WorldWideScience

Sample records for bugula neritina bryozoa

  1. Involvement of wnt signaling pathways in the metamorphosis of the bryozoan bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him

    2012-03-20

    In this study, we analyzed the metamorphosis of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. We observed the morphogenesis of the ancestrula. We defined three distinct pre-ancestrula stages based on the anatomy of the developing polypide and the overall morphology of pre-ancestrula. We then used an annotation based enrichment analysis tool to analyze the B. neritina transcriptome and identified over-representation of genes related to Wnt signaling pathways, suggesting its involvement in metamorphosis. Finally, we studied the temporal-spatial gene expression studies of several Wnt pathway genes. We found that one of the Wnt ligand, BnWnt10, was expressed spatially opposite to the Wnt antagonist BnsFRP within the blastemas, which is the presumptive polypide. Down-stream components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway were exclusively expressed in the blastemas. Bn?catenin and BnFz5/8 were exclusively expressed in the blastemas throughout the metamorphosis. Based on the genes expression patterns, we propose that BnWnt10 and BnsFRP may relate to the patterning of the polypide, in which the two genes served as positional signals and contributed to the polarization of the blastemas. Another Wnt ligand, BnWnt6, was expressed in the apical part of the pre-ancestrula epidermis. Overall, our findings suggest that the Wnt signaling pathway may be important to the pattern formation of polypide and the development of epidermis. © 2012 Wong et al.

  2. Rapid transcriptome and proteome profiling of a non-model marine invertebrate, Bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2010-06-10

    Non-model organisms represent the majority of life forms in our planet. However, the lack of genetic information hinders us to understand the unique biological phenomena in non-model organisms at the molecular level. In this study, we applied a tandem transcriptome and proteome profiling on a non-model marine fouling organism, Bugula neritina. Using a 454 pyrosequencing platform with the updated titanium reagents, we generated a total of 48M bp transcriptome data consisting of 131 450 high-quality reads. Of these, 122 650 reads (93%) were assembled to produce 6392 contigs with an average length of 538 bases and the remaining 8800 reads were singletons. Of the total 15 192 unigenes, 13 863 ORFs were predicated, of which 6917 were functionally annotated based on gene ontology and eukaryotic orthologous groups. Subsequent proteome analysis identified and quantified 882 proteins from B. neritina. These results would provide fundamental and important information for the subsequent studies of molecular mechanism in larval biology, development, antifouling research. Furthermore, we demonstrated, for the first time, the combined use of two high-throughput technologies as a powerful approach for accelerating the studies of non-model but otherwise important species. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  3. Quantitative proteomics identify molecular targets that are crucial in larval settlement and metamorphosis of bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Huoming

    2011-01-07

    The marine invertebrate Bugula neritina has a biphasic life cycle that consists of a swimming larval stage and a sessile juvenile and adult stage. The attachment of larvae to the substratum and their subsequent metamorphosis have crucial ecological consequences. Despite many studies on this species, little is known about the molecular mechanism of these processes. Here, we report a comparative study of swimming larvae and metamorphosing individuals at 4 and 24 h postattachment using label-free quantitative proteomics. We identified more than 1100 proteins at each stage, 61 of which were differentially expressed. Specifically, proteins involved in energy metabolism and structural molecules were generally down-regulated, whereas proteins involved in transcription and translation, the extracellular matrix, and calcification were strongly up-regulated during metamorphosis. Many tightly regulated novel proteins were also identified. Subsequent analysis of the temporal and spatial expressions of some of the proteins and an assay of their functions indicated that they may have key roles in metamorphosis of B. neritina. These findings not only provide molecular evidence with which to elucidate the substantial changes in morphology and physiology that occur during larval attachment and metamorphosis but also identify potential targets for antifouling treatment. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Recyclable plastics as substrata for settlement and growth of bryozoans Bugula neritina and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng-Xiang; Orihuela, Beatriz; Zhu, Mei; Rittschof, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Plastics are common and pervasive anthropogenic debris in marine environments. Floating plastics provide opportunities to alter the abundance, distribution and invasion potential of sessile organisms that colonize them. We selected plastics from seven recycle categories and quantified settlement of (i) bryozoans Bugula neritina (Linnaeus, 1758) in the lab and in the field, and of (ii) barnacles Amphibalanus (= Balanus) amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) in the field. In the laboratory we cultured barnacles on the plastics for 8 weeks and quantified growth, mortality, and breaking strength of the side plates. In the field all recyclable plastics were settlement substrata for bryozoans and barnacles. Settlement depended on the type of plastic. Fewer barnacles settled on plastic surfaces compared to glass. In the lab and in the field, bryozoan settlement was higher on plastics than on glass. In static laboratory rearing, barnacles growing on plastics were initially significantly smaller than on glass. This suggested juvenile barnacles were adversely impacted by materials leaching from the plastics. Barnacle mortality was not significantly different between plastic and glass surfaces, but breaking strength of side plates of barnacles on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polycarbonate (PC) were significantly lower than breakage strength on glass. Plastics impact marine ecosystems directly by providing new surfaces for colonization with fouling organisms and by contaminants shown previously to leach out of plastics and impact biological processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Dependency on de novo protein synthesis and proteomic changes during metamorphosis of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him

    2010-05-24

    Background: Metamorphosis in the bryozoan Bugula neritina (Linne) includes an initial phase of rapid morphological rearrangement followed by a gradual phase of morphogenesis. We hypothesized that the first phase may be independent of de novo synthesis of proteins and, instead, involves post-translational modifications of existing proteins, providing a simple mechanism to quickly initiate metamorphosis. To test our hypothesis, we challenged B. neritina larvae with transcription and translation inhibitors. Furthermore, we employed 2D gel electrophoresis to characterize changes in the phosphoproteome and proteome during early metamorphosis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and their gene expression patterns were profiled using semi-quantitative real time PCR.Results: When larvae were incubated with transcription and translation inhibitors, metamorphosis initiated through the first phase but did not complete. We found a significant down-regulation of 60 protein spots and the percentage of phosphoprotein spots decreased from 15% in the larval stage to12% during early metamorphosis. Two proteins--the mitochondrial processing peptidase beta subunit and severin--were abundantly expressed and phosphorylated in the larval stage, but down-regulated during metamorphosis. MPPbeta and severin were also down-regulated on the gene expression level.Conclusions: The initial morphogenetic changes that led to attachment of B. neritina did not depend on de novo protein synthesis, but the subsequent gradual morphogenesis did. This is the first time that the mitochondrial processing peptidase beta subunit or severin have been shown to be down-regulated on both gene and protein expression levels during the metamorphosis of B. neritina. Future studies employing immunohistochemistry to reveal the expression locality of these two proteins during metamorphosis should provide further evidence of the involvement of these two

  6. Coumarins from the Herb Cnidium monnieri and chemically modified derivatives as antifoulants against Balanus albicostatus and Bugula neritina larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-Chang; Feng, Dan-Qing; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2013-01-09

    In the search for new environmental friendly antifouling (AF) agents, four coumarins were isolated from the herbal plant Cnidium monnieri, known as osthole (1), imperatorin (2), isopimpinellin (3) and auraptenol (4). Furthermore, five coumarin derivatives, namely 8-epoxypentylcoumarin (5), meranzin hydrate (6), 2'-deoxymetranzin hydrate (7), 8-methylbutenalcoumarin (8), and micromarin-F (9) were synthesized from osthole. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 7 showed high inhibitory activities against larval settlement of Balanus albicostatus with EC(50) values of 4.64, 3.39, 3.38, 4.67 μg mL-1. Compound 8 could significantly inhibit larval settlement of Bugula neritina with an EC(50) value of 3.87 μg mL-1. The impact of functional groups on anti-larval settlement activities suggested that the groups on C-5' and C-2'/C-3' of isoamylene chian could affect the AF activities.

  7. Coumarins from the Herb Cnidium monnieri and Chemically Modified Derivatives as Antifoulants against Balanus albicostatus and Bugula neritina Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Chang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for new environmental friendly antifouling (AF agents, four coumarins were isolated from the herbal plant Cnidium monnieri, known as osthole (1, imperatorin (2, isopimpinellin (3 and auraptenol (4. Furthermore, five coumarin derivatives, namely 8-epoxypentylcoumarin (5, meranzin hydrate (6, 2'-deoxymetranzin hydrate (7, 8-methylbutenalcoumarin (8, and micromarin-F (9 were synthesized from osthole. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 7 showed high inhibitory activities against larval settlement of Balanus albicostatus with EC50 values of 4.64, 3.39, 3.38, 4.67 μg mL−1. Compound 8 could significantly inhibit larval settlement of Bugula neritina with an EC50 value of 3.87 μg mL−1. The impact of functional groups on anti-larval settlement activities suggested that the groups on C-5' and C-2'/C-3' of isoamylene chian could affect the AF activities.

  8. Coumarins from the Herb Cnidium monnieri and Chemically Modified Derivatives as Antifoulants against Balanus albicostatus and Bugula neritina Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-Chang; Feng, Dan-Qing; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new environmental friendly antifouling (AF) agents, four coumarins were isolated from the herbal plant Cnidium monnieri, known as osthole (1), imperatorin (2), isopimpinellin (3) and auraptenol (4). Furthermore, five coumarin derivatives, namely 8-epoxypentylcoumarin (5), meranzin hydrate (6), 2′-deoxymetranzin hydrate (7), 8-methylbutenalcoumarin (8), and micromarin-F (9) were synthesized from osthole. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 7 showed high inhibitory activities against larval settlement of Balanus albicostatus with EC50 values of 4.64, 3.39, 3.38, 4.67 μg mL−1. Compound 8 could significantly inhibit larval settlement of Bugula neritina with an EC50 value of 3.87 μg mL−1. The impact of functional groups on anti-larval settlement activities suggested that the groups on C-5′ and C-2′/C-3′ of isoamylene chian could affect the AF activities. PMID:23303279

  9. Changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome expression in the bryozoan Bugula neritina larvae in response to the antifouling agent butenolide

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei Yuan

    2010-09-08

    Larval attachment and metamorphosis, commonly referred to as larval settlement, of marine sessile invertebrates can be triggered or blocked by chemical cues and affected by changes in overall protein expression pattern and phosphorylation dynamics. This study focuses on the effects of butenolide, an effective larval settlement inhibitor, on larval settlement at the proteome level in the bryozoan Bugula neritina. Liquid-phase IEF sample prefractionation combined with 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Substantial changes occurred both in protein abundance and in phosphorylation status during larval settlement and when settling larvae were challenged with butenolide. The proteins that responded to treatment were identified as structural proteins, molecular chaperones, mitochondrial peptidases and calcium-binding proteins. Compared with our earlier results, both genistein and butenolide inhibited larval settlement of B. neritina primarily by changes in protein abundance and the phosphorylation status of proteins but have different protein targets in the same species. Clearly, to design potent antifouling compounds and to understand the mode of action of compounds, more studies on the effects of different compounds on proteome and phosphoproteome of different larval species are required. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. The Mode of Action of Isocyanide in Three Aquatic Organisms, Balanus amphitrite, Bugula neritina and Danio rerio

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi-Fan

    2012-09-18

    Isocyanide is a potential antifouling compound in marine environments. In this study, we investigated its mode of action in three aquatic organisms. Two of them, the bryozoan Bugula neritina and the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, are major marine fouling invertebrates, and the other organism is the non-target species zebrafish Danio rerio. In the swimming larvae of B. neritina, isocyanide did not affect the total attachment rate (≤50 µg ml^(−1)), but it did change the attachment site by increasing the percentage of attachment on the bottom of the container rather than on the wall or air-water inter-surface. Isocyanide binds several proteins in B. neritina as identified via SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS: 1) a 30 kD protein band containing two proteins similar to voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC), which control the direct coupling of the mitochondrial matrix to the energy maintenance of the cytosol and the release of apoptogenic factors from mitochondria of mammalian cells; and 2) an unknown 39 kD protein. In B. amphitrite cyprids, the isocyanide binding protein were 1) a protein similar to NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, which is the “entry enzyme” of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria; and 2) cytochrome P450. In Danio rerio embryos, isocyanide caused “wavy” notochords, hydrocephalus, pericardial edema, poor blood circulation, and defects in pigmentation and hematopoiesis, which phenocopied copper deficiency. This is the first report on isocyanide binding proteins in fouling organisms, as well as the first description of its phenotype and potential toxicology in zebrafish.

  11. The effect of butenolide on behavioral and morphological changes in two marine fouling species, the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi Fan

    2011-05-23

    Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] is a very promising antifouling compound. Here, the effects of butenolide on larval behavior and histology are compared in two major fouling organisms, viz. cypris larvae of Balanus amphitrite and swimming larvae of Bugula neritina. Butenolide diminished the positive phototactic behavior of B. amphitrite (EC50=0.82 μg ml(-1)) and B. neritina (EC50=3 μg ml(-1)). Its effect on the attachment of cyprids of B. amphitrite was influenced by temperature, and butenolide increased attachment of larvae of B. neritina to the bottom of the experimental wells. At concentrations of 4 μg ml(-1) and 10 μg ml(-1), butenolide decreased attachment of B. amphitrite and B. neritina, respectively, but the effects were reversible within a certain treatment time. Morphologically, butenolide inhibited the swelling of secretory granules and altered the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) in the cement gland of B. amphitrite cyprids. In B. neritina swimming larvae, butenolide reduced the number of secretory granules in the pyriform-glandular complex.

  12. Reversible anti-settlement activity against Amphibalanus (= Balanus ) amphitrite, Bugula neritina , and Hydroides elegans by a nontoxic pharmaceutical compound, mizolastine

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Xiaojian

    2009-11-01

    Mizolastine, an antihistamine pharmaceutical, was found to significantly inhibit larval settlement of the barnacle Amphibalanus (=Balanus) amphitrite, the bryozoan Bugula neritina, and the polychaete Hydroides elegans with EC50 values of 4.2, 11.2, and 4.1 mg ml-1, respectively. No toxicity against the larvae of these three species was observed at the concentration range tested during incubations with mizolastine. To determine whether the anti-settlement activity of mizolastine is reversible, recovery bioassays using these three species were conducted. More than 70% of the larvae that had been exposed for 4 h to mizolastine at concentrations four-fold greater than their respective EC50 values completed normal metamorphosis. The results of the recovery bioassay provide evidence that the antisettlement effect of mizolastine is reversible in addition to being nontoxic. The anti-settlement activities of several intermediates of the synthesis process of mizolastine were also examined. One of the intermediates, 2-chloro-1-(4- fluorobenzyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole, inhibited larval settlement and metamorphosis with low toxicity. These results may improve the understanding of the key functional group responsible for the anti-settlement activity of mizolastine. © 2009 Taylor & Francis.

  13. Fouling Bryozoa from some Alexandria harbours, EGYPT. (I Erect species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH.M. ABDEL-SALAM

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The fouling erect Bryozoa settled on polystyrene test panels immersed half a meter deep in the water of Abu Qir Harbour, the Eastern Harbour and El-Dekheila Harbour were studied. The present study yields 5 species of erect bryozoa. These areAmathia pruvoti, Zoobotryon verticillatum, Bowerbankia gracilis,Bugula neritina and Bugula stolonifera. The first three ones pertain to 3 genera of the family Vesiculariidae belonging to suborder the Stolonifera; while the other two species affiliate to the genus Bugula belonging to the family Bugulidae of suborder Anasca. The present record of Amathia pruvoti is the first from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. A re-description, supplied with full structural illustrations of the recorded species is given. Moreover, the temporal and spatial distributions of the species recorded are encountered.

  14. Neritinaceramides A–E, New Ceramides from the Marine Bryozoan Bugula neritina Inhabiting South China Sea and Their Cytotoxicity

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    Xiang-Rong Tian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Five new ceramides, neritinaceramides A (1, B (2, C (3, D (4 and E (5, together with six known ceramides (6–11, two known alkyl glycerylethers (12 and 13 and a known nucleoside (14, were isolated from marine bryozoan Bugula neritina, which inhabits the South China Sea. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as (2S,3R,3′S,4E,8E,10E-2-(hexadecanoylamino-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,3′-triol (1, (2S,3R,2′R,4E,8E,10E-2-(hexadecanoylamino-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,2′-triol (2, (2S,3R,2′R,4E,8E,10E-2-(octadecanoylamino-4,8,10-octadecatriene-l,3,2′-triol (3, (2S,3R,3′S,4E,8E-2-(hexadecanoylamino-4,8-octadecadiene-l,3,3′-triol (4 and (2S,3R,3′S,4E-2-(hexadecanoylamino-4-octadecene-l,3,3′-triol (5 on the basis of extensive spectral analysis and chemical evidences. The characteristic C-3′S hydroxyl group in the fatty acid moiety in compounds 1, 4 and 5, was a novel structural feature of ceramides. The rare 4E,8E,10E-triene structure in the sphingoid base of compounds 1–3, was found from marine bryozoans for the first time. The new ceramides 1–5 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HepG2, NCI-H460 and SGC7901 tumor cell lines, and all of them exhibited selective cytotoxicity against HepG2 and SGC7901 cells with a range of IC50 values from 47.3 μM to 58.1 μM. These chemical and cytotoxic studies on the new neritinaceramides A–E (1–5 added to the chemical diversity of B. neritina and expanded our knowledge of the chemical modifications and biological activity of ceramides.

  15. Efectos del retardo del asentamiento en las expectativas de vida del briozoo Bugula flabellata (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata) Effects of delaying settlement on the life expectancy of the bryozoan Bugula flabellata (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata)

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN M. CANCINO; José A Gallardo

    2004-01-01

    En presencia de un substrato adecuado las larvas lecitotróficas del briozoo Bugula flabellata se asientan preferentemente durante las primeras seis horas luego de su liberación desde las cámaras de incubación, mientras que un porcentaje marginal (1 %) pospone el asentamiento entre 6 y 24 h. En este trabajo se demuestra que las larvas de B. flabellata forzadas, por agitación mecánica, al posponer el asentamiento entre 6 y 54 h reducen significativamente su adecuación biológica. Las larvas mant...

