2013-12-02

    Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham's π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/- 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale.

  10. Lanthanide-to-lanthanide energy-transfer processes operating in discrete polynuclear complexes: can trivalent europium be used as a local structural probe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaïm, Amir; Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Guénée, Laure; Nozary, Homayoun; Petoud, Stéphane; Piguet, Claude

    2014-09-15

    This work, based on the synthesis and analysis of chemical compounds, describes a kinetic approach for identifying intramolecular intermetallic energy-transfer processes operating in discrete polynuclear lanthanide complexes, with a special emphasis on europium-containing entities. When all coordination sites are identical in a (supra)molecular complex, only heterometallic communications are experimentally accessible and a Tb → Eu energy transfer could be evidenced in [TbEu(L5)(hfac)6] (hfac = hexafluoroacetylacetonate), in which the intermetallic separation amounts to 12.6 Å. In the presence of different coordination sites, as found in the trinuclear complex [Eu3(L2)(hfac)9], homometallic communication can be induced by selective laser excitation and monitored with the help of high-resolution emission spectroscopy. The narrow and non-degenerated character of the Eu((5)D0 ↔ (7)F0) transition excludes significant spectral overlap between donor and acceptor europium cations. Intramolecular energy-transfer processes in discrete polynuclear europium complexes are therefore limited to short distances, in agreement with the Fermi golden rule and with the kinetic data collected for [Eu3(L2)(hfac)9] in the solid state and in solution. Consequently, trivalent europium can be considered as a valuable local structural probe in discrete polynuclear complexes displaying intermetallic separation in the sub-nanometric domain, a useful property for probing lanthanido-polymers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. Results A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham’s π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. Conclusion The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/− 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale. PMID:24289110

  12. Silica dust control in small-scale building/structure demolition operations using good work practice guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muianga, C V; Rice, C H; Succop, P, E-mail: muiangcv@email.uc.ed [Department of Environmental Health, College of Medicine University of Cincinnati. 3223 Eden Ave., Kettering Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Work practices can influence exposure, especially in small-scale operations conducted by mobile work crews. This study evaluated the use of information on good work practice in control guidance sheets adapted from UK Silica Essentials guidance sheets by trained workers and supervisors employed in small-scale concrete and masonry demolition operations. A one-page employee silica task-based control guidance sheet for each of four demolition tasks and multiple-page silica control guidance for supervisors were developed. Interactive, hands-on worker training on these task-based good work practice controls was developed. Training was presented to 26 participants from two demolition crews. Feedback on the training and task-based good work practice control guidance sheets was elicited. Observations of work practices were made before and after training. Participants indicated gains in knowledge and checklists were used to document skill attainment. The quality of the training and usefulness of the material/skills was rated high by trainees. Increased use of water to suppress dust and wet cleaning methods on the job were documented following the training. Additional follow-up after training is required to determine long-term impact on sustained changes in work practices, and to evaluate the need for refresher training.

  13. The influence of radiative transfer on the turbulent flow inside solar absorbers operating with supercritical CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecnik, R.; Smit, S.H.H.J.; Patel, A.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate and compare two dierent solar receiver technologies for concentrated solar power plants operating with supercritical CO2. The rst receiver is based on conventional surface absorbers, while the second receiver is based on an innovative idea to use volumetric receivers

  14. Large volume injection in gas chromatography using the through oven transfer adsorption desorption interface operating under vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Álvaro; Toledano, Rosa M; Gea, Sara; Cortés, José M; Vázquez, Ana M; Villén, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    The present work describes a modification of the Through Oven Transfer Adsorption Desorption (TOTAD) interface, consisting of coupling a vacuum system to reduce the consumption of the helium needed to totally remove the eluent for large volume injection (LVI) in gas chromatography (GC). Two different retention materials in the liner of the TOTAD interface were evaluated: Tenax TA, which was seen to be unsuitable for working under vacuum conditions, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which provided satisfactory repeatability as well as a good sensitivity. No variability was observed in the retention times in either case. Solutions containing organophosphorous pesticides in two different solvents, a polar (methanol/water) and a non-polar (hexane) solvent, were used to evaluate the modification. The vacuum system coupled to the TOTAD interface allowed up to 90% helium to be saved without affecting the performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MODELING OF STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR OF AN INDUSTRIAL BUILDING WITH ACCOUNT FOR THE VARIATION OF RIGIDITY IN THE COURSE OF ITS OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolina Tat'yana Vladimirovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of accidents at construction facilities has increased dramatically over the recent years. The engineering analysis of the reasons of accidents in the Russian Federation has revealed that the majority of accidents are caused by the loss of stability of specific structural elements, and a substantial reduction of the bearing capacity of structures. At the same time, no proper methodologies of processing and analyzing the results of inspections of structures, or methodologies of assessing the residual service life of structures are available, although advanced diagnostic tools are at hand. Therefore, advanced methods of accident risk analysis assume importance. A quantitative assessment of the risk exposure of buildings and structures at any stage (design, construction and operation can only be made through the employment of probabilistic calculations, especially if extreme loads are in the focus. Probabilistic methods are more robust as they evaluate the safety as the possibility of failure. Parameters are treated as stochastic variables. Based on the research completed by the authors, a 3D computational model of a single-storey industrial building has been developed. The software programme developed by the authors is designated for the resolution of a wide range of problems of reliability, durability, stability and accident risk analysis in respect of buildings exposed to various internal and external loads. The software may be used to resolve both direct and inverse problems. This feature is highly relevant in assessing structural behaviour. Their structures may constitute defects that affect their rigidity, strength and stability. The behaviour pattern of a loaded structure may be identified by means of an experiment, and thereafter, its rigidity may be identified by resolving the inverse problem in order to assess the life span of the structure.

  16. Transfer Timing

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    sim present Simulation Presentation Interactive Media Element This IME is used in the Computer Communications and Networks class offered in the Graduate School of Operations and Information Sciences. This introductory computer networking course provides the theory and principles of networking and communications protocols. This IME is used to help students understand data transfer options. CS3502 Computer Communications and Networks

  17. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Building 221-H, B-Line, Scrap Recovery Facility (Supplement 2A): Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-07-01

    The now HB-Line is located an top of the 221-H Building on the fifth and sixth levels and is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The new HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, Neptunium Facility, and Plutonium Oxide Facility. The Scrap Recovery Facility is designed to routinely generate nitrate solutions of {sup 235}U{sup 239}Pu and Pu-238 fromscrap for purification by anion exchange or by solvent extraction in the canyon. The now facility incorporates improvements in: (1) engineered controls for nuclear criticality, (2) cabinet integrity and engineered barriers to contain contamination and minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  18. Creation of Polyurethane Injection Materials, Their Pilot-industrial Production, Development and Industrial Introduction of the Technology of Strengthening and Restoring the Operability of Damaged Constructions and Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marukha, V.І.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane and foam polyurethane fluid injection materials not conceding foreign analogues and technology technology of restoration and strengthening the operability of concrete and reinforced concrete structures and buildings damaged by cracks were developed. Normative and technical documentation on the injection materials and technological processes was created. The diagnosticrestoring complex for implementing the above technologies was designed, installed and utilized at the construction sites. The equipment is designed and manufactured; the technology of the research and industrial production of «A» and «B» components of injecting polyurethane materials is designed and developed. The pilot-scale batch is manufactured. Technological processes of preparation and application of the «A» and «B» componentsof the injecting materials in industrial conditions are worked out and implemented.

  19. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  20. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  1. A Primer on Transfer of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Helen Bryman

    1982-01-01

    Unless education transfers back to the job, training is wasted and its value questioned. This article examines resistance to transfer and provides strategies for building transfer into training design. (CT)

  2. Extension of radiative transfer code MOMO, matrix-operator model to the thermal infrared - Clear air validation by comparison to RTTOV and application to CALIPSO-IIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppler, Lionel; Carbajal-Henken, Cintia; Pelon, Jacques; Ravetta, François; Fischer, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    1-D radiative transfer code Matrix-Operator Model (MOMO), has been extended from [0.2-3.65 μm] the band to the whole [0.2-100 μm] spectrum. MOMO can now be used for the computation of a full range of radiation budgets (shortwave and longwave). This extension to the longwave part of the electromagnetic radiation required to consider radiative transfer processes that are features of the thermal infrared: the spectroscopy of the water vapor self- and foreign-continuum of absorption at 12 μm and the emission of radiation by gases, aerosol, clouds and surface. MOMO's spectroscopy module, Coefficient of Gas Absorption (CGASA), has been developed for computation of gas extinction coefficients, considering continua and spectral line absorptions. The spectral dependences of gas emission/absorption coefficients and of Planck's function are treated using a k-distribution. The emission of radiation is implemented in the adding-doubling process of the matrix operator method using Schwarzschild's approach in the radiative transfer equation (a pure absorbing/emitting medium, namely without scattering). Within the layer, the Planck-function is assumed to have an exponential dependence on the optical-depth. In this paper, validation tests are presented for clear air case studies: comparisons to the analytical solution of a monochromatic Schwarzschild's case without scattering show an error of less than 0.07% for a realistic atmosphere with an optical depth and a blackbody temperature that decrease linearly with altitude. Comparisons to radiative transfer code RTTOV are presented for simulations of top of atmosphere brightness temperature for channels of the space-borne instrument MODIS. Results show an agreement varying from 0.1 K to less than 1 K depending on the channel. Finally MOMO results are compared to CALIPSO Infrared Imager Radiometer (IIR) measurements for clear air cases. A good agreement was found between computed and observed radiance: biases are smaller than 0.5 K

  3. Sustainable building versus ecological building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available and Grosskopf posit that in the future three basic contemporary approaches will be synthesised into an integrated process and that ecological design will become a part of a new design process. The three contemporary processes are: vernacular design..., the technological approach, and the biomimetic approach. Vernacular architecture is the embodiment of cultural wisdom, memory, tradition and intimate knowledge of place into the design and operation of buildings. Vernacular architecture speaks directly...

  4. Building-Wide, Adaptive Energy Management Systems for High-Performance Buildings: Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavala, Victor M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science

    2016-10-27

    Development and field demonstration of the minimum ratio policy for occupancy-driven, predictive control of outdoor air ventilation. Technology transfer of Argonne’s methods for occupancy estimation and forecasting and for M&V to BuildingIQ for their deployment. Selection of CO2 sensing as the currently best-available technology for occupancy-driven controls. Accelerated restart capability for the commercial BuildingIQ system using horizon shifting strategies applied to receding horizon optimal control problems. Empirical-based evidence of 30% chilled water energy savings and 22% total HVAC energy savings achievable with the BuildingIQ system operating in the APS Office Building on-site at Argonne.

  5. Steady state heat transfer experimental studies of LHC superconducting cables operating in cryogenic environment of superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Santandrea, Dario; Tuccillo, Raffaele; Granieri, Pier Paolo

    The heat management is a basic and fundamental aspect of the superconducting magnets used in the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Indeed, the coil temperature must be kept below the critical value, despite the heat which can be generated or deposited in the magnet during the normal operations. Therefore, this thesis work aims at determining the heating power which can be extracted from the superconducting cables of the LHC, specially through their electrical insulation which represents the main thermal barrier. An experimental measurement campaign in superfluid helium bath was performed on several samples reproducting the main LHC magnets. The heating power was generated in the sample by Joule heating and the temperature increase was measured by means of Cernox bare chip and thermocouples. An innovative instrumentation technique which also includes the in-situ calibration of the thermocouples was developed. A thorough uncertainty analysis on the overall measurement chain concluded the experimental setup. The prese...

  6. Transfer of arthroscopic skills from computer simulation training to the operating theatre: a review of evidence from two randomised controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutefnouchet, Tarek; Laios, Thomas

    2016-02-02

    There is paucity in the research on transfer validity of arthroscopic simulator training. The aim of this article is to determine whether skills derived from arthroscopic simulation are transferrable to the operating theatre and retained over time. A systematic review with rigorous criteria to identify the highest level of evidence available was carried out. The studies were critically appraised with narrative data synthesis. Twenty-one studies on arthroscopic simulation were identified. Only two studies were randomised controlled trials. The first article demonstrated improved performance of basic knee arthroscopic tasks following a fixed period of training. The second article showed improved performance of arthroscopic tasks and no deterioration in the levels of skills following a period of six months. In addition, the two studies succeeded in demonstrating the importance of 3D motion analysis using computer simulators in the assessment of technical skills. Components of evaluation such as time to task completion, distance travelled by instruments and incidence of instruments collisions were associated with the highest validity and reliability of assessment. This systematic review highlighted the limitations of these two randomised studies. Evidence from the two trials suggests that knee arthroscopy simulator training can result in improved performance. This review helped highlight the contribution of the two studies in terms of internal validity and consistency of using arthroscopic skills training. Further level I studies are however required to demonstrate the evidence for transfer and predictive validity of computer simulation as a training instrument.

