WorldWideScience

Sample records for build operate transfer

  1. Investeren in build-operate-transfer projecten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van Th.A.; Vrancken, B.P.E.

    1998-01-01

    De Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) methode is een aanbestedingsmethode waarbij een consortium van bouwbedrijven een concessie-overeenkomst sluit met de overheid ten behoeve van een te realiseren infrastructuurvoorziening, waar geen overheidsbetaling tegenover staat. De concessiehouder is

  2. Knowledge transfer from building operation to construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Chatzilazarou, Stamatia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how knowledge that derives from operation and maintenance of buildings can be stored and transferred in order to be reused in a future building project? Design/methodology/approach: The paper is theoretically based on knowledge management with a particular focus...... on interdepartmental knowledge transfer between departments responsible for operation and management and departments responsible for building projects in organisations with large and fast changing building portfolios. The paper includes a case study of the FM organisation of the Technical University of Denmark...... with data collection mainly by interviews with managers and staff in the relevant departments in this organisation. Findings: The case organisation seems to be aware of the importance of sharing and transferring their organisational knowledge. Over the last five years, the organisation has developed...

  3. Transferring Knowledge from Building Operation to Design: A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle Lohmann; Jensen, Per Anker; Gregg, Jay Sterling

    . Knowing that the list lacks inputs from cultural and organizational theory, the paper suggests that further research should focus on taking these suggestions to an operational level for the benefit of FM, building clients and design teams. Furthermore, it is found that major concepts that could......As a solution to the previously identified gap between expected and actual building performance, this paper investigates how knowledge can be transferred from operation to design. This is assumed to help bridge the gap and increase the performance of new built facilities. By conducting a systematic...... literature review, it is found, that the theoretical approach in the reviewed articles has a significant impact on the level of how applicable the recommendations are in practice. Furthermore, a list of identified tools to enable knowledge transfer is provided, including POE, PPP and building commissioning...

  4. Build-operate-transfer Outsourcing Contracts in Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely used in the engineering and construction industry and has recently spread into the service industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets, India in particular, are now offering BOT outsourcing contracts in which...... the client firms are allotted call options, i.e. the right, but not the obligation, to transfer pre-specified assets from the service provider. As such, BOT outsourcing contracts seems to be an interesting contractual novelty that combines the advantages of outsourced and captive offshoring operations....... In this paper we investigate under which circumstances a BOT outsourcing contract (i.e. a contract where the client firm exercises its call option) is beneficial, or the opposite, to the emerging market vendor firm. Whether BOT outsourcing contracts are boon or bane to an emerging market vendor basically hinges...

  5. Nuclear power costs in the build, operate, transfer approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aybers, M.N.; Sahin, B.

    1990-01-01

    The costs of nuclear power are discussed with special reference to the economic problems faced by developing countries, and the relative merit of a new accounting approach, viz., the build, operate, transfer contract model, which was proposed in Turkey for the Akkuyu nuclear power project, is illustrated. In this context, the general methodology of calculating nuclear power costs is summarized and a capital cost analysis for a 986 MW pressurized water reactor plant is given in terms of constant monetary units for the above contract model and the turnkey contract model. Adjustment of the costs taking into account regional conditions such as inflation and higher interest rates is also indicated. (orig.) [de

  6. Maintaining operational excellence: building capability beyond knowledge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramjist, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the issues relating to human resources and maintaining capabilities in an organization. The sustaining elements are: vision and plan for excellence; invest in the plant; invest in human capital; find and fix problems. There is much discussion about knowledge transfer and retention that is mainly focused on technical attributes and proficiency. We are losing more people with the requisite managerial and leadership capability than we can develop and backfill at a Time when our industry is facing increased competition and decreased margins. We are vulnerable because this Increases our dependence on augmented staff for certain key leadership roles. Previous methods for developing people will take too long and does not appeal to current generation. A solution, not the only solution, but the one we have chosen is initial hiring of operators, maintainers and engineers, internal promotion for key roles (FLM, FSOS, Shift Supervisor, Section Manager, ANO) and focus on all three aspects of capability and looking for leadership traits. Look for ambition, drive, initiative and motivation. Identify, separate and stream. Take specific measures to accelerate growth.

  7. Maintaining operational excellence: building capability beyond knowledge transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramjist, S. [Ontario Power Generation, Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, Bowmanville, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the issues relating to human resources and maintaining capabilities in an organization. The sustaining elements are: vision and plan for excellence; invest in the plant; invest in human capital; find and fix problems. There is much discussion about knowledge transfer and retention that is mainly focused on technical attributes and proficiency. We are losing more people with the requisite managerial and leadership capability than we can develop and backfill at a Time when our industry is facing increased competition and decreased margins. We are vulnerable because this Increases our dependence on augmented staff for certain key leadership roles. Previous methods for developing people will take too long and does not appeal to current generation. A solution, not the only solution, but the one we have chosen is initial hiring of operators, maintainers and engineers, internal promotion for key roles (FLM, FSOS, Shift Supervisor, Section Manager, ANO) and focus on all three aspects of capability and looking for leadership traits. Look for ambition, drive, initiative and motivation. Identify, separate and stream. Take specific measures to accelerate growth.

  8. Managing urban wastewater in China: a survey of build-operate-transfer contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braadbaart, O.D.; Zhang, M.S.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a nationwide field survey of wastewater plants under build-operate-transfer ( BOT) contracts in China. The survey yielded information on contracting parties, size, duration and location of 37 BOT contracts. The key findings are that municipal governments feature as first

  9. Economical analyses of build-operate-transfer model in establishing alternative power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumurtaci, Zehra [Yildiz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Y.T.U. Mak. Fak. Mak. Muh. Bolumu, Besiktas, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: zyumur@yildiz.edu.tr; Erdem, Hasan Hueseyin [Yildiz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Y.T.U. Mak. Fak. Mak. Muh. Bolumu, Besiktas, 34349 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    The most widely employed method to meet the increasing electricity demand is building new power plants. The most important issue in building new power plants is to find financial funds. Various models are employed, especially in developing countries, in order to overcome this problem and to find a financial source. One of these models is the build-operate-transfer (BOT) model. In this model, the investor raises all the funds for mandatory expenses and provides financing, builds the plant and, after a certain plant operation period, transfers the plant to the national power organization. In this model, the object is to decrease the burden of power plants on the state budget. The most important issue in the BOT model is the dependence of the unit electricity cost on the transfer period. In this study, the model giving the unit electricity cost depending on the transfer of the plants established according to the BOT model, has been discussed. Unit electricity investment cost and unit electricity cost in relation to transfer period for plant types have been determined. Furthermore, unit electricity cost change depending on load factor, which is one of the parameters affecting annual electricity production, has been determined, and the results have been analyzed. This method can be employed for comparing the production costs of different plants that are planned to be established according to the BOT model, or it can be employed to determine the appropriateness of the BOT model.

  10. Economical analyses of build-operate-transfer model in establishing alternative power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumurtaci, Zehra; Erdem, Hasan Hueseyin

    2007-01-01

    The most widely employed method to meet the increasing electricity demand is building new power plants. The most important issue in building new power plants is to find financial funds. Various models are employed, especially in developing countries, in order to overcome this problem and to find a financial source. One of these models is the build-operate-transfer (BOT) model. In this model, the investor raises all the funds for mandatory expenses and provides financing, builds the plant and, after a certain plant operation period, transfers the plant to the national power organization. In this model, the object is to decrease the burden of power plants on the state budget. The most important issue in the BOT model is the dependence of the unit electricity cost on the transfer period. In this study, the model giving the unit electricity cost depending on the transfer of the plants established according to the BOT model, has been discussed. Unit electricity investment cost and unit electricity cost in relation to transfer period for plant types have been determined. Furthermore, unit electricity cost change depending on load factor, which is one of the parameters affecting annual electricity production, has been determined, and the results have been analyzed. This method can be employed for comparing the production costs of different plants that are planned to be established according to the BOT model, or it can be employed to determine the appropriateness of the BOT model

  11. Perjanjian Bangun Guna Serah (Build, Operate And Transfer) antara Pemerintah Provinsi Sumatera Selatan dengan Pihak Swasta

    OpenAIRE

    Justisia, Vita

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The availability of adequate infrastructure, need tosupport the implementation of national development and toimprove Indonesia's competitiveness in the global era. Toovercome this, the Government of South Sumatra Province tobuild agreement Build, Operate, and Transfer in thedevelopment of infrastructure without burdening the localbudget through cooperation with Third Parties. This article willbe assessed on what consideration the Government of SouthSumatra Province in determining sy...

  12. Financing Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) Projects: The Case of Islamic Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Tariqullah

    2002-01-01

    Several member countries of the Islamic Development Bank have embarked upon a program of developing and maintaining infrastructure projects by the private sector in the framework of build operate and transfer (BOT) mechanism and its various variants. The present paper reviews these experiences and the peculiar risks associated with investments in these projects as compared to the risks of traditional manufacturing sector and offers a framework for Islamic instruments to finance BOT projects.

  13. PERJANJIAN BOT (BUILD OPERATE AND TRANSFER ANTARA PT. SEAWORLD INDONESIA DENGAN PT PEMBANGUNAN JAYA ANCOL Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arasina Chandra Adcha Mita

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation Cooperation BOT build operate and transfer (BOT is a form of cooperation agreements carried out between holders of land rights to the investor which holders of land rights would entitle the investor to erect a building for the duration of the agreement to transfer ownership of the building to holders of land rights after a period ofwake up in order to deliver an end. One form of the agreement made by PT. Jaya Ancol construction with vehicle manager of Sea World for 20 years ended 20 September 2014. This thesis entitled "Agreement Bot (Build Operate And Transfer between PT.Seaworld Indonesia with PT Building Jaya Ancol Tbk ". The purpose of this study was to determine the problems that arise in the implementation of BOT agreement between PT. Sea Wold Indonesia with PT. Jaya Ancol Tbk development and how its completion. The research method using normative juridical approach. Materials research using primary and secondary data, specifications research using descriptive analytical research, libraries and research tools using interviews, interview techniques and research data analysis method by means of qualitative methods. Based on the research that the differences in perception by each of the parties to cause problems in the BOT agreement. PT. Jaya Ancol development assume that the clause 8 subsection 5 of the Agreement between PT. Development Jaya Ancol Tbk and Sea World considers that the current agreement expires, PT. Sea World Indonesia handing back land and building project to PT. Jaya Ancol Tbk development, including supporting infrastructure and its management rights. The guidelines are used as Sea World Indonesia is clause 8 subsection  6 which states PT. Sea World Indonesia, have a perception extend the management for a maximum of 20 years, and shall notify in writing the Jaya Ancol no later than one year agreement period expires. PT. Sea World is obliged to hand over the building and its assets to PT

  14. KONTRAK BUILD OPERATE TRANSFER SEBAGAI PERJANJIAN KEBIJAKAN PEMERINTAH DENGAN PIHAK SWASTA

    OpenAIRE

    Lalu Hadi Adha

    2011-01-01

    BOT (Build Operate Transfer) as a form of agreement held by the government policy with private parties is a legal act by the agency or the State   administration officials who make public policy as the object of the agreement. Although inherent in him as a body or public official, the government in implementing the contractual relationship with another party (private) legal act is not governed by public law, but based on the laws and regulations of civil law (privaat recht), as the case of le...

  15. KONTRAK BUILD OPERATE TRANSFER SEBAGAI PERJANJIAN KEBIJAKAN PEMERINTAH DENGAN PIHAK SWASTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Hadi Adha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BOT (Build Operate Transfer as a form of agreement held by the government policy with private parties is a legal act by the agency or the State administration officials who make public policy as the object of the agreement. Although inherent in him as a body or public official, the government in implementing the contractual relationship with another party (private legal act is not governed by public law, but based on the laws and regulations of civil law (privaat recht, as the case of legislation that underlie civil legal actions carried out a body of citizens and civil law. The research shows that in a contractual relationship, the government as a party to the BOT contracts have no equal footing with their counterparts. This will be discussed in more depth in the study of law with the approach of juridical normative or study in a BOT contract as an agreement policy.

  16. KEDUDUKAN PERJANJIAN BANGUN GUNA SERAH (BUILD OPERATE AND TRANSFER/BOT DALAM HUKUM TANAH NASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Anita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a state based on a rule of law the goal of which is to realize a just, prosperous, and materially and spiritually equal people. To realize the goal, progressively, sustainable national development has been conducted. The implementation of the development needs, besides from money, the availability of strategic land. To bridge the lack in both of them, BOT concept can be applied, as an agreement between the owner of land right and investor, where the former provides a feasibility study, building, and operation to the latter for a specified period of time, on the condition that when the BOT period of time has expired then the land together with the buildings and their appliances should be transferred to the former, so that both the owner of land right and the investors are mutually benefited. Keywords : National Development; Land; Capital; BOT   ABSTRAK Negara Indonesia merupakan negara hukum yang bertujuan untuk mewujudkan masyarakat adil dan makmur. Guna mewujudkan tujuan tersebut,  dilakukan pembangunan nasional secara bertahap dan berkelanjutan. Pelaksanaan pembangunan tersebut selain perlu didukung oleh dana juga ketersediaan lahan strategis. Keterbatasan keduanya dapat dilakukan melalui konsep BOT,  sebagai suatu perjanjian antara pemilik hak atas tanah dengan investor, dimana pemilik hak atas tanah menyerahkan studi kelayakan, pembangunan, pengoperasian kepada investor pada suatu jangka waktu tertentu, dengan ketentuan apabila masa BOT telah habis, tanah beserta bangunan, serta kelengkapan bangunan diserahkan kepada pemilik hak atas tanah, sehingga baik pemilik hak atas tanah maupun pihak investor yang mendanai pembangunan objek BOT memiliki keuntungan. Kata Kunci : Pembangunan Nasional; Tanah; Dana; BOT

  17. KONTRAK BUILD OPERATE TRANSFER SEBAGAI PERJANJIAN KEBIJAKAN PEMERINTAH DENGAN PIHAK SWASTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalu Hadi Adha

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BOT (Build Operate Transfer as a form of agreement held by the government policy with private parties is a legal act by the agency or the State   administration officials who make public policy as the object of the agreement. Although inherent in him as a body or public official, the government in implementing the contractual relationship with another party (private legal act is not governed by public law, but based on the laws and regulations of civil law (privaat recht, as the case of legislation that underlie civil legal actions carried out a body of citizens and civil law. The research shows that in a contractual relationship, the government as a party to the BOT contracts have no equal footing with their counterparts. This will be discussed in more depth in the study of law with the approach of juridical normative or study in a BOT contract as an agreement policy.   Key words : BOT contract, agreement, policy

  18. The Role of International Investment Law in Renewable Energy Investment; focus on Build Operate and Transfer (BOT) Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Adetiloye, Idowu Adejoke

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy is one of the ways of reducing greenhouse gas emission. There is need for more investment in this sector. However, lack of stable regulatory framework and change in policy makes it unattractive to investors. International investment laws through its protections in investment agreement can help to mitigate risks considered by investors especially those with Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) type of contracts.

  19. PERJANJIAN BANGUN GUNA SERAH (BUILD, OPERATE AND TRANSFER ANTARA PEMERINTAH PROVINSI SUMATERA SELATAN DENGAN PIHAK SWASTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Justisia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The availability of adequate infrastructure, need tosupport the implementation of national development and toimprove Indonesia's competitiveness in the global era. Toovercome this, the Government of South Sumatra Province tobuild agreement Build, Operate, and Transfer in thedevelopment of infrastructure without burdening the localbudget through cooperation with Third Parties. This article willbe assessed on what consideration the Government of SouthSumatra Province in determining system Build, Operate, andTransfer, procedures and implementation agreements totransfer wake, as well as whether to transfer the wakeagreement meets the principle of balance and legal certainityimproving the welfare of society.ملخص: توافر البنیة التحتیة المناسبة، حاجة ملحة لدعم تنفیذ التنمیة الوطنیةوتحسین القدرة التنافسیة اندونیسیا في عصر العولمة. للتغلب على ھذه، وحكومةمقاطعة سومطرة الجنوبیة لبناء اتفاق تطبیق سارح في تطویر البنیة التحتیة دونإثقال كاھل المیزانیة المحلیة من خلال التعاون مع الأطراف الثالثة. في ھذه الدراسةسیتم تقییمھا على ما نظر حكومة مقاطعة سومطرة الجنوبیة في نظام تحدید البناءوصولا إلى سارح وإجراءات و اتفاقات التنفیذ لنقل بعد، وكذلك ما إذا كان سیتم نقلالاتفاق أعقاب یلبي مبدأ التوازن و الیقین القانوني في تحسین رفاھیة المجتمع.Kata Kunci: Perjanjian Bangun Guna Serah

  20. Analisis Yuridis Pelaksanaan Alih Fungsi Aset Pemerintah Melalui Program Build Operate And Transfer (BOT) Antara Pemerintah Kota Tebing Tinggi Dengan PT. Inti Griya Prima Sakti

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Build Operate Transfer Agreement is an action in which the government commits itself to other parties in using government’s land by other parties by constructing building and/or facilities and then exploited at a certain time which has been agreed, and then the land and buildings, as well as other facilities are handed over again to the Property Manager after the duration is over. Build Operate Transfer (BOT) Agreement is a kind of unanimous agreement (onbenoemde overeenkoms...

  1. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    of sustainable building operation and a survey amongst building administrators from the private and the social housing sector. Our results show that there are many good examples on sustainable building operation in Danish housing estates, where local building managers, residents etc. have gained impressive......Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...

  2. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer"--a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs in developing countries: initial lessons from the balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Merrell, Ronald C; Doarn, Charles R; Hadeed, George J; Bekteshi, Flamur; Lecaj, Ismet; Boucha, Kathe; Hajdari, Fatmir; Hoxha, Astrit; Koshi, Dashurije; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja; Berisha, Blerim; Novoberdaliu, Kadri; Imeri, Arben; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2009-12-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in Kosova has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in the Balkans. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy, "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services in developing countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs, was discussed. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the healthcare infrastructure. The endpoint is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program will be transitioned to the national Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Albania, Macedonia, and other countries around the world. The IBOT model has been effective in creating

  3. Beyond "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" strategy for creating sustainable telemedicine programs: lesson from the first decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Dasho, Erion; Lecaj, Ismet; Latifi, Kalterina; Bekteshi, Flamur; Hadeed, Molly; Doarn, Charles R; Merrell, Ronald C

    2012-06-01

    December 10, 2012 will mark the 10th anniversary of the implementation of telemedicine in the Balkans. This first decade of development and function is due to the passion, creativity, experience, and implementation know-how of the award-winning concept of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) Foundation. The objective of this article is to analyze the results of the IVeH's core strategy, "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), which has been instrumental in establishing telemedicine in the Balkans and has been adopted by many other countries worldwide, and to describe the lessons learned that go beyond IBOT. A retrospective review of the results of IVeH engagement in establishing telemedicine in developing countries was conducted. Using IBOT, the IVeH has successfully established two national programs: one in Kosova and one in Albania. Together, they have connected 16 hospitals. Currently IVeH is in the process of creating such programs in many countries around the world. During the analysis of the first decade, we have identified eight factors that should be considered when establishing telemedicine programs. IBOT has been successful, but further studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness in countries beyond the Balkans.

  4. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer" - a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs not only in the developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat

    2011-01-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in the Balkans has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in Kosova. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy developed by IVeH "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services not only in developing countries, but in developed countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs is described. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the very core of healthcare infrastructure. The end point is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova and Albania has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program is transitioned to the Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Macedonia, Montenegro and other countries

  5. Pelaksanaan Kontrak Kerjasama dengan Sistem Bangun Guna Serah / Build Operate Transfer (Bot) dalam Pembangunan Infrastruktur Jalan Tol Medan – Kualanamu – Tebing Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Budi Santoso, Rinitami Njatrijani, Putri Anita Sitanggang*

    2017-01-01

    Kontrak kerjasama dengan sistem bangun guna serah / Build Operate Transfer (BOT) yang diterapkan dalam Perjanjian Pengusahaan Jalan Tol (PPJT) telah membantu pemerintah dalam membangun Jalan Tol Medan – Kualanamu – Tebing Tinggi. Dengan adanya sistem BOT, maka pemerintah tidak lagi kesulitan dalam penyediaan dana untuk merealisasikan jalan tol tersebut. Disamping itu pelaksanaan kontrak kerjasama tersebut haruslah mengacu pada Peraturan Presiden Nomor 38 Tahun 2015 tentang Kerjasama Pemerinta...

  6. Knowledge transfer from facilities management to building projects: A typology of transfer mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2012-01-01

    . The typology is divided in two parts, both based on mechanisms of knowledge push and knowledge pull. The first part has the main focus on the effectiveness of the building requirements and design by knowledge transfer from FM to building project from the front end. Briefing is a central element in this part....... The second part has the main focus on efficiency of building performance and operation by knowledge transfer from FM from the back end. Commissioning is a central element in this part. The typology consists of four mechanisms of front end knowledge transfer and four mechanisms of back end knowledge transfer....

  7. Augmented reality building operations tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2014-09-09

    A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).

  8. Heat and mass transfer in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristoffersen, Astrid Rusaas

    2005-01-01

    This thesis has presented four journal papers about ventilation and heat transfer in buildings. Ventilation and heat transfer in buildings are elements that decide our indoor air quality, thermal comfort and energy use in buildings. Models and experiments are tools to understand the complex physics of heat and air transfer in buildings. As computers are, getting cheaper and more powerful, there is a need to develop reliable models that can predict heat and air transfer in buildings. The first paper in this thesis addressed the widely used multizone model. This model is mainly used to find the airflows between zones in a building. A multizone model is often coupled to an energy analysis program, and affects therefore the calculated energy use in a building. The first paper in this thesis, titled ''Effect of room air recirculation delay on the decay rate of tracer gas concentration'' discussed the impact of a recirculating ventilation system on the decay of the tracer gas concentration in the room. The delay of the tracer gas through the ventilation system affects the concentration in the room, and must be accounted for when calculating the amount of fresh air that the ventilation system supplies. The second paper titled ''CFD Investigation of Room Ventilation for Improved Operation of a Downdraft Table: Novel Concepts'' investigated the performance of a downdraft table by changing the ventilation configuration in the room by use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD can provide a microscopic description of the airflow and the behavior of pollutants and temperature distribution in a room. This paper calculated the airflow pattern in the room without influence of thermal effects, and demonstrated the usage of CFD. It was found that the total airflow could be reduced compared to an existing configuration (and hence reduce energy costs), and at the same time increasing the performance of the downdraft table (increasing the indoor air quality). A room with a

  9. Heat transfer operators associated with quantum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksak, C; Turgut, S

    2011-01-01

    Any quantum operation applied on a physical system is performed as a unitary transformation on a larger extended system. If the extension used is a heat bath in thermal equilibrium, the concomitant change in the state of the bath necessarily implies a heat exchange with it. The dependence of the average heat transferred to the bath on the initial state of the system can then be found from the expectation value of a Hermitian operator, which is named as the heat transfer operator (HTO). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between the HTOs and the associated quantum operations. Since any given quantum operation on a system can be realized by different baths and unitaries, many different HTOs are possible for each quantum operation. On the other hand, there are also strong restrictions on the HTOs which arise from the unitarity of the transformations. The most important of these is the Landauer erasure principle. This paper is concerned with the question of finding a complete set of restrictions on the HTOs that are associated with a given quantum operation. An answer to this question has been found only for a subset of quantum operations. For erasure operations, these characterizations are equivalent to the generalized Landauer erasure principle. For the case of generic quantum operations, however, it appears that the HTOs obey further restrictions which cannot be obtained from the entropic restrictions of the generalized Landauer erasure principle.

  10. Quantum maps from transfer operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.B.; Carioli, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Selberg zeta function ζ S (s) yields an exact relationship between the periodic orbits of a fully chaotic Hamiltonian system (the geodesic flow on surfaces of constant negative curvature) and the corresponding quantum system (the spectrum of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on the same manifold). It was found that for certain manifolds, ζ S (s) can be exactly rewritten as the Fredholm-Grothendieck determinant det(1-T s ), where T s is a generalization of the Ruelle-Perron-Frobenius transfer operator. An alternative derivation of this result is given, yielding a method to find not only the spectrum but also the eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in terms of eigenfunctions of T s . Various properties of the transfer operator are investigated both analytically and numerically for several systems. (author) 30 refs.; 16 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. Foundation heat transfer analysis for buildings with thermal piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almanza Huerta, Luis Enrique; Krarti, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical transient thermal model for thermo-active foundations is developed. • Thermal interactions between thermal piles and building foundations are evaluated. • A simplified analysis method of thermal interactions between thermal piles and building foundations is developed. - Abstract: Thermal piles or thermo-active foundations utilize heat exchangers embedded within foundation footings to heat and/or cool buildings. In this paper, the impact of thermal piles on building foundation heat transfer is investigated. In particular, a simplified analysis method is developed to estimate the annual ground-coupled foundation heat transfer when buildings are equipped with thermal piles. First, a numerical analysis of the thermal performance of thermo-active building foundations is developed and used to assess the interactions between thermal piles and slab-on-grade building foundations. The impact of various design parameters and operating conditions is evaluated including foundation pile depth, building slab width, foundation insulation configuration, and soil thermal properties. Based on the results of a series of parametric analyses, a simplified analysis method is presented to assess the impact of the thermal piles on the annual heat fluxes toward or from the building foundations. A comparative evaluation of the predictions of the simplified analysis method and those obtained from the detailed numerical analysis indicated good agreement with prediction accuracy lower than 5%. Moreover, it is found that thermal piles can affect annual building foundation heat loss/gain by up to 30% depending on foundation size and insulation level

  12. 47 CFR 27.1330 - Local public safety build-out and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... public safety build-out and operation. (a) The Upper 700 MHz D Block licensee and the Operating Company... exclusive right to build and operate the Shared Wireless Broadband Network. (b) Rights to early build-out in... transfer and compensation to occur prior to the scheduled build out date for such network in the NSA. (ii...

  13. 47 CFR 90.1430 - Local public safety build-out and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... public safety build-out and operation. (a) The Upper 700 MHz D Block licensee and the Operating Company... exclusive right to build and operate the Shared Wireless Broadband Network. (b) Rights to early build-out in... transfer and compensation to occur prior to the scheduled build out date for such network in the NSA. (ii...

  14. Building Fitnes for Transfer - Transfering Manufacturing Knowledge Across Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove

    2009-01-01

    A key problem of manufacturing transfer remains that it is often difficult to explain what a company really knows, or why what it does really works. Still, practice indicates that attention is focused on planning the physical move and on the knowledge associated with normal operations. Introduction...... elements of dispatching capacity and places it in a model in a broader context....

  15. 19 CFR 147.13 - Transfer to fair building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer to fair building. 147.13 Section 147.13... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Procedure for Importation § 147.13 Transfer to fair building. (a... port director for the transfer of the articles covered thereby to the buildings in which they are to be...

  16. Heat and mass transfer in building services design

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Building design is increasingly geared towards low energy consumption. Understanding the fundamentals of heat transfer and the behaviour of air and water movements is more important than ever before. Heat and Mass Transfer in Building Services Design provides an essential underpinning knowledge for the technology subjects of space heating, water services, ventilation and air conditioning. This new text: *provides core understanding of heat transfer and fluid flow from a building services perspective *complements a range of courses in building services engineering *

  17. Digital Handover of Data from Building Projects to Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2006-01-01

    pro-jects to building operation. This project started in 2004 with research and analyses fol-lowed by development of a proposal for client requirements and in 2005 a first test on a real construction project has been carried out. After revision of the requirements a second test will be started early...... and construction and on the other side in building opera-tion and facilities management. In Denmark the government has launched a development program called Digital Construction and one of the projects concerns specifying require-ments for building clients in relation to digital handover of data from construction...... by a consortium called DACaPo consisting of a building client/facilities manager, a consulting company, a contractor and a university institute. This paper presents some of the results from the project with the main focus on the initial research....

  18. Evolution of PHWR fuel transfer system based on operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvatikar, R.S.; Singh, Jaipal; Chaturvedi, P.C.; Bhambra, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel Transfer System facilitates loading of new fuel into Fuelling Machine, receipt of spent fuel from Fuelling Machine and its further transportation to Storage Bay. To overcome the limitations of transferring a pair of bundles in the single tube Airlock and Transfer Arm in RAPS-1 and 2/MAPS, a new concept of six tube Transfer Magazine was introduced in NAPS. This resulted in simultaneous loading of new fuel from Transfer Magazine into the Fuelling Machine and unloading of spent fuel from the Fuelling Machine through the exchange mode. It further facilitated the parallel/simultaneous operation of refuelling by Fuelling Machines on the reactor and transferring of spent fuel bundles from the Transfer Magazine to the bay. This new design of Fuel Transfer System was adopted for all standardised 220 MWe PHWRs. Based on the experience gained in 220 MWe PHWRs in the area of operation and maintenance, a number of improvements have been carried out over the years. These aspects have been further strengthened and refined in the Fuel Transfer System of 540 MWe units. The operating experience of the system indicates that the presence of heavy water in the Transfer Magazine poses limitations in its maintenance in the Fuel Transfer room. Further, Surveillance and maintenance of large number of under water equipment and associated valves, rams and underwater sensors is putting extra burden on the O and M efforts. A new concept of mobile light water filled Transfer Machine has been evolved for proposed 700 MWe PHWR units to simplify Fuel Transfer System. This has been made possible by adopting snout level control in the Fuelling Machine, elimination of Shuttle Transport System and locating the Storage Bay adjacent to the Reactor Building. This paper describes the evolution of Fuel Transfer System concepts and various improvements based on the experience gained in the operation and maintenance of the system. (author)

  19. DTU says yes to operational friendly buildings but how should it be done in practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle Lohmann; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Møller, Anders B.

    2014-01-01

    Facilities managers often fight to be allowed to contribute their operational experiences to new building projects, but not at Campus Service of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), where “ask the operations manager” has become a mantra for every building project in recent years, and there ......, and there are currently 15 building projects under way. But how is this knowledge transfer organized in practice so that both the buildings department and the operations department maintain a good and effective relationship?...

  20. Mass Transfer Operations for the Practicing Engineer

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Part of the Essential Engineering Calculations Series, this book presents step-by-step solutions of the basic principles of mass transfer operations, including sample problems and solutions and their applications, such as distillation, absorption, and stripping. Presenting the subject from a strictly pragmatic point of view, providing both the principles of mass transfer operations and their applications, with clear instructions on how to carry out the basic calculations needed, the book also covers topics useful for readers taking their professional exams.

  1. Dual winch nuclear fuel transfer system providing more reliable fuel transfer during refueling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuschke, R.E.; Harper, M.J.; Stefko, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a nuclear power plant having an auxiliary building, a containment building having the wall, a track extending through a transfer tube within the containment wall, and a fuel transfer system for moving fuel assemblies along the track between the auxiliary building side and the containment building side of the containment wall. It comprises: a car having wheels for movement along spaced rails of the track and further having a carrying basket for one or more fuel assemblies; winch means located on the auxiliary building side of the containment wall and above the water level existing over the track during refueling operations to drive the car along the track; first cable means and second cable means extending substantially vertically downward from the winch means to the tack level; first sheave means for directing the first and the second cable means substantially in the horizontal direction along the track; means for securing the first cable means to the car so that winch pulling force on the first cable means drives the car away from the containment building; second sheave means located near the containment end of the transfer tube

  2. Simulation of whole building coupled hygrothermal-airflow transfer in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Menghao; Walton, George; Belarbi, Rafik; Allard, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The coupled heat, air and moisture transfer between building envelopes and indoor air is complicated, and has a significant influence on the indoor environment and the energy performance of buildings. In the paper, a model for predicting coupled multi-zone hygrothermal-airflow transfer is presented. Both heat and moisture transfer in the building envelope and multi-zone indoor airflow are simultaneously considered; their interactions are modeled. The coupled system model is implemented into Matlab-Simulink, and is validated by using a series of testing tools and experiments. The new program is applied to investigate the moisture transfer effect on indoor air humidity and building energy consumption in different climates (hot-humid, temperate and hot-dry climates). The results show that not accounting for hygrothermal effects in modeling will result in overestimation of energy costs for hot and humid climate situations and possible over sizing of plant leading to inefficient operation.

  3. Simulation Tests in Whole Building Heat and Moisture Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Woloszyn, Monika

    2006-01-01

    An important part of the International Energy Agency project, ECBCS, Annex 41 is about modelling the integral heat, air and moisture transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings”. Such modelling deals with all most relevant elements of buildings: The indoor air, the building envelope...

  4. Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Swalley U.S. Department of State, Overseas Buildings Operations Toby Wilson U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineer R&D Center Jeff Wix AEC3 The...exchanged in COBIE. To map those information exchanges to the IFC model, the Information Delivery Manual (IDM) process [ Wix 2007] was also used. The...Folksonomy. Wikimedia Foundation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folksonomy/, accessed 3 August 2007. Wix , Jeffrey. 2007. Information Delivery Manual

  5. Metal transfer and build-up in friction and cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, V D

    1956-01-01

    Metal Transfer and Build-up in Friction and Cutting aims to systematize our knowledge of the metal build-up, to describe some of the investigations past and present carried out in SFTI (Tomsk), and to make an effort to explain a number of the phenomena in cutting, scratching, and sliding from the point of view of metal transfer theory. The book opens with a chapter on the temperature of the rubbing interface of two solids. This temperature is needed in order to elucidate the nature of the formation of a build-up in scratching, cutting, and sliding. Separate chapters follow on the seizure phen

  6. A planning framework for transferring building energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B C; Brown, M A; Mohler, B L; Wilde, M; Abel, F H

    1990-07-01

    Accelerating the adoption of new and existing cost-effective technologies has significant potential to reduce the energy consumed in US buildings. This report presents key results of an interlaboratory technology transfer planning effort in support of the US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT). A guiding assumption for planning was that OBT's R D program should forge linkages with existing programs whose goals involved enhancing energy efficiency in buildings. An ad hoc Technology Transfer Advisory Group reviewed the existing analysis and technology transfer program, brainstormed technology transfer approaches, interviewed DOE program managers, identified applicable research results, and developed a framework that management could use in deciding on the best investments of technology transfer resources. Representatives of 22 organizations were interviewed on their views of the potential for transferring energy efficiency technologies through active linking with OBT. The report describes these programs and interview results; outlines OBT tools, technologies, and practices to be transferred; defines OBT audiences; identifies technology transfer functions and presents a framework devised using functions and audiences; presents some 60 example technology transfer activities; and documents the Advisory Group's recommendations. 37 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Building performance simulation for sustainable building design and operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a general view of the background and current state of building performance simulation, which has the potential to deliver, directly or indirectly, substantial benefits to building stakeholders and to the environment. However the building simulation community faces many

  8. Modeling of heat and mass transfer in lateritic building envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meukam, Pierre

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the behavior of building envelopes made of local lateritic soil bricks subjected to different climatic conditions. The analysis is developed for the prediction of the temperature, relative humidity and water content behavior within the walls. The building envelopes studied in this work consist of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust in order to obtain small thermal conductivity and low-density materials, and limit the heat transfer between the atmospheric climate and the inside environment. In order to describe coupled heat and moisture transfer in wet porous materials, the coupled equations were solved by the introduction of diffusion coefficients. A numerical model HMtrans, developed for prediction of beat and moisture transfer in multi-layered building components, was used to simulate the temperature, water content and relative humidity profiles within the building envelopes. The results allow the prediction of the duration of the exposed building walls to the local weather conditions. They show that for any of three climatic conditions considered, relative humidity and water content do not exceed 87% and 5% respectively. There is therefore minimum possibility of water condensation in the materials studied. The durability of building envelopes made of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust is not strongly affected by the climatic conditions in tropical and equatorial regions. (author)

  9. Control Transfer in Operating System Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-13

    microkernel system that runs less code in the kernel address space. To realize the performance benefit of allocating stacks in unmapped kseg0 memory, the...review how I modified the Mach 3.0 kernel to use continuations. Because of Mach’s message-passing microkernel structure, interprocess communication was...critical control transfer paths, deeply- nested call chains are undesirable in any case because of the function call overhead. 4.1.3 Microkernel Operating

  10. Universal Library for Building Radar Operator Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karankevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of the development of a software library, used for building software interfaces for radars being developed in BMSTU Radioelectronic Technics Scientific and Research Institute. The library is a software application library written in C++ using Qt and OpenGL libraries.The article describes the requirements, that the library is supposed to meet, in particular — cross-platform capabilities and versatility of the solution. The data types, that library uses, are described. The description of theinterface elements developed is shown, and some pictures of their operation are given.The article shows the main interface elements used. They are: «Matrix» that shows twodimensional data, «Waterfall», that is used for time scanning of the parameter specified, and «Plan Position Indicator» that shows circular scan from surveillance radar without geometric distortions.The part «Library implementation» shows the example of radiolocation station interface, that was based on this library, used in the working model of ultrashortpulse radar. Some results of the operation of this interface are also shown. The experiment shows the system working with two people in the field. As people start to move, the system becomes capable of distinguishing moving targets and stationary surface. The article shows the system operation the same way as the system operator can see it through his interface.The conclusion contains brief results of the development, the sphere of application of the software, and the prospects of the further development of the library.

  11. A method for the direct generation of comprehensive numerical solar building transfer functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.Y. [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2003-02-01

    This paper describes a method for the direct generation of comprehensive numerical room transfer functions with any derived parameters as output, such as operative temperature or thermal load. Complex conductive, convective and radiant heat transfer processes, or any derived thermal parameters in buildings can be explicitly and precisely described by a generalized thermal network. This allows the s-transfer and z-transfer functions to be directly generated, using semi-symbolic analysis techniques, Cayley's expansion of determinant and Heaviside's expansion theorem. A simple algorithm is developed for finding the roots of the denominator in the inverse transform of the s-transfer functions, which ensures that no single root is missing. The techniques have been applied to generating the transfer functions of a passive solar room with floor heating. The example calculation demonstrates the high efficiency of the computational method. (author)

  12. Positive transfer operators and decay of correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Baladi, Viviane

    2000-01-01

    Although individual orbits of chaotic dynamical systems are by definition unpredictable, the average behavior of typical trajectories can often be given a precise statistical description. Indeed, there often exist ergodic invariant measures with special additional features. For a given invariant measure, and a class of observables, the correlation functions tell whether (and how fast) the system "mixes", i.e. "forgets" its initial conditions.This book, addressed to mathematicians and mathematical (or mathematically inclined) physicists, shows how the powerful technology of transfer operators,

  13. Radiation protection in transference of radioactive wastes among buildings of an intermediary deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, Malvina Boni; Suzuki, Fabio Fumio

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the planning of radioprotection realized for transfer operation of radioactive wastes from two old buildings for a one of the new buildings. For planning purposes the operation was divided into nine stages and, for evaluation of collective dose, it was considered various relevant factors. The result of radioprotection optimization it was expected a total collective dose of 58.6 mSv per person. The measured dose per dosemeter of direct reading was of 3.9 mSv per person. These difference among the values is due to conservative factors used in the calculation

  14. NOSArmor: Building a Secure Network Operating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonseong Jo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-Defined Networking (SDN, controlling underlying network devices (i.e., data plane in a logically centralized manner, is now actively adopted in many real world networking environments. It is clear that a network administrator can easily understand and manage his networking environments with the help of SDN. In SDN, a network operating system (NOS, also known as an SDN controller, is the most critical component because it should be involved in all transactions for controlling network devices, and thus the security of NOS cannot be highly exaggerated. However, in spite of its importance, no previous works have thoroughly investigated the security of NOS. In this work, to address this problem, we present the NOSArmor, which integrates several security mechanisms, named as security building block (SBB, into a consolidated SDN controller. NOSArmor consists of eight SBBs and each of them addresses different security principles of network assets. For example, while role-based authorization focuses on securing confidentiality of internal storage from malicious applications, OpenFlow protocol verifier protects availability of core service in the controller from malformed control messages received from switches. In addition, NOSArmor shows competitive performance compared to existing other controllers (i.e., ONOS, Floodlight with secureness of network assets.

  15. Design of operator interfaces for ''bumpless'' transfers between operator behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.W.; Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Advances in the science and art of man-machine interface design have taken major strides forward for interface design practitioners with the advent of the computer. one concern still extant, however, is the need for design of interfaces that minimize confusion when an operator is required to shift from the different levels of cognitive control of skill, rule, and knowledge-based behaviors, (e.g., if an operator is following a set of procedures and a procedural error is noted by the operator, the behavior may, of necessity, shift from rule-based to a knowledge-based behavior). Shifting of the cognitive control levels requires that the information to be displayed to the operator should be designed so that a ''bumpless'' transfer can be made between the behavioral modes, thus reducing the possibility of error. This paper introduces a way to design human interfaces so that skill, rule, and knowledge-based behaviors are supported and provides for the necessary interchanges between behavioral types

  16. Operation and maintenance of the technical installations in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.(red.)

    The report contains twelve papers from a seminar on operation and maintenance, held at the Danish Building Research Institute in October 1976. The papers deal, among other things, with dimensioning and balancing of pipesystems, design of ventilating systems for adequate operation and maintenance,......, cost and quality in maintenance, maintenance service companies, as well as organization and training for building services maintenance....

  17. Experience building and operating the CMS Tier-1 computing centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, M.; Bakken, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Brew, C.; Charlot, C.; Huang, Chih-Hao; Colling, D.; Dumitrescu, C.; Fagan, D.; Fassi, F.; Fisk, I.; Flix, J.; Giacchetti, L.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Gowdy, S.; Grandi, C.; Gutsche, O.; Hahn, K.; Holzman, B.; Jackson, J.; Kreuzer, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Mason, D.; Pukhaeva, N.; Qin, G.; Quast, G.; Rossman, P.; Sartirana, A.; Scheurer, A.; Schott, G.; Shih, J.; Tader, P.; Thompson, R.; Tiradani, A.; Trunov, A.

    2010-04-01

    The CMS Collaboration relies on 7 globally distributed Tier-1 computing centres located at large universities and national laboratories for a second custodial copy of the CMS RAW data and primary copy of the simulated data, data serving capacity to Tier-2 centres for analysis, and the bulk of the reprocessing and event selection capacity in the experiment. The Tier-1 sites have a challenging role in CMS because they are expected to ingest and archive data from both CERN and regional Tier-2 centres, while they export data to a global mesh of Tier-2s at rates comparable to the raw export data rate from CERN. The combined capacity of the Tier-1 centres is more than twice the resources located at CERN and efficiently utilizing this large distributed resources represents a challenge. In this article we will discuss the experience building, operating, and utilizing the CMS Tier-1 computing centres. We will summarize the facility challenges at the Tier-1s including the stable operations of CMS services, the ability to scale to large numbers of processing requests and large volumes of data, and the ability to provide custodial storage and high performance data serving. We will also present the operations experience utilizing the distributed Tier-1 centres from a distance: transferring data, submitting data serving requests, and submitting batch processing requests.

  18. Experience building and operating the CMS Tier-1 computing centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, M; Bakken, J; Huang, Chih-Hao; Dumitrescu, C; Fagan, D; Fisk, I; Giacchetti, L; Gutsche, O; Holzman, B; Bonacorsi, D; Grandi, C; Brew, C; Jackson, J; Charlot, C; Colling, D; Fassi, F; Flix, J; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Hahn, K; Gowdy, S

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Collaboration relies on 7 globally distributed Tier-1 computing centres located at large universities and national laboratories for a second custodial copy of the CMS RAW data and primary copy of the simulated data, data serving capacity to Tier-2 centres for analysis, and the bulk of the reprocessing and event selection capacity in the experiment. The Tier-1 sites have a challenging role in CMS because they are expected to ingest and archive data from both CERN and regional Tier-2 centres, while they export data to a global mesh of Tier-2s at rates comparable to the raw export data rate from CERN. The combined capacity of the Tier-1 centres is more than twice the resources located at CERN and efficiently utilizing this large distributed resources represents a challenge. In this article we will discuss the experience building, operating, and utilizing the CMS Tier-1 computing centres. We will summarize the facility challenges at the Tier-1s including the stable operations of CMS services, the ability to scale to large numbers of processing requests and large volumes of data, and the ability to provide custodial storage and high performance data serving. We will also present the operations experience utilizing the distributed Tier-1 centres from a distance: transferring data, submitting data serving requests, and submitting batch processing requests.

  19. Method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    A method for simulating predictive control of building systems operation in the early stages of building design is presented. The method uses building simulation based on weather forecasts to predict whether there is a future heating or cooling requirement. This information enables the thermal...... control systems of the building to respond proactively to keep the operational temperature within the thermal comfort range with the minimum use of energy. The method is implemented in an existing building simulation tool designed to inform decisions in the early stages of building design through...... parametric analysis. This enables building designers to predict the performance of the method and include it as a part of the solution space. The method furthermore facilitates the task of configuring appropriate building systems control schemes in the tool, and it eliminates time consuming manual...

  20. Operations and Maintenance Cost for Stratified Buildings: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Ghani Nor Zaimah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building maintenance is essential in preserving buildings’ appearance and performance. It needs to upkeep the building performance to prolong its value and building life cycle. Malaysia is still lacking in managing cost for building operation and maintenance. It has been found that the cost for housing maintenance is high due to poor maintenance practices. In order to get better understanding on how to manage the cost, this study reviews the contributing factors that affecting operation and maintenance cost of stratified buildings in Malaysia. The research first identified the factors through extensive literature review and scrutinize on factors that affecting and can minimize operation and maintenance cost. This literature review offers insight into building maintenance scenario in Malaysia focusing on the issues and challenges. The study also finds that operation and maintenance cost for housing in Malaysia is still in poor state. Interestingly, this paper revealed that operation and maintenance cost is also influenced by three significant factors like expectation of tenants, building characteristics and building defects. Measures to reduce the housing operation and maintenance cost are also highlighted so that this study can be a stepping stone towards proposing efficient and effective facilities management strategies for affordable housing in future.

  1. Heat transfer characteristics of building walls using phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsyad, M.; Pasek, A. D.; Indartono, Y. S.; Pratomo, A. W.

    2017-03-01

    Minimizing energy consumption in air conditioning system can be done with reducing the cooling load in a room. Heat from solar radiation which passes through the wall increases the cooling load. Utilization of phase change material on walls is expected to decrease the heat rate by storing energy when the phase change process takes place. The stored energy is released when the ambient temperature is low. Temperature differences at noon and evening can be utilized as discharging and charging cycles. This study examines the characteristics of heat transfer in walls using phase change material (PCM) in the form of encapsulation and using the sleeve as well. Heat transfer of bricks containing encapsulated PCM, tested the storage and released the heat on the walls of the building models were evaluated in this study. Experiments of heat transfer on brick consist of time that is needed for heat transfer and thermal conductivity test as well. Experiments were conducted on a wall coated by PCM which was exposed on a day and night cycle to analyze the heat storage and heat release. PCM used in these experiments was coconut oil. The measured parameter is the temperature at some points in the brick, walls and ambient temperature as well. The results showed that the use of encapsulation on an empty brick can increase the time for thermal heat transfer. Thermal conductivity values of a brick containing encapsulated PCM was lower than hollow bricks, where each value was 1.3 W/m.K and 1.6 W/m.K. While the process of heat absorption takes place from 7:00 am to 06:00 pm, and the release of heat runs from 10:00 pm to 7:00 am. The use of this PCM layer can reduce the surface temperature of the walls of an average of 2°C and slows the heat into the room.

  2. NET-ZERO ENERGY BUILDING OPERATOR TRAINING PROGRAM (NZEBOT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizendine, Anthony; Byars, Nan; Sleiti, Ahmad; Gehrig, Bruce; Lu, Na

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Net-Zero Energy Building Operator Training Program (NZEBOT) was to develop certificate level training programs for commercial building owners, managers and operators, principally in the areas of energy / sustainability management. The expected outcome of the project was a multi-faceted mechanism for developing the skill-based competency of building operators, owners, architects/engineers, construction professionals, tenants, brokers and other interested groups in energy efficient building technologies and best practices. The training program draws heavily on DOE supported and developed materials available in the existing literature, as well as existing, modified, and newly developed curricula from the Department of Engineering Technology & Construction Management (ETCM) at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (UNC-Charlotte). The project goal is to develop a certificate level training curriculum for commercial energy and sustainability managers and building operators that: 1) Increases the skill-based competency of building professionals in energy efficient building technologies and best practices, and 2) Increases the workforce pool of expertise in energy management and conservation techniques. The curriculum developed in this project can subsequently be used to establish a sustainable energy training program that can contribute to the creation of new “green” job opportunities in North Carolina and throughout the Southeast region, and workforce training that leads to overall reductions in commercial building energy consumption. Three energy training / education programs were developed to achieve the stated goal, namely: 1. Building Energy/Sustainability Management (BESM) Certificate Program for Building Managers and Operators (40 hours); 2. Energy Efficient Building Technologies (EEBT) Certificate Program (16 hours); and 3. Energy Efficent Buildings (EEB) Seminar (4 hours). Training Program 1 incorporates the following

  3. The Model of Lake Operation in Water Transfer Projects Based on the Theory of Water- right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi-peng, Yan; Chao, Liu; Fang-ping, Tang

    the lake operation is a very important content in Water Transfer Projects. The previous studies have not any related to water-right and water- price previous. In this paper, water right is divided into three parts, one is initialization waterright, another is by investment, and the third is government's water- right re-distribution. The water-right distribution model is also build. After analyzing the cost in water transfer project, a model and computation method for the capacity price as well as quantity price is proposed. The model of lake operation in water transfer projects base on the theory of water- right is also build. The simulation regulation for the lake was carried out by using historical data and Genetic Algorithms. Water supply and impoundment control line of the lake was proposed. The result can be used by south to north water transfer projects.

  4. Reducing the operational energy demand in buildings using building information modeling tools and sustainability approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Valinejad Shoubi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable building is constructed of materials that could decrease environmental impacts, such as energy usage, during the lifecycle of the building. Building Information Modeling (BIM has been identified as an effective tool for building performance analysis virtually in the design stage. The main aims of this study were to assess various combinations of materials using BIM and identify alternative, sustainable solutions to reduce operational energy consumption. The amount of energy consumed by a double story bungalow house in Johor, Malaysia, and assessments of alternative material configurations to determine the best energy performance were evaluated by using Revit Architecture 2012 and Autodesk Ecotect Analysis software to show which of the materials helped in reducing the operational energy use of the building to the greatest extent throughout its annual life cycle. At the end, some alternative, sustainable designs in terms of energy savings have been suggested.