  16. Efectos del retardo del asentamiento en las expectativas de vida del briozoo Bugula flabellata (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata Effects of delaying settlement on the life expectancy of the bryozoan Bugula flabellata (Bryozoa: Gymnolaemata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN M CANCINO

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En presencia de un substrato adecuado las larvas lecitotróficas del briozoo Bugula flabellata se asientan preferentemente durante las primeras seis horas luego de su liberación desde las cámaras de incubación, mientras que un porcentaje marginal (1 % pospone el asentamiento entre 6 y 24 h. En este trabajo se demuestra que las larvas de B. flabellata forzadas, por agitación mecánica, al posponer el asentamiento entre 6 y 54 h reducen significativamente su adecuación biológica. Las larvas mantienen su capacidad para asentarse en un nivel cercano al 95 % durante las primeras 24 h de natación. Posteriormente solo un 30 % de las larvas forzadas a retrasar el asentamiento por 24 a 48 h fueron capaces de asentarse. Más aún, la capacidad para metamorfosear disminuye desde casi un 100 % inicial a menos de un 50 % a partir de las 6 h de retardo del asentamiento. Colonias derivadas de larvas que han sido forzadas a retrasar el asentamiento entre 48-54 h tienen al cabo de 21 días un menor número de zooides (7,6 ± 1,88 que colonias generadas por larvas que se asentaron entre 1-6 h después de la liberación (12,7 ± 1,02. Los efectos letales y subletales que genera el retardar el asentamiento larval sobre la capacidad para metamorfosear en B. flabellata, concuerdan con el patrón de asentamiento larval temprano descrito anteriormente para esta especie. Los efectos letales y subletales de retrasar el asentamiento en especies con larvas lecitotróficas, podrían ser una importante fuerza selectiva que favorecería la liberación larval en condiciones de bajo movimiento de agua.In the presence of a suitable substratum the lecithotrophic larvae of the bryozoan Bugula flabellata preferentially settle within the first six hours after hatching, whereas a marginal percentage of them (1 % delay settlement between 6 and 24 h after larval release. In the present study we report that larvae of B. flabellata forced, by mechanical water shaking, to delay

  17. Cheilostome Bryozoa from Penang and Langkawi, Malaysia

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    Paul D. Taylor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three species of cheilostome bryozoans are described from the Malaysian islands of Penang and Langkawi based on a brief reconnaisance survey of shore localities. These are the first bryozoans to be formally described from either island and they demonstrate the potential for further research on these neglected suspension feeders. Of the 23 species recorded, 12 are anascans, half of which are malacostegines, and 11 are ascophorans. The new combinations Acanthodesia falsitenuis (Liu, 1992, A. perambulata (Louis & Menon, 2009 and A. irregulata (Liu, 1992 are introduced. Most of the species recorded are widespread in the Indo-Pacific, and some are apparently globally distributed in the tropics and subtropics, including the invasive fouling species Bugula neritina, Hippoporina indica and Schizoporella japonica, as well as the coral reef associates Cranosina coronata and Hippopodina feegeensis. Plastic debris and glass bottles were encrusted by Jellyella eburnea, a coloniser of floating biological and man-made objects that is becoming widespread in the tropics and subtropics of the world’s oceans.

  18. Coumarins from the Herb Cnidium monnieri and chemically modified derivatives as antifoulants against Balanus albicostatus and Bugula neritina larvae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhan-Chang; Feng, Dan-Qing; Ke, Cai-Huan

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new environmental friendly antifouling (AF) agents, four coumarins were isolated from the herbal plant Cnidium monnieri, known as osthole (1), imperatorin (2), isopimpinellin (3) and auraptenol (4...

  19. Coumarins from the Herb Cnidium monnieri and Chemically Modified Derivatives as Antifoulants against Balanus albicostatus and Bugula neritina Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan-Chang Wang; Dan-Qing Feng; Cai-Huan Ke

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new environmental friendly antifouling (AF) agents, four coumarins were isolated from the herbal plant Cnidium monnieri, known as osthole (1), imperatorin (2), isopimpinellin (3) and auraptenol (4). Furthermore, five coumarin derivatives, namely 8-epoxypentylcoumarin (5), meranzin hydrate (6), 2'-deoxymetranzin hydrate (7), 8-methylbutenalcoumarin (8), and micromarin-F (9) were synthesized from osthole. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 7 showed high inhibitory activities against larv...

  20. The Bryozoa of Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osburn, Raymond C.

    1927-01-01

    For the reason that no records for this group of animals have been made anywhere near that region, the Bryozoa collected by Dr. C. J. VAN DER HORST are of great interest. The collection is quite limited in the number of species, as might have been expected on account of the inconspicuous nature of

  1. The Bryozoa of subantarctic Marion and Prince Edward Islands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bryozoa of subantarctic Marion and Prince Edward Islands were sampled over the period 1982–1989 by dredging, SCUBA-diving and intertidal surveys. This paper comprises illustrated keys to all 82 species of Bryozoa collected during these and previous surveys, including 15 new species, 17 new records and 8 ...

  2. Bryozoa from the Tertiary sediments of Western Kachchh, Gujarat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    succession of Jabal Hafit, Al Ain, United Arab Emi- rates and Arabian Peninsula; Bullettino della Societ`a. Palaeontologica Italiana 42(3) 242–265. Canu F and Bassler R S 1920 North American early Tertiary. Bryozoa; United States National Museum Bulletin 106. 1–879. Canu F and Bassler R S 1929 Contribution to the ...

  3. Floods, Habitat Hydraulics and Upstream Migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JUAN F. BLANCO; FREDERICK N. SCATENA

    2005-01-01

    Massive upstream migrations of neritid snails (Neritidae: Gastropoda) occur in tropical and subtropical streams worldwide, but their seasonality and proximate causes are unknown. We monitored massive upstream migrations of Neritina virginea for 99 weeks, and conducted a detailed study of snail density, size, and hydraulic descriptors in lower Río Mameyes, northeastern...

  4. Hallazgo de un depredador de Neritina latissima (Gastropoda: Neritidae) en el río Punta Mala, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Alpírez, Oliver; Ureña, José María; Brenes, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    The marine snail Neritina latissima (Gastropoda: Neritidae) is preyed upon by Eleotris picta (Pisces: Eleotridae) in Punta Mala River, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Other species of fishes probably feed on N. latissima.

  5. Magellan Bryozoa: a review of the diversity and of the Subantarctic and Antarctic zoogeographical links

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    H. I. Moyano G.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Based principally on previous work by the author, the Magellan Bryozoa are reviewed in terms of endemism, specific diversity, zoarial diversity and polymorphism. The Magellan, Atlantic, Pacific, Subantarctic and Antarctic zoogeographical relationships are reevaluated. New data related to the distribution of Magellanic and Antarctic species along the archipelagos of the Scotia Arc and new data on Bryozoa from the Magellan continental slope are added.

  6. Turnerellina, a new name for Turnerella Taylor & McKinney, 2006 (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, P.D.; McKinney, F.K.

    2007-01-01

    Turnerella Taylor & McKinney, 2006, p. 164, introduced for a new genus of cribrimorph Cheilostomata (Bryozoa), is preoccupied by Turnerella Cockerell, 1910, a genus of Hymenoptera, and two other introductions of the same name for new insect genera. We propose Turnerellina as a new name to replace

  7. The spatial arrangement of neritina virginea (gastropoda: neritidae) during upstream migration in a split-channel reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JUAN F. BLANCO; FREDERICK N. SCATENA

    2007-01-01

    This paper relates differences in flow hydraulics between a main channel (MC) and a side channel (SC) of a river to patterns of upstream migration by Neritina virginea (Neritidae: Gastropoda), a dominant diadromous snail in streams of Puerto Rico (Greater Antilles). Near-bed water velocity, snail density and shell size were measured on a weekly basis between August and...

  8. Migration Patterns, Densities, and Growth of Neritina punctulata Snails in Rio Espiritu Santo and Rio Mameyes, Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARK PYRON; ALAN P. COVICH

    2003-01-01

    Snail size-frequency distributions in Rios Espiritu Santo and Mameyes, which drain the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, showed that Neritina punctulata with shell lengths greater than 30 mm were the most abundant size class at upstream sites. The highest densities for all size classes were at the downstream sites. Growth rates were 0.015 mm/day for a large...

  9. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Peter; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2011-11-10

    The marine environment provides a rich source of natural products with potential therapeutic application. This has resulted in an increased rate of pharmaceutical agents being discovered in marine animals, particularly invertebrates. Our objective is to summarize the most promising compounds which have the best potential and may lead to use in clinical practice, show their biological activities and highlight the compounds currently being tested in clinical trials. In this paper, we focused on Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata.

  10. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Peter; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment provides a rich source of natural products with potential therapeutic application. This has resulted in an increased rate of pharmaceutical agents being discovered in marine animals, particularly invertebrates. Our objective is to summarize the most promising compounds which have the best potential and may lead to use in clinical practice, show their biological activities and highlight the compounds currently being tested in clinical trials. In this paper, we focused on Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata. PMID:22087434

  11. Daños por depredación y tamano de concha del caracol diádromo Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) en el Río Mameyes, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan Felipe Blanco-Libreros; Andrea. Arroyave-Rincón

    2009-01-01

    Predator damage and shell size on the diadromous snail Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico. We compared predators’ damage with shell size in live individuals and empty shells (n=5066) of the snail Neritina virginea in the Mameyes River (Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles). According to the literature and direct observations, damages...

  12. Paracoccus seriniphilus sp. nov., an L-serine-dehydratase-producing coccus isolated from the marine bryozoan Bugula plumosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukall, Rüdiger; Laroche, Marc; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Schumann, Peter; Stackebrandt, Erko; Ulber, Roland

    2003-03-01

    A novel marine Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, aerobic bacterium, associated with the bryozoan Bugula plumosa, was isolated in a screening programme for strains containing enzymes able to convert the amino acid L-serine. Strain MBT-A4T produced L-serine dehydratase and was able to grow on L-serine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. The nearest phylogenetic neighbour was Paracoccus marcusii, as determined by 16S rDNA sequence analysis (97.8% similarity). The DNA-DNA reassociation value obtained for Paracoccus marcusii DSM11574T and MBT-A4T was 32.6%. The major ubiquinone was 0-10. Based on genotypic, chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics, a new species of the genus Paracoccus is proposed, Paracoccus seriniphilus sp. nov., the type strain being strain MBT-A4T (=DSM 14827T =CIP 107400T).

  13. Paleoecological Analysis of Cheilostome Bryozoa from Venezuela - British Guiana Shelf Sediments, 14 September 1963 to 19 September 1963 (NODC Accession 7100130)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The abundance of cheilostome Bryozoa in many Cenozoic sublittoral marine facies, their sedentary existence, minute size and sensitivity to environmental conditions...

  14. Gene expression in bryozoan larvae suggest a fundamental importance of pre-patterned blastemic cells in the bryozoan life-cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Judith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bryozoa is a clade of aquatic protostomes. The bryozoan life cycle typically comprises a larval stage, which metamorphoses into a sessile adult that proliferates by asexual budding to form colonies. The homology of bryozoan larvae with other protostome larvae is enigmatic. Bryozoan larvae exhibit blastemic tissues that contribute to build the adult during morphogenesis. However, it remains unclear if the cells of these tissues are pre-determined according to their future fate or if the cells are undifferentiated, pluripotent stem cells. Gene expression studies can help to identify molecular patterning of larval and adult tissues and enlighten the evolution of bryozoan life cycle stages. Results We investigated the spatial expression of 13 developmental genes in the larval stage of the gymnolaemate bryozoan Bugula neritina. We found most genes expressed in discrete regions in larval blastemic tissues that form definitive components of the adult body plan. Only two of the 13 genes, BnTropomyosin and BnFoxAB, were exclusively expressed in larval tissues that are discarded during metamorphosis. Conclusions Our results suggest that the larval blastemas in Bugula are pre-patterned according to their future fate in the adult. The gene expression patterns indicate that some of the bryozoan blastemas can be interpreted to correspond to homologous adult tissues of other animals. This study challenges an earlier proposed view that metazoan larvae share homologous undifferentiated "set-aside cells", and instead points to an independent origin of the bryozoan larval stage with respect to other lophotrochozoans.

  15. [Predator damage and shell size on the diadromous snail Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Libreros, Juan Felipe; Arroyave-Rincón, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    We compared predators' damage with shell size in live individuals and empty shells (n=5066) of the snail Neritina virginea in the Mameyes River (Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles). According to the literature and direct observations, damages on empty shells were attributed to predation by aquatic birds (e.g. Gallinula chloropus) and decapods (e.g. Macrobrachium spp.), while damages on live individuals were due to rasping by co-specifics and erosion. Predation by decapods and birds, as estimated by the proportion of empty shells, was low (2 and 0.36%, respectively). Shell size was significantly different between types of predators (range: decapods: 3.5-15.0mm, birds: 8.1-19.4mm). By comparing sizes of the empty shells and the live individuals, we concluded that decapods specialize on large groups of small migratory juveniles, while birds specialize on the largest resident individuals. Worn shells were highly frequent in both empty shells and live individuals, and sizes did not differ between samples. A comparison by slow-flow and fast-flow habitats showed that predators do not discriminate shell sizes between environments. However, the frequency of damage by birds and decapods was greater under slow-flow conditions. Despite of the little contribution of predation to the population dynamics in this species, predation might be an important driver of size-dependent behavioral responses such as upstream migration and microhabitat selection.

  16. Brachyura (Crustacea, Decapoda associated to Schizoporella unicornis (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata in Ubatuba bay (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando L. M. Mantelatto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work characterizes the composition of Brachyura from Schizoporella unicornis. The samples were collected in 1995 at Itaguá Beach, Ubatuba (SP, at three month intervals, during all seasons from January to December. The Bryozoa colonies were obtained by snorkeling at a depth of five meters in daylight. A total of 323 specimens were collected from four families (Xanthidae, Portunidae, Majidae and Grapsidae. Pachygrapsus transversus, Hexapanopeus schimitti, and Menippe nodifrons occurred in all seasons. The highest and lowest number of individuals occurred during the spring and autumn, respectively. Xanthidae exhibited the highest density during the summer, autumn, and spring, while Grapsidae exhibited the highest density in winter. It was noted the presence of Charibdis hellerii, an portunid from Indo-Pacific ocean. The diversity of species obtained, in addition to an accentuated number of immature and ovigerous females specimens, suggested that Schizoporella colonies were a place of reproduction and development.Este trabalho caracterizou a composição dos braquiúros em Schizoporella unicornis. As amostras foram coletadas na Praia do Itaguá, Ubatuba (SP, em intervalos de três meses, durante as estações climáticas de Janeiro a Dezembro/1995. As colônias de briozoários foram obtidas por mergulho livre, coletadas pela manhã. Um total de 323 espécimes foram coletados dentro de quatro famílias (Xanthidae, Portunidae, Majidae e Grapsidae. Pachygrapsus transversus, Hexapanopeus schimitti e Menippe nodifrons ocorreram em todas as estações. O maior e o menor número de indivíduos foram registrados na primavera e no outono, respectivamente. Xanthidae exibiu maior densidade no verão, outono e primavera, enquanto Grapsidae foi no inverno. Registrou-se a ocorrência de Charibdis hellerii, espécie originária do Indo-Pacífico. A diversidade de espécies obtida, juntamente com o acentuado número de indivíduos imaturos e fêmeas ov

  17. Migrating zooids allow the dispersal of Fredericella sultana (Bryozoa) to escape from unfavourable conditions and further spreading of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Kotob, Mohamed H; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2016-10-01

    Fredericella sultana (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata) is a primary host in the two-host life cycle of the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the etiological agent of Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) in salmonids. Overtly infected F. sultana colonies were collected from River Kamp (Lower Austria), following the first PKD outbreak affecting autochthonous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Austria. Zooids cultured under unfavourable conditions, e.g. hypertrophication or sudden temperature changes, disconnected their funiculus from the bottom of the body wall, contracted their retractor muscle and packed all organs into a pear-shaped capsule. Migrating zooids dislocated from larger dying branches by separating from the degenerating zooecial tube. After attaching to a new substrate, a new colony could grow rapidly, similar to newly hatched zooids from statoblasts. This is the first observation of an adaptive dispersal mechanism undertaken by adult viable bryozoan zooids to escape from colony deterioration upon adverse summer-like conditions. The evidence of migrating zooids for F. sultana colonization of new habitats increases their intrinsic capacity of spreading infective T. bryosalmonae malacospores. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aquaculture of three phyla of marine invertebrates to yield bioactive metabolites: process developments and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Dominick

    2003-07-01

    Large-scale, renewable supplies of chemical constituents derived from marine invertebrates have limited development of potential new natural product drugs. This paper describes the development of two in-sea aquaculture systems designed and engineered for production of large quantities of biomass for two species of marine invertebrates desired for their natural product chemical constituents. The two invertebrates and their products were: (1) the cosmopolitan, arborescent bryozoan Bugula neritina (Phylum Bryozoa) for its anticancer chemical constituent bryostatin 1; and (2) Ecteinascidia turbinate (Phylum Tunicata) the source of anticancer ecteinascidin 743. For the third invertebrate Phylum Porifera, and its representative sponge Acanthella cavernosa (desired for its anti-parasitic and anti-infective kalihinols) in-sea systems were not developed in favor of controlled environment tank aquaculture systems. For the bryozoan and tunicate, projected economics for commercial-scale in-sea production proved cost effective. This was in contrast to the controlled environment sponge culture tank system, which did not prove to be economical due to inherent slow growth and low natural product yields of the sponge in culture. A non-destructive method for "milking" natural product chemicals from sponges was tested and is described.

  19. Transcriptome analysis elucidates key developmental components of bryozoan lophophore development

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him

    2014-10-10

    The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids.