  7. PERCEPTION OF THEATTRIBUTES OF A PROFESSIONAL OF INNOVATION BY OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT: A CASE FOR TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO FOCUS ON END USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Baron Mussi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To attend Brazil‘s energy demands, considering the typical seasonality of Brazilian climates conditions, part of the energy available in the national electrical system has been generated from natural gas power plant (in the most recent years. This paper analyses a case of technology transfer with focus on end-users, observing theirs perception in relation to attributes of technological tool installed, a control and monitoring system. The case, developed in a thermoelectric power plant, has four organizations participants: the thermoelectric power plant that bought the technology, the company that will operate with the new technology, a research institution that helped out on the selection process and adjustments of technological tool to local necessities and the international supplier of the technology. This work used qualitative and quantitative methodology to arrive its purpose. Between the findings, there are some differences on perception of attributes for some users groups. Given the relevance of technological tool acquired, it‘s possible that communications actions and technical trainings would be necessaries to ensure that users know all the functionalities of new system, its advantages in relation to previous system and its compatibility with power plant‘s technical process. The technological dependency of foreign companies and necessities of adjustments to schedule of technological tool installation contributed for a partial transference of the technology observed, demanding future researches to check the overcoming of these limitations.

  8. Transfer of arthroscopic skills from computer simulation training to the operating theatre: a review of evidence from two randomised controlled studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutefnouchet Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is paucity in the research on transfer validity of arthroscopic simulator training. The aim of this article is to determine whether skills derived from arthroscopic simulation are transferrable to the operating theatre and retained over time. Methods: A systematic review with rigorous criteria to identify the highest level of evidence available was carried out. The studies were critically appraised with narrative data synthesis. Results: Twenty-one studies on arthroscopic simulation were identified. Only two studies were randomised controlled trials. The first article demonstrated improved performance of basic knee arthroscopic tasks following a fixed period of training. The second article showed improved performance of arthroscopic tasks and no deterioration in the levels of skills following a period of six months. In addition, the two studies succeeded in demonstrating the importance of 3D motion analysis using computer simulators in the assessment of technical skills. Components of evaluation such as time to task completion, distance travelled by instruments and incidence of instruments collisions were associated with the highest validity and reliability of assessment. This systematic review highlighted the limitations of these two randomised studies. Discussion: Evidence from the two trials suggests that knee arthroscopy simulator training can result in improved performance. This review helped highlight the contribution of the two studies in terms of internal validity and consistency of using arthroscopic skills training. Further level I studies are however required to demonstrate the evidence for transfer and predictive validity of computer simulation as a training instrument.

  9. Dynamic oxygen transfer measurements under operating conditions as a basis for the optimization of ventilation systems; Dynamische Sauerstoffeintragsmessungen unter Betriebsbedingungen als Grundlage zur Optimierung von Belueftungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libra, J.A.; Biskup, M.; Wiesmann, U. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik; Sahlmann, C.; Gnirss, R. [Berliner Wasserbetriebe, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The largest single energy consumer at sewage treatment plants is the ventilation system of activated sludge tanks. This is why controlling and optimizing ventilation systems is the most appropriate approach to the cutting down of energy costs. The present paper reports on measurements of dynamic oxygen transfer by means of the off-gas method under operating conditions at the Berlin-Ruhleben sewage treatment plant. (orig.) [German] Der groesste Einzelenergieverbraucher auf Klaerwerken ist das Belueftungssystem von Belebungsbecken. Deshalb ist die Kontrolle und Optimierung der Belueftungssysteme der geeignete Weg zur Verringerung der Energiekosten. In diesem Beitrag wird ueber Messungen des dynamischen Sauerstoffeintrags mit der Abluft-Methode unter Betriebsbedingungen im Klaerwerk Berlin-Ruhleben berichtet. (orig.)

  10. 309 Building transition plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-08-31

    The preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (transition) of the 309 Building is projected to be completed by the end of the fiscal year (FY) 1998. The major stabilization and decontamination efforts include the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), fuel storage and transfer pits, Transfer Waste (TW) tanks and the Ion Exchange Vaults. In addition to stabilizing contaminated areas, equipment, components, records, waste products, etc., will be dispositioned. All nonessential systems, i.e., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical, monitoring, fluids, etc., will be shut down and drained/de-energized. This will allow securing of the process, laboratory, and office areas of the facility. After that, the facility will be operated at a level commensurate with its surveillance needs while awaiting D&D. The implementation costs for FY 1995 through FY 1998 for the transition activities are estimated to be $1,070K, $2,115K, $2,939K, and $4,762K, respectively. Costs include an assumed company overhead of 20% and a 30% out year contingency.

  11. Numerical Study of the Dynamic Response of Heat and Mass Transfer to Operation Mode Switching of a Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge concerning the complicated changes of mass and heat transfer is desired to improve the performance and durability of unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs. In this study, a transient, non-isothermal, single-phase, and multi-physics mathematical model for a URFC based on the proton exchange membrane is generated to investigate transient responses in the process of operation mode switching from fuel cell (FC to electrolysis cell (EC. Various heat generation mechanisms, including Joule heat, reaction heat, and the heat attributed to activation polarizations, have been considered in the transient model coupled with electrochemical reaction and mass transfer in porous electrodes. The polarization curves of the steady-state models are validated by experimental data in the literatures. Numerical results reveal that current density, gas mass fractions, and temperature suddenly change with the sudden change of operating voltage in the mode switching process. The response time of temperature is longer than that of current density and gas mass fractions. In both FC and EC modes, the cell temperature and gradient of gas mass fraction in the oxygen side are larger than that in the hydrogen side. The temperature difference of the entire cell is less than 1.5 K. The highest temperature appears at oxygen-side catalyst layer under the FC mode and at membrane under a more stable EC mode. The cell is exothermic all the time. These dynamic responses and phenomena have important implications for heat analysis and provide proven guidelines for the improvement of URFCs mode switching.

  12. Heat transfer results and operational characteristics of the NASA Lewis Research Center hot section cascade test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, H. J.; Yeh, F. C.; Fronek, D. L.

    1985-03-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center gas turbine hot section test facility has been developed to provide a real-engine environment with well known boundary conditions for the aerothermal performance evaluation/verification of computer design codes. The initial aerothermal research data obtained are presented and the operational characteristics of the facility are discussed. This facility is capable of testing at temperatures and pressures up to 1600 K and 18 atm which corresponds to a vane exit Reynolds number range of 0.5 x 1 million to 2.5 x 1 million based on vane chord. The component cooling air temperature can be independently modulated between 330 and 700 K providing gas-to-coolant temperature ratios similar to current engine application. Research instrumentation of the test components provide conventional pressure and temperature measurements as well as metal temperatures measured by IR-photography. The primary data acquisition mode is steady state through a 704 channel multiplexer/digitizer. The test facility was configured as an annular cascade of full coverage film cooled vanes for the initial series of research tests.

  13. Wind Flow Simulation Around NASA KSC Vehicle Assembly Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, B. T.; Verdier, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    A model of the wind flow conditions around Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Vehicle Assembly Building (VA B) is presented. An incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver was used to compute the flow field around fixed Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) buildings and structures. The 3-D flow field. including velocity magnitude and velocity vectors, was established to simulate the localized wind speeds and directions at specified locations in and around LC-39 buildings and structures. The results of this study not only help explain the physical phenomena of the flow patterns around LC-39 buildings but also are useful to the Shuttle personnel. Current Operations and Maintenance Requirements and Specifications (OMRS) for vehicle transfer operations are based on empirically derived historical data, and no detailed mathematical analysis of wind conditions around LC-39 structures has ever been accomplished.

  14. Optimized trajectories of the transfer cask system in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Filipe [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Vale, Alberto, E-mail: avale@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Fonte, Daniel [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, Isabel [Institute for Systems and Robotics, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    The transfer cask system (TCS) is one of the remote handling systems that will operate in ITER, transporting heavy and highly activated in-vessel components between the tokamak building and the hot cell building. A motion planning methodology for the TCS was developed, providing smooth paths that maximize the clearance to obstacles and that incorporate manoeuvres whenever necessary. This paper presents the results of the TCS planning algorithm with trajectories computed for nominal operations. The length of the journey, the velocity, the time duration, and the risk of collision were evaluated individually for each trajectory. A summary of all results, conclusions and future work are presented and discussed.

  15. Research update, existing buildings research, 1989--1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, J.M.; Ternes, M.P.; Mixon, W.R.; Sharp, T.R.; Kolb, J.O.; Wilkes, K.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Diamond, R.C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Judkoff, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Mazzucchi, R.P. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    This Research Update presents the status of the Existing Buildings Research program of the Office of Building Technologies of the US Department of Energy for the period 1989-199 1. This program covers research on energy efficiency improvements for the residential and commercial buildings in this country. ne Existing Buildings Research program has contributed to significant improvements in energy efficiency of existing buildings by development of improvements to retrofit technologies, by coordinating and conducting research studies on the use of energy efficiency technologies (to reduce barriers and increase use), and by continually evaluating changes in technologies that could improve and maintain buildings energy efficiency. If the energy efficiency of the buildings sector in this country is to be dramatically improved over the next 30 years, we must improve the use of energy efficiency technologies. Improved delivery of measures, improved understanding of how buildings actually perform in the field, and methods for improving operations and maintenance of buildings and energy equipment are all examples of ways to improve the deployment (transfer) of technologies. Much has been learned about technology deployment in buildings in the first five years of the program, and our future plans will be directed at continuing the improvements and making a real contribution to the energy efficiency future of the United States.

  16. Building and simulating protein machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katebi, Ataur Rahim

    Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway, present in almost all organisms, that produces energy. The pathway has been extensively investigated by biochemists. There is a significant body of structural and biochemical information about this pathway. The complete pathway is a ten step process. At each step, a specific chemical reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyze the fourth and the fifth steps on the pathway. This thesis investigates the possible substrate transfer mechanism between FBA and TIM. FBA cleaves its substrate, the six-carbon fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), into two three-carbon products -- glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxy acetone phosphate (DHAP). One component of these two products, DHAP, is the substrate for TIM and the other component GAP goes directly to GAPDH, the subsequent enzyme on the pathway. TIM converts DHAP to GAP and delivers the product to GAPDH. I employ Elastic Network Models (ENM) to investigate the mechanistic and dynamic aspects of the functionality of FBA and TIM enzymes -- (1) the effects of the oligomerization of these two enzymes on their functional dynamics and the coordination of the individual protein's structural components along the functional region; and (2) the mechanistic synchrony of these two protein machines that may enable them to operate in a coordinated fashion as a conjugate machine -- transferring the product from FBA as substrate to TIM. A macromolecular machine comprised of FBA and TIM will facilitate the substrate catalysis mechanism and the product flow between FBA and TIM. Such a machine could be used as a functional unit in building a larger a machine for the structural modeling of the whole glycolysis pathway. Building such machines for the glycolysis pathway may reveal the interplay of the enzymes as a complete machine. Also the methods and insights developed from the efforts to build such large machines

  17. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  18. A Nonlinear Transfer Operator Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollicott, Mark

    2017-02-01

    In recent papers, Kenyon et al. (Ergod Theory Dyn Syst 32:1567-1584 2012), and Fan et al. (C R Math Acad Sci Paris 349:961-964 2011, Adv Math 295:271-333 2016) introduced a form of non-linear thermodynamic formalism based on solutions to a non-linear equation using matrices. In this note we consider the more general setting of Hölder continuous functions.

