WorldWideScience

Sample records for bugula neritina bryozoa

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata: phylogenetic position of Bryozoa and phylogeny of lophophorates within the Lophotrochozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Kuem

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogenetic position of Bryozoa is one of the most controversial issues in metazoan phylogeny. In an attempt to address this issue, the first bryozoan mitochondrial genome from Flustrellidra hispida (Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata was recently sequenced and characterized. Unfortunately, it has extensive gene translocation and extremely reduced size. In addition, the phylogenies obtained from the result were conflicting, so they failed to assign a reliable phylogenetic position to Bryozoa or to clarify lophophorate phylogeny. Thus, it is necessary to characterize further mitochondrial genomes from slowly-evolving bryozoans to obtain a more credible lophophorate phylogeny. Results The complete mitochondrial genome (15,433 bp of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata, one of the most widely distributed cheliostome bryozoans, is sequenced. This second bryozoan mitochondrial genome contains the set of 37 components generally observed in other metazoans, differing from that of F. hispida (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata, which has only 36 components with loss of tRNAser(ucn genes. The B. neritina mitochondrial genome possesses 27 multiple noncoding regions. The gene order is more similar to those of the two remaining lophophorate phyla (Brachiopoda and Phoronida and a chiton Katharina tunicate than to that of F. hispida. Phylogenetic analyses based on the nucleotide sequences or amino acid residues of 12 protein-coding genes showed consistently that, within the Lophotrochozoa, the monophyly of the bryozoan class Gymnolaemata (B. neritina and F. hispida was strongly supported and the bryozoan clade was grouped with brachiopods. Echiura appeared as a subtaxon of Annelida, and Entoprocta as a sister taxon of Phoronida. The clade of Bryozoa + Brachiopoda was clustered with either the clade of Annelida-Echiura or that of Phoronida + Entoprocta. Conclusion This study presents the complete mitochondrial genome of a

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata): phylogenetic position of Bryozoa and phylogeny of lophophorates within the Lophotrochozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Jang Kuem; Hwang Ui

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The phylogenetic position of Bryozoa is one of the most controversial issues in metazoan phylogeny. In an attempt to address this issue, the first bryozoan mitochondrial genome from Flustrellidra hispida (Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata) was recently sequenced and characterized. Unfortunately, it has extensive gene translocation and extremely reduced size. In addition, the phylogenies obtained from the result were conflicting, so they failed to assign a reliable phylogenetic po...

  3. Quantitative proteomics identify molecular targets that are crucial in larval settlement and metamorphosis of bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Huoming

    2011-01-07

    The marine invertebrate Bugula neritina has a biphasic life cycle that consists of a swimming larval stage and a sessile juvenile and adult stage. The attachment of larvae to the substratum and their subsequent metamorphosis have crucial ecological consequences. Despite many studies on this species, little is known about the molecular mechanism of these processes. Here, we report a comparative study of swimming larvae and metamorphosing individuals at 4 and 24 h postattachment using label-free quantitative proteomics. We identified more than 1100 proteins at each stage, 61 of which were differentially expressed. Specifically, proteins involved in energy metabolism and structural molecules were generally down-regulated, whereas proteins involved in transcription and translation, the extracellular matrix, and calcification were strongly up-regulated during metamorphosis. Many tightly regulated novel proteins were also identified. Subsequent analysis of the temporal and spatial expressions of some of the proteins and an assay of their functions indicated that they may have key roles in metamorphosis of B. neritina. These findings not only provide molecular evidence with which to elucidate the substantial changes in morphology and physiology that occur during larval attachment and metamorphosis but also identify potential targets for antifouling treatment. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Involvement of wnt signaling pathways in the metamorphosis of the bryozoan bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him

    2012-03-20

    In this study, we analyzed the metamorphosis of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. We observed the morphogenesis of the ancestrula. We defined three distinct pre-ancestrula stages based on the anatomy of the developing polypide and the overall morphology of pre-ancestrula. We then used an annotation based enrichment analysis tool to analyze the B. neritina transcriptome and identified over-representation of genes related to Wnt signaling pathways, suggesting its involvement in metamorphosis. Finally, we studied the temporal-spatial gene expression studies of several Wnt pathway genes. We found that one of the Wnt ligand, BnWnt10, was expressed spatially opposite to the Wnt antagonist BnsFRP within the blastemas, which is the presumptive polypide. Down-stream components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway were exclusively expressed in the blastemas. Bn?catenin and BnFz5/8 were exclusively expressed in the blastemas throughout the metamorphosis. Based on the genes expression patterns, we propose that BnWnt10 and BnsFRP may relate to the patterning of the polypide, in which the two genes served as positional signals and contributed to the polarization of the blastemas. Another Wnt ligand, BnWnt6, was expressed in the apical part of the pre-ancestrula epidermis. Overall, our findings suggest that the Wnt signaling pathway may be important to the pattern formation of polypide and the development of epidermis. © 2012 Wong et al.

  5. Rapid transcriptome and proteome profiling of a non-model marine invertebrate, Bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2010-06-10

    Non-model organisms represent the majority of life forms in our planet. However, the lack of genetic information hinders us to understand the unique biological phenomena in non-model organisms at the molecular level. In this study, we applied a tandem transcriptome and proteome profiling on a non-model marine fouling organism, Bugula neritina. Using a 454 pyrosequencing platform with the updated titanium reagents, we generated a total of 48M bp transcriptome data consisting of 131 450 high-quality reads. Of these, 122 650 reads (93%) were assembled to produce 6392 contigs with an average length of 538 bases and the remaining 8800 reads were singletons. Of the total 15 192 unigenes, 13 863 ORFs were predicated, of which 6917 were functionally annotated based on gene ontology and eukaryotic orthologous groups. Subsequent proteome analysis identified and quantified 882 proteins from B. neritina. These results would provide fundamental and important information for the subsequent studies of molecular mechanism in larval biology, development, antifouling research. Furthermore, we demonstrated, for the first time, the combined use of two high-throughput technologies as a powerful approach for accelerating the studies of non-model but otherwise important species. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  6. Dependency on de novo protein synthesis and proteomic changes during metamorphosis of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him

    2010-05-24

    Background: Metamorphosis in the bryozoan Bugula neritina (Linne) includes an initial phase of rapid morphological rearrangement followed by a gradual phase of morphogenesis. We hypothesized that the first phase may be independent of de novo synthesis of proteins and, instead, involves post-translational modifications of existing proteins, providing a simple mechanism to quickly initiate metamorphosis. To test our hypothesis, we challenged B. neritina larvae with transcription and translation inhibitors. Furthermore, we employed 2D gel electrophoresis to characterize changes in the phosphoproteome and proteome during early metamorphosis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and their gene expression patterns were profiled using semi-quantitative real time PCR.Results: When larvae were incubated with transcription and translation inhibitors, metamorphosis initiated through the first phase but did not complete. We found a significant down-regulation of 60 protein spots and the percentage of phosphoprotein spots decreased from 15% in the larval stage to12% during early metamorphosis. Two proteins--the mitochondrial processing peptidase beta subunit and severin--were abundantly expressed and phosphorylated in the larval stage, but down-regulated during metamorphosis. MPPbeta and severin were also down-regulated on the gene expression level.Conclusions: The initial morphogenetic changes that led to attachment of B. neritina did not depend on de novo protein synthesis, but the subsequent gradual morphogenesis did. This is the first time that the mitochondrial processing peptidase beta subunit or severin have been shown to be down-regulated on both gene and protein expression levels during the metamorphosis of B. neritina. Future studies employing immunohistochemistry to reveal the expression locality of these two proteins during metamorphosis should provide further evidence of the involvement of these two

  7. Changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome expression in the bryozoan Bugula neritina larvae in response to the antifouling agent butenolide

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei Yuan

    2010-09-08

    Larval attachment and metamorphosis, commonly referred to as larval settlement, of marine sessile invertebrates can be triggered or blocked by chemical cues and affected by changes in overall protein expression pattern and phosphorylation dynamics. This study focuses on the effects of butenolide, an effective larval settlement inhibitor, on larval settlement at the proteome level in the bryozoan Bugula neritina. Liquid-phase IEF sample prefractionation combined with 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Substantial changes occurred both in protein abundance and in phosphorylation status during larval settlement and when settling larvae were challenged with butenolide. The proteins that responded to treatment were identified as structural proteins, molecular chaperones, mitochondrial peptidases and calcium-binding proteins. Compared with our earlier results, both genistein and butenolide inhibited larval settlement of B. neritina primarily by changes in protein abundance and the phosphorylation status of proteins but have different protein targets in the same species. Clearly, to design potent antifouling compounds and to understand the mode of action of compounds, more studies on the effects of different compounds on proteome and phosphoproteome of different larval species are required. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  8. The Mode of Action of Isocyanide in Three Aquatic Organisms, Balanus amphitrite, Bugula neritina and Danio rerio

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi-Fan

    2012-09-18

    Isocyanide is a potential antifouling compound in marine environments. In this study, we investigated its mode of action in three aquatic organisms. Two of them, the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, are major marine fouling invertebrates, and the other organism is the non-target species zebrafish Danio rerio. In the swimming larvae of B. neritina, isocyanide did not affect the total attachment rate (≤50 µg ml^(−1)), but it did change the attachment site by increasing the percentage of attachment on the bottom of the container rather than on the wall or air-water inter-surface. Isocyanide binds several proteins in B. neritina as identified via SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS: 1) a 30 kD protein band containing two proteins similar to voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC), which control the direct coupling of the mitochondrial matrix to the energy maintenance of the cytosol and the release of apoptogenic factors from mitochondria of mammalian cells; and 2) an unknown 39 kD protein. In B. amphitrite cyprids, the isocyanide binding protein were 1) a protein similar to NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, which is the “entry enzyme” of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria; and 2) cytochrome P450. In Danio rerio embryos, isocyanide caused “wavy” notochords, hydrocephalus, pericardial edema, poor blood circulation, and defects in pigmentation and hematopoiesis, which phenocopied copper deficiency. This is the first report on isocyanide binding proteins in fouling organisms, as well as the first description of its phenotype and potential toxicology in zebrafish.

  9. The effect of butenolide on behavioral and morphological changes in two marine fouling species, the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi Fan

    2011-05-23

    Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] is a very promising antifouling compound. Here, the effects of butenolide on larval behavior and histology are compared in two major fouling organisms, viz. cypris larvae of Balanus amphitrite and swimming larvae of Bugula neritina. Butenolide diminished the positive phototactic behavior of B. amphitrite (EC50=0.82 μg ml(-1)) and B. neritina (EC50=3 μg ml(-1)). Its effect on the attachment of cyprids of B. amphitrite was influenced by temperature, and butenolide increased attachment of larvae of B. neritina to the bottom of the experimental wells. At concentrations of 4 μg ml(-1) and 10 μg ml(-1), butenolide decreased attachment of B. amphitrite and B. neritina, respectively, but the effects were reversible within a certain treatment time. Morphologically, butenolide inhibited the swelling of secretory granules and altered the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) in the cement gland of B. amphitrite cyprids. In B. neritina swimming larvae, butenolide reduced the number of secretory granules in the pyriform-glandular complex.

  10. Reversible anti-settlement activity against Amphibalanus (= Balanus ) amphitrite, Bugula neritina , and Hydroides elegans by a nontoxic pharmaceutical compound, mizolastine

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Xiaojian

    2009-11-01

    Mizolastine, an antihistamine pharmaceutical, was found to significantly inhibit larval settlement of the barnacle Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite, the bryozoan Bugula neritina, and the polychaete Hydroides elegans with EC50 values of 4.2, 11.2, and 4.1 mg ml-1, respectively. No toxicity against the larvae of these three species was observed at the concentration range tested during incubations with mizolastine. To determine whether the anti-settlement activity of mizolastine is reversible, recovery bioassays using these three species were conducted. More than 70% of the larvae that had been exposed for 4 h to mizolastine at concentrations four-fold greater than their respective EC50 values completed normal metamorphosis. The results of the recovery bioassay provide evidence that the antisettlement effect of mizolastine is reversible in addition to being nontoxic. The anti-settlement activities of several intermediates of the synthesis process of mizolastine were also examined. One of the intermediates, 2-chloro-1-(4- fluorobenzyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole, inhibited larval settlement and metamorphosis with low toxicity. These results may improve the understanding of the key functional group responsible for the anti-settlement activity of mizolastine. © 2009 Taylor & Francis.

  11. Fouling Bryozoa from some Alexandria harbours, EGYPT. (I Erect species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH.M. ABDEL-SALAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The fouling erect Bryozoa settled on polystyrene test panels immersed half a meter deep in the water of Abu Qir Harbour, the Eastern Harbour and El-Dekheila Harbour were studied. The present study yields 5 species of erect bryozoa. These areAmathia pruvoti, Zoobotryon verticillatum, Bowerbankia gracilis,Bugula neritina and Bugula stolonifera. The first three ones pertain to 3 genera of the family Vesiculariidae belonging to suborder the Stolonifera; while the other two species affiliate to the genus Bugula belonging to the family Bugulidae of suborder Anasca. The present record of Amathia pruvoti is the first from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. A re-description, supplied with full structural illustrations of the recorded species is given. Moreover, the temporal and spatial distributions of the species recorded are encountered.

  12. Efectos del retardo del asentamiento en las expectativas de vida del briozoo Bugula flabellata (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata Effects of delaying settlement on the life expectancy of the bryozoan Bugula flabellata (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN M CANCINO

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En presencia de un substrato adecuado las larvas lecitotróficas del briozoo Bugula flabellata se asientan preferentemente durante las primeras seis horas luego de su liberación desde las cámaras de incubación, mientras que un porcentaje marginal (1 % pospone el asentamiento entre 6 y 24 h. En este trabajo se demuestra que las larvas de B. flabellata forzadas, por agitación mecánica, al posponer el asentamiento entre 6 y 54 h reducen significativamente su adecuación biológica. Las larvas mantienen su capacidad para asentarse en un nivel cercano al 95 % durante las primeras 24 h de natación. Posteriormente solo un 30 % de las larvas forzadas a retrasar el asentamiento por 24 a 48 h fueron capaces de asentarse. Más aún, la capacidad para metamorfosear disminuye desde casi un 100 % inicial a menos de un 50 % a partir de las 6 h de retardo del asentamiento. Colonias derivadas de larvas que han sido forzadas a retrasar el asentamiento entre 48-54 h tienen al cabo de 21 días un menor número de zooides (7,6 ± 1,88 que colonias generadas por larvas que se asentaron entre 1-6 h después de la liberación (12,7 ± 1,02. Los efectos letales y subletales que genera el retardar el asentamiento larval sobre la capacidad para metamorfosear en B. flabellata, concuerdan con el patrón de asentamiento larval temprano descrito anteriormente para esta especie. Los efectos letales y subletales de retrasar el asentamiento en especies con larvas lecitotróficas, podrían ser una importante fuerza selectiva que favorecería la liberación larval en condiciones de bajo movimiento de agua.In the presence of a suitable substratum the lecithotrophic larvae of the bryozoan Bugula flabellata preferentially settle within the first six hours after hatching, whereas a marginal percentage of them (1 % delay settlement between 6 and 24 h after larval release. In the present study we report that larvae of B. flabellata forced, by mechanical water shaking, to delay

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of Membranipora grandicella (Bryozoa: Cheilostomatida) determined with next-generation sequencing: the first representative of the suborder Malacostegina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Tian, Mei; Meng, Xueping; Liu, Huilian; Cheng, Hanliang; Zhu, Changbao; Zhao, Fangqing

    2012-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has proven a valuable platform for fast and easy obtaining of large numbers of sequences at relatively low cost. In this study we use shot-gun sequencing method on Illumina HiSeq 2000, to obtain enough sequences for the assembly of the bryozoan Membranipora grandicella (Bryozoa: Cheilostomatida) mitochondrial genome, which is the first representative of the suborder Malacostegina. The complete mitochondrial genome is 15,861 bp in length, which is relatively larger than other studied bryozoans. The mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 20 transfer RNAs. To investigate the phylogenetic position and the inner relationships of the phylum Bryozoa, phylogenetic trees were constructed with amino acid sequences of 11 PCGs from 30 metazoans. Two superclades of protostomes, namely Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa, are recovered as monophyletic with strong support in both ML and Bayesian analyses. Somewhat to surprise, Bryozoa appears as the sister group of Chaetognatha with moderate or high support. The relationship among five bryozoans is Tubulipora flabellaris + (M. grandicella + (Flustrellidra hispida + (Bugula neritina + Watersipora subtorquata))), which supports for the view that Cheilostomatida is not a natural, monophyletic clade. NGS proved to be a quick and easy method for sequencing a complete mitochondrial genome. PMID:22503287