  20. [Distribution of the mangrove gastropods Neritina virginea (Neritidae) and Littoraria angulifera (Littorinidae) within the Colombian Caribbean Darién Ecoregion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferney Ortiz, Luis; Blanco, Juan Felipe

    2012-03-01

    Gastropods are one of the most abundant groups within the Caribbean mangroves, however, little is known about the distribution of particular species at a regional scale. With this aim, we studied the geographic distribution of Littoraria (Littorinopsis) angulifera and Neritina (Vitta) virginea within the Darién Ecoregion in the Caribbean coast of Colombia, from 77 sampling stations along 609km between the Colombian-Panamá border and Córdoba State, Colombia. The fieldwork was conducted in June-August 2009, and a total of 3 963 individuals of both species were hand-picked from the ground, prop-roots and trunks along 50m transects, and shell sizes were measured. The description of geographic patterns considered surface water salinity, mangrove cover and gastropod distribution within the Gulf of Urabá. In the outer-most part of the Gulf, L. angulifera was present in 84.8% of the stations, while N. virginea was only present in 15.2% of the stations. In this part, mangroves areas were patchily distributed, and the gastropods (mainly L. angulifera) were found on woody debris along the supralittoral zone in sandy shores. In the inner-most part, in contrast, N. virginea occurred in 84.6% of the stations, mostly in estuaries, deltas and river margins, while L. angulifera only appeared in Turbo Bay (15.4%). Mean shell size also exhibited a clear geographic pattern: size range was 6-22mm in L. angulifera, and 6-12mm in N. virginea. L. angulifera was found in open-water stations with water salinities >10PSU, but it was absent in sites with lower salinities like the Atrato River Delta and other small rivers. Its presence on coastal woody debris suggests that despite of the recruitment of small individuals from the nearshore stock of larvae, populations are unable to establish due to the absence of mangroves protection. Oppositely, N. virginea was found under estuarine conditions on mangrove roots and ground. Our results confirm that L. angulifera is an esteno-tolerant marine

  1. Effects of short-term sediment nutrient enrichment and grazer (Neritina reclivata removal on sediment microalgae in a shallow eutrophic estuary (Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Just Cebrian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The olive snail (Neritina reclivata is ubiquitous in tropical and sub-tropical systems of the Gulf of Mexico, however its impacts on sediment microalgae have been little studied. Many coastal systems around the world are being eutrophied due to human activities, and seemingly they will continue to be eutrophied to a further extent in the future. Exploring the single and combined impacts of further nutrient enrichment and grazing by the olive snail on sediment microalgae in such eutrophic systems is an important question for our understanding and management of these systems. Here we examine the effects of short-term nutrient enrichment and grazing by the olive snail N. reclivata on sediment microalgal biomass and composition in a shallow eutrophic estuary (Weeks Bay, Alabama, USA of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. For this, we performed a series of factorial experiments adding or not nutrients and removing or not the snail, for a total of four treatments in each experiment: ambient grazing, ambient nutrients; ambient grazing, increased nutrients; no grazing, ambient nutrients; and no grazing, increased nutrients. We did not find any significant impact of nutrient addition in any of the eight short-term (i.e. four days experiments carried out. Impacts by the snail were minor; we only found a decrease in biomass due to snail grazing in one of the eight experiments, and no impacts on microalgal (i.e. diatom composition. High ambient nutrient concentrations in the sediment porewater and low snail abundances on the sediment could explain these findings. Our results suggest that ephemeral, short-term nutrient pulses into eutrophic coastal systems of the Northern Gulf of Mexico, such as Weeks Bay (Alabama, USA, should not greatly affect the abundance of sediment microalgae, even though those pulses occur in well-lit areas. The results further suggest the snail N. reclivata is not a major control of sediment microalgal populations in the subtidal

  2. Daños por depredación y tamaño de concha del caracol diádromo Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae en el Río Mameyes, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Blanco-Libreros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon las abundancias y tamaños de conchas del gasterópodo Neritina virginea de acuerdo a los daños presentados en especimenes vivos y muertos (n= 5066 recolectados en el río Mameyes, Puerto Rico (Antillas Mayores. Se observaron daños por depredación de aves y camarones, y signos de erosión por la acción del raspado de la rádula por parte de otros individuos de la misma especie. La depredación fue aparentemente baja (Predator damage and shell size on the diadromous snail Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae in the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico. We compared predators’ damage with shell size in live individuals and empty shells (n=5066 of the snail Neritina virginea in the Mameyes River (Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles. According to the literature and direct observations, damages on empty shells were attributed to predation by aquatic birds (e.g. Gallinula chloropus and decapods (e.g. Macrobrachium spp., while damages on live individuals were due to rasping by co-specifics and erosion. Predation by decapods and birds, as estimated by the proportion of empty shells, was low (2 and 0.36%, respectively. Shell size was significantly different between types of predators (range: decapods: 3.5-15.0mm, birds: 8.1-19.4mm. By comparing sizes of the empty shells and the live individuals, we concluded that decapods specialize on large groups of small migratory juveniles, while birds specialize on the largest resident individuals. Worn shells were highly frequent in both empty shells and live individuals, and sizes did not differ between samples. A comparison by slow-flow and fast-flow habitats showed that predators do not discriminate shell sizes between environments. However, the frequency of damage by birds and decapods was greater under slow-flow conditions. Despite of the little contribution of predation to the population dynamics in this species, predation might be an important driver of size-dependent behavioral responses such as

  3. Pollutant Source Tracking (PST) Technical Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    certain animals (livestock, wild life, and humans) tend to have normal flora that are resistant to certain types of antibiotics (Wiggins et al., 2003d...pallial sinus) in Bugula neritina (bryozoan invertebrate that resembles moss ) larvae. Close-up view of a FISH hybridization of a larva with Eub338 (a

  4. Distribución de los gasterópodos del manglar, Neritina virgínea (Neritidae y Littoraria angulifera (Littorinidae en la Ecorregión Darién, Caribe colombiano Distribution of the mangrove gastropods Neritina virginea (Neritidae and Littoraria angulifera (Littorinidae within the Colombian Caribbean Darién Ecoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ferney Ortiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aunque los gasterópodos son uno de los grupos más abundantes en los manglares del Caribe, poco se sabe del ámbito de especies particulares debido al enfoque comunitario de la mayoría de los estudios. El ámbito de las poblaciones de L. angulifera y N. virginea fue estudiado en la Ecorregión Darién, Caribe colombiano. El muestreo se realizó entre junio y agosto 2009, se recolectaron 3 963 individuos de ambas especies, a los cuales se les midió la talla de la concha. La Ecorregión presentó diferencias espaciales en el ámbito de la salinidad del agua a nivel superficial, la cobertura de manglar y el ámbito de las poblaciones. En la parte externa de la Ecorregión, L. angulifera presentó el mayor porcentaje de aparición (84.8% en comparación a N. virginea (15.2%. En el interior N. virginea presentó el mayor porcentaje (84.6%, mientras L. angulifera apareció solo en bahía Turbo (15.4%. Se encontraron diferencias en el ámbito de tallas promedio de las conchas, donde L. angulifera varió entre 6 y 22mm y N. virginea entre 6 y 12mm dentro del Golfo. Se confirma que L. angulifera es una especie de carácter estenohalina y marina, mientras que N. virginea es eurihalina y estuarina.Distribution of the mangrove gastropods Neritina virginea (Neritidae and Littoraria angulifera (Littorinidae within the Colombian Caribbean Darién Ecoregion. Gastropods are one of the most abundant groups within the Caribbean mangroves, however, little is known about the distribution of particular species at a regional scale. With this aim, we studied the geographic distribution of Littoraria (Littorinopsis angulifera and Neritina (Vitta virginea within the Darién Ecoregion in the Caribbean coast of Colombia, from 77 sampling stations along 609km between the Colombian-Panamá border and Córdoba State, Colombia. The fieldwork was conducted in June-August 2009, and a total of 3 963 individuals of both species were hand-picked from the ground, prop-roots and

  5. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Ctenophora, Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Grischenko, Andrei V; Leitner, Astrid B; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Voight, Janet R; Wicksten, Mary K; Young, Craig M; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite having been the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. To predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to ABYSSLINE research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (as well as several other pieces of equipment), the megafauna within the UK Seabed Resources Ltd exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal annelid, arthropod, bryozoan, chordate, ctenophore and molluscan megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 55 distinct morphospecies (8 Annelida, 12 Arthropoda, 4 Bryozoa, 22 Chordata, 5 Ctenophora, and 4 Mollusca) identified mostly by morphology but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat.

  6. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Ctenophora, Mollusca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Amanda F; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Grischenko, Andrei V; Leitner, Astrid B; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Voight, Janet R; Wicksten, Mary K; Young, Craig M; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite having been the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. To predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to ABYSSLINE research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. New information Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (as well as several other pieces of equipment), the megafauna within the UK Seabed Resources Ltd exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal annelid, arthropod, bryozoan, chordate, ctenophore and molluscan megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 55 distinct morphospecies (8 Annelida, 12 Arthropoda, 4 Bryozoa, 22 Chordata, 5 Ctenophora, and 4 Mollusca) identified mostly by morphology but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat. PMID:28874906

  7. Fossil Steginoporellid (Cheilostomata: Neocheilostomina), Bryozoa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Five species of Steginoporella from the Palaeogene rocks of the Western Kachchh, Gujarat are described in this paper. Out of five steginoporellids, S. mathuri n.sp., S. murachbanensis n.sp. and S. chiplonkari n.sp. are new to science; S. bhujensis is already reported from this region; and Steginoporella sp. indet is reported ...

  8. Materials Approach to Dissecting Surface Responses in the Attachment Stages of Biofouling Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Amphitrite and Balanus improvisus, bryozoan Bugula neritina, oyster Crassostrea gigas, ascidian Ciona intestinalis) were tested in the laboratory for...A subset of surfaces employed in the laboratory tests carried out previously were chosen for use, to represent a matrix of conditions of surface...L. M.; Lang , M. A.; Alberto, E. E.; Detty, M. R., Xerogel-Sequestered Silanated Organochalcogenide Catalysts for Bromination with Hydrogen Peroxide

  9. Effects of Karenia brevis on clearance rates and bioaccumulation of brevetoxins in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael; Naar, Jerome P; Tomas, Carmelo; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2012-01-15

    Blooms of the toxic alga Karenia brevis occur along coastlines where sessile suspension feeding invertebrates are common components of benthic communities. We studied the effects of K. brevis on four benthic suspension feeding invertebrates common to the coast of the SE United States: the sponge Haliclona tubifera, the bryozoan Bugula neritina, the bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Styela plicata. In controlled laboratory experiments, we determined the rate at which K. brevis was cleared from the seawater by these invertebrates, the effect of K. brevis on clearance rates of a non-toxic phytoplankton species, Rhodomonas sp., and the extent to which brevetoxins bioaccumulated in tissues of invertebrates using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All four invertebrate species cleared significant quantities of K. brevis from seawater, with mean clearance rates ranging from 2.27 to 6.71 L g h⁻¹ for H. tubifera and S. plicata, respectively. In the presence of K. brevis, clearance rates of Rhodomonas sp. by B. neritina and S. plicata were depressed by 75% and 69%, respectively, while clearance rates by H. tubifera and M. mercenaria were unaffected. Negative effects of K. brevis were impermanent; after a recovery period of 13 h, B. neritina and S. plicata regained normal clearance rates. All four invertebrates accumulated high concentrations of brevetoxin after a 4h exposure to K. brevis, but when animals were transferred to filtered seawater for 15 h after exposure, brevetoxin concentrations in the tissues of H. tubifera and B. neritina decreased by ∼80%, while there was no change in toxin concentration in the tissues of S. plicata and M. mercenaria. High cell concentrations of K. brevis may cause a suppression of clearance rates in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates, resulting in a positive feedback for bloom formation. Also, high concentrations of toxin may accumulate in the tissues of benthic suspension feeding invertebrates that may

  10. Ultrastructure of the body cavities in Phylactolaemata (Bryozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhl, Alexander; Wegener, Ines; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Only species belonging to the bryozoan subtaxon Phylactolaemata possess an epistome. To test whether there is a specific coelomic cavity inside the epistome, Fredericella sultana, Plumatella emarginata, and Lophopus crystallinus were studied on the ultrastructural level. In F. sultana and P. emarginata, the epistome contains a coelomic cavity. The cavity is confluent with the trunk coelom and lined by peritoneal and myoepithelial cells. The lophophore coelom extends into the tentacles and is connected to the trunk coelom by two weakly ciliated coelomic ducts on either side of the rectum. The lophophore coelom passes the epistome coelom on its anterior side. This region has traditionally been called the forked canal and hypothesized to represent the site of excretion. L. crystallinus lacks an epistome. It has a simple ciliated field where an epistome is situated in the other species. Underneath this field, the forked canal is situated. Compared with the other species, it is pronounced and exhibits a dense ciliation. Despite the occurrence of podocytes, which are prerequisites for a selected fluid transfer, there is no indication for an excretory function of the forked canal, especially as no excretory porus was found. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Structure and occurrence of cyphonautes larvae (Bryozoa, Ectoprocta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus; Worsaae, Katrine

    2010-01-01

    of fewer fibers. The H. malayensis larva lacks the anterior and posterior intervalve cilia. Its pyriform organ is unciliated with only a small central depression. The adhesive epithelium is not invaginated as an adhesive sac and lacks the large muscles interpreted as adhesive sac muscles in the M...... configuration of muscles, nerves, and cilia of the two larvae are identical. However, the larva of H. malayensis is much smaller than that of M. membranacea, which may explain most of the differences observed. Although all major nerves and muscle strands are present in H. malayensis, they are generally composed...

  12. Comparative Glycoproteome Analysis: Dynamics of Protein Glycosylation during Metamorphic Transition from Pelagic to Benthic Life Stages in Three Invertebrates

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2012-02-03

    The life cycle of most benthic marine invertebrates has two distinct stages: the pelagic larval stage and the sessile juvenile stage. The transition between the larval stage and the juvenile stage is often abrupt and may be triggered by post-translational modification of proteins. Glycosylation, a very important post-translational modification, influences the biological activity of proteins. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by glycoprotein-specific fluorescence staining and mass spectrometry with the goal of identifying glycosylation pattern changes during larval settlement and metamorphosis in barnacles, bryozoans, and polychaetes. Our results revealed substantial changes in the protein glycosylation patterns from larval to juvenile stages. Before metamorphosis, the degree of protein glycosylation was high in the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite and the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa, whereas it increased after metamorphosis in the bryozoan Bugula neritina. We identified 19 abundant and differentially glycosylated proteins in these three species. Among the proteins, cellular stress- and metabolism-related proteins exhibited distinct glycosylation in B. amphitrite and B. neritina, whereas fatty acid metabolism-related proteins were abundantly glycosylated in P. vexillosa. Furthermore, the protein and gene expression analysis of some selected glycoproteins revealed that the degree of protein glycosylation did not always complement with transcriptional and translational changes associated with the larval-juvenile transition. The current study provides preliminary information on protein glycosylation in marine invertebrates that will serve as a solid basis for future comprehensive analysis of glycobiology during larval settlement and metamorphosis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Attachment point theory revisited: the fouling response to a microtextured matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardino, A J; Guenther, J; de Nys, R

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines attachment point theory in detail by testing the fouling attachment of several fouling groups to a microtextured matrix. Static bioassays were conducted on polycarbonate plates with nine equal regions, comprising eight scales of microtexture (4-512 microm) and one untextured region. The microtextures examined were continuous sinusoidal ridges and troughs of defined height and width. Attachment over the microtextured plates was examined for the diatom Amphora sp., the green alga Ulva rigida, the red alga Centroceras clavulatum, the serpulid tube worm Hydroides elegans and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. It was found that the size of the microtexture in relation to the size of the settling propagules/larvae was important in the selection of attachment sites. Attachment was generally lower when the microtexture wavelength was slightly smaller than the width of the settling propagules/larvae and increased when the wavelength was wider than their width. The effect of attachment points was weak for small motile microfoulers (Amphora sp. and U. rigida) (7 microm), strong for large macrofouling larvae (H. elegans and B. neritina) (129-321 microm) and non-existent for the non-motile algal spores (C. clavulatum) (37 microm). This study reinforces the potential of using attachment points to develop surfaces with increased fouling resistance or, alternatively, surfaces which promote the attachment of selected target sizes of motile propagules or larvae.

  14. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata

    OpenAIRE

    Sima, Peter; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment provides a rich source of natural products with potential therapeutic application. This has resulted in an increased rate of pharmaceutical agents being discovered in marine animals, particularly invertebrates. Our objective is to summarize the most promising compounds which have the best potential and may lead to use in clinical practice, show their biological activities and highlight the compounds currently being tested in clinical trials. In this paper, we focused on...

  15. Organogenesis in the budding process of the freshwater bryozoan Cristatella mucedo Cuvier, 1798 (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaha, Thomas; Handschuh, Stephan; Redl, Emanuel; Walzl, Manfred G

    2011-03-01

    The phylogenetic position of bryozoans has been disputed for decades, and molecular phylogenetic analyzes have not unequivocally clarified their position within the Bilateria. As probably the most basal bryozoans, Phylactolaemata is the most promising taxon for large-scale phylogenetic comparisons. These comparisons require extending the morphological and developmental data by investigating different phylactolaemate species to identify basal characters and resolve in-group phylogeny. Accordingly, we analyzed the bud development and the organogenesis of the freshwater bryozoan Cristatella mucedo, with special focus on the formation of the digestive tract and differentiation of the coelomic compartments. Most parts of the digestive tract are formed as an outpocketing at the future anal side growing towards the mouth area. The ganglion is formed by an invagination between the anlagen of the mouth and anus. The lophophoral arms develop as paired lateral protrusions into the lumen of the bud and are temporarily connected by a median, thin bridge. All coelomic compartments are confluent during their development and also in the adult. The epistome coelom develops by fusion of two peritoneal infolds between the gut loop and overgrows the ganglion medially. The coelomic ring canal on the oral side develops by two lateral ingrowths and supplies the oral tentacles. On the forked canal, supplying the innermost row of tentacles above the epistome, a bladder-shaped swelling, probably with excretory function, is present in some adults. It remains difficult to draw comparisons to other phyla because only few studies have dealt with budding of potentially related taxa in more detail. Nonetheless, our results show that comparative organogenesis can contribute to phylactolaemate systematics and, when more data are available, possibly to that of other bryozoan classes and bilaterian phyla. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Three new species of Calyptotheca (Bryozoa: Lanceoporidae) from the Great Barrier Reef, tropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Pascal; Cumming, Robyn L

    2016-02-15

    The cheilostome bryozoans Calyptotheca wulguru n. sp. and Calyptotheca tilbrooki n. sp. (Lanceoporidae) are described from inter-reefal, sediment-dominated habitats of the Great Barrier Reef, and Calyptotheca churro n. sp. was washed up on a Heron Island beach, with uncertain origin. Calyptotheca wulguru n. sp. and C. churro n. sp. belong to a subgroup of Calyptotheca species with numerous small, oval, marginal adventitious avicularia and suboral nodular thickening or umbones. The vicarious avicularia of C. tilbrooki n. sp. are elongate-oval, unlike those of other known Calyptotheca species, and C. tilbrooki n. sp. has more pronounced orificial dimorphism than in any other known Calyptotheca species. Calyptotheca churro n. sp. has the most pronounced suboral umbo of all known Calyptotheca species. This study increases the known Calyptotheca species of the Great Barrier Reef to ten, and of tropical Australia to 14.

  17. Miocene Bryozoa from East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Part I: Cyclostomata and ‘Anascan’ Cheilostomata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Martino, E.; Taylor, P.D.