  19. Ensemble-marginalized Kalman filter for linear time-dependent PDEs with noisy boundary conditions: Application to heat transfer in building walls

    KAUST Repository

    Iglesias, Marco

    2017-11-26

    In this work, we present the ensemble-marginalized Kalman filter (EnMKF), a sequential algorithm analogous to our previously proposed approach [1,2], for estimating the state and parameters of linear parabolic partial differential equations in initial-boundary value problems when the boundary data are noisy. We apply EnMKF to infer the thermal properties of building walls and to estimate the corresponding heat flux from real and synthetic data. Compared with a modified Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) that is not marginalized, EnMKF reduces the bias error, avoids the collapse of the ensemble without needing to add inflation, and converges to the mean field posterior using $50\\\\%$ or less of the ensemble size required by EnKF. According to our results, the marginalization technique in EnMKF is key to performance improvement with smaller ensembles at any fixed time.

  20. Effect of giant charge-transfer resonance σCT 109 barn on operation of magnetic fusion reactor below ``critical energy.''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Timothy; Maglich, Bogdan; Scott, Dan; Vaucher, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Charge transfer (CT) reactivity was assumed to be negligible compared to ionization (IO) before Belfast measurements1-3 revealed the opposite: CT predominance over IO, σCT 109 b , σCT /σIO U 100 , below critical `atomic unit of velocity', vo = 2.2 ×108cms-1 , which is orbital velocity of e in H atom. Near vo, U = 1 , i.e. σCT σIO . Critical ion energy is T0 (lab) = k 25 M [ KeV ] = 200 KeV for [ ERR : md : MbegChr = 0 x 2329 , MendChr = 0 x 232 A , nParams = 1 ] = ion mass [ amu ] = 4 for DT mix ; k = 2 . ``Burnout'' pumping that requires U > 1 regime whereas CT continually acts like compressor increasing operating vacuum pressure during neutral beam discharge to 10-3 Torr/0.3 s; this, in turn, sets upper limits to ion life-time against neutralization to τ =10-6 s. τ is 105 times shorter than thermalization time constant; hence plasma cannot be created. Lawson4 was unaware of CT resonance; his ``critical temperature'' (30 KeV for DT) should be replaced with T0.

  1. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - A guide to capacity building requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.; Gunning, R. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Stapleton, G. [Global Sustainable Energy Solutions Pty Ltd, GSES, Ulladulla 2539 (Australia)

    2003-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the topic of 'capacity building' in rural electrification projects. Capacity building is defined here as the development of an organisation's or individual's core knowledge, skills and capabilities in order to build and enhance the organisation's effectiveness and sustainability. This document identifies capacity building measures that should be undertaken as an integral component of a PV-based rural electrification implementation programme. Capacity building is to be facilitated through the provision of technical support activities, training, specific technical assistance and resource networking. The assessment of existing knowledge and the identification of training needs are discussed and training needs and their implementation by governmental and commercial players is discussed. Eleven case studies complete the report.

  2. Thermo Active Building Systems – Using Building Mass To Heat and Cool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    Using the thermal storage capacity of the concrete slabs between each floor in multistory buildings to heat or cool is a trend that began in the early 1990s in Switzerland.1,2 Pipes carrying water for heating and cooling are embedded in the center of the concrete slab. In central Europe (Germany,...... close to room temperature, they increase the efficiency of heat pumps, ground heat exchangers and other systems using renewable energy sources....... multistory buildings. By activating the building mass, there is a direct heating-cooling effect. Also, because of the thermal mass, the peak load will be reduced and some of the cooling load will be transferred beyond the time of occupancy. Because these systems for cooling operate at water temperatures...

  3. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  4. Influence of Pressure Build-Up Time of Compression Chamber on Improving the Operation Frequency of a Single-Piston Hydraulic Free-Piston Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-bo Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-piston hydraulic free-piston engine with a two-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine as its driver is introduced. It takes the free-piston assembly a certain time to move after the pressure in the compression chamber starts to increase. The time difference between the pressure increasing and the piston starting to move is defined as the pressure build-up time. The characteristics of the pressure build-up time and its influence on the performance of the free-piston engine are introduced and analyzed. Based on the basic law of dynamics of the free-piston assembly, the parameters which influence the pressure build-up time are analyzed. And then improvement and optimization are proposed to shorten the pressure build-up time.

  5. Energy efficient building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

  6. TRANSFER PRICING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Kirova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses methods of transfer pricing as a set of methods and operations on the justification of compliance rates in a transaction between related parties market level.

  7. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  8. Effects of temperature and gas-liquid mass transfer on the operation of small electrochemical cells for the quantitative evaluation of CO2 reduction electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaccaro, Peter; Singh, Meenesh R; Clark, Ezra Lee; Kwon, Youngkook; Bell, Alexis T; Ager, Joel W

    2016-09-29

    In the last few years, there has been increased interest in electrochemical CO2 reduction (CO2R). Many experimental studies employ a membrane separated, electrochemical cell with a mini H-cell geometry to characterize CO2R catalysts in aqueous solution. This type of electrochemical cell is a mini-chemical reactor and it is important to monitor the reaction conditions within the reactor to ensure that they are constant throughout the study. We show that operating cells with high catalyst surface area to electrolyte volume ratios (S/V) at high current densities can have subtle consequences due to the complexity of the physical phenomena taking place on electrode surfaces during CO2R, particularly as they relate to the cell temperature and bulk electrolyte CO2 concentration. Both effects were evaluated quantitatively in high S/V cells using Cu electrodes and a bicarbonate buffer electrolyte. Electrolyte temperature is a function of the current/total voltage passed through the cell and the cell geometry. Even at a very high current density, 20 mA cm-2, the temperature increase was less than 4 °C and a decrease of CO2 concentration is predicted. In contrast, limits on the CO2 gas-liquid mass transfer into the cells produce much larger effects. By using the pH in the cell to measure the CO2 concentration, significant undersaturation of CO2 is observed in the bulk electrolyte, even at more modest current densities of 10 mA cm-2. Undersaturation of CO2 produces large changes in the faradaic efficiency observed on Cu electrodes, with H2 production becoming increasingly favored. We show that the size of the CO2 bubbles being introduced into the cell is critical for maintaining the equilibrium CO2 concentration in the electrolyte, and we have designed a high S/V cell that is able to maintain the near-equilibrium CO2 concentration at current densities up to 15 mA cm-2.

  9. Building calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne Christian; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion......Textbook on design of large panel building including rules on robustness and a method for producing the Statical documentattion...

  10. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  11. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter describes the way building envelopes can contribute to developing green buildings and sets out some objectives that could be aimed for. It also proposes a number of approaches that can be used to help design green building envelopes...

  12. Healthy Buildings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Deborah

    Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

  13. Technical Management for Buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Vairo, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of an 'instrument' for the optimization of the functionality and conservation of tertiary buildings. This technique has several different names: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Central Control and Monitoring System (CCMS) in English, and Gestion Technique du Bâtiment' (GTB) or Gestion Technique Centralisée (GTC) in French. With this technique it is possible to manage all the functions of a building, it is a modern instrument that introduces the concept of 'automation' in the operation of buildings using computerized procedures, earlier reserved for industrial processes. The system is structured with different automation levels with a distributed intelligence, each level characterized by a communication system (Fieldbus for the lowest and Ethernet for the highest level). In order to apply the BAS to CERN buildings it is necessary to evaluate the advantages, the CERN requirements and the integration with the several existing control and automation systems.

  14. HAM-Tools – a whole building simulation tool in Annex 41

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    HAM-Tools is a building simulation software. The main task of this tool is to simulate transfer processes related to building physics, i.e. heat, air and moisture transport in buildings and building components in operating conditions. The scope of the ECBCS Annex 41 “Whole Building Heat, Air...... and Moisture Response” was of a high relevance for the testing, development, validation and promotion of the HAM-Tools. The majority of the numerical studies made by this programme were provided for Subtask 1 “Modelling principles and common exercises”. This paper gives an overview of the modelling...... capabilities of HAM-Tools and some results provided for Subtask 1....

  15. Experimental and CFD-PBM Study of Oxygen Mass Transfer Coefficient in Different Impeller Configurations and Operational Conditions of a Two-Phase Partitioning Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradkhani, Hamed; Izadkhah, Mir-Shahabeddin; Anarjan, Navideh

    2017-02-01

    In this work, gas dispersion in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor is analyzed by calculating volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient which is modeled using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD), code FLUENT 6.2. Dispersed oxygen bubbles dynamics is based on standard "k-ε" Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model. This paper describes a three-dimensional CFD model coupled with population balance equations (PBE) in order to get more confirming results of experimental measurements. Values of k L a are obtained using dynamic gassing-out method. Using the CFD simulation, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient is calculated based on Higbie's penetration theory. Characteristics of mass transfer coefficient are investigated for five configurations of impeller and three different aeration flow rates. The pitched six blade type, due to the creation of downward flow direction, leads to higher dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, thereby, higher values of k L a compared with other impeller compositions. The magnitude of dissolved oxygen percentage in the aqueous phase has direct correlation with impeller speed and any increase of the aeration magnitude leads to faster saturation in shorter periods of time. Agitation speeds of 300 to 800 rpm are found to be the most effective rotational speeds for the mass transfer of oxygen in two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPB).

  16. Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study Summarized Data - HVAC Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues was acquired by examining the building plans, conducting a building walk-through, and speaking with the building owner, manager, and/or operator.

  17. Building envelope for New Buildings and Energy Renovation of Existing Buildings. Project results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Rose, Jørgen; Esbensen, Peter Kjær

    1999-01-01

    , a group of scientists at the Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, have started a research project to develop better solutions for new building and energy renovation.The publication report the status after the first 3 year of the Building Envelope Project with emphasis...... on the following subjects:Scientific basis for calculation programs, Development of calculationsmethods for heat transfer, Development of new building envelope components, Roofing system based on wooden roof elements, Roofing system with drying properties, Moisture uptake and drying from brick constructions...

  18. [Effectiveness of the maintenance operations on the air conditioning systems of a university building in relation to the microbiological quality of the air indoor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Patrizia; Spinaci, Anna; Coia, Maura; Maggi, Oriana; Panà, Augusto

    2003-01-01

    The microbiological quality of the air indoor is influenced from various factors and one of the most important is represented from the maintenance of the conditioning systems. In this study it has been estimated the effectiveness of an intervention of cleaning and maintenance on the systems of conditioning of an university building executing sampling before and after such intervention. The two results were confronted and it is observed as the maintenance of the air conditioners has influenced on the quality of the air indoor.

  19. "Watts per person" paradigm to design net zero energy buildings: Examining technology interventions and integrating occupant feedback to reduce plug loads in a commercial building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi Kim, Mika

    As building envelopes have improved due to more restrictive energy codes, internal loads have increased largely due to the proliferation of computers, electronics, appliances, imaging and audio visual equipment that continues to grow in commercial buildings. As the dependency on the internet for information and data transfer increases, the electricity demand will pose a challenge to design and operate Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Plug Loads (PLs) as a proportion of the building load has become the largest non-regulated building energy load and represents the third highest electricity end-use in California's commercial office buildings, accounting for 23% of the total building electricity consumption (Ecova 2011,2). In the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO2008), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that presents long-term projections of energy supply and demand through 2030 states that office equipment and personal computers are the "fastest growing electrical end uses" in the commercial sector. This thesis entitled "Watts Per Person" Paradigm to Design Net Zero Energy Buildings, measures the implementation of advanced controls and behavioral interventions to study the reduction of PL energy use in the commercial sector. By integrating real world data extracted from an energy efficient commercial building of its energy use, the results produce a new methodology on estimating PL energy use by calculating based on "Watts Per Person" and analyzes computational simulation methods to design NZEBs.

  20. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Tang

    2004-09-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Dry Transfer Facility No.1 (DTF-1) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, and ship out loaded waste packages and empty casks. Doses received by workers due to maintenance operations are also included in this revision. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation, excluding the remediation area of the building. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the DTF-1 and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  1. Cash transfers for HIV prevention: considering their potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Heise

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cash payments to vulnerable households and/or individuals have increasingly garnered attention as a means to reduce poverty, improve health and achieve other development-related outcomes. Recent evidence from Malawi and Tanzania suggests that cash transfers can impact HIV-related behaviours and outcomes and, therefore, could serve as an important addition to HIV prevention efforts. Discussion: This article reviews the current evidence on cash transfers for HIV prevention and suggests unresolved questions for further research. Gaps include (1 understanding more about the mechanisms and pathways through which cash transfers affect HIV-related outcomes; (2 addressing key operational questions, including the potential feasibility and the costs and benefits of different models of transfers and conditionality; and (3 evaluating and enhancing the wider impacts of cash transfers on health and development. Conclusions: Ongoing and future studies should build on current findings to unpack unresolved questions and to collect additional evidence on the multiple impacts of transfers in different settings. Furthermore, in order to address questions on sustainability, cash transfer programmes need to be integrated with other sectors and programmes that address structural factors such as education and programming to promote gender equality and address HIV.