  14. Studies on antineoplastic constituents from marine bryozoan Bugula neritina inhabiting South China Sea:isolation and structural elucidation of a novel macrolide%中国南海总合草苔虫抗癌活性成分研究:一个新的大环内酯的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林厚文; 刘皋林; 易杨华; 姚新生; 吴厚铭

    2004-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the antineoplastic constituents from marine bryozoan Bugula neritina in South China Sea. Methods:Antineoplastic compounds were screened by bioassay-guided method with partitive extraction and multiple column chromatographies (Sephadex LH-20,ODS and preparative HPLC). Structures of active compounds were determined by high-resolution 2D NMR (600 MHz) and ESI-MS techniques. Results:A new antineoplastic macrolide bryostatin 19 (1) was isolated from this animal. Five known antineoplastic bryostatins: bryostatin 4 (2), bryostatin 5 (3), bryostatin 6 (4), bryostatin 18(5) and bryostatin 10(6),were for the first time obtained from this bryozoan in South China Sea. Bryostatin 19(1) shows strong inhibition activity against U937 cell line with ED50 value being 3.2 nmol/L in vitro. Conclusion : The animal resource of Bugula neritina is abundant in South China Sea. It contains potential antineoplastic new macrolide of bryostatin series and will be developed as potentially useful source of anticancer agents in the future.%目的:研究中国南海总合草苔虫中的抗癌活性成分.方法:通过分级萃取和多种硅胶柱层析(Sephadex LH-20凝胶过滤、ODS反相层析和HPLC)追踪分离抗癌活性成分;利用电喷雾离子质谱(ESI-MS)和高分辨(600 MHz)核磁共振二维谱技术鉴定化合物的结构.结果:分离得到一个新的具有显著抗肿瘤活性的大环内酯bryostatin 19(1).同时还首次自中国海域的该种苔虫中分离鉴定了5个bryostatins类大环内酯抗癌活性化合物:bryostatin 4,5,6,10,18.Bryostatin 19显示很强的体外抗癌活性,对U937细胞的ED50值为3.2 nmol/L.结论:我国南海总合草苔虫资源丰富,并且含有新结构的抗癌活性草苔虫内酯.本研究结果为今后的新药研制与开发提供了参考.

  15. Cheilostome Bryozoa from Penang and Langkawi, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Taylor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three species of cheilostome bryozoans are described from the Malaysian islands of Penang and Langkawi based on a brief reconnaisance survey of shore localities. These are the first bryozoans to be formally described from either island and they demonstrate the potential for further research on these neglected suspension feeders. Of the 23 species recorded, 12 are anascans, half of which are malacostegines, and 11 are ascophorans. The new combinations Acanthodesia falsitenuis (Liu, 1992, A. perambulata (Louis & Menon, 2009 and A. irregulata (Liu, 1992 are introduced. Most of the species recorded are widespread in the Indo-Pacific, and some are apparently globally distributed in the tropics and subtropics, including the invasive fouling species Bugula neritina, Hippoporina indica and Schizoporella japonica, as well as the coral reef associates Cranosina coronata and Hippopodina feegeensis. Plastic debris and glass bottles were encrusted by Jellyella eburnea, a coloniser of floating biological and man-made objects that is becoming widespread in the tropics and subtropics of the world’s oceans.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of Tubulipora flabellaris (Bryozoa: Stenolaemata): the first representative from the class Stenolaemata with unique gene order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming'an; Shen, Xin; Liu, Huilian; Liu, Xixing; Wu, Zhigang; Liu, Bin

    2011-09-01

    Mitochondrial genomes play a significant role in the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within metazoans. There are still many controversies concerning the phylogenetic position of the phylum Bryozoa. In this research, we have finished the complete mitochondrial genome of one bryozoan (Tubulipora flabellaris), which is the first representative from the class Stenolaemata. The complete mitochondrial genome of T. flabellaris is 13,763bp in length and contains 36 genes, which lacks the atp8 gene in contrast to the typical metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Gene arrangement comparisons indicate that the mitochondrial genome of T. flabellaris has unique gene order when compared with other metazoans. The four known bryozoans complete mitochondrial genomes also have very different gene arrangements, indicates that bryozoan mitochondrial genomes have experienced drastic rearrangements. To investigate the phylogenetic relationship of Bryozoa, phylogenetic analyses based on amino acid sequences of 11 protein coding genes (excluding atp6 and atp8) from 26 metazoan complete mitochondrial genomes were made utilizing Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods, respectively. The results indicate the monopoly of Lophotrochozoa and a close relationship between Chaetognatha and Bryozoa. However, more evidences are needed to clarify the relationship between two groups. Lophophorate appeared to be polyphyletic according to our analyses. Meanwhile, neither analysis supports close relationship between Branchiopod and Phoronida. Four bryozoans form a clade and the relationship among them is T. flabellaris+(F. hispida+(B. neritina+W. subtorquata)), which is in coincidence with traditional classification system. PMID:21867967

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Watersipora subtorquata (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata) with phylogenetic consideration of Bryozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming'an; Wu, Zhigang; Shen, Xin; Ren, Jianfeng; Liu, Xixing; Liu, Huilian; Liu, Bin

    2009-06-15

    The phylogenetic position of the Bryozoa has long been controversial. In this paper, we have determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the Watersipora subtorquata (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata). It is a circular molecule of 14,144 bp, relatively small compared with most other metazoan mitochondrial genomes, and bears some unusual features. All genes in the W. subtorquata mtDNA, unlike those in two bryozoan mtDNAs and most other metazoan mtDNAs published previously, are transcribed from the same strand. It has a unique gene order which differs radically from that of other metazoans. Drastic gene rearrangements were also found among bryozoan mtDNAs. To investigate the phylogenetic position of Bryozoa, analyses based on amino acid sequences of 11 protein-coding genes (excluding atp6 and atp8) from 25 metazoan mtDNAs were made utilizing ML and Bayesian methods. Lophotrochozoa was recovered as monophyletic with strong support in our analyses. Lophophorate was undoubted within Lophotrochozoa, but appears as polyphyletic, which indicates that the lophophores of this group may be of different origin. The existence of Phoronozoa was rejected. Our analyses indicated that Phoronida is more closely related to Annelid instead of Brachiopod. Chaetognatha appeared as the sister group of Bryozoa and they formed a clade together with strong support. More evidence is needed to clarify the relationship of these two phyla. PMID:19289161

  18. Evolutionary Relationships of “Candidatus Endobugula” Bacterial Symbionts and Their Bugula Bryozoan Hosts▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lim-Fong, Grace E.; Regali, Lindsay A.; Haygood, Margo G.

    2008-01-01

    Ribosomal gene sequences were obtained from bryozoans in the genus Bugula and their bacterial symbionts; analyses of host and symbiont phylogenetic trees did not support a history of strict cospeciation. Symbiont-derived compounds known to defend host larvae from predation were only detected in two out of four symbiotic Bugula species.

  19. Epibiont relationships on hyolithids demonstrated by Ordovician trepostomes (Bryozoa) and Devonian tabulates (Anthozoa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galle, Arnošt; Parsley, R. L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 2 (2005), s. 125-138. ISSN 1214-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/02/1576 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : epibionts * obligate and facultative symbiosis * mutualism * Ordovician * Devonian * Hyolithida * Tabulata * Bryozoa Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.geology.cz/bulletin/contents/2005/vol80no2/125_galle.pdf

  20. Paleoecological Analysis of Cheilostome Bryozoa from Venezuela - British Guiana Shelf Sediments, 14 September 1963 to 19 September 1963 (NODC Accession 7100130)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The abundance of cheilostome Bryozoa in many Cenozoic sublittoral marine facies, their sedentary existence, minute size and sensitivity to environmental conditions...

  1. Brachyura (Crustacea, Decapoda associated to Schizoporella unicornis (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata in Ubatuba bay (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando L. M. Mantelatto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work characterizes the composition of Brachyura from Schizoporella unicornis. The samples were collected in 1995 at Itaguá Beach, Ubatuba (SP, at three month intervals, during all seasons from January to December. The Bryozoa colonies were obtained by snorkeling at a depth of five meters in daylight. A total of 323 specimens were collected from four families (Xanthidae, Portunidae, Majidae and Grapsidae. Pachygrapsus transversus, Hexapanopeus schimitti, and Menippe nodifrons occurred in all seasons. The highest and lowest number of individuals occurred during the spring and autumn, respectively. Xanthidae exhibited the highest density during the summer, autumn, and spring, while Grapsidae exhibited the highest density in winter. It was noted the presence of Charibdis hellerii, an portunid from Indo-Pacific ocean. The diversity of species obtained, in addition to an accentuated number of immature and ovigerous females specimens, suggested that Schizoporella colonies were a place of reproduction and development.Este trabalho caracterizou a composição dos braquiúros em Schizoporella unicornis. As amostras foram coletadas na Praia do Itaguá, Ubatuba (SP, em intervalos de três meses, durante as estações climáticas de Janeiro a Dezembro/1995. As colônias de briozoários foram obtidas por mergulho livre, coletadas pela manhã. Um total de 323 espécimes foram coletados dentro de quatro famílias (Xanthidae, Portunidae, Majidae e Grapsidae. Pachygrapsus transversus, Hexapanopeus schimitti e Menippe nodifrons ocorreram em todas as estações. O maior e o menor número de indivíduos foram registrados na primavera e no outono, respectivamente. Xanthidae exibiu maior densidade no verão, outono e primavera, enquanto Grapsidae foi no inverno. Registrou-se a ocorrência de Charibdis hellerii, espécie originária do Indo-Pacífico. A diversidade de espécies obtida, juntamente com o acentuado número de indivíduos imaturos e fêmeas ov

  2. Insights into the organization of plumatellid larvae (lophotrochozoa, Bryozoa) by means of 3D-imaging and confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaha, Thomas F; Handschuh, Stephan; Redl, Emanuel; Wanninger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Within the Lophotrochozoa, the Bryozoa or Ectoprocta remain one of the phyla whose phylogenetic relation to other lophotrochozoans is still controversely discussed. To complement existing data and to gain more insight into bryozoan character evolution, we analyzed the morphology of the larva of the phylactolaemate Plumatella sp. The larva of Plumatella spp. consists of an outer ciliated mantle that covers two differentiated polypides. The muscular and serotonergic nervous system of the polypides correspond to previous studies. The two polypides and their corresponding buds differ in size, which, together with a comparison among bryozoans, indicates that a single polypide is the basal condition. The whole larval mantle and mantle fold are supplied with circular and longitudinal muscles, the former being more pronounced in the mantle fold. The apical plate on the anterior side contains a diffuse mesh of crossing fibers and thus differs from previous descriptions, which recognized a regular muscular grid. The serotonergic nervous system in the mantle and mantle fold consists of a diffuse basiepidermal nerve net with its highest concentration at the apical plate. Serotonin immunoreactivity so far has not been detected in the mantle fold. However, the presence of other neurotransmitters in the mantle fold shown by previous studies indicates that this nerve net is a common feature of phylactolaemate larvae. The main difference between currently analyzed phylactolaemate larvae seems to be the complexity of the larval mantle musculature, which most likely plays an important role during metamorphosis. This study confirms previous interpretations that the apical plate pole does not correspond to the apical pole of gymnolaemate larvae but to their oral side. Accelerated asexual development on the aboral pole leads to the suggestion that an apical organ is never formed and the apical plate compensates for its absence in the free-swimming period. PMID:25278218

  3. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him

    2014-10-10

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids.

  4. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yue Him; Ryu, Taewoo; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids. PMID:25300304

  5. A phase-I study of intravenous bryostatin-1 in patients with advanced cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Prendiville, J.; Crowther, D; Thatcher, N.; Woll, P. J.; Fox, B. W.; McGown, A.; Testa, N.; Stern, P.; McDermott, R.; Potter, M; Pettit, G R

    1993-01-01

    Bryostatin 1 is a novel antitumour agent derived from Bugula neritina of the marine phylum Ectoprocta. Nineteen patients with advanced solid tumours were entered into a phase I study to evaluate the toxicity and biological effects of bryostatin 1. Bryostatin 1 was given as a one hour intravenous infusion at the beginning of each 2 week treatment cycle. A maximum of three treatment cycles were given. Doses were escalated in steps from 5 to 65 jig m-2 in successive patient groups. T...

  6. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Yue Him; Ryu, Taewoo; Seridi, Loqmane; Ghosheh, Yanal; Bougouffa, Salim; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula ne...

  7. Biofilm history and oxygen availability interact to affect habitat selection in a marine invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo E; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J

    2016-07-01

    In marine systems, oxygen availability varies at small temporal and spatial scales, such that current oxygen levels may not reflect conditions of the past. Different studies have shown that marine invertebrate larvae can select settlement sites based on local oxygen levels and oxygenation history of the biofilm, but no study has examined the interaction of both. The influence of normoxic and hypoxic water and oxygenation history of biofilms on pre-settlement behavior and settlement of the bryozoan Bugula neritina was tested. Larvae used cues in a hierarchical way: the oxygen levels in the water prime larvae to respond, the response to different biofilms is contingent on oxygen levels in the water. When oxygen levels varied throughout biofilm formation, larvae responded differently depending on the history of the biofilm. It appears that B. neritina larvae integrate cues about current and historical oxygen levels to select the appropriate microhabitat and maximize their fitness. PMID:27169475

  8. A phase I study of intravenous bryostatin 1 in patients with advanced cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Prendiville, J.; Crowther, D; Thatcher, N.; Woll, P. J.; Fox, B. W.; McGown, A.; Testa, N.; Stern, P.; McDermott, R.; Potter, M

    1993-01-01

    Bryostatin 1 is a novel antitumour agent derived from Bugula neritina of the marine phylum Ectoprocta. Nineteen patients with advanced solid tumours were entered into a phase I study to evaluate the toxicity and biological effects of bryostatin 1. Bryostatin 1 was given as a one hour intravenous infusion at the beginning of each 2 week treatment cycle. A maximum of three treatment cycles were given. Doses were escalated in steps from 5 to 65 micrograms m-2 in successive patient groups. The ma...

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14402-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available chrysanthemi strain PY35 g... 69 1e-10 CP001287_3252( CP001287 |pid:none) Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801, com...) Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367, ... 32 9.9 AY690838_7( AY690838 |pid:none) Bugula neritina mito...onas vaginalis glycogen pho... 82 1e-14 AP001309_2( AP001309 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana genomi...1 CP001124_2421( CP001124 |pid:none) Geobacter bemidjiensis Bem, com... 71 3e-11 ...) Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremor... 64 2e-09 CP000095_2005( CP000095 |pid:none) Prochlorococcus marin

  10. Comparative Glycoproteome Analysis: Dynamics of Protein Glycosylation during Metamorphic Transition from Pelagic to Benthic Life Stages in Three Invertebrates

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli H.

    2012-02-03

    The life cycle of most benthic marine invertebrates has two distinct stages: the pelagic larval stage and the sessile juvenile stage. The transition between the larval stage and the juvenile stage is often abrupt and may be triggered by post-translational modification of proteins. Glycosylation, a very important post-translational modification, influences the biological activity of proteins. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by glycoprotein-specific fluorescence staining and mass spectrometry with the goal of identifying glycosylation pattern changes during larval settlement and metamorphosis in barnacles, bryozoans, and polychaetes. Our results revealed substantial changes in the protein glycosylation patterns from larval to juvenile stages. Before metamorphosis, the degree of protein glycosylation was high in the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite and the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa, whereas it increased after metamorphosis in the bryozoan Bugula neritina. We identified 19 abundant and differentially glycosylated proteins in these three species. Among the proteins, cellular stress- and metabolism-related proteins exhibited distinct glycosylation in B. amphitrite and B. neritina, whereas fatty acid metabolism-related proteins were abundantly glycosylated in P. vexillosa. Furthermore, the protein and gene expression analysis of some selected glycoproteins revealed that the degree of protein glycosylation did not always complement with transcriptional and translational changes associated with the larval-juvenile transition. The current study provides preliminary information on protein glycosylation in marine invertebrates that will serve as a solid basis for future comprehensive analysis of glycobiology during larval settlement and metamorphosis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. AMPHIBLESTRUM (AVICULAMPHIBLESTRUM RUGGEROI SP. N., SUBGEN. N. (BRYOZOA FROM THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIETTA ROSSO

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species and a new subgenus Amphiblestrum (Aviculamphiblestrum ruggeroi sp.n. are described from deep circalittoral-epibathyal bottoms from the Sicily Strait and the north-western Mediterranean. The new subgenus is created to distinguish, within Amphiblestrum, species with both gymnocystal adventitious and large interzooidal avicularia, both originating from basal pore chambers. 