    2014-01-01

    The Cenozoic bryozoan fauna of Indonesia has been neglected in the past. In this pioneering study, based on new material collected during the two field seasons of the Throughflow project, we describe a total of 51 bryozoan species, comprising 15 cyclostomes and 36 anascan-grade cheilostomes, ranging

  18. Late Cenozoic Bryozoa from diamictites of Cape Lamb, Vega Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamonis Susana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bryozoans were found in upper Cenozoic diamictite debris that crops out at the southwestern tip of Cape Lamb, Vega Island. The diamictite is the youngest deposit on the island and richly composed of foraminifers, brachiopods and scallops. The foraminifera assemblage recovered from the Cape Lamb diamictite and 87Sr/86Sr isotopic age obtained from the pectinid Adamussium colbecki in the nearby locality of Terrapin indicates a Pleistocene age for this deposit. The main goal of this contribution is to present a bryozoan assemblage of Microporella stenoporta Hayward et Taylor, Hippothoa flagellum Manzoni, Ellisina antarctica (Kluge, Micropora notialis Hayward et Ryland and an indeterminate crisiid constituting the first record of these bryozoan taxa in Cenozoic diamictites of the Antarctic Peninsula.

  19. Diversity and Systematics of Schizomavella Species (Bryozoa: Bitectiporidae) from the Bathyal NE Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter-Gil, Oscar; Berning, Björn; Souto, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Eight NE Atlantic and Mediterranean species, which were originally assigned to the genus Schizoporella (Family Schizoporellidae) when introduced, are redescribed and stabilized by typification. Seven of these species are transferred to the bitectiporid genus Schizomavella: S. fischeri, S. glebula, S. neptuni, S. obsoleta, S. richardi, S. triaviculata, and S. triaviculata var. paucimandibulata, which is here raised to species rank. The eighth species, Schizoporella fayalensis, is transferred to the lanceoporid genus Stephanotheca. Schizomavella obsoleta and S. glebula are considered junior subjective synonyms of S. fischeri and S. richardi, respectively. Two new species are described: Schizomavella rectangularis n. sp. from the Strait of Gibraltar, and Schizomavella phterocopa n. sp. from the Great Meteor Bank. A new subgenus, Calvetomavella n. subgen. is established as a result of a phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters; it includes S. neptuni, S. triaviculata, S. paucimandibulata and S. phterocopa n. sp., together with Schizomavella discoidea and Schizomavella noronhai. The rest of the species remain in the nominotypical subgenus Schizomavella.

  20. AMPHIBLESTRUM (AVICULAMPHIBLESTRUM RUGGEROI SP. N., SUBGEN. N. (BRYOZOA FROM THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIETTA ROSSO

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species and a new subgenus Amphiblestrum (Aviculamphiblestrum ruggeroi sp.n. are described from deep circalittoral-epibathyal bottoms from the Sicily Strait and the north-western Mediterranean. The new subgenus is created to distinguish, within Amphiblestrum, species with both gymnocystal adventitious and large interzooidal avicularia, both originating from basal pore chambers. 

  1. Fossil Steginoporellid (Cheilostomata: Neocheilostomina), Bryozoa from the Tertiary sediments of Western Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonar, Mohan A.; Gaikwad, Sharad G.

    2013-02-01

    Five species of Steginoporella from the Palaeogene rocks of the Western Kachchh, Gujarat are described in this paper. Out of five steginoporellids, S. mathuri n.sp., S. murachbanensis n.sp. and S. chiplonkari n.sp. are new to science; S. bhujensis is already reported from this region; and Steginoporella sp. indet is reported for the first time in these rocks. All these species show Indo-Pacific affinities. The occurrence of Steginoporella from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene indicates that two stages of radiation had taken place in Kachchh. Phylogenetic analysis using PAST programme indicates that S. mathuri is very distinct from other species of Steginoporella; while S. murachbanensis and S. bhujensis form the same clade.

  2. Systematics and diversity of deep-water Cheilostomata (Bryozoa) from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Javier; Berning, Björn; Ostrovsky, Andrew N

    2016-01-25

    Galicia Bank is a large seamount situated c. 200 km off NW Iberia with a minimum depth of 600 m. It was recently included in Natura 2000, an EU-wide network of nature protection areas. We here present the first taxonomic descriptions of cheilostome bryozoans from this bank. The specimens were collected through the Spanish project INDEMARES (during BANGAL 0811 cruise conducted in 2011) and during two previous campaigns, the French Seamount 1 in 1987 and the German Victor Hensen in 1997). Twenty-five species were found, including 12 that are new to science, while five species remain in open nomenclature. Three new cheilostome genera (Breoganipora, Galiciapora and Placidoporella) are described. A lectotype is designated for Setosella vulnerata (Busk), and Palmicellaria tenuis Calvet is transferred to the genus Porella [as Porella tenuis (Calvet) n. comb.]. Additionally, our study shows that 48-60% of the bryozoan species are endemic to Galicia Bank. The degree of endemism of the Cheilostomata is thus the highest among all orders present on this seamount.

  3. Miocene Bryozoa from East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Part II: ‘Ascophoran’ Cheilostomata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martino, Di E.; Taylor, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    We describe 72 ascophoran-grade cheilostomes, ranging in age from Early to Late Miocene (late Burdigalian to Messinian), collected from 17 sections in the vicinities of Samarinda, Bontang and Sangkulirang in East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. Two genera (Oviexechonella gen. nov. and Sendinopora

  4. Drugs from the seas - current status and microbiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, P; Edrada, R A; Ebel, R

    2002-07-01

    The oceans are the source of a large group of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in invertebrates such as sponges, tunicates, bryozoans, and molluscs. Several of these compounds (especially the tunicate metabolite ET-743) show pronounced pharmacological activities and are interesting candidates for new drugs primarily in the area of cancer treatment. Other compounds are currently being developed as an analgesic (ziconotide from the mollusc Conus magus) or to treat inflammation. Numerous natural products from marine invertebrates show striking structural similarities to known metabolites of microbial origin, suggesting that microorganisms (bacteria, microalgae) are at least involved in their biosynthesis or are in fact the true sources of these respective metabolites. This assumption is corroborated by several studies on natural products from sponges that proved these compounds to be localized in symbiotic bacteria or cyanobacteria. Recently, molecular methods have successfully been applied to study the microbial diversity in marine sponges and to gain evidence for an involvement of bacteria in the biosynthesis of the bryostatins in the bryozoan Bugula neritina.

  5. Butenolide inhibits marine fouling by altering the primary metabolism of three target organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yifan

    2012-06-15

    Butenolide is a very promising antifouling compound that inhibits ship hull fouling by a variety of marine organisms, but its antifouling mechanism was previously unknown. Here we report the first study of butenolides molecular targets in three representative fouling organisms. In the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite, butenolide bound to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), which is involved in ketone body metabolism. Both the substrate and the product of ACAT1 increased larval settlement under butenolide treatment, suggesting its functional involvement. In the bryozoan Bugula neritina, butenolide bound to very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADVL), actin, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). ACADVL is the first enzyme in the very long chain fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. The inhibition of this primary pathway for energy production in larvae by butenolide was supported by the finding that alternative energy sources (acetoacetate and pyruvate) increased larval attachment under butenolide treatment. In marine bacterium Vibrio sp. UST020129-010, butenolide bound to succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (SCSβ) and inhibited bacterial growth. ACAT1, ACADVL, and SCSβ are all involved in primary metabolism for energy production. These findings suggest that butenolide inhibits fouling by influencing the primary metabolism of target organisms. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. Ecologically relevant levels of multiple, common marine stressors suggest antagonistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rolanda; Marshall, Dustin

    2017-07-24

    Stressors associated with global change will be experienced simultaneously and may act synergistically, so attempts to estimate the capacity of marine systems to cope with global change requires a multi-stressor approach. Because recent evidence suggests that stressor effects can be context-dependent, estimates of how stressors are experienced in ecologically realistic settings will be particularly valuable. To enhance our understanding of the interplay between environmental effects and the impact of multiple stressors from both natural and anthropogenic sources, we conducted a field experiment. We explored the impact of multiple, functionally varied stressors from both natural and anthropogenic sources experienced during early life history in a common sessile marine invertebrate, Bugula neritina. Natural spatial environmental variation induced differences in conspecific densities, allowing us to test for density-driven context-dependence of stressor effects. We indeed found density-dependent effects. Under high conspecific density, individual survival increased, which offset part of the negative effects of experiencing stressors. Experiencing multiple stressors early in life history translated to a decreased survival in the field, albeit the effects were not as drastic as we expected: our results are congruent with antagonistic stressor effects. We speculate that when individual stressors are more subtle, stressor synergies become less common.

  7. Anti-HSV-1, antioxidant and antifouling phenolic compounds from the deep-sea-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor SCSIO 41502.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhonghui; Nong, Xuhua; Ren, Zhe; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Qi, Shuhua

    2017-02-15

    Chemical investigation of the deep-sea-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor SCSIO 41502 resulted in the isolation of three new anthraquinones, aspergilols G-I (1-3), one new diphenyl ether, 4-carbglyceryl-3,3'-dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethyldiphenyl ether (4), and one new benzaldehyde derivative, 2,4-dihydroxy-6-(4-methoxy-2-oxopentyl)-3-methylbenzaldehyde (5), along with 23 known phenolic compounds (6-28). The structures of new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of 3 was established by CD spectrum and the modified Mosher method. Compounds 2, 3 and 9 had evident antiviral activity towards HSV-1 with EC50 values of 4.68, 6.25, and 3.12μM, respectively. Compounds 15, 18, 20 and 22-24 showed more potent antioxidant activity than l-ascorbic acid with IC50 values of 18.92-52.27μM towards DPPH radicals. Comparison of the structures and antioxidant activities of 1-28 suggests that the number of phenolic hydroxyl group that can freely rotate can significantly affect the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds. In addition, 4, 22-24 and 27 had significant antifouling activity against Bugula neritina larval settlement with EC50 values of 1.28, 2.61, 5.48, 1.59, and 3.40μg/ml, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multivariate analysis of attachment of biofouling organisms in response to material surface characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatley-Montross, Caitlyn M; Finlay, John A; Aldred, Nick; Cassady, Harrison; Destino, Joel F; Orihuela, Beatriz; Hickner, Michael A; Clare, Anthony S; Rittschof, Daniel; Holm, Eric R; Detty, Michael R

    2017-12-29

    Multivariate analyses were used to investigate the influence of selected surface properties (Owens-Wendt surface energy and its dispersive and polar components, static water contact angle, conceptual sign of the surface charge, zeta potentials) on the attachment patterns of five biofouling organisms (Amphibalanus amphitrite, Amphibalanus improvisus, Bugula neritina, Ulva linza, and Navicula incerta) to better understand what surface properties drive attachment across multiple fouling organisms. A library of ten xerogel coatings and a glass standard provided a range of values for the selected surface properties to compare to biofouling attachment patterns. Results from the surface characterization and biological assays were analyzed separately and in combination using multivariate statistical methods. Principal coordinate analysis of the surface property characterization and the biological assays resulted in different groupings of the xerogel coatings. In particular, the biofouling organisms were able to distinguish four coatings that were not distinguishable by the surface properties of this study. The authors used canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) to identify surface properties governing attachment across all five biofouling species. The CAP pointed to surface energy and surface charge as important drivers of patterns in biological attachment, but also suggested that differentiation of the surfaces was influenced to a comparable or greater extent by the dispersive component of surface energy.

  9. The need for standardised broad scale bioassay testing: A case study using the red alga Laurencia rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nys, R; Leya, T; Maximilien, R; Afsar, A; Nair, P S; Steinberg, P D

    1996-01-01

    Two major problems associated with biofouling studies are the lack of broad scale testing and failure to use consistent standards among different assays or studies. To address these issues the activity of two biologically active natural products, elatol and deschloroelatol, isolated from the marine red alga Laurencia rigida, and three commonly used biocides, Nopcocide N-96™, Irgarol 1051™ and Sea-Nine 211™, was compared, in a broad spectrum of bioassays. The activity of the different compounds varied substantially among different bioassay tests. Elatol and deschloroelatol had a narrow range of activity with strongest effects against invertebrate larvae. Both compounds were highly toxic. However, neither compound had strong activity against marine bacteria or the common epiphyte Ulva lactuca. Irgarol 1051 also had a narrow range of activity, only affecting algal settlement strongly. Nopcocide N-96 and Sea-Nine 211 had moderate to strong activity across the spectrum of bioassays, viz. growth of marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, Serratia sp.), inhibition of settlement of macroalgae (Ulva lactuca), toxicity (Balanus amphitrite), and inhibition of settlement of invertebrate larvae (Balanus amphitrite, Bugula neritina). Based on the results it is proposed that Sea-Nine 211, because of its broad spectrum activity, be used as a standard for comparative assessments of the antifouling activity of marine natural products and analogues.

  10. Evidence for polyphyly of the genus Scrupocellaria (Bryozoa: Candidae based on a phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro M Vieira

    Full Text Available The bryozoan genus Scrupocellaria comprises about 80 species in the family Candidae. We propose a hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among species assigned to Scrupocellaria to serve as framework for a phylogenetic classification using 35 morphological characters. Our results suggest that the genus Scrupocellaria is polyphyletic. Scrupocellaria s. str. is redefined according to four morphological features: vibracular chamber with a curved setal groove, ooecium with a single ectooecial fenestra, two axillary vibracula, and a membranous operculum with a distinct distal rim. Thus, the genus includes only 11 species: Scrupocellaria aegeensis, Scrupocellaria delilii, Scrupocellaria harmeri, Scrupocellaria incurvata, Scrupocellaria inermis, Scrupocellaria intermedia, Scrupocellaria jullieni, Scrupocellaria minuta, Scrupocellaria puelcha, Scrupocellaria scrupea, and Scrupocellaria scruposa. The monophyly of Cradoscrupocellaria is supported and five new genera are erected: Aquiloniella n. gen., Aspiscellaria n. gen., Paralicornia n. gen., Pomocellaria n. gen. and Scrupocaberea n. gen. Two other new genera, Bathycellaria n. gen. and Sinocellaria n. gen., are erected to accommodate two poorly known species, Scrupocellaria profundis Osburn and Scrupocellaria uniseriata Liu, respectively. Scrupocellaria congesta is tentatively assigned to Tricellaria. Fifteen species are reassigned to Licornia: Licornia cookie n. comb., Licornia micheli n. comb., Licornia milneri n. comb., Licornia curvata n. comb., Licornia diegensis n. comb., Licornia drachi n. comb., Licornia mexicana n. comb., Licornia pugnax n. comb., Licornia raigadensis n. comb., Licornia regularis n. comb., Licornia resseri n. comb., Licornia securifera n. comb., Licornia spinigera n. comb., Licornia tridentata n. comb., and Licornia wasinensis n. comb. Notoplites americanus n. name is proposed as a replacement name for Scrupocellaria clausa Canu & Bassler. Three fossil species are reassigned to Canda: Canda rathbuni n. comb., Canda triangulata n. comb. and Canda williardi n. comb. A species is reassigned to Notoplites, Notoplites elegantissima n. comb. The generic assignment of eleven species of Scrupocellaria, including Scrupocellaria macandrei, remains uncertain.

  11. Evidence for Polyphyly of the Genus Scrupocellaria (Bryozoa: Candidae) Based on a Phylogenetic Analysis of Morphological Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Leandro M.; Spencer Jones, Mary E.; Winston, Judith E.; Migotto, Alvaro E.; Marques, Antonio C.

    2014-01-01

    The bryozoan genus Scrupocellaria comprises about 80 species in the family Candidae. We propose a hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among species assigned to Scrupocellaria to serve as framework for a phylogenetic classification using 35 morphological characters. Our results suggest that the genus Scrupocellaria is polyphyletic. Scrupocellaria s. str. is redefined according to four morphological features: vibracular chamber with a curved setal groove, ooecium with a single ectooecial fenestra, two axillary vibracula, and a membranous operculum with a distinct distal rim. Thus, the genus includes only 11 species: Scrupocellaria aegeensis, Scrupocellaria delilii, Scrupocellaria harmeri, Scrupocellaria incurvata, Scrupocellaria inermis, Scrupocellaria intermedia, Scrupocellaria jullieni, Scrupocellaria minuta, Scrupocellaria puelcha, Scrupocellaria scrupea, and Scrupocellaria scruposa. The monophyly of Cradoscrupocellaria is supported and five new genera are erected: Aquiloniella n. gen., Aspiscellaria n. gen., Paralicornia n. gen., Pomocellaria n. gen. and Scrupocaberea n. gen. Two other new genera, Bathycellaria n. gen. and Sinocellaria n. gen., are erected to accommodate two poorly known species, Scrupocellaria profundis Osburn and Scrupocellaria uniseriata Liu, respectively. Scrupocellaria congesta is tentatively assigned to Tricellaria. Fifteen species are reassigned to Licornia: Licornia cookie n. comb., Licornia micheli n. comb., Licornia milneri n. comb., Licornia curvata n. comb., Licornia diegensis n. comb., Licornia drachi n. comb., Licornia mexicana n. comb., Licornia pugnax n. comb., Licornia raigadensis n. comb., Licornia regularis n. comb., Licornia resseri n. comb., Licornia securifera n. comb., Licornia spinigera n. comb., Licornia tridentata n. comb., and Licornia wasinensis n. comb. Notoplites americanus n. name is proposed as a replacement name for Scrupocellaria clausa Canu & Bassler. Three fossil species are reassigned to Canda: Canda rathbuni n. comb., Canda triangulata n. comb. and Canda williardi n. comb. A species is reassigned to Notoplites, Notoplites elegantissima n. comb. The generic assignment of eleven species of Scrupocellaria, including Scrupocellaria macandrei, remains uncertain. PMID:24747915

  12. Antibiotic, cytotoxic and enzyme inhibitory activity of crude extracts from Brazilian marine invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna H. R. Seleghim

    , Niphates, Cliona, Darwinella, Dysidea, Ircinia, Monanchora and Mycale, ascidians of the genera Didemnum, Aplidium, Botrylloides, Clavelina, Polysyncraton and Symplegma, the bryozoan Bugula sp. and octocorals of the genera Carijoa and Lophogorgia. The subsequent chemical investigation of some of the active extracts led to the isolation of several new biologically active secondary metabolites. Our results are in agreement with previous screening programs carried out abroad, that showed a high percentage of bioactive extracts from Porifera, Ascidiacea, Cnidaria and Bryozoa.