  2. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  3. Enzymatic synthesis of farnesyl laurate in organic solvent: initial water activity, kinetics mechanism, optimization of continuous operation using packed bed reactor and mass transfer studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, N K; Kamaruddin, A H; Uzir, M H

    2011-08-01

    The influence of water activity and water content was investigated with farnesyl laurate synthesis catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. Lipozyme RM IM activity depended strongly on initial water activity value. The best results were achieved for a reaction medium with an initial water activity of 0.11 since it gives the best conversion value of 96.80%. The rate constants obtained in the kinetics study using Ping-Pong-Bi-Bi and Ordered-Bi-Bi mechanisms with dead-end complex inhibition of lauric acid were compared. The corresponding parameters were found to obey the Ordered-Bi-Bi mechanism with dead-end complex inhibition of lauric acid. Kinetic parameters were calculated based on this model as follows: V (max) = 5.80 mmol l(-1) min(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (m,A) = 0.70 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (m,B) = 115.48 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1), K (i) = 11.25 mmol l(-1) g enzyme(-1). The optimum conditions for the esterification of farnesol with lauric acid in a continuous packed bed reactor were found as the following: 18.18 cm packed bed height and 0.9 ml/min substrate flow rate. The optimum molar conversion of lauric acid to farnesyl laurate was 98.07 ± 0.82%. The effect of mass transfer in the packed bed reactor has also been studied using two models for cases of reaction limited and mass transfer limited. A very good agreement between the mass transfer limited model and the experimental data obtained indicating that the esterification in a packed bed reactor was mass transfer limited.

  4. Requirements Verification Report AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System for Project W-314 Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    1999-09-28

    This Requirements Verification Report (RVR) for Project W-314 ''AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System'' package provides documented verification of design compliance to all the applicable Project Development Specification (PDS) requirements. Additional PDS requirements verification will be performed during the project's procurement, construction, and testing phases, and the RVR will be updated to reflect this information as appropriate.

  5. Uncertainty determination in a custody transfer operation from vertical cylinder storage tanks; Determinacao da incerteza do volume transferido em tanques cilindricos verticais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elcio C.; Ferreira, Ana Luisa A.S. [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Orlando, Alcir F.; Val, Luiz G. do [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The INMETRO/ANP 1 regulation (2000), presents rules to be followed for measuring and calibrating cylindrical vertical oil storage tanks in Brazil, according to ISO 7507-1 (1993) standard. A methodology for estimating the uncertainty (95,45 % confidence level) of the volume in a custody transfer process was developed, based on ISO GUM (1998) standard. The strapping method was selected for this study, because it has been used as a standard procedure by INMETRO. In this study, the same uncertainty values, as suggested by the standard, were used to estimate the uncertainty of the liquid volume in the tank. This study showed that the uncertainty of the transferred liquid volume from the tank varies from 0,2% to 0,4%, being smaller for larger volumes, which is thus the recommended application. The uncertainty of the ring height measurement is the largest contribution to the volume measurement uncertainty, and, thus, must be accurately measured. The tank internal diameter uncertainty is a small contribution to it. This paper calculates the uncertainty of liquid volume transferred from the tank by three methods, namely, this paper's, ISO 7507- 1's and INMETRO's, and shows that the most important contribution to the measurement uncertainty is the density measurement uncertainty, which must be accurately measured, at least, to within {+-} 0,0005, if the volume uncertainty is to remain in the 0,5 % to 1 % range. (author)

  6. Information for Owners and Managers of Buildings that Contain Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal requirements for the renovation and demolition of buildings and guidance on developing and maintaining an operations and maintenance program to manage asbestos-containing materials in buildings.

  7. TRANSFER PRICING AS A SYSTEM-FACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Guisin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that transfer pricing plays a system-building role for multi-profile commercial banks of today. Bank transfer pricing system properties are outlined. Examples of practical implementation of the transfer pricing to bank activities are brought about. Impact of transferprices on key aspects of the bank management and control system is discussed.

  8. Thermodynamics and heat transfer in fire fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, P. N.; Koshmarov, Y. A.; Bashkirtsev, M. P.

    1985-05-01

    The book presents the fundamental principles of thermodynamics and heat transfer with particular reference to their application in problems related to fire prevention. Special attention is given to the study of unsteady heat transfer, radiant heat transfer (including radiation from flames to the surrounding), thermodynamic analysis of the growth of fires and theoretical modeling of fires in building.

  9. Ariane transfer vehicle scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, Norbert; Cougnet, Claude

    1990-10-01

    ESA's Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a vehicle design concept for the transfer of payloads from Ariane 5 launch vehicle orbit insertion to a space station, on the basis of the Ariane 5 program-developed Upper Stage Propulsion Module and Vehicle Equipment Bay. The ATV is conceived as a complement to the Hermes manned vehicle for lower cost unmanned carriage of logistics modules and other large structural elements, as well as waste disposal. It is also anticipated that the ATV will have an essential role in the building block transportation logistics of any prospective European space station.

  10. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation......Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...

  11. Evaluation Of The Advanced Operating System Of The Ann Arbor Transportation Authority : Transfer And On-Time Performance Study : Before And After AOS Implementation, October 1996 - May 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the Ann Arbor (Michigan) Transportation Authority began deploying advanced public transportation systems (APTS) technologies in its fixed route and paratransit operations. The project's concept is the integration of a range of such technolog...

  12. Information transfer to out-of-hours co-operatives: a survey of general practitioners' views in relation to palliative patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, Fiona

    2013-12-01

    In Ireland, weekend and night medical cover for community based patients is largely provided by general practice co-operatives. Doctors working in this service do not have direct access to patients\\' medical records which challenges continuity of care.

  13. Building a Circular Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Heidi; Guldager Jensen, Kasper; Sommer, John

    2016-01-01

    of the circular strategies is not only in the future. Increased flexibility, optimized operation and maintenance, as well as a healthier building, is low-hanging fruit that can be harvested today. The project’s principles can be implemented in industrialized construction in a large scale today. That is proven......Natural resources are scarce and construction accounts for 40 percent of the material and energy consumption in Europe. This means that a switch to a circular future is necessary. ’Building a Circular Future’ maps out where we are, where we are going, and what is needed for this conversion to take...... on the project’s strategies. The financial result is a profit of DKK 35 million on the structure alone in the demolition of a building built for the cost of DKK 860 million. The total potential for the whole building, calculated in projected material prices, is estimated to be up to 16% of the total construction...

  14. Heath monitoring of a glass transfer robot in the mass production line of liquid crystal display using abnormal operating sounds based on wavelet packet transform and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui-Youl; Lee, Young-Joon; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the fault detect method of a moving transfer robot in the mass production line of liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturers based on the wavelet packet transform (WPT) for feature extraction and the artificial neural network (ANN) for fault classification. Most of fault detection methods in a mechanical system have been researched based on the vibration signal. Unlike the existing methodologies, this study aims to minimize the uncertainty of a field engineer's decision making process for determining whether a fault is present or not based on the human auditory perception by developing a fault diagnosis system that uses the abnormal operating sound radiated from a moving transfer robot as a source signal. Abnormal operating sound radiated from a moving transfer robot has been used for this work instead of other source signals such as vibration, acoustic emission, electrical signal, etc. Its advantage as a source signal makes it possible to monitor the status of multiple faults by using only a microphone despite a relatively low sensitivity. In the application of ANN, since it is important to minimize the error of trained ANN in terms of the accuracy of fault diagnosis logic, in the paper, the number of input and target data samples was increased through a regeneration process based on statistical properties, and then the uncorrelated nodes in the input vector were also removed to improve the orthogonality of the input vector based on the entropy based feature selection method. Consequently, it can be concluded that the abnormal operating sound is sufficiently useful as a source signal for the fault diagnosis of mechanical components as well as other source signals.

  15. Building sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mass Media

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available proactive,” Van Wyk says. “Demand for greener buildings is slowly beginning to increase among tenants. If asset managers do not take action, the value of assets will depreciate rapidly, and this will make the building obsolete within five years...

  16. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  17. Build and Execute Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-21

    At exascale, the challenge becomes to develop applications that run at scale and use exascale platforms reliably, efficiently, and flexibly. Workflows become much more complex because they must seamlessly integrate simulation and data analytics. They must include down-sampling, post-processing, feature extraction, and visualization. Power and data transfer limitations require these analysis tasks to be run in-situ or in-transit. We expect successful workflows will comprise multiple linked simulations along with tens of analysis routines. Users will have limited development time at scale and, therefore, must have rich tools to develop, debug, test, and deploy applications. At this scale, successful workflows will compose linked computations from an assortment of reliable, well-defined computation elements, ones that can come and go as required, based on the needs of the workflow over time. We propose a novel framework that utilizes both virtual machines (VMs) and software containers to create a workflow system that establishes a uniform build and execution environment (BEE) beyond the capabilities of current systems. In this environment, applications will run reliably and repeatably across heterogeneous hardware and software. Containers, both commercial (Docker and Rocket) and open-source (LXC and LXD), define a runtime that isolates all software dependencies from the machine operating system. Workflows may contain multiple containers that run different operating systems, different software, and even different versions of the same software. We will run containers in open-source virtual machines (KVM) and emulators (QEMU) so that workflows run on any machine entirely in user-space. On this platform of containers and virtual machines, we will deliver workflow software that provides services, including repeatable execution, provenance, checkpointing, and future proofing. We will capture provenance about how containers were launched and how they interact to annotate

  18. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  19. Impactos tributários dos métodos de cálculo de preços de transferência em operações de importação Calculation methods for transfer pricing on import operations and its impacts on tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Gisele Brancher Pedó

    2011-04-01

    thus, the amount of income tax due in both the export and import countries, representing a relevant issue to the tax administrations in countries where these operations occur and to the companies which have units in more than one country. This study presents an analysis related to Transfer Prices practiced by a Brazilian company that imports raw material from its associated units established in other tax jurisdictions. A case study that shows this situation and the Brazilian Transfer Pricing rules are presented. The conclusion is that the company should apply more than one of the available calculus methodologies in order to identify which one results in the lower tax adjustment. In addition to that, it is concluded that the Transfer Pricing is an issue that depends on many variables that should be carefully analyzed for each situation or company, considering the particularities of each situation.

  20. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  1. Solar support of the cold supply of an office building. Operation analysis and energetic evaluation; Solare Unterstuetzung der Kaelteversorgung eines Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeudes. Betriebsanalyse und energetische Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Klaus; Bollin, Elmar; Scheck, Eva [Hochschule Offenburg (HSO) (Germany); Wiemken, Edo; Wewior, Jakub [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Eicker, Ursula; Pietruschka, Dirk; Dalibard, Antoine [Hochschule fuer Technik (HFT), Stuttgart (Germany); Meissner, Rolf; Kettner, Christiane [Paradigma Deutschland GmbH, Karlsbad (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Since July 2006 and in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy (Freiburg) and the Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences, the University Offenburg accompanies the solar supported air conditioning of Festo AG and Co. KG in Esslingen (Federal Republic of Germany). The plant was promoted by the Federal Ministry of the Environment (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) in the context of the research project 'Solarthermie2000plus'. The already existing adsorption refrigerant plant which so far was operated with compressor warmth and gas-fuelled boilers, was supplemented by a solar plant as a third heat supplier.

  2. Solar production of industrial-process hot water. Phase 3: Operation and evaluation of the York Building Products Co., Inc. solar facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, J. M.; Kaplan, N.; Wilkening, H. A., Jr.

    1981-10-01

    A solar heating system to provide hot water for curing concrete blocks is discussed. The objective is to operate, collect data, and evaluate the solar system for a 3 year period. The solar facility utilizes 35 collectors. The system is designed to deliver a water/ethylene glycol solution at 2000 F to a heat exchanger, which, in turn, supplies water at 1800 F to a rotorclave (underground tank) for the concrete block curing process. A fossil fuel boiler system also supplies the rotorclave with processed hot water to supplement the solar system. The program demonstrates the technical feasibility of generating industrial process hot water with solar energy.