  12. Freshwater Bryozoa (Phylactolaemata) from Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacourt, A.W.

    1955-01-01

    The Phylactolaemata-fauna of Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire, as it appears from the samples collected by dr P. Wagenaar Hummelinck, is connected with the fauna of the South-American mainland. The material belongs to three species only: Hyalinella agilis — Curaçao, Aruba, Bonaire — in temporary or semi-p

  13. Structure and occurrence of cyphonautes larvae (Bryozoa, Ectoprocta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Worsaae, Katrine

    2010-01-01

    We have studied larvae of the freshwater ctenostome Hislopia malayensis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and LM of serial sections. Some additional observations on larvae of M. membranacea using SEM and CLSM are also reported. The overall configu...

  14. Fossil Steginoporellid (Cheilostomata: Neocheilostomina), Bryozoa from the Tertiary sediments of Western Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohan A Sonar; Sharad G Gaikwad

    2013-02-01

    Five species of Steginoporella from the Palaeogene rocks of the Western Kachchh, Gujarat are described in this paper. Out of five steginoporellids, S. mathuri n.sp., S. murachbanensis n.sp. and S. chiplonkari n.sp. are new to science; S. bhujensis is already reported from this region; and Steginoporella sp. indet is reported for the first time in these rocks. All these species show Indo-Pacific affinities. The occurrence of Steginoporella from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene indicates that two stages of radiation had taken place in Kachchh. Phylogenetic analysis using PAST programme indicates that S. mathuri is very distinct from other species of Steginoporella; while S. murachbanensis and S. bhujensis form the same clade.

  15. Diversity and Systematics of Schizomavella Species (Bryozoa: Bitectiporidae from the Bathyal NE Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Reverter-Gil

    Full Text Available Eight NE Atlantic and Mediterranean species, which were originally assigned to the genus Schizoporella (Family Schizoporellidae when introduced, are redescribed and stabilized by typification. Seven of these species are transferred to the bitectiporid genus Schizomavella: S. fischeri, S. glebula, S. neptuni, S. obsoleta, S. richardi, S. triaviculata, and S. triaviculata var. paucimandibulata, which is here raised to species rank. The eighth species, Schizoporella fayalensis, is transferred to the lanceoporid genus Stephanotheca. Schizomavella obsoleta and S. glebula are considered junior subjective synonyms of S. fischeri and S. richardi, respectively. Two new species are described: Schizomavella rectangularis n. sp. from the Strait of Gibraltar, and Schizomavella phterocopa n. sp. from the Great Meteor Bank. A new subgenus, Calvetomavella n. subgen. is established as a result of a phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters; it includes S. neptuni, S. triaviculata, S. paucimandibulata and S. phterocopa n. sp., together with Schizomavella discoidea and Schizomavella noronhai. The rest of the species remain in the nominotypical subgenus Schizomavella.

  16. Effects of Calpensia nobilis (Esper 1796) (Bryozoa: Cheilostomida) on the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Colmenero, Laura; Sánchez-Lizaso, José Luis

    1999-01-01

    Calpensia nobilis (Esper) is a bryozoan which grows on rhizomes of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile. To assess the impact of the bryozoan on the seagrass, at each of two localities, Tabarca Island and Cabo de Palos, two sites were sampled. The samples were subjected to a lepidochronological analysis in order to measure the differences in growth rate, weight/length ratio, rhizome production and number of leaves per year in rhizomes colonised by C. nobilis versus no colonised ones. A...

  17. Butenolide inhibits marine fouling by altering the primary metabolism of three target organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yifan

    2012-06-15

    Butenolide is a very promising antifouling compound that inhibits ship hull fouling by a variety of marine organisms, but its antifouling mechanism was previously unknown. Here we report the first study of butenolides molecular targets in three representative fouling organisms. In the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite, butenolide bound to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), which is involved in ketone body metabolism. Both the substrate and the product of ACAT1 increased larval settlement under butenolide treatment, suggesting its functional involvement. In the bryozoan Bugula neritina, butenolide bound to very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADVL), actin, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). ACADVL is the first enzyme in the very long chain fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. The inhibition of this primary pathway for energy production in larvae by butenolide was supported by the finding that alternative energy sources (acetoacetate and pyruvate) increased larval attachment under butenolide treatment. In marine bacterium Vibrio sp. UST020129-010, butenolide bound to succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (SCSβ) and inhibited bacterial growth. ACAT1, ACADVL, and SCSβ are all involved in primary metabolism for energy production. These findings suggest that butenolide inhibits fouling by influencing the primary metabolism of target organisms. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Complex life cycles and offspring provisioning in marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Dustin J; Keough, Michael J

    2006-10-01

    Offspring size can have pervasive effects throughout an organism's life history. Mothers can make either a few large or many small offspring, and the balance between these extremes is determined by the relationship between offspring size and performance. This relationship in turn is thought to be determined by the offspring's environment. Recently, it has become clear that events in one life-history stage can strongly affect performance in another. Given these strong carryover effects, we asked whether events in the larval phase can change the relationship between offspring size and performance in the adult phase. We manipulated the length of the larval period in the bryozoan Bugula neritina and then examined the relationship between offspring size and various parameters of adult performance under field conditions. We found that despite the adult stage being outplanted into identical conditions, different offspring sizes were predicted to be optimal, depending on the experience of those adults as larvae. This work highlights the fact that the strong phenotypic links between life-history stages may result in optimal offspring size being highly unpredictable for organisms with complex life cycles. PMID:21672775

  19. Redescription of some species of Bryozoa described by J. Jullien and L. Calvet in the NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Reverter-Gil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Five species described by Jullien and/or Calvet from the NE Atlantic are redescribed and stabilized by typification: Hippothoa amoena, Schizoporella confusa, S. jullieni, S. ovum and Smittia guernei. Three new synonymies are established: Schizoporella jullieni with Hippothoa amoena, S. ovum with Escharina alderi, and Escharella pseudopunctata with Smittia guernei. A new trypostegid genus, Pulpeirina gen. nov., is erected for H. amoena. Three new combinations are introduced.

  20. Anti-Infective Potential of Marine Invertebrates and Seaweeds from the Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Steindel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the evaluation of anti-infective potential in vitro of organic extracts from nine sponges, one ascidian, two octocorals, one bryozoan, and 27 seaweed species collected along the Brazilian coast. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 by the disk diffusion method. Antiprotozoal activity was evaluated against Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/BR/96/LSC96-H3 promastigotes and Trypanosoma cruzi (MHOM/BR/00/Y epimastigotes by MTT assay. Activity against intracellular amastigotes of T. cruzi and L. brasiliensis in murine macrophages was also evaluated. Antiviral activity was tested against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS strain by the plaque number reduction assay (IC50. Cytotoxicity on VERO cells was evaluated by the MTT assay (CC50. The results were expressed as SI = CC50/IC50. The most promising antimicrobial results were obtained against S. aureus and C. albicans with Dragmacidon reticulatum. Among the seaweeds, only Osmundaria obtusiloba showed moderate activity against P. aeruginosa. Concerning antiprotozoal activity, Bugula neritina, Carijoa riseii, Dragmaxia anomala and Haliclona (Halichoclona sp. showed the most interesting results, mainly against extracellular promastigote forms of L. braziliensis (66, 35.9, 97.2, and 43.6% inhibition, respectively. Moreover, six species of seaweeds Anadyomene saldanhae, Caulerpa cupressoides, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Dictyota sp., Ochtodes secundiramea, and Padina sp. showed promising results against L. braziliensis (87.9, 51.7, 85.9, 93.3, 99.7, and 80.9% inhibition, respectively, and only Dictyota sp. was effective against T. cruzi (60.4% inhibition. Finally, the antiherpes activity was also evaluated, with Haliclona (Halichoclona sp. and Petromica citrina showing the best results (SI = 11.9 and SI > 5

  1. The role of nano-roughness in antifouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scardino, A.J.; Zhang, H.; Cookson, D.J.; Lamb, R.N.; de Nys, R.; (Aust. Synch.); (James Cook U.)

    2010-02-19

    Nano-engineered superhydrophobic surfaces have been investigated for potential fouling resistance properties. Integrating hydrophobic materials with nanoscale roughness generates surfaces with superhydrophobicity that have water contact angles ({theta}) >150{sup o} and concomitant low hysteresis (<10{sup o}). Three superhydrophobic coatings (SHCs) differing in their chemical composition and architecture were tested against major fouling species (Amphora sp., Ulva rigida, Polysiphonia sphaerocarpa, Bugula neritina, Amphibalanus amphitrite) in settlement assays. The SHC which had nanoscale roughness alone (SHC 3) deterred the settlement of all the tested fouling organisms, compared to selective settlement on the SHCs with nano- and micro-scale architectures. The presence of air incursions or nanobubbles at the interface of the SHCs when immersed was characterized using small angle X-ray scattering, a technique sensitive to local changes in electron density contrast resulting from partial or complete wetting of a rough interface. The coating with broad spectrum antifouling properties (SHC 3) had a noticeably larger amount of unwetted interface when immersed, likely due to the comparatively high work of adhesion (60.77 mJ m{sup -2} for SHC 3 compared to 5.78 mJ m-2 for the other two SHCs) required for creating solid/liquid interface from the solid/vapour interface. This is the first example of a non-toxic, fouling resistant surface against a broad spectrum of fouling organisms ranging from plant cells and non-motile spores, to complex invertebrate larvae with highly selective sensory mechanisms. The only physical property differentiating the immersed surfaces is the nano-architectured roughness which supports longer standing air incursions providing a novel non-toxic broad spectrum mechanism for the prevention of biofouling.

  2. Drugs from the Sea - Opportunities and Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Ebel

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The supply problem with regard to drug development and sustainable production lies in the limited amounts of biomass of most marine invertebrates available from wild stocks. Thus, most pharmacologically active marine natural products can only be isolated in minute yields. Total synthesis of pharmacologically active natural products has been successfully established but is in many cases economically not feasible due to the complexity of the molecular structures and the low yields. To solve the pressing supply issue in marine drug discovery, other strategies appear to be more promising. One of these is mariculture which has successfully been established with the bryozoan Bugula neritina (the source of the bryostatins and the tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata (the source of ET-743. Another strategy involves partial synthesis from precursors which are biotechnologically available. An example is ET-743 that can be partially synthesized from safracin B which is a metabolite of Pseudomonas fluorescens. There have been many examples of striking structural similarities between natural products obtained from marine invertebrates and those of microbial origin which suggests that microorganisms living in their invertebrate hosts could be the actual producers of these secondary metabolites. With regard to sustainable biotechnological production of pharmacologically important metabolites from marine invertebrates and their “endosymbionts”, a more advanced strategy is to focus on cloning and expression of the respective key biosynthetic gene clusters. This molecular biological approach will open up new avenues for biotechnological production of drugs or drug candidates from the sea.

  3. Phosphoproteome analysis during larval development and metamorphosis in the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Pei-Yuan

    2011-05-01

    previous studies showing a high percentage of phosphorylation during competency in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. The identified phosphoproteins may play an important role during metamorphosis, and further studies on the location and functions of important proteins during metamorphosis are warranted.

  4. Secondary metabolites from nudibranchs Tambja stegosauriformis, Hypselodoris lajenis and Okenia zoobotryon and from bryozoans Zoobotryon verticillatum and Bugula dentata from the Brazilian coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical investigation of the MeOH extract from the bryozoan B. dentata MeOH yielded tambjamines A (1), C (3), D (4), K (6), aldehyde 8 and the new tambjamine J1(9), while the extract of its predator, the nudibranch Tambja stegosauriformis, yielded tambjamines C and K, along with aldehyde 8. Furodisinin lactone (11) was isolated from the nudibranch Hypselodoris lajensis, a compound previously isolated from Dysidea sponges. The alkaloid 2,5,6-tribromo-N-methylgramine (12) was isolated from the nudibranch Okenia zoobotryon and from its prey, the bryozoan Zoobotryon verticillatum, the only source of 12 previously known. (author)

  5. Antibiotic, cytotoxic and enzyme inhibitory activity of crude extracts from Brazilian marine invertebrates Atividade antibiótica, citotóxica e de inibição enzimática de extratos brutos de invertebrados marinhos do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna H. R. Seleghim

    2007-09-01

    , Niphates, Cliona, Darwinella, Dysidea, Ircinia, Monanchora and Mycale, ascidians of the genera Didemnum, Aplidium, Botrylloides, Clavelina, Polysyncraton and Symplegma, the bryozoan Bugula sp. and octocorals of the genera Carijoa and Lophogorgia. The subsequent chemical investigation of some of the active extracts led to the isolation of several new biologically active secondary metabolites. Our results are in agreement with previous screening programs carried out abroad, that showed a high percentage of bioactive extracts from Porifera, Ascidiacea, Cnidaria and Bryozoa.No presente estudo apresentamos resultados da triagem biológica realizada com 349 extratos obtidos de esponjas marinhas, ascídias, briozoários e octocorais do Brasil, em testes contra 16 linhagens de bactérias comuns e resistentes à antibióticos, uma levedura (Candida albicans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, três linhagens de células tumorais MCF-7 (mama, B16 (melanoma murínico e HCT8 (cólon, e de inibição da enzima adenina fosforribosil transferase de Leishmania tarentolae (L-APRT. Menos de 15% dos extratos de esponja marinhas apresentaram atividade antibacteriana, contra linhagens resistentes ou não a antibióticos. Quase 40% dos extratos de esponjas marinhas apresentaram atividade antimicobacteriana contra Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Foi observada citotoxicidade para 18% dos extratos de esponjas marinhas. Finalmente, menos de 3% dos extratos de esponjas apresentaram atividade inibitória da enzima L-APRT. Menos de 10% dos extratos de ascídias apresentaram atividade antibacteriana. Mais de 25% dos extratos de ascídias apresentaram atividade contra M. tuberculosis e as três linhagens de células tumorais. Somente dois extratos obtidos da ascídia Polysyncraton sp. coletada em duas diferentes épocas (1995 e 1997 apresentaram atividade contra L-APRT. Menos de 2% dos extratos de briozoários e octocorais apresentaram atividade antibacteriana, mas uma alta percentagem de extratos

  6. Secondary metabolites from nudibranchs Tambja stegosauriformis, Hypselodoris lajenis and Okenia zoobotryon and from bryozoans Zoobotryon verticillatum and Bugula dentata from the Brazilian coastline; Metabolitos secundarios dos nudibranquios Tambja stegosauriformis, Hypselodoris lajensis e Okenia zoobotryon e dos briozoarios Zoobotryon verticillatum e Bugula dentata da costa do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabio R.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Veloso, Katyuscya; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Padula, Vinicius, E-mail: rgsberlinck@iqsc.usp.br [Zoologische Staatssammlung Muenchen, Mollusca Sektion, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The chemical investigation of the MeOH extract from the bryozoan B. dentata MeOH yielded tambjamines A (1), C (3), D (4), K (6), aldehyde 8 and the new tambjamine J1(9), while the extract of its predator, the nudibranch Tambja stegosauriformis, yielded tambjamines C and K, along with aldehyde 8. Furodisinin lactone (11) was isolated from the nudibranch Hypselodoris lajensis, a compound previously isolated from Dysidea sponges. The alkaloid 2,5,6-tribromo-N-methylgramine (12) was isolated from the nudibranch Okenia zoobotryon and from its prey, the bryozoan Zoobotryon verticillatum, the only source of 12 previously known. (author)

  7. Phosphoproteome analysis during larval development and metamorphosis in the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2011-05-25

    high percentage of phosphorylation during competency in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. The identified phosphoproteins may play an important role during metamorphosis, and further studies on the location and functions of important proteins during metamorphosis are warranted. © 2011 Chandramouli et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  8. Distribución de los gasterópodos del manglar, Neritina virgínea (Neritidae) y Littoraria angulifera (Littorinidae) en la Ecorregión Darién, Caribe colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Ferney Ortiz; Juan Felipe Blanco

    2012-01-01

    Aunque los gasterópodos son uno de los grupos más abundantes en los manglares del Caribe, poco se sabe del ámbito de especies particulares debido al enfoque comunitario de la mayoría de los estudios. El ámbito de las poblaciones de L. angulifera y N. virginea fue estudiado en la Ecorregión Darién, Caribe colombiano. El muestreo se realizó entre junio y agosto 2009, se recolectaron 3 963 individuos de ambas especies, a los cuales se les midió la talla de la concha. La Ecorregión presentó difer...