  13. Fouling organisms on Perna perna mussels: is it worth removing them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício S. de Sá

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Perna perna mussel spat were suspended from ropes on a long-line cultivation, at Coqueiro´s Beach, Anchieta, South-eastern Brazil, in order to quantify the fouling community structure and its effects on growth and biomass of mussels. Half of the ropes had the fouling removed monthly, half had the foulingleft until the end of the experiment. Monthly samples of thirty mussels from each group were measured and their biomass determined. The fouling organisms were identified, quantified and their biomass evaluated on a monthly basis. After ten months, mussels on the cleaned treatment were significantly larger and heavier (ANOVA; P fouled, showing that fouling reduced mussel development. The most abundant epibiont organisms in terms of biomass were the algae Polysiphonia subtilissima (29% and Ulva rigida (10.3%, followed by the bryozoans Bugula neritina (13.6% and Perna perna spat (10.6%. Over 97 taxa and 42,646 individuals were identified, crustaceans being the most abundant group, predominantly one amphipod Cheiriphotis megacheles (12,980 ind.. Species abundance was positively correlated with algal biomass, revealing the influence of algae on vagile fauna, which provide both food and shelter. The benefits of fouling removal are discussed because the majority of species are important feeding items to fishes and yet, the costs of its fouling control added to the associated mussel spat loss make this fouling removal of questionable value.Sementes de Perna perna foram colocadas em cordas suspensas em long-line na Praia do Coqueiro, Anchieta, ES, objetivando-se determinar a estrutura da comunidade de incrustantes e seu efeito sobre o desenvolvimento dos mexilhões. Metade das cordas teve os incrustantes removidos mensalmente, na outra metade eles foram deixados até o final do experimento. Mensalmente, 30 mexilhões de cada grupo foram retirados e medidos e a biomassa aferida. Os incrustantes foram identificados, quantificados e a biomassa de cada taxon

  14. Drugs from the Sea - Opportunities and Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Ebel

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The supply problem with regard to drug development and sustainable production lies in the limited amounts of biomass of most marine invertebrates available from wild stocks. Thus, most pharmacologically active marine natural products can only be isolated in minute yields. Total synthesis of pharmacologically active natural products has been successfully established but is in many cases economically not feasible due to the complexity of the molecular structures and the low yields. To solve the pressing supply issue in marine drug discovery, other strategies appear to be more promising. One of these is mariculture which has successfully been established with the bryozoan Bugula neritina (the source of the bryostatins and the tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata (the source of ET-743. Another strategy involves partial synthesis from precursors which are biotechnologically available. An example is ET-743 that can be partially synthesized from safracin B which is a metabolite of Pseudomonas fluorescens. There have been many examples of striking structural similarities between natural products obtained from marine invertebrates and those of microbial origin which suggests that microorganisms living in their invertebrate hosts could be the actual producers of these secondary metabolites. With regard to sustainable biotechnological production of pharmacologically important metabolites from marine invertebrates and their “endosymbionts”, a more advanced strategy is to focus on cloning and expression of the respective key biosynthetic gene clusters. This molecular biological approach will open up new avenues for biotechnological production of drugs or drug candidates from the sea.

  15. The role of chemical antifouling defence in the invasion success of Sargassum muticum: A comparison of native and invasive brown algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Schwartz

    Full Text Available Competition and fouling defence are important traits that may facilitate invasions by non-indigenous species. The 'novel weapons hypothesis' (NWH predicts that the invasive success of exotic species is closely linked to the possession of chemical defence compounds that the recipient community in the new range is not adapted to. In order to assess whether chemical defence traits contribute to invasion success, anti-bacterial, anti-quorum sensing, anti-diatom, anti-larval and anti-algal properties were investigated for the following algae: a the invasive brown alga Sargassum muticum from both, its native (Japan and invasive (Germany range, b the two non- or weak invasive species Sargassum fusiforme and Sargassum horneri from Japan, and c Fucus vesiculosus, a native brown alga from Germany. Crude and surface extracts and lipid fractions of active extracts were tested against common fouling organisms and zygotes of a dominant competing brown alga. Extracts of the native brown alga F. vesiculosus inhibited more bacterial strains (75% than any of the Sargassum spp. (17 to 29%. However, Sargassum spp. from Japan exhibited the strongest settlement inhibition against the diatom Cylindrotheca closterium, larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and zygotes of the brown alga F. vesiculosus. Overall, extracts of S. muticum from the invasive range were less active compared to those of the native range suggesting an adaptation to lower fouling pressure and competition in the new range resulting in a shift of resource allocation from costly chemical defence to reproduction and growth. Non-invasive Sargassum spp. from Japan was equally defended against fouling and competitors like S. muticum from Japan indicating a necessity to include these species in European monitoring programs. The variable antifouling activity of surface and crude extracts highlights the importance to use both for an initial screening for antifouling activity.

  16. Anti-Infective Potential of Marine Invertebrates and Seaweeds from the Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Steindel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript describes the evaluation of anti-infective potential in vitro of organic extracts from nine sponges, one ascidian, two octocorals, one bryozoan, and 27 seaweed species collected along the Brazilian coast. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 by the disk diffusion method. Antiprotozoal activity was evaluated against Leishmania braziliensis (MHOM/BR/96/LSC96-H3 promastigotes and Trypanosoma cruzi (MHOM/BR/00/Y epimastigotes by MTT assay. Activity against intracellular amastigotes of T. cruzi and L. brasiliensis in murine macrophages was also evaluated. Antiviral activity was tested against Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS strain by the plaque number reduction assay (IC50. Cytotoxicity on VERO cells was evaluated by the MTT assay (CC50. The results were expressed as SI = CC50/IC50. The most promising antimicrobial results were obtained against S. aureus and C. albicans with Dragmacidon reticulatum. Among the seaweeds, only Osmundaria obtusiloba showed moderate activity against P. aeruginosa. Concerning antiprotozoal activity, Bugula neritina, Carijoa riseii, Dragmaxia anomala and Haliclona (Halichoclona sp. showed the most interesting results, mainly against extracellular promastigote forms of L. braziliensis (66, 35.9, 97.2, and 43.6% inhibition, respectively. Moreover, six species of seaweeds Anadyomene saldanhae, Caulerpa cupressoides, Canistrocarpus cervicornis, Dictyota sp., Ochtodes secundiramea, and Padina sp. showed promising results against L. braziliensis (87.9, 51.7, 85.9, 93.3, 99.7, and 80.9% inhibition, respectively, and only Dictyota sp. was effective against T. cruzi (60.4% inhibition. Finally, the antiherpes activity was also evaluated, with Haliclona (Halichoclona sp. and Petromica citrina showing the best results (SI = 11.9 and SI > 5

  17. Phosphoproteome analysis during larval development and metamorphosis in the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Pei-Yuan

    2011-05-01

    previous studies showing a high percentage of phosphorylation during competency in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. The identified phosphoproteins may play an important role during metamorphosis, and further studies on the location and functions of important proteins during metamorphosis are warranted.

  18. Context Dependency of a Marine Defensive Symbiosis over a Wide Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopanik, N.; Linneman, J.; Mathew, M.

    2016-02-01

    The invasive, temperate marine bryozoan Bugula neritina possesses an uncultured, vertically-transmitted bacterial symbiont that produces natural products known as bryostatins. These unpalatable polyketides protect the host larvae from predation. In the western Atlantic, two host genotypes were thought to be restricted to differing latitudes based on the presence of the defensive symbiont: undefended aposymbiotic Type N animals were found at high latitudes, while defended symbiotic Type S colonies were found at low latitudes, where predation pressure is higher. We found that the host genotypes are more widespread than previously thought, but that the symbiont appeared to be restricted to hosts at lower latitudes, regardless of host phylotype, leading to the question of what factors are involved in restricting the symbiont's range. We performed reciprocal transplant experiments of symbiotic and antibiotic-cured hosts, and measured host growth, a proxy for fitness. Our data indicate that possession of the symbiont appears to present a physiological cost to the host. This cost may be more pronounced at higher latitudes where the benefit of symbiosis is less apparent. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that symbiont titer in a Type S colony from North Carolina transplanted to Virginia is reduced over a period of nearly 4 months. Taken together, these results suggest that a combination of factors may play a role in the distribution of the defensive symbiont: (i) hosts that possess the symbiont are outcompeted by aposymbiotic conspecifics at high latitude and reduced levels of predation pressure; and (ii) symbiont growth may be inhibited or sanctioned by the host at high latitudes. As defensive symbiosis is an important trait in marine habitats, understanding factors that affect the distribution of both the host and symbiont are necessary to fully appreciate the ecological impact of symbiosis.

  19. The role of nano-roughness in antifouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scardino, A.J.; Zhang, H.; Cookson, D.J.; Lamb, R.N.; de Nys, R.; (Aust. Synch.); (James Cook U.)

    2010-02-19

    Nano-engineered superhydrophobic surfaces have been investigated for potential fouling resistance properties. Integrating hydrophobic materials with nanoscale roughness generates surfaces with superhydrophobicity that have water contact angles ({theta}) >150{sup o} and concomitant low hysteresis (<10{sup o}). Three superhydrophobic coatings (SHCs) differing in their chemical composition and architecture were tested against major fouling species (Amphora sp., Ulva rigida, Polysiphonia sphaerocarpa, Bugula neritina, Amphibalanus amphitrite) in settlement assays. The SHC which had nanoscale roughness alone (SHC 3) deterred the settlement of all the tested fouling organisms, compared to selective settlement on the SHCs with nano- and micro-scale architectures. The presence of air incursions or nanobubbles at the interface of the SHCs when immersed was characterized using small angle X-ray scattering, a technique sensitive to local changes in electron density contrast resulting from partial or complete wetting of a rough interface. The coating with broad spectrum antifouling properties (SHC 3) had a noticeably larger amount of unwetted interface when immersed, likely due to the comparatively high work of adhesion (60.77 mJ m{sup -2} for SHC 3 compared to 5.78 mJ m-2 for the other two SHCs) required for creating solid/liquid interface from the solid/vapour interface. This is the first example of a non-toxic, fouling resistant surface against a broad spectrum of fouling organisms ranging from plant cells and non-motile spores, to complex invertebrate larvae with highly selective sensory mechanisms. The only physical property differentiating the immersed surfaces is the nano-architectured roughness which supports longer standing air incursions providing a novel non-toxic broad spectrum mechanism for the prevention of biofouling.

  20. The role of nano-roughness in antifouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardino, A J; Zhang, H; Cookson, D J; Lamb, R N; de Nys, R

    2009-11-01

    Nano-engineered superhydrophobic surfaces have been investigated for potential fouling resistance properties. Integrating hydrophobic materials with nanoscale roughness generates surfaces with superhydrophobicity that have water contact angles (theta) >150 degrees and concomitant low hysteresis (Ulva rigida, Polysiphonia sphaerocarpa, Bugula neritina, Amphibalanus amphitrite) in settlement assays. The SHC which had nanoscale roughness alone (SHC 3) deterred the settlement of all the tested fouling organisms, compared to selective settlement on the SHCs with nano- and micro-scale architectures. The presence of air incursions or nanobubbles at the interface of the SHCs when immersed was characterized using small angle X-ray scattering, a technique sensitive to local changes in electron density contrast resulting from partial or complete wetting of a rough interface. The coating with broad spectrum antifouling properties (SHC 3) had a noticeably larger amount of unwetted interface when immersed, likely due to the comparatively high work of adhesion (60.77 mJ m(-2) for SHC 3 compared to 5.78 mJ m(-2) for the other two SHCs) required for creating solid/liquid interface from the solid/vapour interface. This is the first example of a non-toxic, fouling resistant surface against a broad spectrum of fouling organisms ranging from plant cells and non-motile spores, to complex invertebrate larvae with highly selective sensory mechanisms. The only physical property differentiating the immersed surfaces is the nano-architectured roughness which supports longer standing air incursions providing a novel non-toxic broad spectrum mechanism for the prevention of biofouling.

  1. Secondary metabolites from nudibranchs Tambja stegosauriformis, Hypselodoris lajenis and Okenia zoobotryon and from bryozoans Zoobotryon verticillatum and Bugula dentata from the Brazilian coastline; Metabolitos secundarios dos nudibranquios Tambja stegosauriformis, Hypselodoris lajensis e Okenia zoobotryon e dos briozoarios Zoobotryon verticillatum e Bugula dentata da costa do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabio R.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Veloso, Katyuscya; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Padula, Vinicius, E-mail: rgsberlinck@iqsc.usp.br [Zoologische Staatssammlung Muenchen, Mollusca Sektion, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The chemical investigation of the MeOH extract from the bryozoan B. dentata MeOH yielded tambjamines A (1), C (3), D (4), K (6), aldehyde 8 and the new tambjamine J1(9), while the extract of its predator, the nudibranch Tambja stegosauriformis, yielded tambjamines C and K, along with aldehyde 8. Furodisinin lactone (11) was isolated from the nudibranch Hypselodoris lajensis, a compound previously isolated from Dysidea sponges. The alkaloid 2,5,6-tribromo-N-methylgramine (12) was isolated from the nudibranch Okenia zoobotryon and from its prey, the bryozoan Zoobotryon verticillatum, the only source of 12 previously known. (author)

  2. Sacculogenesis of Buddenbrockia plumatellae (Myxozoa) within the invertebrate host Plumatella repens (Bryozoa) with comments on the evolutionary relationships of the Myxozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D J; Adams, A

    2007-08-01

    Members of the phylum Myxozoa are obligate parasites, primarily of aquatic organisms. Their phylogeny has remained problematic, with studies placing them within either the Bilateria or Cnidaria. The discovery that the enigmatic Buddenbrockia plumatellae is a myxozoan that possesses distinct bilaterian features appeared to have finally resolved the debate. B. plumatellae is described as a triploblastic 'worm-like' organism, within which typical myxozoan malacospores form. Using EM we examined the early development of the B. plumatellae 'worms' within the bryozoan host Plumatella repens. The initial development involved numerous unicellular, amoeboid pre-saccular stages that were present within the basal lamina of the host's body wall. These stages migrate immediately beneath the peritoneum where a significant host tissue reaction occurs. The stages aggregate, initiating the formation of a 'worm'. The base of a developing 'worm' forms a pseudosyncytium which resolves into an ectoderm surrounding a mesendoderm. The pseudosyncytium is directly anchored into neighbouring host cells via masses of striated fibres. The replication of the ectodermal and mesendodermal cells extends the developing 'worm' into the coelom of the host. The mesendoderm resolves to form a mesoderm and an endoderm. Myogenesis appears to be initiated from the anchored end of the 'worm' and develops along the mesoderm. The aggregation and differentiation of amoeboid pre-saccular stages to initiate the 'worm' draws analogies to the sacculogenesis observed for Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, B. plumatellae's sister taxon within the class Malacosporea. The development of a multicellular, spore forming organism, from single cells does not correlate to any bilaterian or cnidarian species. Current phylogenies indicate the Myxozoa are basal bilaterians along with the Acoela and Mesozoa. Comparison with these other basal groups may help to resolve the placement of Myxozoa within the tree of life.

  3. Intertidal Bryozoa from Korea-new additions to the fauna and a new genus of Bitectiporidae (Cheilostomata) from Baengnyeong Island, Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Bum Sik; Seo, Ji Eun; Grischenko, Andrei V; Gordon, Dennis P

    2017-01-30

    Eight species are added to the intertidal bryozoan fauna of South Korea, all collected from the extreme northwestern part of the country at Baengnyeong Island. Five of the species (Hippothoa imperforata, Celleporella hyalina, Celleporella nodasakae, Porella donoghueorum and Suhius rubescentis) are new records. Cauloramphus dicki n. sp., Cauloramphus spencerjonesae n. sp., and Exochella cryptodontia n. sp. are new to science; Suhius n. gen. is a newly recognized genus in Bitectiporidae. The close morphological similarity of umbonuloid-shielded P. donoghueorum to Australasian and Antarctic species of lepralioid-shielded species of Aimulosia is discussed in relation to ascophoran phylogeny. The described cheilostome fauna from South Korea is herein increased to 121 species.

  4. On Powellithecidae fam. nov., a new Pliocene to Recent bryozoan family endemic to New Zealand, with the description of Powellitheca gen. nov. (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Di Martino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new cheilostome bryozoan genus, Powellitheca gen. nov., is erected here for three species from New Zealand, one of which has been previously assigned to Emballotheca Levinsen, 1909, but which differ significantly from the Australian type species of Emballotheca, E. quadrata (MacGillivray, 1880. Notably, whereas Emballotheca has a cormidial orifice (i.e., formed by numerous neighbouring zooids, and lepralielliform ooecia, the orifice of Powellitheca gen. nov. is formed by single zooids and ooecia are of the microporelliform type. The introduction of a new family, Powellithecidae fam. nov., becomes necessary because of the nonconformity of Powellitheca gen. nov. with other known families having microporelliform ooecia. In addition to the Recent type species Powellitheca terranovae gen. et sp. nov., one other new Recent species, P. labiosa gen. et sp. nov., and a Plio-Pleistocene fossil species, Monoporella waipukurensis Waters, 1887, are assigned to the new genus.

  5. Phosphoproteome analysis during larval development and metamorphosis in the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2011-05-25

    high percentage of phosphorylation during competency in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. The identified phosphoproteins may play an important role during metamorphosis, and further studies on the location and functions of important proteins during metamorphosis are warranted. © 2011 Chandramouli et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. Antimicrobial (including antimollicutes, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of Brazilian and Spanish marine organisms – evaluation of extracts and pure compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverson Miguel Bianco

    Full Text Available Abstract This work describes the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities in vitro of organic extracts from fourteen seaweeds, eleven sponges, two ascidians, one bryozoan, and one sea anemone species collected along the Brazilian and Spanish coast, as well as the isolation of the diterpene (4R, 9S, 14S-4α-acetoxy-9β,14α-dihydroxydolast-1(15,7-diene (1 and halogenated sesquiterpene elatol (2. The most promising antimicrobial results for cell wall bacteria were obtained by extracts from seaweeds Laurencia dendroidea and Sargassum vulgare var. nanun (MIC 250 μg/ml, and by the bryozoan Bugula neritina (MIC 62.5 μg/ml, both against Staphylococcus aureus. As for antimollicutes, extracts from seaweeds showed results better than the extracts from invertebrates. Almost all seaweeds assayed (92% exhibited some antimicrobial activity against mollicutes strains (Mycoplasma hominis,Mycoplasma genitalium,Mycoplasma capricolum and Mycoplasma pneumoniae strain FH. From these seaweeds, A1 (Canistrocarpus cervicornis, A11 (Gracilaria sp. and A4 (Lobophora variegata showed the best results for M. pneumoniae strain FH (MIC 250 μg/ml. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 were also assayed against mollicutes strains M. hominis,M. genitalium,M. capricolum,M. pneumoniae strain 129 and M. pneumoniae strain FH, which showed MIC > 100 μg/ml. Antioxidant activities of extracts from these marine organisms were inactive, except for E7 (from sponge Ircinia sp., which exhibited moderated antioxidant activities for two methods assayed (IC50 83.0 ± 0.1 μg/ml, and 52.0 ± 0.8 mg AA/g, respectively. Finally, for the anticholinesterase activity, all the 29 samples evaluated (100% exhibited some level of activity, with IC50 < 1000 μg/ml. From these, seaweeds extracts were considered more promising than marine invertebrate extracts [A10 (IC50 14.4 ± 0.1 μg/ml, A16 (IC50 16.4 ± 0.4 μg/ml and A8 (IC50 14.9 ± 0.5 μg/ml]. The findings of this work are useful

  7. Distribución de los gasterópodos del manglar, Neritina virgínea (Neritidae y Littoraria angulifera (Littorinidae en la Ecorregión Darién, Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ferney Ortiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aunque los gasterópodos son uno de los grupos más abundantes en los manglares del Caribe, poco se sabe del ámbito de especies particulares debido al enfoque comunitario de la mayoría de los estudios. El ámbito de las poblaciones de L. angulifera y N. virginea fue estudiado en la Ecorregión Darién, Caribe colombiano. El muestreo se realizó entre junio y agosto 2009, se recolectaron 3 963 individuos de ambas especies, a los cuales se les midió la talla de la concha. La Ecorregión presentó diferencias espaciales en el ámbito de la salinidad del agua a nivel superficial, la cobertura de manglar y el ámbito de las poblaciones. En la parte externa de la Ecorregión, L. angulifera presentó el mayor porcentaje de aparición (84.8% en comparación a N. virginea (15.2%. En el interior N. virginea presentó el mayor porcentaje (84.6%, mientras L. angulifera apareció solo en bahía Turbo (15.4%. Se encontraron diferencias en el ámbito de tallas promedio de las conchas, donde L. angulifera varió entre 6 y 22mm y N. virginea entre 6 y 12mm dentro del Golfo. Se confirma que L. angulifera es una especie de carácter estenohalina y marina, mientras que N. virginea es eurihalina y estuarina.