  3. Effect of impeller type and mechanical agitation on the mass transfer and power consumption aspects of ASBR operation treating synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelan, Rogério; Zimmer, Thiago R; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; de Moraes, Deovaldo; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2009-03-01

    The effect of flow type and rotor speed was investigated in a round-bottom reactor with 5 L useful volume containing 2.0 L of granular biomass. The reactor treated 2.0 L of synthetic wastewater with a concentration of 800 mgCOD/L in 8-h cycles at 30 degrees C. Five impellers, commonly used in biological processes, have been employed to this end, namely: a turbine and a paddle impeller with six-vertical-flat-blades, a turbine and a paddle impeller with six-45 degrees -inclined-flat-blades and a three-blade-helix impeller. Results showed that altering impeller type and rotor speed did not significantly affect system stability and performance. Average organic matter removal efficiency was about 84% for filtered samples, total volatile acids concentration was below 20 mgHAc/L and bicarbonate alkalinity a little less than 400 mgCaCO3/L for most of the investigated conditions. However, analysis of the first-order kinetic model constants showed that alteration in rotor speed resulted in an increase in the values of the kinetic constants (for instance, from 0.57 h(-1) at 50 rpm to 0.84 h(-1) at 75 rpm when the paddle impeller with six-45 degrees -inclined-flat-blades was used) and that axial flow in mechanically stirred reactors is preferable over radial-flow when the vertical-flat-blade impeller is compared to the inclined-flat-blade impeller (for instance at 75 rpm, from 0.52 h(-1) with the six-flat-blade-paddle impeller to 0.84 h(-1) with the six-45 degrees -inclined-flat-blade-paddle impeller), demonstrating that there is a rotor speed and an impeller type that maximize solid-liquid mass transfer in the reaction medium. Furthermore, power consumption studies in this reduced reactor volume showed that no high power transfer is required to improve mass transfer (less than 0.6 kW/10(3)m3).

  4. Building integration of photovoltaic systems in cold climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Candanedo, José A.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents some of the research activities on building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems developed by the Solar and Daylighting Laboratory at Concordia University. BIPV systems offer considerable advantages as compared to stand-alone PV installations. For example, BIPV systems can play a role as essential components of the building envelope. BIPV systems operate as distributed power generators using the most widely available renewable source. Since BIPV systems do not require additional space, they are especially appropriate for urban environments. BIPV/Thermal (BIPV/T) systems may use exterior air to extract useful heat from the PV panels, cooling them and thereby improving their electric performance. The recovered thermal energy can then be used for space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) heating, supporting the utilization of BIVP/T as an appropriate technology for cold climates. BIPV and BIPV/T systems are the subject of several ongoing research and demonstration projects (in both residential and commercial buildings) led by Concordia University. The concept of integrated building design and operation is at the centre of these efforts: BIPV and BIPV/T systems must be treated as part of a comprehensive strategy taking into account energy conservation measures, passive solar design, efficient lighting and HVAC systems, and integration of other renewable energy systems (solar thermal, heat pumps, etc.). Concordia Solar Laboratory performs fundamental research on heat transfer and modeling of BIPV/T systems, numerical and experimental investigations on BIPV and BIPV/T in building energy systems and non-conventional applications (building-attached greenhouses), and the design and optimization of buildings and communities.

  5. Commercial Building Partnership General Merchandise Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  6. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  7. Building Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — Explore real estate information about buildings in the Town of Cary.This file is created by the Town of Cary GIS Group. It contains data from both the Wake, Chatham...

  8. Solar production of industrial process hot water. Phase 3: Operation and evaluation of the York Building Products Company, Incorporated. Solar Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, J. M.; Kaplan, N.; Wilkening, H. A., Jr.

    1981-10-01

    The solar facility utilizes 35 collectors with a total aperture area of 8960 sq ft. The system is designed to deliver a water/ethylene glycol solution at 200 F to a heat exchanger, which, in turn, supplies water at 180 F to a rotoclave (underground tank) for the concrete block curing process. A fossil fuel boiler system also supplies the rotoclave with processed hot water to supplement the solar system. The system was operational 92.5% of the days during which the data acquisition system was functional. Sufficient solar heating was available to deliver hot water to the heat exchanger on 448 days, or 81.8% of the days on which reliable data was recorded. Total fuel saved during the three year period was 10,284 gallons. Thus, this program successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of generating industrial process hot water with solar energy.

  9. Final deactivation project report on the Source Development Laboratory, building 3029, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of Building 3029 after completion of deactivation activities as outlined by the DOE Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) guidance documentation. This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). This report provides a history and profile of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the post-deactivation surveillance and maintenance (S&M) plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the EM-60 turnover package are discussed. Building 3029 will require access to facilitate required S&M activities to maintain the building safety envelope. building 3029 was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only a minimal S&M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. Other than the minimal S&M activities, the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked to prevent unauthorized access. The building will be entered only to perform the required S&M. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure...... the heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...

  11. Parameter study on performance of building cooling by night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    of different parameters such as building construction, heat gains, air change rates, heat transfer coefficients and climatic conditions including annual variations on the number of overheating degree hours (operative room temperature >26 °C) was evaluated. Climatic conditions and air flow rate during night......Especially for commercial buildings in moderate climates, night-time ventilation seems to be a simple and energy-efficient approach to improve thermal comfort in summer. However, due to uncertainties in the prediction of thermal comfort in buildings with night-time ventilation, architects...... and engineers are still hesitant to apply this technique. In order to reduce the uncertainties, the most important parameters affecting night ventilation performance need to be identified. A typical office room was therefore modelled using a building energy simulation programme (HELIOS), and the effect...

  12. An Analysis of BIM Web Service Requirements and Design to Support Energy Efficient Building Lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy Efficient Building (EEB design, construction, and operations require the development and sharing of building information among different individuals, organizations, and computer applications. The Representational State Transfer (RESTful Building Information Modeling (BIM web service is a solution to enable an effective exchange of data. This paper presents an investigation into the core RESTful web service requirements needed to effectively support the EEB project lifecycle. The requirements include information exchange requirements, distributed collaboration requirements, internal data storage requirements, and partial model query requirements. We also propose a RESTful web service design model on different abstraction layers to enhance the BIM lifecycle in energy efficient building design. We have implemented a RESTful Application Program Interface (API prototype on a mock BIMserver to demonstrate our idea. We evaluate our design by conducting a user study based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. The results show that our design can enhance the efficiency of data exchange in EEB design scenarios.

  13. Virtual building environments (VBE) - Applying information modeling to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2004-06-21

    A Virtual Building Environment (VBE) is a ''place'' where building industry project staffs can get help in creating Building Information Models (BIM) and in the use of virtual buildings. It consists of a group of industry software that is operated by industry experts who are also experts in the use of that software. The purpose of a VBE is to facilitate expert use of appropriate software applications in conjunction with each other to efficiently support multidisciplinary work. This paper defines BIM and virtual buildings, and describes VBE objectives, set-up and characteristics of operation. It informs about the VBE Initiative and the benefits from a couple of early VBE projects.

  14. Operation Poorman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.; Tsitouras, J.

    1981-03-18

    The objectives of Operation Poorman were to design and build a portable seismic system and to set up and use this system in a cold-weather environment. The equipment design uses current technology to achieve a low-power, lightweight system that is configured into three modules. The system was deployed in Alaska during wintertime, and the results provide a basis for specifying a mission-ready seismic verification system.

  15. BuildingPI: A future tool for building life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, James; Morrissey, Elmer; Keane, Marcus; Bazjanac,Vladimir

    2004-03-29

    Traditionally building simulation models are used at the design phase of a building project. These models are used to optimize various design alternatives, reduce energy consumption and cost. Building performance assessment for the operational phase of a buildings life cycle is sporadic, typically working from historical metered data and focusing on bulk energy assessment. Building Management Systems (BMS) do not explicitly incorporate feedback to the design phase or account for any changes, which have been made to building layout or fabric during construction. This paper discusses a proposal to develop an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) compliant data visualization tool Building Performance Indicator (BuildingPI) for performance metric and performance effectiveness ratio evaluation.

  16. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  17. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while th...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  18. Building brains for bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Rodney Allen; Stein, Lynn Andrea

    1994-01-01

    We describe a project to capitalize on newly available levels of computational resources in order to understand human cognition. We will build an integrated physical system including vision, sound input and output, and dextrous manipulation, all controlled by a continuously operating large scale parallel MIMD computer. The resulting system will learn to 'think' by building on its bodily experiences to accomplish progressively more abstract tasks. Past experience suggests that in attempting to build such an integrated system we will have to fundamentally change the way artificial intelligence, cognitive science, linguistics, and philosophy think about the organization of intelligence. We expect to be able to better reconcile the theories that will be developed with current work in neuroscience.

  19. The effect of simplifying the building description on the numerical modeling of its thermal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stetiu, Corina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    A thermal building simulation program is a numerical model that calculates the response of the building envelopes to weather and human activity, simulates dynamic heating and cooling loads, and heating and cooling distribution systems, and models building equipment operation. The scope of the research is to supply the users of such programs with information about the dangers and benefits of simplifying the input to their models. The Introduction describes the advantages of modeling the heat transfer mechanisms in a building. The programs that perform this type of modeling have, however, limitations. The user is therefore often put in the situation of simplifying the floor plans of the building under study, but not being able to check the effects that this approximation introduces in the results of the simulation. Chapter 1 is a description of methods. It also introduces the floor plans for the office building under study and the ``reasonable`` floor plans simplifications. Chapter 2 presents DOE-2, the thermal building simulation program used in the sensitivity study. The evaluation of the accuracy of the DOE-2 program itself is also presented. Chapter 3 contains the sensitivity study. The complicated nature of the process of interpreting the temperature profile inside a space leads to the necessity of defining different building modes. The study compares the results from the model of the detailed building description with the results from the models of the same building having simplified floor plans. The conclusion is reached that a study of the effects of simplifying the floor plans of a building is important mainly for defining the cases in which this approximation is acceptable. Different results are obtained for different air conditioning/load regimes of the building. 9 refs., 24 figs.

  20. Equilibrium, kinetic and mass transfer studies and column operations for the removal of arsenic(III) from aqueous solutions using acid treated spent bleaching earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahramanlioglu, M; Güçlü, K

    2004-09-01

    In the present study, a new adsorbent was produced from spent bleaching earth by H2SO4 impregnation method. The sorption of arsenic(III) by acid treated spent bleaching earth was studied to examine the possibility of utilizing this material in water treatment systems. The effect of time, pH, initial concentration, temperature on the adsorption of arsenic(III) was studied. Maximum adsorption was found to occur at pH 9.0. The adsorption process followed the first order Lagergren equation. Mass transfer coefficients and rate constants of intraparticle diffusion were calculated. The experimental data points were fitted to the Langmuir equation in order to calculate the adsorption capacity (Q0) of the adsorbent and the value of Q0 was found to be 0.46 mmol g(-1). In order to understand the adsorption mechanism, Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) isotherm was used. The magnitude of E calculated from DR equation was found to be 5.12 kJ mol(-1). The heat of adsorption (deltaH0 = -30367 J mol(-1)) implied that the adsorption was physical exothermic adsorption. The column studies were also carried out to simulate water treatment processes. The capacity values obtained in column studies were found to be greater than the capacity values obtained in batch studies. This result was explained by the difference between batch system and column system. The factors that affect the capacity values of column and batch systems were explained. The effect of other anions on the adsorption of arsenic(III) in the presence of NO3-, SO4(2-), Cl-, Br- was studied. The presence of these anions did not affect the adsorption of arsenic(III) significantly.

  1. Sustainable Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Elle, Morten

    The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems that ...... that need urgent action. The built environment is an obvious area to put effort into because of the large and cost-effective energy saving potential and potential for Renewable Energy-based supply systems for buildings.......The scientific community agrees that: all countries must drastically and rapidly reduce their CO2 emissions and that energy efficient houses play a decisive role in this. The general attitude at the workshop on Sustainable Buildings was that we face large and serious climate change problems...