  9. Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana, Gundlachia radiata Helisoma (= Planorbella) trivolvis, Melanoides tuberculata, Neritina punctulata, and Physa marmorata. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as Gundlachia radiata and Hel...

  10. DNA barcoding reveals neritid diversity (Mollusca: Gastropoda) diversity in Malaysian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, S Y; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2016-05-01

    This is the first study to identify and determine the phylogenetics of neritids found in Malaysia. In total, twelve species from the family Neritidae were recorded. Ten species were from the genus Nerita and two species were from the genus Neritina. DNA barcodes were successfully assigned to each species. Although some of these species were previously reported in the region, three are only presently reported in this study. The dendrogram showed Nerita and Neritina strongly supported in their respective monophyletic clades. Phylogenetic positions of some species appeared unstable in the trees. This could be due to the differences in a small number of nucleotides, thus minimizing genetic variation between each specimen and species. PMID:25471442

  11. Fouling polyzoans of Bombay offshore waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; DeSouza, A.P.; Wagh, A.B.

    ; 1831 Nitsche, 1869 Allman, 1856 Busk,1852 Busk,1859 Johnston, 1847 . Lamx.,1812 Crisia elongata Milne Edwards, 1838 . DesCription: Zoarium erect, bushy, well branched. Branches elongate with jet black chitinous joints. Zooids tubular, alternate....N. Ganapati, 1978. Ecology of fouling bryozoans at Visakhapatnarn Harbour. Proceedings of Indian Academy of Sciences (Animal Sciences), 87 :63 -75. Rao, K.S. and r.N. Ganapati, 1980. Epizoic fauna of Thalamoporella vaT. indica and Pherusclla tubulosa (Bryozoa...

  12. Possible microbial origin of phosphorites on Error Seamount, northwestern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Lamboy, M.; Natarajan, R.

    black material (probably organic matter) have also been observed (Fig.2c). The dark phosphate micro- laminations are overlain by and interspersed with "ghost" pellets. Some of the skeletal components identified are filamentous algae, bryozoa..., molluscs, and index fossils such as coralline algae (Litho- thamniae), and benthic foraminifera (Miogypsini- dae and Gypsinidae); these components suggest that the age range of the crust material is Oligocene to lower Miocene. Crystals...

  13. Hidden diversity and evolutionary trends in malacosporean parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) identified using molecular phylogenetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartošová, Pavla; Hrabcová, M.; Pecková, Hana; Patra, Sneha; Kodádková, Alena; Jurajda, Pavel; Tyml, Tomáš; Holzer, Astrid S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 8 (2014), s. 565-577. ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P724; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA AV ČR(CZ) M200961205 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68081766 Keywords : Buddenbrockia * Tetracapsuloides * diversity * phylogeny * Bryozoa * fish * cryptic * worm Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EG - Zoology (UBO-W) Impact factor: 3.872, year: 2014

  14. First evidence of tumor-like anomaly infestation in Copepods from the central Indian Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhandare, C.; Ingole, B.S.

    in the shore laboratory. Copepods were identified!! up to generic level, but only to broader assemblages with some specialist groups; immature and damaged ispecies. All copepods with the protuberances were sorted, COunted and studied individually. Based... Copepod composition: Zooplankton community of the study area was composed of 27 taxonomic groups and was dominated by copepods, which comprised of 79.76% of the total zooplankton abundance followed by Chaetognatha (3.63%), Bryozoa (3.43%), Larvacea (2...

  15. 18S rRNA suggests that Entoprocta are protostomes, unrelated to Ectoprocta

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, L.Y.; Winnepenninckx, B.; Wachter, R.; Backeljau, T.; Emschermann, P.; Garey, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Ento- and Ectoprocta are sometimes placed together in the Bryozoa, which have variously been regarded as proto- or deuterostomes. However, Entoprocta have also been allied to the pseudocoelomates, while Ectoprocta are often united with the Brachiopoda and Phoronida in the (super)phylum Lophophorata. Hence, the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa are still much debated. We determined complete 18S rRNA sequences of two entoprocts, an ectoproct, an inarticulate brachiopod, a phoronid, t...

  16. The nervous system of Paludicella articulata - first evidence of a neuroepithelium in a ctenostome ectoproct

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Anna V; Wanninger, Andreas; Schwaha, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Comparatively few data are available concerning the structure of the adult nervous system in the Ectoprocta or Bryozoa. In contrast to all other ectoprocts, the cerebral ganglion of phylactolaemates contains a central fluid-filled lumen surrounded by a neuroepithelium. Preliminary observations have shown a small lumen within the cerebral ganglion of the ctenostome Paludicella articulata. Ctenostome-grade ectoprocts are of phylogenetic relevance since they are considered to have r...

  17. Modern Data on the Innervation of the Lophophore in Lingula anatina (Brachiopoda) Support the Monophyly of the Lophophorates

    OpenAIRE

    Temereva, Elena N.; Tsitrin, Eugeni B

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships among members of the Lophophorata remain unclear. Traditionally, the Lophophorata included three phyla: Brachiopoda, Bryozoa or Ectoprocta, and Phoronida. All species in these phyla have a lophophore, which is regarded as a homologous structure of the lophophorates. Because the organization of the nervous system has been traditionally used to establish relationships among groups of animals, information on the organization of the nervous system in the lophophore of p...

  18. A list of macrofauna on the continental shelf of Gökçeada Island (northern Aegean Sea) with a new record (Gryphus vitreus Born, 1778) (Brachiopoda, Rhynchonellata) for the Turkish seas

    OpenAIRE

    Gönülal, Onur; Güreşen, Sedat Ozan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Long-term sampling (1974-2013) of macro fauna of the Gökçeada Island (northern Aegean Sea) provided qualitative information on many taxa including Porifera, Cnidaria Mollusca, Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Spinculida, Echinodermata, Chordata. Gryphus vitreus (Brachiopoda) and Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) are the first records for the Turkish seas and the Aegean coast of Turkey, respectively. The present paper aims to describe macrofauna occurring on the continental sh...

  19. Water-borne sperm trigger vitellogenic egg growth in two sessile marine invertebrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, J D; Manríquez, P H; Hughes, R. N.

    2000-01-01

    A diverse array of sessile marine invertebrates mate by passive dispersal of sperm which fertilize the brooded eggs of neighbours. In two such species, a sea-mat (phylum Bryozoa) and an ascidian (phylum Chordata), vitellogenic egg growth is absent in reproductively isolated specimens, but is triggered by a water-borne factor released by conspecifics. In both of these colonial, hermaphroditic species, the active factor can be removed from water by filtration. The effect involves self-/non-self...

  20. Efecto de la conversión del manglar a potrero sobre la densidad y tallas de dos gasterópodos en el delta del río Turbo (golfo de Urabá, Caribe colombiano) Effects mangrove conversion to pasture on density and shell size of two gastropods in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Caribbean coast of Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Juan F.; María C. Castaño

    2012-01-01

    El delta del río Turbo es una de las áreas del golfo de Urabá, Colombia donde la tala de manglar es más extensa y activa, por lo tanto, se evaluó el impacto de la conversión de manglar a potrero, comparando la densidad y talla promedio de dos gasterópodos (Neritina virginea y Melampus coffeus), variables dasonómicas, físico-químicas intersticiales y granulométricas del suelo entre varios parches de: 1) manglar de franja, 2) manglar de cuenca, 3) manglar de cuenca mixto y 4) manglar de cuenca ...

  1. Efecto de la conversión del manglar a potrero sobre la densidad y tallas de dos gasterópodos en el delta del río Turbo (golfo de Urabá, Caribe colombiano)

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Juan F.; María C. Castaño

    2012-01-01

    El delta del río Turbo es una de las áreas del golfo de Urabá, Colombia donde la tala de manglar es más extensa y activa, por lo tanto, se evaluó el impacto de la conversión de manglar a potrero, comparando la densidad y talla promedio de dos gasterópodos (Neritina virginea y Melampus coffeus), variables dasonómicas, físico-químicas intersticiales y granulométricas del suelo entre varios parches de: 1) manglar de franja, 2) manglar de cuenca, 3) manglar de cuenca mixto y 4) manglar de cuenca ...

  2. A checklist of malacofauna of the Vellar Estuarine Mangroves, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kesavan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey conducted to know the diversity of malacofauna in Vellar estuarine mangroves (southeast coast of India. In this study, 13 species of molluscs (10 species of gastropods - Melampus ceylonicus, Cerithidea cingulata, Cassidula nucleus, Pythia plicata, Neritina (Dostia violacea, Littorina scabra, Littorina melanostoma, Ellobium aurisjudae, C. obtusa T. telescopium and Assiminea nitida and 3 species of bivalves - Perna viridis, Crassostrea madrasensis and Modiolus metcalfei were recorded. M. pulchella, C. obtusa, L. scabra and N. violacea were found arboreal. T. telescopium, C. cingulata and E. aurisjudae were found crawling on the intertidal mud.

  3. An inquiline deep-water bryozoan/amphipod association from New Zealand, including the description of a new genus and species of Chevaliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Nina Lörz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time Amphipoda have been discovered living in Bryozoa. A new genus and species of the amphipod family Chevaliidae, Bryoconversor tutus gen. et sp. nov. is described from New Zealand at 530–1500 m depth. The species lives in an inquiline relationship with the cheilostome bryozoan Onchoporoides moseleyi (Calwelliidae, inhabiting an abfrontal basal coelom of the bryozoan beneath the membranous ectocyst (cuticularized epithelium that conceals and protects the amphipods. The colony is strengthened along all edges by a unique intracoelomic rod of calcium carbonate that is formed within the marginal kenozooids of the colony. The potential benefits and costs to the bryozoan are discussed.

  4. Preliminary Study on Coral Reef and Its Associated Biota in Qatari Waters, Arabian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ansi, Mohsin A. [محسن عبد الله العنسي; AL-KHAYAT, Jassim A.

    1999-01-01

    Coral reef grounds and their associated biota m Qatari waters were investigated by Scuba diving. Four selected reef-sites were studied. Coral was presented by 17 species. Descriptive notes of each site and an initial list of associated fauna and flora were presented. The associated biota composed mainly of Algae 23 sp, Porifera 5 sp, Bryozoa 4 sp, Polychaeta 17 sp, Echinodermata 21 sp, Mollusca 102 sp, Chordata 4 sp, and Crustacea 15 sp. Mollusca was the predominant group in all visited sites...

  5. Biodiversity of the white coral bank off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea): An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrototaro, F.; D'Onghia, G.; Corriero, G.; Matarrese, A.; Maiorano, P.; Panetta, P.; Gherardi, M.; Longo, C.; Rosso, A.; Sciuto, F.; Sanfilippo, R.; Gravili, C.; Boero, F.; Taviani, M.; Tursi, A.

    2010-03-01

    The biodiversity of the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) coral bank is summarized and its description is updated using data collected by means of underwater video systems, benthic samplers and fishing gears. A total of 222 living species have been recorded within the coral bank area in the depth range 280-1121 m. The most abundant benthic taxa recorded are Porifera (36 species) followed by Mollusca (35) and Cnidaria (31). The scleractinian corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are the main colonial species in the structure of the SML bank. Annelida, Crustacea and Bryozoa have been found with 24, 23 and 19 species, respectively. A total of 40 species of demersal fish have been recorded. Other faunal taxa were found with small numbers of species. One hundred and thirty-five species are new for the SML bank, 31 of which represent new records for the north-western Ionian Sea (2 Porifera, 17 Cnidaria, 1 Mollusca, 3 Annelida, 2 Crustacea, 4 Bryozoa and 4 Echinodermata). The finding of the annelid Harmothoë vesiculosa represents the first record for the Mediterranean Sea. The SML coral bank represents a biodiversity "hot-spot" on the bathyal bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Ediacaran skeletal metazoan interpreted as a lophophorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, A Yu; Wood, R A; Penny, A M

    2015-11-01

    While many skeletal biomineralized genera are described from Ediacaran (635-541 million years ago, Ma) strata, none have been suggested to have an affinity above the Porifera-Cnidaria metazoan grade. Here, we reinterpret the widespread terminal Ediacaran (approx. 550-541 Ma) sessile goblet-shaped Namacalathus as a triploblastic eumetazoan. Namacalathus has a stalked cup with radially symmetrical cross section, multiple lateral lumens and a central opening. We show that the skeleton of Namacalathus is composed of a calcareous foliated ultrastructure displaying regular concordant columnar inflections, with a possible inner organic-rich layer. These features point to an accretionary growth style of the skeleton and an affinity with the Lophotrochozoa, more specifically within the Lophophorata (Brachiopoda and Bryozoa). Additionally, we present evidence for asexual reproduction as expressed by regular budding in a bilateral pattern. The interpretation of Namacalathus as an Ediacaran total group lophophorate is consistent with an early radiation of the Lophophorata, as known early Cambrian representatives were sessile, mostly stalked forms, and in addition, the oldest known calcareous Brachiopoda (early Cambrian Obolellida) and Bryozoa (Ordovician Stenolaemata) possessed foliated ultrastructures. PMID:26538593

  7. Aspectos gerais sobre a alimentação do cangulo, Balistes vetula Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces - Balistidae no estado de Pernambuco - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técio Luiz Macêdo Costa

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The Balistidae, especially Balistes vetula are commom fishes in tropical waters from Northeastern Brazil. Studies about these fishes captured at the coastal area of Recife between Pina; Boa Viagem, Piedade and Candeias beaches were carried out in order to determine the diet, and to verify a possible diet diversification between the sexes, and times of the year. Males and females had a food diet consisting mostly of molluscs belonging the classes Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and crustaceans and fishes. Echinoderms, foraminifera, bryozoa, sponges, polychaete worms, coelenterates and brachiopods were also observed in smaller proportions. Both males and females had a carnivorous benthic diet. Growth and changes in the seasons were not reflected by changes in the diet.

  8. Multigene analysis of lophophorate and chaetognath phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmkampf, Martin; Bruchhaus, Iris; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses of seven concatenated fragments of nuclear-encoded housekeeping genes indicate that Lophotrochozoa is monophyletic, i.e., the lophophorate groups Bryozoa, Brachiopoda and Phoronida are more closely related to molluscs and annelids than to Deuterostomia or Ecdysozoa. Lophophorates themselves, however, form a polyphyletic assemblage. The hypotheses that they are monophyletic and more closely allied to Deuterostomia than to Protostomia can be ruled out with both the approximately unbiased test and the expected likelihood weights test. The existence of Phoronozoa, a putative clade including Brachiopoda and Phoronida, has also been rejected. According to our analyses, phoronids instead share a more recent common ancestor with bryozoans than with brachiopods. Platyhelminthes is the sister group of Lophotrochozoa. Together these two constitute Spiralia. Although Chaetognatha appears as the sister group of Priapulida within Ecdysozoa in our analyses, alternative hypothesis concerning chaetognath relationships could not be rejected. PMID:17937996

  9. A study on the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates in the waters of Seogwipo, Jeju Island, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Young Cho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of benthic invertebrates in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Gapado, Beomseom, and Munseom islets was surveyed twice in May and September 2013 to study the state of biodiversity in Seogwipo, Jeju Island. As a result, a total of 77 species, 46 families, 25 orders, 14 classes, and nine phyla of benthic invertebrates were found. The species which were found, by taxon, consisted of the following: 26 species of Cnidaria (34%, 24 species of Mollusca (31%, seven species of Chordata (9%, six species of Arthropoda (8%, six species of Porifera (8%, five species of Echinodermata (7%, one species of Bryozoa (1%, one species of Annelida (1%, and one species of Ctenophora (1%.