  8. SPECIES INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ESTUARINE DETRITIVORES: INHIBITION OR FACILITATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native Hawaiian estuarine detritivores; the prawn Macrobrachium grandimanus, and the neritid gastropod Neritina vespertina, were maintained in flow-through microcosms with conditioned leaves from two riparian tree species, Hau (Hibiscus tiliaceus) and guava (Psidium guajava). Th...

  9. DNA barcoding reveals neritid diversity (Mollusca: Gastropoda) diversity in Malaysian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, S Y; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2016-05-01

    This is the first study to identify and determine the phylogenetics of neritids found in Malaysia. In total, twelve species from the family Neritidae were recorded. Ten species were from the genus Nerita and two species were from the genus Neritina. DNA barcodes were successfully assigned to each species. Although some of these species were previously reported in the region, three are only presently reported in this study. The dendrogram showed Nerita and Neritina strongly supported in their respective monophyletic clades. Phylogenetic positions of some species appeared unstable in the trees. This could be due to the differences in a small number of nucleotides, thus minimizing genetic variation between each specimen and species.

  10. Keanekaragaman Jenis Gastropoda di Sekitar Tempat Pelelangan Ikan (TPI Parit 7 Desa Tungkal I Tanjung Jabung Barat (Species Diversity of Gastropods around Parit Fish Auction, Tungkal I Village, West Tanjung Jabung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURRUDIN NURRUDIN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine the gastropod species diversity aroundParit 7 fish auction, Tungkal 1 Village, West Tanjung Jabung. The research found 208 individuals of15 gastropods species: Cerithidea obtusa, Cerithidea alata, Cerithidea cingulata, Telescopiumtelescopium, Telescopium mauritsi, Littoraria melanostoma, Littoraria conica, Littoraria scabra,Nerita balteata, Neritina violacea, Neritina cornucopia, Stramonita gradata, Chicoreus capucinus,Cassidula aurisfelis, and Ellobium aurisjudae. The research concluded that the gastropod speciesdiversity around Parit 7 fish auction Tungkal 1 Village West Tanjung Jabung classified as mediumdue to H' index ranged from 1.79 to 2.28 and there is no dominant species.

  11. Macroinvertebrates communities of a coastal lagoon in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annelids and Insects were the second most predominant. This restricted biodiversity is based on a limited number of species such as Tympanotonus fuscatus radula, Pachymelania aurita, Neritina glabrata, Corbula sp., Clibanarius spp., Grandidierella africana, Nereis sp. and Chironomus sp.. Site typology based on ...

  12. Ecology and Distribution of the Benthic Community on the Monterey Breakwater, Monterey, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    further subdivisions (i.e. classes, families, orders) given IIfor clarity. The invertebrate keys found in Smith and Carltohi (1975) were used in making...insculupta and Bugula californica were the dominant invertebrates . There were fewer quadrats containing rubble on the inner transect than the outer...Numbers given in Appendix C P Present Numbers were impossible to determine 99 APPENDIX C SPECIES LIST ANIMALS PORIFERA DEMOSPONGIAE Halisarca §R. Found

  13. Effects of Tributyltin Antifouling Paint Leachates on Pearl Harbor Organisms. Site-Specific Flowthrough Bioassay Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    fouling invertebrates (attached to panels), American oysters. swimming crabs, glass shrimp, and feather-duster worms. Panels of varying surface area...after TBT exposure indicate that phyla of lower evolutionary status (e.g.. Porifera . Cnidaria. Bryozoa. and Mollusca) were most sensitive to TBT (table

  14. Scanning Electron Microscope Observations of Marine Microorganisms on Surfaces Coated with Antifouling Paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    50. Hartman, Willard D. 1975. Phylum porifera . pp. 32-58. In: Smith, R. I. and Carlton, J. T. (eds.), Light’s Manual: Intertidal invertebrates of the...Abbott, D. P. 1980. Bryozoa and entoprocta: The moss animals. pp. 91-103. In: Morris, R. H., Abbott, D. P. and Haderlie, E. C., Inter- tidal invertebrates

  15. The identity and occurrence of Kerona pediculus (Ciliophora: Hypotrichida), a well-known epizoite of Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, A.; Robson, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Epizoic Kerona pediculus have been found on Hydra vulgaris and on Cristatella mucedo (Bryozoa) in the same habitat. On the basis of morphological characters (using Nomarski and Scanning Electron Microscopy) specimens from the two hosts are indistinguishable. Details revealed by SEM agree with

  16. African Journal of Marine Science - Vol 29, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bryozoa of subantarctic Marion and Prince Edward Islands: illustrated keys to the species and results of the 1982–1989 University of Cape Town surveys · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ML Branch, PJ Hayward, 1-24 ...

  17. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Hawaiian Stream Ecology, Preservation, and Management held in Hilo, Hawaii on November 1 - 2, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Hawaiian stream gastropod, Nritina Smum (Prosobranchia: Neritidae ) M.H. Hodges 1100-1130 Computer image-based identification of Hawaiian stream...L.L. Loope, and M.H. Hodges 1400-1430 Population genetics of the endemic Hawaiian stream gastropod, Neritina gm (Prosobranchia: Neritidae ): high...Population biology of the endemic Hawaiian stream gastropod Nerutina grazmsa (Prosobranchia: Neritidae ) Marc H. Hodges Haleakala National Park, P.O. Box

  18. Investigations into the Settlement and Attachment of Biofouling Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    46 expanding (Winston and Woollacott 2008). (From this point on, B. neritina will be used to 47 refer to the species complex, or sensu lato definition...control), 0.1,1.0, 151 10, or 100 uM of either NA or phentolamine. 152 Larvae were immediately transferred from Falcon tubes to 24 well polystyrene ...exposure. Larvae were 158 designated as attached if they had settled on the polystyrene and could not be moved by a 159 pipetted stream of water

  19. Ecological Baseline, Fort Hood, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    stations. Plumatella repens (Bryozoa) and Orthotrichia sp. (Trichoptera) were found only at one other sta- tion (Station A), and Spongilla sp. ( Porifera ... invertebrates , and are typically found in quiet pools. Gastrcpods collected were all members of the subclass Pulmonata, which breathe by means of a...aquatic invertebrates . The most important species for maintaining the structure and function of Fort od’s aquatic systems are those capable of

  20. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory - Processing, Taxonomy, and Quality Control of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Only a portion of colonial organisms, such as Bryozoa or Porifera , is sorted to document its presence in the sample. Verte- brates, exuviae... invertebrate eggs, micro- crustaceans, and terrestrial organisms are not sorted. However, terrestrial insects that have an aquatic lifestage (for example...taxonomic principles and hav- ing a broad knowledge of all aquatic macro- invertebrate groups. Typically dichotomous keys are used to identify

  1. Natural durability of heartwoods from European and tropical Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Bryozoa, Cirripedia and Tunicata with one species each. For the diversity of organisms and distribution among the stations, İskenderun was richest with 18 species, 14 of which were Mollusca. This was followed by Alaçatı and. Finike with 6 species, Bandırma with 5 and Trabzon and. Ereğli with 4. Both T.

  2. Possible microbial origin of phosphorites on Error Seamount, northwestern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Lamboy, M.; Natarajan, R.

    black material (probably organic matter) have also been observed (Fig.2c). The dark phosphate micro- laminations are overlain by and interspersed with "ghost" pellets. Some of the skeletal components identified are filamentous algae, bryozoa... Distinct laminations in the basal parts of the crust mainly reflect the presence of a dark brown pigment, probably organic matter, in the darker layers. Processes/products such as calcrete forma- tion, lichen development and cryptalgal structures...

  3. A checklist of malacofauna of the Vellar Estuarine Mangroves, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kesavan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey conducted to know the diversity of malacofauna in Vellar estuarine mangroves (southeast coast of India. In this study, 13 species of molluscs (10 species of gastropods - Melampus ceylonicus, Cerithidea cingulata, Cassidula nucleus, Pythia plicata, Neritina (Dostia violacea, Littorina scabra, Littorina melanostoma, Ellobium aurisjudae, C. obtusa T. telescopium and Assiminea nitida and 3 species of bivalves - Perna viridis, Crassostrea madrasensis and Modiolus metcalfei were recorded. M. pulchella, C. obtusa, L. scabra and N. violacea were found arboreal. T. telescopium, C. cingulata and E. aurisjudae were found crawling on the intertidal mud.

  4. Evolución de las investigaciones en paleontología de invertebrados marinos en la Revista Geológica de América Central

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Teresita

    2014-01-01

    Los invertebrados marinos fósiles son un grupo muy importante en Costa Rica y en el Sur de América Central, debido a su abundancia y gran diversidad, a su estrecha relación con los procesos geológicos, a los ambientes de depositación y eventualmente su restricción a ciertos períodos de tiempo. Entre los invertebrados los moluscos son los más abundantes, seguidos por los artropodos, equinodermos, Celenterados, Porifera, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa y Anelida. Esto se refleja en las escazas publicacion...

  5. Abundance and distribution of sessile invertebrates under intertidal boulders (São Paulo, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Rosana Moreira da

    1995-01-01

    The encrusting communities under two boulder fields (Praia Grande and Ponta do Baleeiro) were monitored monthly during 1990 and 1991, in São Sebastião, on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Two sizes of boulders were chosen: small (20-30 cm² underside area) and larger ones (160-220 cm²) located on the middle and lower levels of the intertidal. The community's components were mainly sessile animals either compound ones such as Bryozoa, Ascidiacea, Porifera and Cnidaria, in this ord...

  6. An inquiline deep-water bryozoan/amphipod association from New Zealand, including the description of a new genus and species of Chevaliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Nina Lörz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time Amphipoda have been discovered living in Bryozoa. A new genus and species of the amphipod family Chevaliidae, Bryoconversor tutus gen. et sp. nov. is described from New Zealand at 530–1500 m depth. The species lives in an inquiline relationship with the cheilostome bryozoan Onchoporoides moseleyi (Calwelliidae, inhabiting an abfrontal basal coelom of the bryozoan beneath the membranous ectocyst (cuticularized epithelium that conceals and protects the amphipods. The colony is strengthened along all edges by a unique intracoelomic rod of calcium carbonate that is formed within the marginal kenozooids of the colony. The potential benefits and costs to the bryozoan are discussed.

  7. Preliminary Study on Coral Reef and Its Associated Biota in Qatari Waters, Arabian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ansi, Mohsin A. [محسن عبد الله العنسي; Al-Khayat, Jassim A.

    1999-01-01

    Coral reef grounds and their associated biota m Qatari waters were investigated by Scuba diving. Four selected reef-sites were studied. Coral was presented by 17 species. Descriptive notes of each site and an initial list of associated fauna and flora were presented. The associated biota composed mainly of Algae 23 sp, Porifera 5 sp, Bryozoa 4 sp, Polychaeta 17 sp, Echinodermata 21 sp, Mollusca 102 sp, Chordata 4 sp, and Crustacea 15 sp. Mollusca was the predominant group in all visited sites...

  8. Long-Term Effects of Beach Nourishment on the Benthic Fauna of Panama City Beach, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    species total fauna species total fauna CNIDARIA 3 0.10 1 0.17 PLATYHELMINTHES 1 0.30 1 0.02 NEHERTINEA 1 1.45 1 1.33 NEMATODA 1 4.46 1 1.01 BRYOZOA...1979 1974 1979 1974 1979 1974 1979 1974 1979 NEKERTINEA Unidentified ap. -. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2.03 -- NEMATODA Unidentified sp. -- 14.67 .. .. .. 3.64...pp. 207-274. WHITTAKER, R.H., " Evolution and Measurement of Species Diversity," Taxon, Vol. 21, 1972, pp. 213-251. WORD, J.W., KAUWLING, T.J., and

  9. Structure and dynamics of the biota associated with Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L. Adami

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The community associated to the kelp Macrocystis pyrifera from the Beagle Channel (54°00´S; 68°20´W was studied. Sixty-eight taxa including Algae (5, Porifera (indet., Bryozoa (7, Nemertea (2, Annelida (10, Mollusca (22, Crustacea (15 and Echinodermata (7 were recognized. A seasonal sampling during one year showed differences in taxa composition when comparing (a two different environments; (b the spring-summer period and the autumn-winter period; and (c the parts of the alga (fronds and holdfast.

  10. Biodiversity of the white coral bank off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea): An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrototaro, F.; D'Onghia, G.; Corriero, G.; Matarrese, A.; Maiorano, P.; Panetta, P.; Gherardi, M.; Longo, C.; Rosso, A.; Sciuto, F.; Sanfilippo, R.; Gravili, C.; Boero, F.; Taviani, M.; Tursi, A.

    2010-03-01

    The biodiversity of the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) coral bank is summarized and its description is updated using data collected by means of underwater video systems, benthic samplers and fishing gears. A total of 222 living species have been recorded within the coral bank area in the depth range 280-1121 m. The most abundant benthic taxa recorded are Porifera (36 species) followed by Mollusca (35) and Cnidaria (31). The scleractinian corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are the main colonial species in the structure of the SML bank. Annelida, Crustacea and Bryozoa have been found with 24, 23 and 19 species, respectively. A total of 40 species of demersal fish have been recorded. Other faunal taxa were found with small numbers of species. One hundred and thirty-five species are new for the SML bank, 31 of which represent new records for the north-western Ionian Sea (2 Porifera, 17 Cnidaria, 1 Mollusca, 3 Annelida, 2 Crustacea, 4 Bryozoa and 4 Echinodermata). The finding of the annelid Harmothoë vesiculosa represents the first record for the Mediterranean Sea. The SML coral bank represents a biodiversity "hot-spot" on the bathyal bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Hitchhiking behaviour in the obligatory upstream migration of amphidromous snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    Migratory animals endure high stress during long-distance travel in order to benefit from spatio-temporally fluctuating resources, including food and shelter or from colonization of unoccupied habitats. Along with some fishes and shrimps, nerite snails in tropical to temperate freshwater systems are examples of amphidromous animals that migrate upstream for growth and reproduction after a marine larval phase. Here I report, to my knowledge, the first example of ‘hitchhiking’ behaviour in the obligatory migration of animals: the nerite snail Neritina asperulata appears to travel several kilometres as minute juveniles by firmly attaching to the shells of congeneric, subadult snails in streams of Melanesian Islands, presumably to increase the success rate of migration. PMID:19411267

  12. Gastropod fauna of the Cameroonian coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandel, K.; Kowalke, T.

    1999-11-01

    Eighteen species of gastropods were encountered living near and within the large coastal swamps, mangrove forests, intertidal flats and the rocky shore of the Cameroonian coast of the Atlantic Ocean. These represent members of the subclasses Neritimorpha, Caenogastropoda, and Heterostropha. Within the Neritimorpha, representatives of the genera Nerita, Neritina, and Neritilia could be distinguished by their radula anatomy and ecology. Within the Caenogastropoda, representatives of the families Potamididae with Tympano-tonos and Planaxidae with Angiola are characterized by their early ontogeny and ecology. The Pachymelaniidae are recognized as an independent group and are introduced as a new family within the Cerithioidea. Littorinimorpha with Littorina, Assiminea and Potamopyrgus as well as Neogastropoda (Thais) and Heterostropha (Melampus and Onchidium) are described and compared with representatives of the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific province.

  13. Sedimentary facies and sequence stratigraphy of the Asmari Formation at Chaman-Bolbol, Zagros Basin, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahkarami, Mahnaz; Vaziri-Moghaddam, Hossein; Taheri, Azizolah

    2007-03-01

    The Oligocene-Miocene Asmari Formation of the Zagros Basin is a thick sequence of shallow water carbonate. In the study area, it is subdivided into 14 microfacies that are distinguished on the basis of their depositional textures, petrographic analysis and fauna. Based on the paleoecology and lithology, four distinct depositional settings can be recognized: tidal flat, lagoon, barrier, and open marine. The Asmari Formation represents sedimentation on a carbonate ramp. In the inner ramp, the most abundant lithofacies are medium grained wackestone-packstone with imperforated foraminifera. The middle ramp is represented by packstone-grainstone to floatstone with a diverse assemblage of larger foraminifera with perforate wall, red algae, bryozoa, and echinoids. The outer ramp is dominated by argillaceous wackestone characterized by planktonic foraminifera and large and flat nummulitidae and lepidocyclinidae. Three third-order depositional sequences are recognized from deepening and shallowing trends in the depositional facies, changes in cycle stacking patterns, and sequence boundary features.

  14. Aspectos gerais sobre a alimentação do cangulo, Balistes vetula Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces - Balistidae no estado de Pernambuco - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técio Luiz Macêdo Costa

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The Balistidae, especially Balistes vetula are commom fishes in tropical waters from Northeastern Brazil. Studies about these fishes captured at the coastal area of Recife between Pina; Boa Viagem, Piedade and Candeias beaches were carried out in order to determine the diet, and to verify a possible diet diversification between the sexes, and times of the year. Males and females had a food diet consisting mostly of molluscs belonging the classes Scaphopoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and crustaceans and fishes. Echinoderms, foraminifera, bryozoa, sponges, polychaete worms, coelenterates and brachiopods were also observed in smaller proportions. Both males and females had a carnivorous benthic diet. Growth and changes in the seasons were not reflected by changes in the diet.