  5. Transfer operations with tritium: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkers, C.L.; Gede, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear reactors will involve pumping operations with tritium that may involve pressures ranging from submillipascals to megapascals. A variety of pumps are available that can cover portions of this range, and these can be staged to cover the entire pressure range. Some of these pumps can be adapted to virtually any size requirement currently anticipated. Special attention must be paid to operating features and construction materials. (U.S.)

  6. Energy management handbook for building operating engineers student workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The handbook provides operating engineers with the basic information needed to implement specific energy conservation opportunities, and additional information is presented relative to the formulation and development of the energy management plan. Chapters are entitled: The Need for Energy Management (International Factors, The US Energy Situation, Energy and the Building Owner); The Fundamentals of Energy Consumption in Buildings (Energy Basics, Heat Basics, Heat Flow and the Building Envelope, Air and Comfort, Factors Affecting Energy Use In Buildings); Principles of Energy Conservation (Building Energy Consumption Characteristics); Planning the Energy Management Program (Obtaining Commitment and Support, Establishing the Energy Use Index, Organizing to Develop the Plan, Developing and Implementing the Plan); Conducting a Survey of Facilities and Operations (The Energy Audit, Preparation of Building and Systems Profile, Measurement and Instrumentation); Guidelines for Energy Conservation (Operator ECO's, Owner ECO'S); Developing the Draft Final Plan (Analyze Survey Findings, Putting the Plan on Paper, Review and Submit); Implementing the Program (Developing the Final Plan, Implementing the Plan, Monitoring and Updating the Program). A glossary is included and specific information on degree days and cooling hours for some selected cities and a computer energy study data for the New York Hilton are included in appendices. (MCW)

  7. Activity-Tracking Service for Building Operating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Jakob; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2018-01-01

    of Things sensors and devices promise to deliver rich data about human activities and control of loads. However, existing proposals for building operating systems that should combine such data and control opportunities does not provide concepts and support for activity data. In this paper we propose...... an activity-tracking service for building operating systems. The service is designed to consider the security, privacy, integration, extendability and scalability challenges in the building setting. We provide initial findings for testing the system in a proof of concept evaluation using a set of common......Several high consuming electricity loads in retail stores are currently highly intertwined in human activities. Without knowledge of such activities it is difficult to improve the energy efficiency of the loads operation for sustainability and cost reasons. The increasing availability of Internet...

  8. Modeling of HVAC operational faults in building performance simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rongpeng; Hong, Tianzhen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Discuss significance of capturing operational faults in existing buildings. •Develop a novel feature in EnergyPlus to model operational faults of HVAC systems. •Compare three approaches to faults modeling using EnergyPlus. •A case study demonstrates the use of the fault-modeling feature. •Future developments of new faults are discussed. -- Abstract: Operational faults are common in the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems of existing buildings, leading to a decrease in energy efficiency and occupant comfort. Various fault detection and diagnostic methods have been developed to identify and analyze HVAC operational faults at the component or subsystem level. However, current methods lack a holistic approach to predicting the overall impacts of faults at the building level—an approach that adequately addresses the coupling between various operational components, the synchronized effect between simultaneous faults, and the dynamic nature of fault severity. This study introduces the novel development of a fault-modeling feature in EnergyPlus which fills in the knowledge gap left by previous studies. This paper presents the design and implementation of the new feature in EnergyPlus and discusses in detail the fault-modeling challenges faced. The new fault-modeling feature enables EnergyPlus to quantify the impacts of faults on building energy use and occupant comfort, thus supporting the decision making of timely fault corrections. Including actual building operational faults in energy models also improves the accuracy of the baseline model, which is critical in the measurement and verification of retrofit or commissioning projects. As an example, EnergyPlus version 8.6 was used to investigate the impacts of a number of typical operational faults in an office building across several U.S. climate zones. The results demonstrate that the faults have significant impacts on building energy performance as well as on occupant

  9. Operational test report for 2706-T complex liquid transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENZEL, H.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the Operational Test Report (OTR). It enters the Record Copy of the W-259 Operational Test Procedure (HNF-3610) into the document retrieval system. Additionally, the OTR summarizes significant issues associated with testing the 2706-T waste liquid transfer and storage system

  10. Impact of coupled heat and moisture transfer effects on buildings energy consuption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferroukhi Mohammed Yacine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coupled heat, air, and moisture transfers through building envelope have an important effect on prediction of building energy requirements. Several works were conducted in order to integrate hygrothermal transfers in dynamic buildings simulations codes. However, the incorporation of multidirectional hygrothermal transfer analysis in the envelope into building simulation tools is rarely considered. In this work, coupled heat, air, and moisture (HAM transfer model in multilayer walls was established. Thereafter, the HAM model is coupled dynamically to a building behavior code (BES.The coupling concerns a co-simulation between COMSOL Multiphysics and TRNSYS software. Afterward, the HAM-BES co-simulation accuracy was verified. Then, HAM-BES co-simulation platform was applied to a case study with various types of climates (temperate, hot and humid, cold and humid. Three simulations cases were carried out. The first simulation case consists of the TRNSYS model without HAM transfer model. The second simulation case, 1-D HAM model for the envelope was integrated in TRNSYS code. For the third one, 1-D HAM model for the wall and 2-D HAM model for thermal bridges were coupled to the thermal building model of TRNSYS. Analysis of the results confirms the significant impact of 2-D envelope hygrothermal transfers on the indoor thermal and moisture behavior of building as well as on the energy building assessment. These conclusions are shown for different studied climates.

  11. Technology transfer to Africa: constraints for CDM operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karani, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    It is practically difficult to design, implement and manage Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects in Africa without a provision for capacity building that will enable the application of modern technologies and techniques. Existing institutions need strengthening, human capacity needs to be developed and new markets need to be promoted. The author outlines institutional and market constraints in relation to technology transfer (e.g renewable energy technologies) and development in Africa. (Author)

  12. A model technology transfer program for independent operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1996-08-01

    In August 1992, the Energy Research Center (ERC) at the University of Kansas was awarded a contract by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a technology transfer regional model. This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program.

  13. Monitoring data transfer latency in CMS computing operations

    CERN Document Server

    Bonacorsi, D; Magini, N; Sartirana, A; Taze, M; Wildish, T

    2015-01-01

    During the first LHC run, the CMS experiment collected tens of Petabytes of collision and simulated data, which need to be distributed among dozens of computing centres with low latency in order to make efficient use of the resources. While the desired level of throughput has been successfully achieved, it is still common to observe transfer workflows that cannot reach full completion in a timely manner due to a small fraction of stuck files which require operator intervention.For this reason, in 2012 the CMS transfer management system, PhEDEx, was instrumented with a monitoring system to measure file transfer latencies, and to predict the completion time for the transfer of a data set. The operators can detect abnormal patterns in transfer latencies while the transfer is still in progress, and monitor the long-term performance of the transfer infrastructure to plan the data placement strategy.Based on the data collected for one year with the latency monitoring system, we present a study on the different fact...

  14. Supporting human performance in operations - principles for new nuclear build

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.; Davey, E.

    2006-01-01

    Operational experience worldwide continues to demonstrate that human performance is a key factor in the ongoing safety, production, and protection of investment in operation of nuclear plants for electricity generation. Human performance in support of plant operational objectives can be influenced by a range of factors, for example: organizational culture and expectations; role assignments, training, and individual and team behaviours; and the support offered by the workplace environment, tools, and task design. This paper outlines a perspective on some of the principles that should be considered for application in the design of new nuclear build to facilitate support for human performance in plant operations. The principles identified focus on but are not limited to the tasks of shift staff, and are derived from the observations and experience of the authors who are experienced with control room operations in current plants. (author)

  15. Supporting human performance in operations - principles for new nuclear build

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, L. [Ontario Power Generation, Darlington Nuclear Div., Bowmanville, Ontario (Canada); Davey, E. [Crew Systems Solutions, Deep River, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Operational experience worldwide continues to demonstrate that human performance is a key factor in the ongoing safety, production, and protection of investment in operation of nuclear plants for electricity generation. Human performance in support of plant operational objectives can be influenced by a range of factors, for example: organizational culture and expectations; role assignments, training, and individual and team behaviours; and the support offered by the workplace environment, tools, and task design. This paper outlines a perspective on some of the principles that should be considered for application in the design of new nuclear build to facilitate support for human performance in plant operations. The principles identified focus on but are not limited to the tasks of shift staff, and are derived from the observations and experience of the authors who are experienced with control room operations in current plants. (author)

  16. Mayer Transfer Operator Approach to Selberg Zeta Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momeni, Arash; Venkov, Alexei

    . In a special situation the dynamical zeta function is defined for a geodesic flow on a hyperbolic plane quotient by an arithmetic cofinite discrete group. More precisely, the flow is defined for the corresponding unit tangent bundle. It turns out that the Selberg zeta function for this group can be expressed...... in terms of a Fredholm determinant of a classical transfer operator of the flow. The transfer operator is defined in a certain space of holomorphic functions and its matrix representation in a natural basis is given in terms of the Riemann zeta function and the Euler gamma function....

  17. Data-Driven Model Reduction and Transfer Operator Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klus, Stefan; Nüske, Feliks; Koltai, Péter; Wu, Hao; Kevrekidis, Ioannis; Schütte, Christof; Noé, Frank

    2018-06-01

    In this review paper, we will present different data-driven dimension reduction techniques for dynamical systems that are based on transfer operator theory as well as methods to approximate transfer operators and their eigenvalues, eigenfunctions, and eigenmodes. The goal is to point out similarities and differences between methods developed independently by the dynamical systems, fluid dynamics, and molecular dynamics communities such as time-lagged independent component analysis, dynamic mode decomposition, and their respective generalizations. As a result, extensions and best practices developed for one particular method can be carried over to other related methods.

  18. Effect of phase change material on the heat transfer rate of different building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mushfiq; Alam, Shahnur; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is widely known as latent heat storage. A comprehensive study is carried out to investigate the effect of PCM on heat transfer rate of building materials. Paraffin is used as PCM along with different conventional building materials to investigate the heat transfer rate from the heated region to the cold region. PCM is placed along with the three different types of building materials like plaster which is well know building material in urban areas and wood and straw which are commonly used in rural areas for roofing as well as wall panel material and investigated the heat transfer rate. An experimental setup was constructed with number of rectangular shape aluminum detachable casing (as cavity) and placed side by side. Series of rectangular cavity filled with convent ional building materials and PCM and these were placed in between two chambers filled with water at different temperature. Building materials and PCM were placed in different cavities with different combinations and investigated the heat transfer rate. The results show that using the PCM along with other building materials can be used to maintain lower temperature at the inner wall and chamber of the cold region. Moreover, the placement or orientation of the building materials and PCM make significant contribution to heat transfer rate from the heated zone to the cold zone.

  19. Conservative modelling of the moisture and heat transfer in building components under atmospheric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Blocken, Bert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2007-01-01

    While the transfer equations for moisture and heat in building components are currently undergoing standardisation, atmospheric boundary conditions, conservative modelling and numerical efficiency are not addressed. In a first part, this paper adds a comprehensive description of those boundary...

  20. Building Supervisory Confidence--A Key to Transfer of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byham, William C.; Robinson, James

    1977-01-01

    A training concept is described which suggests that efforts toward maintaining and/or building the confidence of the participants in supervisory training programs can increase their likelihood of using the skills on the job. (TA)

  1. Technology transfer of operator-in-the-loop simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yae, K. H.; Lin, H. C.; Lin, T. C.; Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The technology developed for operator-in-the-loop simulation in space teleoperation has been applied to Caterpillar's backhoe, wheel loader, and off-highway truck. On an SGI workstation, the simulation integrates computer modeling of kinematics and dynamics, real-time computational and visualization, and an interface with the operator through the operator's console. The console is interfaced with the workstation through an IBM-PC in which the operator's commands were digitized and sent through an RS-232 serial port. The simulation gave visual feedback adequate for the operator in the loop, with the camera's field of vision projected on a large screen in multiple view windows. The view control can emulate either stationary or moving cameras. This simulator created an innovative engineering design environment by integrating computer software and hardware with the human operator's interactions. The backhoe simulation has been adopted by Caterpillar in building a virtual reality tool for backhoe design.

  2. Characterization of the 309 building fuel transfer pit and storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    This document identifies radiological, chemical and physical conditions inside the Fuel Transfer Pit and Fuel Storage Basins. These spaces are located inside the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor structure (309 Building.) The fuel handling and storage feature of the PRTR were primarily located in these spaces. The conditions were assessed as part of overall 309 Building transition

  3. Travelling energy systems: knowledge transfer for energy efficiency and conservation from European to Australian building projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria (Tema Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Inst. for Sustainable Futures, Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency and conservation in the Australian built environment have not yet been implemented to any great extent. Despite favourable prerequisites, such as vast windswept unpopulated areas suitable for wind power and many hours of direct sunlight in most populated areas, electricity is mainly generated by burning brown coal and buildings are poorly equipped for hot summers and cool winters. Australia urgently needs to convert to alternative energy sources and implement energy efficiency measures, since its carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world. In a recent major redevelopment in Sydney, the Carlton and United Brewery (CUB) site knowledge of energy efficiency and conservation measures used in European buildings was transferred and implemented in local designs and infrastructure. This knowledge came mainly from urban planning and developments in London, but also from high-profile architectural firms based in Paris and Germany. The arrival of this knowledge in Australia led to phases when the knowledge was translated and enacted in local spaces and the constituent ideas were transformed into action. The present research is based on ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in which the planning and design of the CUB site was observed. The results of the study identify barriers to and opportunities for energy system knowledge transfer between different cultures and local spaces. Substantial time must be spent overcoming cultural barriers, so the involved parties can start talking the same language. This is not only true for stakeholders operating in different continents, but for stakeholders operating in different local arenas in the same country.

  4. 75 FR 20598 - Public Buildings Service; Prospect Island, Sacramento Delta, Solano County, CA; Transfer of Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Wildlife Order 188; 9-I-CA-1674] Public Buildings Service; Prospect Island, Sacramento Delta, Solano County, CA; Transfer of Property Pursuant to section 2 of Public... General Services Administration transferred 1253 acres of land identified as Prospect Island, Sacramento...

  5. Building technology transfer within research universities an entrepreneurial approach

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Rory P

    2014-01-01

    For the past number of years, academic entrepreneurship has become one of the most widely studied topics in the entrepreneurship literature. Yet, despite all the research that has been conducted to date, there has not been a systematic attempt to analyze critically the factors which lie behind successful business spin-offs from university research. In this book, a group of academic thought-leaders in the field of technology transfer examine a number of areas critical to the promotion of start-ups on campus. Through a series of case studies, they examine current policies, structures, program initiatives and practices of fourteen international universities to develop a theory of successful academic entrepreneurship, with the aim of helping other universities to enhance the quality of their university transfer programs. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students working on innovation, entrepreneurship and technology transfer, as well as senior managers and policymakers.

  6. Transfer points of belt conveyors operating with unfavorable bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H [Technische Universitaet, Dresden (German Democratic Republic)

    1989-06-01

    Describes design of belt conveyor chutes that transfer bulk of surface mines from one conveyor to another. Conveyor belt velocity is a significant parameter. Unfavorable chute design may lead to bulk flow congestion, bulk velocity losses etc. The bulk flow process is analyzed, bulk flow velocities, belt inclinations and bulk feeding from 2 conveyors into one chute are taken into account. Conventional chutes have parabolic belt impact walls. An improved version with divided impact walls is proposed that maintains a relatively high bulk velocity, reduces friction at chute walls and decreases wear and dirt build-up. Design of the improved chute is explained. It is built to adapt to existing structures without major modifications. The angle between 2 belt conveyors can be up to 90 degrees, the best bulk transfer is noted at conveyor angles below 60 degrees. Various graphs and schemes are provided. 6 refs.

  7. Building Technology Transfer Capacity in Turkish Universities: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranga, Marina; Temel, Serdal; Ar, Ilker Murat; Yesilay, Rustem Baris; Sukan, Fazilet Vardar

    2016-01-01

    University technology transfer has been receiving significant government funding since 2012. Results of this major investment are now expected by the Turkish government and society, not only in terms of better teaching and research performance, but also of new jobs, new products and services, enhanced regional development and contribution to…

  8. Component Cooling Heat Exchanger Heat Transfer Capability Operability Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalina, M.; Djetelic, N.

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate heat sink (UHS) is of highest importance for nuclear power plant safe and reliable operation. The most important component in line from safety-related heat sources to the ultimate heat sink water body is a component cooling heat exchanger (CC Heat Exchanger). The Component Cooling Heat Exchanger has a safety-related function to transfer the heat from the Component Cooling (CC) water system to the Service Water (SW) system. SW systems throughout the world have been the root of many plant problems because the water source, usually river, lake, sea or cooling pond, are conductive to corrosion, erosion, biofouling, debris intrusion, silt, sediment deposits, etc. At Krsko NPP, these problems usually cumulate in the summer period from July to August, with higher Sava River (service water system) temperatures. Therefore it was necessary to continuously evaluate the CC Heat Exchanger operation and confirm that the system would perform its intended function in accordance with the plant's design basis, given as a minimum heat transfer rate in the heat exchanger design specification sheet. The Essential Service Water system at Krsko NPP is an open cycle cooling system which transfers heat from safety and non-safety-related systems and components to the ultimate heat sink the Sava River. The system is continuously in operation in all modes of plant operation, including plant shutdown and refueling. However, due to the Sava River impurities and our limited abilities of the water treatment, the system is subject to fouling, sedimentation buildup, corrosion and scale formation, which could negatively impact its performance being unable to satisfy its safety related post accident heat removal function. Low temperature difference and high fluid flows make it difficult to evaluate the CC Heat Exchanger due to its specific design. The important effects noted are measurement uncertainties, nonspecific construction, high heat transfer capacity, and operational specifics (e

  9. International co-operation and the transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    di Primio, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The transfer of technology from developed countries is usually done through industrial enterprises. The local industrialization of imported technology does not necessarily imply that full benefit is extracted from its application. A pre-established scientific and technical infrastructure is needed to understand and incorporate it, and to develop methods for improvement and use at the industrial level, in the frame of national conditions. The transference of nuclear technology has recently shown new concepts for implementation. It is becoming a rule that massive industrial nuclear technology transfer to developing nations is tied to a requirement for simultaneous assistance in creating or promoting the infrastructure. An example of international co-operation to meet this requirement is the Argentine-German Agreement for the Peaceful Applications of Nuclear Energy. Since 1971 this has been used to strengthen the scientific and technical programmes of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission in the relevant fields of industrial applications. The objectives and implementation of the agreement are described: co-operative actions were initially directed to the infrastructure needed to support the nuclear fuel cycle industry. The results achieved during the period 1971-1976 are critically analysed. This analysis has influenced the selection of future co-operative projects as well as the extension of the co-operation to other nuclear fields of common interest. (author)

  10. Fires involving radioactive materials : transference model; operative recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.E.; Puntarulo, L.J.; Canibano, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    In all aspects related to the nuclear activity, the occurrence of an explosion, fire or burst type accident, with or without victims, is directly related to the characteristics of the site. The present work analyses the different parameters involved, describing a transference model and recommendations for evaluation and control of the radiological risk for firemen. Special emphasis is placed on the measurement of the variables existing in this kind of operations

  11. A Study to Compare the Cost of Operation and Maintenance in Green Building Index (GBI and Non-Green Building Index (Non-GBI Rated Building in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lee Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urges for sustainable development had pushed the government and professional bodies to respond and react by implementing regulations where possible to direct development in that manner. However, the outcome in most financial conferences and dialogues on sustainable buildings flagged on high construction and maintenance cost. Thus, this study is conducted to collect and analyze actual building operation and maintenance cost between GBI and Non-GBI rated buildings in Malaysia which are more than 2 years fully operated buildings. There are two categories of selected buildings which are residential and non-residential type of building. Each category of the building consists of similar building’s characteristic such as geographic location, mode of operation, building heights, total numbers of floors and units. The scope of building’s maintenance for this study is mainly on wear and tear of the wall painting, electrical light fittings, ceiling panels, roofing system and mechanical services like water pump system are recorded for their replacement frequency of service and the cost involved within a consistent period of 12 months operation at cost percentage saving of 78.9% and 40.4% for residential and non-residential buildings respectively compare against Non-GBI rated buildings. Electricity consumption for GBI rated buildings are lower than Non-GBI rated buildings which recorded at the cost variance of 23.8% and 6.3% and water consumption at 35.9% and 44.0% for the above mentioned two main categories of selected case study buildings. Results from this study conclude major savings on residential buildings category in term of maintenance cost and electricity consumption for GBI rated buildings. Whereby, non-residential category of buildings, GBI rated building had been proven to obtain significant savings in terms of maintenance cost and water consumption.

  12. A customer-insight led approach to building operational resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Fi

    2018-01-01

    High-profile failures over the past few years have led to the disruption of banking services in the UK, with some banks' customers left unable to make or receive payments, check balances or access cash for days or weeks. Technological advances and a push towards remote channels have increased customer expectations of 'always on' - any time, any place, anywhere - and with disruptions lasting anything from a few minutes to nearly a month, the regulator is also taking an interest. Nationwide Building Society has responded positively to this challenge by defining its operational resilience strategy, a long-term plan aimed at minimising the likelihood and impact of future disruptions. Customer research was used in order to understand customer expectations, as well as define and prioritise its end-to-end customer journeys, known as business service lines. A comprehensive mapping exercise facilitated the development of strategies and investment projects to address identified vulnerabilities and increase resilience.

  13. Building a pipeline of talent for operating radio observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Lory M.

    2016-07-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory's (NRAO) National and International Non-Traditional Exchange (NINE) Program teaches concepts of project management and systems engineering in a focused, nine-week, continuous effort that includes a hands-on build project with the objective of constructing and verifying the performance of a student-level basic radio instrument. The combination of using a project management (PM)/systems engineering (SE) methodical approach based on internationally recognized standards in completing this build is to demonstrate clearly to the learner the positive net effects of following methodical approaches to achieving optimal results. It also exposes the learner to basic radio science theory. An additional simple research project is used to impress upon the learner both the methodical approach, and to provide a basic understanding of the functional area of interest to the learner. This program is designed to teach sustainable skills throughout the full spectrum of activities associated with constructing, operating and maintaining radio astronomy observatories. NINE Program learners thereby return to their host sites and implement the program in their own location as a NINE Hub. This requires forming a committed relationship (through a formal Letter of Agreement), establishing a site location, and developing a program that takes into consideration the needs of the community they represent. The anticipated outcome of this program is worldwide partnerships with fast growing radio astronomy communities designed to facilitate the exchange of staff and the mentoring of under-represented1 groups of learners, thereby developing a strong pipeline of global talent to construct, operate and maintain radio astronomy observatories.

  14. New external convective heat transfer coefficient correlations for isolated low-rise buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmel, M. G.; Mendes, N. [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR/CCET, Thermal Systems Laboratory, LST, Curitiba (Brazil); Abadie, M. O. [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR/CCET, Thermal Systems Laboratory, LST, Curitiba (Brazil); Laboratoire d' Etude des Phenomenes de Transfert Appliques au batiment (LEPTAB), University of La Rochelle, La Rochelle (France)

    2007-07-01

    Building energy analyses are very sensitive to external convective heat transfer coefficients so that some researchers have conducted sensitivity calculations and proved that depending on the choice of those coefficients, energy demands estimation values can vary from 20% to 40%. In this context, computational fluid dynamics calculations have been performed to predict convective heat transfer coefficients at the external surfaces of a simple shape low-rise building. Effects of wind velocity and orientation have been analyzed considering four surface-to-air temperature differences. Results show that the convective heat transfer coefficient value strongly depends on the wind velocity, that the wind direction has a notable effect for vertical walls and for roofs and that the surface-to-air temperature difference has a negligible effect for wind velocity higher than 2 m/s. External convective heat transfer coefficient correlations are provided as a function of the wind free stream velocity and wind-to-surface angle. (author)

  15. Modeling of Heat Transfer in Rooms in the Modelica "Buildings" Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zuo, Wangda [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nouidui, Thierry Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the room heat transfer model in the free open-source Modelica \\Buildings" library. The model can be used as a single room or to compose a multizone building model. We discuss how the model is decomposed into submodels for the individual heat transfer phenomena. We also discuss the main physical assumptions. The room model can be parameterized to use different modeling assumptions, leading to linear or non-linear differential algebraic systems of equations. We present numerical experiments that show how these assumptions affect computing time and accuracy for selected cases of the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140- 2007 envelop validation tests.

  16. Influence of the convective surface transfer coefficients on the Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) building performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted...... influence on the predicted hygrothermal conditions at the surface of a building component and on the heat and vapour exchange with the indoor environment....

  17. Plant design and layout of the different buildings with respect to safety, operational and maintenance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, C.

    1981-01-01

    Design and layout of the buildings of a nuclear power plant are governed by the safety requirements regarding nearby population as called for by government regulations as well as by operational and maintenance requirements called for by the power utilities in order to assure smooth operation and easy service conditions. The lecture will focus on the different functional circumstances to be considered, their relative importance, criteria to be applied, pertinent regulations etc. and also give examples on the solutions to the above requirements. Main topics to be covered will be those circumstances that impose the highest demands on the civil engineering layout and design: airplane impact, earthquake, loss of coolant accident, pipe whipping, fuel cask transfer, annual overhaul, leak detection etc. (orig./RW)

  18. Primary design and operation analysis of ITER air transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haitian; Li Ge; Qin Shijun

    2010-01-01

    Air transfer system (ATS) is a remote handling transfer, which can work in the nuclear radiation environment and can be driven by the electricity fully. Its motion power is provided by several servo motors. The remote control technology of ATS, which is China taking part in the plan of international Tokamak experimental reactor (ITER) and grasping this technology, is one of key technologies of ITER. The remote handling technology can lay the foundation for developing demonstration nuclear fusion power plant in China on self-reliance. Because there is gamma irradiation and hazard material in these ITER parts, all required maintenance of port plugs and inner components are been transmitted by ATS. The pick-up or drop-off these components are completed by means of a remotely controlled TCS system between the Vacuum Vessel and the Hot Cell through the bridge-gallery. Tokamak building includes three floors, including upper port, equatorial port and lower port, linked by a lift. According to each port level configuration and safety requirement, the radius of curvature with ATS trajectory is optimized, and a trajectory of each level is determined by positioned guidance beacons. At last, the results of computer aided design (CAD) show single trajectory guidance of ATS in each level is available. (authors)

  19. Spectra of Ruelle transfer operators for Axiom A flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, Luchezar

    2011-01-01

    For Axiom A flows on basic sets satisfying certain additional conditions we prove strong spectral estimates for Ruelle transfer operators similar to those of Dolgopyat (1998 Ann. Math. 147 357–90) for geodesic flows on compact surfaces (for general potentials) and transitive Anosov flows on compact manifolds with C 1 jointly non-integrable horocycle foliations (for the Sinai–Bowen–Ruelle potential). Here we deal with general potentials and on spaces of arbitrary dimension, although under some geometric and regularity conditions. As is now well known, such results have deep implications in some related areas, e.g. in studying analytic properties of Ruelle zeta functions and partial differential operators, closed orbit counting functions, and in other areas

  20. Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Convective Drying of Building Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ashwani; Chandramohan, V. P.

    2018-04-01

    A mathematical model of simultaneous heat and moisture transfer is developed for convective drying of building material. A rectangular brick is considered for sample object. Finite-difference method with semi-implicit scheme is used for solving the transient governing heat and mass transfer equation. Convective boundary condition is used, as the product is exposed in hot air. The heat and mass transfer equations are coupled through diffusion coefficient which is assumed as the function of temperature of the product. Set of algebraic equations are generated through space and time discretization. The discretized algebraic equations are solved by Gauss-Siedel method via iteration. Grid and time independent studies are performed for finding the optimum number of nodal points and time steps respectively. A MATLAB computer code is developed to solve the heat and mass transfer equations simultaneously. Transient heat and mass transfer simulations are performed to find the temperature and moisture distribution inside the brick.

  1. Optimization of air-curtain sealing efficiency with respect to heat transfer in naturally ventilated buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khayrullina, A.; Hooff, van T.A.J.; Blocken, B.J.E.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Sun, Y.; Pei, J.; Zhao, X

    This study presents results of coupled 3D steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of an isolated naturally-ventilated building with the application of an air curtain to prevent heat transfer across a doorway. The considered parameters include air

  2. The influence of soil moisture transfer on building heat loss via the ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, H.M.; Carmeliet, J.; Hens, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of soil moisture transfer on building heat loss via the ground is investigated by comparing fully coupled simulations with linear thermal simulations. The observed influences of coupling are (1) the larger amplitude of surface temperature, (2) the variation of thermal

  3. Experimental investigations of heat transfer in thermo active building systems in combination with suspended ceilings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Maria Alonso; Hviid, Christian Anker; Weitzmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    buildings to cover acoustic requirements hinders the use of TABS. To measure the reduction of the heat capacity, several experiments are performed in a room equipped with TABS in the upper deck and mixing ventilation. The heat transfer is measured for different suspended ceiling covering percentages...... that the ventilation rate has a high influence on the convective heat capacity. When the ventilation rate is increased from 1.7 h-1 to 2.9 h-1, the heat transfer coefficient increases up to 16% for the same occupancy and suspended ceiling layout.......Thermo Active Building Systems (TABS), described as radiant heating or cooling systems with pipes embedded in the building structure, represent a sustainable alternative to replace conventional systems by using source temperatures close to room temperatures. The use of suspended ceiling in office...

  4. The Effect of Anisotropy of Building Materials on the Moisture Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drchalová

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of anisotropy of building materials on the moisture transfer in the design of envelope parts of building structures is studied. Two typical fibre containing plate building materials produced in the Czech Republic, Dekalux and Dekalit P, are chosen for the demonstration of this effect. Experimental results show that while for lighter Dekalit P, an order of magnitude difference in the moisture diffusivities k for the two basic orientations, i.e. along and across the plate, is observed, for the heavier Dekalux the differences in k are within the errorbar of the experimental method. As follows from the experimental results, compacting of surface layers of the plates of light fibred materials is very favorable from the point of view of moisture penetration but one should keep in mind that any local damage of the surface layer can result in a considerably faster moisture transfer in the direction along the plate.

  5. A model technology transfer program for independent operators: Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program. The original Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) activities, upon which the KTTM is based, were developed and tested for Kansas and have proved to be effective in assisting independent operators in utilizing technology. Through joint activities of TORP and the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), the KTTM was developed and documented for application in other oil-producing regions. During the course of developing this model, twelve documents describing the implementation of the KTTM were developed as deliverables to DOE. These include: (1) a problem identification (PI) manual describing the format and results of six PI workshops conducted in different areas of Kansas, (2) three technology workshop participant manuals on advanced waterflooding, reservoir description, and personal computer applications, (3) three technology workshop instructor manuals which provides instructor material for all three workshops, (4) three technologies were documented as demonstration projects which included reservoir management, permeability modification, and utilization of a liquid-level acoustic measuring device, (5) a bibliography of all literature utilized in the documents, and (6) a document which describes the KTTM.

  6. Technology transfer for DOE's office of buildings and community systems: assessment and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Jones, D.W.; Kolb, J.O.; Snell, S.A.

    1986-07-01

    The uninterrupted availability of oil supplies over the past several years and the moderation of energy price increases has sent signals to consumers and decision-makers in the buildings industry that the ''energy crisis'' is over. As a result, efforts to promote energy-conserving technologies must emphasize benefits other than BTU savings. The improved ambience of daylit spaces and the lower first costs associated with installing down-sized HVAC systems in ''tight'' buildings are examples of benefits which are likely to more influential than estimates of energy saved. Successful technology transfer requires that an R and D product have intrinsic value and that these values be effectively communicated to potential users. Active technology transfer programs are more effective than passive ones. Transfer activities should involve more than simply making information available to those who seek it. Information should be tailored to meet the needs of specific user groups and disseminated through those channels which users normally employ. In addition to information dissemination, successful technology transfer involves the management of intellectual property, including patented inventions, copyrights, technical data, and rights to future inventions. When the public can best benefit from an invention through commercialization of a new product, the exclusivity necessary to protect the investment from copiers should be provided. Most federal technology transfer programs concentrate on information exchange and largely avoid intellectual property transfers.

  7. Chaotic Attractor Crisis and Climate Sensitivity: a Transfer Operator Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantet, A.; Lucarini, V.; Lunkeit, F.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    The rough response to a smooth parameter change of some non-chaotic climate models, such as the warm to snowball-Earth transition in energy balance models due to the ice-albedo feedback, can be studied in the framework of bifurcation theory, in particular by analysing the Lyapunov spectrum of fixed points or periodic orbits. However, bifurcation theory is of little help to study the destruction of a chaotic attractor which can occur in high-dimensional General Circulation Models (GCM). Yet, one would expect critical slowing down to occur before the crisis, since, as the system becomes susceptible to the physical instability mechanism responsible for the crisis, it turns out to be less and less resilient to exogenous perturbations and to spontaneous fluctuations due to other types of instabilities on the attractor. The statistical physics framework, extended to nonequilibrium systems, is particularly well suited for the study of global properties of chaotic and stochastic systems. In particular, the semigroup of transfer operators governs the evolution of distributions in phase space and its spectrum characterises both the relaxation rate of distributions to a statistical steady-state and the stability of this steady-state to perturbations. If critical slowing down indeed occurs in the approach to an attractor crisis, the gap in the spectrum of the semigroup of transfer operators is expected to shrink. We show that the chaotic attractor crisis due to the ice-albedo feedback and resulting in a transition from a warm to a snowball-Earth in the Planet Simulator (PlaSim), a GCM of intermediate complexity, is associated with critical slowing down, as observed by the slower decay of correlations before the crisis (cf. left panel). In addition, we demonstrate that this critical slowing down can be traced back to the shrinkage of the gap between the leading eigenvalues of coarse-grained approximations of the transfer operators and that these eigenvalues capture the

  8. Building reactor operator sustain expert system with C language integrated production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Qin; Hu Shouyin; Wang Ruipian

    2002-01-01

    The development of the reactor operator sustain expert system is introduced, the capability of building reactor operator sustain expert system is discussed with C Language Integrated Production System (Clips), and a simple antitype of expert system is illustrated. The limitation of building reactor operator sustain expert system with Clips is also discussed

  9. How to use Building Information Systems for a transition towards Sustainable Building Operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itard, L.C.M.; Joosstens, F; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    BIM Building Information Model or Modelling connects many different information
    systems from various actors during the building construction process with each
    other in one easily accessible and understandable model. BIM assures an effective
    and efficient building construction process by

  10. Open conformal systems and perturbations of transfer operators

    CERN Document Server

    Pollicott, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this book is on open conformal dynamical systems corresponding to the escape of a point through an open Euclidean ball. The ultimate goal is to understand the asymptotic behavior of the escape rate as the radius of the ball tends to zero. In the case of hyperbolic conformal systems this has been addressed by various authors. The conformal maps considered in this book are far more general, and the analysis correspondingly more involved. The asymptotic existence of escape rates is proved and they are calculated in the context of (finite or infinite) countable alphabets, uniformly contracting conformal graph-directed Markov systems, and in particular, conformal countable alphabet iterated function systems. These results have direct applications to interval maps, meromorphic maps and rational functions. Towards this goal the authors develop, on a purely symbolic level, a theory of singular perturbations of Perron--Frobenius (transfer) operators associated with countable alphabet subshifts of finite t...

  11. Wireless Sensor Applications for Building Operation and Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Katipamula, Srinivas; O' Neill, Patrick

    2005-07-29

    This chapter provides an introduction to wireless sensing technology, its potential applications in buildings, three practical examples of tests in real buildings, estimates of impacts on energy consumption, discussions of costs and practical issues in implementation, and some ideas on applications likely in the near future.

  12. Numerical simulation of heat transfer through the building facades of buildings located in the city of Bechar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Missoum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the transient heat transfer in a multi-layered building wall through the facades of the buildings located in the city of Bechar (south-west Algeria. The physical model is presented to find the variation of the transient temperature in these structures and the heat flux through these elements, which depends on the air temperature of the inner surface and the instantaneous climatic conditions of the air outside. Comsol Multiphysics based on the finite element method is designed to perform numerical simulations. The measured hourly ambient air temperatures and the solar radiation flux on the horizontal surface for the city of Bechar Algeria are using during the hottest period (July 2015, and also using the properties Thermodynamics of each component of the structure. The validation of the analytical model with this simulation is verified in this document. The calculations carried out for different multilayer building walls which are commonly used in the south of Algeria to determine the thermal behavior of these structures and the influence of radiation heat flux on these elements.

  13. Radiation protection in transference of radioactive wastes among buildings of an intermediary deposit; Radioprotecao na transferencia de rejeitos radioativos entre edificios de um deposito intermediario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitake, Malvina Boni; Suzuki, Fabio Fumio, E-mail: mbmitake@ipen.b, E-mail: ffsuzuki@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/-CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Radioprotecao

    2011-10-26

    This paper describes the planning of radioprotection realized for transfer operation of radioactive wastes from two old buildings for a one of the new buildings. For planning purposes the operation was divided into nine stages and, for evaluation of collective dose, it was considered various relevant factors. The result of radioprotection optimization it was expected a total collective dose of 58.6 mSv per person. The measured dose per dosemeter of direct reading was of 3.9 mSv per person. These difference among the values is due to conservative factors used in the calculation

  14. A comprehensive framework to quantify energy savings potential from improved operations of commercial building stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, Elie; Menassa, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    While studies highlight the significant impact of actions performed by occupants and facility managers on building energy performance, current policies ignore the importance of human actions and the potential energy savings from a more efficient operation of building systems. This is mainly attributed to the lack of methods that evaluate non-technological drivers of energy use for large stocks of commercial buildings to support policy making efforts. Therefore, this study proposes a scientific approach to quantifying the energy savings potential due to improved operations of any stock of commercial buildings. The proposed framework combines energy modeling techniques, studies on human actions in buildings, and surveying and sampling methods. The contributions of this study to energy policy are significant as they reinforce the role of human actions in energy conservation, and support efforts to integrate operation-focused solutions in energy conservation policy frameworks. The framework's capabilities are illustrated in a case study performed on the stock of office buildings in the United States (US). Results indicate a potential 21 percent reduction in the current energy use levels of these buildings through realistic changes in current building operation patterns. - Highlights: • Human actions highly influence energy performance of commercial building stocks. • It is challenging to quantify operation-related energy savings potential. • The proposed framework quantifies potential energy savings from improved operations. • The framework can be applied on any stock of commercial buildings. • Applications include support for operation-focused solutions in energy policies

  15. Enhancement of building operations: A successful approach towards national electrical demand management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G.P.; Al-Nakib, D.; ElSherbini, A.; Alghimlas, F.; Al-Taqi, H.; Al-Hadban, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhanced building operations were applied for eight large government buildings in Kuwait. • The enhanced building operations led to demand savings of 8.90 MW during the national peak hour. • Nationwide guidelines were developed for implementing the enhanced operations in similar government buildings in Kuwait. • The peak electrical demand reduction is likely to be 488 MW by the year 2030. - Abstract: An approach for managing electrical demand through enhanced building operations in hot climates is evaluated and demonstrated in this paper. The approach focuses on implementing enhanced operations in government buildings, since they are easier to implement and administer. These enhanced operations included early reduction of cooling supply before the end of the occupancy period, improved time-of-day control after occupancy period and reduced lighting. A total of eight government buildings with different construction and system characteristics were selected for implementing these enhanced operations. These buildings have a total air-conditioning area of 4.39 × 10 5 m 2 and a combined peak electrical demand of 29.3 MW. The enhanced operations resulted in demand savings of 8.90 MW during the national peak hour. Temperatures build up inside the buildings were monitored and found to be within acceptable ranges. Guidelines for nationwide implementation in similar buildings were developed based on the results of this work. Implementation is estimated to reduce demand by 488 MW by the year 2030, which amounts to capital savings of $585 million. These projected values would be important to adopt energy efficient policies for the country. Additional reductions in energy and fuel consumption are added benefits, which would result in large financial and environmental savings to the country. Moreover, the enhanced building operations would be an important tool to avoid any blackouts by properly reducing the peak electrical demand as well as operating the

  16. The influence of surface treatment on mass transfer between air and building material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwiatkowski, Jerzy; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2008-01-01

    for the experiments: gypsum board and calcium silicate. The wallpaper and paint were used as finishing materials. Impact of the following parameters for changes of RH was studied: coating, temperature and air movement. The measurements showed that acryl paint (diffusion open) can significantly decrease mass uptake......The processes of mass transfer between air and building structure and in the material influence not only the conditions within the material but also inside the connected air spaces. The material which absorbs and desorbs water vapour can be used to moderate the amplitude of indoor relative humidity...... and therefore to participate in the improvement of the indoor air quality and energy saving. Many parameters influence water vapour exchange between indoor air and building material. The aim of this work is to present the change of mass transfer under different climatic and material conditions. The measurements...

  17. Stability Operations and State-Building: Continuities and Contingencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browder, Dewey A; Kaufmann, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this academic colloquium was to identify principles and supporting policies of state-building that will enhance America's ability "to win the peace" while stabilizing chaotic regions...

  18. Study of the heat transfers spectral radiation - conduction - natural convection in hybrid photovoltaic systems for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muresan, C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work is supported by the CSTB and the ADEME and is a part of an Integrated Research Project - Energy Program of CNRS - (http://www.imp.cnrs.fr/energie/) coordinated by the CETHIL: 'Integration of hybrid Thermal - Photovoltaic solar collector in buildings'. In this context, this thesis represents upstream studies led in the I.R.P., pursuing the study itself of these hybrid components in stage of integration to the framework of buildings (thermal/electric management in response to the needs). Its objective falls under an action to identify and look further into knowledge of the limiting factors of the efficiency of these hybrid components (the operating temperature of the photosensitive cells), to identify the enduring scientific bolts persisting and to contribute to removing them. To reach this aim, predictive numerical tools are developed in order to guide and follow the future evolutions of these active wall elements. The problems related to the Photovoltaic components of Mono or Poly crystalline type, namely the risk of heating of the modules included within the built framework that can lead to a degradation of their energy efficiency. The developed model aims at obtaining the evaluation of the internal field of temperature. The modeling of the radiative behavior of multi-layer components of not scattering semi-transparent media is carried out. Propagation of a collimated flux corresponds to the direct solar radiation, and a diffuse flux represents the solar radiation diffused and that resulting from the other external sources (environment). Both are treated in a separate way. The incidental radiation power and radiative net flux are thus evaluated by a superposition of the values obtained at the time of the separate studies of the two components. The collimated component of incidental flux is treated according to an approach of 'ray tracing' type. The Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM) associated to the method of finite volumes, is employed for the

  19. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniyenko Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects. Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  20. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniyenko, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects). Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  1. Decree 368/013 To grant to Resume Gas S A the concession to build and operate the pipeline linking the re gasification terminal Puntas de Sayago with Southern Cross Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Terminal project to be installed in the Resume Tips by Resume Gas S A under Boot mode (Build, Operate, Own, Transfer) in order to receive liquefied natural gas, re gasify and injecting it into the transmission network in the country

  2. CRITICAL FACTORS THAT LEAD TO GREEN BUILDING OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE PROBLEMS IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Izran Sarrazin MOHAMMAD; Nurul Nadiah ZAINOL; Shardy ABDULLAH; Neo Bee WOON; Nur Aqlima RAMLI

    2014-01-01

    The development of green buildings has become a trend in recent years in the effort to enhance the well-being of the community, environmental health, and life-cycle cost. However, many have argued that the complexities rendered by green buildings during the operational and maintenance phase often overshadow the benefits that can be gained through the development of green buildings. Several factors that lead to complexities in managing and maintaining green buildings have been highlighted by s...

  3. Thermoelectricity analogy method for computing the periodic heat transfer in external building envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Changhai; Wu Zhishen

    2008-01-01

    Simple and effective computation methods are needed to calculate energy efficiency in buildings for building thermal comfort and HVAC system simulations. This paper, which is based upon the theory of thermoelectricity analogy, develops a new harmonic method, the thermoelectricity analogy method (TEAM), to compute the periodic heat transfer in external building envelopes (EBE). It presents, in detail, the principles and specific techniques of TEAM to calculate both the decay rates and time lags of EBE. First, a set of linear equations is established using the theory of thermoelectricity analogy. Second, the temperature of each node is calculated by solving the linear equations set. Finally, decay rates and time lags are found by solving simple mathematical expressions. Comparisons show that this method is highly accurate and efficient. Moreover, relative to the existing harmonic methods, which are based on the classical control theory and the method of separation of variables, TEAM does not require complicated derivation and is amenable to hand computation and programming

  4. An easy-to-build remote laboratory with data transfer using the Internet School Experimental System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, Frantisek; Ozvoldova, Miroslava; Lustig, Frantisek; Dvorak, JirI

    2008-01-01

    The present state of information communication technology makes it possible to devise and run computer-based e-laboratories accessible to any user with a connection to the Internet, equipped with very simple technical means and making full use of web services. Thus, the way is open for a new strategy of physics education with strongly global features, based on experiment and experimentation. We name this strategy integrated e-learning, and remote experiments across the Internet are the foundation for this strategy. We present both pedagogical and technical reasoning for the remote experiments and outline a simple system based on a server-client approach, and on web services and Java applets. We give here an outline of the prospective remote laboratory system with data transfer using the Internet School Experimental System (ISES) as hardware and ISES WEB Control kit as software. This approach enables the simple construction of remote experiments without building any hardware and virtually no programming, using a paste and copy approach with typical prebuilt blocks such as a camera view, controls, graphs, displays, etc. We have set up and operate at present seven experiments, running round the clock, with more than 12 000 connections since 2005. The experiments are widely used in practical teaching of both university and secondary level physics. The recording of the detailed steps the experimentor takes during the measurement enables detailed study of the psychological aspects of running the experiments. The system is ready for a network of universities to start covering the basic set of physics experiments. In conclusion we summarize the results achieved and experiences of using remote experiments built on the ISES hardware system

  5. An easy-to-build remote laboratory with data transfer using the Internet School Experimental System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, František; Lustig, František; Dvořák, Jiří; Ožvoldová, Miroslava

    2008-07-01

    The present state of information communication technology makes it possible to devise and run computer-based e-laboratories accessible to any user with a connection to the Internet, equipped with very simple technical means and making full use of web services. Thus, the way is open for a new strategy of physics education with strongly global features, based on experiment and experimentation. We name this strategy integrated e-learning, and remote experiments across the Internet are the foundation for this strategy. We present both pedagogical and technical reasoning for the remote experiments and outline a simple system based on a server-client approach, and on web services and Java applets. We give here an outline of the prospective remote laboratory system with data transfer using the Internet School Experimental System (ISES) as hardware and ISES WEB Control kit as software. This approach enables the simple construction of remote experiments without building any hardware and virtually no programming, using a paste and copy approach with typical prebuilt blocks such as a camera view, controls, graphs, displays, etc. We have set up and operate at present seven experiments, running round the clock, with more than 12 000 connections since 2005. The experiments are widely used in practical teaching of both university and secondary level physics. The recording of the detailed steps the experimentor takes during the measurement enables detailed study of the psychological aspects of running the experiments. The system is ready for a network of universities to start covering the basic set of physics experiments. In conclusion we summarize the results achieved and experiences of using remote experiments built on the ISES hardware system.

  6. An easy-to-build remote laboratory with data transfer using the Internet School Experimental System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauer, Frantisek; Ozvoldova, Miroslava [Trnava University, Faculty of Pedagogy, Department of Physics, Trnava (Slovakia); Lustig, Frantisek; Dvorak, JirI [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Didactics of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic)], E-mail: fschauer@ft.utb.cz

    2008-07-15

    The present state of information communication technology makes it possible to devise and run computer-based e-laboratories accessible to any user with a connection to the Internet, equipped with very simple technical means and making full use of web services. Thus, the way is open for a new strategy of physics education with strongly global features, based on experiment and experimentation. We name this strategy integrated e-learning, and remote experiments across the Internet are the foundation for this strategy. We present both pedagogical and technical reasoning for the remote experiments and outline a simple system based on a server-client approach, and on web services and Java applets. We give here an outline of the prospective remote laboratory system with data transfer using the Internet School Experimental System (ISES) as hardware and ISES WEB Control kit as software. This approach enables the simple construction of remote experiments without building any hardware and virtually no programming, using a paste and copy approach with typical prebuilt blocks such as a camera view, controls, graphs, displays, etc. We have set up and operate at present seven experiments, running round the clock, with more than 12 000 connections since 2005. The experiments are widely used in practical teaching of both university and secondary level physics. The recording of the detailed steps the experimentor takes during the measurement enables detailed study of the psychological aspects of running the experiments. The system is ready for a network of universities to start covering the basic set of physics experiments. In conclusion we summarize the results achieved and experiences of using remote experiments built on the ISES hardware system.

  7. Experimental study of dynamic effects in moisture transfer in building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    transfer in building materials, similar to moisture transfer in soils, is not free of dynamic effects. The findings imply that the widely accepted static theory for moisture storage in porous media is not generally valid and should be corrected for the occurrences of dynamic effects. Considering......In relation to moisture storage in porous materials, it is often assumed that the process dynamics do not affect the moisture retention. There is mounting evidence though that this notion is incorrect: various studies demonstrate that the moisture retention is influenced by the (de)saturation rates...... of the moisture transfer processes involved. The available evidence primarily stems from imbibition and drainage experiments on soils however, and compared to many other porous media, these tests consider rather permeable materials with relatively dominant liquid transport at comparatively large (de...

  8. Building a Mechanism for the Function of an Innovation-Oriented Machine-Building Enterprise in Operating the Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiarynova Кateryna О.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at developing and substantiating a mechanism for the function of an innovation-oriented machine-building enterprise in operating the development in order to increase effectuality in the space of ecosystem of operation and to satisfy the economic interests of development. The article proposes a mechanism for the function of an innovation-oriented machine-building enterprise in operating the development, its structure and building based on a business model; operating the development through responsibility centers; functional transformation of economic interest of actors in the ecosystem of function into the economic interest of enterprise; use of economic-institutional regulators and management technologies. Implementation of the mechanism would ensure the value of enterprise, the ability to manage development with the prolonged satisfaction of the joint economic interest, the ability to operate the economic interest of actors in the ecosystem, and maintenance the development mode in the operating process. Prospect for further research will be development of technologies for implementation of the proposed mechanism in the machine-building enterprises.