  10. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and reproduction of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans of 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are one of the key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They are the substratum of several fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species are bearing calcified structures and could therefore be potentially impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentration. Fragments of macroalgae Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2: natural 460 ± 59 µatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 µatm and 3150 ± 446 µatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and reproduction of Spirorbis individuals at the highest pCO2. Tubeworms Juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40 % when in the light compare to dark, presumably due to effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga. Electra colonies showed significantly improved growth rates at 1193 µatm. The overall net dissolution of the communities was significantly higher at 3150 µatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 predicted for 2100 for open ocean (~1000 µatm) conditions. Concerns remains with regards to higher pCO2 possibly found in the future Baltic Sea.

  11. Deforestation and sedimentation in Uraba Gulf mangroves; a synthesis of the impacts on macrobenthos and fishes in the Turbo River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This synthesis relates deforestation and land use change in coastal plain of the Turbo River watershed and impacts upon estuarine fauna in its delta. This watershed is shown within the context of hidroclimatological (rainfall and discharge) variability across the eastern margin of Uraba Gulf. Coastal-plain forest conversion rate to crops were quantified, as a possible explanation of increased sediment transport to the river and the near shore. Despite of the expansion of the delta, mangrove area was reduced as a consequence of conversion to crops and pastures. The dominant mangrove snail Neritina virginea was reduced in density in anthropogenic forest gaps and edges, as well as in pastures, due to altered microhabitats, and can be therefore used as a bio-indicator. The high sedimentation rates seem to be responsible for the faunistic poverty of the benthos, but do not seem responsible of deleterious effects on the dominant species. The diversity and abundance of fishes was greatly altered by high sedimentation near the river mouth. Finally, social features of the human communities were related to landscape changes. Herewith, we reported on the current ecosystem status, as the baseline for proposing management and conservation guidelines in order to prevent and restore impacts on mangroves and the coastal zone in this region.

  12. Macroepizoísmo em Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae Macroepizoites on Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C. Winter

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo de distribuição dos macroepizóicos foi realizado numa população do caranguejo-aranha Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871 proveniente do litoral dos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina. O material biológico foi obtido junto aos pescadores, e faz parte do rejeito de pesca. Os caranguejos foram mensurados e os macroepizóicos identificados e contados. Os seguintes macroepizóicos sésseis foram registrados: Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817 (Cnidaria; Actiniaria (Cnidaria; Arca sp. (Mollusca; Ostreidae (Mollusca; Acanthodesia tenuis (Desor, 1848 (Bryozoa; Cirripedia e duas espécies tubícolas de Gammaridea (Crustacea. Além destes organismos ocorreram dois tubos desabitados e quatro animais vágeis. A anêmona C. tricolor foi a espécie mais abundante e freqüente, sendo, provavelmente, utilizada como mecanismo de camuflagem pelo caranguejo. O macroepizoísmo em L. ferreirae está relacionado com a idade ou tamanho do caranguejo, tendo maior incidência naqueles mais velhos ou de maior porte. Entretanto, a densidade dos macroepizóicos por caranguejo se mantém em torno de três. Não há relação entre o macroepizoísmo e o sexo do hospedeiro; somente fêmeas ovígeras utilizam desse recurso mais freqüentemente do que as não-ovígeras. Devido à maior área de fixação, os macroepizóicos colonizam principalmente a carapaça do caranguejo, enquanto nos pereiópodos há predominância de Bryozoa.A study of the distribution of the macroepizoites was carried out on a population of the spider crab Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871 from the Southern Brazilian coast. Crabs were obtained from shrimps and fishes by-catch. They were measured, and their macroepizoites were identified and counted. The following sessile macroepizoites were registered: Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817 (Cnidaria; Actiniaria (Cnidaria; Arca sp. (Mollusca; Ostreidae (Mollusca; Acanthodesia tenuis (Desor, 1848 (Bryozoa; Cirripedia and two species

  13. Depositional environment, foraminifer content and ESR ages of Quaternary Gediz Delta Sediments (Eastern Aegean Sea, İzmir-Western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe Benli, Ekin; Aydın, Hülya; İşintek, İsmail; Engin, Birol; Şengöçmen, Berna

    2016-04-01

    Sediments and fossil content of Gediz Delta (Eastern Aegean Sea - İzmir) were examined based on the drilling core samples of the YSK-C and SK-246 drilling. W-SW part of the Delta is represented by continental delta sediments up to 6 meters and shallow marine detritic sediments up to 35 meters in the YSK-C drilling. Continental part consists of an soiled, graveled, muddy and sandy sediment in terms of rich organic substance. As for marine part, it consists of bioclast, muddy, fine graveled sand and by repetition of pebble, sand and bioclast bearing mud layers. Bioclasts comprise of bivalvia, echinoid, ostracod, gastropod, foramifer and bryozoa fragments. Benthic foraminiferal fauna determinated in the marine levels are represented by 55 bethic, 2 planktonic species. These foraminifers and bioclasts reflect that the W-SW part of the delta, has been occured in marine conditions between 8-31m deep. E-NE part of the delta is generally represented by continental sediments up to 43.5m in SK-246 drilling. In addition, it includes marine levels in 18-19 m, 23-24 m and 36-37,5 m intervals. Continental sediments of E-NE part is generally represented by calcareous and sandy mud rocks which mostly includes ash, tuff, and pebble derived from Neogene volcanic rocks. As for marine levels, it is composed of calcareous mud stones and calcareous clay stones including very thin gastropod, bivalvia and ostracod in 18- 19 and 36-37.5 meters whereas it is represented by sandy mud stones including a great deal of bentic foraminifer, bivalvia, bryozoa, echinoid, gastropod in 23-24 metres. Thus show that E-NE part of the delta is usually in continental condition but it is occasionally covered by sea. In aging studies of YSK-C core done by ESR method, age of 8-9 m interval is determined to be 11. 376 ± 0,067 Ka; however ages of 10-11m and 24-25 m intervals are revealed to be 16.466 ± 0,016 Ka and 15.344 ± 0,021 Ka respectively; finally age of 25-26 m interval is found to be 19.995 ± 0

  14. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Saderne

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic

  15. Caracterización preliminar de los invertebrados bentónicos capturados accidentalmente en la pesca de camarones en el norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, sudeste de Brasil Preliminary characterization of benthic invertebrates caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the north of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar la biodiversidad de invertebrados bentónicos que componen la fauna asociada a la pesca de camarones en el puerto del Farol de Sao Thomé, costa norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, se realizaron 11 pescas mensuales en el año 2004 con redes de arrastre de fondo, cuya área de operaciones comprende 3-5 mn desde la línea de costa, entre 22°00'S y 22°20'S. Los datos registrados de cada taxon y/o especie se refieren a la frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, biomasa, índice de Importancia Relativa y abundancia. En total se registraron 27 especies de invertebrados bentónicos de Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Crustácea, Echinodermata y Bryozoa. Crustácea fue el más representativo, tanto en número de ejemplares de Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus y Callinectes ornatos, como en biomasa de P. diogenes y H. pudibundas. En términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia en los muéstreos, 11 especies (40,7% fueron constantes; 6 (22,2% accesorias y 10 (37,0% accidentales.In order to characterize the biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate by-catch associated with the shrimp fishery at Farol de Sao Thome harbor, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in 2004, 11 monthly trawls were conducted using bottom trawl nets between 22°00'S and 22°20'S and from 3 to 5 nm from the shoreline. The analyzed data for each talon and/or species include frequency of occurrence, numeric frequency, biomass, index of Relative Importance, and abundance. In total, 27 benthic invertebrate species were recorded, including Peripheral, Cnidarians, Mollusk, Annelid, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Bryozoa. The most representative group was Crustacea, both in number of specimens (Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus, Callinectes ornatus and in biomass (P. diogenes, H. pudibundus. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in the samples, 11 species (40.7% were constant, 6 species (22.2% were accessories, and 10 species (37.0% were by-catch.

  16. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Saderne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification. Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 μatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 μatm and 3150 ± 446 μatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 μatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the

  17. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-03-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 μatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 μatm and 3150 ± 446 μatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 μatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 foreseen in year 2100 for open ocean (~1000 μatm) conditions possibly due to the modulation of environmental conditions by the biological activities of the host

  18. The sedimentological and diagenetic evolution of the Ratburi Limestone, Peninsular Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Angus; Bosence, Dan

    The late Middle to early Late Permian Ratburi Limestone in Peninsular Thailand is a warm-water carbonate deposit formed in an extensive platform setting, suggesting that the Shan Thai craton occupied a subtropical-tropical position at this time. The distribution of facies, from peritidal, fenestral and algal laminated muds, to subtidal skeletal and ooid grainstones, bryozoa boundstones and carbonate slope deposits, is controlled by the platform topography, which is thought to have been controlled by extensional tectonics. Early diagenesis of the platform began with seawater-influenced dolomitisation, followed by uplift, producing karstification, in response to the Late Permian Indosinian orogeny. East dipping subduction of the Indian Ocean Plate resulted in granite magmatism in the peninsula during the Cretaceous. The effect on the Ratburi Limestone included neomorphism, dissolution, calcite cementation and dolomitisation. The petroleum potential of Ratburi Limestone comes from the extensive and long karstic history (Late Permian and Tertiary-present day) and the source potential of the widespread platform carbonate mudstone ( TOC <4.5%) .

  19. Invertebrate communities associated with hard bottom habitats in the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, E. L.; Knott, D. M.; Van Dolah, R. F.; Burrell, V. G.

    1983-08-01

    Epibenthic invertebrates associated with nine hard bottom areas in the South Atlantic Bight between South Carolina and northern Florida were collected with dredge, trawl, suction and grab samplers to evaluate species composition, biomass, abundance, diversity, spatial distributions, and seasonality (winter and summer). Species composition changed noticeably with depth and season. Inner and outer shelf stations were least similar in species composition. Middle shelf areas were transitional and contained taxa characteristic of both inner and outer sites. Bryozoa (88 taxa), Cnidaria (85 taxa), Porifera (67 taxa), Annelida (261 taxa) and Mollusca (203 taxa) represented the richest taxonomic groups of the 1175 taxa collected. Both diversity (1175 total taxa) and biomass (1995 kg total) of invertebrates from hard bottom areas exceeded those reported in the literature for sand bottom communities. Sponges accounted for >60% of the total invertebrate biomass collected by dredge and trawl during both seasons. High diversity values were attributed primarily to habitat complexity and did not exhibit any discernible pattern with depth or latitude.

  20. Phylogenetic diversity and antimicrobial activities of bryozoan-associated bacteria isolated from Mediterranean and Baltic Sea habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindl, Herwig; Wiese, Jutta; Thiel, Vera; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2010-03-01

    To date, only a small number of investigations covering microbe-bryozoa associations have been carried out. Most of them have focused on a few bryozoan species and none have covered the antibacterial activities of associated bacteria. In the current study, the proportion and phylogenetic classification of Bryozoan-associated bacteria with antimicrobial properties were investigated. Twenty-one specimens of 14 different bryozoan species were collected from several sites in the Baltic and the Mediterranean Sea. A total of 340 associated bacteria were isolated, and 101 displayed antibiotic activities. While antibiosis was predominantly directed against Gram-positive test strains, 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed affiliation of the isolates to Gram-negative classes (Flavobacteria, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria). One isolate was related to the Gram-positive Actinobacteria. The sequences were grouped into 27 phylotypes on the basis of similarity values >or=99.5%. A host-specific affiliation was not revealed as members of the same phylotype were derived from different bryozoan species. Site-specific patterns, however, were demonstrated. Strains of the genera Sphingomonas and Alteromonas were exclusively isolated from Mediterranean sites, whereas Shewanella, Marinomonas and Vibrio-related isolates were only from Baltic sites. Although Pseudoalteromonas affiliated strains were found in both habitats, they were separated into respective phylotypes. Isolates with 16S rDNA similarity values Tenacibaculum. PMID:20153592

  1. Reconsidering the Medawar paradigm placental viviparity existed for eons, even in vertebrates; without a "problem": Why are Tregs important for preeclampsia in great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouat, Gérard

    2016-04-01

    The classic Medawar paradigm sees viviparity in vertebrates as a "problem". Established in 1953, it was then largely determined by a self-non-self view of the immune system. However, there are alternative models of the immune system, such as the danger model. For these models, pregnancy is neither a problem nor a danger. Supporting this view, we recall that placenta or placental-like-dependent(1) (allo) pregnancy has existed for eons. In fact, it appeared as far back as the time of aquatic colony invertebrates, such as some of the Bryozoa.(2) Since then, convergent evolution has seen placentation appear in a large variety of phyla. These placentae did not seem to cause "immunological problems", even in vertebrates possessing a graft rejection potential. The reappearance of placentae in marsupial and eutherian mammals found placentae confronted with a highly developed adaptive immune system. Two strategies were developed, therefore: short-term only placentation (marsupials) or specialised control of T cell-mediated immunity (Tregs). The problem is likely to be most acute in cases of deep invasive placentation. As an alternative to a restricted view of the Medawar paradigm for preeclampsia, an integrated model putting both inflammation and Tregs into perspective is proposed, somehow embedding the questioning of the initial Medawar paradigm. PMID:26412292

  2. Distribution of Sargassum natans and some of its epibionts in the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, U.

    1986-12-01

    Sargassum was collected during the Sargasso Sea Eel Expedition in Spring 1979. On average, the morphological form type Sargassum natans (I) made up 85 % of the total wet weight of the samples. South of the thermal front, larger amounts of weeds were observed. Here, the bladder size of S. natans (I) was significantly smaller (surface 47±7 mm2) than in the northern part (surface: 64±15 mm2), while phylloids showed no differences. The composition and density of some epibionts were examined. Membranipora tuberculata (Bryozoa), Clytia noliformis (Hydrozoa) and the calcarious algae “ Melobesia sp.” (Rhodophyta) were studied quantitatively according to different features at 17 stations. M. tuberculata was the most abundant epibiont followed by C. noliformis. Compared with these species, " Melobesia sp." occurred in considerably lower quantities. M. tuberculata showed a preference for bladders rather than phylloids; C. noliformis was found more frequently on phylloids than on bladders. " Melobesia sp." did not show any preference. Frequency and abundance of these epibionts were higher north of the thermal front than south of this front. North of the front S. natans (I) was less abundant but bladders were larger.

  3. Depositional Environment of Permian Tak Fa Formation, Nakhonsawan, Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketwetsuriya, Chatchalerm; Nützel, Alexander; Kanjanapayont, Pitsanupong

    2016-04-01

    The carbonate rocks of the study area at Amphoe Tak Fa and Amphoe Takhli, Changwat Nakhon Sawan belong to the Tak Fa Formation, Saraburi Group. This formation crops out in the Khao Khwang Platform and consists of late Palaeozoic carbonate platform deposits. It reaches a thickness of 900 meters and crops out in a vast area. The exposures have been measured and samples were collected for petrographic study. The rock consists of limestones, argillaceous limestones, mudstones and dolomites with nodular and banded cherts, which comprise many invertebrate fossils such as fusulinids, ammonoid, pelecypod, gastropod, coral and bryozoa. Many of the fossils are silicified. The gastropod assemblage is currently under study and represents one of the most diverse faunas reported from SE Asia. The age of the rock is Yakhtashian or Artinskian (late Early Permian) to Midian or Capitanian (late Middle Permian). The study of carbonate facies and fauna indicates that the depositional environment was on shelf lagoon within the carbonate platform varying from shallow marine to barrier bar.

  4. Study of Upper Miocene Oysters(Plecypoda) From the Mishan Formation in south west of Firuzabad, Fars, Iran(Zagros mountain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbozorgi, Mehdi; Sabouhi, Mostafa; Nabavi, Hamid

    2010-05-01

    The out crapes of Mishan Formation located in Aghar area(Firuzabad city) south west of Fars and 70km south west of Firuzabad. this Formation mostly consist of limestone, marly limestone and marlstone with 800m thickness. 6key beds distinctive from limestone beds are recognized in this area. this key beds are useful for local and regional correlation in Zagros mountains. the key beds from base to top are: Red algae, Bryozoa, Gastropoda and Plecypoda, Crabs and Oysters. Mishan Formation in this area is between Gachsaran F.M(Under Formation), Conformable and Aghajari F.M(Upper Formation), Conformable. With due attention to rang and distribution of the Macrofossils, 5 local assmblage biozone were recognized, that is confirming time limit from Early- Upper Miocene. this research cheked and controled a biostrom Plecypoda(Oysters) level by thickness 3- 4m. this biostrom located around 550m the base of section. Ofcurse more of this Plecypoda be assinged to order pterriodia and Genus Oyster. Along with Oysters, Pecten and Venus can be see. This biostrom made up a bioclastic shoal shallow deep in the margin of sea Miocene. This Oysters report from Mishan Formation of Firuzabad, Fars, Zagros, Iran: Ostrea virleti var. crassicostat, Ostrea virleti Desh var. persica, Ostrea digitatai Echiwald var. rohlfsi, Ostrea lamellose. Ostrea cf. biowwondeli. Master of science in Geology (Paleontology), University of Isfahan, Iran.