  2. Building Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas

    2007-01-01

    ‘The procurement of construction work is complex, and a successful outcome frequently elusive’. With this opening phrase of the book, the authors take on the challenging job of explaining the complexity of building procurement. Even though building procurement systems are, and will remain, complex...... despite this excellent book, the knowledge, expertise, well-articulated argument and collection of recent research efforts that are provided by the three authors will help to make project success less elusive. The book constitutes a thorough and comprehensive investigation of building procurement, which...... evolves from a simple establishment of a contractual relationship to a central and strategic part of construction. The authors relate to cultural, ethical and social and behavioural sciences as the fundamental basis for analysis and understanding of the complexity and dynamics of the procurement system...

  3. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...

  4. Early Neolithic Building in the Southern Levant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz

    of the building process and of knowledge transfer of building technologies. Best practice for conservation and presentation strategies for Neolithic remains will be discussed based on the current fieldwork at Shkārat Msaied executed in cooperation between the Department of Antiquities of Jordan and the Carsten...... Niebuhr Centre for Multicultural Heritage at the University of Copenhagen....

  5. Durability of Building Materials Vol 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Rob

    1999-01-01

    Facility management has become another business management discipline and the transfer of building data from design and construction into management has been neglected. The needs of building managers need to be specified and standardised to aallow designers to provide data in the form required....

  6. Building Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The report Building Bridges adresses the questions why, how and for whom academic audience research has public value, from the different points of view of the four working groups in the COST Action IS0906 Transforming Audiences, Transforming Societies – “New Media Genres, Media Literacy and Trust...... in the Media”, “Audience Interactivity and Participation”, “The Role of Media and ICT Use for Evolving Social Relationships” and “Audience Transformations and Social Integration”. Building Bridges is the result of an ongoing dialogue between the Action and non-academic stakeholders in the field of audience...

  7. Competence Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    on the one hand, and the real world of innovation policy-making on the other, typically not speaking to each other. With this purpose in mind, this paper discusses the role of competences and competence-building in the innovation process from a perspective of innovation systems; it examines how governments...... and public agencies in different countries and different times have actually approached the issue of building, maintaining and using competences in their innovation systems; it examines what are the critical and most important issues at stake from the point of view of innovation policy, looking particularly...

  8. Miniaturized cogeneration plants integrated in buildings at electricity price guided operation - Modelling of a miniaturized cogeneration plant and its integration in buildings, optimization of an electricity price guided control strategy, technological-economic evaluation and perspectives; Gebaeudeintegrierte Mini-KWK bei strompreisgefuehrter Betriebsweise. Modellierung von Mini-KWK und ihre Gebaeudeintegration, Optimierung einer strompreisgefuehrten Kontrollstrategie, techno-wirtschaftliche Bewertung und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetter, Editha; Colomar, David [European Institute for Energy Research (EIFER), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Electricity rate guided control strategies are an innovative marketing concept for mini-combined heat and power plants. These decentralized, building integrated systems are operated in accordance with the electricity rate of the European Energy Exchange (EEX). As a virtual power plant composite, the concept improved the development of renewables. Based on Matlab-Simulink, the physical interaction of the technical components is simulated dynamically. For a representative heat load curve, both the VDI reference profiles and the methodology of BDEW were used. Switching strategies were developed and compared. Comparison scenarios were modeled, simulated and optimized. It was shown that the optimal control strategy increases the average electricity sale price by 25 %. Switching strategy, storage and economic factors such as bonus payments affect the profitability significantly. In the reference scenario, the payback period amounts ten years. The marketing concept, the modeling and the main results of the simulation and a sensitivity analysis were shown.

  9. TWO-GRAPH BUILDING INTERIOR REPRESENTATION FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Boguslawski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in a rapidly developing urban environment with bigger and higher public buildings, disasters causing emergency situations and casualties are unavoidable. Preparedness and quick response are crucial issues saving human lives. Available information about an emergency scene, such as a building structure, helps for decision making and organizing rescue operations. Models supporting decision-making should be available in real, or near-real, time. Thus, good quality models that allow implementation of automated methods are highly desirable. This paper presents details of the recently developed method for automated generation of variable density navigable networks in a 3D indoor environment, including a full 3D topological model, which may be used not only for standard navigation but also for finding safe routes and simulating hazard and phenomena associated with disasters such as fire spread and heat transfer.

  10. Project materials [Commercial High Performance Buildings Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Consortium for High Performance Buildings (ChiPB) is an outgrowth of DOE'S Commercial Whole Buildings Roadmapping initiatives. It is a team-driven public/private partnership that seeks to enable and demonstrate the benefit of buildings that are designed, built and operated to be energy efficient, environmentally sustainable, superior quality, and cost effective.

  11. Commercial Building Energy Asset Score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-26

    This software (Asset Scoring Tool) is designed to help building owners and managers to gain insight into the as-built efficiency of their buildings. It is a web tool where users can enter their building information and obtain an asset score report. The asset score report consists of modeled building energy use (by end use and by fuel type), building systems (envelope, lighting, heating, cooling, service hot water) evaluations, and recommended energy efficiency measures. The intended users are building owners and operators who have limited knowledge of building energy efficiency. The scoring tool collects minimum building data (~20 data entries) from users and build a full-scale energy model using the inference functionalities from Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS). The scoring tool runs real-time building energy simulation using EnergyPlus and performs life-cycle cost analysis using FEDS. An API is also under development to allow the third-party applications to exchange data with the web service of the scoring tool.

  12. Berkeley Lab to Help Build Straw Bale Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsham, S.A.; Van Mechelen, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Shorebird Environmental Learning Center (SELC) is a new straw bale building that will showcase current and future technologies and techniques that will reduce the environmental impacts of building construction and operations. The building will also serve as a living laboratory to test systems and monitor their performance. The project will be the model for a building process that stops using our precious resources and reduces waste pollution. The rice straw that will be used for the bale construction is generally waste material that is typically burned--millions of tons of it a year--especially in California's San Joaquin Valley. Buildings have significant impacts on the overall environment. Building operations, including lighting, heating, and cooling, consume about 30% of the energy used in the United States. Building construction and the processes into making building materials consume an additional 8% of total energy. Construction also accounts for 39% of wood consumed in the U S, while 25% of solid waste volume is construction and demolition (C &D) debris. The SELC will incorporate a variety of materials and techniques that will address these and other issues, while providing a model of environmentally considered design for Bay Area residents and builders. Environmental considerations include energy use in construction and operations, selection of materials, waste minimization, and indoor air quality. We have developed five major environmental goals for this project: (1) Minimize energy use in construction and operations; (2) Employ material sources that are renewable, salvaged, recycled, and/or recyclable; (3) Increase building lifespan with durable materials and designs that permit flexibility and modification with minimal demolition; (4) Reduce and strive to eliminate construction debris; and (5) Avoid products that create toxic pollutants and make a healthy indoor environment.

  13. Structure Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, J.E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    I argue that structure building (e.g. Chomsky’s Merge) is not part of the narrow language faculty (FLN, contra Hauser, Chomsky & Fitch 2002). FLN is not empty, though: it consists of a lexico-grammatical component that defines grammatical objects, (non- recursive) combinatory rules/principles,

  14. Existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    their homes. These policy measures include building regulations, energy tax and different types of incentives and information dissemination. The conclusion calls for new and innovative policy measures to cope with the realities of renovations of owner-occupied houses and how energy efficiency improvement...

  15. Building Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Marjane

    1994-01-01

    Describes how an initial $1,500 grant helped build a desperately needed health clinic on the Pine Ridge Reservation. Provides the history of the clinic, from its beginning as a small grant to its ultimate development into a $400,000 solar-heated health clinic with a staff of 9 people, including a full-time physician. (MAB)

  16. Rapid Building Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    data gathering. The second driver to be considered is data security & privacy . Should the DoD require the hosting of FirstFuel’s servers behind a DoD...201262 Building Energy Asset Management (BEAM) 159 April, 2014 Limitation Three: Beam Executable, which using Matlab compiler runtime and BCVTB... differentiated by the connection types between BAS and BEAM Runtime software. For operation in the “Stand Alone” mode, the software doesn’t need to be

  17. Electricity price forecasting through transfer function models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogales, F.J. [Universidad Carlos II, Madrid (Spain); Conejo, A.J. [Universidad de Castilla, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    Forecasting electricity prices in present day competitive electricity markets is a must for both producers and consumers because both need price estimates to develop their respective market bidding strategies. This paper proposes a transfer function model to predict electricity prices based on both past electricity prices and demands, and discuss the rationale to build it. The importance of electricity demand information is assessed. Appropriate metrics to appraise prediction quality are identified and used. Realistic and extensive simulations based on data from the PJM Interconnection for year 2003 are conducted. The proposed model is compared with naive and other techniques. Journal of the Operational Research Society (2006) 57, 350-356.doi:10.1057/palgrave.jors.2601995; published online 18 May 2005. (author)

  18. Timed Transfer : An Evaluation of Its Structure, Performance and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    Timed transfer is a transit operating strategy in which vehicles from different routes are routed and scheduled to meet simultaneously at common stops to facilitate no-wait or minimum-wait passenger transfers. Timed transfers are being used primarily...

  19. Final deactivation report on the radioisotope area services, Building 3034, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of Bldg. 3034, after completion of deactivation activities as outlined by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) guidance documentation. This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) Program. This report provides a history and profile of Bldg. 3034 before commencement of deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities. Turnover, items, such as the Postdeactivation Surveillance & Maintenance Plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, quality assurance, facility operations, an supporting documentation provided in the Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) Turnover Package, are discussed. Building 3034 will require access to facilitate required surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Building 3034 was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only a minimal S&M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. In addition to the minimal S&M activities, the building will be occupied by the maintenance coordinator and the S&M supervisor for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project. The exterior doors are locked when unoccupied to prevent unauthorized access. All materials have been removed from the building. Piping and alarms have been deactivated.

  20. Morphology, structure, composition and build-up processes of the active channel-mouth lobe complex of the Congo deep-sea fan with inputs from remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) multibeam and video surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennielou, Bernard; Droz, Laurence; Babonneau, Nathalie; Jacq, Céline; Bonnel, Cédric; Picot, Marie; Le Saout, Morgane; Saout, Yohan; Bez, Martine; Savoye, Bruno; Olu, Karine; Rabouille, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    The detailed structure and composition of turbiditic channel-mouth lobes is still largely unknown because they commonly lie at abyssal water depths, are very thin and are therefore beyond the resolution of hull-mound acoustic tools. The morphology, structure and composition of the Congo turbiditic channel-mouth lobe complex (90×40 km; 2525 km2) were investigated with hull-mounted swath bathymetry, air gun seismics, 3.5 kHz sub-bottom profiler, sediment piston cores and also with high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and video acquired with a Remote Operating Vehicle (ROV). The lobe complex lies 760 km off the Congo River mouth in the Angola abyssal plain between 4740 and 5030 m deep. It is active and is fed by turbidity currents that deposit several centimetres of sediment per century. The lobe complex is subdivided into five lobes that have prograded. The lobes are dominantly muddy. Sand represents ca. 13% of the deposits and is restricted to the feeding channel and distributaries. The overall lobe body is composed of thin muddy to silty turbidites. The whole lobe complex is characterized by in situ mass wasting (slumps, debrites). The 1-m-resolution bathymetry shows pervasive slidings and block avalanches on the edges of the feeding channel and the channel mouth indicating that sliding occurs early and continuously in the lobe build-up. Mass wasting is interpreted as a consequence of very-high accumulation rates, over-steepening and erosion along the channels and is therefore an intrinsic process of lobe building. The bifurcation of feeding channels is probably triggered when the gradient in the distributaries at the top of a lobe becomes flat and when turbidity currents find their way on the higher gradient on the lobe side. It may also be triggered by mass wasting on the lobe side. When a new lobe develops, the abandoned lobes continue to collect significant turbiditic deposits from the feeding channel spillover, so that the whole lobe complex remains active. A

  1. Hanford site post NPH building inspection plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-12

    This plan establishes consistent post-NPH building inspection procedures and defines a procedure for prioritization of buildings for inspection to ensure the safety of facilities prior to reentry. Qualification of systems for restart of operation is not included. This plan takes advantage, where possible, of existing national procedures for post-NPH inspection of buildings, of existing structural design and evaluation documentation of Hanford facilities, and current and proposed seismic instrumentation located throughout the Hanford site. A list of buildings, prioritized according to current building safety function and building vulnerability (without regard for or information about a damaging natural forces event) is provided.