  9. Conduct of operations training - An innovative approach to team building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widen, W.C.; Kurth, W.; Broccolo, A.

    1987-01-01

    The conduct of nuclear power plant operations is a key parameter for station management and regulators alike. Indeed, the basic methods and demeanor in which operating crews approach overall plant operations is perhaps the principal factor leading to safe and efficient operations. Hence, Commonwealth Edison's Zion Station has initiated an innovative and positive training program designed to increase operator awareness of conducting station operations in an attentive, diligent, and conscientious manner. This Conduct of Operations Training Program is a collaborative joint effort between Commonwealth Edison and the Westinghouse Nuclear Training Center. In particular, the key managers of Zion's operating department brainstormed various philosophies and strategies with senior training staff members of the Westinghouse Nuclear Training Center. The outcome of these sessions has formed the skeleton of an intensified, one-day Conduct of Operations course. Several unique aspects of this innovative course are described

  10. Building political will for HIV response: an operational model and strategy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerhoff, Derick W

    2016-10-01

    As global programs for HIV response look to transfer responsibility and financing increasingly to country governments, the political will to take on these responsibilities becomes increasingly prominent. However, defining and assessing political will are problematic; it involves intent and motivation, and thus is inherently difficult to observe. It is intimately connected to capacity and is contextually embedded. This article describes an operational model of political will comprised of seven components that are observable and measurable. Two case studies illustrate the application of the model and shed light on the interconnections among commitment, capacity and context: South Africa and China. Strategy options to build political will for HIV response identify possible actions for both government and civil society. Political will as a concept is most usefully viewed as integrated within larger political and bureaucratic processes, as a product of the complex array of incentives and disincentives that those processes create. However, this conclusion is not a recipe for discouragement or inaction. Agent-based conceptualizations of policy change offer a solid grounding for building political will that supports HIV policy and programs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Operationally efficient propulsion system study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 6; Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of OEPSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Timothy J.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the final report for the Space Transfer Propulsion Operational Efficiency Study Task of the Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) conducted by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell International. This Study task studied, evaluated and identified design concepts and technologies which minimized launch and in-space operations and optimized in-space vehicle propulsion system operability.

  12. The Huaibei power plant and its implications for the Chinese BOT [Built-Operate-Transfer] market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N. [University of Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering; Hao Zhang [University of Leeds (United Kingdom). Accounting and Finance Div.; Yiran Zhu [Home Product Ltd., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This paper is a longitudinal case study, from 1992 to the present, of a Chinese Build-Operate-Transfer, (BOT), project, the Huaibei power plant. The Huaibei project, unlike the better known Sharejio B and C or Laibin B power plant BOT projects which were undertaken solely by foreign contractors, is one of the first projects based on the Sino-Foreign Cooperative Joint Venture model (CJV) involving largely Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs). For this type of CJV it is interesting to note that revenues from tax-savings and labour-cost savings become significant for the SOE organisations. By studying how the Huaibei ownership has evolved over the last 10 years and how the main CJV participants have coped with the problems which have arisen, the case not only illustrates the well-known difficulties associated with Chinese BOT projects but suggests possible ways for the project manager to overcome or mitigate these difficulties. (author)

  13. Establishing pharmacy operations in a new hospital while transferring existing operations to new ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumb, Deborah J

    2010-04-01

    The process of moving pharmacy services and personnel from an existing hospital to a new hospital while maintaining patient care and operations at both facilities is described. The project management structure for the new hospital is described, including the establishment of a departmental coordination team (DCT) for the pharmacy. The purpose of the pharmacy DCT was to plan and coordinate new hospital move-in and pharmacy operations as well as the transition of the existing hospital to new ownership. The use of action item lists and project scorecards kept the project on schedule and on budget. The pharmacy DCT's action item list, which sorted items into four categories (facilities, equipment, operations, and staffing), was reviewed and updated at the weekly meeting of pharmacy leadership and served as the principal guiding document for the pharmacy DCT. Planning and implementation are described for the areas of operations and workflow, staffing, information technology, materials management, accreditation and licensure, and orientation and training. On the transition day, patients under care by physicians employed by the governing organization were transferred to the new facility while patients under care by community physicians remained at the existing facility under new ownership and new administration. Integral to the successful transition were early planning, the provision of adequate training for all employees, and collaboration among organizations, departments, and individuals. A well-coordinated plan resulted in the successful establishment of pharmacy practice in a new hospital and the transition of an operational pharmacy practice and facility to new ownership while maintaining quality patient care.

  14. International technology transfer: building theory from a multiple case-study in the aircraft industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    International technology transfer occurs frequently in international operations, for example in cases of foreign direct investment where companies set-up existing manufacturing lines in new locations. It also occurs in situations of international outsourcing where a new supplier receives product

  15. Development and Application of a Numerical Framework for Improving Building Foundation Heat Transfer Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Nathanael J. F.

    Heat transfer from building foundations varies significantly in all three spatial dimensions and has important dynamic effects at all timescales, from one hour to several years. With the additional consideration of moisture transport, ground freezing, evapotranspiration, and other physical phenomena, the estimation of foundation heat transfer becomes increasingly sophisticated and computationally intensive to the point where accuracy must be compromised for reasonable computation time. The tools currently available to calculate foundation heat transfer are often either too limited in their capabilities to draw meaningful conclusions or too sophisticated to use in common practices. This work presents Kiva, a new foundation heat transfer computational framework. Kiva provides a flexible environment for testing different numerical schemes, initialization methods, spatial and temporal discretizations, and geometric approximations. Comparisons within this framework provide insight into the balance of computation speed and accuracy relative to highly detailed reference solutions. The accuracy and computational performance of six finite difference numerical schemes are verified against established IEA BESTEST test cases for slab-on-grade heat conduction. Of the schemes tested, the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme demonstrates the best balance between accuracy, performance, and numerical stability. Kiva features four approaches of initializing soil temperatures for an annual simulation. A new accelerated initialization approach is shown to significantly reduce the required years of presimulation. Methods of approximating three-dimensional heat transfer within a representative two-dimensional context further improve computational performance. A new approximation called the boundary layer adjustment method is shown to improve accuracy over other established methods with a negligible increase in computation time. This method accounts for the reduced heat transfer

  16. Optimization of heat saving in buildings using unsteady heat transfer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedinec Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the energy consumption growth rate is increasingly becoming one of the main challenges for ensuring sustainable development, particularly in the buildings as the largest end-use sector in many countries. Along this line, the aim of this paper is to analyse the possibilities for energy savings in the construction of new buildings and reconstruction of the existing ones developing a tool that, in terms of the available heating technologies and insulation, provides answer to the problem of optimal cost effective energy consumption. The tool is composed of an unsteady heat transfer model which is incorporated into a cost-effective energy saving optimization. The unsteady heat transfer model uses annual hourly meteorological data, chosen as typical for the last ten-year period, as well as thermo physical features of the layers of the building walls. The model is tested for the typical conditions in the city of Skopje, Macedonia. The results show that the most cost effective heating technology for the given conditions is the wood fired stove, followed by the inverter air-conditioner. The centralized district heating and the pellet fired stoves are the next options. The least cost effective option is the panel that uses electricity. In this paper, the optimal insulation thickness is presented for each type of heating technology.

  17. Simultaneous heat and moisture transfer in soils combined with building simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G. H. dos; Mendes, N. [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR/CCET, Thermal Systems Laboratory (LST), Curitiba (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In order to precisely predict ground heat transfer, room air temperature and humidity, a combined model has been developed and conceived to calculate both the coupled heat and moisture transfer in soil and floor and the psychrometrics condition of indoor air. The present methodology for the soil is based on the theory of Philip and De Vries, using variable thermophysical properties for different materials. The governing equations were discretized using the finite-volume method and a three-dimensional model for describing the physical phenomena of heat and mass transfer in unsaturated moist porous soils and floor. Additionally, a lumped transient approach for a building room and a finite-volume multi-layer model for the building envelope have been developed to integrate with the soil model. Results are presented in terms of temperature, humidity and heat flux at the interface between room air and the floor, showing the importance of the approach presented and the model robustness for long-term simulations with a high time step. (author)

  18. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building

  19. ANALYSIS OF SUFFICIENCY OF THE BEARING CAPACITY OF BUILDING STRUCTURES OF OPERATING SITES OF MAIN BUILDINGS OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseeva Ekaterina Leonidovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Upon examination of eleven main buildings of power plants, analysis of defects and damages of building structures was performed. Thereafter, the damageability of principal bearing structures of main buildings of thermal plants was analyzed. It was identified that the fastest growing defects and damages were concentrated in the structures of operating sites. The research of the rate of development of the most frequent damages and defects made it possible to conclude that internal corrosion of the reinforcing steel was the most dangerous defect, as far as the reinforced concrete elements of operating sites were concerned. Methods of mathematical statistics were applied to identify the reinforcing steel development pattern inside reinforced concrete elements of floors of operating sites. It was identified that the probability of corrosion of reinforced concrete elements of operating sites was distributed in accordance with the demonstrative law. Based on these data, calculation of strength of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams was performed in terms of their regular sections, given the natural loads and the realistic condition of structures. As a result, dependence between the bearing capacity reserve ratio and the corrosion development pattern was identified for reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of operating sites. In order to analyze the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of building structures of operating sites in relation to their time in commission, equations were derived to identify the nature of dependence between the sufficiency of the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete slabs and metal beams of the operating sites and their time in commission.

  20. 75 FR 51160 - Swanson Rail Transfer, L.P.-Lease and Operation Exemption-BDB Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... truck-rail transfer facility on the property and provide associated rail common carrier services. \\1... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35399] Swanson Rail Transfer, L.P.--Lease and Operation Exemption--BDB Company Swanson Rail Transfer, L.P. (SRT), a noncarrier...

  1. Operation of buildings: Energy supply and energy conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, H

    1985-01-01

    Energy saving in public administration. A list-like collection of the measures to monitor the consumption, the measures of saving energy at existing buildings, new systems and by new techniques. Examples with figures for the savings achieved in the region of Marburg-Biedenkopf (Hesse). Guidelines are set up which are mainly based on energy saving, heat recovery, use of new technologies and renewable energy sources, fluidized-bed combustion also in smaller plants of ca. 2 MW, waste management separating wastes into burnable/unburnable, information of the public administration and the people and the setting up of energy concepts. (PJH).

  2. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Eeee of... - Operating Limits-High Throughput Transfer Racks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits-High Throughput Transfer Racks 3 Table 3 to Subpart EEEE of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Throughput Transfer Racks As stated in § 63.2346(e), you must comply with the operating limits for existing...

  4. Building Abelian Functions with Generalised Baker-Hirota Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew England

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new systematic method to construct Abelian functions on Jacobian varieties of plane, algebraic curves. The main tool used is a symmetric generalisation of the bilinear operator defined in the work of Baker and Hirota. We give explicit formulae for the multiple applications of the operators, use them to define infinite sequences of Abelian functions of a prescribed pole structure and deduce the key properties of these functions. We apply the theory on the two canonical curves of genus three, presenting new explicit examples of vector space bases of Abelian functions. These reveal previously unseen similarities between the theories of functions associated to curves of the same genus.

  5. Customer Attraction in a Design-Build-Finance-Maintain-Operate Contract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favie, R.; Nordennen, van A.; Kleine, A.J.; Maas, G.J.; Ceric, A.; Radujkovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, large public customers use integrated contracts more and more often for complicated civil engineering and architectural works. Projects with integrated contracts such as Design, Build, Finance, Maintenance and Operate require tenderers to behave differently than they are

  6. Regional Approach to Building Operational Level Capacity for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to strengthen public health disaster management capacities at the operational level in six countries of the Eastern Africa region, the USAID-funded leadership project worked through the HEALTH Alliance, a network of seven schools of public health from six countries in the region to train district-level teams.

  7. The Golden Gate: Building Bridges Between Research and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lacey L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has discussed the ongoing dilemma of implementing research-based findings in an applied setting. This panel will discuss lessons learned from various examples where bridges have been forged between research and operations, and examine ways to promote and achieve similar collaborations in other areas in the future.

  8. Multifamily Building Operator Job/Task Analysis and Report: September 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    The development of job/task analyses (JTAs) is one of three components of the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals project and will allow industry to develop training resources, quality assurance protocols, accredited training programs, and professional certifications. The Multifamily Building Operator JTA identifies and catalogs all of the tasks performed by multifamily building operators, as well as the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) needed to perform the identified tasks.

  9. A conceptual redesign of an Inter-Building Fuel Transfer Cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klann, R.T.; Picker, B.A. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Inter-Building Fuel Transfer Cask, referred to as the IBC, is a lead shielded cask for transporting subassemblies between buildings on the Argonne National Laboratory-West site near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The cask transports both newly fabricated and spent reactor subassemblies between the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) and the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). The IBC will play a key role in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel recycling demonstration project. This report discusses a conceptual redesign of the IBC which has been performed. The objective of the conceptual design was to increase the passive heat removal capabilities, reduce the personnel radiation exposure and incorporate enhanced safety features into the design. The heat transfer, radiation and thermal-hydraulic properties of the IBC were analytically modelled to determine the principal factors controlling the desip. The scoping studies that were performed determined the vital physical characteristics (i.e., size, shielding, pumps, etc.) of the MC conceptual design

  10. Building a Natural Disaster Risk Index for Supply Chain Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Liao; Ozden Bayazit; Fang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Risk for an organization is associated with uncertainties in all areas of its operations. As firms move toward global sourcing, supply chain risk increases dramatically, which is linked to lower financial performance and market value. One major type of supply chain risk is disruptions caused by natural or man-made disasters. In this paper, major factors causing supply chain disruptions are identified based on resource dependency theory and contingency theory. As a result of the study, a compr...

  11. Fundamental mass transfer modeling of emission of volatile organic compounds from building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodalal, Awad Saad

    In this study, a mass transfer theory based model is presented for characterizing the VOC emissions from building materials. A 3-D diffusion model is developed to describe the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from individual sources. Then the formulation is extended to include the emissions from composite sources (system comprising an assemblage of individual sources). The key parameters for the model (The diffusion coefficient of the VOC in the source material D, and the equilibrium partition coefficient k e) were determined independently (model parameters are determined without the use of chamber emission data). This procedure eliminated to a large extent the need for emission testing using environmental chambers, which is costly, time consuming, and may be subject to confounding sink effects. An experimental method is developed and implemented to measure directly the internal diffusion (D) and partition coefficients ( ke). The use of the method is illustrated for three types of VOC's: (i) Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, (ii) Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ( iii) Aldehydes, through typical dry building materials (carpet, plywood, particleboard, vinyl floor tile, gypsum board, sub-floor tile and OSB). Then correlations for predicting D and ke based solely on commonly available properties such as molecular weight and vapour pressure were proposed for each product and type of VOC. These correlations can be used to estimate the D and ke when direct measurement data are not available, and thus facilitate the prediction of VOC emissions from the building materials using mass transfer theory. The VOC emissions from a sub-floor material (made of the recycled automobile tires), and a particleboard are measured and predicted. Finally, a mathematical model to predict the diffusion coefficient through complex sources (floor adhesive) as a function of time was developed. Then this model (for diffusion coefficient in complex sources) was used to predict the emission rate from

  12. Online trust building through third party trust transfer and third party protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandoko, Wanda; Saleh Abbas, Bahtiar; Budiastuti, Dyah; Kosala, Raymond

    2017-03-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an online trust building mechanism for SME (Small Medium Enterprise). Trust is very important in e-commerce. The nature of online shopping has a greater uncertainty than offline shopping. Seeing as there is an uncertainty that can produce risks, a prospective buyer’s trust is needed. A lot of people’s unwillingness to shop online is caused by their lack of trust toward e-commerce. E-commerce is said to be one of the ways for SME to compete with bigger companies. However, building trust requires immense time and cost. SME with limited resources may experience difficulties in building trust just with their own resources. Base on literature research that needs to be validated in next research, we found that trust can be built through trust transfer from the reputable and well-known trust-mark issuer, and third party protection such as escrow account service and credit card issuer.

  13. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  14. Forecasting ofuseful life of the structures of a production building during operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pshenichkina Valeriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a probabilistic concept of practical evaluation of the individual resource of structures of industrial buildings and structures in operation. The results of calculation of a monolithic reinforced concrete overpass for safety and durability are given. The quantitative values of the resource are obtained for a given security of operability.

  15. Operational Research for Developing Countries - a case of transfer of technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Ravn, Hans V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with some fundamental aspects of the process of transfer of operational research from the industrialized countries to the Third World. Two complementary conceptions of operational research are identified: technical and social operational research. The main contribution of ...... of this paper is to regard the discussion of operational research for developing countries as a case of transfer of technology. Finally, some proposals for action and further research will be briefly outlined.......This paper is concerned with some fundamental aspects of the process of transfer of operational research from the industrialized countries to the Third World. Two complementary conceptions of operational research are identified: technical and social operational research. The main contribution...

  16. Relative significance of heat transfer processes to quantify tradeoffs between complexity and accuracy of energy simulations with a building energy use patterns classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarinejad, Mohammad

    This dissertation develops rapid and accurate building energy simulations based on a building classification that identifies and focuses modeling efforts on most significant heat transfer processes. The building classification identifies energy use patterns and their contributing parameters for a portfolio of buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is "Building classification can provide minimal required inputs for rapid and accurate energy simulations for a large number of buildings". The critical literature review indicated there is lack of studies to (1) Consider synoptic point of view rather than the case study approach, (2) Analyze influence of different granularities of energy use, (3) Identify key variables based on the heat transfer processes, and (4) Automate the procedure to quantify model complexity with accuracy. Therefore, three dissertation objectives are designed to test out the dissertation hypothesis: (1) Develop different classes of buildings based on their energy use patterns, (2) Develop different building energy simulation approaches for the identified classes of buildings to quantify tradeoffs between model accuracy and complexity, (3) Demonstrate building simulation approaches for case studies. Penn State's and Harvard's campus buildings as well as high performance LEED NC office buildings are test beds for this study to develop different classes of buildings. The campus buildings include detailed chilled water, electricity, and steam data, enabling to classify buildings into externally-load, internally-load, or mixed-load dominated. The energy use of the internally-load buildings is primarily a function of the internal loads and their schedules. Externally-load dominated buildings tend to have an energy use pattern that is a function of building construction materials and outdoor weather conditions. However, most of the commercial medium-sized office buildings have a mixed-load pattern, meaning the HVAC system and operation schedule dictate

  17. Sensitivity analysis for daily building operation from the energy and thermal comfort standpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Marko G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy performance of buildings is one of the most important tasks for reaching sustainability. Assessing building energy consumption is performed more often with specialized simulation tools. Sensitivity analysis proved to be a valuable tool for creating more reliable and realistic building energy models and better buildings. This paper briefly describes the methodology for running global sensitivity analysis and tools that can be used, and presents the results of such an analysis conducted for winter period, daily, on input variables covering a real building's operation, control and occupant related parameters that affect both thermal comfort and heating energy consumption. Two sets of inputs were created. The only difference between these sets is an addition of clothing insulation and occupant heat gain as input variables. The reference building was simulated for three distinctive winter weeks. Two additional input variables have an effect especially on thermal comfort, but they do not disturb the relative order of other influential input variables. The common influential variables for both energy consumption and thermal comfort were identified and are: air handling unit sup-ply temperature and airflow rate and control system related parameters. This can help in future research into implementing the simulation-assisted optimized operation in real buildings. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  18. The experience of building and operating COMPASS RICH-1

    CERN Document Server

    Birsa, R; Rocco, E; Schiavon, P; Kramer, D; Schroder, W; Dafni, T; Tessarotto, F; Bressan, A; Schill, C; Deschamps, H; Mann, A; Sozzi, F; Colantoni, M; Dibiase, N; Abbon, P; Svec, M; Delagnes, E; Ketzer, B; Joosten, R; Steiger, L; Ciliberti, P; Konigsmann, K; Maggiora, A; Kolosov, V N; Giorgi, M; Sbrizzai, G; Nahle, O; Kunne, F; Sulc, M; Teufel, A; Paul, S; Neyret, D; Rebourgeard, P; Menon, G; Dalla Torre, S; Hagemann, R; Slunecka, M; Martin, A; Magnon, A; Takekawa, S; Finger, M; Bradamante, F; Heinsius, F H; Nerling, F; Gerassimov, S; Polak, J; Alexeev, M; Pizzolotto, C; Chiosso, M; Gobbo, B; Angerer, H; Denisov, O; Ferrero, A; Baum, G; Franco, C; Lehmann, A; Bordalo, P; Duic, V; Konorov, I; Mutter, A; Levorato, S; Robinet, F; von Harrach, D; Fischer, H; Schoenmeier, P; Pesaro, G; Wollny, H; Panzieri, D

    2011-01-01

    COMPASS RICH-1 is a large size gaseous Imaging Cherenkov Detector providing hadron identification in the range from 3 to 55 GeV/c, in the wide acceptance spectrometer of the COMPASS Experiment at CERN SPS. It uses a 3 m long C(4)F(10) radiator, a 21 m(2) large VUV mirror surface and two kinds of photon detectors: MAPMTs and MWPCs with CsI photocathodes, covering a total of 5.5 m(2). It is in operation since 2002 and its performance has increased in time thanks to progressive optimization and mostly to a major upgrade which was implemented in 2006. The main characteristics of COMPASS RICH-1 components are described and some specific aspects related to the radiator gas system, the mirror alignment, the MWPC electrical stability and the readout electronics are discussed. Some key features of the event reconstruction and the PID analysis are presented together with results from the COMPASS RICH-1 performance characterization study. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transportable Payload Operations Control Center reusable software: Building blocks for quality ground data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmot, Ron; Koslosky, John T.; Beach, Edward; Schwarz, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    The Mission Operations Division (MOD) at Goddard Space Flight Center builds Mission Operations Centers which are used by Flight Operations Teams to monitor and control satellites. Reducing system life cycle costs through software reuse has always been a priority of the MOD. The MOD's Transportable Payload Operations Control Center development team established an extensive library of 14 subsystems with over 100,000 delivered source instructions of reusable, generic software components. Nine TPOCC-based control centers to date support 11 satellites and achieved an average software reuse level of more than 75 percent. This paper shares experiences of how the TPOCC building blocks were developed and how building block developer's, mission development teams, and users are all part of the process.

  20. Comparative Education and Research Capacity Building: Reflections on International Transfer and the Significance of Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Crossley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in comparative and international education, along with a fundamental reconceptualisation of this distinctive multidisciplinary field of study. The nature and significance of these developments are explored with particular reference to their implications for broader research capacity building initiatives worldwide. In doing so, a critique of the international transfer of globally dominant research modalities and strategies is presented--along with arguments for increased attention to context sensitivity in both international development cooperation and educational research in general. Illustrative examples that support these arguments are drawn from the author's own research, from an analysis of emergent educational policy debates in the UK, and from related studies being carried out in Malaysia. In concluding, the strategic role of comparative research traditions and perspectives in a rapidly globalizing world is highlighted, while supporting the promotion of new initiative and research centres for comparative and international education.

  1. Handling and transfer operations for partially-spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, J K [PUSPATI, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1983-12-01

    This project involved the handling and transfer of partially-spent reactor fuel from the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor in Corvallis, Oregon to Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The method of handling is dependent upon the burn-up history of the fuel elements. Legal constraints imposed by standing U.S. nuclear regulations determine the selection of transport containers, transportation procedures, physical security arrangements in transit and nuclear material accountability documentation. Results of in-house safety evaluations of the project determine the extent of involvement of pertinent nuclear regulatory authorities. The actual handling activities and actual radiation dose rates are also presented.

  2. Handling and transfer operations for partially-spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    This project involved the handling and transfer of partially-spent reactor fuel from the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor in Corvallis, Oregon to Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The method of handling is dependent upon the burn-up history of the fuel elements. Legal constraints imposed by standing U.S. nuclear regulations determine the selection of transport containers, transportation procedures, physical security arrangements in transit and nuclear material accountability documentation. Results of in-house safety evaluations of the project determine the extent of involvement of pertinent nuclear regulatory authorities. The actual handling activities and actual radiation dose rates are also presented (author)

  3. 40 CFR 63.130 - Transfer operations provisions-periodic recordkeeping and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: A check off on a log sheet; a list of DOT serial numbers or Method 27 data; or a position... in the Notification of Compliance Status or operating permit. (2) Reports of the duration of periods... of Compliance Status or operating permit. (e) The owner or operator of a Group 1 transfer rack shall...

  4. A conceptual redesign of an inter-building fuel transfer cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klann, R.T.; Picker, B.A. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The Inter-Building Fuel Transfer Cask, referred to as the IBC, is a lead shielded cask for transporting subassemblies between buildings on the Argonne National Laboratory-West site near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The cask transports both newly fabricated and spent reactor subassemblies between the Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2), the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) and the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). The IBC will play a key role in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel recycling demonstration project. The existing IBC technology, designed and fabricated in the late fifties, is outdated and is a source of personnel exposure at ANL-W. The current IBC system requires forced argon cooling and has extremely limited passive cooling capabilities due to existing design features. A conceptual redesign of the IBC has been performed. The objective of the conceptual design was to increase the passive heat removal capabilities, reduce the personnel radiation exposure and incorporate enhanced safety features into the design. The heat transfer, radiation and thermal-hydraulic properties of the IBC were analytically modeled to determine the principal factors controlling the design. The scoping studies that were performed determined the vital physical characteristics (i.e., size, shielding, pumps, etc.) of the IBC conceptual design. The conceptual design for the IBC allows subassemblies with up to 800 Watts of decay heat to be passively cooled, a significant increase over the existing system. The new design which incorporates better passive cooling mechanisms will prevent inadvertent damage to the subassembly during postulated loss-of-power and loss-of-flow accident scenarios. The new design also decreases the radiation hazard to personnel by having fewer external systems, a better shield plug design, and surfaces that are easier to decontaminate. The control and monitoring system will also be state-of-the-art technology

  5. Intelligent building operating technologies : a cost-effective reduction in building energy consumption[Business case for a climate change solution]. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, J.

    2004-04-01

    Much of the energy consumed in the commercial and institutional (C and I) buildings sector is wasted due to poor building operation. The sector accounts for 13 per cent of secondary energy use in Canada, and contributes about the same proportion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy use in this sector could be reduced if the operation of the buildings were improved. The CANMET Energy Technology Centre in Varennes, Quebec has developed a set of software solutions called Intelligent Building Operating Technologies to address this problem. The software program applies artificial intelligence algorithms to existing building energy management control systems to diagnose equipment and system problems. The software provides performance reports and allows the operator to optimize the operation of the building. The proposed control strategies could be applied to 60 per cent of the building surface area in Canada, resulting energy consumption reductions of 12 per cent annually, or 14 TWh of electricity and 1.5 billion cubic metres of natural gas. The savings amount to $1.8 billion and 7 Mt of GHG emissions annually. It was suggested that a national retro-commissioning program would eliminate the barriers to improving building operation and help research and development aimed at Intelligent Building Operating Technologies. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Building capacity in health facility management: guiding principles for skills transfer in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Laura A; Brillant, Sister Barbara; Cleveland, Emily; Dahn, Bernice T; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Podesta, Mae; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2010-03-18

    Management training is fundamental to developing human resources for health. Particularly as Liberia revives its health delivery system, facility and county health team managers are central to progress. Nevertheless, such management skills are rarely prioritized in health training, and sustained capacity building in this area is limited. We describe a health management delivery program in which a north and south institution collaborated to integrate classroom and field-based training in health management and to transfer the capacity for sustained management development in Liberia. We developed and implemented a 6-month training program in health management skills (i.e. strategic problem solving, financial management, human resource management and leadership) delivered by Yale University and Mother Patern College from Liberia, with support from the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Over three 6-month cycles, responsibility for course instruction was transferred from the north institution to the south institution. A self-administered survey was conducted of all participants completing the course to measure changes in self-rated management skills, the degree to which the course was helpful and met its stated objectives, and faculty members' responsiveness to participant needs as the transfer process occurred. Respondents (n=93, response rate 95.9%) reported substantial improvement in self-reported management skills, and rated the helpfulness of the course and the degree to which the course met its objectives highly. Levels of improvement and course ratings were similar over the three cohorts as the course was transferred to the south institution. We suggest a framework of five elements for implementing successful management training programs that can be transferred and sustained in resource-limited settings, including: 1) use a short-course format focusing on four key skill areas with practical tools; 2) include didactic training, on-site projects, and on-site mentoring; 3

  7. Building capacity in health facility management: guiding principles for skills transfer in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahn Bernice T

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management training is fundamental to developing human resources for health. Particularly as Liberia revives its health delivery system, facility and county health team managers are central to progress. Nevertheless, such management skills are rarely prioritized in health training, and sustained capacity building in this area is limited. We describe a health management delivery program in which a north and south institution collaborated to integrate classroom and field-based training in health management and to transfer the capacity for sustained management development in Liberia. Methods We developed and implemented a 6-month training program in health management skills (i.e. strategic problem solving, financial management, human resource management and leadership delivered by Yale University and Mother Patern College from Liberia, with support from the Clinton HIV/AIDS Initiative. Over three 6-month cycles, responsibility for course instruction was transferred from the north institution to the south institution. A self-administered survey was conducted of all participants completing the course to measure changes in self-rated management skills, the degree to which the course was helpful and met its stated objectives, and faculty members' responsiveness to participant needs as the transfer process occurred. Results Respondents (n = 93, response rate 95.9% reported substantial improvement in self-reported management skills, and rated the helpfulness of the course and the degree to which the course met its objectives highly. Levels of improvement and course ratings were similar over the three cohorts as the course was transferred to the south institution. We suggest a framework of five elements for implementing successful management training programs that can be transferred and sustained in resource-limited settings, including: 1 use a short-course format focusing on four key skill areas with practical tools; 2 include

  8. Greenhouse gases emission assessment in residential sector through buildings simulations and operation optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojiljković, Mirko M.; Ignjatović, Marko G.; Vučković, Goran D.

    2015-01-01

    Buildings use a significant amount of primary energy and largely contribute to greenhouse gases emission. Cost optimality and cost effectiveness, including cost-optimal operation, are important for the adoption of energy efficient and environmentally friendly technologies. The long-term assessment of buildings-related greenhouse gases emission might take into account cost-optimal operation of their energy systems. This is often not the case in the literature. Long-term operation optimization problems are often of large scale and computationally intensive and time consuming. This paper formulates a bottom-up methodology relying on an efficient, but precise operation optimization approach, applicable to long-term problems and use with buildings simulations. We suggest moving-horizon short-term optimization to determine near-optimal operation modes and show that this approach, applied to flexible energy systems without seasonal storage, have satisfactory efficiency and accuracy compared with solving problem for an entire year. We also confirm it as a valuable pre-solve technique. Approach applicability and the importance of energy systems optimization are illustrated with a case study considering buildings envelope improvements and cogeneration and heat storage implementation in an urban residential settlement. EnergyPlus is used for buildings simulations while mixed integer linear programming optimization problems are constructed and solved using the custom-built software and the branch-and-cut solver Gurobi Optimizer. - Highlights: • Bottom-up approach for greenhouse gases emission assessment is presented. • Short-term moving-horizon optimization is used to define operation regimes. • Operation optimization and buildings simulations are connected with modeling tool. • Illustrated optimization method performed efficiently and gave accurate results.

  9. By, with, and through: the theory and practice of special operations capacity-building

    OpenAIRE

    Heisler, Anthony F.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis presents a theory of how U.S. special operations forces (USSOF) build partner capacity. Building partner capacity (BPC) is a cornerstone of America’s post-9/11 security strategy and a signature mission of USSOF. However, USSOF lacks a theory that articulates how capacity is built or the keys to its success. This thesis explores BPC from the top down, through national security documents, doctrine, and case studies. It identi...

  10. Selberg zeta functions and transfer operators an experimental approach to singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Markus Szymon

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a method for evaluating Selberg zeta functions via transfer operators for the full modular group and its congruence subgroups with characters. Studying zeros of Selberg zeta functions for character deformations allows us to access the discrete spectra and resonances of hyperbolic Laplacians under both singular and non-singular perturbations. Areas in which the theory has not yet been sufficiently developed, such as the spectral theory of transfer operators or the singular perturbation theory of hyperbolic Laplacians, will profit from the numerical experiments discussed in this book. Detailed descriptions of numerical approaches to the spectra and eigenfunctions of transfer operators and to computations of Selberg zeta functions will be of value to researchers active in analysis, while those researchers focusing more on numerical aspects will benefit from discussions of the analytic theory, in particular those concerning the transfer operator method and the spectral theory of hyperbolic spac...

  11. An Operator Perturbation Method of Polarized Line Transfer V ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    imate Lambda Iteration) method to the resonance scattering in spectral lines formed in the presence of weak magnetic fields. The method is based on an operator perturbation approach, and can efficiently give solutions for oriented vector magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere. Key words. ... 1999 for observational.

  12. Eliminate the Army and Air Force Reserves: Building a Robust National Guard to Meet 21st Century Operational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE ELIMINATE THE ARMY AND AIR FORCE RESERVES: BUILDING A ROBUST NATIONAL GUARD TO MEET 21ST CENTURY OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES 5a...STAFF COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL ELIMINATE THE ARMY AND AIR FORCE RESERVES: BUILDING A ROBUST NATIONAL GUARD TO... ELIMINATE THE ARMY AND AIR FORCE RESERVES: BUILDING A ROBUST NATIONAL GUARD TO MEET 21ST CENTURY OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES by

  13. Operational Planning of Low-Energy District Heating Systems Connected to Existing Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    . The response of the radiator heating systems at different levels of supply temperature was used to form the operational planning of the low-energy DH system, which determined the design parameters of the low-energy DH network in terms of overall mass flow requirement and the return temperature from...... the buildings. Since the existing buildings were considered to be renovated to low-energy class, the operational planning was simultaneously modelled for both present high-demand and future low-demand situations of the same case area.......This article focuses on low-energy District Heating (DH) systems operating in low-temperatures such as 55°C in terms of supply and 25°C in terms of return in connection with existing buildings. Since the heat loss from the network has a significant impact in case of supplying heat to low...

  14. Hard Hats, Octopuses and Rubber Boots- Operational Managers in Building Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses Operation management (OM) in the production of buildings. It is initially contended that OM needs to be improved, from a theoretical and practical perspective. Departing from a criticism of present modeling and management of processes it is suggested to develop an understanding...... of the steps and interdependencies in the process. The field study shows a vast amount of interruptions in operational managers work at the building site. The site managers studied typically worked with four main activities and were interrupted some 126 times during a workday. The prime reason...

  15. Experience with the use of building commissioning advisor - from design to operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The increased focus on building energy performance has intensified the need to ensure consistency between energy requirements, design, construction processes and operation in construction projects. With the introduction of the new Danish DS 3090 standard, "The commissioning process in buildings...... on ethnographic methods and theories, this paper will analyse and discuss what the use of a commissioning adviser in the design stage means for the interaction between design and operation. It may seem that "technical solutions" are made before “ongoing learning processes” in which new themes are articulated...

  16. Project Management Plan/Progress Report UT/GTKS Training Program Development for Commercial Building Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-03-31

    Universidad del Turabo (UT), in a collaborative effort with Global Turn Key Services, Inc. (GTKS), proposed to develop a training program and a commercialization plan for the development of Commercial Building Operators (CBOs). The CBOs will operate energy efficient buildings to help maintain existing buildings up to their optimal energy performance level, and ensure that net-zero-energy buildings continuously operate at design specifications, thus helping achieve progress towards meeting BTP Strategic Goals of creating technologies and design approaches that enable net-zero-energy buildings at low incremental costs by 2025. The proposed objectives were then: (1) Develop a Commercial Building Operator (CBO) training program and accreditation that will in turn provide a certification to participants recognized by Accreditation Boards such as the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP) and Leadership in Energy & Environmental Designs (LEED). (2) Develop and implement a commercialization and sustainability plan that details marketing, deployment, financial characterization, job placement, and other goals required for long-term sustainability of the project after the funding period. (3) After program development and deployment, provide potential candidates with the knowledge and skill sets to obtain employment in the commercial building green energy (net-zero-energy building) job market. The developed CBO training program will focus on providing skills for participants, such as displaced and unemployed workers, to enter the commercial building green energy (net-zeroenergy building) job market. This course was designed to allow a participant with minimal to no experience in commercial building green technology to obtain the required skill sets to enter the job market in as little as 12 weeks of intensive multi-faceted learning. After completion of the course, the CBO staff concluded the participant will meet minimum established accreditation

  17. An Electronic Structure Approach to Charge Transfer and Transport in Molecular Building Blocks for Organic Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Heidi Phillips

    A fundamental understanding of charge separation in organic materials is necessary for the rational design of optoelectronic devices suited for renewable energy applications and requires a combination of theoretical, computational, and experimental methods. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD)DFT are cost effective ab-initio approaches for calculating fundamental properties of large molecular systems, however conventional DFT methods have been known to fail in accurately characterizing frontier orbital gaps and charge transfer states in molecular systems. In this dissertation, these shortcomings are addressed by implementing an optimally-tuned range-separated hybrid (OT-RSH) functional approach within DFT and TDDFT. The first part of this thesis presents the way in which RSH-DFT addresses the shortcomings in conventional DFT. Environmentally-corrected RSH-DFT frontier orbital energies are shown to correspond to thin film measurements for a set of organic semiconducting molecules. Likewise, the improved RSH-TDDFT description of charge transfer excitations is benchmarked using a model ethene dimer and silsesquioxane molecules. In the second part of this thesis, RSH-DFT is applied to chromophore-functionalized silsesquioxanes, which are currently investigated as candidates for building blocks in optoelectronic applications. RSH-DFT provides insight into the nature of absorptive and emissive states in silsesquioxanes. While absorption primarily involves transitions localized on one chromophore, charge transfer between chromophores and between chromophore and silsesquioxane cage have been identified. The RSH-DFT approach, including a protocol accounting for complex environmental effects on charge transfer energies, was tested and validated against experimental measurements. The third part of this thesis addresses quantum transport through nano-scale junctions. The ability to quantify a molecular junction via spectroscopic methods is crucial to their

  18. Research on transfer rule of the monitoring of operator in digital main control room of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Li Linfeng; Li Pengcheng; Lu Changshen; Huang Weigang; Dai Zhonghua; Huang Yuanzheng; Chen Qingqing

    2013-01-01

    In the digital main control room of nuclear power plants, monitoring the operating status of the system of reactor is not only one of the most important tasks of the operators, but also the basis and premise of controlling the system of reactor running correctly. After analyzing, inducing, summarizing the data obtained, we found the operators' monitor behavior could be classified as procedure transfer, abnormal transfer, and exchange transfer. The times of exchange transfer is 29% of the total transfer times, abnormal transfer is 14%, regulation transfer is 36%, and others are 21%. (authors)

  19. Operating test report for project W-417, T-plant steam removal upgrade, waste transfer portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, N.K.

    1997-01-01

    This Operating Test Report (OTR) documents the performance results of the Operating Test Procedure HNF-SD-W417-OTP-001 that provides steps to test the waste transfer system installed in the 221-T Canyon under project W-417. Recent modifications have been performed on the T Plant Rail Car Waste Transfer System. This Operating Test Procedure (OTP) will document the satisfactory operation of the 221-T Rail Car Waste Transfer System modified by project W-417. Project W-417 installed a pump in Tank 5-7 to replace the steam jets used for transferring liquid waste. This testing is required to verify that operational requirements of the modified transfer system have been met. Figure 2 and 3 shows the new and existing system to be tested. The scope of this testing includes the submersible air driven pump operation in Tank 5-7, liquid waste transfer operation from Tank 5-7 to rail car (HO-IOH-3663 or HO-IOH-3664), associated line flushing, and the operation of the flow meter. This testing is designed to demonstrate the satisfactory operation-of the transfer line at normal operating conditions and proper functioning of instruments. Favorable results will support continued use of this system for liquid waste transfer. The Functional Design Criteria for this system requires a transfer flow rate of 40 gallons per minute (GPM). To establish these conditions the pump will be supplied up to 90 psi air pressure from the existing air system routed in the canyon. An air regulator valve will regulate the air pressure. Tank capacity and operating ranges are the following: Tank No. Capacity (gal) Operating Range (gal) 5-7 10,046 0 8040 (80%) Rail car (HO-IOH-3663 HO-IOH-3664) 097219,157 Existing Tank level instrumentation, rail car level detection, and pressure indicators will be utilized for acceptance/rejection Criteria. The flow meter will be verified for accuracy against the Tank 5-7 level indicator. The level indicator is accurate to within 2.2 %. This will be for information only

  20. Overview and analysis of current BIPV products: new criteria for supporting the technological transfer in the building sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Bonomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for nearly-Zero Energy Buildings is rapidly contributing to change the building skin from being a passive barrier towards a sensitive and active interface. Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV is a unique solution for delivering clean, safe, affordable and decentralized electricity to people transforming the building surfaces in active solar collectors. Despite photovoltaic (PV technology and their basic usage are today known to everybody, the particular requirements for building integration have brought to the surface some issues over the years so that BIPV is still a niche market. Starting from this observation, the paper presents the results of an investigation on the current market of BIPV products for roofs and façade. The analysis aimed to identify the relevant possibilities the products today offer and the level of information that the producers make available within the technical description of BIPV systems. After disclosing the actual lack of information in comparison to conventional building products, the authors propose to implement a new “building-based” approach that could support the BIPV market by including a more comprehensive description of the product’s quality (today mainly comprising electrical and basic physical features. Such a “building-technology” perspective, also considering the recent normative framework in BIPV field, is expected to encourage the technological transfer of PV in the building sector by facilitating the daily work of architects, installers and the whole value chain.

  1. 75 FR 20364 - Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Wildlife Order 187; 4-D-FL-1218] Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property Pursuant to section 2 of Public Law 537, 80th Congress, approved May 19, 1948 (16 U.S.C. 667c), notice is hereby given that: 1. The General...

  2. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms to Improve Small- and Medium-Size Commercial Building Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Small- and medium-sized (<100,000 sf) commercial buildings (SMBs) represent over 95% of the U.S. commercial building stock and consume over 60% of total site energy consumption. Many of these buildings use rudimentary controls that are mostly manual, with limited scheduling capability, no monitoring or failure management. Therefore, many of these buildings are operated inefficiently and consume excess energy. SMBs typically utilize packaged rooftop units (RTUs) that are controlled by an individual thermostat. There is increased urgency to improve the operating efficiency of existing commercial building stock in the U.S. for many reasons, chief among them is to mitigate the climate change impacts. Studies have shown that managing set points and schedules of the RTUs will result in up to 20% energy and cost savings. Another problem associated with RTUs is short-cycling, where an RTU goes through ON and OFF cycles too frequently. Excessive cycling can lead to excessive wear and lead to premature failure of the compressor or its components. The short cycling can result in a significantly decreased average efficiency (up to 10%), even if there are no physical failures in the equipment. Also, SMBs use a time-of-day scheduling is to start the RTUs before the building will be occupied and shut it off when unoccupied. Ensuring correct use of the zone set points and eliminating frequent cycling of RTUs thereby leading to persistent building operations can significantly increase the operational efficiency of the SMBs. A growing trend is to use low-cost control infrastructure that can enable scalable and cost-effective intelligent building operations. The work reported in this report describes three algorithms for detecting the zone set point temperature, RTU cycling rate and occupancy schedule detection that can be deployed on the low-cost infrastructure. These algorithms only require the zone temperature data for detection. The algorithms have been tested and validated using

  3. Various methods of heat supply for a building which is operated periodically during the year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małetka, Marek; Laska, Marta

    2017-11-01

    Stand-alone buildings operated periodically require heat supply for hot water and heating purposes to be carefully analyzed in terms of the technical capabilities, the energy and financial outlays. The paper presents the analysis of heat supply for hot water purposes and central heating in the stand-alone cloakroom building located in Poland. The analysis is undertaken for different variants of heat delivery for a building from electric heaters, gas boiler and district heating solutions to renewable sources applications, namely solar panels and heat pumps. For each solution, usage of usable, final and primary energy was calculated. Also the financial analysis for investments and energy costs were carried out. This analysis has been done in according to SPBT and NPV method for different levels of building use.

  4. Energy consumption during the building life cycle – influence of investment activities and operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytlačil Dalibor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the dynamic model of maintenance and investments of a building structure and HVAC systems. The aim of the research is finding the time dependent curve for energy consumption and also the cash flow that depends on the investments to energy saving arrangements and operations. The solution is based on the system dynamics method. The method makes possible to interconnect technical and economic parts of the problem. The main parameter in the model is the energy consumption in the building per floor square meter and year. This parameter is influenced by a deterioration of the building structure and the components of the active elements. The investments realized with the aim to decrease the energy consumption is another influence. The example of the computer simulation of the building parameters during the life cycle is presented in the paper.

  5. Various methods of heat supply for a building which is operated periodically during the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małetka Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stand-alone buildings operated periodically require heat supply for hot water and heating purposes to be carefully analyzed in terms of the technical capabilities, the energy and financial outlays. The paper presents the analysis of heat supply for hot water purposes and central heating in the stand-alone cloakroom building located in Poland. The analysis is undertaken for different variants of heat delivery for a building from electric heaters, gas boiler and district heating solutions to renewable sources applications, namely solar panels and heat pumps. For each solution, usage of usable, final and primary energy was calculated. Also the financial analysis for investments and energy costs were carried out. This analysis has been done in according to SPBT and NPV method for different levels of building use.

  6. The use of social media for improving sustainable energy and building operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Helene Hjort

    2015-01-01

    This paper will draw perspectives of the experiences from the housing estate “Eight House”, using the social intranet media “Borigo”. How can Social Intranet Media support sustainable building operation with an overall aim of improving the residents’ sustainable practice? Can local operational...... managers of the residential area function as change agents in the process? What kind of process is needed? Can the use of social media support communities of practice?...

  7. Architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust building automation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernier, F.; Ploennigs, J.; Pesch, D.; Lesecq, S.; Basten, T.; Boubekeur, M.; Denteneer, T.J.J.; Oltmanns, F.; Lehmann, M.; Mai, Linh Tuan; Mc Gibney, A.; Rea, S.; Pacull, F.; Guyon-Gardeux, C.; Ducreux, L.F.; Thior, S.; Hendriks, M.; Verriet, J.H.; Fedor, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust Building Automation Systems (BAS) proposed by the EC funded FP7 SCUBA1 project. We describe the current situation in monitoring and control systems and outline the typical stakeholders involved in the

  8. Architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust Building Automation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernier, F.; Ploennigs, J.; Pesch, D.; Lesecq, S.; Basten, T.; Boubekeur, M.; Denteneer, D.; Oltmanns, F.; Bonnard, F.; Lehmann, M.; Mai, T.L.; McGibney, A.; Rea, S.; Pacull, F.; Guyon-Gardeux, C.; Ducreux, L.F.; Thior, S.; Hendriks, M.; Verriet, J.; Fedor, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the architecture for self-organizing, co-operative and robust Building Automation Systems (BAS) proposed by the EC funded FP7 SCUBA1 project. We describe the current situation in monitoring and control systems and outline the typical stakeholders involved in the

  9. Smart grid and smart building inter-operation using agent-based particle swarm optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurtado Munoz, L.A.; Nguyen, P.H.; Kling, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Future power systems require a change from a "vertical" to a "horizontal" structure, in which the customer plays a central role. As buildings represent a substantial aggregation of energy consumption, the intertwined operation of the future power grid and the built environment is crucial to achieve

  10. Plant design and layout of the different buildings with respect to safety, operational and maintenance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebich, H.

    1981-01-01

    The descriptions and pictures in this lecture show that the arrangement of the buildings and the location of components and systems are based on proven ideas with the aim to fulfil safety, operational and maintenance requirements also from the point of view of plant layout. (orig.)

  11. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  12. Operation of heat pumps for smart grid integrated buildings with thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C.J.; Li, R.; Zeiler, W.

    2017-01-01

    A small scale office building consisting of radiant heating, a heat pump, and a water thermal energy storage tank is implemented in an optimal control framework. The optimal control aims to minimize operational electricity costs of the heat pump based on real-time power spot market prices. Optimal

  13. Pediatric patients transferred for operative management of appendicitis: are they at a disadvantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farach, Sandra M; Danielson, Paul D; Walford, N Elizabeth; Harmel, Richard P; Chandler, Nicole M

    2015-09-01

    Many pediatric patients are initially diagnosed with appendicitis at referring hospitals and are subsequently transferred to pediatric facilities. We aimed to compare outcomes of patients transferred to a pediatric referral center to those who present primarily for operative management of appendicitis. A retrospective review of 326 patients with operative appendicitis from July 2012 to July 2013 was performed. Demographic data, clinical parameters, and outcomes were analyzed. Transferred (n=222, 68%) and primary patients (n=104, 32%) were similar except for mean age (primary 12.4 vs. transferred 11.2 years, pprimary patients. Primary patients were more likely to present between the hours of 09:00 and 17:59 (52%), while transferred arrived equally across all hours. Both groups were more likely to present with acute appendicitis (primary 56% vs. transfer 61%, p=NS). There was no difference in time of diagnosis to time of appendectomy, length of hospital stay, or 30 day complications (primary 8.6% vs. transfer 5.8%, p=NS). Patients transferred for definitive care of appendicitis are not found to have more advanced disease or have increased complications; however, they are exposed to significantly more ionizing radiation during evaluation for appendicitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The one nucleon transfer operator in the microscopic IBM without NOA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barea, J.; Alonso, C.E.; Arias, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The mapping of the single fermion creation operator (c i † ) onto the Interacting Boson–Fermion space (IBFM) is revisited within the Generalized Seniority scheme. In the original work the Number Operator Approximation (NOA) was used. Here the exact evaluation of the relevant terms using exact values for the fermion matrix elements in the Generalized Seniority scheme is worked out. This provides a new, improved, single particle transfer operator to be used in IBFM

  15. The one nucleon transfer operator in the microscopic IBM without NOA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barea, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, 4070386 Chile (Chile); Alonso, C.E.; Arias, J.M. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-10-07

    The mapping of the single fermion creation operator (c{sub i}{sup †}) onto the Interacting Boson–Fermion space (IBFM) is revisited within the Generalized Seniority scheme. In the original work the Number Operator Approximation (NOA) was used. Here the exact evaluation of the relevant terms using exact values for the fermion matrix elements in the Generalized Seniority scheme is worked out. This provides a new, improved, single particle transfer operator to be used in IBFM.