  5. Antitumor and immune regulation activities of the extracts of some Chinese marine invertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lixin; FAN Xiao; HAN Lijun

    2005-01-01

    Extracts of 21 marine invertebrates belonging to Coelenterata, Mollusca, Annelida, Bryozoa,Echiura, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Urochordata were screened for the studies on their antitumor and immune regulation activities. Antitumor activity was determined by MTT method and immune regulation activity was studied using T- and B-lymphocytes in mice spleen in vitro. It was found that the n-butanol part of Asterina pectinifera, the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina, 95% ethanol extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus have a high inhibition rate of 96.7%, 63.9% and 50.5% respectively on tumor cell line HL-60 at the concentration of 0.063 mg/ml. The inhibition rate of the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina on the tumor cell line A-549 is 65.4 % at concentration of 0.063 mg/mL. The 95% ethanol extract of Meretrix meretrix has so outstanding promoting effect on T-lymphocyfes that their multiplication increases 25% when the sample concentration is only 1 μg/ml. On B-lymphocytes, the 95% extract of Rapana venosa, at concentration of 100μg/ml, has a promotion percentage of 60%. On the other hand, under the condition of no cytotoxic effect, the 95% ethanol extracts of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus and Cellana toreum can reach 92% inhibition rate on T lymphocyte at concentration of 100 μg/ml, while the inhibition rate on B lymphocyte of the 95% extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus reaches 92% at the same concentration.

  6. World-wide distribution of the Bryozoan Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy 1851

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Balounová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy 1851 is an invasive freshwater colonial animal belonging to the phylum Bryozoa. It is native to the area east of the Mississippi River, from Ontario to Florida. Currently it occurs throughout North America and the first record for it outside that continent was for Bille near Hamburg in 1883. Later, it was found in the Elbe (Havel by Spandau, in Tegeler See, a pond in Wroclaw and in Silesia and Brandenburg. In addition, floatoblasts of P. magnifica were found in the upper Elbe in Germany in the 1950s. Then, P. magnifica spread to the area of Spandau in Berlin and the Oder, and Wroclaw. It is also recorded in Romania and Turkey. In France, it was recorded occurring in the area called Franche-Comte in 1994. Its occurrence in the Netherlands was first reported in 2003 and then each following year. The newest discoveries are for the Rhine basin in the area between Luxembourg and Germany. Recently, it was also recorded in the Czech Republic and Austria. Besides Europe and North America, it is also recorded in Japan and Korea. The statoblasts of P. magnifica are spread by flowing water, zoochory and probably also by anthropochory.

  7. Please mind the gap - Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, John K; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106-500 μm and 500-2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p foundations for further studies looking at integrating traditional reef survey methodologies with complementary approaches, such as metabarcoding, which investigate other components of the reef community. PMID:27149573

  8. Epibiotic relationships on Zygochlamys patagonica (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) increase biodiversity in a submarine canyon in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejter, Laura; López Gappa, Juan; Bremec, Claudia Silvia

    2014-06-01

    The continental slope of the southern SW Atlantic Ocean has many distinguishable deep submarine canyons, varying in depth and extension. The benthic fauna within one of them, detected in April 2005 by means of a multibeam SIMRAD EM1002 sonar, and located at 43°35‧S to 59°33‧W, 325 m depth, was studied to discuss faunal affinities with the neighbouring Patagonian scallop fishing grounds located at upper slope depths. In order to add faunal information to the previous general study, we studied the epibiotic species settled on Patagonian scallops (the dominant species in the area) collected in the reference sampling site using a 2.5-m mouth-opening dredge, 10 mm mesh size. We sampled 103 scallops with shell heights between 22 and 69 mm; epibionts were recorded on both valves. We found 53 epibiotic taxa, which were most conspicuous on the upper valve. Bryozoa was the most diverse group (34 species) while Polychaeta was the most abundant group, recorded on 94% of the scallops. Stylasteridae (2 species) and Clavulariidae (Cnidaria) conform newly recorded epibionts on Z. patagonica and the sponge Tedania (Tedaniopsis) infundibuliformis also represents a new record for the SW Atlantic Ocean.

  9. A possible Late Oligocene-Early Miocene rocky shoreline on Otago Schist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duntroonian-Waitakian limestone at Kokonga in the Maniototo district, Central Otago, New Zealand is interpreted to be a rocky shoreline facies formed near the time of maximum Cenozoic marine transgression across Zealandia. The limestone, which is correlated with the Otekaike Limestone of North Otago, contains shallow and warm water indicators such as coralline algae, oysters, echinoderms, bryozoa and a foraminiferal assemblage composed almost entirely of Amphistegina. Textural zone 2B Otago Schist cobbles, pebbles and sand within the limestone, often adjacent to invertebrate fossil and coralline algal fragments, were sourced from proximal schist exposures and may be indirect evidence of the limestone having formed near to a low-lying Otago Schist coastline. However, because the precise age of limestone deposition cannot be constrained by fossil assemblages or Sr isotopes and the timing of peak marine transgression is imprecisely known, it is not possible to state whether Otekaike Limestone at Kokonga formed before, during or after the peak of maximum Cenozoic marine transgression. (author)

  10. Bathymetric variation of epiphytic assemblages on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves in relation to anthropogenic disturbance in the southeastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brahim, Mounir; Mabrouk, Lotfi; Hamza, Asma; Mahfoudi, Mabrouka; Bouain, Abderrahmane; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-12-01

    A survey of the epiphytic leaves of Posidonia oceanica was conducted along a depth transect at both the control station Attaya in the Kerkennah Islands and the disturbed Mahres station on the Sfax coast (Tunisia). Samples were collected by scuba divers at depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m in July 2008. We evaluated whether the pattern of spatial variability of the macroepiphyte assemblages of leaves of Posidonia oceanica differed in relation to anthropogenic interference. The results indicate that the decrease in shoot density and leaf length according to depth was low at Mahres. The biomass of epiphytic leaves and the percentage cover of epiphytic assemblages decreased with depth for both stations and heavily at Mahres, this decline being related to anthropogenic disturbance. This study shows that the highest values of epifauna and epiflora were detected at the disturbed station Mahres. Macroalgae assemblages decreased with depth at both stations and were dominated by Rhodophyta, whereas the percentage cover of the epifauna leaf that decreases according to depth was dominated by Hydrozoa and Bryozoa. Changes in epiphyte assemblages, epiphytic biomass, percentage cover, and species richness in proportion to Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, Cyanobacteria, Hydrozoa, Porifera, and Tunicata between the two stations constitute promising tools for detecting environmental disturbance. PMID:25023658

  11. Die Makrofauna und ihre Verteilung im Nordost-Felswatt von Helgoland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Klaus

    1986-03-01

    The macrofauna and its distribution in the sheltered, rocky intertidal zone of Helgoland (North Sea) was studied at 9 vertically and/or morphologically different stations from March to September in 1984. Seasonal variations in the communities were described based on each species' “conspicuousness”. A total of 172 species was found. The macrofauna shows a zoned pattern, but also the different substrata, for example, affect its distribution. The number of species increases from the upper intertidal to the upper sublittoral zone from 23 to 133 species. The upper intertidal is characterized by Littorina saxatilis, Chaetogrammarus marinus and Hyale nilssonii. Typical and abundant species of the middle and lower intertidal are Flustrellidra hispida, Littorina mariae/obtusata, Littorina littorea, Mytilus edulis and Spirorbis spirorbis. The upper sublittoral zone is characterized by Gibbula cineraria and increasing species numbers of Bryozoa, Nemertini and Opisthobranchia. Only few species (e.g. Dynamena pumila, Laomedea flexuosa, Polydora ciliata, Fabricia sabella, Jaera albifrons, Carcinus maenas) occur in the entire intertidal zone. In comparison to other very sheltered shores in Great Britain, which are also dominated by Fucaceae, the macrofauna in the Helgoland intertidal zone lacks several littoral species, such as Patella spp., Monodonta lineata, Gibbula umbilicalis, Littorina neritoides, Chthamalus spp., whereas Littorina littorea and Gibbula cineraria are highly abundant.

  12. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather

    2013-12-12

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  13. Environmental impact of bleufin tuna aquaculture on benthic assemblages in the western coast of Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Castaneda, V.

    2013-05-01

    Sea-cage farming results in a constant rain of organic waste onto the surrounding benthos. In Baja California there is growing concern over the effects of sea-cages on the local environment: sediment chemistry and benthic communities. Samples were taken in 18 stations using a Van veen grab (0.1 m2) in Bahía Salsipuedes, Baja California in 2003, 2004, 2006 and 2008. Organisms belonging to 7 Phyla were collected: Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Cnidaria, Sipuncula and Bryozoa. Polychaetes were the dominant group followed by crustaceans and mollusks. Polychaetes were represented by 37 families and 157 species. Best represented families were Paraonidae, Cirratulidae, Spionidae, Glyceridae and Maldanidae. This study shows that in the NW area of the bay organic carbon (2.54%) and organic nitrogen (0.95%) are being accumulated (higher concentrations and lower Eh values) and smaller opportunistic species are increasing rapidly near the tuna pens. It is crucial to maintain "healthy" macrofaunal populations in order to enhance decomposition of organic matter and to prevent its excessive accumulation. The most abundant polychaete species were Aphelochaeta multifinis, Mediomastus ambiseta, Prionospio steenstrupi Spiophanes bombyx, Apoprionospio pygnaea, Paraonella sp, Monticellina sp, Aricidea (Allia) ramosa, Spiophanes bombyx and Levinsenia gracilis. The dominant trophic groups were deposit-feeders and carnivores. The buildup of organic matter on the seafloor has attracted scavenger species particularly peracarid crustaceans. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) separated stations depending of the distance to the tuna pens.

  14. Effects of plant cover on the macrofauna of Spartina marshes in northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar França Braga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on macrofauna density and diversity, and the height and density of Spartina brasiliensis, were obtained from salt marsh beds of a tropical estuary in northern Brazil. Sampling was carried out at four distinct times of the year, during the wet and dry seasons and in the transition periods between these. Sampling was also carried out in salt marshes of three size classes, small, medium and large. Variables were analyzed in relation to time of year and salt marsh size class. Overall, 46 taxa were found, with polychaetes, isopods and the gastropod Neritina virginea dominating the fauna. Macrofauna density and diversity were positively correlated with culm density, indicating a possible role in protection from predation. All the three variables were higher during the transitional periods between the wet and dry seasons and seasonal changes in rainfall, salinity and light availability may influence mortality, food availability and settlement of the macrofauna. There was no effect of salt marsh size on either the macrofauna or the vegetation.Dados sobre a densidade e diversidade da macrofauna em relação à altura e densidade de Spartina brasiliensis foram obtidos em bancos de marismas em um estuário tropical no norte do Brasil. A amostragem foi realizada quatro vezes durante um ano, nas estações chuvosa, seca e nos períodos de transição entre estas. A amostragem foi realizada em marismas de três classes de tamanho: pequeno, médio e grande. As variáveis foram analisadas em relação às estações do ano e das classes de tamanho das marismas. Um total de 46 táxons foram encontrados, com os poliquetos, isopodos e o gastropódo Neritina virginea dominando a fauna, resultados similares a estudos realizados em marismas no sul do Brasil. A densidade e a diversidade da macrofauna foram correlacionadas positivamente com a densidade de colmos da vegetação, indicando um possível papel da vegetação em proteção contra predação. Todas as

  15. Deforestación y sedimentación en los manglares del Golfo de Urabá Síntesis de los impactos sobre la fauna macrobéntica e íctica en el delta del río Turbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Taborda-Marín

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una síntesis de la investigación que relaciona la deforestación y el cambio del uso del suelo de laplanicie costera de la cuenca del río Turbo con los efectos sobre la fauna estuarina de su delta. Se contextualiza estacuenca dentro la variabilidad hidroclimatológica (caudales y precipitación del costado oriental del golfo de Urabá. Secuantifi có la tasa de pérdida del bosque de la planicie costera debido al aumento de cultivos, lo cual puede explicar elincremento del transporte de sedimentos hacia los ríos y al mar. A pesar de la expansión deltaica, el área de manglaresdisminuyó como producto del aumento de cultivos y potreros. Se documentó que la disminución de la densidad de ungasterópodo dominante (Neritina virginea en claros del manglar, bordes y potreros, por alteraciones en su microhábitat,puede ser utilizada como un bioindicador. Las altas tasas de sedimentación podrían ser responsables de la pobrezafaunística del bentos, pero no parecen tener un efecto signifi cativo sobre las especies actualmente dominantes. Ladiversidad y abundancia de peces refl ejó una mayor infl uencia de la sedimentación en las zonas más cercanas a ladescarga fl uvial. Se relacionó la condición social de las comunidades con los cambios en el paisaje. Se establecióel estado actual del ecosistema, que será la base para proponer medidas de manejo y conservación para prevenir yrestaurar los daños causados a los manglares y a la zona costera.

  16. Antioxidant responses in estuarine invertebrates exposed to repeated oil spills: Effects of frequency and dosage in a field manipulative experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Pereira, Letícia; Martins, César C; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Camus, Lionel; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-08-01

    We have experimentally investigated the effects of repeated diesel spills on the bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana, the gastropod Neritina virginea and the polychaete Laeonereis culveri, by monitoring the responses of oxidative stress biomarkers in a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Antioxidant defense responses and oxidative damage in the bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri were overall significantly affected by frequent oil spills compared to undisturbed controls. The main effects of diesel spills on both species were the induction of SOD and GST activities, a significant increase in LPO levels and a decrease in GSH concentration. N. virginea was particularly tolerant to oil exposure, with the exception of a significant GSH depletion. Overall, enzymatic activities and oxidative damage in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were induced by frequent low-dosage spills compared to infrequent high-dosage spills, although the opposite pattern was observed for N. virginea antioxidant responses. Antioxidant responses in A. brasiliana and L. culveri were not affected by timing of exposure events. However, our results revealed that N. virginea might have a delayed response to acute high-dosage exposure. Experimental in situ simulations of oil exposure events with varying frequencies and intensities provide a useful tool for detecting and quantifying environmental impacts. In general, antioxidant biomarkers were induced by frequent low-dosage exposures compared to infrequent high-dosage ones. The bivalve A. brasiliana and the polychaete L. culveri are more suitable sentinels due to their greater responsiveness to oil and also to their wider geographical

  17. [Effects mangrove conversion to pasture on density and shell size of two gastropods in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Caribbean coast of Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Juan F; Castaño, María C

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove deforestation is widespread in the Greater Caribbean but its impact on macrobenthos has not been evaluated to date. In order to assess the impact of mangrove conversion to pasture, densities and shell sizes of two dominant gastropods (Neritina virginea and Melampus coffeus) were compared among four mangrove types: 1) Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringing mangroves, 2) Avicennia germinans-dominated basin mangroves, 3) Mixed-species basin mangroves, and 4) A. germinans- basin mangroves converted to pastures, in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Colombia). Mangrove types were polygon-delimited with satellite images and color aerial photographs were taken in 2009. Various (n<5) polygons per mangrove type were sampled in January, July and December 2009, and a total (n<20) 0.025m2-quadrats were randomly placed along each polygon. Forest structure variables, pore-water physicochemical variables and sediment-grain metrics were measured in the four mangrove types. Mean density and size of both gastropod species were measured. The results showed that the mean density and size of both species were significantly greater in R. mangle-fringing mangroves. N. virginea density decreased gradually towards the A. germinans-basin mangroves seemly related to the diadromous life-history. This species nearly disappeared in the neighboring pastures because individuals were constrained to a few remaining flooded areas. In the pastures, M. coffeus individuals were clumped in the remaining A. germinans trees due to its climbing behavior as a pulmonate. We hypothesize that the decline of these two gastropods was related to physical microhabitat (e.g. trees, prop roots, and seedlings) degradation, and alteration of soil properties (e.g. temperature, pH, organic matter content). Finally, we also hypothesize that the local extinction of N. virginea due to clear-cutting may exert strong negative effects on the ecosystem function because it is a dominant omnivore. PMID:23342523