  2. Station Transfers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ixed rail transit external system transfers for systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of...

  3. Renewable Energy Applications for Existing Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S. J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper introduces technical opportunities, means, and methods for incorporating renewable energy (RE) technologies into building designs and operations. It provides an overview of RE resources and available technologies used successfully to offset building electrical and thermal energy loads. Methods for applying these technologies in buildings and the role of building energy efficiency in successful RE projects are addressed along with tips for implementing successful RE projects.

  4. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  5. From Baxter Q-operators to local charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frassek, Rouven [Humboldt-Univ., Berlin (Germany). Institut fuer Mathematik und Institut fuer Physik; Albert-Einstein-Institut, Potsdam (Germany). MPI fuer Gravitationsphysik; Meneghelli, Carlo [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Mathematik

    2012-10-15

    We discuss how the shift operator and the Hamiltonian enter the hierarchy of Baxter Q-operators in the example of gl(n) homogeneous spin-chains. Building on the construction that was recently carried out by the authors and their collaborators, we find that a reduced set of Q-operators can be used to obtain local charges. The mechanism relies on projection properties of the corresponding R-operators on a highest/lowest weight state of the quantum space. It is intimately related to the ordering of the oscillators in the auxiliary space. Furthermore, we introduce a diagrammatic language that makes these properties manifest and the results transparent. Our approach circumvents the paradigm of constructing the transfer matrix with equal representations in quantum and auxiliary space and underlines the strength of the Q-operator construction.

  6. Building Partnership Capacity: Operation Harmattan and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    leaders, President Sarkozy announced that he had ordered French planes into the skies above Libya. In all, eight Rafales from Saint -Dizier, two Mirage...destroyer Forbin and antiair frigate Jean Bart were already off the coast of Libya, the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle, recently returned

  7. Suite Ventilation Characteristics of Current Canadian Mid-andHigh-Rise Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper characterizes ventilation in residential suiteslocated in ll buildings were between six and thirty-two stories tall andwere built between 1990 and 1995. The key findings from field performancetests of these buildings were: 1. Corridor supply airflows usually didnot meet design flows.2. Makeup air paths for suite exhaust were notproperly designed.3. Suite access door leakage was highly variable andusually did not meet smoke control requirements.4. Airflow from thecorridor through the suite access door leakage appeared to be the primaryventilation air supply for suites.5. Suites were usually well-ventilated,but some were marginally- or under-ventilated.6. Poor pressure controloften allowed transfer air from one suite to another. Inter-suitetransfer air fractions ranged from 0 to 45 percent, with an average of 19percent. In summary, this work showed suite ventilation can be highlyinfluenced by corridor supply flows, by the treatment of corridor accessdoors, and by transfer airflows. As a result, suite ventilation at anygiven time in current mid- and high-rise residential buildings is verydifficult to predict. To ensure suite ventilation performs as intendedunder all operating conditions, the building industry needs to addressthe identified problems through improved ventilation design, operation,and maintenance practices.

  8. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in November 2013, a Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) platform was engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), small- (5,000 square feet or smaller) and medium-sized (between 5,001 to 50,000 square feet) commercial buildings constitute about 95% of all commercial buildings in the U.S. These buildings typically do not have Building Automation Systems (BAS) to monitor and control building operation. While commercial BAS solutions exist, including those from Siemens, Honeywell, Johnsons Controls and many more, they are not cost effective in the context of small- and medium-sized commercial buildings, and typically work with specific controller products from the same company. BEMOSS targets small and medium-sized commercial buildings to address this gap.

  9. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  10. Building Technological Capability within Satellite Programs in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle Renee

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. They sometimes pursue this via collaborative satellite development projects with foreign firms that provide training. This phenomenon of collaborative satellite development projects is poorly understood by researchers of technological learning and technology transfer. The approach has potential to facilitate learning, but there are also challenges due to misaligned incentives and the tacit nature of the technology. Perspectives from literature on Technological Learning, Technology Transfer, Complex Product Systems and Product Delivery provide useful but incomplete insight for decision makers in such projects. This work seeks a deeper understanding of capability building through collaborative technology projects by conceiving of the projects as complex, socio-technical systems with architectures. The architecture of a system is the assignment of form to execute a function along a series of dimensions. The research questions explore the architecture of collaborative satellite projects, the nature of capability building during such projects, and the relationship between architecture and capability building. The research design uses inductive, exploratory case studies to investigate six collaborative satellite development projects. Data collection harnesses international field work driven by interviews, observation, and documents. The data analysis develops structured narratives, architectural comparison and capability building assessment. The architectural comparison reveals substantial variation in project implementation, especially in the areas of project initiation, technical specifications of the satellite, training approaches and the supplier selection process. The individual

  11. Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anita Lewis

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

  12. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  13. NASA technology investments: building America's future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Mason

    2013-03-01

    Investments in technology and innovation enable new space missions, stimulate the economy, contribute to the nation's global competitiveness, and inspire America's next generation of scientists, engineers and astronauts. Chief Technologist Mason Peck will provide an overview of NASA's ambitious program of space exploration that builds on new technologies, as well as proven capabilities, as it expands humanity's reach into the solar system while providing broadly-applicable benefits here on Earth. Peck also will discuss efforts of the Office of the Chief Technologist to coordinate the agency's overall technology portfolio, identifying development needs, ensuring synergy and reducing duplication, while furthering the national initiatives as outlined by President Obama's Office of Science and Technology Policy. By coordinating technology programs within NASA, Peck's office facilitates integration of available and new technology into operational systems that support specific human-exploration missions, science missions, and aeronautics. The office also engages other government agencies and the larger aerospace community to develop partnerships in areas of mutual interest that could lead to new breakthrough capabilities. NASA technology transfer translates our air and space missions into societal benefits for people everywhere. Peck will highlight NASA's use of technology transfer and commercialization to help American entrepreneurs and innovators develop technological solutions that stimulate the growth of the innovation economy by creating new products and services, new business and industries and high quality, sustainable jobs.

  14. Liquid and Gaseous Waste Operations Project Annual Operating Report CY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, J.J.; Scott, C.B.

    2000-03-01

    A total of 5.77 x 10 7 gallons (gal) of liquid waste was decontaminated by the Process Waste Treatment Complex (PWTC) - Building 3544 ion exchange system during calendar year (CY) 1999. This averaged to 110 gpm throughout the year. An additional 3.94 x 10 6 gal of liquid waste (average of 8 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated using the zeolite treatment system due to periods of high Cesium levels in the influent wastewater. A total of 6.17 x 10 7 gal of liquid waste (average of 118 gpm throughout the year) was decontaminated at Building 3544 during the year. During the year, the regeneration of the ion exchange resins resulted in the generation of 8.00 x 10 3 gal of Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) concentrate and 9.00 x 10 2 gal of LLLW supernate. See Table 1 for a monthly summary of activities at Building 3544. Figure 1 shows a diagram of the Process Waste Collection and Transfer System and Figure 2 shows a diagram of the Building 3544 treatment process. Figures 3, 4 5, and 6 s how a comparison of operations at Building 3544 in 1997 with previous years. Figure 7 shows a comparison of annual rainfall at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1995.

  15. Heat transfer optimization of SCO2 porous flow based on Brinkman model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin David T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to obtain the optimal operating condition in order to find the maximum supercritical CO2 heat extraction in the enhanced geothermal system (EGS. In this study, the heat transfer model conjugated with the Brinkman model is used to evaluate the thermal behavior in the reservoir of the EGS. This numerical model is validated by experiment. Optimization is processed based on the Nelder-Mead approach. The optimal operating conditions are proposed with different pressure, porosity. This study will build the optimal platform of heat source of geothermal power plant.

  16. Common Exercises in Whole Building HAM Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Subtask 1 of the IEA Annex 41 project had the purpose to advance the development in modelling the integral heat, air and moisture transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings”. Such modelling comprises all relevant elements of buildings: The indoor air, the building envelope, the inside...... constructions, furnishing, systems and users. The building elements interact with each other and with the outside climate. The Annex 41 project and its Subtask 1 has not aimed to produce one state-of–the-art hygrothermal simulation model for whole buildings but rather to stimulate the participants’ own...

  17. Energy savings and comfort changes in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krighaar, M. [COWI (Denmark); Ivanauskas, A. [Klaipedos Energija SPAB (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    This article presents the results from a demonstration project on building installations in the city Klaipeda, Lithuania. The project demonstrates the energy savings and increased comfort level achieved by installation of various energy saving measures and includes a cost benefit analysis. The demonstration area consists of eight typical buildings. The outcome of the project provides a valuable basis for future decisions to be made concerning reconstruction of heating installations and enables the results and experience to be transferred to 2,500 buildings in Klaipeda and buildings in Lithuania in general. (au)

  18. TRANSFERENCE LOVE

    OpenAIRE

    Deneanu, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    It is the psychoanalysis’ merit to have discovered one of most common phenomenon that happens in almost all kind of human relations, and that is transference. Psychoanalytic framework did not produce it, but stimulate it. Transference love—one of the most powerful tool used by the analyst to get to understand a pacient’s pattern of falling in love—is an emotional relationship (a conglomeration of affection, tenderness, friendship, erotic and sexual feelings) developed by a pacient for his/her...

  19. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eley, Charles [Consultant; Gupta, Smita [Itron; McHugh, Jon [McHugh Energy Consultants; Lui, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Higgins, Cathy [New Buildings Institute; Iplikci, Jessica [Energy Trust of Oregon; Rosenberg, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-06-01

    Recently, zero net energy (ZNE) buildings have moved from state-of-the-art small project demonstrations to a more widely adopted approach across the country among various building types and sizes. States such as California set policy goals of all new residential construction to be NZE by 2020 and all commercial buildings to be NZE by 2030. However, the market for designing, constructing, and operating ZNE buildings is still relatively small. We bring together distinguished experts to share their thoughts on making ZNE buildings more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This conversation also presents the benefits of ZNE and ways to achieve that goal in the design and operation of buildings. The following is a roundtable conducted by ASHRAE Journal and Bing Liu with Charles Eley, Smita Gupta, Cathy Higgins, Jessica Iplikci, Jon McHugh, Michael Rosenberg, and Paul Torcellini.

  20. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  1. Star operations and Pullbacks

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Marco; Park, Mi Hee

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the star operations on a pullback of integral domains. In particular, we characterize the star operations of a domain arising from a pullback of ``a general type'' by introducing new techniques for ``projecting'' and ``lifting'' star operations under surjective homomorphisms of integral domains. We study the transfer in a pullback (or with respect to a surjective homomorphism) of some relevant classes or distinguished properties of star operations such as $v-, t-, w-, b...

  2. Subsidiary Autonomy and Knowledge Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the effect of subsidiary autonomy on knowledge transfers during captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets. Design/methodology/approach: A framework to this end is developed and illustrated in relation to four cases of captive R&D offshoring to emerging markets....... Findings: Subsidiary autonomy has a mainly negative effect on primary knowledge transfer and a mainly positive effect on reverse knowledge transfer. Newly established R&D subsidiaries in emerging markets need primary knowledge transfer in order to build up their competence before they can add...... to the knowledge level of the MNE. Originality: A dual role of subsidiary autonomy is identified. Gradual increase in R&D subsidiary autonomy is beneficial for subsidiary innovation performance....