  16. Potential soil contaminant levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at industrial facilities employing heat transfer operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korte, N.E.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    Certain manufacturing facilities formerly used large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fluids in heat transfer operations. At many of these locations, operations have also involved PCB-containing electrical equipment. Commonly, over many years of plant operations, spills and leaks have resulted in PCB soil contamination. Dioxins and furans have been associated with PCB contamination in both the technical and popular press. Consequently, the need for analyses for dioxins and furans must be evaluated at locations where soils are contaminated with PCBs. This report presents an evaluation of potential dioxin and furan soil contamination based on heat transfer operations and spills from electrical equipment. The following five scenarios were examined for dioxin and furan contamination: (1) impurities in heat transfer fluids, (2) formation during heat transfer operations, (3) pyrolysis of heat transfer fluids, (4) impurities in dielectric fluids, and (5) pyrolysis of dielectric fluids. The potential contamination with dioxins and furans was calculated and compared with a 20 ppb guideline that has been used by the Centers for Disease Control for dioxin in subsoil. The results demonstrated that dioxins are formed only under pyrolytic conditions and only from the trichlorobenzenes present in dielectric fluids. Furans are found as impurities in PCB fluids but, as with dioxins, are not formed in significant quantities except during pyrolysis. Fortunately, pyrolytic conditions involving PCB fluids and soil contamination are unlikely; therefore, analyses for dioxin and furan contamination in soils will rarely be needed.

  17. Supplement to safety analysis report. 306-W building operations safety requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, C.R.

    1979-08-01

    The operations safety requirements (OSRs) presented in this report define the conditions, safe boundaries, and management control needed for safely conducting operations with radioactive materials in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) 306-W building. The safety requirements are organized in five sections. Safety limits are safety-related process variables that are observable and measurable. Limiting conditions cover: equipment and technical conditions and characteristics of the facility and operations necessary for continued safe operation. Surveillance requirements prescribe the requirements for checking systems and components that are essential to safety. Equipment design controls require that changes to process equipment and systems be independently checked and approved to assure that the changes will have no adverse effect on safety. Administrative controls describe and discuss the organization and administrative systems and procedures to be used for safe operation of the facility. Details of the implementation of the operations safety requirements are prescribed by internal PNL documents such as criticality safety specifications and radiation work procedures

  18. Integrating experiences from operations into engineering design: modelling knowledge transfer in the offshore oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Paravizo, Esdras

    2017-01-01

    of knowledge registered in the systems without standards to categorise and store this knowledge, to being difficult to access and retrieve the knowledge in the systems. Discussion: Transferring knowledge and experiences from users brings human factors into play and modelling the knowledge transfer process...... and workwise distance between operations and engineering design teams, integrating human factors and transferring knowledge are key aspects when designing for better performance systems. Research Objective: Based on an in-depth empirical investigation in an offshore oil company, this study aims to provide......Summative Statement: Integrating human factors and users’ experiences in design projects is a well-known challenge. This study focus on the specific challenges for transferring these experiences and how using a knowledge transfer model can help this integration on the design of high-risk productive...

  19. Five Principles of Industrialized Transformation for Successfully Building an Operational Backbone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Till J.; Kettunen, Petteri

    2018-01-01

    approach that is underpinned by five principles—template-based, business-driven, matrix-organized, tight supplier steering and cascaded planning. The UPM case provides important lessons for transformation leaders seeking to build, expand or develop a value-adding operational backbone.......To move into the digital age, a globally operating company needs to have in place an operational backbone, but many struggle with achieving this and the associated transformation program. Based on the experience of UPM, a Finnish forest industry company, we describe an industrialized transformation...

  20. A Modified Model to Estimate Building Rental Multipiers Accounting for Advalorem Operating Expenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolyak S.A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To develop ideas on building element valuation contained in the first article on the subject published in REMV, we propose an elaboration of the approach accounting for ad valorem expenses incidental to property management, such as land taxes, income/capital gains tax, and insurance premium costs; all such costs, being of an ad valorem nature in the first instance, cause circularity in the logic of the model, which, however, is not intractable under the proposed approach. The resulting formulas for carrying out practical estimation of building rental multipliers and, in consequence, of building values, turn out to be somewhat modified, and we demonstrate the sensitivity of the developed approach to the impact of these ad valorem factors. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that (accounting for building depreciation charges, which should seemingly be included among the considered ad valorem factors, cancel out and do not have any impact on the resulting estimates. However, treating the depreciation of buildings in quantifiable economic terms as a reduction in derivable operating benefits over time (instead of mere physical indications, such as age, we also demonstrate that the approach has implications for estimating the economic service lives of buildings and can be practical when used in conjunction with the market-related approach to valuation – from which the requisite model inputs can be extracted as shown in the final part of the paper.

  1. Optimum operation of heating systems in office buildings. Automated error detection and analysis improves running building operation; Heizsysteme in Buerogebaeuden optimal betreiben. Automatisierte Fehlererkennung und -analyse verbessert den laufenden Gebaeudebetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Uwe

    2013-06-01

    Since 2010, various institutes, universities and consultancy companies have been conducting research on automated operation optimisation in larger buildings. For this purpose, they have developed procedures for commissioning and monitoring building services equipment systems, firstly for large heat supply units. These are currently being used and evaluated on an ongoing basis in seven office and school buildings. The aim is to make significant energy and cost savings, and to improve the level of convenience in the building.

  2. Thermo-active building systems and sound absorbers: Thermal comfort under real operation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Benjamin; Rage, Nils; Chigot, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Radiant systems are established today and have a high ecological potential in buildings while ensuring thermal comfort. Free-hanging sound absorbers are commonly used for room acoustic control, but can reduce the heat exchange when suspended under an active slab. The aim of this study...... is to evaluate the impact on thermal comfort of horizontal and vertical free-hanging porous sound absorbers placed in rooms of a building cooled by Thermo-Active Building System (TABS), under real operation conditions. A design comparing five different ceiling coverage ratios and two room types has been...... implemented during three measurement periods. A clear correlation between increase of ceiling coverage ratio and reduction of thermal comfort could not be derived systematically for each measurement period and room type, contrarily to what was expected from literature. In the first two monitoring periods...

  3. Operational Readiness Review Final Report for K Basin Fuel Transfer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVIES, T.H.

    2002-01-01

    An Operational Readiness Review (ORR) was conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) to verify that an adequate state of readiness had been achieved for startup of the K Basin Fuel Transfer System (FTS). The DOE ORR was conducted during the period November 6-18, 2002. The DOE ORR team concluded that the K Basin Fuel Transfer System is ready to start operations, subject to completion and verification of identified pre-start findings. The ORR was conducted in accordance with the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) K Basin Fuel Transfer System (FTS) Operational Readiness Review (ORR) Plan of Action and the Operational Readiness Review Implementation Plan for K Basin Fuel Transfer System. Review activities consisted of staff interviews, procedure and document reviews, and observations of normal facility operations, operational upset conditions, and an emergency drill. The DOE ORR Team also reviewed and assessed the adequacy of the contractor ORR3 and the RL line management review. The team concurred with the findings and observations identified in these two reports. The DOE ORR for the FTS evaluated the contractor under single-shift operations. Of concern to the ORR Team was that SNF Project management intended to change from a single-shift FTS operation to a two-shift operation shortly after the completion of the DOE ORR. The ORR team did not assess two-shift FTS operations and the ability of the contractor to conduct a smooth transition from shift to shift. However, the DOE ORR team did observe an operational upset drill that was conducted during day shift and carried over into swing shift; during this drill, swing shift was staffed with fewer personnel as would be expected for two-shift operations. The facility was able to adequately respond to the event with the reduced level of staff. The ORR Team was also able to observe a Shift Manager turnover meeting when one shift manager had to be relieved during the middle of the day. The ORR

  4. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Air Flow, Heat Transfer and Thermal Comfort in Buildings with Different Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabanskis A.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of temperature, humidity and air flow velocity is performed in 5 experimental buildings with the inner size of 3×3×3 m3 located in Riga, Latvia. The buildings are equipped with different heating systems, such as an air-air heat pump, air-water heat pump, capillary heating mat on the ceiling and electric heater. Numerical simulation of air flow and heat transfer by convection, conduction and radiation is carried out using OpenFOAM software and compared with experimental data. Results are analysed regarding the temperature and air flow distribution as well as thermal comfort.

  5. SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN ACCORDANCE WITH OPERATING CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rutkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar systems are actively applied for heat supply of buildings in Europe. Usage of solar energy for heat supply of residential buildings is considered as rather efficient for the Republic of Belarus because total amount of direct and scattered solar radiation entering horizontal surface is equivalent to an average European index for the climate of Belarus. The paper analyzes an existing dependence on determination of solar system efficiency and proposes an amended formula for calculations while designing solar consumption systems and its legitimacy has been experimentally proved. A scheme of an experimental unit with explanations and a brief description for execution of experiments and main results of the completed investigations have been presented in the paper. Experiments have been carried out for solar systems with natural and forced coolant circulation. Attention has been paid to obtaining maximum possible temperature potential of the coolant during operation of the solar system within periods of high and low solar radiation intensity. Recommendations on practical application of solar systems for multi-storey residential buildings houses and mansion-type houses have been given in the paper. The paper presents technological principles of constructing “passive” solar heating devices. A comparison of traditionally applied and proposed alternative solar systems has been made for operational conditions in Belarus. The paper proposes a solar system for hot water supply of multi-storey buildings. The proposed system has found its first realization in the Republic while designing and constructing an energy-efficient demonstration 10-storey residential building in Mogilev within the framework of the UN Development Program project and Global Environment Fund “Improvement of energy efficiency for residential buildings in the Republic of Belarus”

  6. Operative air temperature data for different measures applied on a building envelope in warm climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Baglivo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Several technical combinations have been evaluated in order to design high energy performance buildings for the warm climate. The analysis has been developed in several steps, avoiding the use of HVAC systems.The methodological approach of this study is based on a sequential search technique and it is shown on the paper entitled “Envelope Design Optimization by Thermal Modeling of a Building in a Warm Climate” [1].The Operative Air Temperature trends (TOP, for each combination, have been plotted through a dynamic simulation performed using the software TRNSYS 17 (a transient system simulation program, University of Wisconsin, Solar Energy Laboratory, USA, 2010.Starting from the simplest building configuration consisting of 9 rooms (equal-sized modules of 5 × 5 m2, the different building components are sequentially evaluated until the envelope design is optimized. The aim of this study is to perform a step-by-step simulation, simplifying as much as possible the model without making additional variables that can modify their performances. Walls, slab-on-ground floor, roof, shading and windows are among the simulated building components. The results are shown for each combination and evaluated for Brindisi, a city in southern Italy having 1083 degrees day, belonging to the national climatic zone C. The data show the trends of the TOP for each measure applied in the case study for a total of 17 combinations divided into eight steps.

  7. The effects of HVAC system design and operation on radon entry into school buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.A.; Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in schools vary considerably and tend to have a greater impact on pressure differentials--and consequently radon levels--than do heating and air-conditioning systems in houses. If the HVAC system induces a negative pressure relative to the subslab area, radon can be pulled into the building. If the HVAC system pressurizes the building, it can prevent radon entry as long as the fan is running. However, school HVAC systems are normally set back or turned off on evenings and weekends and, even if the HVAC system pressurizes the school during operation, indoor radon levels may build up during setback periods. In this paper many of the historical methods utilized to deliver ventilation air (outdoor air) over the past 40 years are summarized. In addition, for each type of system presented, the possible impact the ventilation system might be expected to have (positive or negative) on the pressure of the building envelope (and subsequent radon levels in the building) is discussed

  8. China Building Energy Consumption: Definitions and Measures from an Operational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available China building energy consumption (BEC has been gradually derived and also sparked attention. However, something worth discussing is estimating the BEC based on the definition of life cycle or building operation. In addition, there exists discrepancy in the previous studies and the real status of BEC has not been known well. In order to settle the disputes over the calculation of BEC, this paper establishes an appropriate accounting method of building energy to present the BEC situation in China and lays the foundation for policymakers to develop appropriate energy saving policies. Meanwhile, this study attempts to clarify the BEC to help policymakers assess the effect of environmental policies. Using the method in this document, we find that the energy consumption of buildings just accounts for 15%–16% of the final total energy consumption in China; by contrast, the previous studies usually have double accounting through a top-down approach if central heat supply of buildings was taken into additional consideration.

  9. Premium cost optimization of operational and maintenance of green building in Indonesia using life cycle assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Yusuf; Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Basten, Van; Budiman, Rachmat; Riswanto

    2017-06-01

    Building has a big impact on the environmental developments. There are three general motives in building, namely the economy, society, and environment. Total completed building construction in Indonesia increased by 116% during 2009 to 2011. It made the energy consumption increased by 11% within the last three years. In fact, 70% of energy consumption is used for electricity needs on commercial buildings which leads to an increase of greenhouse gas emissions by 25%. Green Building cycle costs is known as highly building upfront cost in Indonesia. The purpose of optimization in this research improves building performance with some of green concept alternatives. Research methodology is mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approaches through questionnaire surveys and case study. Assessing the successful of optimization functions in the existing green building is based on the operational and maintenance phase with the Life Cycle Assessment Method. Choosing optimization results were based on the largest efficiency of building life cycle and the most effective cost to refund.

  10. CMS Data Transfer operations after the first years of LHC collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    CMS experiment possesses distributed computing infrastructure and its performance heavily depends on the fast and smooth distribution of data between different CMS sites. Data must be transferred from the Tier-0 (CERN) to the Tier-1 for storing and archiving, and time and good quality are vital to avoid overflowing CERN storage buffers. At the same time, processed data has to be distributed from Tier-1 sites to all Tier-2 sites for physics analysis while MonteCarlo simulations synchronized back to Tier-1 sites for further archival. At the core of all transferring machinery is PhEDEx (Physics Experiment Data Export) data transfer system. It is very important to ensure reliable operation of the system, and the operational tasks comprise monitoring and debugging all transfer issues. Based on transfer quality information Site Readiness tool is used to create plans for resources utilization in the future. We review the operational procedures created to enforce reliable data delivery to CMS distributed sites all ov...

  11. Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBIE): Requirements Definition and Pilot Implementation Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Swalley U.S. Department of State, Overseas Buildings Operations Toby Wilson U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineer R&D Center Jeff Wix AEC3 The...exchanged in COBIE. To map those information exchanges to the IFC model, the Information Delivery Manual (IDM) process [ Wix 2007] was also used. The...Folksonomy. Wikimedia Foundation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folksonomy/, accessed 3 August 2007. Wix , Jeffrey. 2007. Information Delivery Manual

  12. Nurse-surgeon object transfer: video analysis of communication and situation awareness in the operating theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkiakangas, Terhi; Weldon, Sharon-Marie; Bezemer, Jeff; Kneebone, Roger

    2014-09-01

    One of the most central collaborative tasks during surgical operations is the passing of objects, including instruments. Little is known about how nurses and surgeons achieve this. The aim of the present study was to explore what factors affect this routine-like task, resulting in fast or slow transfer of objects. A qualitative video study, informed by an observational ethnographic approach, was conducted in a major teaching hospital in the UK. A total of 20 general surgical operations were observed. In total, approximately 68 h of video data have been reviewed. A subsample of 225 min has been analysed in detail using interactional video-analysis developed within the social sciences. Two factors affecting object transfer were observed: (1) relative instrument trolley position and (2) alignment. The scrub nurse's instrument trolley position (close to vs. further back from the surgeon) and alignment (gaze direction) impacts on the communication with the surgeon, and consequently, on the speed of object transfer. When the scrub nurse was standing close to the surgeon, and "converged" to follow the surgeon's movements, the transfer occurred more seamlessly and faster (1.0 s). The smoothness of object transfer can be improved by adjusting the scrub nurse's instrument trolley position, enabling a better monitoring of surgeon's bodily conduct and affording early orientation (awareness) to an upcoming request (changing situation). Object transfer is facilitated by the surgeon's embodied practices, which can elicit the nurse's attention to the request and, as a response, maximise a faster object transfer. A simple intervention to highlight the significance of these factors could improve communication in the operating theatre. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 63.126 - Transfer operations provisions-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Transformed by chemical reaction into materials that are not organic hazardous air pollutants; (iii... Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and... halides are present in the process, or (B) Applicable engineering assessment as specified in § 63.115(d)(1...

  14. Combination study of operation characteristics and heat transfer mechanism for pulsating heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Yue; Li, Zhihua; Shun, Shende

    2014-01-01

    Pulsating heat pipe (PHP) is becoming a promising heat transfer device for the application like electronics cooling. However, due to its complicated operation mechanism, the heat transfer properties of the PHP still have not been fully understood. This study experimentally investigated on a closed-loop PHP charged with four types of working fluids, deionized water, methanol, ethanol and acetone. Combined with the visualization experimental results from the open literature, the operation characteristics and the corresponding heat transfer mechanisms for different heat inputs (5 W up to 100 W) and different filling ratios (20% up to 95%) have been presented and elaborated. The results show that heat-transfer mechanism changed with the transition of operation patterns; before valid oscillation started, the thermal resistance was not like that described in the open literature where it decreased almost linearly, but would rather slowdown descending or even change into rise first before further decreasing (i.e. an inflection point existed); when the heat input further increased to certain level, e.g. 65 W or above, there presented a limit of heat-transfer performance which was independent of the types of working fluids and the filling ratios, but may be related to the structure, the material, the size and the inclination of the PHP. - Highlights: •The thermal mechanisms altered accordingly with the operation features in the PHP. •Unlike conventional heat pipes, continuous temperature soaring would not happen in the PHP. •Before the oscillation start-up, there existed a heat-transfer limit for the relatively stagnated flow in the PHP. •A limit of thermal performance existed in the PHP at relatively high heat inputs

  15. Building a Smooth Medical Service for Operating Room Using RFID Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Ping Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the information technology advancement, the feasibility for the establishment of mobile medical environments has been strengthened. Using RFID to facilitate the tracing of patients’ mobile position in hospital has attracted more attentions from researchers due to the demand on advanced features. Traditionally, the management of surgical treatment is generally manually operated and there is no consistent operating procedure for patients transferring among wards, surgery waiting rooms, operating rooms, and recovery rooms, resulting in panicky and urgent transferring work among departments and, thus, leading to delays and errors. In this paper, we propose a new framework using radio frequency identification (RFID technology for a mobilized surgical process monitoring system. Through the active tag, an application management system used before, during, and after the surgical processes has been proposed. The concept of signal level matrix, SLM, was proposed to accurately identify patients and dynamically track patients’ location. By updating patient’s information real-time, the preprocessing time needed for various tasks and incomplete transfers among departments can be reduced, the medical resources can be effectively used, unnecessary medical disputes can be reduced, and more comprehensive health care environment can be provided. The feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed system are demonstrated with a number of experimental results.

  16. Efficient energy consumption and operation management in a smart building with microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Di; Shah, Nilay; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An MILP model is formulated for energy consumption scheduling in a smart building. • Domestic appliances from multiple smart homes are considered. • Equipment operation and power consumption tasks starting time are scheduled. • Results from two examples indicate cost savings and power peak reduction. • Peak demand charge scheme is adopted to reduce the peak demand from grid. - Abstract: Microgrid works as a local energy provider for domestic buildings to reduce energy expenses and gas emissions by utilising distributed energy resources (DERs). The rapid advances in computing and communication capabilities enable the concept smart buildings become possible. Most energy-consuming household tasks do not need to be performed at specific times but rather within a preferred time. If these types of tasks can be coordinated among multiple homes so that they do not all occur at the same time yet still satisfy customers’ requirement, the energy cost and power peak demand could be reduced. In this paper, the optimal scheduling of smart homes’ energy consumption is studied using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) approach. In order to minimise a 1-day forecasted energy consumption cost, DER operation and electricity-consumption household tasks are scheduled based on real-time electricity pricing, electricity task time window and forecasted renewable energy output. Peak demand charge scheme is also adopted to reduce the peak demand from grid. Two numerical examples on smart buildings of 30 homes and 90 homes with their own microgrid indicate the possibility of cost savings and electricity consumption scheduling peak reduction through the energy consumption and better management of DER operation

  17. Kneading determinants and spectra of transfer operators in higher dimensions, the isotropic case

    CERN Document Server

    Baillif, M

    2003-01-01

    Transfer operators M_k acting on k-forms in R^n are associated to smooth transversal local diffeomorphisms and compactly supported weight functions. A formal trace is defined by summing the product of the weight and the Lefschetz sign over all fixed points of all the diffeos. This yields a formal Ruelle-Lefschetz determinant Det^#(1-zM). We use the Milnor-Ruelle-Kitaev equality (recently proved by Baillif), which expressed Det^#(1-zM) as an alternated product of determinants of kneading operators, Det(1+D_k(z)), to relate zeroes and poles of the Ruelle-Lefschetz determinant to the spectra of the transfer operators M_k. As an application, we get a new proof of a theorem of Ruelle on smooth expanding dynamics.

  18. Radiative transfer solutions for coupled atmosphere ocean systems using the matrix operator technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollstein, André; Fischer, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Accurate radiative transfer models are the key tools for the understanding of radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and ocean, and for the development of remote sensing algorithms. The widely used scalar approximation of radiative transfer can lead to errors in calculated top of atmosphere radiances. We show results with errors in the order of±8% for atmosphere ocean systems with case one waters. Variations in sea water salinity and temperature can lead to variations in the signal of similar magnitude. Therefore, we enhanced our scalar radiative transfer model MOMO, which is in use at Freie Universität Berlin, to treat these effects as accurately as possible. We describe our one-dimensional vector radiative transfer model for an atmosphere ocean system with a rough interface. We describe the matrix operator scheme and the bio-optical model for case one waters. We discuss some effects of neglecting polarization in radiative transfer calculations and effects of salinity changes for top of atmosphere radiances. Results are shown for the channels of the satellite instruments MERIS and OLCI from 412.5 nm to 900 nm.

  19. SY-101 Rapid Transfer Project Low Temperature Operations Review and Recommendations to Support Lower Temperature Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HICKMAN, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    The lower temperature limit for the 241 SY-101 RAPID transfer project is currently set at 20 F Based on the analysis and recommendations in this document this limit can be lowered to 0 F. Analysis of all structures systems and components (SSCs) indicate that a reduction in operating temperature may be achieved with minor modifications to field-installed equipment. Following implementation of these changes it is recommended that the system requirements be amended to specify a temperature range for transfer or back dilute evolutions of 0 F to 100 F

  20. Heat transfer characteristics and operation limit of pressurized hybrid heat pipe for small modular reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Bang, In Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal performances and operation limits of hybrid heat pipe were experimentally studied. • Models for predicting the operation limit of the hybrid heat pipe was developed. • Non-condensable gas affected heat transfer characteristics of the hybrid heat pipe. - Abstract: In this paper, a hybrid heat pipe is proposed for use in advanced nuclear power plants as a passive heat transfer device. The hybrid heat pipe combines the functions of a heat pipe and a control rod to simultaneously remove the decay heat generated from the core and shutdown the reactor under accident conditions. Thus, the hybrid heat pipe contains a neutron absorber in the evaporator section, which corresponds to the core of the reactor pressure vessel. The presence of the neutron absorber material leads to differences in the heated diameter and hydraulic diameter of the heat pipe. The cross-sectional areas of the vapor paths through the evaporator, adiabatic, and condenser sections are also different. The hybrid heat pipe must operate in a high-temperature, high-pressure environment to remove the decay heat. In other words, the operating pressure must be higher than those of the commercially available thermosyphons. Hence, the thermal performances, including operation limit of the hybrid heat pipe, were experimentally studied in the operating pressure range of 0.2–20 bar. The operating pressure of the hybrid heat pipe was controlled by charging the non-condensable gas which is unused method to achieve the high saturation pressure in conventional thermosyphons. The effect of operating pressure on evaporation heat transfer was negligible, while condensation heat transfer was affected by the amount of non-condensable gas in the test section. The operation limit of the hybrid heat pipe increased with the operating pressure. Maximum heat removal capacity of the hybrid heat pipe was up to 6 kW which is meaningful value as a passive decay heat removal device in the nuclear power

  1. Performance evaluation of operational energy use in refurbishment, reuse, and conservation of heritage buildings for optimum sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Akande

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The operational phase of a building project has increasingly gained importance with their energy performance becoming valuable and determining their operational excellence. In most heritage building projects (HBPs, the operational energy use aspects are less considered, and a systematic way of analyzing their energy performance following project delivery is often lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the operational performance of refurbishment and reuse of UK listed church projects. The objective is to assess the operational energy use with a view to optimizing their sustainable performance. The methodology includes eight selected case study buildings refurbished and converted for multipurpose use. The case study approach provided qualitative insights into how the study contributes to a more structured requirements for energy management in HBPs with specific attention to energy-efficient building operations. The findings show the need to focus on fundamental areas of operational management (i.e. by developing and implementing more focused policy on operational energy performance of heritage buildings to minimize the energy required to operate them. The challenges of implementing changes in operational energy performance improvement of heritage buildings are addressed in the form of recommendations that could lead to real results. The study concludes that leveraging these areas requires commitment from all heritage building stakeholders because they all have substantial roles in harmonizing the requirement for the project׳s sustainability and not just the building operators. Meanwhile, baseline project planning, periodic updating, monitoring, and managing the energy use pattern are suggested as measures that could greatly facilitate better energy performance to optimizing their sustainable reuse compared with the traditional approach of trying to improve their thermal performance.

  2. Operational tools to build a multicriteria territorial risk scale with multiple stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cailloux, Olivier; Mayag, Brice; Meyer, Patrick; Mousseau, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating and comparing the threats and vulnerabilities associated with territorial zones according to multiple criteria (industrial activity, population, etc.) can be a time-consuming task and often requires the participation of several stakeholders. Rather than a direct evaluation of these zones, building a risk assessment scale and using it in a formal procedure permits to automate the assessment and therefore to apply it in a repeated way and in large-scale contexts and, provided the chosen procedure and scale are accepted, to make it objective. One of the main difficulties of building such a formal evaluation procedure is to account for the multiple decision makers' preferences. The procedure used in this article, ELECTRE TRI, uses the performances of each territorial zone on multiple criteria, together with preferential parameters from multiple decision makers, to qualitatively assess their associated risk level. We also present operational tools in order to implement such a procedure in practice, and show their use on a detailed example

  3. BY tank farm waste inventory and transfer data for ITS-2 operation during January To December 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, F.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-02

    Data record inventory of pumping activities and liquid level changes including occasional operations comments for the BY Tank Farm. Waste inventory and transfer data for ITS-2 operation during January to December 1971.

  4. Building for a post-fossil era. Sustainable construction and operation of buildings; Bauen fuer die nachfossile Aera. Nachhaltiges Bauen und Betreiben von Gebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Klaus [HL Beratungs- und Beteiligungs GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The challenges of the 21st century will mostly be the result of the exploding world population, i.e. increasing instability because of the unequal distribution of wealth, fights over raw materials that are getting scarce, and the destruction of our natural resources. Increasingly, decision-makers are getting aware of the problems. This has consequences also for the process of building construction. For example, sustainability will be given greater attention in projecting and operation of buildings. (orig.)

  5. Pacing a data transfer operation between compute nodes on a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN

    2011-09-13

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for pacing a data transfer between compute nodes on a parallel computer that include: transferring, by an origin compute node, a chunk of an application message to a target compute node; sending, by the origin compute node, a pacing request to a target direct memory access (`DMA`) engine on the target compute node using a remote get DMA operation; determining, by the origin compute node, whether a pacing response to the pacing request has been received from the target DMA engine; and transferring, by the origin compute node, a next chunk of the application message if the pacing response to the pacing request has been received from the target DMA engine.

  6. Off-resonance frequency operation for power transfer in a loosely coupled air core transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudiere, Matthew B

    2012-11-13

    A power transmission system includes a loosely coupled air core transformer having a resonance frequency determined by a product of inductance and capacitance of a primary circuit including a primary coil. A secondary circuit is configured to have a substantially same product of inductance and capacitance. A back EMF generating device (e.g., a battery), which generates a back EMF with power transfer, is attached to the secondary circuit. Once the load power of the back EMF generating device exceeds a certain threshold level, which depends on the system parameters, the power transfer can be achieved at higher transfer efficiency if performed at an operating frequency less than the resonance frequency, which can be from 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency.

  7. vSmartMOM: A vector matrix operator method-based radiative transfer model linearized with respect to aerosol properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghavi, Suniti; Davis, Anthony B.; Eldering, Annmarie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we build up on the scalar model smartMOM to arrive at a formalism for linearized vector radiative transfer based on the matrix operator method (vSmartMOM). Improvements have been made with respect to smartMOM in that a novel method of computing intensities for the exact viewing geometry (direct raytracing) without interpolation between quadrature points has been implemented. Also, the truncation method employed for dealing with highly peaked phase functions has been changed to a vector adaptation of Wiscombe's delta-m method. These changes enable speedier and more accurate radiative transfer computations by eliminating the need for a large number of quadrature points and coefficients for generalized spherical functions. We verify our forward model against the benchmarking results of Kokhanovsky et al. (2010) [22]. All non-zero Stokes vector elements are found to show agreement up to mostly the seventh significant digit for the Rayleigh atmosphere. Intensity computations for aerosol and cloud show an agreement of well below 0.03% and 0.05% at all viewing angles except around the solar zenith angle (60°), where most radiative models demonstrate larger variances due to the strongly forward-peaked phase function. We have for the first time linearized vector radiative transfer based on the matrix operator method with respect to aerosol optical and microphysical parameters. We demonstrate this linearization by computing Jacobian matrices for all Stokes vector elements for a multi-angular and multispectral measurement setup. We use these Jacobians to compare the aerosol information content of measurements using only the total intensity component against those using the idealized measurements of full Stokes vector [I,Q,U,V] as well as the more practical use of only [I,Q,U]. As expected, we find for the considered example that the accuracy of the retrieved parameters improves when the full Stokes vector is used. The information content for the full Stokes

  8. Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Hirohisa, Aki; Lai, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has launched the Zero-Net-Energy (ZNE) Commercial Building Initiative (CBI) in order to develop commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge energy-efficient technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. We examine how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or carbon-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies, such as photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function: the minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and carbon/CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the CBI. Using a nursing home in northern California and New York with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNE building requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve ZNE. For comparison, we analyze a nursing home facility in New York to examine the effects of a flatter tariff structure and different load profiles. It has trouble reaching ZNE status and its load reductions as well as efficiency measures need to be more effective than those in the CA case

  9. Empirical Validation of Heat Transfer Performance Simulation of Graphite/PCM Concrete Materials for Thermally Activated Building System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hee Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the heat capacity in lightweight construction materials, a phase change material (PCM can be introduced to building elements. A thermally activated building system (TABS with graphite/PCM concrete hollow core slab is suggested as an energy-efficient technology to shift and reduce the peak thermal load in buildings. An evaluation of heat storage and dissipation characteristics of TABS in graphite/PCM concrete has been conducted using dynamic simulations, but empirical validation is necessary to acceptably predict the thermal behavior of graphite/PCM concrete. This study aimed to validate the thermal behavior of graphite/PCM concrete through a three-dimensional transient heat transfer simulation. The simulation results were compared to experimental results from previous studies of concrete and graphite/PCM concrete. The overall thermal behavior for both materials was found to be similar to experiment results. Limitations in the simulation modeling, which included determination of the indoor heat transfer coefficient, assumption of constant thermal conductivity with temperature, and assumption of specimen homogeneity, led to slight differences between the measured and simulated results.

  10. Prediction of prestressing losses for long term operation of nuclear reactor buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillard G.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Prestressed concrete is used in nuclear reactor buildings to guarantee containment and structural integrity in case of an accident. Monitoring and operating experience over 40 years has shown that prestressing losses can be much greater than the design estimation based on the usual standard laws. A method was developed to determine the realistic residual prestress level in structures, in particular for those where no embedded instrumentation was installed, taking into account in situ measurement results rather than design characteristics. The results can enable the owner to justify extending the lifespan while guaranteeing adequate safety and to define and plan adequate maintenance actions.

  11. 40 CFR Table 9 to Subpart Eeee of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits-High Throughput Transfer Racks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits-High Throughput Transfer Racks 9 Table 9 to Subpart EEEE of Part 63 Protection of Environment...—Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits—High Throughput Transfer Racks As stated in §§ 63.2378(a) and (b...

  12. Moisture transfer and change in strength during the construction of earthen buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder, H.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of rammed earth projects constructed in recent years in Germany and abroad testify to the high level of architectural interest in this material, not only in our country. Rammed earth has been “rediscovered”, in particular by young architects, due to its unique materiality and fascinating and individual surface aesthetics. In connection with the realisation of two rammed earth projects realised in Thuringia, Germany, in 2003/2004 some questions arose concerning the process of moisture transfer and changes in strength properties during construction. The earthen building standards detail only very rough estimates of drying times for rammed earth walls. The idea arose to develop a test programme for investigating the aspect of drying time with regard to the change in material strength in rammed earth walls, as well as for elaborating general aspects of testing procedures for rammed earth in standards. The paper presents results of a laboratory programme that attempts to approach this very complex problem. A series of test specimens were produced and the unconfined compressive strength was determined after different drying times varying from 7 to 90 days. The moisture content of the test specimens also was varied: at OMC (Proctor test and above and below the OMC.

    Una serie de proyectos de tierra apisonada construidos en los últimos años en Alemania y en el extranjero dan testimonio del alto nivel de interés arquitectónico en este material, no solo en nuestro país. La tierra apisonada ha sido “redescubierta”, en particular por los arquitectos jóvenes, debido a su materialidad única y fascinante y la estética singular de su superficie. En relación con la realización de dos proyectos de tierra apisonada realizados en Turingia, Alemania, en el período 2003/2004 surgieron algunas preguntas sobre el proceso de transferencia de la humedad y los cambios en las propiedades de resistencia durante la construcción. Las

  13. Round table: The New Constructions; New Build; IAEA Services Nuclear Power Reactor Technologies Construction and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choho, Tarik; Ward, Tony; Koshy, Thomas; )

    2014-01-01

    The first round-table of Atoms for the Future 2014 focused on the topic of 'The new construction'. Attendees had the opportunity to see Tarik Choho, Chief Commercial Executive Officer at AREVA, Tony Ward, Partner and Head of Power and Utilities at EY, as well as Thomas Koshy, Head of Nuclear Power technology Development Section at the IAEA, share their respective point of view and discuss together. They first started with their own presentation before sitting together at the discussion panel. Tarik Choho explained that there are many opportunities for new builds around the world, and especially in new comer countries. Thomas Koshy brought his expert point of view as an international regulator. He showed that the technology landscape also includes new designs as well as non-electricity generation uses. Those two aspects could bring both opportunities and challenges for licensing. Tony Ward showed how difficult it was to finance such a capitalistically intensive project as a new build, and how one could try to find an electricity retail price which is acceptable for both the general private consumer and the plant operator. All speakers agreed that preparation was core to a nuclear new build project. They also pointed out that every project involves more and more actors, and that it could be challenging to let everyone have the appropriate say

  14. MEMS-Based Boiler Operation from Low Temperature Heat Transfer and Thermal Scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leland Weiss

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing world-wide energy use and growing population growth presents a critical need for enhanced energy efficiency and sustainability. One method to address this issue is via waste heat scavenging. In this approach, thermal energy that is normally expelled to the environment is transferred to a secondary device to produce useful power output. This paper investigates a novel MEMS-based boiler designed to operate as part of a small-scale energy scavenging system. For the first time, fabrication and operation of the boiler is presented. Boiler operation is based on capillary action that drives working fluid from surrounding reservoirs across a heated surface. Pressure is generated as working fluid transitions from liquid to vapor in an integrated steamdome. In a full system application, the steam can be made available to other MEMS-based devices to drive final power output. Capillary channels are formed from silicon substrates with 100 µm widths. Varying depths are studied that range from 57 to 170 µm. Operation of the boiler shows increasing flow-rates with increasing capillary channel depths. Maximum fluid mass transfer rates are 12.26 mg/s from 170 µm channels, an increase of 28% over 57 µm channel devices. Maximum pressures achieved during operation are 229 Pa.

  15. Control Centre operations as the focus for building station teamwork - issues and resource impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.; Lane, L.; Davey, E.

    2006-01-01

    Effective teamwork among station work groups is essential for plant production and safety in all phases of plant operation. To achieve effective teamwork, all contributing work groups must have ongoing access to and share a common perspective on station work priorities, and recognize how their individual contributions fit with and support the contributions of other groups in support of the larger station goals. Achieving and maintaining this alignment in perspective across all workgroups can be a challenge in large organizations. This paper discusses the experience at Darlington in building and maintaining station teamwork among the station workgroups in support of day-to-day plant operations. The issues encountered and the resource impacts of specific teamwork supporting practices adopted are outlined. (author)

  16. VVER operational experience - effect of preconditioning and primary water chemistry on radioactivity build-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmitko, M.; Kysela, J.; Dudjakova, K.; Martykan, M.; Janesik, J.; Hanus, V.; Marcinsky, P.

    2004-01-01

    The primary coolant technology approaches currently used in VVER units are reviewed and compared with those used in PWR units. Standard and modified water chemistries differing in boron-potassium control are discussed. Preparation of the VVER Primary Water Chemistry Guidelines in the Czech Republic is noted. Operational experience of some VVER units, operated in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, in the field of the primary water chemistry, and radioactivity transport and build-up are presented. In Mochovce and Temelin units, a surface preconditioning (passivation) procedure has been applied during hot functional tests. The main principles of the controlled primary water chemistry applied during the hot functional tests are reviewed and importance of the water chemistry, technological and other relevant parameters is stressed regarding to the quality of the passive layer formed on the primary system surfaces. The first operational experience obtained in the course of beginning of these units operation is presented mainly with respect to the corrosion products coolant and surface activities. Effect of the initial passivation performed during hot functional tests and the primary water chemistry on corrosion products radioactivity level and radiation situation is discussed. (author)

  17. Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...

  18. Assessing ecosystem effects of reservoir operations using food web-energy transfer and water quality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, L.; Johnson, B.M.; Bartholow, J.; Hanna, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the effects on the reservoir food web of a new temperature control device (TCD) on the dam at Shasta Lake, California. We followed a linked modeling approach that used a specialized reservoir water quality model to forecast operation-induced changes in phytoplankton production. A food web–energy transfer model was also applied to propagate predicted changes in phytoplankton up through the food web to the predators and sport fishes of interest. The food web–energy transfer model employed a 10% trophic transfer efficiency through a food web that was mapped using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. Stable isotope analysis provided an efficient and comprehensive means of estimating the structure of the reservoir's food web with minimal sampling and background data. We used an optimization procedure to estimate the diet proportions of all food web components simultaneously from their isotopic signatures. Some consumers were estimated to be much more sensitive than others to perturbations to phytoplankton supply. The linked modeling approach demonstrated that interdisciplinary efforts enhance the value of information obtained from studies of managed ecosystems. The approach exploited the strengths of engineering and ecological modeling methods to address concerns that neither of the models could have addressed alone: (a) the water quality model could not have addressed quantitatively the possible impacts to fish, and (b) the food web model could not have examined how phytoplankton availability might change due to reservoir operations.

  19. Calculation and validation of heat transfer coefficient for warm forming operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Kaab; Butcher, Clifford; Worswick, Michael

    2017-10-01

    In an effort to reduce the weight of their products, the automotive industry is exploring various hot forming and warm forming technologies. One critical aspect in these technologies is understanding and quantifying the heat transfer between the blank and the tooling. The purpose of the current study is twofold. First, an experimental procedure to obtain the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) as a function of pressure for the purposes of a metal forming simulation is devised. The experimental approach was used in conjunction with finite element models to obtain HTC values as a function of die pressure. The materials that were characterized were AA5182-O and AA7075-T6. Both the heating operation and warm forming deep draw were modelled using the LS-DYNA commercial finite element code. Temperature-time measurements were obtained from both applications. The results of the finite element model showed that the experimentally derived HTC values were able to predict the temperature-time history to within a 2% of the measured response. It is intended that the HTC values presented herein can be used in warm forming models in order to accurately capture the heat transfer characteristics of the operation.

  20. Building an Understanding of Heat Transfer Concepts in Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottis, Katharyn E. K.; Prince, Michael J.; Vigeant, Margot A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the distinctions among heat, energy and temperature can be difficult for students at all levels of instruction, including those in engineering. Misconceptions about heat transfer have been found to persist, even after students successfully complete relevant coursework. New instructional methods are needed to address these…

  1. Generating Excitement: Build Your Own Generator to Study the Transfer of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kurt; Rommel-Esham, Katie; Farthing, Dori; Sheldon, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The transfer of energy from one form to another can be difficult to understand. The electrical energy that turns on a lamp may come from the burning of coal, water falling at a hydroelectric plant, nuclear reactions, or gusts of wind caused by the uneven heating of the Earth. The authors have developed and tested an exciting hands-on activity to…

  2. Transfer of Learning in Management Training: Building the Payoff Into the Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Michael J.; May, Gregory D.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two reinforcement techniques designed to ensure transfer of learning from management training courses to the workplace: (1) participant journal writing to capture management insights occurring during training and (2) support groups providing encouragement, feedback, and accountability. Results of an evaluation of the techniques'…

  3. Building World-Market Competitors: Technology Transfer and the Illinois Community College System. 1990 Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Debra D.

    In 1990, the Illinois Council of Public Community College Presidents (ICPCCP) commissioned a survey to document the current capacity and future potential of the Illinois Community College System (ICCS) to provide technology transfer assistance to the commercial marketplace and the public sector. An extensive questionnaire was developed and mailed…

  4. Implementation of conduct of operations at Paducah uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) sampling and transfer facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penrod, S.R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the initial planning and actual field activities associated with the implementation of {open_quotes}Conduct of Operations{close_quotes}. Conduct of Operations is an operating philosophy that was developed through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Conduct of Operations covers many operating practices and is intended to provide formality and discipline to all aspects of plant operation. The implementation of these operating principles at the UF{sub 6} Sampling and Transfer Facility resulted in significant improvements in facility operations.

  5. Implementation of conduct of operations at Paducah uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) sampling and transfer facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penrod, S.R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the initial planning and actual field activities associated with the implementation of {open_quotes}Conduct of Operations{close_quotes}, Conduct of Operations is an operating philosophy that was developed through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Conduct of Operations covers many operating practices and is intended to provide formality and discipline to all aspects of plant operation. The implementation of these operating principles at the UF{sub 6} Sampling and Transfer Facility resulted in significant improvements in facility operations.

  6. Functional and operational requirements document : building 1012, Battery and Energy Storage Device Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, William H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report provides an overview of information, prior studies, and analyses relevant to the development of functional and operational requirements for electrochemical testing of batteries and energy storage devices carried out by Sandia Organization 2546, Advanced Power Sources R&D. Electrochemical operations for this group are scheduled to transition from Sandia Building 894 to a new Building located in Sandia TA-II referred to as Building 1012. This report also provides background on select design considerations and identifies the Safety Goals, Stakeholder Objectives, and Design Objectives required by the Sandia Design Team to develop the Performance Criteria necessary to the design of Building 1012. This document recognizes the Architecture-Engineering (A-E) Team as the primary design entity. Where safety considerations are identified, suggestions are provided to provide context for the corresponding operational requirement(s).

  7. AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF OPERATIONAL CONTROL HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING OF BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRENKO A. O.

    2016-08-01

    accuracy manage experimentally investigate the electrical field in the liquid conducting medium as an analog of the thermal field [7, 8]. Isolation of previously solved problems. Known methods for modeling are approximate and have drawbacks that reduce the accuracy and limited scope. Therefore, one way to obtain effective thermal solutions is a simulation of thermal processes with further analysis of the results. It was suggested that the thermal field in the room to simulate electric field in the plating bath, and the analog heat flux between surfaces of any room space assumed current density between the surfaces of the model. The smaller the distance between the selected measurement points, the more accurate will be recreated actual picture patterns in the electric field and hence the thermal field in the room [7, 8]. But this method does not enable to take into account all the possible variations that affect the formation of indoor climate. Working with models that use an electric field to the heat radiation transfer simulations showed a significant labor input in the input model of the initial information and the removal of the simulation results. Objectives. Describe the behavior of the system (the influence of the microclimate of the environment and the geometric dimensions of the room, and thermal performance building envelopes, and the location of the premises (Orientation, and many other factors in the indoor climate of buildings, to build theories and hypotheses that could explain the behavior, which It will be observed to use the theory for predicting the future behavior of the system, that is, those factors that can be caused by a change in the system or change the way of its functioning. Conclusions. The proposed approach to addressing the issues raised will reveal the point of interaction between the different elements and factors that affect the indoor climate of buildings for different purposes. In the future, use the simulation method to study changes in

  8. EXPERIMENTAL CALIBRATION OF UNDERGROUND HEAT TRANSFER MODELS UNDER A WINERY BUILDING IN A RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tinti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground temperature and hydrogeological conditions are key parameters for many engineering applications, such as the design of building basements and underground spaces and the assessment of shallow geothermal energy potential. Especially in urban areas, in the very shallow depths, it is diffi cult to fi nd natural undisturbed underground thermal conditions because of anthropic interventions. The assessment of underground behaviour in disturbed conditions will become more and more relevant because of increasing awareness to energy effi ciency and renewable energy topics. The purpose of this paper is to show a three-dimensional representation - based on models calibrated on experimental data - of the underground thermal behaviour aff ected by a building in a rural area in Italy. Temperature varies in space and time and it depends on ground, climate and building characteristics, and all these parameters are taken into account by the seasonal periodic modelling implemented. The results obtained in a context of low urbanization indirectly suggest the importance of these eff ects in dense urban areas; taking greater account of these aspects could lead to improvements in the design of underground spaces and geo-exchanger fi elds for geothermal energy exploitation.

  9. Experimental study and calculation of boiling heat transfer on steel plates during runout table operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.D.; Fraser, D.; Samarasekera, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    Within a hot strip steel mill, red hot steel is hot rolled into a long continuous slab that is led onto what is called the runout table. Temperatures of the steel at the beginning of this table are around 900 o C. Above and below the runout table are banks of water jets, sprays or water curtains that rapidly cool the steel slab. The heat transfer process itself may be considered one of the most complicated in the industrial world. The cooling process that occurs on the runout table is crucial and governs the final mechanical properties and flatness of a steel strip. However, very limited data of industrial conditions has been available and that which is available is poorly understood. To study heat transfer during runout table cooling, an industrial scale pilot runout table facility was constructed at the University of British Columbia (UBC). This paper describes the experimental details, data acquisition and data handling techniques for steel plates during water jet impingement cooling by one circular water jet from industrial headers. The effect of cooling water temperature and initial steel plate temperature as well as varying water jet diameters on heat transfer was systematically investigated. A two-dimensional finite element scheme based inverse heat conduction model was developed to calculate surface heat transfer coefficients along the impinging surface. Heat flux curves at the stagnation area were obtained for selected tests. A quantitative relationship between adjustable processing parameters and heat transfer coefficients along the impinging surface during runout table operation is discussed. The results of the study were used to upgrade an extensive process model developed at UBC. The model ties in the cooling rate and hence two dimensional temperature gradients to the resulting microstructure and final mechanical properties of the steel. This process model is widely used by major steel industries in Canada and the United States. (author)

  10. H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and the Operations Concept for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Blome, Elizabeth; Tetsuya, Sakashita

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet imminent in 2011, a new operations concept will become reality to meet the transportation challenges of the International Space Station (ISS). The planning associated with the retirement of the Space Shuttle has been underway since the announcement in 2004. Since then, several companies and government entities have had to look for innovative low-cost commercial orbital transportation systems to continue to achieve the objectives of ISS delivery requirements. Several options have been assessed and appear ready to meet the large and demanding delivery requirements of the ISS. Options that have been identified that can facilitate the challenge include the Russian Federal Space Agency's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, European Space Agency's Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA s) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The newest of these options is the JAXA's HTV. This paper focuses on the HTV, mission architecture and operations concept for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) hardware, the associated launch system, and details of the launch operations approach.

  11. Gaps, barriers and conceptual chasms: theories of technology transfer and energy in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shove, E. [University of Lancaster (United Kingdom). Centre for the Study of Environmental Change

    1998-12-01

    Having shown how much energy might be saved through the use of economically worthwhile measures and technologies, researchers and policy makers then find themselves trying to close the gap between current practice and recognised technical potential. The ensuing process of technology transfer is often seen as a process of overcoming 'non technical barriers' which inhibit the realisation of proven technical potential. This familiar approach depends upon a strong conceptual distinction between the social, on the one hand, and the technical, on the other. But does it make sense to talk of technical potential in the abstract? Do people really have technologies 'transferred' upon them? Drawing upon ideas from the sociology of science and technology and on recent research funded by Britain's Economic and Social Research Council, this paper unpacks conventional beliefs about the diffusion of energy efficient technologies and suggests an alternative approach which acknowledges the social structuring of technical innovation. (author)

  12. Control technologies for quadruped walking robot to facilitate carrying operations in reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganuma, Naotaka; Uehara, Takuya; Nakamura, Norihito

    2014-01-01

    At the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., which was seriously damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it has been difficult for workers to approach the reactor buildings due to the hazardous surrounding environment. The need has therefore arsen for remote-controlled robots to facilitate inspection and restoration work on behalf of workers in such a high-level radiation environment. Toshiba has developed a quadruped walking robot that can carry various tools for decommissioning work. This robot is capable of maintaining its balance while walking on uneven surfaces, slopes, and stairs due to the adoption of control technologies to not only autonomously determine the leg trajectories and center of gravity, but also to correct the leg landing positions and posture with operator intervention according to the walking situation. It also offers high mobility and workability through a manipulation function that allows it to unload tools carried on its back storage area by using two of its legs like arms. This quadruped walking robot was applied to the investigation of suspected water leakage areas in the reactor building of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 2 in December 2012. (author)

  13. Institutional and scientific co-operation, networking and capacity building in the field of food safety and quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Meerdink, G.; Banati, D.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Kuiper, H.A.; Houtman, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper explains the situation in Hungary and The Netherlands regarding scientific co-operation, networking and capacity building in the field of food quality and safety. Specific details are given about institutional co-operation including exchanges between staff and students, collaborative

  14. Principles and methods for ensuring safe operation of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, Oleg; Kustikova, Yuliya

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of monitoring the technical condition of high-rise buildings is to prevent possible negative situations leading to significant socio-economic losses by timely warning of the emergence of such situations. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to solve the following main tasks, such as: identifying the time and place of origin and development of negative processes that lead to the emergence of an emergency situation; analysis of the possible development of the situation in time; development of management decisions; formation and submission of warning signals; obtaining new knowledge about the operation of the object, the factors of influence on this object, the speed of development of destructive processes. When solving the above problems, an important role is played by constructing an adequate mathematical model of the object, the parameters of which should be calibrated according to the current monitoring results.