  18. 青岛海鸥浮码头冬季污损生物调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Fouling Organisms in Qingdao Seagulls Floating Dock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马士德; 王在东; 刘会莲; 赵君; 段继周; 许健平; 韩文; 王静; 刘传安

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]In order to investigate the ecological change of Qingdao Port,and find basic bio-fouling information for the evaluation of ecological change in Jiaozhou Bay,an inves-tigation of “Seagulls”floating dock is taken during its 5.5 years’service period in Qingdao Zhonggang Port.[Methods]This paper analyzed and identified the stable community struc-ture and distribution of fouling organisms in winter.[Results]Through comparing the current and 50 years ago data,it shows that the basic structure of stable community in winter is fixed type organisms.The bottom layer,which contains Ostrea gigas thun b erg and Balanus sp.,is attached by Pyrosomella verticilliata ,Mytilidae and Bryozoa .The upper layer is filled with carpet type organisms.Except Balanus sp., Ostrea gigas thun b erg and Mytilidae , the maximum weight of the floating dock per unit area during the 5.5 years is 1.0 kg/m2 .[Conclu-sion]The structure of stable winter fouling com-munity and adhesion quantities have significantly changed over 50 years,suggesting the research of fouling organisms in Jiaozhou Bay need to be employed in the Jiaozhou Bay ecological research of marine ecosystems.%【目的】为给胶州湾生态评价提供污损生物的基本信息,调查青岛中港服役5.5年海鸥浮码头水中钢结构的生物污损状况。【方法】分析鉴定该浮码头冬季污损生物的稳定群落结构及其分布,并与50年前的调查结果进行对比。【结果】青岛中港冬季稳定群落基本结构为多年生固着生物,牡蛎(Ostrea gigas thun berg )和藤壶(Balanus sp.)为底层,其上为附着型的海鞘(Pyrosomella verticilliata )、贻贝(Mytilidae )和苔藓虫(Bryozoa ),表层为地毯式复海鞘、苔藓虫、海绵(Reniclona sp.)、水螅(Hydra )和海葵(Sea anemone )等;去除多年生固着生物(藤壶、牡蛎)及附着型的扇贝,服役5.5年浮码头最大单位面积污损重量不足1.0 kg/m2。【结论】相比50年前,青岛中

  19. Ecological and Pharmacological Activities of Antarctic Marine Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Conxita

    2016-06-01

    Antarctic benthic communities are regulated by abundant interactions of different types among organisms, such as predation, competition, etc. Predators are usually sea stars, with omnivorous habits, as well as other invertebrates. Against this strong predation pressure, many organisms have developed all sorts of defensive strategies, including chemical defenses. Natural products are thus quite common in Antarctic organisms with an important ecological and pharmacological potential. In this paper, the chemical defenses of the Antarctic organisms studied during the ECOQUIM and ACTIQUIM projects, as well as their pharmacological potential, are reviewed. For the ecological defenses, predation against the sea star Odontaster validus is analyzed and evaluated along depth gradients as well as considering the lifestyle of the organisms. For the pharmacological activity, the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial activities tested are evaluated here. Very often, only crude extracts or fractions have been tested so far, and therefore, the natural products responsible for such activities remain yet to be identified. Even if the sampling efforts are not uniform along depth, most ecologically active organisms are found between 200 and 500 m depth. Also, from the samples studied, about four times more sessile organisms possess chemical defenses against the sea star than the vagile ones; these represent 50 % of sessile organisms and 35 % of the vagile ones, out of the total tested, being active. Pharmacological activity has not been tested uniformly in all groups, but the results show that relevant activity is found in different phyla, especially in Porifera, Cnidaria, Bryozoa, and Tunicata, but also in others. No relationship between depth and pharmacological activity can be established with the samples tested so far. More studies are needed in order to better understand the ecological relationships among Antarctic invertebrates mediated by natural products and

  20. Inter-annual variation (1991-1993) of the substratum-leaf colonization dynamics for aquatic fauna in different habitats of the lake of the hydroelectric of Balbina, Amazon Central, Brazil; Variacao interanual (1991-1993) da dinamica de colonizacao de substrato-folha por fauna aquatica, em diferentes habitats do lago da Hidreletrica de Balbina, Amazonia Central, Amazonas- Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela-Pena, Gladys

    1996-07-01

    Experiments on fauna colonization of submersed vegetal substrate in different depths of water column were done to evaluate the benthic community structure in three habitats of the Balbina hydroelectric dam in 1991, 1992 and 1993. In these experiments substrate exposition periods of up to 60 and 75 days were done. The fauna associated to the standard substrate (Mabea caudata) belonged to seven phyla: Arthropoda, Coelenterata, Nematoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Mollusca an Chordata. The most abundant and frequent families, during the studied period, were Naididae (Tubificida), Chydoridae (Cladocera) and Cenestheridae (Conchostraca), suggesting the persistence of these groups. In general, the pattern of colonization indicates some tendency to increase gradually with time of exposition of the substrate in the environment. Probably, the discontinuity of the tendencies is associated with the insects mobility and emergence. The initial colonization always was higher and quicker in the margin habitat, which indicates that the source of organisms is this habitat. This is due to better conditions of the environment such as availability of food and protection, associated with the submerged vegetation and wood. The community mean density during this study was 7, 312 ind/m{sup 2}. The density, the species richness index, and the diversity were correlated with abiotic variables such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, habitat and depth. Also, the density was correlated with total carbon and ammonium. Species richness was correlated with total carbon, ammonium and water color. The density, diversity and species richness were proportionally inverse to depth of the habitats and total absence of organisms ago 10 meter of depth, different from what is found in bottom of natural environments. This fact was attributed to the high concentration of nutrients, such as ammonium and dissolved iron, to the existence of toxic gases such a sulphide, and to the conditions of hypoxia in the deep

  1. Please mind the gap – Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2016-04-26

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106–500 μm and 500–2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  2. Rapid assessment survey for exotic benthic species in the São Sebastião Channel, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C Marques

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of biological invasions can be roughly divided into three parts: detection, monitoring, mitigation. Here, our objectives were to describe the marine fauna of the area of the port of São Sebastião (on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, in the São Sebastião Channel, SSC to detect introduced species. Descriptions of the faunal community of the SSC with respect to native and allochthonous (invasive or potentially so diversity are lacking for all invertebrate groups. Sampling was carried out by specialists within each taxonomic group, in December 2009, following the protocol of the Rapid Assessment Survey (RAS in three areas with artificial structures as substrates. A total of 142 species were identified (61 native, 15 introduced, 62 cryptogenic, 4 not classified, of which 17 were Polychaeta (12, 1, 1, 3, 24 Ascidiacea (3, 6, 15, 0, 36 Bryozoa (17, 0, 18, 1, 27 Cmdana (2, 1, 24, 0, 20 Crustacea (11, 4, 5, 0, 2 Entoprocta (native, 16 Mollusca (13, 3, 0, 0. Twelve species are new occurrences for the SSC. Among the introduced taxa, two are new for coastal Brazil. Estimates of introduced taxa are conservative as the results of molecular studies suggest that some species previously considered cryptogenic are indeed introduced. We emphasize that the large number of cryptogenic species illustrates the need for a long-term monitoring program, especially in areas most susceptible to bioinvasion. We conclude that rapid assessment studies, even in relatively well-known regions, can be very useful for the detection of introduced species and we recommend that they be carried out on a larger scale in all ports with heavy ship traffic.

  3. Spatial distribution and abundance of the megabenthic fauna community in Gabes gulf (Tunisia, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. EL LAKHRACH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to bring to light the knowledge of marine diversity of invertebrates in Gabes gulf. The spatial distribution of the megabenthic fauna community in Gabes gulf (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea, together with the bottom type and vegetation cover, were studied. The abundance of the megabenthic fauna was represented by eight groups: Echinodermata (38%, Crustacea (21%, Tunicata (19%, Mollusca (13%, Porifera (4%, Cnidaria (3%, Bryozoa, and Annelida (2%. It was spatially more concentrated in the coast area of the gulf than in the offshore waters. This area, especially, in Southern Kerkennah, North-est of Gabes and North-east of Djerba appeared to be in a good ecological condition  hosting a variety of species like the paguridsPaguristes eremita and Pagurus cuanensis, the brachyura Medorippe lanata, Inachus doresttensis, the Gastropoda Hexaplex trunculus, Bolinus brandaris, Aporrhais pespelecani, andErosaria turdus, the Bivalvia Fulvia fragilis, the Echinoidea Psammechinus microtuberculatus, Holothuria polii,Ophiothrix fragilis and Antedon mediterranea, and the AscidiaceaAplidium cf. conicum, Didemnum spp, and Microcosmus exasperatus.The species’ compositions of the megabentic fauna community showed clearly that the spatial analysis represented the differences between the community of these two regions (inshore waters and offshore waters. These differences were closely related to peculiar characters of the fauna and biotopes (depth, bottom type and vegetation cover community. The results of the present study should be considered as a necessary starting point for a further analysis of priceless benthic fauna contribution to the marine environment and its organisms.

  4. Coastal dunes with high content of rhodolith (coralline red algae) bioclasts: Pleistocene formations on Maio and São Nicolau in the Cape Verde archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Markes E.; Baarli, B. Gudveig; da Silva, Carlos M.; Cachão, Mário; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Mayoral, Eduardo J.; Santos, Ana

    2013-03-01

    Rhodoliths are spherical growths (coralline red algae) that contribute bioclasts to coastal dunes in the Gulf of California (Mexico) and the Canary Islands (North Atlantic). Pleistocene dunes on Maio and São Nicolau islands in the Cape Verde archipelago were studied to quantify rhodolith contribution relative to other sources. Near Pilão Cão on Maio, a transverse dune at Lomba Greija covers 0.3 km2, exposing stoss slopes that dip 8°-10° NE and leeward slip faces that dip 28°-32° SW and SE. Point counts on thin-section samples show that basalt and other non-carbonate materials account for 5%, on average, whereas fine matrix and voided space (dissolved grains) account for 67%. Among remaining identifiable bioclasts (coralline red algae, mollusks, corals, foraminifera, and echinoderms), rhodolith grains with an average diameter of 0.5 mm account for 74%. Near Carriçal at Covoadinha de Chacina on the SE coast of São Nicolau, the stoss slope dips 8° SE for 70-80 m on narrow longitudinal dunes. Point counts on a thin-section sample taken 2.5 m above basement rock, reveal that basalt and other non-carbonate materials account for 10%, on average, whereas fine matrix and voided spaces account for 60%. Among identifiable bioclasts from the remainder (coralline red algae, mollusks, echinoderms, and bryozoa), rhodolith grains ranging in size from 0.5 to 1 mm account for 96%. Potential enrichment from coralline red algae may be overlooked in coastal dunes, because content normally is described as dominated by mollusk shells, the tests from abundant foraminifera, and/or ooids.

  5. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'ONGHIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  6. Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This collaborative effort by many specialists across the Mediterranean presents an updated annotated list of alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Alien species have been grouped into six broad categories namely established, casual, questionable, cryptogenic, excluded and invasive, and presented in lists of major ecofunctional/taxonomic groups. The establishment success within each group is provided while the questionable and excluded records are commented in brief. A total of 963 alien species have been reported from the Mediterranean until December 2005, 218 of which have been classified as excluded (23% leaving 745 of the recorded species as valid aliens. Of these 385 (52% are already well established, 262 (35% are casual records, while 98 species (13% remain “questionable” records. The species cited in this work belong mostly to zoobenthos and in particular to Mollusca and Crustacea, while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two groups which prevail among alien biota in the Mediterranean. The available information depends greatly on the taxonomic group examined. Thus, besides the three groups explicitly addressed in the CIESM atlas series (Fish, Decapoda/Crustacea and Mollusca, which are however updated in the present work, Polychaeta, Phytobenthos, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton are also addressed in this study. Among other zoobenthic taxa sufficiently covered in this study are Echinodermata, Sipuncula, Bryozoa and Ascidiacea. On the contrary, taxa such as Foraminifera, Amphipoda and Isopoda, that are not well studied in the Mediterranean, are insufficiently covered. A gap of knowledge is also noticed in Parasites, which, although ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, have been relatively unexplored as to their role in marine invasions. Conclusively the lack of funding purely systematic studies in the region has led to underestimation of the number of aliens in the Mediterranean. Emphasis is put on those species that are

  7. Modern Data on the Innervation of the Lophophore in Lingula anatina (Brachiopoda) Support the Monophyly of the Lophophorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temereva, Elena N; Tsitrin, Eugeni B

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships among members of the Lophophorata remain unclear. Traditionally, the Lophophorata included three phyla: Brachiopoda, Bryozoa or Ectoprocta, and Phoronida. All species in these phyla have a lophophore, which is regarded as a homologous structure of the lophophorates. Because the organization of the nervous system has been traditionally used to establish relationships among groups of animals, information on the organization of the nervous system in the lophophore of phoronids, brachiopods, and bryozoans may help clarify relationships among the lophophorates. In the current study, the innervation of the lophophore of the inarticulate brachiopod Lingula anatina is investigated by modern methods. The lophophore of L. anatina contains three brachial nerves: the main, accessory, and lower brachial nerves. The main brachial nerve is located at the base of the dorsal side of the brachial fold and gives rise to the cross neurite bundles, which pass through the connective tissue and connect the main and accessory brachial nerves. Nerves emanating from the accessory brachial nerve account for most of the tentacle innervation and comprise the frontal, latero-frontal, and latero-abfrontal neurite bundles. The lower brachial nerve gives rise to the abfrontal neurite bundles of the outer tentacles. Comparative analysis revealed the presence of many similar features in the organization of the lophophore nervous system in phoronids, brachiopods, and bryozoans. The main brachial nerve of L. anatina is similar to the dorsal ganglion of phoronids and the cerebral ganglion of bryozoans. The accessory brachial nerve of L. anatina is similar to the minor nerve ring of phoronids and the circumoral nerve ring of bryozoans. All lophophorates have intertentacular neurite bundles, which innervate adjacent tentacles. The presence of similar nerve elements in the lophophore of phoronids, brachiopods, and bryozoans supports the homology of the lophophore and the

  8. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, G; Distel, D L; Polz, M; Sterrer, W; Wheeler, W C

    2000-09-01

    Triploblastic relationships were examined in the light of molecular and morphological evidence. Representatives for all triploblastic "phyla" (except Loricifera) were represented by both sources of phylogenetic data. The 18S ribosomal (rDNA) sequence data for 145 terminal taxa and 276 morphological characters coded for 36 supraspecific taxa were combined in a total evidence regime to determine the most consistent picture of triploblastic relationships for these data. Only triploblastic taxa are used to avoid rooting with distant outgroups, which seems to happen because of the extreme distance that separates diploblastic from triploblastic taxa according to the 18S rDNA data. Multiple phylogenetic analyses performed with variable analysis parameters yield largely inconsistent results for certain groups such as Chaetognatha, Acoela, and Nemertodermatida. A normalized incongruence length metric is used to assay the relative merit of the multiple analyses. The combined analysis having the least character incongruence yields the following scheme of relationships of four main clades: (1) Deuterostomia [((Echinodermata + Enteropneusta) (Cephalochordata (Urochordata + Vertebrata)))]; (2) Ecdysozoa [(((Priapulida + Kinorhyncha) (Nematoda + Nematomorpha)) ((Onychophora + Tardigrada) Arthropoda))]; (3) Trochozoa [((Phoronida + Brachiopoda) (Entoprocta (Nemertea (Sipuncula (Mollusca (Pogonophora (Echiura + Annelida)))))))]; and (4) Platyzoa [((Gnathostomulida (Cycliophora + Syndermata)) (Gastrotricha + Plathelminthes))]. Chaetognatha, Nemertodermatida, and Bryozoa cannot be assigned to any one of these four groups. For the first time, a data analysis recognizes a clade of acoelomates, the Platyzoa (sensu Cavalier-Smith, Biol. Rev. 73:203-266, 1998). Other relationships that corroborate some morphological analyses are the existence of a clade that groups Gnathostomulida + Syndermata (= Gnathifera), which is expanded to include the enigmatic phylum Cycliophora, as sister group

  9. Breakdown of phylogenetic signal: a survey of microsatellite densities in 454 shotgun sequences from 154 non model eukaryote species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese Meglécz