  3. Vision-based building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis using 3D thermography and building information modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Youngjib

    The emerging energy crisis in the building sector and the legislative measures on improving energy efficiency are steering the construction industry towards adopting new energy efficient design concepts and construction methods that decrease the overall energy loads. However, the problems of energy efficiency are not only limited to the design and construction of new buildings. Today, a significant amount of input energy in existing buildings is still being wasted during the operational phase. One primary source of the energy waste is attributed to unnecessary heat flows through building envelopes during hot and cold seasons. This inefficiency increases the operational frequency of heating and cooling systems to keep the desired thermal comfort of building occupants, and ultimately results in excessive energy use. Improving thermal performance of building envelopes can reduce the energy consumption required for space conditioning and in turn provide building occupants with an optimal thermal comfort at a lower energy cost. In this sense, energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis for existing building envelopes are key enablers for improving energy efficiency. Since proper retrofit decisions of existing buildings directly translate into energy cost saving in the future, building practitioners are increasingly interested in methods for reliable identification of potential performance problems so that they can take timely corrective actions. However, sensing what and where energy problems are emerging or are likely to emerge and then analyzing how the problems influence the energy consumption are not trivial tasks. The overarching goal of this dissertation focuses on understanding the gaps in knowledge in methods for building energy diagnostics and retrofit analysis, and filling these gaps by devising a new method for multi-modal visual sensing and analytics using thermography and Building Information Modeling (BIM). First, to address the challenges in scaling and

  4. Seamless Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carol

    2017-01-01

    In 2014, approximately 7.3 million undergraduate students (42 percent) were enrolled in community colleges in the US, the latest statistic offered by the Community College Research Center. At some schools, like Cleveland State University (OH), more transfer students graduated in 2014 with a bachelor's degree than students who entered four-year…

  5. Influence of heat transfer on walls due to aerosol decomposition rate in the containment building of nuclear power plants during heavy incidents; Einfluss des Waermeuebergangs an Waenden auf die Aerosolabbaurate im Sicherheitsbehaelter von Kernkraftwerken bei schweren Stoerfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, T.

    2004-07-01

    Today, German nuclear power plants are leading in safety standards worldwide. Increasing potentials arise continuously along with improvements in technology. One of these potentials is the best-estimate simulation of fission product transport in case of a severe accident. A main part of the fission products is allocated on aerosols. Therefore, the aerosol behavior before containment leakage is important for the radioactive source term to the environment. Having a good knowledge about the main aerosol phenomena, it is possible to simulate them numerically. This enables to develop and test safety measures to limit damages before accidents occur. Within this study, the main aerosol phenomena have been ascertained and accordingly classified into formation, transport and reduction. On this basis, simulations of one- and multi-component aerosol experiments of the KAEVER series have been performed with the COCOSYS code. Due to an overprediction of the computed volume condensation rate, the results showed an overestimation of the reduction rate of insoluble aerosols. The reason was found to be the underestimation of the wall condensation rate. Based on an additional plain thermal hydraulic multi compartment experiment, these uncertainties in the wall heat transfer correlations were investigated in detail. The results show a strong dependency between the wall condensation rate and the convective heat transfer, resp. the characteristic length. In case of mainly forced convection, correct values for the characteristic length led to an underestimation of the calculated heat transfer coefficients. The analysis of the heat transfer models show an inconsistency in the coupling of free and forced convection. Therefore, an improved and consistent convection model has been developed and implemented. Both models have been tested on different experiments. Although the new model shows only minor improvements, it could be proven that the influence for forced convection is significant

  6. Building Sandcastles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø; Korsgaard, Steffen; Shumar, Wes

    In this paper we focus on a hitherto somewhat overlooked aspect of entrepreneurship education, namely the influence of materiality and spatial context on the process of teaching and learning. In the paper we present an empirical examination oriented towards the material and spatial dimensions...... of entrepreneurship education. Our theoretical and methodological approach builds on Actor-Network Theory. The empirical settings of our study consist of two entrepreneurship courses which differ in terms of temporal extension and physical setting. Data is collected using observation and interview techniques. Our...... findings demonstrate the agency of material artefacts and how they enable teachers to act at a distance, by standing in as a scaffold that maintains the learning space as it interacts with the students. This acting at a distance however is highly uncertain and uncontrollable. Also we see how important...

  7. Operating System Security

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeger, Trent

    2008-01-01

    Operating systems provide the fundamental mechanisms for securing computer processing. Since the 1960s, operating systems designers have explored how to build "secure" operating systems - operating systems whose mechanisms protect the system against a motivated adversary. Recently, the importance of ensuring such security has become a mainstream issue for all operating systems. In this book, we examine past research that outlines the requirements for a secure operating system and research that implements example systems that aim for such requirements. For system designs that aimed to

  8. Towards Collaborative Data Analytics for Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Mohamed, Nader

    2017-01-01

    , but steadily increasing trend in the number of buildings that become smart. The increase in availability and the decrease in prices of sensors and meters, have made them almost standard elements in buildings; both in newly built and existing ones. Sensors and meters enable growing collections of data from......Smart buildings are buildings equipped with the latest technological and architectural solutions, controlled by Building Management Systems (BMS), operating in fulfillment of the typical goals of increasing occupants’ comfort and reducing buildings’ energy consumption. We witness a slow...

  9. Beyond Access: Explaining Socioeconomic Differences in College Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Pfeffer, Fabian T.

    2009-01-01

    Reducing socioeconomic differences in college transfer requires understanding how and why parental education, occupational class, and family income are associated with changing colleges. Building on prior studies of traditional community college transfer, the authors explore relationships between those factors and two types of transfer among…

  10. UN Peacebuilding Operations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    published a Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Task Framework in 2002, in which they identify three stages, namely: the ..... building operation. The UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) has participated in the development of the guidelines on the use of military and civil defence assets to support United Nations ...

  11. Exploring network operations for data and information networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bing; Su, Jing; Ma, Fei; Wang, Xiaomin; Zhao, Xiyang; Yao, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Barabási and Albert, in 1999, formulated scale-free models based on some real networks: World-Wide Web, Internet, metabolic and protein networks, language or sexual networks. Scale-free networks not only appear around us, but also have high qualities in the world. As known, high quality information networks can transfer feasibly and efficiently data, clearly, their topological structures are very important for data safety. We build up network operations for constructing large scale of dynamic networks from smaller scale of network models having good property and high quality. We focus on the simplest operators to formulate complex operations, and are interesting on the closeness of operations to desired network properties.

  12. Energy use in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This is the report on Task IB, Familiarization with Additional Data Collection Plans of Annual Survey of BOMA Member and Non-Member Buildings in 20 Cities, of the Energy Use in Office Buildings project. The purpose of the work was to monitor and understand the efforts of the Building Owners and Managers Association International (BOMA) in gathering an energy-use-oriented data base. In order to obtain an improved data base encompassing a broad spectrum of office space and with information suitable for energy analysis in greater detail than is currently available, BOMA undertook a major data-collection effort. Based on a consideration of geographic area, climate, population, and availability of data, BOMA selected twenty cities for data collection. BOMA listed all of the major office space - buildings in excess of 40,000 square feet - in each of the cities. Tax-assessment records, local maps, Chamber of Commerce data, recent industrial-development programs, results of related studies, and local-realtor input were used in an effort to assemble a comprehensive office-building inventory. In order to verify the accuracy and completeness of the building lists, BOMA assembled an Ad-Hoc Review Committee in each city to review the assembled inventory of space. A questionnaire on office-building energy use and building characteristics was developed. In each city BOMA assembled a data collection team operating under the supervision of its regional affiliate to gather the data. For each city a random sample of buildings was selected, and data were gathered. Responses for over 1000 buildings were obtained.

  13. Space heating in buildings: thermal diagnosis of an industrial building; Chauffage des batiments: bilan thermique d`un batiment industriel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, R.

    1996-12-31

    The various heat transfer equations used for calculations in thermal diagnosis of an industrial building are reviewed: calculation of the heat losses through walls as a function of building materials, calculation of the energy consumption for heating fresh air (as a function of the air pollution rate in the building), calculation of the total heat losses, the heating energy demand and the annual energy consumption. Data concerning building materials characteristics, insulation and heating loads in the various regions of France, are also presented

  14. Atmospheric radon: origin and transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tamez, E.; Pena, P.; Gaso, I. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Mireles, F.; Davila, I.; Quirino, L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico). Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares

    1994-12-31

    Atmospheric indoor and outdoor radon surveys have been performed in several locations of Mexico. In order to estimate the radon transfer from different origins to the atmosphere, soil and ground water, together with the exhalation rate from bare and coated building materials have also been studied. The radon detection was performed with SSNTD, an automatic silicon-based radon monitor and the liquid scintillation technique. The results from several years of monitoring indicate that the atmospheric radon behaviour is different for the countryside as compared with more complex inhabited regions; transfer from soil being inhibited by the specific structures of the cities. The effect of wall coatings reduced from 50% to 90% the radon exhalation from bare building materials. A low radon content was observed in the ground water samples studied. (Author).

  15. Energy efficient and healthy buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Monica [AaF Process (Sweden); Oefverholm, Egil [Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Bengtsson, Magnus; Tolstoy, Nikolaj [National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Indoor environment has become an important subject matter in Scandinavia since increasingly many buildings demonstrate poor indoor air quality, problems with mould and other sick building syndromes. There are worries that the malignity is derived from tighter constructions and more sparse ventilation since problems have been escalating contemporary to better energy efficiency in the building stock. Based on this possible linkage, Sweden has decided to include also indoor environment aspects in the implementation of the directive on energy declaration of buildings. By the same token, a co-operation between the Swedish Energy Agency and the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning is underway where more than 100 schools are investigated regarding their energy usage patterns as well as their indoor environment status. Results from this inventory will be elaborated in this paper. The hypothesis for the investigation is that it is quite possible to demonstrate energy efficient and healthy buildings, and therefore results will give no significant statistical linkage between poor indoor quality and low specific energy use. Preliminary findings underpin this assumption. The paper will discuss the factors and their statistical interaction in more detail, and a discussion will be held on what other reasons there can be behind the sick buildings.

  16. Building relationships for better maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hackman Hon Yin; Scott, David

    2009-02-01

    Effective management of building maintenance is a vital ingredient in ensuring a high quality built environment for any building's occupiers. However, maintenance is not high on the list of priorities for most organisations. Communication between top management personnel looking at maintenance issues from a strategic standpoint and maintenance staff considering them at an operational level is often not as good as it should be. When planning maintenance activities maintenance personnel often draw too heavily on their technical experience and expertise without taking sufficient account of wider organisational objectives or consulting effectively with top management. Senior managers also regularly complain about lack of managerial input from maintenance departments. Such barriers contribute to communication difficulties between top management at a strategic level and maintenance personnel at an operational level. Identifying where the key differences lie in senior managers' and maintenance personnel's viewpoints on maintenance strategy can prove invaluable in achieving some convergence of opinions and optimising the efficiency of the overall building maintenance process.

  17. Building server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to further our understanding of multinational companies building server capabilities in China. The paper is based on the cases of two western companies with operations in China. The findings highlight a number of common patterns in the 1) managerial challenges related...

  18. Smart building temperature control using occupant feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Santosh K.

    This work was motivated by the problem of computing optimal commonly-agreeable thermal settings in spaces with multiple occupants. In this work we propose algorithms that take into account each occupant's preferences along with the thermal correlations between different zones in a building, to arrive at optimal thermal settings for all zones of the building in a coordinated manner. In the first part of this work we incorporate active occupant feedback to minimize aggregate user discomfort and total energy cost. User feedback is used to estimate the users comfort range, taking into account possible inaccuracies in the feedback. The control algorithm takes the energy cost into account, trading it off optimally with the aggregate user discomfort. A lumped heat transfer model based on thermal resistance and capacitance is used to model a multi-zone building. We provide a stability analysis and establish convergence of the proposed solution to a desired temperature that minimizes the sum of energy cost and aggregate user discomfort. However, for convergence to the optimal, sufficient separation between the user feedback frequency and the dynamics of the system is necessary; otherwise, the user feedback provided do not correctly reflect the effect of current control input value on user discomfort. The algorithm is further extended using singular perturbation theory to determine the minimum time between successive user feedback solicitations. Under sufficient time scale separation, we establish convergence of the proposed solution. Simulation study and experimental runs on the Watervliet based test facility demonstrates performance of the algorithm. In the second part we develop a consensus algorithm for attaining a common temperature set-point that is agreeable to all occupants of a zone in a typical multi-occupant space. The information on the comfort range functions is indeed held privately by each occupant. Using occupant differentiated dynamically adjusted prices as

  19. Sustainable facilities management through building information modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonari, Giulia; Jones, Keith G.

    2014-01-01

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) is an approach to improving the efficiency of the building process and potentially providing the key data set needed by facilities managers to operate buildings in a more sustainable manner. Whilst the design/construction phase of BIM is well advanced, the facilities management phase is not. Although attempts to develop similar facilities management models have been tried before, they have failed because of the complexity of data analysis and the inadequac...

  20. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Technology Validation and Market Introduction 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for technology validation and market introduction, including ENERGY STAR, building energy codes, technology transfer application centers, commercial lighting initiative, EnergySmart Schools, EnergySmar