  15. Primary design and operation analysis of the ITER air transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haitian; Li Ge; Qin Shijun

    2010-01-01

    Air transfer system (ATS) is a remote handling transfer, which can work in the nuclear radiation environment and can be driven by the electricity fully. Its motion power is provided by several servo motors. The remote control technology of ATS, which is China taking part in the plan of international Tokamak experimental reactor (ITER) and grasping this technology, is one of key technologies of ITER. The remote handling technology can lay the foundation for developing demonstration nuclear fusion power plant in China on self-reliance. Because there is gamma irradiation and hazard material in these ITER parts, all required maintenance of port plugs and inner components are been transmitted by ATS. The pick-up or drop-off these components are completed by means of a remotely controlled TCS system between the Vacuum Vessel and the Hot Cell through the bridge-gallery. Tokamak building includes three floors, including upper port, equatorial port and lower port, linked by a lift. According to each port level configuration and safety requirement, the radius of curvature with ATS trajectory is optimized, and a trajectory of each level is determined by positioned guidance beacons. At last, the results of computer aided design (CAD) show single trajectory guidance of ATS in each level is available. (authors)

  16. A Review of Build-Operate-Transfer for Infrastructure Development: Some Lessons for Policy Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Llanto, Gilberto M.

    2008-01-01

    The Philippines has used the BOT law, as amended to motivate private sector provision of infrastructure. Using examples from selected BOT projects in the country, the paper points out key issues constraining the successful implementation of the BOT approach to infrastructure provision. It also indicates several factors that were instrumental in forging an effective public-private partnership in BOT projects. The paper points out the need to address various issues, starting from the legal fram...

  17. Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Arrangements: The Experience and Policy Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Adora

    2005-01-01

    A look into projects under the Philippine program of public-private sector partnerships during the period 1999-2003 showed that participation of the private sector has been declining. This paper postulates that some of the reasons for dwindling investor appetite are related to contract design and implementation. It examines the nature of BOT-type contracts, their design and content and conducts a case study of a challenging BOT-type contract and identifies issues and problems faced by the gov...

  18. A BUILD-OPERATE-TRANSFER MODEL PROPOSED FOR DEVELOPMENT OF INDONESIAN AIRPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Adji Adisasmita, Sakti

    2008-01-01

    - One of important component in transportation systems for the archipelago country as Indonesia is infrastructure and means of air transportation. Airport have a role as node of air and land transportation mode, in supporting and moving economics as gate of commerce commodity in a region. In anticipating the growth of economics, government gives space of bigger motion to private sector to take a role in infrastructure development of transportation. Investment with private sector fund (equi...

  19. Micro combined heat and power operating on renewable energy for residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The building sector consumes more than 43% of the total national energy consumption in France leading to more than 25% of CO 2 emissions associated to this energy consumption. A large number of options exist to limit CO 2 emissions and to improve the performance of buildings. One of these options is developed in this thesis, the use of renewable energies (solar and biomass) in combined production of heat and power. Conventional systems of combined heat and power production are briefly analyzed. The major part of this work has been focused on the development of a micro-CHP system based on an organic Rankine cycle operating on renewable energies intermittent and non-intermittent (solar and wood). The working fluids have been analyzed to allow reaching high thermodynamic performance. The different promising technologies, for each components of the system are identified, depending on the working fluid. A special test bench has been designed and realized to test and characterize an oil-free vapor scroll expander suitable for our application. The different components have been sized using computerized tools developed for the modeling of the Organic Rankine cycle. A dynamic simulation tool has been developed to simulate the annual performance of the micro-CHP system operating under different climate conditions and thermal loads. Results show that the micro-CHP system could save more than 40% of the primary energy consumption and up to 60% of CO 2 emissions. The Levelized electricity cost has been calculated using economic analysis; results show that the electricity cost (50 c-euros/kWhel) is still high compared to other technologies. (author)

  20. Building and Deploying Remotely Operated Vehicles in the First-Year Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien-Gayes, A.; Fuss, K.; Gayes, P.

    2007-12-01

    Coastal Carolina University has committed to improving student retention and success in Mathematics and Science through a pilot program to engage first-year students in an applied and investigative project as part of the University's First-Year Experience (FYE). During the fall 2007 semester, five pilot sections of FYE classes, consisting of students from the College of Natural and Applied Sciences are building and deploying Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs). These ROV-based classes are designed to: accelerate exploration of the broad fields of science and mathematics; enlist interest in technology by engaging students in a multi-stepped, interdisciplinary problem solving experience; explore science and mathematical concepts; institute experiential learning; and build a culture of active learners to benefit student success across traditional departmental boundaries. Teams of three students (forty teams total) will build, based on the MIT Sea Perch design, and test ROVs in addition to collecting data with their ROVs. Various accessories attached to the vehicles for data collection will include temperature and light sensors, plankton nets and underwater cameras. The first-year students will then analyze the data, and the results will be documented as part of their capstone projects. Additionally, two launch days will take place on two campus ponds. Local middle and high school teachers and their students will be invited to observe this event. The teams of students with the most capable and successful ROVs will participate in a workshop held in November 2007 for regional elementary, middle and high school teachers. These students will give a presentation on the building of the ROVs and also provide a hands-on demonstration for the workshop participants. These activities will ensure an incorporation of service learning into the first semester of the freshmen experience. The desired outcomes of the ROV-based FYE classes are: increased retention at the postsecondary

  1. Nonstationary heat and mass transfer in the multilayer building construction with ventilation channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkov, N. S.

    2017-11-01

    Results of numerical modeling of the coupled nonstationary heat and mass transfer problem under conditions of a convective flow in facade system of a three-layer concrete panel for two different constructions (with ventilation channels and without) are presented. The positive effect of ventilation channels on the energy and humidity regime over a period of 12 months is shown. Used new method of replacement a solid zone (requiring specification of porosity and material structure, what complicates process of convergence of the solution) on quasi-solid in form of a multicomponent mixture (with restrictions on convection and mass fractions).

  2. Design and operation of a transistorised bridge-type detector for burn-out in boiling heat transfer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salt, K J; Wintle, C A [Reactor Development Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1964-04-15

    Theoretical, technical and operational details of an instrument to protect heater rods in heat transfer burn-out experiments from actual rupture under electrical heating, by a Wheatstone bridge method. (author)

  3. Design and operation of a transistorised bridge-type detector for burn-out in boiling heat transfer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt, K.J.; Wintle, C.A.

    1964-04-01

    Theoretical, technical and operational details of an instrument to protect heater rods in heat transfer burn-out experiments from actual rupture under electrical heating, by a Wheatstone bridge method. (author)

  4. Orthognathic positioning system: intraoperative system to transfer virtual surgical plan to operating field during orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, John W; Figueroa, Alvaro A

    2013-05-01

    To introduce the concept and use of an occlusal-based "orthognathic positioning system" (OPS) to be used during orthognathic surgery. The OPS consists of intraoperative occlusal-based devices that transfer virtual surgical planning to the operating field for repositioning of the osteotomized dentoskeletal segments. The system uses detachable guides connected to an occlusal splint. An initial drilling guide is used to establish stable references or landmarks. These are drilled on the bone that will not be repositioned adjacent to the osteotomy line. After mobilization of the skeletal segment, a final positioning guide, referenced to the drilled landmarks, is used to transfer the skeletal segment according to the virtual surgical planning. The OPS is digitally designed using 3-dimensional computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and manufactured with stereolithographic techniques. Virtual surgical planning has improved the preoperative assessment and, in conjunction with the OPS, the execution of orthognathic surgery. The OPS has the possibility to eliminate the inaccuracies commonly associated with traditional orthognathic surgery planning and to simplify the execution by eliminating surgical steps such as intraoperative measuring, determining the condylar position, the use of bulky intermediate splints, and the use of intermaxillary wire fixation. The OPS attempts precise translation of the virtual plan to the operating field, bridging the gap between virtual and actual surgery. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Decontamination and dismantlement of the building 200/205 pneumatic transfer tube at Argonne National Laboratory-East project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E. C.

    1998-01-01

    The Building 200/205 Pneumatic Transfer Tube D and D Project was directed toward the following goals: Remove any radioactive and hazardous materials associated with the transfer tube; Survey the transfer tube to identify any external contamination; Remove the transfer tube and package for disposal; Survey the soil and sand surrounding the transfer tube for any contamination; and Backfill the trench in which the tube sat and restore the area to its original condition. These goals had been set in order to eliminate the radiological and hazardous safety concerns inherent in the buried transfer tube and to allow, upon completion of the project, the removal of this project from the ANL-E action item list. The physical condition of the transfer tube and possible nuclear fuel samples lost in the tube were the primary areas of concern, while the exact location of the transfer tube was of secondary concern. ANL-E health physics technicians collected characterization data from the ends of the Building 200/205 pneumatic transfer tube in January 1998. The characterization surveys identified contamination to a level of 67,000 dpm (1,117 Bq) (β/γ) and 20,000 dpm (333 Bq) α smearable at the opening

  6. Repairs on underwater spent fuel transfer buggy and review of other underwater facilities of Cirus rod cutting building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.H.; Ganeshan, P.; Khadilkar, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Cirus rod cutting building is a pool of water in concrete unlined bays. This houses several equipment required for processing of spent fuel and other experimental assemblies. These have been in use for over three decades. Recently the fuel transfer buggy had a major breakdown and the repair involved elaborate planning preparation and special methods to ensure safe working condition and to minimise manrem consumption. This also provided an opportunity to assess the condition of other underwater components in radiation environment which were hitherto inaccessible. This paper highlights the repair work carried on buggy and also the effect of ageing on some of the equipment vis a vis the possibility of their life extension. (author). 7 figs

  7. Building a Simulator with Life-like Realism for Teaching Abdominal Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, James M; O'Shea, Jennie M

    2018-01-29

    The objective of this communication is to provide an evolutionary description of an attempt to replicate the success of the Rampahl Cardiac Simulator using perfused abdominal organ blocks the way that the Rampahl Simulator uses ex vivo porcine hearts. This descriptive paper makes no attempt to prove the effectiveness of the described educational tool, but rather, outlines the successes and failures in development. The proven value of a perfused organ teaching tool, as the Rampahl Simulator, suggests that others can build upon the work described in this paper so that, in the future, perfused abdominal organs will be available to students of general surgery as a routine part of their pre-operative preparation. The Animal Resource Facility of the University of Utah, under the oversight of the University Institutional Animal Use and Care Committee (IACUC), provided the animals, operating suites and technical support. During each development phase, General Surgery Residents and Medical Students from all levels participated. In addition, operating room staff with an interest in either medical school or perfusion were invited to participate. The efforts described in this paper eventually resulted in a reliable teaching tool for abdominal procedures in that viability of the porcine abdominal organs for up to three hours after euthanasia was regularly achieved. General Surgery Teaching Programs of a size similar to the University of Utah may have access to the resources necessary to replicate this teaching tool in a cost-effective manner. However smaller teaching programs, such as those without a research facility, may not be able to adapt the procedures described in this paper. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on further studies on long range energy transfer between curcumine as donor and another thiazine dye, thionine, which is closely related to methylene blue as energy harvester (Figure 1). Since thionine is known to have a higher quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization than methylene blue [8], it is ...

  9. NREL: News - New Design Tool Analyzes Cost of Operating a Building Over its

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagine being able to estimate the energy life-cycle costs of a new building by simply entering numbers upgrades including a discounted cash-flow evaluation of a building over its lifetime and a more powerful graphing package. The cash-flow evaluation of a building is determined and discounted to the present value

  10. Large scale commissioning and operational experience with tier-2 to tier-2 data transfer links in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, J; Magini, N

    2011-01-01

    Tier-2 to Tier-2 data transfers have been identified as a necessary extension of the CMS computing model. The Debugging Data Transfers (DDT) Task Force in CMS was charged with commissioning Tier-2 to Tier-2 PhEDEx transfer links beginning in late 2009, originally to serve the needs of physics analysis groups for the transfer of their results between the storage elements of the Tier-2 sites associated with the groups. PhEDEx is the data transfer middleware of the CMS experiment. For analysis jobs using CRAB, the CMS Remote Analysis Builder, the challenges of remote stage out of job output at the end of the analysis jobs led to the introduction of a local fallback stage out, and will eventually require the asynchronous transfer of user data over essentially all of the Tier-2 to Tier-2 network using the same PhEDEx infrastructure. In addition, direct file sharing of physics and Monte Carlo simulated data between Tier-2 sites can relieve the operational load of the Tier-1 sites in the original CMS Computing Model, and already represents an important component of CMS PhEDEx data transfer volume. The experience, challenges and methods used to debug and commission the thousands of data transfers links between CMS Tier-2 sites world-wide are explained and summarized. The resulting operational experience with Tier-2 to Tier-2 transfers is also presented.

  11. HVAC modifications and computerized energy analysis for the Operations Support Building at the Mars Deep Space Station at Goldstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, A.; Stelzmuller, P.

    1986-01-01

    The key heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) modifications implemented at the Mars Deep Space Station's Operation Support Building at Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) in order to reduce energy consumption and decrease operating costs are described. An energy analysis comparison between the computer simulated model for the building and the actual meter data was presented. The measurement performance data showed that the cumulative energy savings was about 21% for the period 1979 to 1981. The deviation from simulated data to measurement performance data was only about 3%.

  12. HAM-Tools – a whole building simulation tool in Annex 41

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalagasidis, Angela Sasic; Rode, Carsten; Woloszyn, Monika

    2008-01-01

    HAM-Tools is a building simulation software. The main task of this tool is to simulate transfer processes related to building physics, i.e. heat, air and moisture transport in buildings and building components in operating conditions. The scope of the ECBCS Annex 41 “Whole Building Heat, Air...

  13. The Building Blocks for JWST I and T (Integrations and Test) to Operations - From Simulator to Flight Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatig, Curtis; Ochs, William; Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Adams, Cynthia; Wasiak, Francis; Jones, Ronald; Jackson, Wallace

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project has an extended integration and test (I&T) phase due to long procurement and development times of various components as well as recent launch delays. The JWST Ground Segment and Operations group has developed a roadmap of the various ground and flight elements and their use in the various JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project s building block approach to the eventual operational systems, while not new, is complex and challenging; a large-scale mission like JWST involves international partners, many vendors across the United States, and competing needs for the same systems. One of the challenges is resource balancing so simulators and flight products for various elements congeal into integrated systems used for I&T and flight operations activities. This building block approach to an incremental buildup provides for early problem identification with simulators and exercises the flight operations systems, products, and interfaces during the JWST I&T test programs. The JWST Project has completed some early I&T with the simulators, engineering models and some components of the operational ground system. The JWST Project is testing the various flight units as they are delivered and will continue to do so for the entire flight and operational system. The JWST Project has already and will continue to reap the value of the building block approach on the road to launch and flight operations.

  14. Transient heat transfer analysis of superconducting magnetic levitating flywheel rotor operating in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, A.; Kudo, K.; Higasa, H.

    1999-07-01

    In the present study, transient temperature rise is analyzed in a flywheel type power storage system operated in vacuum environment. The flywheel rotor is levitated by high-temperature-superconducting magnetic bearing to reduce the bearing loss. Though the superconductor is cooled by liquid nitrogen, the temperature of the whole system rises due to Joule heating in the coils of the bearings and the motor during the operation. If the temperature should reach the critical temperature of the permanent magnet used for the magnetic bearings after long time operation, the magnetic bearings lose their effect. The heat generated in the levitated rotor diffuses within it by heat conduction and finally emitted to its surrounding solid materials by thermal radiation from the rotor surfaces across vacuum layer. Numerical simulation is carried out calculating the transient radiative-conductive heat transfer and time-dependent profiles of temperature within the rotor are obtained. The results are compared with the experimentally obtained temperatures by measured a test model of 1kWh power storage and the measured profiles of the temperature rise of the rotor fit very well with the calculated ones. Using this simulation tool, the effects of the surface emissivity of the materials of the rotor and the stator, the temperature of the surrounding casings and the thermal conductivity of the materials on the temperature profiles in the system are estimated.

  15. INFLUENCE OF NON-PERFORATED SCREEN LOCATION ON HEAT TRANSFER PROCESS IN BUILDING ENCLOSING PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sizov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is recommended to have a vapor-proof barrier on the internal side of heat insulation system in multi-layer building enclosing parts in order to ensure protection of a heat-insulation layer against humidification because relative humidity of internal air is generally higher than external one and diffusion of water steam is directed from premises outside. While having a barrier with high vapor permeability a part of moisture can be accumulated in the structure and heat insulation core and difference of actual and maximum possible partial pressures leads to condensate formation. In order to improve thermal properties of enclosing parts the necessity arises to create a vapor-proof protection screen. It complies with the design of a panel with a vapor-proof screen in the form of non-perforated aluminium foil. The given screen located at internal panel layer prevents penetration of water vapor from premises into enclosing part and heat insulation layer. In such a case condensation zones and, consequently, their moistening can occur in some layers of enclosing parts according to their thermal and physical characteristics. The paper contains a calculation of thermal and moisture regime of the enclosing parts with vapor-proof layer (non-perforated aluminium foil located in enclosing part core between various layers. An analysis of thermal and moisture regime diagrams for multi-layer external enclosing part demonstrates that the part of non-perforated screen (aluminium foil located between internal concrete layer and perforated heat insulation layer is considered the most rational one. At the same time other screens between separate layers are perforated.

  16. Building Transferable Knowledge and Skills through an Interdisciplinary Polar Science Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, L. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Albert, M. R.; Ayres, M.

    2015-12-01

    Modern graduate education must extend beyond disciplinary content to prepare students for diverse careers in science. At Dartmouth, a graduate program in Polar Environmental Change uses interdisciplinary study of the polar regions as a core from which students develop skills and knowledge for tackling complex environmental issues that require cooperation across scientific disciplines and with educators, policy makers, and stakeholders. Two major NSF-funded initiatives have supported professional development for graduate students in this program, including an IGERT (Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship) and leadership of JSEP's (Joint Science Education Project) Arctic Science Education Week in Greenland. We teach courses that emphasize the links between science and the human dimensions of environmental change; host training sessions in science communication; invite guest speakers who work in policy, academia, journalism, government research, etc.; lead an international field-based training that includes policy-focused meetings and a large outreach component; provide multiple opportunities for outreach and collaboration with local schools; and build outreach and education into graduate research programs where students instruct and mentor high school students. Students from diverse scientific disciplines (Ecology, Earth Science, and Engineering) participate in all of the above, which significantly strengthens their interdisciplinary view of polar science and ability to communicate across disciplines. In addition, graduate students have developed awareness, confidence, and the skills to pursue and obtain diverse careers. This is reflected in the fact that recent graduates have acquired permanent and post-doctoral positions in academic and government research, full-time teaching, and also in post-docs focused on outreach and science policy. Dartmouth's interdisciplinary approach to graduate education is producing tomorrow's leaders in science.

  17. Impact of gamma-irradiation on some mass transfer driven operations in food processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, N.K. [Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020 (India)]. E-mail: nkrastogi@cftri.com

    2005-08-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation pretreatment on some mass transfer driven operations such as dehydration, osmotic dehydration and rehydration, commonly used in food processing, was studied. Applied irradiation up to 12.0 kGy resulted in decrease in hardness of the samples, as indicated by texture analysis. The effective diffusion coefficients of water and solute determined for dehydration, osmotic dehydration as well as for rehydration using a Fickian diffusion model. The effective diffusion coefficients for water (in case of osmotic dehydration and dehydration) and solid diffusion (in case of osmotic dehydration) were found to increase exponentially with doses of gamma-irradiation (G) according to an equation of the form D=A exp(-B/G), where A and B are constants. Microstructures of irradiated-carrot samples revealed that the exposure of carrot to gamma irradiation resulted in the breakage of cell wall structure, thereby causing softening of irradiated samples and facilitating mass transfer during dehydration and osmotic dehydration. The rehydration characteristics showed that gamma-irradiated sample did not absorb as much water as control, probably due to loss of cell integrity.

  18. Impact of gamma-irradiation on some mass transfer driven operations in food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, N.K.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation pretreatment on some mass transfer driven operations such as dehydration, osmotic dehydration and rehydration, commonly used in food processing, was studied. Applied irradiation up to 12.0 kGy resulted in decrease in hardness of the samples, as indicated by texture analysis. The effective diffusion coefficients of water and solute determined for dehydration, osmotic dehydration as well as for rehydration using a Fickian diffusion model. The effective diffusion coefficients for water (in case of osmotic dehydration and dehydration) and solid diffusion (in case of osmotic dehydration) were found to increase exponentially with doses of gamma-irradiation (G) according to an equation of the form D=A exp(-B/G), where A and B are constants. Microstructures of irradiated-carrot samples revealed that the exposure of carrot to gamma irradiation resulted in the breakage of cell wall structure, thereby causing softening of irradiated samples and facilitating mass transfer during dehydration and osmotic dehydration. The rehydration characteristics showed that gamma-irradiated sample did not absorb as much water as control, probably due to loss of cell integrity

  19. Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated

  20. Smart Wireless Power Transfer Operated by Time-Modulated Arrays via a Two-Step Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Masotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a novel method for agile and precise wireless power transmission operated by a time-modulated array. The unique, almost real-time reconfiguration capability of these arrays is fully exploited by a two-step procedure: first, a two-element time-modulated subarray is used for localization of tagged sensors to be energized; the entire 16-element TMA then provides the power to the detected tags, by exploiting the fundamental and first-sideband harmonic radiation. An investigation on the best array architecture is carried out, showing the importance of the adopted nonlinear/full-wave computer-aided-design platform. Very promising simulated energy transfer performance of the entire nonlinear radiating system is demonstrated.

  1. Operational Readiness Review Implementation Plan for the K Basin Fuel Transfer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVIES, T.H.

    2002-01-01

    This implementation plan has been prepared to comply with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 425.1A, Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilities, and DOE-STD-3006-2000, Planning and Conduct of Operational Readiness Reviews (ORR) (DOE 2002). The scope of the ORR is described in the contractor K Basin Fuel Transfer System (FTS) Plan of Action (POA), which was prepared by Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project line management and approved by the DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) Manager on April 4, 2002 (FH 2002a). While the Project Hanford Management Contractor has been revised to include DOE Order 425.1B, the contractor implementing procedure, ''F-PRO-055, Startup Readiness (Revision 9) has not yet been approved by RL for contractor use. Appendix A provides a crosswalk between the requirements of DOE Order 425.1A and DOE Order 425.1B to show that all requirements of DOE 425.1B are covered by this implementation plan. DOE Order 425.1B indicates that the Secretarial Officer is the Authorization Authority when substantial modifications are made to a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility. This Authorization Authority has been delegated to the RL Manager by memorandum from Jessie Hill Roberson, dated November 20, 2001 (Roberson 2001). The scope of the ORR is described in the RL Plan of Action, K Basin Fuel Transfer System, prepared by DOE project line management and approved by the RL Manager, the designated approval authority, on September 12, 2002 (Schlender 2002). This implementation plan provides the overall approach and guidelines for performance of the DOE ORR. Appendix B contains the Criteria and Review Approach Documents (CRAD), which define the review objectives and criteria as well as the approach for assessing each objective. ORR results will be published in a final report, as discussed in Section 9.4

  2. MEMORY OPERATION AND ATTENTION CONCENTRATION FEATURES OF BUILDING PROFESSIONALLY ORIENTED FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIVE STRATEGIES IN PERSPECTIVE PROGRAMMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ірина Семеряк

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Memory operation and attention concentration features of building professionally oriented foreign language communicative strategies in perspective programmers have been analyzed in the article. The features of functioning and role of short-term, sensory, operational, long-term, semantic memory in the process of building foreign language professionally oriented communicative strategies in students majoring in programming have been in the spotlight of the author’s attention. Special conditions for successful memorizing of studying material by students have been identified. In the course of the pilot study it has been proven that active methods of teaching / learning enchance high concentration and makes it possible to activate long-term memory and, as a result, reflect necessary studying material in it. The impact of concentration on the efficiency of building professionally oriented foreign language communicative strategies in perspective programmers has been grounded. Mechanisms of concentration of students majoring in programming on studying activity have been analyzed.

  3. Initial operation of a solar heating and cooling system in a full-scale solar building test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, R. H.; Miao, D.; Hamlet, I. L.; Jensen, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Solar Building Test Facility (SBTF) located at Hampton, Virginia became operational in early summer of 1976. This facility is a joint effort by NASA-Lewis and NASA-Langley to advance the technology for heating and cooling of office buildings with solar energy. Its purposes are to (1) test system components which include high-performing collectors, (2) test performance of complete solar heating and cooling system, (3) investigate component interactions and (4) investigate durability, maintenance and reliability of components. The SBTF consists of a 50,000 square foot office building modified to accept solar heated water for operation of an absorption air conditioner and for the baseboard heating system. A 12,666 square foot solar collector field with a 30,000 gallon storage tank provides the solar heated water. A description of the system and the collectors selected is given here, along with the objectives, test approach, expected system performance and some preliminary results.

  4. Free tissue transfer in patients with sickle cell disease: Considerations for multi-disciplinary peri-operative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lilli; Seth, Rohit; Rhodes, Elizabeth; Alousi, Mohammed; Sivakumar, Bran

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an increasingly common condition in the UK. The safety of free tissue transfer in these patients is controversial, and no specific guidelines exist. The aim of this paper is to create recommendations for the plastic surgical multidisciplinary team for use in the assessment and management of SCD patients undergoing free tissue transfer and reconstruction. A literature review was performed in PubMed of 'sickle [TiAb] AND plast* adj3 surg*. Sickle cell disease is explained, as is the relative peri-operative risk in different genotypes of SCD. Acute and chronic manifestations of SCD are described by system, for consideration at pre-operative assessment and post-operative review. The evidence surrounding free tissue transfer and SCD is discussed and the outcomes in published cases summarised. An algorithm for peri-operative multi-disciplinary management is outlined and justified. Free tissue transfer theoretically carries a high risk of a crisis, due not only to long anaesthetic times, but the potential requirement for tourniquet use, and the relatively hypoxic state of the transferred tissue. This paper outlines a useful, practical algorithm to optimise the safety of free tissue transfer in patients with SCD. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Solar-assisted absorption air-conditioning systems in buildings: Control strategies and operational modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Ali; Pintaldi, Sergio; White, Stephen D.; Morrison, Graham L.; Rosengarten, Gary; Taylor, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation model of a solar driven absorption chiller is developed in detail. • Three control strategies were proposed in the solar loop of the plant. • Series and parallel auxiliary heater arrangements were investigated. • The results showed the auxiliary-heater in parallel outperformed the series one. • Solar fraction can be increased by 20% by implementing the proposed configuration. - Abstract: Solar-assisted cooling technology has enormous potential for air-conditioning applications since both solar energy supply and cooling energy demand are well correlated. Unfortunately, market uptake of solar cooling technologies has been slow due to the high capital cost and limited design/operational experience. In the present work, different designs and operational modes for solar heating and cooling (SHC) absorption chiller systems are investigated and compared in order to identify the preferred design strategies for these systems. Three control scenarios are proposed for the solar collector loop. The first uses a constant flow pump, while the second and third control schemes employ a variable speed pump, where the solar collector (SC) set-point temperature could be either fixed or adjusted to the required demand. Series and parallel arrangements, between the auxiliary heater and the storage tank, have been examined in detail from an energy efficiency perspective. A simulation model for different system layouts is developed in the transient system simulation environment (TRNSYS, Version 17). Simulation results revealed that the total solar fraction of the plant is increased by up to 11% when a variable speed solar loop pump is used to achieve a collector set-point temperature adjusted according to the building load demand. Another significant finding of this study is that a parallel configuration for the auxiliary heater out-performs a conventional series configuration. The yearly performance of an auxiliary heater in parallel with the storage

  6. Occupancy pattern in office buildings : consequences for HVAC system design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvarsson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    The main objectives with the work presented in this thesis have been: (a) to contribute to an increased understanding of the consequences that the occupancy pattern can have on the indoor climate and for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system design and operation; and (b) to investigate how typical occupancy patterns can look like in office buildings. The occupancy pattern in an office is a function of the floor layout of the building, and the user organisation(s) occupying it and their way of working. The combination of these two, will decide how the users occupy the building, which in turn is an important design prerequisite/constraint for the HVAC system design process. There are many assessments related to indoor climate and HVAC that involve considerations of the occupancy pattern, reaching from estimates of internal heat and pollution loads to deciding on an appropriate control strategy of HVAC systems, or estimating the energy saving potential with demand controlled ventilation. A few numerical measures have been used to describe different aspects of the occupancy pattern. The zone based occupancy factor (OFz) expresses the ratio between the number of occupied sub-zones/rooms in a zone and the total number of sub-zones/rooms in the zone. OFz does not take the number of people into account, only whether a sub-zone/room is occupied or unoccupied. OFz can be used both to express instantaneous occupancy levels and averages over time. Superscript is used to specify the time, or time period, that the measure refers to. For instance, 06 18,wd OFz means the average OFz between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m. on working days, while the 95th percentile of OFz6{sub 1}8,wd , means the 95th percentile of all instantaneous values (one or five minute averages in the case studies) of OFz that have occurred during the same time period. The utilisation rate (UR) expresses the fraction of time that a room is occupied, within a specific time period. It is important to

  7. Energy efficiency façade design in high-rise apartment buildings using the calculation of solar heat transfer through windows with shading devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, P. T. H.

    2018-04-01

    The architectural design orientation at the first design stage plays a key role and has a great impact on the energy consumption of a building throughout its life-cycle. To provide designers with a simple and useful tool in quantitatively determining and simply optimizing the energy efficiency of a building at the very first stage of conceptual design, a factor namely building envelope energy efficiency (Khqnl ) should be investigated and proposed. Heat transfer through windows and other glazed areas of mezzanine floors accounts for 86% of overall thermal transfer through building envelope, so the factor Khqnl of high-rise buildings largely depends on shading solutions. The author has established tables and charts to make reference to the values of Khqnl factor in certain high-rise apartment buildings in Hanoi calculated with a software program subject to various inputs including: types and sizes of shading devices, building orientations and at different points of time to be respectively analyzed. It is possible and easier for architects to refer to these tables and charts in façade design for a higher level of energy efficiency.

  8. Simulation of emergency response operations for a static chemical spill within a building using an opportunistic resource utilization network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lilien, L.T.; Elbes, M.W.; Ben Othmane, L.; Salih, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate supporting emergency response operations with opportunistic resource utilization networks ("oppnets"), based on a network paradigm for inviting and integrating diverse devices and systems available in the environment. We simulate chemical spill on a single floor of a building and

  9. Operative temperature drifts and occupant satisfaction with thermal environment in three office buildings using radiant heating/ cooling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    , Madrid, Spain (16000 m2), TiFS, Padua, Italy (2200 m2). Continuous measurements of operative temperature were conducted at four workplaces in each building for one year. Occupants’ satisfaction was assessed by internet based questionnaire. Results showed that mostly exceeded limits were those for 4-hour...

  10. Legionellosis prevention in building water and HVAC systems a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk

    CERN Document Server

    Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Pitera, Luca Alberto; Angermann, Jean Pierre; Izard, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This Guidebook is a practical guide for design, operation and maintenance to minimize the risk of legionellosis in building water and HVAC systmes. It is devided into several themes such as: Air conditioning of the air (by water – humidification), Production of hot water for washing (fundamentally but not only hot water for washing) and Evaporative cooling tower.

  11. How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money. Energy-Smart Building Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This guide addresses contributions that school facility administrators and business officials can make in an effort to reduce operating costs and free up money for capital improvements. The guide explores opportunities available to utilize energy-saving strategies at any stage in a building's life, from its initial design phase through renovation.…

  12. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELMINARY DESIGN HAZARD AND OPERABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARRO CA

    2011-07-15

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m{sup 3} of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m{sup 3} of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m{sup 3} of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is

  13. Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval And Transfer System Prelminary Design Hazard And Operability Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    This Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) study addresses the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) preliminary design for retrieving sludge from underwater engineered containers located in the 105-K West (KW) Basin, transferring the sludge as a sludge-water slurry (hereafter referred to as 'slurry') to a Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) located in a Modified KW Basin Annex, and preparing the STSC for transport to T Plant using the Sludge Transport System (STS). There are six, underwater engineered containers located in the KW Basin that, at the time of sludge retrieval, will contain an estimated volume of 5.2 m 3 of KW Basin floor and pit sludge, 18.4 m 3 of 105-K East (KE) Basin floor, pit, and canister sludge, and 3.5 m 3 of settler tank sludge. The KE and KW Basin sludge consists of fuel corrosion products (including metallic uranium, and fission and activation products), small fuel fragments, iron and aluminum oxide, sand, dirt, operational debris, and biological debris. The settler tank sludge consists of sludge generated by the washing of KE and KW Basin fuel in the Primary Clean Machine. A detailed description of the origin of sludge and its chemical and physical characteristics can be found in HNF-41051, Preliminary STP Container and Settler Sludge Process System Description and Material Balance. In summary, the ECRTS retrieves sludge from the engineered containers and hydraulically transfers it as a slurry into an STSC positioned within a trailer-mounted STS cask located in a Modified KW Basin Annex. The slurry is allowed to settle within the STSC to concentrate the solids and clarify the supernate. After a prescribed settling period the supernate is decanted. The decanted supernate is filtered through a sand filter and returned to the basin. Subsequent batches of slurry are added to the STSC, settled, and excess supernate removed until the prescribed quantity of sludge is collected. The sand

  14. Experimental Determination of Operating and Maximum Power Transfer Efficiencies at Resonant Frequency in a Wireless Power Transfer System using PP Network Topology with Top Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Hema; Pillai, K. P. P.; Bindu, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    A two-port network model for a wireless power transfer system taking into account the distributed capacitances using PP network topology with top coupling is developed in this work. The operating and maximum power transfer efficiencies are determined analytically in terms of S-parameters. The system performance predicted by the model is verified with an experiment consisting of a high power home light load of 230 V, 100 W and is tested for two forced resonant frequencies namely, 600 kHz and 1.2 MHz. The experimental results are in close agreement with the proposed model.

  15. United States Army Special Operations Forces and Building Enduring Partner Enabler Capacity in Operation Enduring Freedom-Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    Monograph Director Christopher Marsh, Ph.D. , Seminar Leader Christopher T. Drew, COL, EN , Director, School of Advanced Military...56Robert Nolan , “Terror in the Philippines,” Foreign Policy Association Newsletter, 6 March 2003; Charles H. Briscoe...2007. Moroney, Jennifer, Beth Grill, Joe Hogler, Lianne Kennedy-Boudali, and Christopher Paul. How Successful Are US Efforts to Build Capacity in

  16. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells under Operation Mode Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC mode to the water electrolysis (WE mode. The model is coupled with an electrochemical reaction. The proton exchange membrane (PEM is selected as the solid electrolyte of the URFC. The work is motivated by the need to elucidate the complex mass transfer and electrochemical process under operation mode switching in order to improve the performance of PEM URFC. A set of governing equations, including conservation of mass, momentum, species, and charge, are considered. These equations are solved by the finite element method. The simulation results indicate the distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, water mass fraction, and electrolyte potential response to the transient phenomena via saltation under operation mode switching. The hydrogen mass fraction gradients are smaller than the oxygen mass fraction gradients. The average mass fractions of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen and product (water exhibit evident differences between each layer in the steady state of the FC mode. By contrast, the average mass fractions of the reactant (water and products (oxygen and hydrogen exhibit only slight differences between each layer in the steady state of the WE mode. Under either the FC mode or the WE mode, the duration of the transient state is only approximately 0.2 s.

  17. Active implantable medical device EMI assessment for wireless power transfer operating in LF and HF bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2016-06-21

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) imposed on active implantable medical devices by wireless power transfer systems (WPTSs) is discussed based upon results of in vitro experiments. The purpose of this study is to present comprehensive EMI test results gathered from implantable-cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators exposed to the electromagnetic field generated by several WPTSs operating in low-frequency (70 kHz-460 kHz) and high-frequency (6.78 MHz) bands. The constructed in vitro experimental test system based upon an Irnich's flat torso phantom was applied. EMI test experiments are conducted on 14 types of WPTSs including Qi-compliant system and EV-charging WPT system mounted on current production EVs. In addition, a numerical simulation model for active implantable medical device (AIMD) EMI estimation based on the experimental test system is newly proposed. The experimental results demonstrate the risk of WPTSs emitting intermittent signal to affect the correct behavior of AIMDs when operating at very short distances. The proposed numerical simulation model is applicable to obtain basically the EMI characteristics of various types of WPTSs.

  18. Transfer and storage operations manager using Work flow; Gerenciador de operacoes de transferencia e estocagem utilizando Workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malherbi, Alexandre Alvetti [PETROBRAS, Araucaria, PR (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio Refinaria Presidente Getulio Vargas. Otimizacao]. E-mail: alexandrem@petrobras.com.br

    2004-12-01

    The paper addresses the utilization of a work flow managing system (WfMS) in the coordination of industrial operations at the Transfer and Storage (TE) facilities of an Oil Refinery, and presents the problem of coordination of TE operations. The operations are modeled as sequences of tasks (work flow). Such tasks are managed by a WfMS thus enabling the resources involved in the execution to be deployed at the appropriate moment with sufficient information. The paper shows the case of product shipping operation presenting at the end some of the operations management system requirement. (author)

  19. Reviewing the Role of Stakeholders in Operational Research: Opportunities for Group Model Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van

    2013-01-01

    Stakeholders have always received much attention in system dynamics, especially in the group model building tradition, which emphasizes the deep involvement of a client group in building a system dynamics model. In organizations, stakeholders are gaining more and more attention by managers who try

  20. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

  1. A Low-energy Building under Arctic Conditions - Experiences After Five Years of Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Vladyková, Petra; Kotol, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a low energy house was inaugurated in Sisimiut, Greenland. The house and the plans with it were presented at the third International Building Physics Conference in 2006. The house is characterised by having a highly insulated building envelope which is almost free of thermal bridges, adv...

  2. Crisis of the chaotic attractor of a climate model: a transfer operator approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantet, Alexis; Lucarini, Valerio; Lunkeit, Frank; Dijkstra, Henk A.

    2018-05-01

    The destruction of a chaotic attractor leading to rough changes in the dynamics of a dynamical system is studied. Local bifurcations are known to be characterised by a single or a pair of characteristic exponents crossing the imaginary axis. As a result, the approach of such bifurcations in the presence of noise can be inferred from the slowing down of the decay of correlations (Held and Kleinen 2004 Geophys. Res. Lett. 31 1–4). On the other hand, little is known about global bifurcations involving high-dimensional attractors with several positive Lyapunov exponents. It is known that the global stability of chaotic attractors may be characterised by the spectral properties of the Koopman (Mauroy and Mezić 2016 IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 61 3356–69) or the transfer operators governing the evolution of statistical ensembles. Accordingly, it has recently been shown (Tantet 2017 J. Stat. Phys. 1–33) that a boundary crisis in the Lorenz flow coincides with the approach to the unit circle of the eigenvalues of these operators associated with motions about the attractor, the stable resonances. A second class of resonances, the unstable resonances, are responsible for the decay of correlations and mixing on the attractor. In the deterministic case, these cannot be expected to be affected by general boundary crises. Here, however, we give an example of a chaotic system in which slowing down of the decay of correlations of some observables does occur at the approach of a boundary crisis. The system considered is a high-dimensional, chaotic climate model of physical relevance. Moreover, coarse-grained approximations of the transfer operators on a reduced space, constructed from a long time series of the system, give evidence that this behaviour is due to the approach of unstable resonances to the unit circle. That the unstable resonances are affected by the crisis can be physically understood from the fact that the process responsible for the instability, the ice

  3. Building America Case Study: Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space, Waldorf, Maryland (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  4. Calculation of critical heat transfer in horizontal evaporator pipes in cooling systems of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Andrey; Malysheva, Anna

    2018-03-01

    An exact calculation of the heat exchange of evaporative surfaces is possible only if the physical processes of hydrodynamics of two-phase flows are considered in detail. Especially this task is relevant for the design of refrigeration supply systems for high-rise buildings, where powerful refrigeration equipment and branched networks of refrigerants are used. On the basis of experimental studies and developed mathematical model of asymmetric dispersed-annular flow of steam-water flow in horizontal steam-generating pipes, a calculation formula has been obtained for determining the boundaries of the zone of improved heat transfer and the critical value of the heat flux density. A new theoretical approach to the solution of the problem of the flow structure of a two-phase flow is proposed. The applied method of dissipative characteristics of a two-phase flow in pipes and the principle of a minimum rate of entropy increase in stabilized flows made it possible to obtain formulas that directly reflect the influence of the viscous characteristics of the gas and liquid media on their distribution in the flow. The study showed a significant effect of gravitational forces on the nature of the phase distribution in the cross section of the evaporative tubes. At a mass velocity of a two-phase flow less than 700 kg / m2s, the volume content of the liquid phase near the upper outer generating lines of the tube is almost an order of magnitude lower than the lower one. The calculation of the heat transfer crisis in horizontal evaporative tubes is obtained. The calculated dependence is in good agreement with the experimental data of the author and a number of foreign researchers. The formula generalizes the experimental data for pipes with the diameter of 6-40 mm in the pressure of 2-7 MPa.

  5. Mapping radiation transfer through sea ice using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nicolaus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of sunlight into and through sea ice is of critical importance for sea-ice associated organisms and photosynthesis because light is their primary energy source. The amount of visible light transferred through sea ice contributes to the energy budget of the sea ice and the uppermost ocean. However, our current knowledge on the amount and distribution of light under sea ice is still restricted to a few local observations, and our understanding of light-driven processes and interdisciplinary interactions is still sparse. The main reasons are that the under-ice environment is difficult to access and that measurements require large logistical and instrumental efforts. Hence, it has not been possible to map light conditions under sea ice over larger areas and to quantify spatial variability on different scales. Here we present a detailed methodological description for operating spectral radiometers on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV under sea ice. Recent advances in ROV and radiation-sensor technology have allowed us to map under-ice spectral radiance and irradiance on floe scales within a few hours of station time. The ROV was operated directly from the sea ice, allowing for direct relations of optical properties to other sea-ice and surface features. The ROV was flown close to the sea ice in order to capture small-scale variability. Results from the presented data set and similar future studies will allow for better quantification of light conditions under sea ice. The presented experiences will support further developments in order to gather large data sets of under-ice radiation for different ice conditions and during different seasons.

  6. Operation of a novel two-pipe active beam system in an office building: a thermal comfort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Hultmark, Göran; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation regarding a thermal comfort study carried out in an office building located in Jönköping, Sweden. The particularity is that, in authors’ knowledge, this is the first building equipped with a novel active beam system that operates a water loop with temperatures...... for a continuous period of 24 hours. The daily monitoring of the thermal environment showed that the room air temperature was between approximately 21 °C and 23 °C all year round. No significant vertical air temperature difference was noticed, and the draught rate was below 10% for most of the cases....

  7. Effects of transfer from the operating room to the intensive care unit after cardiac surgery on hemodynamics and blood gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, S.; Gurkan, S.; Ustabasi, Z.; Atilgan, Y.; Sari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the effect of transferring open-heart surgery patients from the operating room to the intensive care unit on hemodynamic parameters and blood gases. The study was conducted as a prospective, observational study at the German Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey in 2007. Hemodynamic, blood gas values and oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry SpO2 values were recorded in 37 patients who undergone open-heart surgery. Data were evaluated by descriptive statistical methods, Friedman's test and correlation analysis. Thirty-seven patients were included in this study. The low systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure values prior to transfer, while patients were still under the effect of anesthesia, increased during the transfer and to one and 30 minutes after completion of transfer and return to normal values p<0.05. The SpO2 value measured at 30 minutes after completion of transfer was higher than the first value p<0.05. The pH p<0.001 and arterial partial pressure of oxygen p<0.001 values at the beginning of the transfer had significantly increased at the end of transfer and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide values had significantly decreased p<0.001. The transfer of open-heart surgery patients was observed to safe. (author)

  8. 31 CFR 515.525 - Certain transfers by operation of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... succession; (3) Any transfer to any person as administrator, executor, or other fiduciary by reason of any testamentary disposition; and (4) Any transfer to any person as administrator, executor, or fiduciary by reason... no transfer to any person as administrator, executor, or other fiduciary by reason of any...

  9. 31 CFR 500.525 - Certain transfers by operation of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intestate succession. (3) Any transfer to any person as administrator, executor, or other fiduciary by reason of any testamentary disposition; and (4) Any transfer to any person as administrator, executor, or... and no transfer to any person as administrator, executor, or other fiduciary by reason of any...

  10. Maintenance, operation, and research (radiation) zones (MORZ) application model - a design and operation tool for intelligent buildings with application to the advanced neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, H.B.; Brown, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a user-friendly application tool to assist in the design, operation and maintenance of large buildings/facilities charged with complex/extensive/elaborate activities. The model centers around a specially designed, easy-access data base containing essentially all the relevant information about the facility. Our first test case is the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) research reactor to be constructed as a center for neutron research

  11. Improvement of operational properties of shell limestone building materials by polysulfide solution impregnation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSALIMOV Ismail Alexandrovich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The data of studies on the effectiveness of impregnation with polysulfide solutions of shell limestone used as facing and wall material, as well as for the manufacture of road products are presented. Modification of the limestone with the impregnating composition «Akvastat» created by the authors which is sulfur-containing water-based solution of calcium polysulfide containing alcohols and surfactants, can significantly reduce water absorption and increase durability of limestone. Impregnating composition on the basis of calcium polysulfide possesses density of 1.22–1.24 g/cm3, the infiltrant penetrates into the pore structure of limestone to a depth of 4 cm or more, depending on the density and structure of the sample. While the material is drying, sulfur nanoparticles are crystallized from the polysulfide solution in its pores. They partially fill pore space and form protective durable insoluble hydrophobic coating that impedes the penetration of water into the pores of the limestone, but preserves its vapor permeability, which is important for wall and decoration materials. The evaluation of protective coatings was performed with laser particle size analyzer, scanning probe microscope and a diffractometer. It showed that the average size of the particles forming the protective coating is in the range of 20–25 nm, the particles shape is spherical, the particles are elemental sulfur with orthorhombic structure of the crystal lattice. The processing of shell limestone with calcium polysulphide solution provides formation of coating based on nanosized sulfur on the surface of stone pores. The coating partially fills the pore space and, as it is hydrophobic, reduces the water absorption of the samples by a factor of 5–8, increases their average density by 22–27%, strength in 1,2–1,3 times, the softening factor by 6–19%, that makes possible to predict the increase of the durability of building materials based on shell limestone to 1

  12. Nonlinear bioheat transfer models and multi-objective numerical optimization of the cryosurgery operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryashov, Nikolay A.; Shilnikov, Kirill E. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Department of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    Numerical computation of the three dimensional problem of the freezing interface propagation during the cryosurgery coupled with the multi-objective optimization methods is used in order to improve the efficiency and safety of the cryosurgery operations performing. Prostate cancer treatment and cutaneous cryosurgery are considered. The heat transfer in soft tissue during the thermal exposure to low temperature is described by the Pennes bioheat model and is coupled with an enthalpy method for blurred phase change computations. The finite volume method combined with the control volume approximation of the heat fluxes is applied for the cryosurgery numerical modeling on the tumor tissue of a quite arbitrary shape. The flux relaxation approach is used for the stability improvement of the explicit finite difference schemes. The method of the additional heating elements mounting is studied as an approach to control the cellular necrosis front propagation. Whereas the undestucted tumor tissue and destucted healthy tissue volumes are considered as objective functions, the locations of additional heating elements in cutaneous cryosurgery and cryotips in prostate cancer cryotreatment are considered as objective variables in multi-objective problem. The quasi-gradient method is proposed for the searching of the Pareto front segments as the multi-objective optimization problem solutions.

  13. Evaluation of gap heat transfer model in ELESTRES for CANDU fuel element under normal operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Moon; Ohn, Myung Ryong; Im, Hong Sik; Choi, Jong Hoh; Hwang, Soon Taek

    1995-01-01

    The gap conductance between the fuel and the sheath depends strongly on the gap width and has a significant influence on the amount of initial stored energy. The modified Ross and Stoute gap conductance model in ELESTRES is based on a simplified thermal deformation model for steady-state fuel temperature calculations. A review on a series of experiments reveals that fuel pellets crack, relocate, and are eccentrically positioned within the sheath rather than solid concentric cylinders. In this paper, the two recently-proposed gap conductance models (offset gap model and relocated gap model) are described and are applied to calculate the fuel-sheath gap conductances under experimental conditions and normal operating conditions in CANDU reactors. The good agreement between the experimentally-inferred and calculated gap conductance values demonstrates that the modified Ross and Stoute model was implemented correctly in ELESTRES. The predictions of the modified Ross and Stoute model provide conservative values for gap heat transfer and fuel surface temperature compared to the offset gap and relocated gap models for a limiting power envelope. 13 figs., 3 tabs., 16 refs. (Author)

  14. Experimental investigation of the influence of the air jet trajectory on convective heat transfer in buildings equipped with air-based and radiant cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2015-01-01

    -state and dynamic conditions. With the air-based cooling system, a dependency of the convective heat transfer on the air jet trajectory has been observed. New correlations have been developed, introducing a modified Archimedes number to account for the air flow pattern. The accuracy of the new correlations has been...... evaluated to±15%. Besides the study with an air-based cooling system, the convective heat transfer with a radiant cooling system has also been investigated. The convective flow at the activated surface is mainly driven by natural convection. For other surfaces, the complexity of the flow and the large......The complexity and diversity of airflow in buildings make the accurate definition of convective heat transfer coefficients (CHTCs) difficult. In a full-scale test facility, the convective heat transfer of two cooling systems (active chilled beam and radiant wall) has been investigated under steady...