  15. A study on the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates in the waters of Seogwipo, Jeju Island, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Young Cho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of benthic invertebrates in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Gapado, Beomseom, and Munseom islets was surveyed twice in May and September 2013 to study the state of biodiversity in Seogwipo, Jeju Island. As a result, a total of 77 species, 46 families, 25 orders, 14 classes, and nine phyla of benthic invertebrates were found. The species which were found, by taxon, consisted of the following: 26 species of Cnidaria (34%, 24 species of Mollusca (31%, seven species of Chordata (9%, six species of Arthropoda (8%, six species of Porifera (8%, five species of Echinodermata (7%, one species of Bryozoa (1%, one species of Annelida (1%, and one species of Ctenophora (1%.

  16. Biodiversity of macrozoobenthos some running waters of southern Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Sukop

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work gives the results of the research of macrozoobenthos some running waters drai­na­ge areas of the Dyje River (southern Moravia – Czech Republic. Altogether, 762 taxa of macrozoobenthos were determined from the running waters of southern Moravia. Porifera (3, Hydrozoa (3, Turbellaria (8, Nematoda (14, Nematomorpha (1, Oligochaeta (60, Hirudinea (18, Bryozoa (5, Mollusca (44, Isopoda (2, Amphipoda (4, Decapoda (2, Hydracarina (17, Ephemeroptera (65, Plecoptera (55, Odonata (26, Heteroptera (3, Plannipennia (2, Trichoptera (128, Coleoptera (59, Diptera (243. Some taxa of macrozoobenthos are extinct unfortunately in running waters of Southern Moravia at present time. Another ones appear newly, for example snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum from New Zealand or Dreissena polymorpha from Pontic region. The data presented in this paper may serve as a basis for future monitoring of water quality and zoobenthos composition in connection with presumption of climate changes.

  17. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and reproduction of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans of 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are one of the key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They are the substratum of several fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species are bearing calcified structures and could therefore be potentially impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentration. Fragments of macroalgae Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2: natural 460 ± 59 µatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 µatm and 3150 ± 446 µatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and reproduction of Spirorbis individuals at the highest pCO2. Tubeworms Juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40 % when in the light compare to dark, presumably due to effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga. Electra colonies showed significantly improved growth rates at 1193 µatm. The overall net dissolution of the communities was significantly higher at 3150 µatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 predicted for 2100 for open ocean (~1000 µatm) conditions. Concerns remains with regards to higher pCO2 possibly found in the future Baltic Sea.

  18. Macroepizoísmo em Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae Macroepizoites on Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C. Winter

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo de distribuição dos macroepizóicos foi realizado numa população do caranguejo-aranha Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871 proveniente do litoral dos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina. O material biológico foi obtido junto aos pescadores, e faz parte do rejeito de pesca. Os caranguejos foram mensurados e os macroepizóicos identificados e contados. Os seguintes macroepizóicos sésseis foram registrados: Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817 (Cnidaria; Actiniaria (Cnidaria; Arca sp. (Mollusca; Ostreidae (Mollusca; Acanthodesia tenuis (Desor, 1848 (Bryozoa; Cirripedia e duas espécies tubícolas de Gammaridea (Crustacea. Além destes organismos ocorreram dois tubos desabitados e quatro animais vágeis. A anêmona C. tricolor foi a espécie mais abundante e freqüente, sendo, provavelmente, utilizada como mecanismo de camuflagem pelo caranguejo. O macroepizoísmo em L. ferreirae está relacionado com a idade ou tamanho do caranguejo, tendo maior incidência naqueles mais velhos ou de maior porte. Entretanto, a densidade dos macroepizóicos por caranguejo se mantém em torno de três. Não há relação entre o macroepizoísmo e o sexo do hospedeiro; somente fêmeas ovígeras utilizam desse recurso mais freqüentemente do que as não-ovígeras. Devido à maior área de fixação, os macroepizóicos colonizam principalmente a carapaça do caranguejo, enquanto nos pereiópodos há predominância de Bryozoa.A study of the distribution of the macroepizoites was carried out on a population of the spider crab Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871 from the Southern Brazilian coast. Crabs were obtained from shrimps and fishes by-catch. They were measured, and their macroepizoites were identified and counted. The following sessile macroepizoites were registered: Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817 (Cnidaria; Actiniaria (Cnidaria; Arca sp. (Mollusca; Ostreidae (Mollusca; Acanthodesia tenuis (Desor, 1848 (Bryozoa; Cirripedia and two species

  19. Abundance and distribution of sessile invertebrates under intertidal boulders (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Moreira da Rocha

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The encrusting communities under two boulder fields (Praia Grande and Ponta do Baleeiro were monitored monthly during 1990 and 1991, in São Sebastião, on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Two sizes of boulders were chosen: small (20-30 cm² underside area and larger ones (160-220 cm² located on the middle and lower levels of the intertidal. The community's components were mainly sessile animals either compound ones such as Bryozoa, Ascidiacea, Porifera and Cnidaria, in this order of abundance, or simple ones such as Polychaeta and Bivalvia, also in this order of abundance. All groups, except by serpulids (Polychaeta, had higher percent cover in the low intertidal region and under large boulders. Diversity was higher at Ponta do Baleeiro, and in the low intertidal region and on large boulders for both shores.Em São Sebastião, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, foram monitorados mensalmente dois ambientes de matacões em costões rochosos. Praia Grande e Ponta do Baleeiro, ao longo de 1990 e 1991. As condições ambientais avaliadas foram: temperatura e salinidade da água, hidrodinâmica, capacidade de abrasão da areia acumulada, heterogeneidade ambiental e porosidade das pedras. Foi estudada a comunidade incrustante na superfície inferior de pedras pequenas (20-30 cm² de área na face inferior e maiores (160-220 cm² dispostas nos estratos médio e inferior da zona entremarés. Esta comunidade era constituída principalmente por organismos sésseis coloniais (Bryozoa, Ascidiacea, Porifera e Cnidaria, nesta ordem de abundância ou solitários (Polychaeta e Bivalvia, nesta ordem de abundância. Todos os grupos, com exceção dos ser pulid cos (Polychaeta, apresentaram maior porcentagem de cobertura nos estratos inferiores e nas pedras grandes. A composição específica foi similar nos dois costões estudados, mas várias espécies ocorreram exclusivamente em um determinado nível de maré, ou tamanho de pedra

  20. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saderne, V.; Wahl, M.

    2012-03-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification). Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida) and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa) and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa) were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 μatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 μatm and 3150 ± 446 μatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 μatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the most elevated pCO2 foreseen in year 2100 for open ocean (~1000 μatm) conditions possibly due to the modulation of environmental conditions by the biological activities of the host

  1. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Saderne

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic

  2. Caracterización preliminar de los invertebrados bentónicos capturados accidentalmente en la pesca de camarones en el norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, sudeste de Brasil Preliminary characterization of benthic invertebrates caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the north of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar la biodiversidad de invertebrados bentónicos que componen la fauna asociada a la pesca de camarones en el puerto del Farol de Sao Thomé, costa norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, se realizaron 11 pescas mensuales en el año 2004 con redes de arrastre de fondo, cuya área de operaciones comprende 3-5 mn desde la línea de costa, entre 22°00'S y 22°20'S. Los datos registrados de cada taxon y/o especie se refieren a la frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, biomasa, índice de Importancia Relativa y abundancia. En total se registraron 27 especies de invertebrados bentónicos de Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Crustácea, Echinodermata y Bryozoa. Crustácea fue el más representativo, tanto en número de ejemplares de Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus y Callinectes ornatos, como en biomasa de P. diogenes y H. pudibundas. En términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia en los muéstreos, 11 especies (40,7% fueron constantes; 6 (22,2% accesorias y 10 (37,0% accidentales.In order to characterize the biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate by-catch associated with the shrimp fishery at Farol de Sao Thome harbor, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in 2004, 11 monthly trawls were conducted using bottom trawl nets between 22°00'S and 22°20'S and from 3 to 5 nm from the shoreline. The analyzed data for each talon and/or species include frequency of occurrence, numeric frequency, biomass, index of Relative Importance, and abundance. In total, 27 benthic invertebrate species were recorded, including Peripheral, Cnidarians, Mollusk, Annelid, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Bryozoa. The most representative group was Crustacea, both in number of specimens (Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus, Callinectes ornatus and in biomass (P. diogenes, H. pudibundus. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in the samples, 11 species (40.7% were constant, 6 species (22.2% were accessories, and 10 species (37.0% were by-catch.

  3. Channel Realignment Increases Multi-Scale Sensitivity to Floods in Benthic Snails in a Puerto Rico Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J. F.

    2005-05-01

    The impact of hydromodifications such as channel realignment on diadromous fauna is poorly understood in tropical streams. This study documented the impacts of channel realignment performed at lower Rio Mameyes (NE Puerto Rico) on local and upstream populations of the diadromous Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae). The streambed was dredged and leveled during the realignment (Summer 2002) promoting small-substrate patches, and increasing reach-scale heterogeneity. Snail density and size, streambed and channel properties were monthly recorded in a reference reach, and in situ and upstream the realigned reach during the following 18 months. After realignment, the local density was lower compared to previous surveys, and to the reference reach. It was due to individual wash out during flashfloods on gravel patches at the realigned reach. Increased mortality in juvenile snails migrating upstream through the realigned reach was responsible for gradual density decline, and low recovery after a major flood in the upstream population. However, existing data before the realignment showed that this population recovered from storm floods in less than two months. This study evidenced that civil works in flashy streams promote long-lasting negative effects on local populations that may propagate upstream when diadromous species are compromised, and may provide restoration guidelines.

  4. High gene flow due to pelagic larval dispersal among South Pacific archipelagos in two amphidromous gastropods (Neritomorpha: Neritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, E D; Taffel, J R; Barber, P H

    2010-06-01

    The freshwater stream fauna of tropical oceanic islands is dominated by amphidromous species, whose larvae are transported to the ocean and develop in the plankton before recruiting back to freshwater habitat as juveniles. Because stream habitat is relatively scarce and unstable on oceanic islands, this life history would seem to favor either the retention of larvae to their natal streams, or the ability to delay metamorphosis until new habitat is encountered. To distinguish between these hypotheses, we used population genetic methods to estimate larval dispersal among five South Pacific archipelagos in two amphidromous species of Neritid gastropod (Neritina canalis and Neripteron dilatatus). Sequence data from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) revealed that neither species is genetically structured throughout the Western Pacific, suggesting that their larvae have a pelagic larval duration (PLD) of at least 8 weeks, longer than many marine species. In addition, the two species have recently colonized isolated Central Pacific archipelagos in three independent events. Since colonization, there has been little or no gene flow between the Western and Central Pacific archipelagos in N. canalis, and high levels of gene flow across the same region in N. dilatatus. Both species show departures from neutrality and recent dates for colonization of the Central Pacific archipelagos, which is consistent with frequent extinction and recolonization of stream populations in this area. Similar results from other amphidromous species suggest that unstable freshwater habitats promote long-distance dispersal capabilities.

  5. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Neritimorpha (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Juan E; Colgan, Don; Castro, Lyda R; Kano, Yasunori; Zardoya, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Despite the extraordinary morphological and ecological diversity of Neritimorpha, few studies have focused on the phylogenetic relationships of this lineage of gastropods, which includes four extant superfamilies: Neritopsoidea, Hydrocenoidea, Helicinoidea, and Neritoidea. Here, the nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Georissa bangueyensis (Hydrocenoidea), Neritina usnea (Neritoidea), and Pleuropoma jana (Helicinoidea) and the nearly complete mt genomes of Titiscania sp. (Neritopsoidea) and Theodoxus fluviatilis (Neritoidea) were determined. Phylogenetic reconstructions using probabilistic methods were based on mitochondrial (13 protein coding genes and two ribosomal rRNA genes), nuclear (partial 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, actin, and histone H3 genes) and combined sequence data sets. All phylogenetic analyses except one converged on a single, highly supported tree in which Neritopsoidea was recovered as the sister group of a clade including Helicinoidea as the sister group of Hydrocenoidea and Neritoidea. This topology agrees with the fossil record and supports at least three independent invasions of land by neritimorph snails. The mitochondrial genomes of Titiscania sp., G. bangueyensis, N. usnea, and T. fluviatilis share the same gene organization previously described for Nerita mt genomes whereas that of P. jana has undergone major rearrangements. We sequenced about half of the mitochondrial genome of another species of Helicinoidea, Viana regina, and confirmed that this species shares the highly derived gene order of P. jana. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Limitations of cytochrome oxidase I for the barcoding of Neritidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) as revealed by Bayesian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, S Y

    2015-05-25

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene has been universally and successfully utilized as a barcoding gene, mainly because it can be amplified easily, applied across a wide range of taxa, and results can be obtained cheaply and quickly. However, in rare cases, the gene can fail to distinguish between species, particularly when exposed to highly sensitive methods of data analysis, such as the Bayesian method, or when taxa have undergone introgressive hybridization, over-splitting, or incomplete lineage sorting. Such cases require the use of alternative markers, and nuclear DNA markers are commonly used. In this study, a dendrogram produced by Bayesian analysis of an mtDNA COI dataset was compared with that of a nuclear DNA ATPS-α dataset, in order to evaluate the efficiency of COI in barcoding Malaysian nerites (Neritidae). In the COI dendrogram, most of the species were in individual clusters, except for two species: Nerita chamaeleon and N. histrio. These two species were placed in the same subcluster, whereas in the ATPS-α dendrogram they were in their own subclusters. Analysis of the ATPS-α gene also placed the two genera of nerites (Nerita and Neritina) in separate clusters, whereas COI gene analysis placed both genera in the same cluster. Therefore, in the case of the Neritidae, the ATPS-α gene is a better barcoding gene than the COI gene.

  7. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the “invertebrates,” but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a “Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance” (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture. PMID:24336862

  8. Invertebrate communities associated with hard bottom habitats in the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, E. L.; Knott, D. M.; Van Dolah, R. F.; Burrell, V. G.

    1983-08-01

    Epibenthic invertebrates associated with nine hard bottom areas in the South Atlantic Bight between South Carolina and northern Florida were collected with dredge, trawl, suction and grab samplers to evaluate species composition, biomass, abundance, diversity, spatial distributions, and seasonality (winter and summer). Species composition changed noticeably with depth and season. Inner and outer shelf stations were least similar in species composition. Middle shelf areas were transitional and contained taxa characteristic of both inner and outer sites. Bryozoa (88 taxa), Cnidaria (85 taxa), Porifera (67 taxa), Annelida (261 taxa) and Mollusca (203 taxa) represented the richest taxonomic groups of the 1175 taxa collected. Both diversity (1175 total taxa) and biomass (1995 kg total) of invertebrates from hard bottom areas exceeded those reported in the literature for sand bottom communities. Sponges accounted for >60% of the total invertebrate biomass collected by dredge and trawl during both seasons. High diversity values were attributed primarily to habitat complexity and did not exhibit any discernible pattern with depth or latitude.

  9. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): developing community resources to study diverse invertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Collins, Allen G; Collins, Timothy; Crandall, Keith; Distel, Daniel; Dunn, Casey; Giribet, Gonzalo; Haddock, Steven; Knowlton, Nancy; Martindale, Mark; Medina, Mónica; Messing, Charles; O'Brien, Stephen J; Paulay, Gustav; Putnam, Nicolas; Ravasi, Timothy; Rouse, Greg W; Ryan, Joseph F; Schulze, Anja; Wörheide, Gert; Adamska, Maja; Bailly, Xavier; Breinholt, Jesse; Browne, William E; Diaz, M Christina; Evans, Nathaniel; Flot, Jean-François; Fogarty, Nicole; Johnston, Matthew; Kamel, Bishoy; Kawahara, Akito Y; Laberge, Tammy; Lavrov, Dennis; Michonneau, François; Moroz, Leonid L; Oakley, Todd; Osborne, Karen; Pomponi, Shirley A; Rhodes, Adelaide; Santos, Scott R; Satoh, Nori; Thacker, Robert W; Van de Peer, Yves; Voolstra, Christian R; Welch, David Mark; Winston, Judith; Zhou, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the "invertebrates," but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a "Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance" (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site (http://giga.nova.edu) has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  10. Antitumor and immune regulation activities of the extracts of some Chinese marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixin; Fan, Xiao; Han, Lijun

    2005-03-01

    Extracts of 21 marine invertebrates belonging to Coelenterata, Mollusca, Annelida, Bryozoa, Echiura, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Urochordata were screened for the studies on their antitumor and immune regulation activities. Antitumor activity was determined by MTT method and immune regulation activity was studied using T- and B-lymphocytes in mice spleen in vitro. It was found that the n-butanol part of Asterina pectinifera, the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina, 95% ethanol extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus have a high inhibition rate of 96.7%, 63.9% and 50.5% respectively on tumor cell line HL-60 at the concentration of 0.063 mg/ml. The inhibition rate of the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina on the tumor cell line A-549 is 65.4% at concentration of 0.063 mg/mL. The 95% ethanol extract of Meretrix meretrix has so outstanding promoting effect on T-lymphocytes that their multiplication increases 25% when the sample concentration is only 1 μg/ml. On B-lymphocytes, the 95% extract of Rapana venosa, at concentration of 100 μg/ml, has a promotion percentage of 60%. On the other hand, under the condition of no cytotoxic effect, the 95% ethanol extracts of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus and Cellana toreum can reach 92% inhibition rate on T lymphocyte at concentration of 100 μg/ml, while the inhibition rate on B lymphocyte of the 95% extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus reaches 92% at the same concentration.

  11. Soft-bottom macrobenthic faunal associations in the southern Chilean glacial fjord complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ríos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrobenthic associations were investigated at 29 sampling stations with a semi-quantitative Agassiz trawl, ranging from the South Patagonian Icefield to the Straits of Magellan in the South Chilean fjord system. A total of 1,895 individuals belonging to 131 species were collected. 19 species belong to colonial organisms, mainly Bryozoa (17 species and Octocorallia (2 species. The phylum Echinodermata was the most diverse in species number (47 species, with asteroids (25 species and ophiuroids (13 species being the best represented within this taxon. Polychaeta was the second dominant group in terms of species richness (46 species. Multidimensional scaling ordination (MDS separated two station groups, one related to fjords and channels off the South Patagonian Icefield and the second one to stations surrounding the Straits of Magellan. 45 species account for 90% of the dissimilarity between these two groups. These differences can mainly be explained by the influence of local environmental conditions determined by processes closely related to the presence/absence of glaciers. Abiotic parameters such as water depth, type of sediment and chemical features of the superficial sediment were not correlated with the numbers of individuals caught by the Agassiz trawl in each group of sampling stations.