    Full Text Available Microsatellites are ubiquitous in Eukaryotic genomes. A more complete understanding of their origin and spread can be gained from a comparison of their distribution within a phylogenetic context. Although information for model species is accumulating rapidly, it is insufficient due to a lack of species depth, thus intragroup variation is necessarily ignored. As such, apparent differences between groups may be overinflated and generalizations cannot be inferred until an analysis of the variation that exists within groups has been conducted. In this study, we examined microsatellite coverage and motif patterns from 454 shotgun sequences of 154 Eukaryote species from eight distantly related phyla (Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Onychophora, Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Chordata and Streptophyta to test if a consistent phylogenetic pattern emerges from the microsatellite composition of these species. It is clear from our results that data from model species provide incomplete information regarding the existing microsatellite variability within the Eukaryotes. A very strong heterogeneity of microsatellite composition was found within most phyla, classes and even orders. Autocorrelation analyses indicated that while microsatellite contents of species within clades more recent than 200 Mya tend to be similar, the autocorrelation breaks down and becomes negative or non-significant with increasing divergence time. Therefore, the age of the taxon seems to be a primary factor in degrading the phylogenetic pattern present among related groups. The most recent classes or orders of Chordates still retain the pattern of their common ancestor. However, within older groups, such as classes of Arthropods, the phylogenetic pattern has been scrambled by the long independent evolution of the lineages.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Cheilostomata - compositional bias affects phylogenetic analyses of lophotrochozoan relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesnidal Maximilian P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogenetic relationships of the lophophorate lineages, ectoprocts, brachiopods and phoronids, within Lophotrochozoa are still controversial. We sequenced an additional mitochondrial genome of the most species-rich lophophorate lineage, the ectoprocts. Although it is known that there are large differences in the nucleotide composition of mitochondrial sequences of different lineages as well as in the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins, this bias is often not considered in phylogenetic analyses. We applied several approaches for reducing compositional bias and saturation in the phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial sequences. Results The complete mitochondrial genome (16,089 bp of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata was sequenced. All protein-encoding, rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from the same strand. Flustra shares long intergenic sequences with the cheilostomate ectoproct Bugula, which might be a synapomorphy of these taxa. Further synapomorphies might be the loss of the DHU arm of the tRNA L(UUR, the loss of the DHU arm of the tRNA S(UCN and the unique anticodon sequence GAG of the tRNA L(CUN. The gene order of the mitochondrial genome of Flustra differs strongly from that of the other known ectoprocts. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial nucleotide and amino acid data sets show that the lophophorate lineages are more closely related to trochozoan phyla than to deuterostomes or ecdysozoans confirming the Lophotrochozoa hypothesis. Furthermore, they support the monophyly of Cheilostomata and Ectoprocta. However, the relationships of the lophophorate lineages within Lophotrochozoa differ strongly depending on the data set and the used method. Different approaches for reducing heterogeneity in nucleotide and amino acid data sets and saturation did not result in a more robust resolution of lophotrochozoan relationships. Conclusion The contradictory and usually weakly

  11. River-Borne Sediment Exports, Sedimentation Rates, and Influence on Benthos and Leaflitter Breakdown in Southern Caribbean Mangroves (uraba, Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J. F.; Taborda, A.; Arroyave, A.

    2011-12-01

    Deposition of river-borne sediments is a major issue in coastal ecosystems worldwide, but no study has been conducted in Neotropical mangroves. Mangroves in the Urabá Gulf (Southern Caribbean coast of Colombia) receive one of the highest sediment loads (trapping occurred on river's main channel (2.54 ton m-2 yr-1). Temporal variation was smaller than spatial variation. Monitoring (twenty 1-m2 quadrats x 3 sites x 12 months) of a dominant mangrove-floor gastropod (Neritina virginea) observed a positive increase of density (4-125 ind. m-2: One-way ANOVA: plitter from the muddy bottom, each cage was placed and 1 senescent leaf of A. germinans and 7 snails were introduced (previously weighed) (snail abundance was similar to background densities). Three levels of area-weighed sedimentation rates (1, 3 and 18 g per cage) were daily added to test the impacts of the field-observed sedimentation gradient. The experiment was carried out during one month. Fresh leaf mass was different among treatments during the first week, increasing in proportion to the sedimentation rate probably due to leaf soaking. However, there was no difference in fresh leaf weight loss (average: 67%) among sediment levels after one month. Fresh weight loss (range: 81.6-4.4%) was observed in the snails during the early stage of the experiment. Significant differences were observed but not related to sediment levels. After one month, the snails gained weight (<1, 5, and 12%) in proportion to increased sediment levels (1, 3 and 18 g per day and cage). These results suggested that sedimentation levels observed in the study area are not detrimental for N. virginea populations and for their feeding activities. They also suggested that this species may cope with increased sedimentation by shifting feeding from leaflitter to sediments. However, the dominance by N. virginea (in number and biomass) in the study area may indicate that siltation is harmful for sensitive gastropods and for the entire benthic

  12. Matrotrophy and placentation in invertebrates: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Lidgard, Scott; Gordon, Dennis P; Schwaha, Thomas; Genikhovich, Grigory; Ereskovsky, Alexander V

    2016-08-01

    Matrotrophy, the continuous extra-vitelline supply of nutrients from the parent to the progeny during gestation, is one of the masterpieces of nature, contributing to offspring fitness and often correlated with evolutionary diversification. The most elaborate form of matrotrophy-placentotrophy-is well known for its broad occurrence among vertebrates, but the comparative distribution and structural diversity of matrotrophic expression among invertebrates is wanting. In the first comprehensive analysis of matrotrophy across the animal kingdom, we report that regardless of the degree of expression, it is established or inferred in at least 21 of 34 animal phyla, significantly exceeding previous accounts and changing the old paradigm that these phenomena are infrequent among invertebrates. In 10 phyla, matrotrophy is represented by only one or a few species, whereas in 11 it is either not uncommon or widespread and even pervasive. Among invertebrate phyla, Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda and Bryozoa dominate, with 162, 83 and 53 partly or wholly matrotrophic families, respectively. In comparison, Chordata has more than 220 families that include or consist entirely of matrotrophic species. We analysed the distribution of reproductive patterns among and within invertebrate phyla using recently published molecular phylogenies: matrotrophy has seemingly evolved at least 140 times in all major superclades: Parazoa and Eumetazoa, Radiata and Bilateria, Protostomia and Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. In Cycliophora and some Digenea, it may have evolved twice in the same life cycle. The provisioning of developing young is associated with almost all known types of incubation chambers, with matrotrophic viviparity more widespread (20 phyla) than brooding (10 phyla). In nine phyla, both matrotrophic incubation types are present. Matrotrophy is expressed in five nutritive modes, of which histotrophy and placentotrophy are most prevalent. Oophagy, embryophagy and

  13. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis P Gordon

    Full Text Available The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2, is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010, including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied

  14. River-Borne Sediment Exports, Sedimentation Rates, and Influence on Benthos and Leaflitter Breakdown in Southern Caribbean Mangroves (uraba, Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J. F.; Taborda, A.; Arroyave, A.

    2011-12-01

    Deposition of river-borne sediments is a major issue in coastal ecosystems worldwide, but no study has been conducted in Neotropical mangroves. Mangroves in the Urabá Gulf (Southern Caribbean coast of Colombia) receive one of the highest sediment loads (rivers crossing an extensive banana crop district. Annual sedimentation rates were computed based in monthly samplings (2009-2010) in mangrove fringes across the Turbo River Delta using bottom-fixed 1L-cylinders (n=15). A significant spatial variation (0.04-0.9 ton m-2 yr-1) was observed among sampling stations within the delta, but the highest trapping occurred on river's main channel (2.54 ton m-2 yr-1). Temporal variation was smaller than spatial variation. Monitoring (twenty 1-m2 quadrats x 3 sites x 12 months) of a dominant mangrove-floor gastropod (Neritina virginea) observed a positive increase of density (4-125 ind. m-2: One-way ANOVA: p<0.001) along a sedimentation gradient (monthly means for low and high sedimentation sites: 3-69 kg m-2 yr-1). The role of N. virginea on leaflitter breakdown relative to sedimentation level was experimentally tested in a black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) stand by using 180 wire-mesh cages (15 x 15 x 25 cm) placed on the forest floor as experimental units, to prevent snail and crab access. After clearing existing snails and litter from the muddy bottom, each cage was placed and 1 senescent leaf of A. germinans and 7 snails were introduced (previously weighed) (snail abundance was similar to background densities). Three levels of area-weighed sedimentation rates (1, 3 and 18 g per cage) were daily added to test the impacts of the field-observed sedimentation gradient. The experiment was carried out during one month. Fresh leaf mass was different among treatments during the first week, increasing in proportion to the sedimentation rate probably due to leaf soaking. However, there was no difference in fresh leaf weight loss (average: 67%) among sediment levels after one

  15. Quantitative Analyse von Korallengemeinschaften des Sanganeb-Atolls (mittleres Rotes Meer). I. Die Besiedlungsstruktur hydrodynamisch unterschiedlich exponierter Außen- und Innenriffe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergner, H.; Schuhmacher, H.

    1985-12-01

    The Sanganeb-Atoll off Port Sudan is an elongate annular reef which rests on a probably raised block in the fracture zone along the Red Sea-graben. Its gross morphology was most likely formed by subaerial erosion during low sealevel conditions. Features of its topography and hydrography are described. The prevailing wind waves are from NE, Hence, the outer and inner reef slopes are exposed to different hydrodynamic conditions. The sessile benthos was analysed using the quadrat method. Four test quadrats (5×5 m each) were selected on the outer and inner slopes at a depth of 10 m along a SSW-NNE transect across the atoll. Cnidaria were by far the most dominating group; coralline algae, Porifera, Bryozoa and Ascidia, however, counted for just under 3 % living cover. Light and temperature intensities did not differ significantly at the sites studied; water movement, however, decreased in the following order: TQ IV (outer NE side of the reef ring) was exposed to strong swell and surf; TQ II (inner side of the SW-ring) was met by a strong longreef current; TQ I was situated on the outer lee of the SW-atoll ring and TQ III in the inner lee of the NE-side. This hydrodynamic gradient correlates with the composition of the coral communities from predominantly branching Scleractinia (staghorn-like and other Acropora species and Pocillopora) in TQ IV, through a Lobophyllia, Porites and Xenia-dominated community in TQ II, and a mixed community with an increasing percentage of xeniid and alcyoniid soft corals in TQ I, to a community in TQ III which is dominated by the soft corals Sinularia and Dendronephthya. The cnidarian cover ranged between 42.4 and 56.6 % whereby the two exposed test quadrats had a higher living coverage than the protected ones. In total, 2649 colonies comprising 124 species of stony, soft and hydrocorals were recorded by an elaborate method of accurate in-situ mapping. The 90 scleractinian species found include 3 species new to the Red Sea and 11 hitherto

  16. The relationship between shellbed type and sequence architecture: examples from Japan and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yasuo; Abbott, Stephen T.; Kitamura, Akihisa; Kamp, Peter J. J.; Naish, Tim R.; Kamataki, Takanobu; Saul, Gordon S.

    1998-12-01

    Examples of lithology, fossil content and taphonomic features of shellbeds and intervening less fossiliferous intervals are presented from four Plio-Pleistocene successions (Shimosa Group, Boso Peninsula, Omma Formation, Hokuriku area, Japan, and Okehu, Kai-iwi, and Shakespeare groups in Wanganui, and the Rangitikei Group along the Rangitikei River in New Zealand). As for pre-Pliocene 3rd- and 4th-order depositional sequences, Plio-Pleistocene 5th- to 7th-order depositional sequences contain a variety of shellbeds which are often associated with surfaces or intervals that are characterized by sedimentary condensation, omission or erosion (e.g. sequence boundaries, ravinement surfaces, downlap surfaces and condensed sections). Stratigraphic patterns of shellbed type tend to be similar and repetitive within a basin and a locality. This demonstrates that a specific palaeogeography played an important role in determining the nature of shellbeds. For example, shellbeds formed in the context of toplap are common only in the Shimosa Group, which was deposited in a moderately sheltered sea, the palaeo-Tokyo Bay. Toplap shellbeds are rare in other sequences formed in more open conditions. Despite the variability resulting from such basin characteristics, common styles of shellbeds can be recognized that formed under conditions of marine onlap, backlap, downlap and toplap. Each type of shellbed has a characteristic fossil composition and taphonomy. Onlap and toplap shellbeds contain low-diversity macrobenthic associations including Glycymeris, Mercenaria, Paphies or other bivalves having robust shells, which are often abraded or fragmented. Backlap shellbeds, which are equivalent to the condensed section formed at the maximum transgression, are characterized by dominance of epifaunal macrobenthos such as bryozoa, brachiopoda, pectinid and ostreid bivalves, preserved in a slightly cemented, glauconitic muddy matrix. In contrast to fossils in such condensed sections, the shell

  17. Climate, vegetation and lake development at Sokli (northern Finland) during early MIS 3 at ∼50 kyr: Revising earlier concepts on climate, glacial and vegetation dynamics in Fennoscandia during the Weichselian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long sediment records that register environmental changes in formerly glaciated regions such as Fennoscandia in the period preceding the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at ∼ 20 kyr are rare. The Weichselian history of Fennoscandia is based on the long-distance correlation of poorly dated stratigraphic fragmentary evidence and studies on glacial geomorphology. Environmental conditions during ice-free intervals have been mostly reconstructed based on low resolution palynological analysis only. Here we present the results of a detailed study of a for Fennoscandia unusually long and continuous sediment sequence that has been recovered from the Sokli basin in northern Finland. The Sokli sequence consists of tills, glacio-fluvial beds, and fluvial beds, interlayered with fossil-rich lacustrine sediments that according to multiple accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) 14C and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) datings extend from the present into the Penultimate Glacial representing the last ∼130 kyr. This report focuses on the youngest Weichselian interstadial interval with ice-free conditions at Sokli dated to ∼50 kyr in the early part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. A comprehensive environmental reconstruction is made based on multi-proxy analysis on a two meter thick laminated, lacustrine clay-silt sequence, including lithological characteristics; organic content (loss-on-ignition, LOI); plant microfossils (pollen, spores, algal and fungal remains); macrofossils of plants (e.g. seeds, moss remains) and of aquatic animals (e.g. statoblasts of Bryozoa); head-capsules of chironomids (i.e. aquatic insects); and diatoms and other siliceous microfossils (e.g. phytolits, chrysophyte stomatocysts). Additionally, geomorphic evidence and analysis of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data are employed in the environmental reconstruction. Mean July temperatures are reconstructed by applying transfer functions to the pollen, chironomid and diatom records. The results have been

  18. Climate, vegetation and lake development at Sokli (northern Finland) during early MIS 3 at approx50 kyr: Revising earlier concepts on climate, glacial and vegetation dynamics in Fennoscandia during the Weichselian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmens, Karin F. (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-08-15

    Long sediment records that register environmental changes in formerly glaciated regions such as Fennoscandia in the period preceding the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at approx 20 kyr are rare. The Weichselian history of Fennoscandia is based on the long-distance correlation of poorly dated stratigraphic fragmentary evidence and studies on glacial geomorphology. Environmental conditions during ice-free intervals have been mostly reconstructed based on low resolution palynological analysis only. Here we present the results of a detailed study of a for Fennoscandia unusually long and continuous sediment sequence that has been recovered from the Sokli basin in northern Finland. The Sokli sequence consists of tills, glacio-fluvial beds, and fluvial beds, interlayered with fossil-rich lacustrine sediments that according to multiple accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) 14C and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) datings extend from the present into the Penultimate Glacial representing the last approx130 kyr. This report focuses on the youngest Weichselian interstadial interval with ice-free conditions at Sokli dated to approx50 kyr in the early part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. A comprehensive environmental reconstruction is made based on multi-proxy analysis on a two meter thick laminated, lacustrine clay-silt sequence, including lithological characteristics; organic content (loss-on-ignition, LOI); plant microfossils (pollen, spores, algal and fungal remains); macrofossils of plants (e.g. seeds, moss remains) and of aquatic animals (e.g. statoblasts of Bryozoa); head-capsules of chironomids (i.e. aquatic insects); and diatoms and other siliceous microfossils (e.g. phytolits, chrysophyte stomatocysts). Additionally, geomorphic evidence and analysis of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data are employed in the environmental reconstruction. Mean July temperatures are reconstructed by applying transfer functions to the pollen, chironomid and diatom records. The results