  15. The intelligent customer: considerations around build-own-operate business and licensing models for small modular reactors in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.

    2014-01-01

    An organization planning a proposal for a build-own-operate business model needs to address expanded licensee responsibilities under this model, associated regulatory impacts and how this affects their role as an 'intelligent customer'. This is particularly important for cases where builder-owner-operators plan to manufacture factory-fuelled designs and ship them to a site for installation and operation. The primary responsibility for safe conduct of licensed activities rests with the licensee. A build-own-operate model expands the scope of licensed activities to include design, manufacturing, transport, construction, and operation. The licensee must be able to demonstrate they are qualified to conduct all licensed activities including sufficient competent resources within the licensee's organization to oversee('Intelligent Customer') any work it commissions externally and the subsequent flow down through of the supply chain. This paper examines aspects that organizations need to assess the suitability of approaches that it may take to maintain in-house expertise for the control and oversight of licensed activities at all times. It considers the approach to identification of: core capabilities the licensee would need to understand its safety case under a build-own-operate model to manage licensed activities in accordance with requirements under the Nuclear Safety and Control Acta licensee's 'intelligent customer' capabilities in particular around understanding, specifying, overseeing and accepting work undertaken on its behalf by contractors. While this paper is focused on small modular reactors, being an intelligent customer applies to large commercial or research reactors equally; the size of reactor is immaterial.

  16. Examination of the optimal operation of building scale combined heat and power systems under disparate climate and GHG emissions rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.; Modi, V.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CHP attributable reductions, not viable by electric generation alone, are defined. • Simplified operating strategy heuristics are optimal under specific circumstances. • Phosphoric acid fuel cells yield the largest reductions except in the extremes. • Changes in baseline emissions affect the optimal system capacity and operating hours. - Abstract: This work aims to elucidate notions concerning the ideal operation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefits of combined heat and power (CHP) systems by investigating how various metrics change as a function of the GHG emissions from the underlying electricity source, building use type and climate. Additionally, a new term entitled “CHP Attributable” reductions is introduced to quantify the benefits from the simultaneous use of thermal and electric energy, removing benefits achieved solely from fuel switching and generating electricity more efficiently. The GHG emission benefits from implementing internal combustion engine, microturbines, and phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cell based CHP systems were evaluated through an optimization approach considering energy demands of prototypical hospital, office, and residential buildings in varied climates. To explore the effect of electric GHG emissions rates, the ideal operation of the CHP systems was evaluated under three scenarios: “High” GHG emissions rates, “Low” GHG emissions rates, and “Current” GHG emissions rate for a specific location. The analysis finds that PA fuel cells achieve the highest GHG emission reductions in most cases considered, though there are exceptions. Common heuristics, such as electric load following and thermal load following, are the optimal operating strategy under specific conditions. The optimal CHP capacity and operating hours both vary as a function of building type, climate and GHG emissions rates from grid electricity. GHG emissions reductions can be as high as 49% considering a PA fuel cell for a

  17. The intelligent customer: considerations around build-own-operate business and licensing models for small modular reactors in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K., E-mail: kenneth.jones@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    An organization planning a proposal for a build-own-operate business model needs to address expanded licensee responsibilities under this model, associated regulatory impacts and how this affects their role as an 'intelligent customer'. This is particularly important for cases where builder-owner-operators plan to manufacture factory-fuelled designs and ship them to a site for installation and operation. The primary responsibility for safe conduct of licensed activities rests with the licensee. A build-own-operate model expands the scope of licensed activities to include design, manufacturing, transport, construction, and operation. The licensee must be able to demonstrate they are qualified to conduct all licensed activities including sufficient competent resources within the licensee's organization to oversee('Intelligent Customer') any work it commissions externally and the subsequent flow down through of the supply chain. This paper examines aspects that organizations need to assess the suitability of approaches that it may take to maintain in-house expertise for the control and oversight of licensed activities at all times. It considers the approach to identification of: core capabilities the licensee would need to understand its safety case under a build-own-operate model to manage licensed activities in accordance with requirements under the Nuclear Safety and Control Acta licensee's 'intelligent customer' capabilities in particular around understanding, specifying, overseeing and accepting work undertaken on its behalf by contractors. While this paper is focused on small modular reactors, being an intelligent customer applies to large commercial or research reactors equally; the size of reactor is immaterial.

  18. Teaching Mass Transfer and Filtration Using Crossflow Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Unit Operations Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Daniel; McCutcheon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A crossflow reverse osmosis (RO) system was built for a senior-level chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Intended to teach students mass transfer fundamentals related to membrane separations, students tested several commercial desalination membranes, measuring water flux and salt rejections at various pressures, flow rates, and…

  19. Autonomous rendezvous and docking operations of unmanned expendable cargo transfer vehicles (e.g. Centaur) with Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet, Brian R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the feasibility study using Centaur or other CTV's to deliver payloads to the Space Station Freedom (SSF). During this study was examined the requirements upon unmanned cargo transfer stages (including Centaur) for phasing, rendezvous, proximity operations and docking/berthing (capture).

  20. Nuclear fission energy: new build, operation, fuel cycle and decommissioning in the international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niessen, Stefan [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Over 60 nuclear power reactors are in construction today and over 400 are connected to the grid. The presentation will show where. A nuclear new build project involves a team of several thousand people. Some pictures from ongoing new build projects will illustrate this. Using concrete examples from the AREVA group, the nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mines in Niger, Kazakhstan or Canada to chemical conversion, enrichment and fuel manufacturing will be explained. Also the recycling of used fuel and the fabrication of MOX fuel is addressed. The presentation closes with an overview on decommissioning and final storage projects.

  1. A Procedure for Building Product Models in Intelligent Agent-based OperationsManagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Riis, Jesper; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a procedure for building product models to support the specification processes dealing with sales, design of product variants and production preparation. The procedure includes, as the first phase, an analysis and redesign of the business processes that are to be supported b...

  2. Notes on LCW Activation Calculation for Neutron Imaging Operations in the North Cave of Building 194

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-20

    This note estimates the amount of activation that could be produced in the Facilities-provided Low Conductivity Water (LCW) that is proposed to be used for cooling of electromagnets and beam stops in the Neutron Imaging (NI) accelerator project in the North Cave of Building 194.

  3. Record of Decision for the Ford Building Waste Unit (643-11G) Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, S.

    2002-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial for the Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU), in Aiken, South Carolina, which was chosen in accordance with CERCLA, as amended by SARA, and, to the extent practical, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA site

  4. Influence of staircase ventilation state on the airflow and heat transfer of the heated room on the middle floor of high rise building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, W.X.; Ji, J.; Sun, J.H.; Lo, S.M.; Li, L.J.; Yuan, X.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments are conducted in a scaled building model. • The flow and heat transfer in the heated room are investigated. • The staircase ventilation state influence on the heated room. • The results are useful to understand the safety and energy efficiency of building. - Abstract: Safety and energy efficiency of high rise buildings have attracted public attention in recent decades. In this paper, a set of experiments was conducted in a scaled building model with 12 floors to study the influence of the staircase ventilation state on the flow and heat transfer of the heated room on the middle floor. The airflow, room temperature and fuel burning rate were investigated. It is found that when the window above the heated room is opened, the vents state below the heated room has a significant effect on the airflow and heat transfer in the heated room. When the vents below the heated room are closed, the single-directional air flows into the heated room owing to the stronger stack effect. And the flame tilt angle is larger and the upper hot smoke temperature in the heated room is low. However, when the windows above the heated room are closed, the vents state below the heated room has little influence on the airflow and heat transfer in the heated room. And, there is two-directional air flowing through the door of the heated room The burning rate of heat source is also affected by the staircase ventilation state, and the variation trend varies with the opened window position and pool size

  5. Large Scale Commissioning and Operational Experience with Tier-2 to Tier-2 Data Transfer Links in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Letts, James

    2010-01-01

    Tier-2 to Tier-2 data transfers have been identified as a necessary extension of the CMS computing model. The Debugging Data Transfers (DDT) Task Force in CMS was charged with commissioning Tier-2 to Tier-2 PhEDEx transfer links beginning in late 2009, originally to serve the needs of physics analysis groups for the transfer of their results between the storage elements of the Tier-2 sites associated with the groups. PhEDEx is the data transfer middleware of the CMS experiment. For analysis jobs using CRAB, the CMS Remote Analysis Builder, the challenges of remote stage out of job output at the end of the analysis jobs led to the introduction of a local fallback stage out, and will eventually require the asynchronous transfer of user data over essentially all of the Tier-2 to Tier-2 network using the same PhEDEx infrastructure. In addition, direct file sharing of physics and Monte Carlo simulated data between Tier-2 sites can relieve the operational load of the Tier-1 sites in the original CMS Computing Model...

  6. Final Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1107, analyzing the environmental effects relating to the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SLAC is a national facility operated by Stanford University, California, under contract with DOE. The center is dedicated to research in elementary particle physics and in those fields that make use of its synchrotron facilities. The objective for the construction and operation of an office building is to provide adequate office space for existing SLAC Waste Management (WM) personnel, so as to centralize WM personnel and to make WM operations more efficient and effective. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  7. Study by similarity of wind influence on mass transfers in complex buildings; Etude par similitude de l'influence du vent sur les transferts de masse dans les batiments complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, Nicolas

    2011-12-05

    Residential and industrial buildings equipped with a ventilation system are complex facilities, where various heat and mass transfers could occur according to the operating conditions. In order to study these mass transfers, a methodology has been developed so as to carry out reduced-scale experiments for the study of isothermal flows, in steady or transient state. This methodology has been numerically and experimentally validated on simple configurations, and then applied to two standard configurations, representing nuclear facilities. The wind influence on mass transfers inside these configurations, in normal, damaged (stopping ventilation) or accidental (internal overpressure) situations, has been studied in the Jules Verne climatic wind tunnel of the CSTB. The wind effects, coupled or not with an internal overpressure, can lead to a partial or a total loss of the pollutant's containment inside buildings. Moreover, the wind turbulence can bring about instantaneous reversal leakage flow-rates, which cannot be identified in steady state. In addition, the study of transient phenomena has highlighted the low influence of the branch inertia on transient flows, for typical values of real facilities. Finally, tracer tests have been carried out in order to study the pollutant dispersion inside a standard configuration subjected to wind, mechanical ventilation and internal overpressure effects. The reliability of the zonal code SYLVIA, used notably to support safety assessment in nuclear buildings, has been analyzed from these experimental results. The modelling of the physical phenomena experimentally observed has been validated, in steady and transient states. However, limitations have been identified for the study of pollutant dispersion, due to hypothesis used in SYLVIA code, as in all zonal codes (homogenous concentration inside rooms, instantaneous propagation inside branches and rooms). (author)

  8. Operational experience with open communication in the field of building automation at the IBM center Ehningen; GA-Betriebserfahrung - mit offener Kommunikation im Informatikzentrum Ehningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damnig, A [IBM Deutschland Informationssysteme GmbH, Ehningen bei Boeblingen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 21 of the anthology about building control the operational experience with open communication in the field of building automation is discussed. The following aspects are discussed: building automation at IBM in Ehningen, the FACN experience, what has been achieved? Energy and operation optimisation. (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 21 des Sammelbandes ueber Building Control ist dem Thema der Betriebserfahrung mit Gebaeudeautomationen mit offener Kommunikation gewidmet. In diesem Zusammenhang werden folgende Themenbereiche angesprochen: Gebaeudeautomation bei IBM in Ehningen, das FACN-Protokoll; Betriebserfahrungen; Was wurde erreicht?; Energie- und Betriebsoptimierungen. (BWI)

  9. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study, 1985. Volume 2: OTV concept definition and evaluation. Book 4: Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jack C.; Keeley, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    The benefits of the reusable Space Shuttle and the advent of the new Space Station hold promise for increasingly effective utilization of space by the scientific and commercial as well as military communities. A high energy reusable oribital transfer vehicle (OTV) represents an additional capability which also exhibits potential for enhancing space access by allowing more ambitious missions and at the same time reducing launch costs when compared to existing upper stages. This section, Vol. 2: Book 4, covers launch operations and flight operations. The launch operations section covers analyses of ground based and space based vehicles, launch site facilities, logistics requirements, propellant loading, space based maintenance and aft cargo carrier access options. The flight operations sections contain summary descriptions of ground based and space based OTV missions, operations and support requirements, and a discussion of fleet implications.

  10. Operations Strategy Development in Project-based Production – a building contractor implements Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study how operations strategy innovation occurs in project-based production and organisation. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal case study encompassing the processes at the company headquarters and in two projects using Lean. Findings: The operations strategy development com...

  11. Non-LTE radiative transfer with lambda-acceleration - Convergence properties using exact full and diagonal lambda-operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the convergence properties of Lambda-acceleration methods for non-LTE radiative transfer problems in planar and spherical geometry. Matrix elements of the 'exact' A-operator are used to accelerate convergence to a solution in which both the radiative transfer and atomic rate equations are simultaneously satisfied. Convergence properties of two-level and multilevel atomic systems are investigated for methods using: (1) the complete Lambda-operator, and (2) the diagonal of the Lambda-operator. We find that the convergence properties for the method utilizing the complete Lambda-operator are significantly better than those of the diagonal Lambda-operator method, often reducing the number of iterations needed for convergence by a factor of between two and seven. However, the overall computational time required for large scale calculations - that is, those with many atomic levels and spatial zones - is typically a factor of a few larger for the complete Lambda-operator method, suggesting that the approach should be best applied to problems in which convergence is especially difficult.

  12. Determination of Pesticide Dermal Transfer to Operators & Agricultural Workers through Contact with Sprayed Hard Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakirakis, Angelos N; Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Charistou, Agathi N; Gerritsen-Ebben, Rianda; Glass, C Richard; Machera, Kyriaki

    2018-05-20

    In the present study, the dermal transfer rate of pesticides to agricultural workers occurring via contact with sprayed hard surfaces was investigated. Cotton gloves were used as dosimeters to collect residues from hard surfaces contaminated by pesticides in greenhouses. Dosimeters, either dry or moistened, were in contact with wood, metal and plastic surfaces previously sprayed. The experimental approach applied mimicked the typical hand contact. Moistened cotton gloves were used to simulate hand moisture from dew/condensation or rainfall. The effect of total duration of contact on the final hand exposure via transfer was investigated. The higher duration contact tested (50-sec) resulted in the higher transfer rates for metal and plastic surfaces; no such effect was noted in case of the wood surface. The pesticide amount transferred from the metal and plastic surfaces to wet gloves was greater than the one transferred to dry gloves. Such trend was not observed for the wood surface. Transfer rates varied from 0.46-77.62% and 0.17-16.90% for wet and dry samples, respectively. The current study has generated new data to quantify the proportion of pesticide deposits dislodged from three different non-crop surfaces when in contact with dry or wet gloves. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Costs and Operating Dynamics of Integrating Distributed Energy Resources in Commercial and Industrial Buildings with Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Robert Joseph

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions have increased the pressure to shift energy conversion paradigms from current forms to more sustainable methods, such as through the use of distributed energy resources (DER) at industrial and commercial buildings. This dissertation is concerned with the optimal design and dispatch of a DER system installed at an industrial or commercial building. An optimization model that accurately captures typical utility costs and the physical constraints of a combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) system is designed to size and operate a DER system at a building. The optimization model is then used with cooperative game theory to evaluate the financial performance of a CCHP investment. The CCHP model is then modified to include energy storage, solar powered generators, alternative fuel sources, carbon emission limits, and building interactions with public and fleet PEVs. Then, a separate plugin electric vehicle (PEV) refueling model is developed to determine the cost to operate a public Level 3 fast charging station. The CCHP design and dispatch results show the size of the building load and consistency of the thermal loads are critical to positive financial performance. While using the CCHP system to produce cooling can provide savings, heat production drives positive financial performance. When designing the DER system to reduce carbon emissions, the use of renewable fuels can allow for a gas turbine system with heat recovery to reduce carbon emissions for a large university by 67%. Further reductions require large photovoltaic installations coupled with energy storage or the ability to export electricity back to the grid if costs are to remain relatively low. When considering Level 3 fast charging equipment, demand charges at low PEV travel levels are sufficiently high to discourage adoption. Integration of the equipment can reduce demand charge costs only if the building maximum demand does not coincide

  14. 78 FR 63235 - Tank Vessel Oil Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2013-0522] Tank Vessel Oil Transfers... that it is considering new measures to reduce the risks of oil spills in oil transfer operations from...), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...

  15. Building a computer-aided design capability using a standard time share operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieszczanski, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes how an integrated system of engineering computer programs can be built using a standard commercially available operating system. The discussion opens with an outline of the auxiliary functions that an operating system can perform for a team of engineers involved in a large and complex task. An example of a specific integrated system is provided to explain how the standard operating system features can be used to organize the programs into a simple and inexpensive but effective system. Applications to an aircraft structural design study are discussed to illustrate the use of an integrated system as a flexible and efficient engineering tool. The discussion concludes with an engineer's assessment of an operating system's capabilities and desirable improvements.

  16. 40 CFR 267.1101 - What design and operating standards must my containment building meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... generally recognized by the industry such as the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the American Society...) Stresses of daily operation, including the movement of heavy equipment within the unit and contact of such...

  17. Lessons Learned from Developing and Operating the Kepler Science Pipeline and Building the TESS Science Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    The experience acquired through development, implementation and operation of the KeplerK2 science pipelines can provide lessons learned for the development of science pipelines for other missions such as NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, and ESA's PLATO mission.

  18. Understanding Behavior: Application of the Reasoned-Action Approach in Legitimacy- Building Influence Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    or “ nudged ” toward a particular brand. By contrast, in military influence operations, the target audience is often noncompliant, in the sense that...around this problem—a technique the military has not embraced when it comes to influence operations. There are risks associated with self-reporting, and...and environmental factors associated with the behavior of interest are called control beliefs. These have to do with factors the person sees as

  19. Gas hold-up and oxygen mass transfer in three pneumatic bioreactors operating with sugarcane bagasse suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperança, M N; Cunha, F M; Cerri, M O; Zangirolami, T C; Farinas, C S; Badino, A C

    2014-05-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a low-cost and abundant by-product generated by the bioethanol industry, and is a potential substrate for cellulolytic enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of air flow rate (QAIR), solids loading (%S), sugarcane bagasse type, and particle size on the gas hold-up (εG) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) in three different pneumatic bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Concentric tube airlift (CTA), split-cylinder airlift (SCA), and bubble column (BC) bioreactor types were tested. QAIR and %S affected oxygen mass transfer positively and negatively, respectively, while sugarcane bagasse type and particle size (within the range studied) did not influence kLa. Using large particles of untreated sugarcane bagasse, the loop-type bioreactors (CTA and SCA) exhibited higher mass transfer, compared to the BC reactor. At higher %S, SCA presented a higher kLa value (0.0448 s−1) than CTA, and the best operational conditions in terms of oxygen mass transfer were achieved for %S 27.0 L min−1. These results demonstrated that pneumatic bioreactors can provide elevated oxygen transfer in the presence of vegetal biomass, making them an excellent option for use in three-phase systems for cellulolytic enzyme production by filamentous fungi.

  20. Energy Prediction versus Energy Performance of Green Buildings in Malaysia. Comparison of Predicted and Operational Measurement of GBI Certified Green Office in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Suzaini M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forward from the sustainability agenda of Brundtland in 1987 and the increasing demand for energy efficient buildings, the building industry has taken steps in meeting the challenge of reducing its environmental impact. Initiatives such as ‘green’ or ‘sustainable’ design have been at the forefront of architecture, while green assessment tools have been used to predict the energy performance of building during its operational phase. However, there is still a significant hap between predicted or simulated energy measurements compared to actual operational energy consumption, or is more commonly referred as the ‘performance gap’. This paper tries to bridge this gap by comparing measured operational energy consumption of a Green Building Index (GBI certified office building in Kuala Lumpur, with its predicted energy rating qualification.

  1. Building Pathways to Transfer: Community Colleges That Break the Chain of Failure for Students of Color. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This study followed all freshman community college students in California who had demonstrated the intent to transfer from 1996, 1997, and 1998. Outcomes were assessed for each of the three entering cohorts after six years (2002-2004) and students were linked with their high schools of origin and the 4-year colleges to which they transferred. The…

  2. Targeted neurosurgical outreach: 5-year follow-up of operative skill transfer and sustainable care in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenas, Vincent J; Hahn, Edward J; Aryan, Henry E; Levy, Michael V; Jandial, Rahul

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of operative skill transfer in the context of targeted pediatric outreach missions. In addition, the ability to implement surgical care improvements that are sustainable is investigated. Three 1-week targeted neurosurgical missions were performed (2004-2006) to teach neuroendoscopy, which included donation of the necessary equipment so newly acquired surgical skills could be performed by local neurosurgeons in between and after the departure of the mission team. After the targeted missions were completed, 5 years of neuroendoscopy case follow-up data were obtained. After performing pediatric neurosurgery missions in 2004-2006, with a focus on teaching neuroendoscopy, the host team demonstrated the sustainability of our didactic efforts in the subsequent 5 years by performing cases independently for their citizens. To date, a total of 196 operations have been performed in the past 5 years independent of any visiting team. Effective operative skill transfer to host neurosurgeons can be accomplished with limited international team visits utilizing a targeted approach that minimizes expenditures on personnel and capital. With the priority being teaching of an operative technique, as opposed to perennially performing operations by the mission team, sustainable surgical care was achieved after missions officially concluded.

  3. Cooling energy efficiency and classroom air environment of a school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Kuckelkorn, Jens; Liu, Di; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xiao-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    The recently-built school buildings have adopted novel heat recovery ventilator and air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification and indoor air quality indicated by the CO 2 concentration have been numerically modeled concerning the effects of delivering ventilation flow rate and supplying air temperature. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of mechanical ventilation rate can simultaneously boost the dilution of indoor air pollutants and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal and pollutant distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of supplying air. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented. - Highlights: • Low energy school buildings and classroom environment. • Heat recovery facility operating with an air conditioning unit. • Displacement ventilation influenced by the heat recovery efficiency. • Energy conservation of cooling and ventilation through heat recovery. • Enhancement of classroom environment with reduction of school building energy

  4. Fire under control, operating cost too. Wood pellets heating system for the fire brigade building at Gaienhofen on Lake Constance; Feuer unter Kontrolle, Betriebskosten im Griff. Die Feuerwehr in Gaienhofen/Bodensee heizt mit Holzpellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Klaus W.

    2008-11-15

    The fire equipment building of Gaienhofen is a new building on the edge of town, neighbouring the buildings of the local soccer and tennis clubs. All three buildings are serviced by a heating station in the basement of the fire brigade building. A solar system for water heating reduces fuel consumption and minimizes the operating cost. (orig.)

  5. Building Generalized Inverses of Matrices Using Only Row and Column Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Most students complete their first and only course in linear algebra with the understanding that a real, square matrix "A" has an inverse if and only if "rref"("A"), the reduced row echelon form of "A", is the identity matrix I[subscript n]. That is, if they apply elementary row operations via the Gauss-Jordan algorithm to the partitioned matrix…

  6. CERN Central Library : 2000 year old technology transfer. Two fragments of columns from a Roman building discovered during excavations for the PS in 1956 have prominent places in the Library where they can be enjoyed by all

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    CERN Central Library : 2000 year old technology transfer. Two fragments of columns from a Roman building discovered during excavations for the PS in 1956 have prominent places in the Library where they can be enjoyed by all

  7. Rebuilding conveyor transfer points to cut fugitive material and improve operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahura, R P [Martin Engineering Company, Neponset, MA (USA)

    1992-10-01

    The article describes a three-part programme to control spillage and prevent fugitive material at conveyor transfer points. The three parts are: adequate belt support; the installation of a wear line inside the chute to preserve the rubber seal system; and the maintenance of an effective edge seal. The article also discusses designing for ease of maintenance. 9 figs.

  8. Optimal design and operation of a thermal storage system for a chilled water plant serving pharmaceutical buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, Gregor P. [University of Nebraska, Architectural Engineering, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Biffar, Bernd; Kohn, Dietmar [Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co. KG, Biberach D-88400 (Germany); Becker, Martin P. [University of Applied Sciences Biberach, Architectural Engineering, Biberach D-88400 (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A group of buildings in the pharmaceutical industry located in Southern Germany is experiencing a trend of growing cooling loads to be met by the chilled water plant composed of 10 chillers of greatly varying cost effectiveness. With a capacity shortfall inevitable, the question arises whether to install an additional chiller or improve the utilization of the existing chillers, in particular those with low operating costs per unit cooling, through the addition of a chilled water thermal energy storage (TES) system. To provide decision support in this matter, an optimization environment was developed and validated that adopts mixed integer programming as the approach to optimizing the chiller dispatch for any load condition, while an overarching dynamic programming based optimization approach optimizes the charge/discharge strategy of the TES system. In this fashion, the chilled water plant optimization is decoupled but embedded in the TES control optimization. The approach was selected to allow for arbitrary constraints and optimization horizons, while ensuring a global optimum to the problem. Optimization scenarios have been defined that include current load conditions as well cooling loads that are elevated by 25% from current conditions in order to reflect the expected growth in cooling demand in the near future; both scenarios analyzed the impact of storage capacity by investigating several TES tank capacities. The annual optimization runs revealed that - based on the elevated cooling load scenario - the smallest TES system pays back the incremental investment necessary for the TES system in about three years; based on today's cooling loads the static payback is approximately six years. As the efficiency and cost of operating the existing chillers vary over a wide range, the TES system allows for a reduction in operating costs for the chilled water plant by avoiding the operation of inefficient chillers (such as the single-stage absorption type) and

  9. Building Combat Strength through Logistics: Translating the New Air Force Logistics Concept of Operations into Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-31

    wholesale logistics systems. Rapid reprogramming , priority distribution and repair of critical logistics resources, regional logistics control networks, and...between the id, the ego, and th- superego. Ideals impact conscious and subconscious thoughts and actions that influence our values and shape our conduct...exploited under peace and wartime conditions. Rapid and effective reprogramming actions in response to changing operational needs are the key to high

  10. Some problems of evaluating environmental impacts of nuclear power installation building and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvirova, E.

    1984-01-01

    The impacts of the construction and operation of a nuclear power installation on the natural environment is discussed, namely on changes in the landscape profile, in the structure of settlement and large-scale agricultural production, the requisition of agricultural land, changes in transport systems, etc., as well as approaches to the evaluation of these environmental impacts with the aim of preserving the optimal state of inter-relations between man and the natural environment. (author)

  11. Public security and peace building operations in post-armed conflict periods

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Sérgio Luiz Cruz

    2012-01-01

    The article shows how contemporary peace operations conducted bythe United Nations (UN) to manage and/or resolve armed conflicts have dealt withthe issue of public security. As part of the effort to establish a lasting peace in theseterritories, the activities of the Organization include the security sector reform andthe structuring of a democratic police force as part of a broader process of peacebuilding. Based on specialized literature on the subject, UN documents and personalobservations,...

  12. Build Up and Operation of an Axial Turbine Driven by a Rotary Detonation Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    RDEs ) offer advantages over pulsed detonation engines (PDEs) due to a steadier exhaust and fewer total system losses. All previous research on...the integration and testing of an axial turbine driven by a rotary detonation engine ( RDE ) to determine turbine operability. In pursuit of this...objective, convergent nozzle sections were placed on the RDE to simulate the back-pressurization that would occur when placing the turbine behind the RDE

  13. Building Global Capacity for Conducting Operational Research Using the SORT IT Model: Where and Who?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Zachariah

    Full Text Available Research capacity is weakest in low and middle-income countries (LMICs where operational research is highly relevant and needed. Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT courses have been developed to train participants to conduct and publish operational research and influence policy and practice. Twenty courses were completed in Asia, Africa, Europe and the South Pacific between 2009 and 2014.In the 20 completed SORT IT courses, to assess where the research was conducted, who was trained, who became facilitators in subsequent courses and course outcomes.A cohort study of completed SORT IT courses.There were 236 participants (41% female including 64 nationalities who conducted research in 59 countries, mostly from Asia and Africa (mean course duration = 9.7 months. Most participants (68% were from government health programs and non-governmental agencies. A total of 213(90% participants completed all milestones successfully with 41(19% becoming subsequent course facilitators, 88% of whom were from LMICs. Of 228 manuscripts submitted to scientific journals, 197(86% were either published or in press; in 86%, the principal investigator (first author was a LMIC national. Papers were published in 23 scientific journals (impact factor 0.5-4.4 and covered 21 disease categories (median publication time = 5.7 months. Published papers (186 had 94,794 cumulative article views/downloads. Article views/downloads for immediate open access articles were double those from closed access journals.The SORT IT model has been effective in training personnel to produce relevant operational research in LMICs. It merits continued commitment and support for further scale-up and development.

  14. Building the Right Framework for Effective Multinational Anti-Piracy Operations in the Gulf of Aden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    Chamber of Commerce – Commercial Crime Services and 6 The International Maritime Bureau Maritime Organization of West and Central Africa 7... Chamber of Commerce - Commercial Crime Services, April 21, 2009, http://www.icc- ccs.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=350:piracy... Chamber of Commerce – Commercial Crime Services (ICC-CCS) and the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) Similar in operation to ReCAAP, the IMB’s Piracy

  15. Development of Logistics for Building Radiation Storm Shelters and Their Operational Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three years NASA has been studying the operational effectiveness and astronaut protection efficacy of numerous radiation protection shelters for use in space exploration activities outside of earth's magnetosphere. The work presented was part of NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) RadWorks Storm Shelter project. This paper is a summary of the concept development activities of this third year. Fabricated items were integrated into mock up deep space habitat vehicle sections for operational evaluations. Two full scale human-in-loop simulations were designed, fabricated, and implemented through an Institutional Review Board approved solicited participant assessment process. Fabricated items are described, along with usage scenarios of two protection approaches. Existing ISS type logistics along with proposed variations of those logistics were used. Preliminary Discrete Event Simulation (DES) work is noted to be useful in quantifying and documenting operational performance measures for the two primary shelter methods, including some characterization of radiation dose accumulation over a mission timeline. The project also performed correlation analyses between effective radiation dose and the Risk of Exposure Induced Death (REID) to show that concept level work may be able to include such a performance metric in early stages of mission scenario habitat design trade space investigation.

  16. Regional approach to building operational level capacity for disaster planning: the case of the Eastern Africa region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeyo, W; Mayega, R W; Orach, G C; Kiguli, J; Mamuya, S; Tabu, J S; Sena, L; Rugigana, E; Mapatano, M; Lewy, D; Mock, N; Burnham, G; Keim, M; Killewo, J

    2013-06-01

    The Eastern Africa region is regularly affected by a variety of disasters ranging from drought, to human conflict and population displacement. The magnitude of emergencies and response capacities is similar across the region. In order to strengthen public health disaster management capacities at the operational level in six countries of the Eastern Africa region, the USAID-funded leadership project worked through the HEALTH Alliance, a network of seven schools of public health from six countries in the region to train district-level teams. To develop a sustainable regional approach to building operational level capacity for disaster planning. This project was implemented through a higher education leadership initiative. Project activities were spear-headed by a network of Deans and Directors of public health schools within local universities in the Eastern Africa region. The leadership team envisioned a district-oriented systems change strategy. Pre-service and in-service curricula were developed regionally and district teams were formed to attend short training courses. Project activities began with a situational analysis of the disaster management capacity at national and operational levels. The next steps were chronologically the formation of country training teams and training of trainers, the development of a regional disaster management training curriculum and training materials, the cascading of training activities in the region, and the incorporation of emerging issues into the training curriculum. An evaluation model included the analysis of preparedness impact of the training program. The output from the district teams was the creation of individual district-level disaster plans and their implementation. This 4-year project focused on building operational level public health emergency response capacity, which had not previously been part of any national program. Use of the all-hazard approach rather than a scenario-based contingency planning led to the

  17. Effect of design and operation parameters on heat transfer coefficient in condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskin, N.; Arslan, G.; Balci, T.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and optimum usage of energy sources is gaining importance all over the world due to the increase of energy need and limited energy sources. Increasing condenser efficiency, reduce both the dimensions and the material usage and also the investment cost of the devices. This can be maintained by increasing the heat transfer coefficient in condensers. Generally, tubes having plain inner surfaces are mounted horizontally in serpentine type condenser applications and due to the performance loss results from the congestion in serpentine connections, vertical tube mounting is not preferred. Due to the complexity of the two-phase flow, a single set of correlation for heat transfer cannot be used. Average and local heat transfer coefficient for condensers are determined. Moreover, for each experiments flow pattern is determined and the validity of the correlations are compared according to that flow pattern. In Table 2, some of the experiments for R134a are listed. Local heat transfer coefficient is also important for condenser design. As a result, to design effective condensers the accuracy of the correlations is very important. When all the experiments are taken into account, it is seen that deviation of the correlations differs according to the refrigerant type, tube dimensions, mass flux, saturation temperature and flow pattern. For high mass flux (>400 kg/m 2 s) Traviss (1973) correlation failed. For small diameters (<3.14 mm) Tandon (1985) correlation estimate the heat transfer coefficient with a high deviation. Most accurate results are obtained for Akers et al. (1959), M.M. Shah (1978), Cavallini and Zecchlin (1974), J.R. Thome - J. El Hajal - A. Cavallini (2003) correlations. For high mass flux and annular flow, M.M. Shah (1978) correlation estimates the heat transfer coefficient with high precision. However, as the tube diameter decrease, this deviation increases. For small tube diameter such as 0.691 mm Cavallini and Zecchlin (1974) gives the most

  18. Robust and Resilient Services: How to design, build and operate them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiers, J.; McCance, G.; Mendez Lorenzo, P.

    2007-01-01

    Grid infrastructures require a high degree of fault tolerance and reliability. This can only be achieved by careful planning and detailed implementation. We describe on-going work within the WLCG project to build and run highly reliable services. Following the a priori a nalysis based on the services and service levels listed in the Memorandum of Understanding that sites participating in WLCG have signed[1], this paper provides an a posteriori a nalysis following over 2 years of production service. This work covers not only the services deployed at the Tier0 centre at CERN - which has the most stringent service requirements related to the acquisition of the raw data, the initial processing phase and the distribution of raw and processed data to Tier1 sites, but also a similar analysis for Tier1 and major Tier2 sites. The latter will be covered at a workshop that will take place shortly before the EELA conference and so will be very up-to-date. (Author)

  19. The Global Modeling Test Bed - Building a New National Capability for Advancing Operational Global Modeling in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, F.; Cortinas, J. V., Jr.; Kuo, W.; Tallapragada, V.; Stajner, I.; Nance, L. B.; Kelleher, K. E.; Firl, G.; Bernardet, L.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA develops, operates, and maintains an operational global modeling capability for weather, sub seasonal and seasonal prediction for the protection of life and property and fostering the US economy. In order to substantially improve the overall performance and accelerate advancements of the operational modeling suite, NOAA is partnering with NCAR to design and build the Global Modeling Test Bed (GMTB). The GMTB has been established to provide a platform and a capability for researchers to contribute to the advancement primarily through the development of physical parameterizations needed to improve operational NWP. The strategy to achieve this goal relies on effectively leveraging global expertise through a modern collaborative software development framework. This framework consists of a repository of vetted and supported physical parameterizations known as the Common Community Physics Package (CCPP), a common well-documented interface known as the Interoperable Physics Driver (IPD) for combining schemes into suites and for their configuration and connection to dynamic cores, and an open evidence-based governance process for managing the development and evolution of CCPP. In addition, a physics test harness designed to work within this framework has been established in order to facilitate easier like-to-like comparison of physics advancements. This paper will present an overview of the design of the CCPP and test platform. Additionally, an overview of potential new opportunities of how physics developers can engage in the process, from implementing code for CCPP/IPD compliance to testing their development within an operational-like software environment, will be presented. In addition, insight will be given as to how development gets elevated to CPPP-supported status, the pre-cursor to broad availability and use within operational NWP. An overview of how the GMTB can be expanded to support other global or regional modeling capabilities will also be presented.

  20. Transfer Pricing In Transnational Operations: A Case- And Literature-Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia A. Taylor; E.J. (Roy) Knaus; William E. Matthews

    2011-01-01

    This paper represents a combined case- and literature-based analysis of transnational pricing and highlights the difference in the issues and perspectives of the business and academic environments. Following an introduction to the issue (noting the growing importance of the transfer of goods from one organizational entity to another within a multinational firm), a short case - The Henderson Company - illustrates how a relatively simple announcement can lead to a lengthy and heated discussion ...

  1. Operational parameters analysis of the radiographic technique through the modulation transfer function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, Mauricio Saldanha; Guimaraes, Ari Sauer

    1995-01-01

    The influence of the focal size and image magnification variations on the radiographic final image is studied. The analysis used the modulation transfer function for evaluating the ratio of the radiographic image amplitude and that of the inspected object. it was concluded that the increase of the focal size and of the magnifications are not good for the image quality. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. The transfer of dual-use outer space technologies: confrontation or co-operation ?

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparini Alves, Péricles; Gasteyger, Curt

    2005-01-01

    The right of any State to develop outer space technologies is, in principle, unquestionable. In practice, problems arise when technology development approaches the very fine line between civil and military application, largely because most the technologies can be used for dual military and civil purposes. This dichotomy has raised a series of political, military, and other concerns which affect the transfer of outer space technologies, and particularly between established and emerging space-c...

  3. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  4. Multiple determinants of transfer of evaluative function after conditioning with free-operant schedules of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil; McHugh, Louise

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the four present experiments was to explore how different schedules of reinforcement influence schedule-induced behavior, their impact on evaluative ratings given to conditioned stimuli associated with each schedule through evaluative conditioning, and the transfer of these evaluations through derived stimulus networks. Experiment 1 compared two contrasting response reinforcement rules (variable ratio [VR], variable interval [VI]). Experiment 2 varied the response to reinforcement rule between two schedules but equated the outcome to response rate (differential reinforcement of high rate [DRH] vs. VR). Experiment 3 compared molar and molecular aspects of contingencies of reinforcement (tandem VIVR vs. tandem VRVI). Finally, Experiment 4 employed schedules that induced low rates of responding to determine whether, under these circumstances, responses were more sensitive to the molecular aspects of a schedule (differential reinforcement of low rate [DRL] vs. VI). The findings suggest that the transfer of evaluative functions is determined mainly by differences in response rate between the schedules and the molar aspects of the schedules. However, when neither schedule was based on a strong response reinforcement rule, the transfer of evaluative judgments came under the control of the molecular aspects of the schedule.

  5. Construction and operation of a support facilities (Building 729) for operation/testing of a prototype accelerator/storage ring (XLS) and machine shop for the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Proposed action is to construct at BNL a 5,600-ft 2 support building, install and operate a prototypic 200 MeV accelerator and a prototypic 700 MeV storage ring within, and to construct and operate a 15 kV substation to power the building. The accelerator and storage ring would comprise the x-ray lithography source or XLS

  6. Study of optimal operation management by a monitoring system for corrosion and heat-transfer rate of condensate pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Katsmi; Kominami, Hirohiko; Atsumi, Tetsuro; Nagata, Koji (Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Sumitomo Light Metal Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-09-26

    In order to optimize the anticorrosion and antifouling management of aluminum brass condensate pipes, the monitoring system was developed, which could control a corrosion resistance and heat transfer rate during operation. Since a polarization resistance could be used as an index for anticorrosion control, while a heat transmission coefficient or cleanliness factor for heat transfer control, a polarization resistance meter and fouling meter were made as prototype detectors. Fundamental test of a model condenser (simulated by-pass pipe) was performed using a processing system combined with the meters, and monitored data and analytical data of the test were arranged. System performance was ascertained to be preferable by the verification test on a real condenser, however, more compact system was required for practical use because of restriction in by-pass pipe installation. In addition to the monitoring function, a control function for sponge ball cleaning and iron ion injection was also added to keep the specified index value. 13 figs,. 1 tab.

  7. Development of a new energy benchmark for improving the operational rating system of office buildings using various data-mining techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Lee, Minhyun; Kang, Hyuna; Hong, Taehoon; Jeong, Jaewook

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study developed a new energy benchmark for office buildings. • Correlation analysis, decision tree, and analysis of variance were used. • The data from 1072 office buildings in South Korea were used. • As a result, six types of energy benchmarks for office buildings were developed. • The operational rating system can be improved by using the new energy benchmark. - Abstract: As improving energy efficiency in buildings has become a global issue today, many countries have adopted the operational rating system to evaluate the energy performance of a building based on the actual energy consumption. A rational and reasonable energy benchmark can be used in the operational rating system to evaluate the energy performance of a building accurately and effectively. This study aims to develop a new energy benchmark for improving the operational rating system of office buildings. Toward this end, this study used various data-mining techniques such as correlation analysis, decision tree (DT) analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Based on data from 1072 office buildings in South Korea, this study was conducted in three steps: (i) Step 1: establishment of the database; (ii) Step 2: development of the new energy benchmark; and (iii) Step 3: application of the new energy benchmark for improving the operational rating system. As a result, six types of energy benchmarks for office buildings were developed using DT analysis based on the gross floor area (GFA) and the building use ratio (BUR) of offices, and these new energy benchmarks were validated using ANOVA. To ensure the effectiveness of the new energy benchmark, it was applied to three operational rating systems for comparison: (i) the baseline system (the same energy benchmark is used for all office buildings); (ii) the conventional system (different energy benchmarks are used depending on the GFA, currently used in South Korea); and (iii) the proposed system (different energy benchmarks are

  8. Mass transfer study between soil, atmosphere, groundwater and building in a contaminated area; volatile organic compounds (VOC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotel, S.

    2008-10-01

    A bibliography review led to detail the mechanisms of exchange between phases and transport of volatile organic compounds in the vadose zone, to put in equations their transfer, to set experimental devices and to define relevant tests. The pollutant in question is trichloroethylene, the porous media is a medium sand and the experiments were implemented in column. Once, an analytical method was available to quantify aqueous, gaseous and sorb TCE, predominant transfers mechanisms were quantified separately especially with diffusion experiments through a sand at three different water contents (dry, residual saturation and saturated). Then, these mechanisms have been coupled in a TCE transfer experiment in sand with a hydrostatic water content profile. Each type of test was dimensioned, if it's possible duplicated and interpreted with the multiphasic software Comsol whose flow equation was changed to consider the gravity driven convection. By strictly controlling external factors and boundary conditions, it was possible to carry out transfer experiments reproducible and interpretable with a volatile and reactive compound in a very permeable porous medium. A good reproducibility of experimental results by simulation was achieved with minor changes in basic parameters: report permeability on viscosity, tortuosity (Millington, 1959) and aerodynamics conductivity curve setting parameter (Thomson et al., 1997). This work has resulted in a fine understanding of gas transfers in the vadose zone, especially in the capillarity fringe. (author)

  9. Operational risk in bank governance and control: How to save capital requirement through a risk transfer strategy. Evidences from a simulated case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Scannella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Operational risk management in banking has assumed such importance during the last decade. It has become increasingly important to measure, manage, and assess the impact of operational risk in the economics of banking. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how an effective operational risk management provides mitigating effects on capital-at-risk in banking. The paper provides evidences that an implementation of an operational risk transfer strategy reduces bank capital requirement. The paper adopts the loss distribution approach, the Monte Carlo simulation, and copula methodologies to estimate the regulatory capital and simulate an operational risk transfer strategy in banking.

  10. Health physics and operational experience gained from slurry transfer of wastes containing 780 curies of radium-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borden, W.C.; Land, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    During remedial action at the DOE Niagara Falls Storage Site 3.5 million kilogram (3891 ton) of uranium ore residues (code named K-65 during the Manhattan Project) were slurry transferred about one mile from a concrete water tower to an engineered waste containment facility. This operation presented a number of unusual health physics problems, mandating special handling, measurement, and exposure control methodologies. Principles among these were: (1) a specific activity of 220,000 pCi/gm; (2) open air concentrations of radon-222 of up to 60,000 pCi/1; (3) radon concentrations inside the tower of 1,700,000 pCi/1; (4) exposure rates of up to 350 mR/hr; (5) widely varying climatic conditions; and (6) working atop a 165 foot tall, 40 foot diameter, structure in these conditions. This paper will describe the transfer operation, its problems, problem solutions, and successes. Detailed attention is given to personnel and environmental monitoring, as well as contamination and exposure control methodologies. Operations concluded with the K-65 residues stored in an environmentally stable condition, less than 10 man-rem of worker exposure, and average off-site radon-222 concentrations of less than 0.3 pCi/1 above background

  11. Dissipation of heat from building integrated PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.M.L.

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of the project were to investigate methods for improving heat transfer and the reflection of heat from PV modules in building integrated situations and to develop the design of a building integrated PV element with improved heat transfer characteristics, with the aim of reducing the operating temperature of the PV cells. The prototypes developed for improving heat transfer have only shown small reductions in the PV cell operating temperature and these results have not been fully quantified due to problems associated with experimental testing. The improvement in the overall electrical performance of PV modules operating at lower temperatures is consequently even smaller. As a result, none of the prototypes can be considered to be economically viable. Based upon the theoretical and experimental results of this work, it is the recommendation of this project that no further work be conducted in improving BIPV performance through improved heat transfer of BIPV. (Author)

  12. Numerical simulation of the thermal behavior of heat transfer equipment operated at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearsica, C.; Zamfirache, M.; Bornea, A.; Gherghinescu, S.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a method for calculating the non-steady heat transfer in a shell and tube heat exchanger. The characteristic equations were solved with a Finite Element Method. As the geometry is cylindrical and axial symmetry was assumed, the equations were solved in a two dimensional geometry. The interpolation functions are linear and the Galerkin method was applied. The process occurred without phase change. For the solving of the algebraic equations associated with the differential equations, we used the method of steepest descendent (gradient method). As results, we present the temperature profile for the tube and shell gas. (author)

  13. Constructing Nucleon Operators on a Lattice for Form Factors with High Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Gambhir, Arjun S. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Musch, Bernhard U. [Univ. of Regensburg (Germany); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We present preliminary results of computing nucleon form factor at high momentum transfer using the 'boosted' or 'momentum' smearing. We use gauge configurations generated with N f = 2 + 1dynamical Wilson-clover fermions and study the connected as well as disconnected contributions to the nucleon form factors. Our initial results indicate that boosted smearing helps to improve the signal for nucleon correlators at high momentum. However, we also find evidence for large excited state contributions, which will likely require variational analysis to isolate the boosted nucleon ground state.

  14. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  15. Building 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Ouden, C [EGM Engineering BV, Dordrecht (Netherlands); Steemers, T C [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-01-01

    This is the first volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this first rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In a second volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: office buildings, public buildings and hotels and holiday complexes. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (15 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues.

  16. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations orbit transfer vehicle serving. Phase 2, task 1: Space station support of operational OTV servicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Representative space based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), ground based vehicle turnaround assessment, functional operational requirements and facilities, mission turnaround operations, a comparison of ground based versus space based tasks, activation of servicing facilities prior to IOC, fleet operations requirements, maintenance facilities, OTV servicing facilities, space station support requirements, and packaging for delivery are discussed.

  17. Mathematical modeling of the heat transfer for determining the depth of thawing basin buildings with long service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirditov, Ivan; Stepanov, Sergei

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a numerical study of the problem of determining a thawing basin in the permafrost soil for buildings with a long service life is carried out using two methods, with the formulas of set of rules 25.13330.2012 "Soil bases and foundations on permafrost soils" and using a mathematical model.

  18. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-11-02

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

  19. Two 175 ton geothermal chiller heat pumps for leed platinum building technology demonstration project. Operation data, data collection and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolo, Daniel [Johnson Controls, Inc., Glendale, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The activities funded by this grant helped educate and inform approximately six thousand individuals who participated in guided tours of the geothermal chiller plant at Johnson Controls Corporate Headquarters in Glendale, Wisconsin over the three year term of the project. In addition to those who took the formal tour, thousands more were exposed to hands-on learning at the self-service video kiosks located in the headquarters building and augmented reality tablet app that allowed for self-guided tours. The tours, video, and app focused on the advantages of geothermal heat pump chillers, including energy savings and environmental impact. The overall tour and collateral also demonstrated the practical application of this technology and how it can be designed into a system that includes many other sustainable technologies without sacrificing comfort or health of building occupants Among tour participants were nearly 1,000 individuals, representing 130 organizations identified as potential purchasers of geothermal heat pump chillers. In addition to these commercial clients, tours were well attended by engineering, facilities, and business trade groups. This has also been a popular tour for groups from Universities around the Midwest and K-12 schools from Wisconsin and Northern Illinois A sequence of operations was put into place to control the chillers and they have been tuned and maintained to optimize the benefit from the geothermal water loop. Data on incoming and outgoing water temperature and flow from the geothermal field was logged and sent to DOE monthly during the grant period to demonstrate energy savings.

  20. Operation of a Data Acquisition, Transfer, and Storage System for the Global Space-Weather Observation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nagatsuma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A system to optimize the management of global space-weather observation networks has been developed by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT. Named the WONM (Wide-area Observation Network Monitoring system, it enables data acquisition, transfer, and storage through connection to the NICT Science Cloud, and has been supplied to observatories for supporting space-weather forecast and research. This system provides us with easier management of data collection than our previously employed systems by means of autonomous system recovery, periodical state monitoring, and dynamic warning procedures. Operation of the WONM system is introduced in this report.

  1. Applied patent RFID systems for building reacting HEPA air ventilation system in hospital operation rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented.

  2. Building the Traffic, Navigation, and Situation Awareness System (T-NASA) for Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    We report the results of a part-task simulation evaluating the separate and combined effects of an electronic moving map display and newly developed HUD symbology on ground taxi performance, under moderate- and low-visibility conditions. Twenty-four commercial airline pilots carried out a series of 28 gate-to-runway taxi trials at Chicago O'Hare. Half of the trials were conducted under moderate visibility (RVR 1400 ft), and half under low visibility (RVR 700 ft). In the baseline condition, where navigation support was limited to surface features and a Jeppesen paper map, navigation errors were committed on almost half of the trials. These errors were virtually abolished when the electronic moving map or the HUD symbology was available; in addition, compare, the baseline condition, both forms of navigation aid yielded an increase in forward taxi speed. The speed increase was greater for HUD than the electronic moving map, and greater under low visibility than under moderate visibility. These results suggest that combination of electronic moving map and HUD symbology has the potential to greatly increase the efficiency of ground operations, particularly under low-visibility conditions.

  3. Rational engineering of Geobacter sulfurreducens electron transfer components: a foundation for building improved Geobacter-based bioelectrochemical technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana M Dantas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiheme cytochromes have been implicated in Geobacter sulfurreducens (Gs extracellular electron transfer (EET. These proteins are potential targets to improve EET and enhance bioremediation and electrical current production by Gs. However, the functional characterization of multiheme cytochromes is particularly complex due to the co-existence of several microstates in solution, connecting the fully reduced and fully oxidized states. Over the last decade, new strategies have been developed to characterize multiheme redox proteins functionally and structurally. These strategies were used to reveal the functional mechanism of Gs multiheme cytochromes and also to identify key residues in these proteins for EET. In previous studies, we set the foundations for enhancement of the EET abilities of Gs by characterizing a family of five triheme cytochromes (PpcA-E. These periplasmic cytochromes are implicated in electron transfer between the oxidative reactions of metabolism in the cytoplasm and the reduction of extracellular terminal electron acceptors at the cell’s outer surface. The results obtained suggested that PpcA can couple e-/H+ transfer, a property that might contribute to the proton electrochemical gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane for metabolic energy production. The structural and functional properties of PpcA were characterized in detail and used for rational design of a family of 23 single site PpcA mutants. In this review, we summarize the functional characterization of the native and mutant proteins. Mutants that retain the mechanistic features of PpcA and adopt preferential e-/H+ transfer pathways at lower reduction potential values compared to the wild-type protein were selected for in vivo studies as the best candidates to increase the electron transfer rate of Gs. For the first time Gs strains have been manipulated by the introduction of mutant forms of essential proteins with the aim to develop and improve

  4. Continued Evaluation of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 12518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy W.J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Hopkins, Derek F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Thien, Michael G.; Wooley, Theodore A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will be governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. In 2010 Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory began evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to accurately identify critical velocities in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of >50 micrometers. In 2011 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated to identify critical velocities for slurries containing fast-settling, high-density particles with a mean particle diameter of <15 micrometers. This two-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP. (authors)

  5. Transferring Control of the Mand to the Motivating Operation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney-Kerwin, Emily J.; Carbone, Vincent J.; O'Brien, Leigh; Zecchin, Gina; Janecky, Marietta N.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have made use of B. F. Skinner's (1957) behavioral analysis of language and precise taxonomy of verbal behavior when describing the controlling variables for the mand relation. Consequently, the motivating operation (MO) has not typically been identified as an independent variable and the nature of a spontaneous mand has been…

  6. The influence of radiative transfer on the turbulent flow inside solar absorbers operating with supercritical CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecnik, R.; Smit, S.H.H.J.; Patel, A.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate and compare two dierent solar receiver technologies for concentrated solar power plants operating with supercritical CO2. The rst receiver is based on conventional surface absorbers, while the second receiver is based on an innovative idea to use volumetric receivers

  7. Comparative measurements of heat and moisture transfer in different wood-based building elements; Vergleichende Untersuchungen zum Feuchte- und Waermeverhalten unterschiedlicher Holzbauelemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joscak, Matus; Sonderegger, Walter; Niemz, Peter [ETH Zuerich, Institut fuer Baustoffe, Arbeitsgruppe Holzphysik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Holm, Andreas; Krus, Martin; Grosskinsky, Theo; Lengsfeld, Kristin [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik, Valley (Germany); Grunewald, John; Plagge, Rudolf [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Bauklimatik, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    At the campus of the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics (IBP) in Holzkirchen/Germany comparative measurements of heat and moisture transfer in five different wood-based building elements were carried out (wood construction with slotted wood elements, solid wood construction connected with wooden dowels, new developed soft fibreboard brick construction, solid wood panel construction, wood frame construction with stacked wood elements). The elements were installed on the west side of the test building and examined during one year. The following physical quantities were measured: indoor climate, external and internal surface temperatures, temperatures in the boundary layers, heat flux through the internal surface of the constructions, relative humidity and moisture content. Furthermore, the measured data were used for validation of the simulation softwares WUFI {sup registered} Pro and Delphin. During winter, the measured U-values (from unsteady-state values) were compared with steady-state calculated U-values. Both values were well coincident. Moreover, the simulation results achieved good agreement by using the thermal conductivity values measured at ETH Zurich, which were considerably lower than the standard values. Although, the four elements had been covered with a non rear-ventilated facade, no critical values of relative humidity were measured inside the constructions. The simulation results of relative humidity have partly shown large deviations from measured data by both simulation softwares.

  8. Effects of Design/Operating Parameters and Physical Properties on Slag Thickness and Heat Transfer during Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insoo Ye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The behaviors of the slag layers formed by the deposition of molten ash onto the wall are important for the operation of entrained coal gasifiers. In this study, the effects of design/operation parameters and slag properties on the slag behaviors were assessed in a commercial coal gasifier using numerical modeling. The parameters influenced the slag behaviors through mechanisms interrelated to the heat transfer, temperature, velocity, and viscosity of the slag layers. The velocity profile of the liquid slag was less sensitive to the variations in the parameters. Therefore, the change in the liquid slag thickness was typically smaller than that of the solid slag. The gas temperature was the most influential factor, because of its dominant effect on the radiative heat transfer to the slag layer. The solid slag thickness exponentially increased with higher gas temperatures. The influence of the ash deposition rate was diminished by the high-velocity region developed near the liquid slag surface. The slag viscosity significantly influenced the solid slag thickness through the corresponding changes in the critical temperature and the temperature gradient (heat flux. For the bottom cone of the gasifier, steeper angles were favorable in reducing the thickness of the slag layers.

  9. Environmental assessment for the proposed construction and operation of a Genome Sequencing Facility in Building 64 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document is an Environmental Assessment (EA) for a proposed project to modify 14,900 square feet of an existing building (Building 64) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to operate as a Genome Sequencing Facility. This EA addresses the potential environmental impacts from the proposed modifications to Building 64 and operation of the Genome Sequencing Facility. The proposed action is to modify Building 64 to provide space and equipment allowing LBL to demonstrate that the Directed DNA Sequencing Strategy can be scaled up from the current level of 750,000 base pairs per year to a facility that produces over 6,000,000 base pairs per year, while still retaining its efficiency.

  10. Operation of TUT Solar PV Power Station Research Plant under Partial Shading Caused by Snow and Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Torres Lobera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A grid connected solar photovoltaic (PV research facility equipped with comprehensive climatic and electric measuring systems has been designed and built in the Department of Electrical Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TUT. The climatic measuring system is composed of an accurate weather station, solar radiation measurements, and a mesh of irradiance and PV module temperature measurements located throughout the solar PV facility. Furthermore, electrical measurements can be taken from single PV modules and strings of modules synchronized with the climatic data. All measured parameters are sampled continuously at 10 Hz with a data-acquisition system based on swappable I/O card technology and stored in a database for later analysis. The used sampling frequency was defined by thorough analyses of the PV system time dependence. Climatic and electrical measurements of the first operation year of the research facility are analyzed in this paper. Moreover, operation of PV systems under partial shading conditions caused by snow and building structures is studied by means of the measured current and power characteristics of PV modules and strings.

  11. Asian regional co-operative project on food irradiation: Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    These Proceedings include the final reports of work performed by different institutions under the scope of Phase II of the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation. The topics covered include the disinfestation and decontamination of stored products; improvements in the hygiene of processed seafood; insect disinfestation of fruits; and sprout inhibition of root crops. The individual presentations are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Design and operation of ventilation in low energy residences – A survey on code requirements and building reality from six European countries and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Bocanegra-Yanez, Maria; Rojas, Gabriel; Zukowska-Tejsen, Daria

    involved in the Annex. There were two main objectives, firstly, to describe and analyse a transition between actual requirements (national building codes and standards) and current practice. Secondly, to investigate current barriers and challenges regarding installation of mechanical ventilation......One of the key objectives of the IEA Annex 68 research programme entitled “Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings” is to provide a generic guideline for the design and operation of ventilation in residential buildings. Modern and refurnished domestic buildings...

  13. Tool coupling for the design and operation of building energy and control systems based on the Functional Mock-up Interface standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouidui, Thierry Stephane; Wetter, Michael

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes software tools developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) that can be coupled through the Functional Mock-up Interface standard in support of the design and operation of building energy and control systems. These tools have been developed to address the gaps and limitations encountered in legacy simulation tools. These tools were originally designed for the analysis of individual domains of buildings, and have been difficult to integrate with other tools for runtime data exchange. The coupling has been realized by use of the Functional Mock-up Interface for co-simulation, which standardizes an application programming interface for simulator interoperability that has been adopted in a variety of industrial domains. As a variety of coupling scenarios are possible, this paper provides users with guidance on what coupling may be best suited for their application. Furthermore, the paper illustrates how tools can be integrated into a building management system to support the operation of buildings. These tools may be a design model that is used for real-time performance monitoring, a fault detection and diagnostics algorithm, or a control sequence, each of which may be exported as a Functional Mock-up Unit and made available in a building management system as an input/output block. We anticipate that this capability can contribute to bridging the observed performance gap between design and operational energy use of buildings.

  14. Oxygen-Reducing Biocathodes Operating with Passive Oxygen Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Xue

    2013-02-19

    Oxygen-reducing biocathodes previously developed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have required energy-intensive aeration of the catholyte. To avoid the need for aeration, the ability of biocathodes to function with passive oxygen transfer was examined here using air cathode MFCs. Two-chamber, air cathode MFCs with biocathodes produced a maximum power density of 554 ± 0 mW/m 2, which was comparable to that obtained with a Pt cathode (576 ± 16 mW/m2), and 38 times higher than that produced without a catalyst (14 ± 3 mW/m2). The maximum current density with biocathodes in this air-cathode MFC was 1.0 A/m2, compared to 0.49 A/m2 originally produced in a two-chamber MFC with an aqueous cathode (with cathode chamber aeration). Single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs with the same biocathodes initially produced higher voltages than those with Pt cathodes, but after several cycles the catalytic activity of the biocathodes was lost. This change in cathode performance resulted from direct exposure of the cathodes to solutions containing high concentrations of organic matter in the single-chamber configuration. Biocathode performance was not impaired in two-chamber designs where the cathode was kept separated from the anode solution. These results demonstrate that direct-air biocathodes can work very well, but only under conditions that minimize heterotrophic growth of microorganisms on the cathodes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Building America Case Study: Impact of Slab-Foundation Heat Transfer on Space-Conditioning Energy Use in Florida, Cocoa, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    Heat transfer to slab foundations has remained an area of building science with poor understanding over the last three decades of energy efficiency research. This is somewhat surprising since the area of floors in single family homes is generally equal to wall, or windows or attics which have been extensively evaluated. Research that has been done has focused in the impact of slab on grade foundations and insulation schemes on heat losses associated with heating in predominantly heating dominated climates. Slab on grade construction is very popular in cooling-dominated southern states where it accounts for 77 percent of new home floors according to U.S. Census data in 2014. There is a widespread conception that tile flooring, as opposed to carpet, makes for a cooler home interior in warm climates. Empirical research is needed as building energy simulations such as DOE-2 and EnergyPlus rely on simplified models to evaluate these influences. BA-PIRC performed experiments over an entire year from 2014-2015 in FSEC's Flexible Residential Test Facilities (FRTF) intended to assess for the first time 1) slab on grade influence in a cooling dominated climate, and 2) how the difference in a carpeted vs. uncarpeted building might influence heating and cooling. Two identical side by side residential buildings were evaluated, the East with pad and carpet and the west with a bare slab floor. A highly detailed grid of temperature measurements were taken on the slab surface at various locations as well as at depths of 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 feet.

  16. Transferable Training Modules: Building Environmental Education Opportunities With and for Mexican Community Health Workers (Promotores de Salud).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Denise Moreno; Vea, Lourdes; Field, James A; Baker, Paul B; Gandolfi, A Jay; Maier, Raina M

    Community health workers (promotores de salud) have the ability to empower communities to mitigate negative health outcomes. Current training efforts in environmental topics are lacking. This project addressed this gap by developing 4 transferable training modules on environmental health. By applying a series of surveys, interviews, and trainings, we evaluated their relevance. Partners provided favorable feedback for 3 of the 4 modules. It was also learned that the development method could be improved by engaging technically trained promotores de salud in the role of co-creators. This project has implications for environmental justice communities as it can lessen information disparities.

  17. The Synergetic Effect of Cash Transfers for Families, Child Sensitive Social Protection Programs, and Capacity Building for Effective Social Protection on Children’s Nutritional Status in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre M. N. Renzaho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the synergetic effect of child sensitive social protection programs, augmented by a capacity building for social protection and embedded within existing government’s targeted resource transfers for families on child nutritional status. Design: A repeat cross-sectional quasi-experimental design with measures taken pre- (October–December 2009 and post- (December 2014–February 2015 intervention in the intervention and comparison district. The comparison district received standard social welfare services in the form of targeted resource transfers (TRTs for eligible families. The intervention district received the TRTs plus a child cash payment, augmented by a capacity building for effective social protection outcomes. Propensity scores were used in difference-in-differences models to compare the changes over time between the intervention and control groups. Results: Propensity score matched/weighted models produced better results than the unmatched analyses, and hence we report findings from the radius matching. The intervention resulted in a 5.16 (95% CI: 9.55, 0.77, 7.35 (95% CI: 11.62, 3.08 and 2.84 (95% CI: 5.58, 0.10 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children under the age, respectively. The intervention impact was greater in boys than girls for stunting and wasting; and greater in girls than boys for underweight. The intervention also resulted in a 6.66 (95% CI: 2.13, 3.18, 11.40 (95% CI: 16.66, 6.13, and 4.0 (95% CI: 6.43, 1.78 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting among older children (≥24 months. No impact was observed among younger children (<24 months. Conclusions: Targeted resource transfers for families, augmented with a child sensitive social protection program and capacity building for social protection can address effectively child malnutrition. To increase

  18. Building 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Ouden, C.; Steemers, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    This is the second volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this second rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In the first volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: schools, laboratories and universities, and sports and educational centres. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (11 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues

  19. Building 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Ouden, C [EGM Engineering BV, Dordrecht (Netherlands); Steemers, T C [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-01-01

    This is the second volume of Building 2000, a pilot project of the Commission's R and D-programme 'Solar Energy Applications to Buildings' with the purpose of encouraging the adoption of solar architecture in large buildings. In this second rich illustrated volume the results of the design studies illustrating passive solar architecture in buildings in the European Community are presented in particular for the building categories as mentioned in the subtitle. In the first volume, a similar series of studies is presented for the building categories: schools, laboratories and universities, and sports and educational centres. Several Design Support Workshops were organized during the Building 2000 programme during which Building 2000 design teams could directly exchange ideas with the various design advice experts represented at these workshops. In the second part of the Building 2000 final report a summary of a selection of many reports is presented (11 papers), as produced by Design Support experts. Most of the design support activities resulted in changes of the various designs, as have been reported by the design teams in the brochures presented in the first part of this book. It is to be expected that design aids and simulation tools for passive solar options, daylighting concepts, comfort criteria etc., will be utilized more frequently in the future. This will result in a better exchange of information between the actual design practitioners and the European R and D community. This technology transfer will result in buildings with a higher quality with respect to energy and environmental issues.

  20. Numerical simulation of a novel non-transferred arc plasma torch operating with nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiremath, Gavisiddayya; Kandasamy, Ramachandran; Ganesh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    High power plasma torches with higher electro-thermal efficiency are required for industrial applications. To increase the plasma power and electrothermal efficiency, conventional torches are being modified to operate with molecular gases such as air and nitrogen. Since increasing arc current enhances the heat loss to the anode, torches are being developed to operate under high voltage and low current. The plasma flow dynamics and electromagnetic coupling with plasma flow inside the torch etc. are highly complex and knowledge on the same is required to develop high torches with higher efficiency. Unfortunately detailed experimentation on the same is very difficult. Numerical modeling and simulation is one of the best tools to understand the physics involved in such complex processes. A 2D numerical model is developed to simulate the characteristics of the plasma inside the torch. Though plasma is not in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) close to the electrodes, LTE is assumed everywhere in the plasma to avoid complex and time consuming calculations. Other valid assumptions used in the model are plasma flow is optically thin, laminar and incompressible. Flow, energy and electromagnetic equations are solved with appropriate boundary conditions and volume sources using SIMPLE algorithm with finite volume method. Temperature dependent thermophysical properties of nitrogen are used for the simulations. Simulations are carried out for different experimental conditions. The effects of arc current, gas flow rate of plasma generating gas and sheath gas injected above the bottom anode on the arc voltage, electrothermal efficiency of the torch, plasma temperature and plasma velocity are simulated. Predicted results are compared with experimental results. (author)

  1. On the application of multi-agent systems in buildings for improved building operations, performance and smart grid interaction : a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labeodan, T.M.; Aduda, K.O.; Boxem, G.; Zeiler, W.

    2015-01-01

    Toward efforts to improve sustainability of energy supply and to achieve worthwhile reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, in addition to the increased use of renewable energy sources in buildings, more emphasis is being placed on the need for improved control, management and coordination of

  2. Development and Experimental Benchmark of Simulations to Predict Used Nuclear Fuel Cladding Temperatures during Drying and Transfer Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner, Miles [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Radial hydride formation in high-burnup used fuel cladding has the potential to radically reduce its ductility and suitability for long-term storage and eventual transport. To avoid this formation, the maximum post-reactor temperature must remain sufficiently low to limit the cladding hoop stress, and so that hydrogen from the existing circumferential hydrides will not dissolve and become available to re-precipitate into radial hydrides under the slow cooling conditions during drying, transfer and early dry-cask storage. The objective of this research is to develop and experimentallybenchmark computational fluid dynamics simulations of heat transfer in post-pool-storage drying operations, when high-burnup fuel cladding is likely to experience its highest temperature. These benchmarked tools can play a key role in evaluating dry cask storage systems for extended storage of high-burnup fuels and post-storage transportation, including fuel retrievability. The benchmarked tools will be used to aid the design of efficient drying processes, as well as estimate variations of surface temperatures as a means of inferring helium integrity inside the canister or cask. This work will be conducted effectively because the principal investigator has experience developing these types of simulations, and has constructed a test facility that can be used to benchmark them.

  3. Two 100 m Invar® Transfer Lines at CERN : Design Principles and Operating Experience for Helium Refrigeration

    CERN Document Server

    Claudet, S; Millet, F; Roussel, E; Sengelin, J P

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of helium for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN, will require a large variety of transfer lines. At the time of qualification of possible technologies, Invar® was investigated as potential material for internal tubes. Intensive developments were made in industry to qualify the use of Invar® M93 and its associated welding parameters. Although all tests showed good perspective, the risk associated with the lack of proven reference turned out to be dissuasive with respect to the possible cost savings for the LHC cryogenic system. However, since DN100 transfer lines were necessary for the supply and return of a test facility over a distance of 100 m, an Invar® based solution was considered, as repair or exchange would have been less dramatic than in the LHC accelerator tunnel. After recalling the technical requirements, the required material qualification will be presented as well as the design principles and operating features. This equipment has been first cooled-down to 4.5 K and acc...

  4. A Three-Component Model for Magnetization Transfer. Solution by Projection-Operator Technique, and Application to Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Ronald S.; Swanson, Scott D.; Yeung, Hong N.

    1996-01-01

    A projection-operator technique is applied to a general three-component model for magnetization transfer, extending our previous two-component model [R. S. Adler and H. N. Yeung,J. Magn. Reson. A104,321 (1993), and H. N. Yeung, R. S. Adler, and S. D. Swanson,J. Magn. Reson. A106,37 (1994)]. The PO technique provides an elegant means of deriving a simple, effective rate equation in which there is natural separation of relaxation and source terms and allows incorporation of Redfield-Provotorov theory without any additional assumptions or restrictive conditions. The PO technique is extended to incorporate more general, multicomponent models. The three-component model is used to fit experimental data from samples of human hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage. The fits of the three-component model are compared to the fits of the two-component model.

  5. Dynamics of the Energy Transfer to the Load During the Operation of a Plasma Opening Switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinsky, Yu.; Krasik, Ya.E.; Felsteiner, J.

    1999-01-01

    The main efforts of the theoretical and experimental studies related to the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) have been devoted to the understanding of an anomalous fast magnetic field penetration through the plasma. At present this phenomenon can be explained based on the electron magnetohydrodynamic theory.l The second important phenomenon is related with POS opening. Existing models explain POS opening as a result of cut-off of the electron current component in the double layer2 by self-magnetic field of the POS current or by the increase of the Hall potential in the current layer due to ion erosion.3 Nevertheless both models consider POS opening in the region which was preliminary occupied by the plasma. In a recent experiment4 it was shown that the POS opening is related with a fast charged particle flow in the downstream region, namely at the load. In this work we present results of theoretical studies of the phase of the POS operation when the self-magnetic field of the POS current appears at the downstream side of the plasma. Our study has been done within the framework of two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic theory. Taking into account the Hall electric field which is responsible for a strong ion acceleration in the axial direction, we found the velocity of the ions. In addition we show, that due to the inductive electric field caused by the motion of the axial current carrying plasma, the velocity of the magnetic field penetration is equal to the Alfven velocity

  6. Co-operation for weapon technology transfers and technological/economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, K.

    1995-01-01

    This report proposes the basic philosophy of security export controls and future directions thereof, taking into account global changes in the security environment. We hope that appropriate policies based on the proposals will be implemented expeditiously. When the government implements security export control policy, it is most essential to obtain the understanding and co-operation of the general public, as well as exporters. It is also important to closely co-ordinate efforts within the government, including information sharing among the ministries and agencies concerned. Moreover, the government should make efforts to raise the effectiveness of policy measures by fully explaining Japanese security export control policy to other countries, and taking a leading role in international efforts for co-ordination. The proposals in this report provide an overview of future security export controls. Needless to say, there is the need for further and more detailed consideration of individual policy measures. Especially in introducing new controls to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles, it is necessary to conduct deliberations taking into full consideration the actual situation surrounding transactions, and to provide a sufficient lead-time. Moreover, it is expected that there will be further, major changes in the international security environment, including the countries of concern. It will be necessary to reexamine security export control policy, recognizing that those changes will alter the premises of such policy. Finally, we wish to state the hope that this report, the first attempt, by the Industrial Structure Council, to focus Japanese thinking on security export controls will act as a catalyst in deepening public understanding of security export controls, and enhancing Japanese security export controls

  7. Influence of the heat transfer to the building structures on the confinement parameters in case of a 200 mm LOCA on units 3 and 4 of NPP Kozloduy with reactors WWER-440/V230

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanev, I.

    2001-01-01

    The authors present a general analysis of the mass and energy balance in the WWER-440/V230 confinement structure in case of a 200 mm LOCA, based on results from CONTAIN calculations. The character of the heat transfer to the confinement building structures is analyzed and its influence on the confinement parameters is evaluated. The results show that the building structures heat consumption is comparable to that of the Spray System heat exchanger. (author)

  8. Advanced research workshop "South Caucasus : making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Leedu Kaitseministeeriumi poolt 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses korraldatud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" arutati, kas ja kuidas on Lõuna-Kaukaasia regioonis võimalik rakendada Balti riikide julgeolekualase koostöö kogemusi

  9. Clinical Trials Network / Building Infrastructure to Accelerate Transfer of Basic Research in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) to Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    of MRI -based Biomarkers in Patients with Acute Spinal Cord Injury”, is underway and seeks to determine if certain MRI techniques are able to capture...randomization, enrolled subjects receive the medication containers containing the allotted quantity of riluzole or placebo tablets , accompanied with...medications × × × × × × × × × × Vital signs × × × × × Record operative data × MRI × c SCIM III × × × × GRASSP × d × d × Pain NRS × × × × Report AEs and

  10. How the Use of Remote Sensing is Transferred to Diverse User Communities Through Capacity Building at Columbia University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.; Bell, M. A.; Mantilla, G.; Thomson, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of capacity-building activities developed by the International Research Institute for Climate and Society to help diverse stakeholder communities use remote sensing to monitor climate and environmental factors that influence public health, natural disasters and food security. Teaching at a graduate level at Columbia University, at summer institutes and in counties, we developed training modules and case studies on how to combine remote sensing data to monitor precipitation, temperature, vegetation, and water bodies with climate information and field data (e.g. fires, infectious disease incidence, Desert Locusts) to 1) understand the relationship between climate, environmental factors and specific challenges to development and 2) provide methodologies and tools to forecast and better manage the problems. At Columbia University, we have developed a graduate course that provides the practical and theoretical foundations for the application of remote sensing techniques to the identification and monitoring of environmental change. We use the IRI Data Library, an online tool, to i) manage diverse data, ii) visualize data, iii) analyze remote sensing images and iii) combine data from different sources (e.g., fires, public health, natural disasters, agriculture). The IRI Data Library tool allows the users to analyze on-line climatic and environmental factors in relation to particular problems at various space and time scales. A Summer Institute on Climate Information for Public Health, first developed in 2008, has brought together experts from the public health and climate communities at the IRI to learn how to integrate climate and environmental factors with public health issues. In countries and regions, we also provide training for climate and public health working professionals in Madagascar, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Colombia and the Mercosur Region (including Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina).

  11. When weather forecasts control the heating. Operational optimisation of administrative buildings with weather forecast control; Wenn Wetterprognosen die Heizung steuern. Betriebsoptimierung von Verwaltungsgebaeuden mit Wettervorhersage-Steuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    With the aim of achieving an optimum indoor environment and lowering operating costs in the long term, the performance of a so-called ''operational optimisation with weather forecast control'' system has been tested in three administrative buildings in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia since 2007. The operation of the heating systems is optimised based on a thermodynamic computer model and local weather forecast data. The result: A tangible increase in comfort with simultaneous heat energy savings. (orig.)

  12. BubbleZERO—Design, Construction and Operation of a Transportable Research Laboratory for Low Exergy Building System Evaluation in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Schlueter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the design, construction and operation of a novel building systems laboratory, the BubbleZERO—Zero Emission Research Operation. Our objective was to design a space to evaluate the performance of Swiss-developed low exergy building systems in the tropical climate of Singapore using an integrated design approach. The method we employed for evaluation in the tropics was to design and build a test bed out of the shipping containers that transported the prototype low exergy systems from Switzerland to Singapore. This approach resulted in a novel laboratory environment containing radiant cooling panels and decentralized air supply, along with a self-shading, inflated “bubble” skin, experimental low emissivity (LowE glazing, LED lighting, wireless sensors and distributed control. The laboratory evaluates and demonstrates for the first time in Singapore an integrated high-temperature cooling system with separate demand-controlled ventilation adapted for the tropics. It is a functional lab testing system in real tropical conditions. As such, the results showing the ability to mitigate the risk of condensation by maintaining a dew point below 18 °C by the separate decentralized ventilation are significant and necessary for potential future implementation in buildings. In addition, the control system provides new proof of concept for distributed wireless sensors and control for reliable automation of the systems. These key results are presented along with the integrated design process and real-life tropical operation of the laboratory.

  13. Type B accident investigation board report of the July 2, 1997 curium intake by shredder operator at Building 513 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    On July 2, 1997 at approximately 6:00 A.M., two operators (Workers 1 and 2), wearing approved personal protective equipment (PPE), began a shredding operation of HEPA filters for volume reduction in Building 513 (B-513) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The waste requisitions indicated they were shredding filters containing ≤ 1 μCi of americium-241 (Am-241). A third operator (Worker 3) provided support to the shredder operators in the shredding area (hot area) from a room that was adjacent to the shredding area (cold area). At Approximately 8:00 A.M., a fourth operator (Worker 4) relieved Worker 2 in the shredding operation. Sometime between 8:30 A.M. and 9:00 A.M., Worker 3 left the cold area to make a phone call and set off a hand and foot counter in Building 514. Upon discovering the contamination, the shredding operation was stopped and surveys were conducted in the shredder area. Surveys conducted on the workers found significant levels of contamination on their PPE and the exterior of their respirator cartridges. An exit survey of Worker 1 was conducted at approximately 10:05 A.M., and found contamination on his PPE, as well as on the exterior and interior of his respirator. Contamination was also found on his face, chest, back of neck, hair, knees, and mustache. A nose blow indicated significant contamination, which was later determined to be curium-244

  14. Office building with an underground storage system. Operational experiences after one year; Buerogebaeude mit Erdspeicher. Betriebserfahrungen nach einem Jahr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Dorothee; Wehrli, Stefan [Basler und Hofmann AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Self-sufficient heating and cooling - that was the principle of Basler paragraph Hofmann AG (Zuerich, Switzerland) and Stuecheli Architects (Zuerich, Switzerland) in the planning and constructing of a new office building in the Canton of Zuerich. For the first time an underground storage system was implemented in a commercial building. This underground storage refuels the solar energy in summer and supplies heating energy in winter. The office building was settled in in September, 2010. The pioneering project now delivers first empirical values with the underground storage system. These empirical values show: The concept comes up, but needs time.

  15. Optimization of a Radiative Transfer Forward Operator for Simulating SMOS Brightness Temperatures over the Upper Mississippi Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, H.; Verhoest, N. E. C.; Martens, B.; VanDenBerg, M. J.; Bitar, A. Al; Tomer, S. Kumar; Merlin, O.; Cabot, F.; Kerr, Y.; DeLannoy, G. J. M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission is routinely providing global multi-angular observations of brightness temperature (TB) at both horizontal and vertical polarization with a 3-day repeat period. The assimilation of such data into a land surface model (LSM) may improve the skill of operational flood forecasts through an improved estimation of soil moisture (SM). To accommodate for the direct assimilation of the SMOS TB data, the LSM needs to be coupled with a radiative transfer model (RTM), serving as a forward operator for the simulation of multi-angular and multi-polarization top of atmosphere TBs. This study investigates the use of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) LSM coupled with the Community Microwave Emission Modelling platform (CMEM) for simulating SMOS TB observations over the Upper Mississippi basin, USA. For a period of 2 years (2010-2011), a comparison between SMOS TBs and simulations with literature-based RTM parameters reveals a basin averaged bias of 30K. Therefore, time series of SMOS TB observations are used to investigate ways for mitigating these large biases. Specifically, the study demonstrates the impact of the LSM soil moisture climatology in the magnitude of TB biases. After CDF matching the SM climatology of the LSM to SMOS retrievals, the average bias decreases from 30K to less than 5K. Further improvements can be made through calibration of RTM parameters related to the modeling of surface roughness and vegetation. Consequently, it can be concluded that SM rescaling and RTM optimization are efficient means for mitigating biases and form a necessary preparatory step for data assimilation.

  16. Transfer Mispricing as an Argument for Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice; Nwachukwu, Jacinta C.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case for transfer mispricing as an argument for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The argument builds on the position that in order to compensate for potential loss of brand image and reputation, Multinational Companies (MNCs) would be more socially responsible when they are operating in countries where the legislation and laws in place are not effective at identifying and sanctioning transfer mispricing. We first discuss the dark side of transfer pricing (TP), ne...

  17. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of the Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System Upgrade for Building 3544 (Process Waste Treatment Plant) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3544 Process Waste Treatment Plant of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) relating to environmental protection requirements for tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new double contained LLW line replacing an existing buried line that does not provide double containment. This new above ground, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of treated process waste fluid to an outside truck loading station. The new double contained discharge line is provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. An existing LLW transfer pump, concentrated waste tank, piping and accessories are being utilized, with the addition of a secondary containment system comprised of a dike, a chemically resistant internal coating on the diked area surfaces and operator surveillance on a daily basis for the diked area leak detection. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation

  18. The energetic concept in the administration building of the Federal Environmental Agency in Dessau. Technical innovation for a sustainable operation; Das energetische Konzept im Dienstgebaeude des Umweltbundesamtes in Dessau. Technische Innovationen fuer einen nachhaltigen Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The new office building of the Federal Environmental Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) was implemented as a pilot project for environmentally sustainable construction with high-energy targets. In order to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels significantly, the building should have a very low power consumption and enable a sustainable operation. A mostly compact form of the building and a highly insulated building envelope are a first prerequisite.

  19. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  20. EXTEND OPERATION PROBLEMS AND RECONSTRUCTION OF LARGEPANEL FIVE-STOREY BUILDINGS OF 50-60-IES XX CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of the problem. In many regions is utilised housing, that age is more than half a century. According to the research materials of the analytical center of Ukrainian Cities Association there are 25,5 thousand houses built by first mass series project of large, block and brick buildings with a total area of 72 million M2 today in the state, rather those, that require reconstruction and modernization. In general, most of the housing stock of Ukraine is in a poor technical condition due to its deficient funding; it keeps the tendency of premature aging of the housing stock.One of the major problems of modern construction industry is the continuation of housing exploitation, in particular is it the building era of mass construction of 50-60-ies of XX century, called "Khrushchevki". According to the State Statistics Service of Ukraine the deterioration of residential buildings in Ukraine amounts to 47.2%, which makes us think of the immediate actions to occure this situation. The most acceptable way, at first viewe, seems the reconstruction of "Khrushchvki". However, the reconstruction is a complex problem that requires the construction industry solution due to the economic component, the social factor, the views of residents of these homes to create a technological and economical viable result. Analysis of publications. The problem of the "Khrushchevki" reconstruction is the subject of continual researches of leading builders of Ukraine. In the researchers' attention just as the technological problems [1 - 3], so economic components [4 - 6], in general, give an idea of the work scale required to overcome the impending crisis. The purpose of the article. Defining the main problems of exploatation of panel fivestory buildings of 50 - 60-ies twentieth century and their residents thoughts about existing inconvenience, as well as associated economic, technological and legal problems in the implementation of buildings reconstruction. Conclusions

  1. Simulation of energy use, human thermal comfort and office work performance in buildings with moderately drifting operative temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2011-01-01

    Annual primary energy use in a central module of an office building consisting of two offices separated with a corridor was estimated by means of dynamic computer simulations. The simulations were conducted for conventional all-air VAV ventilation system and thermo active building system (TABS) s....... The TABS working in a moderate climate kept the predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD) 10%; 1.4% in comparison to 17.5% h/yr. The highest estimated loss of occupants’ productivity related to their thermal sensation hasn’t exceeded 1% in whole year average....

  2. Social multiplier effects: academics’ and practitioners’ perspective on the benefits of a tuberculosis operational research capacity-building program in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probandari, Ari; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Tuberculosis Operational Research Group (TORG) implemented a capacity-building model involving academics and practitioners (i.e. clinicians or program staff) in an operational research (OR) team in Indonesia. Objective: This study explored academics’ and practitioners’ perspectives regarding the benefits of participating in a tuberculosis (TB) OR capacity-building program in Indonesia. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 36 academics and 23 practitioners undertaking the TORG capacity-building program. We asked open-ended questions about their experience of the program. Data were analyzed via content analysis. Results: The findings demonstrated the social multiplier effects of the OR capacity-building program. Both academics and practitioners reported perceived improvements in research knowledge, skills, and experience, and described additional individual- and institutional-level benefits. The individual-level benefits level included improvements in understanding of the TB program, motivation for research and self-satisfaction, the development/enhancement of individual networking, receipt of recognition, and new opportunities. The additional benefits reported at an institutional level included improvement in research curricula, in-house training, and program management and the development/enhancement of institutional partnerships. Conclusions: The program improved not only individuals’ capacity for conducting OR but also the quality of the TB program management and public health education. OR should be included in research methodology curricula for postgraduate public health/disease control programs. The capacity-building model, in which academics and program staff collaborated within an OR team, should be promoted. PMID:29039271

  3. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF SOIL REMEDIATION ALTERNATIVES AT THE BUILDING 812 OPERABLE UNIT, LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY SITE 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, C.; Miles, D.; Abitz, R.

    2009-08-14

    The Department of Energy Livermore Site Office requested a technical review of remedial alternatives proposed for the Building 812 Operable Unit, Site 300 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The team visited the site and reviewed the alternatives proposed for soil remediation in the draft RI/FS and made the following observations and recommendations. Based on the current information available for the site, the team did not identify a single technology that would be cost effective and/or ecologically sound to remediate DU contamination at Building 812 to current remedial goals. Soil washing is not a viable alternative and should not be considered at the site unless final remediation levels can be negotiated to significantly higher levels. This recommendation is based on the results of soil washing treatability studies at Fernald and Ashtabula that suggest that the technology would only be effective to address final remediation levels higher than 50 pCi/g. The technical review team identified four areas of technical uncertainty that should be resolved before the final selection of a preferred remedial strategy is made. Areas of significant technical uncertainty that should be addressed include: (1) Better delineation of the spatial distribution of surface contamination and the vertical distribution of subsurface contamination in the area of the firing table and associated alluvial deposits; (2) Chemical and physical characterization of residual depleted uranium (DU) at the site; (3) Determination of actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates to support risk modeling; and (4) More realistic estimation of cost for remedial alternatives, including soil washing, that were derived primarily from vendor estimates. Instead of conducting the planned soil washing treatability study, the team recommends that the site consider a new phased approach that combines additional characterization approaches and technologies to address the technical uncertainty in

  4. Technical Evaluation of Soil Remediation Alternatives at the Building 812 Operable Unit, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, C.; Miles, D.; Abitz, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Energy Livermore Site Office requested a technical review of remedial alternatives proposed for the Building 812 Operable Unit, Site 300 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The team visited the site and reviewed the alternatives proposed for soil remediation in the draft RI/FS and made the following observations and recommendations. Based on the current information available for the site, the team did not identify a single technology that would be cost effective and/or ecologically sound to remediate DU contamination at Building 812 to current remedial goals. Soil washing is not a viable alternative and should not be considered at the site unless final remediation levels can be negotiated to significantly higher levels. This recommendation is based on the results of soil washing treatability studies at Fernald and Ashtabula that suggest that the technology would only be effective to address final remediation levels higher than 50 pCi/g. The technical review team identified four areas of technical uncertainty that should be resolved before the final selection of a preferred remedial strategy is made. Areas of significant technical uncertainty that should be addressed include: (1) Better delineation of the spatial distribution of surface contamination and the vertical distribution of subsurface contamination in the area of the firing table and associated alluvial deposits; (2) Chemical and physical characterization of residual depleted uranium (DU) at the site; (3) Determination of actual contaminant concentrations in air particulates to support risk modeling; and (4) More realistic estimation of cost for remedial alternatives, including soil washing, that were derived primarily from vendor estimates. Instead of conducting the planned soil washing treatability study, the team recommends that the site consider a new phased approach that combines additional characterization approaches and technologies to address the technical uncertainty in

  5. A Bayesian Network approach to the evaluation of building design and its consequences for employee performance and operational costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Lynge; Toftum, Jørn; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A Bayesian Network approach has been developed that can compare different building designs by estimating the effects of the thermal indoor environment on the mental performance of office workers. A part of this network is based on the compilation of subjective thermal sensation data and the assoc...

  6. HVAC system operational strategies for reduced energy consumption in buildings with intermittent occupancy: The case of mosques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budaiwi, I.; Abdou, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Proper operational zoning in the early design phase of mosques can lead to up to 30% reduction in the annual cooling energy. • Energy performance index of 71.0 kW h/m 2 yr for an insulated mosque can be realized with A/C proper intermitted operation. • 23% energy saving can be achieved when a properly oversized A/C is operated intermittently for 1 h during each prayer. • 13% reduction in cooling energy use can be achieved when A/C operation precedes worshippers’ occupancy in mosques. • Envelope insulation and A/C intermittent operation with proper operational zoning leads to more than 46% savings in energy. - Abstract: Mosques are places of worship for Muslims with unique functional requirements and operational characteristics. They are partially or fully occupied for about an hour for five intermittent periods during the day. In hot climates, maintaining indoor thermal comfort requires a considerable amount of energy that can be reduced by proper operational zoning and effective HVAC operation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of operational zoning and HVAC system intermittent operation strategies on the energy performance of mosques while thermal comfort is maintained. Energy simulation modeling is used for evaluating alternative zoning and HVAC operation strategies. Results indicate that up to 23% reduction in annual cooling energy is achieved by employing suitable HVAC operation strategy and system over-sizing, and 30% reduction is achieved by appropriate operational zoning. Comparing the cooling energy consumption of HVAC summer continuous operation of an un-insulated mosque with the consumption of the insulated mosque with properly oversized HVAC system operated for 1 h during each prayer, indicated that as much as 46% of cooling energy reduction can be achieved. Furthermore, utilizing proper operational zoning and HVAC operation strategies is expected to bring about an additional significant energy

  7. Key Issues in Transfer Stage of BOT Project: Experience from China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Liguang; Zhang Xueqing

    2017-01-01

    The build-operate-transfer (BOT) project delivery system has provided effective routes to mobilize private sector funds, innovative technologies, management skills and operational efficiencies for public infrastructure development and have been widely used in China during the last 20 years. Many BOT projects in China will be smoothly transferred to the government soon and the transfer stage, which is considered as the last stage, must be studied carefully and handled well to achieve the overa...

  8. CANISTER TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Gorpani

    2000-01-01

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane hoist,; DC--loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the; DC--is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the; DC--to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister

  9. Canister Transfer System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Canister Transfer System receives transportation casks containing large and small disposable canisters, unloads the canisters from the casks, stores the canisters as required, loads them into disposal containers (DCs), and prepares the empty casks for re-shipment. Cask unloading begins with cask inspection, sampling, and lid bolt removal operations. The cask lids are removed and the canisters are unloaded. Small canisters are loaded directly into a DC, or are stored until enough canisters are available to fill a DC. Large canisters are loaded directly into a DC. Transportation casks and related components are decontaminated as required, and empty casks are prepared for re-shipment. One independent, remotely operated canister transfer line is provided in the Waste Handling Building System. The canister transfer line consists of a Cask Transport System, Cask Preparation System, Canister Handling System, Disposal Container Transport System, an off-normal canister handling cell with a transfer tunnel connecting the two cells, and Control and Tracking System. The Canister Transfer System operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area with the Cask Transport System. The Cask Preparation System prepares the cask for unloading and consists of cask preparation manipulator, cask inspection and sampling equipment, and decontamination equipment. The Canister Handling System unloads the canister(s) and places them into a DC. Handling equipment consists of a bridge crane/hoist, DC loading manipulator, lifting fixtures, and small canister staging racks. Once the cask has been unloaded, the Cask Preparation System decontaminates the cask exterior and returns it to the Carrier/Cask Handling System via the Cask Transport System. After the DC is fully loaded, the Disposal Container Transport System moves the DC to the Disposal Container Handling System for welding. To handle off-normal canisters, a separate off-normal canister handling

  10. Conjugated heat transfer and temperature distributions in a gas turbine combustion liner under base-load operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Min; Yun, Nam Geon; Jeon, Yun Heung; Lee, Dong Hyun; Cho, Yung Hee

    2010-01-01

    Prediction of temperature distributions on hot components is important in development of a gas turbine combustion liner. The present study investigated conjugated heat transfer to obtain temperature distributions in a combustion liner with six combustion nozzles. 3D numerical simulations using FVM commercial codes, Fluent and CFX were performed to calculate combustion and heat transfer distributions. The temperature distributions in the combustor liner were calculated by conjugation of conduction and convection (heat transfer coefficients) obtained by combustion and cooling flow analysis. The wall temperature was the highest on the attachment points of the combustion gas from combustion nozzles, but the temperature gradient was high at the after shell section with low wall temperature

  11. Cooling of the Building Structure by Night-time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai

    is essential for effective night cooling, and thus a sufficient amount of thermal mass is needed in the building. In order to assess the impact of different parameters, such as slab thickness, material properties and the surface heat transfer, the dynamic heat storage capacity of building elements...... was quantified based on an analytical solution of one-dimensional heat conduction in a slab with convective boundary condition. The potential of increasing thermal mass by using phase change materials (PCM) was also estimated. The results show a significant impact of the heat transfer coefficient on heat storage...... a building energy simulation program (HELIOS), and the effect of different parameters such as building construction, heat gains, air change rates, heat transfer coefficients and climatic conditions on the number of overheating degree hours (operative room temperature >26 °C) was evaluated. Besides climatic...

  12. Schema building profiles among elementary school students in solving problems related to operations of addition to fractions on the basis of mathematic abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gembong, S.; Suwarsono, S. T.; Prabowo

    2018-03-01

    Schema in the current study refers to a set of action, process, object and other schemas already possessed to build an individual’s ways of thinking to solve a given problem. The current study aims to investigate the schemas built among elementary school students in solving problems related to operations of addition to fractions. The analyses of the schema building were done qualitatively on the basis of the analytical framework of the APOS theory (Action, Process, Object, and Schema). Findings show that the schemas built on students of high and middle ability indicate the following. In the action stage, students were able to add two fractions by way of drawing a picture or procedural way. In the Stage of process, they could add two and three fractions. In the stage of object, they could explain the steps of adding two fractions and change a fraction into addition of fractions. In the last stage, schema, they could add fractions by relating them to another schema they have possessed i.e. the least common multiple. Those of high and middle mathematic abilities showed that their schema building in solving problems related to operations odd addition to fractions worked in line with the framework of the APOS theory. Those of low mathematic ability, however, showed that their schema on each stage did not work properly.

  13. Energy-Smart Building Choices: How School Facilities Managers and Business Officials Are Reducing Operating Costs and Saving Money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Smart Schools Team

    2001-01-01

    Most K-12 schools could save 25% of their energy costs by being smart about energy. Nationwide, the savings potential is$6 billion. While improving energy use in buildings and busses, schools are likely to create better places for teaching and learning, with better lighting, temperature control, acoustics, and air quality. This brochure, targeted to school facilities managers and business officials, describes how schools can become more energy efficient

  14. Blade-to-coolant heat-transfer results and operating data from a natural-convection water-cooled single-stage turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaguila, Anthony J; Freche, John C

    1951-01-01

    Blade-to-coolant heat-transfer data and operating data were obtained with a natural-convection water-cooled turbine over range of turbine speeds and inlet-gas temperatures. The convective coefficients were correlated by the general relation for natural-convection heat transfer. The turbine data were displaced from a theoretical equation for natural convection heat transfer in the turbulent region and from natural-convection data obtained with vertical cylinders and plates; possible disruption of natural convection circulation within the blade coolant passages was thus indicated. Comparison of non dimensional temperature-ratio parameters for the blade leading edge, midchord, and trailing edge indicated that the blade cooling effectiveness is greatest at the midchord and least at the trailing edge.

  15. Operational parameters and their influence on particle-side mass transfer resistance in a packed bed bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Amir; Kangwa, Martin; Yumnam, Nivedita; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The influence of internal mass transfer on productivity as well as the performance of packed bed bioreactor was determined by varying a number of parameters; chitosan coating, flow rate, glucose concentration and particle size. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in chitosan and non-chitosan coated alginate beads to demonstrate the effect on particle side mass transfer on substrate consumption time, lag phase and ethanol production. The results indicate that chitosan coating, bead...

  16. Transfer Students in Higher Education: Building Foundations for Policies, Programs, and Services that Foster Student Success. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisel, Mark Allen, Ed.; Joseph, Sonya, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Transfer Students in Higher Education" presents what individuals know about transfer students, addresses assumptions and myths about the transfer experience, and explores the changing demographics of this student group. Adopting a student-centered approach, the monograph offers strategies to begin (and continue) the work of serving students and…

  17. The building blocks of a 'Liveable Neighbourhood': Identifying the key performance indicators for walking of an operational planning policy in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-11-01

    Planning policy makers are requesting clearer guidance on the key design features required to build neighbourhoods that promote active living. Using a backwards stepwise elimination procedure (logistic regression with generalised estimating equations adjusting for demographic characteristics, self-selection factors, stage of construction and scale of development) this study identified specific design features (n=16) from an operational planning policy ("Liveable Neighbourhoods") that showed the strongest associations with walking behaviours (measured using the Neighbourhood Physical Activity Questionnaire). The interacting effects of design features on walking behaviours were also investigated. The urban design features identified were grouped into the "building blocks of a Liveable Neighbourhood", reflecting the scale, importance and sequencing of the design and implementation phases required to create walkable, pedestrian friendly developments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvement in Patient Transfer Process From the Operating Room to the PICU Using a Lean and Six Sigma-Based Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleich, Stephen J; Nemergut, Michael E; Stans, Anthony A; Haile, Dawit T; Feigal, Scott A; Heinrich, Angela L; Bosley, Christopher L; Tripathi, Sandeep

    2016-08-01

    Ineffective and inefficient patient transfer processes can increase the chance of medical errors. Improvements in such processes are high-priority local institutional and national patient safety goals. At our institution, nonintubated postoperative pediatric patients are first admitted to the postanesthesia care unit before transfer to the PICU. This quality improvement project was designed to improve the patient transfer process from the operating room (OR) to the PICU. After direct observation of the baseline process, we introduced a structured, direct OR-PICU transfer process for orthopedic spinal fusion patients. We performed value stream mapping of the process to determine error-prone and inefficient areas. We evaluated primary outcome measures of handoff error reduction and the overall efficiency of patient transfer process time. Staff satisfaction was evaluated as a counterbalance measure. With the introduction of the new direct OR-PICU patient transfer process, the handoff communication error rate improved from 1.9 to 0.3 errors per patient handoff (P = .002). Inefficiency (patient wait time and non-value-creating activity) was reduced from 90 to 32 minutes. Handoff content was improved with fewer information omissions (P improved among nearly all PICU providers. By using quality improvement methodology to design and implement a new direct OR-PICU transfer process with a structured multidisciplinary verbal handoff, we achieved sustained improvements in patient safety and efficiency. Handoff communication was enhanced, with fewer errors and content omissions. The new process improved efficiency, with high staff satisfaction. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Radioactive Operations Committee Review of the Intermediate-Level Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 2531 February 17, 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberman, B.; Brooksbank, R.E.

    1972-01-01

    A subcommittee of the Radioactive Operations Committee met with the Operators of the Intermediate Level Waste Evaporator Facility on February 17, 1972, to discuss the status of the facility and its operations since the review of October 7, 1970, and reported in ORNL-CF-70-11-12. This review was made to determine the status of the ILWEF since the last review, to discuss compliance with previously recommended changes, and to review any new items of safety significance. Several recommendations were made.

  20. The role of the design and operation of individual heating systems for the energy retrofits of residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terés-Zubiaga, J.; Campos-Celador, A.; González-Pino, I.; Diarce, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal renovation of buildings is analysed by dynamic simulation. • Different envelope and individual heating options are considered. • Temperature set point plays the most important role in the energy consumption. • Condensing boilers increase 10% the energy savings compared to regular ones. • The rebound effect can cause significant differences on energy consumption. - Abstract: The feasibility of individual natural gas fired boiler-based heating systems in the retrofitting of buildings constructed in the 50–60 s in Bilbao (northern Spain) is evaluated in this paper. A holistic approach through dynamic simulations using TRNSYS is employed for the purpose. An existing dwelling previously monitored and used to validate the model applied is selected as a case study. 54 different scenarios are evaluated, which arise from the combination of 3 different envelope options, 2 types of heat production units, 3 heat production temperatures and 3 comfort temperature set-points. The cases are evaluated in terms of energy results, economic aspects, and the influence of user behaviour. Regarding the latter, the influence of the potential rebound effect is also evaluated. The results show energy savings nearby 10% when condensing boilers are compared with high efficiency boilers. In relation to hot water production temperature, energy savings between 5 and 10% are found when the temperature is lowered from 60 to 50 °C. The greatest impact on energy consumption is related to the occupants’ behaviour: reductions up to 89% are achieved if the indoor temperature set-point is lowered 2 °C. This is reinforced with the results related to the rebound effect, which show significant differences on energy consumption values. These evidences demonstrate that the user behaviour is an essential feature to be considered in studies regarding buildings energy performance. As a consequence, the holistic approach herein employed emerges as a key tool to be applied in

  1. Heat transfer enhancement in a natural draft dry cooling tower under crosswind operation with heterogeneous water distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, Mohsen; Amooie, Hossein [Bu-Ali Sina Univ., Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2016-04-15

    Crosswind significantly decreases cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower. The possibility of improving cooling efficiency with heterogeneous water distribution within the cooling tower radiators under crosswind condition is analysed. A CFD approach was used to model the flow field and heat transfer phenomena within the cooling tower and airflow surrounding the cooling tower. A mathematical model was developed from various CFD results. Having used a trained Genetic Algorithm with the result of mathematical model, the best water distribution was found among the others. Remodeling the best water distribution with the CFD approach showed that the highest enhancement of the heat transfer compared to the usual uniform water distribution.

  2. Heat transfer enhancement in a natural draft dry cooling tower under crosswind operation with heterogeneous water distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, Mohsen; Amooie, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Crosswind significantly decreases cooling efficiency of a natural draft dry cooling tower. The possibility of improving cooling efficiency with heterogeneous water distribution within the cooling tower radiators under crosswind condition is analysed. A CFD approach was used to model the flow field and heat transfer phenomena within the cooling tower and airflow surrounding the cooling tower. A mathematical model was developed from various CFD results. Having used a trained Genetic Algorithm with the result of mathematical model, the best water distribution was found among the others. Remodeling the best water distribution with the CFD approach showed that the highest enhancement of the heat transfer compared to the usual uniform water distribution.

  3. Safety analysis--200 Area Savannah River Site: Separations Area operations Building 211-H Outside Facilities. Supplement 11, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The H-Area Outside Facilities are located in the 200-H Separations Area and are comprised of a number of processes, utilities, and services that support the separations function. Included are enriched uranium loadout, bulk chemical storage, water handling, acid recovery, general purpose evaporation, and segregated solvent facilities. In addition, services for water, electricity, and steam are provided. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Area Outside Facilities and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the SR Implementation Plan for DOE order 5481.1A. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the facility can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations, to the environment, and to operating personnel. In this report, risks are defined as the expected frequencies of accidents, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequences in person-rem. Following the summary description of facility and operations is the site evaluation including the unique features of the H-Area Outside Facilities. The facility and process design are described in Chapter 3.0 and a description of operations and their impact is given in Chapter 4.0. The accident analysis in Chapter 5.0 is followed by a list of safety related structures and systems (Chapter 6.0) and a description of the Quality Assurance program (Chapter 7.0). The accident analysis in this report focuses on estimating the risk from accidents as a result of operation of the facilities. The operations were evaluated on the basis of three considerations: potential radiological hazards, potential chemical toxicity hazards, and potential conditions uniquely different from normal industrial practice.

  4. Safety analysis--200 Area Savannah River Site: Separations Area operations Building 211-H Outside Facilities. Supplement 11, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The H-Area Outside Facilities are located in the 200-H Separations Area and are comprised of a number of processes, utilities, and services that support the separations function. Included are enriched uranium loadout, bulk chemical storage, water handling, acid recovery, general purpose evaporation, and segregated solvent facilities. In addition, services for water, electricity, and steam are provided. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Area Outside Facilities and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the SR Implementation Plan for DOE order 5481.1A. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the facility can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations, to the environment, and to operating personnel. In this report, risks are defined as the expected frequencies of accidents, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequences in person-rem. Following the summary description of facility and operations is the site evaluation including the unique features of the H-Area Outside Facilities. The facility and process design are described in Chapter 3.0 and a description of operations and their impact is given in Chapter 4.0. The accident analysis in Chapter 5.0 is followed by a list of safety related structures and systems (Chapter 6.0) and a description of the Quality Assurance program (Chapter 7.0). The accident analysis in this report focuses on estimating the risk from accidents as a result of operation of the facilities. The operations were evaluated on the basis of three considerations: potential radiological hazards, potential chemical toxicity hazards, and potential conditions uniquely different from normal industrial practice

  5. Heat and Mass Transfer in a High-Porous Low-Temperature Thermal Insulation in Real Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikov Vyacheslav Yu.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in a high-porous low-temperature insulation in conditions of insulation freezing, a moisture migration to the front of phase transition and a condensation forming on an outer contour of interaction were obtained. Values of heat leakage were established.

  6. 26 CFR 1.507-2T - Special rules; transfer to, or operation as, public charity (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... required to use the income and principal to endow a chair at the university to be known as the “John J. Doe..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Private Foundations... effectively employing the transferred assets, or the income derived therefrom, in furtherance of its exempt...

  7. High Throughput WAN Data Transfer with Hadoop-based Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A.; Bockelman, B.; Letts, J.; Levshina, T.; Martin, T.; Pi, H.; Sfiligoi, I.; Thomas, M.; Wüerthwein, F.

    2011-12-01

    Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) is becoming more popular in recent years as a key building block of integrated grid storage solution in the field of scientific computing. Wide Area Network (WAN) data transfer is one of the important data operations for large high energy physics experiments to manage, share and process datasets of PetaBytes scale in a highly distributed grid computing environment. In this paper, we present the experience of high throughput WAN data transfer with HDFS-based Storage Element. Two protocols, GridFTP and fast data transfer (FDT), are used to characterize the network performance of WAN data transfer.

  8. High Throughput WAN Data Transfer with Hadoop-based Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A; Thomas, M; Bockelman, B; Letts, J; Martin, T; Pi, H; Sfiligoi, I; Wüerthwein, F; Levshina, T

    2011-01-01

    Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS) is becoming more popular in recent years as a key building block of integrated grid storage solution in the field of scientific computing. Wide Area Network (WAN) data transfer is one of the important data operations for large high energy physics experiments to manage, share and process datasets of PetaBytes scale in a highly distributed grid computing environment. In this paper, we present the experience of high throughput WAN data transfer with HDFS-based Storage Element. Two protocols, GridFTP and fast data transfer (FDT), are used to characterize the network performance of WAN data transfer.

  9. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for the maintenance of and work on tertiary buildings at CERN, and operation of their installations

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for maintenance of and work on tertiary (i.e. non-accelerator) buildings and operation of their installations. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium CEGELEC CENTRE EST (FR) â?" CEGELEC (CH) â?" G.T.M. (FR), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the provision of the maintenance of and work on tertiary buildings at CERN, and operation of their installations, for three years for a total amount not exceeding 9 346 650 euros (14 379 454 Swiss francs), not subject to revision until 1st January 2009, with options for additional services for an amount not exceeding 457 600 euros (704 000 Swiss francs), not subject to revision until 1st January 2009, bringing the total to an amount not exceeding 9 804 250 euros (15 083 454 Swiss francs), not subject to revision until 1st January 2009. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period.

  10. Improving Integrated Operation in the Joint Integrated Mission Model (JIMM) and the Simulated Warfare Environment Data Transfer (SWEDAT) Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutschler, David W

    2005-01-01

    ...). It allows integrated operation of resources whereby the JIMM threat environment, stimulators virtual cockpits, systems under test, and other agents are combined within the same simulation exercise...

  11. System Performance Testing of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 13584

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy W.J.; Hopkins, Derek F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Thien, Michael G.; Kelly, Steven E.; Wooley, Theodore A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste acceptance parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument since 2010 for its ability to detect particle settling and determine critical velocity in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of =14 micrometers (μm). In 2012 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated under WRPS' System Performance test campaign to identify critical velocities for slurries that are expected to be encountered during Hanford tank waste retrieval operations or bounding for tank waste feed. This three-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP. (authors)

  12. Building social license to operate through community engagement: the WUSC-Rio Tinto Alcan partnership in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Presenting the case study of the WUSC-Rio Tinto Alcan partnership in Ghana, this article focuses on the benefits and challenges of a multi-stakeholder partnership between an NGO, a mining company, governments and local communities. Strong community empowerment, alignment of multiple stakeholders’ interests, and the contribution of an expert development NGO definitely contributed to the success of the project, while also strengthening Rio Tinto’s social license to operate.

  13. Operational parameters and their influence on particle-side mass transfer resistance in a packed bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Amir; Kangwa, Martin; Yumnam, Nivedita; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    The influence of internal mass transfer on productivity as well as the performance of packed bed bioreactor was determined by varying a number of parameters; chitosan coating, flow rate, glucose concentration and particle size. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized in chitosan and non-chitosan coated alginate beads to demonstrate the effect on particle side mass transfer on substrate consumption time, lag phase and ethanol production. The results indicate that chitosan coating, beads size, glucose concentration and flow rate have a significant effect on lag phase duration. The duration of lag phase for different size of beads (0.8, 2 and 4 mm) decreases by increasing flow rate and by decreasing the size of beads. Moreover, longer lag phase were found at higher glucose medium concentration and also with chitosan coated beads. It was observed that by increasing flow rates; lag phase and glucose consumption time decreased. The reason is due to the reduction of external (fluid side) mass transfer as a result of increase in flow rate as glucose is easily transported to the surface of the beads. Varying the size of beads is an additional factor: as it reduces the internal (particle side) mass transfer by reducing the size of beads. The reason behind this is the distance for reactants to reach active site of catalyst (cells) and the thickness of fluid created layer around alginate beads is reduced. The optimum combination of parameters consisting of smaller beads size (0.8 mm), higher flow rate of 90 ml/min and glucose concentration of 10 g/l were found to be the maximum condition for ethanol production.

  14. Digital building management. Computer-supported operation from design, administration and maintenance to documentation and application; Digitales Gebaeude-Management. EDV-gestuetzte Betriebsfuehrung von der Zeichnung, Administration und Instandhaltung bis zur Dokumentation und Archivierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuerdt, K. [Siemens AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 5 of the anthology about building control the digital building management with respect to computerised operation is described. The following aspects are discussed: the change caused by C-technologies, effective operation, digital cost transparency, data processing level, documentation by precise computer, target models, expenditure/use analysis. (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 5 des Sammelbandes ueber Building Control ist dem digitalen Gebaeude-Management im Sinne einer EDV-gestuetzten Betriebsfuehrung gewidmet. Folgende Themen werden angesprochen: Der Wandel durch die C-Technologien; Effektive Betriebsfuehrung; Digitale Kostentransparenz; EDV-Ebenen; Dokumentation mit Computer-Praezision; Zielmodelle; Aufwand/Nutzen-Analyse. (BWI)

  15. The business and technical case for Continuous Commissioning(reg Trade Mark) for enhanced building operations. A case study: Alamo Community College District San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdict, Malcolm; Wei, Guanghua [Texas A and M Univ. System, College Station, TX (United States). Energy Systems Laboratory

    2005-07-01

    This paper provides both the business and technical cases for the 'Continuous Commissioning' of large [>25,000 square feet], buildings through a whole building diagnostic and HVAC optimization approach known as 'Continuous Commissioning'. 'Continuous Commissioning' is defined as the ongoing engineering process to resolve operating problems, improve comfort, optimize energy use and identify retrofits in existing buildings and central plant facilities. It is also known as 'building retro-commissioning' or 'building tune-up'. It involves a rigorous, whole-building, engineering evaluation of the heating and cooling systems to identify mechanical problems, inadequate or ineffective control strategies. Some of the most common problems are: 1) Improper calibration of sensors and metering, 2) inadequate control strategies for optimum operation and comfort, 3) incorrect scheduling of heating and cooling equipment, 4) lack of air and water-side economizer equipment, 5) inadequate building automation systems, and 6) inadequate operations and maintenance. The CC process, described in this paper, was successfully applied at Alamo Community College District (ACCD) in San Antonio, Texas, USA by the Energy Systems Laboratory (ESL), a part of the Texas A and M Univ. System. ACCD has multiple buildings on 4 campuses with total conditioned area of 2.35 Million square feet. ACCD's business approach was unique because the cost of conducting the CC process was financed as an Energy Cost Reduction Measure (ECRM) along with several energy efficiency retrofits.

  16. Operational safety enhancement of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors via development of nuclear power plant simulators and transfer of related technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Epel, L.G.; Tutu, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under the US government's International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), is implementing a program of developing and providing simulators for many of the Russian and Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) manage and provide technical oversight of the various INSP simulator projects for DOE. The program also includes a simulator technology transfer process to simulator design organizations in Russia and Ukraine. Training programs, installation of new simulators, and enhancements in existing simulators are viewed as providing a relatively fast and cost-effective technology transfer that will result in measurable improvement in the safety culture and operation of NPPs. A review of this program, its present status, and its accomplishments are provided in this paper

  17. Getting into the GROOVE: How Building Effective Education Partnerships and Promoting Authentic Student Research through the Girls' Remotely Operated Ocean Vehicle Exploration (GROOVE) Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, M.; Heesemann, M.; Hoeberechts, M.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation outlines the pilot year of Girls' Remotely Operated Ocean Vehicle Exploration or GROOVE, a hands-on learning program created collaboratively with education partners Ocean Networks Canada and St. Margaret's School (Victoria, BC, Canada). The program features student-led activities, authentic student experiences, clearly outlined learning outcomes, teacher and student self-assessment tools, and curriculum-aligned content. Presented through the lens of STEM, students build a modified Seaperch ROV and explore and research thematic scientific concepts such as buoyancy, electronic circuitry, and deep-sea exploration. Further, students learn engineering skills such as isotropic scaling, soldering, and assembly as they build their ROV. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC), an initiative of the University of Victoria, develops, operates, and maintains cabled ocean observatory systems. These include technologies developed on the world-leading NEPTUNE and VENUS observatories and the ever-expanding network of community observatories in the Arctic and coastal British Columbia. These observatories, large and small, enable communities, users, scientists, teachers, and students to monitor real-time and historical data from the local marine environment from anywhere on the globe. GROOVE, Girls' Remotely Operated Ocean Vehicle Exploration, is ONC's newest educational program and is related to their foundational program K-12 Ocean Sense educational program. This presentation will share our experiences developing, refining, and assessing our efforts to implement GROOVE using a train-the-trainer model aimed at formal and informal K-12 educators. We will highlight lessons learned from multiple perspectives (students, participants, developers, and mentors) with the intent of informing future education and outreach initiatives.

  18. Drinking water quality and formation of biofilms in an office building during its first year of operation, a full scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkinen, Jenni; Kaunisto, Tuija; Pursiainen, Anna; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Kusnetsov, Jaana; Riihinen, Kalle; Keinänen-Toivola, Minna M

    2014-02-01

    Complex interactions existing between water distribution systems' materials and water can cause a reduction in water quality and unwanted changes in materials, aging or corrosion of materials and formation of biofilms on surfaces. Substances leaching from pipe materials and water fittings, as well as the microbiological quality of water and formation of biofilms were evaluated by applying a Living Lab theme i.e. a research in a real life setting using a full scale system during its first year of operation. The study site was a real office building with one part of the building lined with copper pipes, the other with cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes thus enabling material comparison; also differences within the cold and hot water systems were analysed. It was found that operational conditions, such as flow conditions and temperature affected the amounts of metals leaching from the pipe network. In particular, brass components were considered to be a source of leaching; e. g. the lead concentration was highest during the first few weeks after the commissioning of the pipe network when the water was allowed to stagnate. Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and microbially available phosphorus (MAP) were found to leach from PEX pipelines with minor effects on biomass of the biofilm. Cultivable and viable biomass (heterotrophic plate count (HPC), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) levels in biofilms were higher in the cold than in the hot water system whereas total microbial biomass (total cell count (DAPI)) was similar with both systems. The type of pipeline material was not found to greatly affect the microbial biomass or Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria profiles (16s rRNA gene copies) after the first one year of operation. Also microbiological quality of water was found to deteriorate due to stagnation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heat transfer and pressure drop of a gasket-sealed plate heat exchanger depending on operating conditions across hot and cold sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyouck Ju [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In a gas engine based cogeneration system, heat may be recovered from two parts: Jacket water and exhaust gas. The heat from the jacket water is often recovered using a plate-type heat exchanger, and is used for room heating and/or hot water supply applications. Depending on the operating conditions of an engine and heat recovery system, there may be an imbalance in the flow rate and supply pressure between the engine side and the heat-recovery side of the heat exchanger. This imbalance causes deformation of the plate, which affects heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. In the present study, the heat transfer and pressure drop inside a heat exchanger were investigated under varying hot-side and cold-side operating conditions. Thermal efficiency of the plate heat exchanger decreases up to 30% with an operating engine load of 50%. A correction factor for the pressure drop correlation is proposed to account for the deformation caused by an imbalance between the two sides of a heat exchanger.

  20. CFD modeling and experimental verification of oscillating flow and heat transfer processes in the micro coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler operating at 90-170 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yibo; Yu, Guorui; Tan, Jun; Mao, Xiaochen; Li, Jiaqi; Zha, Rui; Li, Ning; Dang, Haizheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the CFD modeling and experimental verifications of oscillating flow and heat transfer processes in the micro coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (MCSPTC) operating at 90-170 Hz. It uses neither double-inlet nor multi-bypass while the inertance tube with a gas reservoir becomes the only phase-shifter. The effects of the frequency on flow and heat transfer processes in the pulse tube are investigated, which indicates that a low enough frequency would lead to a strong mixing between warm and cold fluids, thereby significantly deteriorating the cooling performance, whereas a high enough frequency would produce the downward sloping streams flowing from the warm end to the axis and almost puncturing the gas displacer from the warm end, thereby creating larger temperature gradients in radial directions and thus undermining the cooling performance. The influence of the pulse tube length on the temperature and velocity when the frequencies are much higher than the optimal one are also discussed. A MCSPTC with an overall mass of 1.1 kg is worked out and tested. With an input electric power of 59 W and operating at 144 Hz, it achieves a no-load temperature of 61.4 K and a cooling capacity of 1.0 W at 77 K. The changing tendencies of tested results are in good agreement with the simulations. The above studies will help to thoroughly understand the underlying mechanism of the inertance MCSPTC operating at very high frequencies.

  1. Silica dust control in small-scale building/structure demolition operations using good work practice guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muianga, C V; Rice, C H; Succop, P

    2009-01-01

    Work practices can influence exposure, especially in small-scale operations conducted by mobile work crews. This study evaluated the use of information on good work practice in control guidance sheets adapted from UK Silica Essentials guidance sheets by trained workers and supervisors employed in small-scale concrete and masonry demolition operations. A one-page employee silica task-based control guidance sheet for each of four demolition tasks and multiple-page silica control guidance for supervisors were developed. Interactive, hands-on worker training on these task-based good work practice controls was developed. Training was presented to 26 participants from two demolition crews. Feedback on the training and task-based good work practice control guidance sheets was elicited. Observations of work practices were made before and after training. Participants indicated gains in knowledge and checklists were used to document skill attainment. The quality of the training and usefulness of the material/skills was rated high by trainees. Increased use of water to suppress dust and wet cleaning methods on the job were documented following the training. Additional follow-up after training is required to determine long-term impact on sustained changes in work practices, and to evaluate the need for refresher training.

  2. The challenge of measuring emergency preparedness: integrating component metrics to build system-level measures for strategic national stockpile operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian A; Faith, Kay Sullivan

    2013-02-01

    Although significant progress has been made in measuring public health emergency preparedness, system-level performance measures are lacking. This report examines a potential approach to such measures for Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) operations. We adapted an engineering analytic technique used to assess the reliability of technological systems-failure mode and effects analysis-to assess preparedness. That technique, which includes systematic mapping of the response system and identification of possible breakdowns that affect performance, provides a path to use data from existing SNS assessment tools to estimate likely future performance of the system overall. Systems models of SNS operations were constructed and failure mode analyses were performed for each component. Linking data from existing assessments, including the technical assistance review and functional drills, to reliability assessment was demonstrated using publicly available information. The use of failure mode and effects estimates to assess overall response system reliability was demonstrated with a simple simulation example. Reliability analysis appears an attractive way to integrate information from the substantial investment in detailed assessments for stockpile delivery and dispensing to provide a view of likely future response performance.

  3. Silica dust control in small-scale building/structure demolition operations using good work practice guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muianga, C. V.; Rice, C. H.; Succop, P.

    2009-02-01

    Work practices can influence exposure, especially in small-scale operations conducted by mobile work crews. This study evaluated the use of information on good work practice in control guidance sheets adapted from UK Silica Essentials guidance sheets by trained workers and supervisors employed in small-scale concrete and masonry demolition operations. A one-page employee silica task-based control guidance sheet for each of four demolition tasks and multiple-page silica control guidance for supervisors were developed. Interactive, hands-on worker training on these task-based good work practice controls was developed. Training was presented to 26 participants from two demolition crews. Feedback on the training and task-based good work practice control guidance sheets was elicited. Observations of work practices were made before and after training. Participants indicated gains in knowledge and checklists were used to document skill attainment. The quality of the training and usefulness of the material/skills was rated high by trainees. Increased use of water to suppress dust and wet cleaning methods on the job were documented following the training. Additional follow-up after training is required to determine long-term impact on sustained changes in work practices, and to evaluate the need for refresher training.

  4. Hanford Waste Transfer Planning and Control - 13465

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirch, N.W.; Uytioco, E.M.; Jo, J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Hanford tank waste cleanup requires efficient use of double-shell tank space to support single-shell tank retrievals and future waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Every waste transfer, including single-shell tank retrievals and evaporator campaign, is evaluated via the Waste Transfer Compatibility Program for compliance with safety basis, environmental compliance, operational limits and controls to enhance future waste treatment. Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes are stored at the Hanford Site on an interim basis until they can be treated, as necessary, for final disposal. Implementation of the Tank Farms Waste Transfer Compatibility Program helps to ensure continued safe and prudent storage and handling of these wastes within the Tank Farms Facility. The Tank Farms Waste Transfer Compatibility Program is a Safety Management Program that is a formal process for evaluating waste transfers and chemical additions through the preparation of documented Waste Compatibility Assessments (WCA). The primary purpose of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures as the result of waste transfer operations. The program defines a consistent means of evaluating compliance with certain administrative controls, safety, operational, regulatory, and programmatic criteria and specifies considerations necessary to assess waste transfers and chemical additions. Current operations are most limited by staying within compliance with the safety basis controls to prevent flammable gas build up in the tank headspace. The depth of solids, the depth of supernatant, the total waste depth and the waste temperature are monitored and controlled to stay within the Compatibility Program rules. Also, transfer planning includes a preliminary evaluation against the Compatibility Program to assure that operating plans will comply with the Waste Transfer Compatibility Program. (authors)

  5. Converter Compressor Building, SWMU 089, Hot Spot Areas 1, 2, and 5 Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report, Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    This Operations, Maintenance, and Monitoring Report (OMMR) presents the findings, observations, and results from operation of the air sparging (AS) interim measure (IM) for Hot Spot (HS) Areas 1, 2, and 5 at the Converter Compressor Building (CCB) located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The objective of the IM at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5 is to decrease concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater in the treatment zones via AS to levels that will enable a transition to a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) phase. This OMMR presents system operations and maintenance (O&M) information and performance monitoring results since full-scale O&M began in June 2014 (2 months after initial system startup in April 2014), including quarterly performance monitoring events in July and October 2014 and January and May 2015. Based on the results to date, the AS system is operating as designed and is meeting the performance criteria and IM objective. The performance monitoring network is adequately constructed for assessment of IM performance at CCB HS Areas 1, 2, and 5. At the March 2014 KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) Meeting, team consensus was reached for the design prepared for expansion of the system to treat the HS 4 area, and at the November 2014 KSCRT Meeting, team consensus was reached that HS 3 was adequately delineated horizontally and vertically and for selection of AS for the remedial approach for HS 3. At the July 2015 KSCRT meeting, team consensus was reached to continue IM operations in all zones until HSs 3 and 4 is operational, once HS 3 and 4 zones are operational discontinue operations in HS 1, 2, and 5 zones where concentrations are less than GCTLs to observe whether rebounding conditions occur. Team consensus was also reached to continue quarterly performance monitoring to determine whether operational zones achieve GCTLs and to continue annual IGWM of CCB-MW0012, CCBMW0013, and CCB-MW0056, located south of the treatment area. The

  6. Concepts in Building Firesafety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, M. David

    The goal of this book is to present in a graphical format the principles of design for building firesafety. The book's more than 270 illustrations represent the core of its coverage of factors affecting fire ignition and spread in buildings, building site planning for fire suppression and occupant rescue operations, protection by building…

  7. MODELING OF STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR OF AN INDUSTRIAL BUILDING WITH ACCOUNT FOR THE VARIATION OF RIGIDITY IN THE COURSE OF ITS OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolina Tat'yana Vladimirovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of accidents at construction facilities has increased dramatically over the recent years. The engineering analysis of the reasons of accidents in the Russian Federation has revealed that the majority of accidents are caused by the loss of stability of specific structural elements, and a substantial reduction of the bearing capacity of structures. At the same time, no proper methodologies of processing and analyzing the results of inspections of structures, or methodologies of assessing the residual service life of structures are available, although advanced diagnostic tools are at hand. Therefore, advanced methods of accident risk analysis assume importance. A quantitative assessment of the risk exposure of buildings and structures at any stage (design, construction and operation can only be made through the employment of probabilistic calculations, especially if extreme loads are in the focus. Probabilistic methods are more robust as they evaluate the safety as the possibility of failure. Parameters are treated as stochastic variables. Based on the research completed by the authors, a 3D computational model of a single-storey industrial building has been developed. The software programme developed by the authors is designated for the resolution of a wide range of problems of reliability, durability, stability and accident risk analysis in respect of buildings exposed to various internal and external loads. The software may be used to resolve both direct and inverse problems. This feature is highly relevant in assessing structural behaviour. Their structures may constitute defects that affect their rigidity, strength and stability. The behaviour pattern of a loaded structure may be identified by means of an experiment, and thereafter, its rigidity may be identified by resolving the inverse problem in order to assess the life span of the structure.

  8. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Building 221-H, B-Line, Scrap Recovery Facility (Supplement 2A): Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-07-01

    The now HB-Line is located an top of the 221-H Building on the fifth and sixth levels and is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The new HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, Neptunium Facility, and Plutonium Oxide Facility. The Scrap Recovery Facility is designed to routinely generate nitrate solutions of {sup 235}U{sup 239}Pu and Pu-238 fromscrap for purification by anion exchange or by solvent extraction in the canyon. The now facility incorporates improvements in: (1) engineered controls for nuclear criticality, (2) cabinet integrity and engineered barriers to contain contamination and minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  9. Creation of Polyurethane Injection Materials, Their Pilot-industrial Production, Development and Industrial Introduction of the Technology of Strengthening and Restoring the Operability of Damaged Constructions and Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marukha, V.І.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane and foam polyurethane fluid injection materials not conceding foreign analogues and technology technology of restoration and strengthening the operability of concrete and reinforced concrete structures and buildings damaged by cracks were developed. Normative and technical documentation on the injection materials and technological processes was created. The diagnosticrestoring complex for implementing the above technologies was designed, installed and utilized at the construction sites. The equipment is designed and manufactured; the technology of the research and industrial production of «A» and «B» components of injecting polyurethane materials is designed and developed. The pilot-scale batch is manufactured. Technological processes of preparation and application of the «A» and «B» componentsof the injecting materials in industrial conditions are worked out and implemented.

  10. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner, Wolf; Gacem, Riad; Anderlei, Tibor; Raven, Nicole; Schillberg, Stefan; Lattermann, Clemens; Büchs, Jochen

    2013-12-02

    Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham's π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/- 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale.

  11. Sustainable building versus ecological building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available and sensitivity to a site that are required to efficiently meet the energy needs of a building and occupants with renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, etc), designers must apply holistic design principles and take advantage of the free, naturally... monumental waste: the product which they deliver requires resources such as energy and water to operate over its entire life-cycle, a period measured in decades, and often in centuries. Throughout this process, construction activities often result...

  12. General transfer matrix formalism to calculate DNA-protein-drug binding in gene regulation: application to OR operator of phage lambda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teif, Vladimir B

    2007-01-01

    The transfer matrix methodology is proposed as a systematic tool for the statistical-mechanical description of DNA-protein-drug binding involved in gene regulation. We show that a genetic system of several cis-regulatory modules is calculable using this method, considering explicitly the site-overlapping, competitive, cooperative binding of regulatory proteins, their multilayer assembly and DNA looping. In the methodological section, the matrix models are solved for the basic types of short- and long-range interactions between DNA-bound proteins, drugs and nucleosomes. We apply the matrix method to gene regulation at the O(R) operator of phage lambda. The transfer matrix formalism allowed the description of the lambda-switch at a single-nucleotide resolution, taking into account the effects of a range of inter-protein distances. Our calculations confirm previously established roles of the contact CI-Cro-RNAP interactions. Concerning long-range interactions, we show that while the DNA loop between the O(R) and O(L) operators is important at the lysogenic CI concentrations, the interference between the adjacent promoters P(R) and P(RM) becomes more important at small CI concentrations. A large change in the expression pattern may arise in this regime due to anticooperative interactions between DNA-bound RNA polymerases. The applicability of the matrix method to more complex systems is discussed.

  13. Physics-Based Modeling of Electric Operation, Heat Transfer, and Scrap Melting in an AC Electric Arc Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Florian; Treffinger, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Electric arc furnaces (EAF) are complex industrial plants whose actual behavior depends upon numerous factors. Due to its energy intensive operation, the EAF process has always been subject to optimization efforts. For these reasons, several models have been proposed in literature to analyze and predict different modes of operation. Most of these models focused on the processes inside the vessel itself. The present paper introduces a dynamic, physics-based model of a complete EAF plant which consists of the four subsystems vessel, electric system, electrode regulation, and off-gas system. Furthermore the solid phase is not treated to be homogenous but a simple spatial discretization is employed. Hence it is possible to simulate the energy input by electric arcs and fossil fuel burners depending on the state of the melting progress. The model is implemented in object-oriented, equation-based language Modelica. The simulation results are compared to literature data.

  14. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, S.E.; Haass, C.C.; Kovach, J.L.; Turner, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through out the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  15. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, C.C.; Kovach, J.L.; Kelly, S.E.; Turner, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  16. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  17. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  18. 309 Building transition plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    The preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (transition) of the 309 Building is projected to be completed by the end of the fiscal year (FY) 1998. The major stabilization and decontamination efforts include the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), fuel storage and transfer pits, Transfer Waste (TW) tanks and the Ion Exchange Vaults. In addition to stabilizing contaminated areas, equipment, components, records, waste products, etc., will be dispositioned. All nonessential systems, i.e., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical, monitoring, fluids, etc., will be shut down and drained/de-energized. This will allow securing of the process, laboratory, and office areas of the facility. After that, the facility will be operated at a level commensurate with its surveillance needs while awaiting D ampersand D. The implementation costs for FY 1995 through FY 1998 for the transition activities are estimated to be $1,070K, $2,115K, $2,939K, and $4,762K, respectively. Costs include an assumed company overhead of 20% and a 30% out year contingency

  19. Co-operative energy transfer in Yb3+-Er3+ co-doped SrGdxOy upconverting phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwini; Pathak, Trilok K.; Dhoble, S. J.; . Terblans, J. J.; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have shown considerable interest in many fields; however, low upconversion efficiency of UCNPs is still the most severe limitation of their applications. Yb3+ and Er3+ co-doped SrGd4O7/Gd2O3(SGO) upconversion (UC) phosphors were synthesized by a modified co-precipitation process. The UC properties were investigated by direct excitation with a 980 nm laser. It was observed that the as prepared materials showed relatively strong green emission, while upon the incorporation of the Er3+ ion, there was an increase in the upconversion luminescence intensity for the red component. The effect of different doping concentration of Er3+on the emission spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns of the UC materials have also been studied. The luminescence lifetimes and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates for these as prepared samples were determined to understand the energy transfer (ET) mechanisms occurring between Yb3+ and Er3+ in the SGO host matrix. The UC luminescence intensity as a function of laser pump power was monitored and it was confirmed that the UC process in SGO:Yb3+/Er3+is a two-photon absorption process. The findings reported here are expected to provide a better approach for understanding of the ET mechanisms in the oxide based Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped UC phosphors. This study might be helpful in precisely defined applications where optical transitions are essential criterion and this can be easily achieved by smart tuning of the emission properties of Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped UC phosphors.

  20. Steady state heat transfer experimental studies of LHC superconducting cables operating in cryogenic environment of superfluid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Santandrea, Dario; Tuccillo, Raffaele; Granieri, Pier Paolo

    The heat management is a basic and fundamental aspect of the superconducting magnets used in the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Indeed, the coil temperature must be kept below the critical value, despite the heat which can be generated or deposited in the magnet during the normal operations. Therefore, this thesis work aims at determining the heating power which can be extracted from the superconducting cables of the LHC, specially through their electrical insulation which represents the main thermal barrier. An experimental measurement campaign in superfluid helium bath was performed on several samples reproducting the main LHC magnets. The heating power was generated in the sample by Joule heating and the temperature increase was measured by means of Cernox bare chip and thermocouples. An innovative instrumentation technique which also includes the in-situ calibration of the thermocouples was developed. A thorough uncertainty analysis on the overall measurement chain concluded the experimental setup. The prese...

  1. Safety of operations in the manufacture of driver fuel for the first charge of the Dragon Reactor and modifications to the safety document for the Dragon Fuel Element Production Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutler, H.; Cross, J.; Flamm, J.

    1965-01-01

    The manufacture of the zirconium containing 'driver' fuel and fuel elements for the First Charge of the Dragon Reactor Experiment has been completed without incident. This is a report on the safety of operations in the Dragon Fuel Element Production Building during an approximately six month period when the 'driver' fuel was manufactured and 25 elements containing this fuel were assembled and exported to the Reactor Building. The opportunity is taken to bring the Safety Document up-to-date and to report on any significant operational failures of equipment. (author)

  2. Nuclear technology transfer adapted to the needs of developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.; Nentwich, D.

    1983-01-01

    The paper explains the build-up of nuclear know-how in the Federal Republic of Germany after 1955, when activities in the nuclear field became permitted. Furthermore, it shows the development of nuclear technology transfer via the increasing number of nuclear power plants exported. The inevitable interrelationship between the efficient transfer of know-how and long-term nuclear co-operation is demonstrated. Emphasis is put on the adaptation of nuclear technology transfer to the needs of the recipient countries. Guidelines to achieve the desired goal are given. (author)

  3. Preconceptual design for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) transfer facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, W.D.; Jowdy, A.K.; Smith, R.I.

    1990-09-01

    The contract between the DOE and the utilities specifies that the DOE will receive spent fuel from the nuclear utilities in 1998. This study investigates the feasibility of employing a simple Transfer Facility which can be constructed quickly, and operate while the full-scale MRS facilities are being constructed. The Transfer Facility is a hot cell designed only for the purpose of transferring spent fuel assemblies from the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transport casks (shipped from the utility sites) into onsite concrete storage casks. No operational functions other than spent fuel assembly transfers and the associated cask handling, opening, and closing would be performed in this facility. Radioactive waste collected in the Transfer Facility during operations would be stored until the treatment facilities in the full-scale MRS facility became operational, approximately 2 years after the Transfer Facility started operation. An alternate wherein the Transfer Facility was the only waste handling building on the MRS site was also examined and evaluated. 6 figs., 26 tabs

  4. Dynamic oxygen transfer measurements under operating conditions as a basis for the optimization of ventilation systems; Dynamische Sauerstoffeintragsmessungen unter Betriebsbedingungen als Grundlage zur Optimierung von Belueftungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libra, J.A.; Biskup, M.; Wiesmann, U. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik; Sahlmann, C.; Gnirss, R. [Berliner Wasserbetriebe, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The largest single energy consumer at sewage treatment plants is the ventilation system of activated sludge tanks. This is why controlling and optimizing ventilation systems is the most appropriate approach to the cutting down of energy costs. The present paper reports on measurements of dynamic oxygen transfer by means of the off-gas method under operating conditions at the Berlin-Ruhleben sewage treatment plant. (orig.) [German] Der groesste Einzelenergieverbraucher auf Klaerwerken ist das Belueftungssystem von Belebungsbecken. Deshalb ist die Kontrolle und Optimierung der Belueftungssysteme der geeignete Weg zur Verringerung der Energiekosten. In diesem Beitrag wird ueber Messungen des dynamischen Sauerstoffeintrags mit der Abluft-Methode unter Betriebsbedingungen im Klaerwerk Berlin-Ruhleben berichtet. (orig.)

  5. Synchronization and chaos in spin-transfer-torque nano-oscillators coupled via a high-speed operational amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanid, C; Murugesh, S

    2014-01-01

    We propose a system of two coupled spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs), one driver and another response, and demonstrate using numerical studies the synchronization of the response system to the frequency of the driver system. To this end we use a high-speed operational amplifier in the form of a voltage follower, which essentially isolates the drive system from the response system. We find the occurrence of 1 : 1 as well as 2 : 1 synchronization in the system, wherein the oscillators show limit cycle dynamics. An increase in power output is noticed when the two oscillators are locked in 1 : 1 synchronization. Moreover in the crossover region between these two synchronization dynamics we show the existence of chaotic dynamics in the slave system. The coupled dynamics under periodic forcing, using a small ac input current in addition to that of the dc part, is also studied. The slave oscillator is seen to retain its qualitative identity in the parameter space in spite of being fed in, at times, a chaotic signal. Such electrically coupled STNOs will be highly useful in fabricating commercial spin-valve oscillators with high power output, when integrated with other spintronic devices. (paper)

  6. Numerical Study of the Dynamic Response of Heat and Mass Transfer to Operation Mode Switching of a Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge concerning the complicated changes of mass and heat transfer is desired to improve the performance and durability of unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs. In this study, a transient, non-isothermal, single-phase, and multi-physics mathematical model for a URFC based on the proton exchange membrane is generated to investigate transient responses in the process of operation mode switching from fuel cell (FC to electrolysis cell (EC. Various heat generation mechanisms, including Joule heat, reaction heat, and the heat attributed to activation polarizations, have been considered in the transient model coupled with electrochemical reaction and mass transfer in porous electrodes. The polarization curves of the steady-state models are validated by experimental data in the literatures. Numerical results reveal that current density, gas mass fractions, and temperature suddenly change with the sudden change of operating voltage in the mode switching process. The response time of temperature is longer than that of current density and gas mass fractions. In both FC and EC modes, the cell temperature and gradient of gas mass fraction in the oxygen side are larger than that in the hydrogen side. The temperature difference of the entire cell is less than 1.5 K. The highest temperature appears at oxygen-side catalyst layer under the FC mode and at membrane under a more stable EC mode. The cell is exothermic all the time. These dynamic responses and phenomena have important implications for heat analysis and provide proven guidelines for the improvement of URFCs mode switching.

  7. Taking a new approach to dam building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    1999-01-01

    Problems, including corruption, dogging construction of the Three Gorges dam being built in China are discussed. The article questions whether large hydro projects can ever be completed on time and within budget. It was suggested that by operating a build-operate-transfer scheme there might be greater incentives to complete on time but the vice-president of Skanska Civil Engineering was sceptical due to the risk involved. Through the Three Gorges Project, the Chinese government has learned that the relocation of thousands of people is far from easy. From a technical aspect, there may be unexpected problems in building underground. Some problems which arose in major hydro projects in India, Turkey and Lesotho were recounted. The vice-president of Skanska offered three pieces of advice and they are listed. (UK)

  8. Taking a new approach to dam building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.

    1999-03-01

    Problems, including corruption, dogging construction of the Three Gorges dam being built in China are discussed. The article questions whether large hydro projects can ever be completed on time and within budget. It was suggested that by operating a build-operate-transfer scheme there might be greater incentives to complete on time but the vice-president of Skanska Civil Engineering was sceptical due to the risk involved. Through the Three Gorges Project, the Chinese government has learned that the relocation of thousands of people is far from easy. From a technical aspect, there may be unexpected problems in building underground. Some problems which arose in major hydro projects in India, Turkey and Lesotho were recounted. The vice-president of Skanska offered three pieces of advice and they are listed. (UK)

  9. The development of nuclear technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nack-chung Sung

    1987-01-01

    Korea, as a recipient of nuclear technology transfer, has good experience of progressively building up its indigeneous capability of nuclear technology through three stages of technology transfer, namely: technology transfer under the turnkey approach, component approach, and integrated technology transfer with a local prime contractor. Here, each stage of experience of technology transfer, with Korea as a recipient, is presented. (author)

  10. Structural safety of HDR reactor building during large scale vibration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangenberg, F.; Zinn, R.

    1985-01-01

    In the second phase of the HDR investigations, a high shaker excitation of the building is planned using a large shaker which will be located on the operating floor and will be brought up to speed in a balanced condition and then unbalanced and decoupled from the drive system. With decreasing speed the shaker comes in resonance with the building frequencies and its energy is transferred to the building. In this paper the structural safety of the reactor building during the projected shaker tests is analysed. Dynamic response calculations with coupling between building and shaker by simultaneously integrating the equilibrium equations of both building and shaker are presented. The resulting building stresses, soil pressures etc. are compared with allowable values. (orig.)

  11. Ensemble-marginalized Kalman filter for linear time-dependent PDEs with noisy boundary conditions: Application to heat transfer in building walls

    KAUST Repository

    Iglesias, Marco

    2017-11-26

    In this work, we present the ensemble-marginalized Kalman filter (EnMKF), a sequential algorithm analogous to our previously proposed approach [1,2], for estimating the state and parameters of linear parabolic partial differential equations in initial-boundary value problems when the boundary data are noisy. We apply EnMKF to infer the thermal properties of building walls and to estimate the corresponding heat flux from real and synthetic data. Compared with a modified Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) that is not marginalized, EnMKF reduces the bias error, avoids the collapse of the ensemble without needing to add inflation, and converges to the mean field posterior using $50\\\\%$ or less of the ensemble size required by EnKF. According to our results, the marginalization technique in EnMKF is key to performance improvement with smaller ensembles at any fixed time.

  12. Shielded cells transfer automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures

  13. BOT (Build-Operate-Transfer) models in plant construction; BOT-Modelle im Anlagenbau. Ein neues strategisches Instrument oder nur Akquisitionsunterstuetzung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlmann, B. [Kienbaum Management Consultants GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany). Bereich Stahl und Anlagenbau; Roeben, K.W. [Fachhochschule Hamburg (Germany). Fachgebiet Thermodynamik und Verfahrenstechnik

    1998-05-01

    So as to survive in the tight situation on the world market for plant construction, new concepts are required. In addition to technical innovation, there are an increasing number of additional services that occupy the midpoint of plant business. The article discusses the prospects and risks, which arise from the involvement of the plant designer in a BOT project. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um sich in der angespannten Situation am Weltmarkt des Anlagenbaus behaupten zu koennen, bedarf es neuer Konzepte. Neben der technischen Innovation stehen immer mehr flankierende Dienstleistungen im Mittelpunkt des Anlagengeschaeftes. Der Beitrag eroertert die Chancen und Risiken, die sich aus einem Engagement des Anlagenbauers in einem BOT-Projekt ergeben. (orig.)

  14. Design/installation and structural integrity assessment under the Federal Facility Agreement for Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System upgrade for Building 2026 (High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory) and Building 2099 (Monitoring and Control Station) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document presents a Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment for a replacement tank system for portions of the Bethel Valley Low Level Waste (LLW) System, located at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This issue of the assessment covers the design aspects of the replacement tank system, and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing or treating of hazardous and/or radioactive substances. The present issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during the fabrication, installation, and testing of the replacement tank system in order to provide assurance that the final installation complies with governing requirements. Portions of the LLW system are several decades old, or older, and do not comply with current environmental protection regulations. Several subsystems of the LLW system have been designated to receive a state-of-the-art replacement and refurbishment. One such subsystem serves Building 2026, the High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory. This assessment focuses on the scope of work for the Building 2026 replacement LLW Collection and Transfer System, including the provision of a new Monitoring and Control Station (Building 2099) to receive, store, and treat (adjust pH) low level radioactive waste

  15. Increasing supplemental nutrition assistance program/electronic benefits transfer sales at farmers' markets with vendor-operated wireless point-of-sale terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Havassy, Joshua; Fang, Michelle; Glyn, Jonathan; Karpyn, Allison E

    2012-05-01

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) (formerly Food Stamp Program) participants can use their benefits at many farmers' markets. However, most markets have only one market-operated wireless point-of-sale (POS) card swipe terminal for electronic benefits transfer (EBT) transactions. It is not known whether providing each farmer/vendor with individual wireless POS terminals and subsidizing EBT fees will increase SNAP/EBT purchases at farmers' markets. To evaluate the effects of multiple vendor-operated wireless POS terminals (vs a single market-operated terminal) on use of SNAP benefits at an urban farmers' market. Time-series analyses of SNAP/EBT sales. The Clark Park farmers' market in West Philadelphia, PA, which accounts for one quarter of all SNAP/EBT sales at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania. Vendors were provided with individual wireless POS terminals for 9 months (June 2008-February 2009.) The pilot program covered all equipment and wireless service costs and transaction fees associated with SNAP/EBT, credit, and debit sales. Monthly SNAP/EBT sales at the Clark Park farmers' market. SNAP/EBT sales data were collected for 48 months (January 2007-December 2010). Time-series regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of the intervention period (June 2008-February 2009) on SNAP/EBT sales, controlling for seasonal effects and total SNAP benefits issued in Philadelphia. The intervention was associated with a 38% increase in monthly SNAP/EBT sales. Effects were greatest during the busy fall market seasons. SNAP/EBT sales did not remain significantly higher after the intervention period. Providing individual wireless POS terminals to farmers' market vendors leads to increased sales. However, market vendors indicated that subsidies for equipment costs and fees would be needed to break even. Currently, SNAP provides some support for these services for supermarket and other SNAP retailers with landline access, but not for farmers' markets. Copyright

  16. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Information Information For… Media Policy Makers Building Languages Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Communicating ... any speech and only very loud sounds. Close × “Building Blocks” “Building Blocks” refers to the different skills ...

  17. ASSEMBLY TRANSFER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorpani, B.

    2000-01-01

    The Assembly Transfer System (ATS) receives, cools, and opens rail and truck transportation casks from the Carrier/Cask Handling System (CCHS). The system unloads transportation casks consisting of bare Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) assemblies, single element canisters, and Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs). For casks containing DPCs, the system opens the DPCs and unloads the SNF. The system stages the assemblies, transfer assemblies to and from fuel-blending inventory pools, loads them into Disposal Containers (DCs), temporarily seals and inerts the DC, decontaminates the DC and transfers it to the Disposal Container Handling System. The system also prepares empty casks and DPCs for off-site shipment. Two identical Assembly Transfer System lines are provided in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Each line operates independently to handle the waste transfer throughput and to support maintenance operations. Each system line primarily consists of wet and dry handling areas. The wet handling area includes a cask transport system, cask and DPC preparation system, and a wet assembly handling system. The basket transport system forms the transition between the wet and dry handling areas. The dry handling area includes the dry assembly handling system, assembly drying system, DC preparation system, and DC transport system. Both the wet and dry handling areas are controlled by the control and tracking system. The system operating sequence begins with moving transportation casks to the cask preparation area. The cask preparation operations consist of cask cavity gas sampling, cask venting, cask cool-down, outer lid removal, and inner shield plug lifting fixture attachment. Casks containing bare SNF (no DPC) are filled with water and placed in the cask unloading pool. The inner shield plugs are removed underwater. For casks containing a DPC, the cask lid(s) is removed, and the DPC is penetrated, sampled, vented, and cooled. A DPC lifting fixture is attached and the cask is placed

  18. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  19. Fuel transfer system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, L.R.; Marshall, J.R.; Desmarchais, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel transfer system for moving nuclear reactor fuel assemblies from a new fuel storage pit to a containment area containing the nuclear reactor, and for transferring spent fuel assemblies under water from the reactor to a spent fuel storage area. The system includes an underwater track which extends through a wall dividing the fuel building from the reactor containment and a car on the track serves as the vehicle for moving fuel assemblies between these two areas. The car is driven by a motor and linkage extending from an operating deck to a chain belt drive on the car. A housing pivotally mounted at its center on the car is hydraulically actuated to vertically receive a fuel assembly which then is rotated to a horizontal position to permit movement through the wall between the containment and fuel building areas. Return to the vertical position provides for fuel assembly removal and the reverse process is repeated when transferring an assembly in the opposite direction. Limit switches used in controlling operation of the system are designed to be replaced from the operating deck when necessary by tools designed for this purpose. 5 claims, 8 figures

  20. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. PV for rural electrification in developing countries - A guide to capacity building requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.; Gunning, R. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom); Stapleton, G. [Global Sustainable Energy Solutions Pty Ltd, GSES, Ulladulla 2539 (Australia)

    2003-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the topic of 'capacity building' in rural electrification projects. Capacity building is defined here as the development of an organisation's or individual's core knowledge, skills and capabilities in order to build and enhance the organisation's effectiveness and sustainability. This document identifies capacity building measures that should be undertaken as an integral component of a PV-based rural electrification implementation programme. Capacity building is to be facilitated through the provision of technical support activities, training, specific technical assistance and resource networking. The assessment of existing knowledge and the identification of training needs are discussed and training needs and their implementation by governmental and commercial players is discussed. Eleven case studies complete the report.