  12. Abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two Mediterranean echinoids off the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzahrae Elmasry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the variability in abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two echinoid species, the common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816 and black urchin Arbacia lixula (Linnaeus, 1758 in the Southeastern Mediterranean (SEM along the coast of Alexandria, Egypt. Four seasonal trips were made during the years 2014–2015 covering 55 km of the shore with depths ranging between 3 and 9 m. The sea urchin species composition, density and size structure and distribution were compared. The associated macrobenthic invertebrates with prominent presence and biomass were observed as well as other benthic fauna and flora associations. The present results showed that P. lividus was the dominant echinoid spatially and temporally. A. lixula showed frequent occurrence in Sidi Bishr and Sidi Gaber stations in the spring season. The most dominant size class was the medium to large-sized classes for P. lividus and large-sized classes for A. lixula. The commercial size for the edible P. lividus represented 33% of the sampled population. Furthermore, the most dominant macrobenthic assemblages beside the echinoid population were primarily oysters, sea cucumbers, and mussels. Beside these, assemblage of seaweeds (red, green, brown and crustose algae, Porifera, Cnidaria, Crustacea, other Echinodermata, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Tunicata, Bryozoa and Annelida were found. The present study shows that the investigated area represents stable habitats for the echinoid population with rich and diversified algal assemblages as well as other potential food resources.

  13. World-wide distribution of the Bryozoan Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy 1851

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Balounová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy 1851 is an invasive freshwater colonial animal belonging to the phylum Bryozoa. It is native to the area east of the Mississippi River, from Ontario to Florida. Currently it occurs throughout North America and the first record for it outside that continent was for Bille near Hamburg in 1883. Later, it was found in the Elbe (Havel by Spandau, in Tegeler See, a pond in Wroclaw and in Silesia and Brandenburg. In addition, floatoblasts of P. magnifica were found in the upper Elbe in Germany in the 1950s. Then, P. magnifica spread to the area of Spandau in Berlin and the Oder, and Wroclaw. It is also recorded in Romania and Turkey. In France, it was recorded occurring in the area called Franche-Comte in 1994. Its occurrence in the Netherlands was first reported in 2003 and then each following year. The newest discoveries are for the Rhine basin in the area between Luxembourg and Germany. Recently, it was also recorded in the Czech Republic and Austria. Besides Europe and North America, it is also recorded in Japan and Korea. The statoblasts of P. magnifica are spread by flowing water, zoochory and probably also by anthropochory.

  14. From incipient to substantial: evolution of placentotrophy in a phylum of aquatic colonial invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N

    2013-05-01

    Matrotrophy has long been known in invertebrates, but it is still poorly understood and has never been reviewed. A striking example of matrotrophy (namely, placentotrophy) is provided by the Bryozoa, a medium-sized phylum of the aquatic colonial filter feeders. Here I report on an extensive anatomical study of placental analogues in 21 species of the bryozoan order Cheilostomata, offering the first review on matrotrophy among aquatic invertebrates. The first anatomical description of incipient placentotrophy in invertebrates is presented together with the evidence for multiple independent origins of placental analogues in this order. The combinations of contrasting oocytic types (macrolecithal or microlecithal) and various degrees of placental development and embryonic enlargement during incubation, found in different bryozoan species, are suggestive of a transitional series from the incipient to the substantial placentotrophy accompanied by an inverse change in oogenesis, a situation reminiscent of some vertebrates. It seems that matrotrophy could trigger the evolution of sexual zooidal polymorphism in some clades. The results of this study show that this phylum, with its wide variety of reproductive patterns, incubation devices, and types of the simple placenta-like systems, offers a promising model for studying parallel evolution of placentotrophy in particular, and matrotrophy in general. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Bathymetric variation of epiphytic assemblages on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves in relation to anthropogenic disturbance in the southeastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brahim, Mounir; Mabrouk, Lotfi; Hamza, Asma; Mahfoudi, Mabrouka; Bouain, Abderrahmane; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-12-01

    A survey of the epiphytic leaves of Posidonia oceanica was conducted along a depth transect at both the control station Attaya in the Kerkennah Islands and the disturbed Mahres station on the Sfax coast (Tunisia). Samples were collected by scuba divers at depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m in July 2008. We evaluated whether the pattern of spatial variability of the macroepiphyte assemblages of leaves of Posidonia oceanica differed in relation to anthropogenic interference. The results indicate that the decrease in shoot density and leaf length according to depth was low at Mahres. The biomass of epiphytic leaves and the percentage cover of epiphytic assemblages decreased with depth for both stations and heavily at Mahres, this decline being related to anthropogenic disturbance. This study shows that the highest values of epifauna and epiflora were detected at the disturbed station Mahres. Macroalgae assemblages decreased with depth at both stations and were dominated by Rhodophyta, whereas the percentage cover of the epifauna leaf that decreases according to depth was dominated by Hydrozoa and Bryozoa. Changes in epiphyte assemblages, epiphytic biomass, percentage cover, and species richness in proportion to Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, Cyanobacteria, Hydrozoa, Porifera, and Tunicata between the two stations constitute promising tools for detecting environmental disturbance.

  16. Phylogenetically Widespread Polyembryony in Cyclostome Bryozoans and the Protracted Asynchronous Release of Clonal Brood-Mates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Jenkins

    Full Text Available Polyembryony-the production of multiple cloned embryos from a single fertilised egg-is a seemingly paradoxical combination of reproductive modes that nevertheless persists in diverse taxa. We document features of polyembryony in the Cyclostomata (Bryozoa-an ancient order of modular colonial marine invertebrates-that suggest a substantial reduction in the paradoxical nature of this enigmatic reproductive mode. Firstly, we provide molecular evidence for polyembryony in three exemplar species, supporting the widely cited inference that polyembryony characterises the entire order. Secondly, genotyping demonstrates protracted release of cloned offspring from the primary embryo in a given gonozooid (chamber for embryonic incubation, thus exposing the same genotype to changing environmental conditions over time. Finally, we confirm that each gonozooid produces a distinct genotype, with each primary embryo being the result of a separate fertilisation event. We hypothesise that the sustained release of one or a few genotypes against varying environmental conditions achieves levels of risk-spreading similar to those in organisms that release multiple, unique genotypes at a single time. We argue that polyembryony, specifically with the production of a large number of progeny per fertilisation event, has been favoured in the Cyclostomata over long geological periods.

  17. Bryozoans, the remedy hidden treasures of oceans: secondary metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhosean Mohebbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bryozoans, commonly known as “moss animals”, are typically aquatic, filter feeding, sessile, colonial marine animals. Although, they are a rich resource of new bioactive secondary metabolites, but studies on their secondary metabolite have been neglected. Although over 8000 species are known, the lowest numbers of novel compounds were isolated from the phylum Bryozoa. In addition, presently nothing is recognized regarding the origin of the bioactive compounds isolated by bryozoans. At present nothing is known regarding the origin of the natural products isolated by bryozoans. The most famous of compounds obtained from these organisms are macrolide lactones of Bryostatins. They are potent modulators of protein kinase C. The amazing compounds such as Flustramines, Hinckdentine, Convolutamines, Kororamides, Chatellines, Chartellamides, Convolutamines, Convolutamidines, euthyroideone, amathaspiramide, lutamides, Volutamides, tambjamines, Phidolopins, and dozens of other compounds with different biological properties have been obtained. Very few studies have been done on these treasures in the sea depth, and more studies need to be done on them for access to their secondary metabolites.

  18. Fouling assemblage of benthic plastic debris collected from Mersin Bay, NE Levantine coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündoğdu, Sedat; Çevik, Cem; Karaca, Serkan

    2017-11-15

    The Mediterranean is an ecosystem that faces more and more microplastic pollution every day. This causes the whole of the Mediterranean to face the negative effects of plastic pollution. This study examines the state of plastic debris and fouling organisms found on it in one of the areas most affected by plastic pollution, Mersin Bay. As a result, a total of 3.88kg plastic (mean=0,97kg; n=120; 2670item/km2; 86,3kg/km2) was collected and based on the ATR-FTIR analysis, it was determined that this total contained 9 types of plastics. 17 different fouling species belonging to 6 phylum (Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Cnidaria, Mollusca) 7 class and 11 order were discovered on plastics. Spirobranchus triqueter, Hydroides sp. and Neopycnodonte cochlear were the most abundant species. In the end, the example of Mersin Bay shows that plastic debris as a substrate can contain a very high diversity of life just like natural substrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Agent of whirling disease meets orphan worm: phylogenomic analyses firmly place Myxozoa in Cnidaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian P Nesnidal

    Full Text Available Myxozoa are microscopic obligate endoparasites with complex live cycles. Representatives are Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of whirling disease in salmonids, and the enigmatic "orphan worm" Buddenbrockia plumatellae parasitizing in Bryozoa. Originally, Myxozoa were classified as protists, but later several metazoan characteristics were reported. However, their phylogenetic relationships remained doubtful. Some molecular phylogenetic analyses placed them as sister group to or even within Bilateria, whereas the possession of polar capsules that are similar to nematocysts of Cnidaria and of minicollagen genes suggest a close relationship between Myxozoa and Cnidaria. EST data of Buddenbrockia also indicated a cnidarian origin of Myxozoa, but were not sufficient to reject a closer relationship to bilaterians. Phylogenomic analyses of new genomic sequences of Myxobolus cerebralis firmly place Myxozoa as sister group to Medusozoa within Cnidaria. Based on the new dataset, the alternative hypothesis that Myxozoa form a clade with Bilateria can be rejected using topology tests. Sensitivity analyses indicate that this result is not affected by long branch attraction artifacts or compositional bias.

  20. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather

    2013-12-12

    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  1. [Trophic ecology of the fish Arothron meleagris (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae) from Los Frailes reef, southern Baja California, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Xchel G; Abitia, L Andrés; Favila, Araceli; Gutiérrez, Francisco J; Palacios, Devis S

    2009-01-01

    Monthly samples were taken from November 2004 to October 2005 in the Los Frailes reef, BCS, Mexico. The objective was to determine the feeding habits of the pufferfish, Arothron meleagris, as well as possible variations in feeding patterns due to size and/or sex. We captured 101 specimens, with all stomachs contained food. The index of relative importance (IRI) was used to determine the main items; which were non-identified organic matter (NIOM) (30.44%), Echinometra vanbrunti (26.25 %), Porifera (12.63 %), Pocillopora spp. (11.84%), Bryozoa (5.37 %) and Porites spp. (4.83 %). Levin's index indicated a low trophic niche breadth (Bi=0.12) and allowed us to determine that A. meleagris is a specialist predator with strong preferences towards certain food types. The Morisita-Horn index showed a high trophic overlap between sexes (Clambda=0.78), seasons (hot and cold Clambda=0.95) and among sizes (small and medium Clambda=0.94; small and large Clambda=0.74; medium and large Clambda=0.83).

  2. Establishment and succession of an epibiotic community on chromated copper arsenate-treated wood in Mediterranean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayanni, Hera; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar; Cragg, Simon; Nicolaidou, Artemis

    2010-01-01

    Colonization and succession of an epibiotic animal community on chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood were studied for 18 months in the eastern Mediterranean (Saronikos Gulf, Aegean Sea). Pine wood panels, 200 x 100 x 25 mm, impregnated with CCA at retentions of 0, 12, 24, and 48 kg m(-3) were used. The abundance or surface coverage of the most characteristic taxa (polychaetes, mollusca, crustacea bryozoa, sponges, ascidians) was measured in situ, while 12 months after submersion two panels of each retention were removed and examined in the laboratory. A total of 26 taxa were identified, among which polychaetes of the family Serpulidae dominated. The controls carried the largest number of species (17) but the lowest number of individuals. On panels with CCA retentions of 12 and 24 kg m(-3), 14 and 16 species were observed, respectively, while at 48 kg m(-3), only 9 species were found. Only the controls were affected by boring bivalves of the family Teredinidae and started to break up within 3 months of submersion. Statistically significant differences in barnacle and polychaete abundance were found between treated and untreated panels. There were no significant differences among panels treated at the three CCA loadings. Ordination by nonmetric multidimensional scaling showed a seasonal effect on the colonization of the treated panels, with the highest recruitment during the warmer months of the study.

  3. Trait-based characterization of species transported on Japanese tsunami marine debris: Effect of prior invasion history on trait distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A; Gillman, Reva; Carlton, James T; Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Nelson, Jocelyn C; Otani, Michio; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2018-01-12

    Nearly 300 coastal marine species collected from >630 debris items from the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami have landed alive along the North American Pacific coast and the Hawaiian Archipelago. We synthesized life history, environmental, and distributional traits for 103 of these species and compared species with (n=30) and without (n=62) known invasion histories. The species represent 12 phyla, and Mollusca, Crustacea, and Bryozoa accounted for 71 of the 103 species. The majority are native to the Northwest Pacific and the Central Indo-Pacific. Species with known invasion history were more common on artificial and hardpan substrates, in temperate reef, fouling, and flotsam habitats, at subtropical and tropical temperatures, and exhibited greater salinity tolerance than species with no prior invasion history. Thirty-five Japanese tsunami marine species without prior invasion history overlapped in ordination trait space with known invaders, indicating a subset of species in this novel assemblage that possess traits similar to species with known invasion history. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ecología trófica del pez Arothron meleagris (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae en el arrecife de Los Frailes, Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xchel G Moreno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar los hábitos alimenticios del tamboril de oro Arothron meleagris, así como sus posibles variaciones de alimentación por talla y sexo, se realizaron muestreos mensuales de noviembre 2004 a octubre 2005, en el arrecife de Los Frailes, Baja California Sur, México. Se capturaron un total de 101 ejemplares, en los cuales todos los estómagos contenían alimento. Se aplicó el índice de importancia relativa (IIR para determinar los principales categorías alimenticias (ítems, los cuales fueron: Echinometra vanbrunti (26.25 %, Porifera (12.63 %, Pocillopora spp. (11.84%, Bryozoa (5.37 % y Porites spp. (4.83 %. El índice de Levin indica baja amplitud del nicho trófico (Bi= 0.12 por lo que se le puede considerar como un depredador especialista con marcadas preferencias hacia algunos tipos alimentarios. El índice de Morisita-Horn indicó que existe un traslape alto entre las dietas por sexo (hembras y machos o = 0.78, temporadas (cálida y fría o = 0.95 y entre tallas (chica y mediana o = 0.94, chica y grande o = 0.74, mediana y grande o = 0.83.

  5. Epibiotic relationships on Zygochlamys patagonica (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) increase biodiversity in a submarine canyon in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejter, Laura; López Gappa, Juan; Bremec, Claudia Silvia

    2014-06-01

    The continental slope of the southern SW Atlantic Ocean has many distinguishable deep submarine canyons, varying in depth and extension. The benthic fauna within one of them, detected in April 2005 by means of a multibeam SIMRAD EM1002 sonar, and located at 43°35‧S to 59°33‧W, 325 m depth, was studied to discuss faunal affinities with the neighbouring Patagonian scallop fishing grounds located at upper slope depths. In order to add faunal information to the previous general study, we studied the epibiotic species settled on Patagonian scallops (the dominant species in the area) collected in the reference sampling site using a 2.5-m mouth-opening dredge, 10 mm mesh size. We sampled 103 scallops with shell heights between 22 and 69 mm; epibionts were recorded on both valves. We found 53 epibiotic taxa, which were most conspicuous on the upper valve. Bryozoa was the most diverse group (34 species) while Polychaeta was the most abundant group, recorded on 94% of the scallops. Stylasteridae (2 species) and Clavulariidae (Cnidaria) conform newly recorded epibionts on Z. patagonica and the sponge Tedania (Tedaniopsis) infundibuliformis also represents a new record for the SW Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Sessile macro-epibiotic community of solitary ascidians, ecosystem engineers in soft substrates of Potter Cove, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rimondino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The muddy bottoms of inner Potter Cove, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetlands, Antarctica, show a high density and richness of macrobenthic species, particularly ascidians. In other areas, ascidians have been reported to play the role of ecosystem engineers, as they support a significant number of epibionts, increasing benthic diversity. In this study, a total of 21 sessile macro-epibiotic taxa present on the ascidian species Corella antarctica Sluiter, 1905, Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Lesson, 1830 and Molgula pedunculata Herdman, 1881 were identified, with Bryozoa being the most diverse. There were differences between the three ascidian species in terms of richness, percent cover and diversity of sessile macro-epibionts. The morphological characteristics of the tunic surface, the available area for colonization (and its relation with the age of the basibiont individuals and the pH of the ascidian tunic seem to explain the observed differences. Recent environmental changes in the study area (increase of suspended particulate matter caused by glaciers retreat have been related to observed shifts in the benthic community structure, negatively affecting the abundance and distribution of the studied ascidian species. Considering the diversity of sessile macro-epibionts found on these species, the impact of environmental shifts may be greater than that estimated so far.

  7. Efecto de la conversión del manglar a potrero sobre la densidad y tallas de dos gasterópodos en el delta del río Turbo (golfo de Urabá, Caribe colombiano Effects mangrove conversion to pasture on density and shell size of two gastropods in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Caribbean coast of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Blanco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El delta del río Turbo es una de las áreas del golfo de Urabá, Colombia donde la tala de manglar es más extensa y activa, por lo tanto, se evaluó el impacto de la conversión de manglar a potrero, comparando la densidad y talla promedio de dos gasterópodos (Neritina virginea y Melampus coffeus, variables dasonómicas, físico-químicas intersticiales y granulométricas del suelo entre varios parches de: 1 manglar de franja, 2 manglar de cuenca, 3 manglar de cuenca mixto y 4 manglar de cuenca convertido a potrero, en el delta del río Turbo de este golfo, entre enero y diciembre 2009. Las densidades y tallas de los gasterópodos fueron mayores en el manglar de franja. N. virginea fue muy abundante pero disminuyó hacia el manglar de cuenca (debido a sus hábitos diádromos, y desapareció casi completamente en los potreros, donde los individuos estuvieron agregados en las pocas áreas anegadas. En los potreros, los individuos de M. coffeus estuvieron agrupados en los árboles remanentes debido a su hábito arborícola y su condición de pulmonado. Se sugiere que la escasez de los gasterópodos está relacionada con la degradación del microhábitat físico, y la alteración de propiedades del suelo. Finalmente, también planteamos que la extinción local de N. virginea debida a la tala puede ejercer fuertes efectos negativos sobre la función ecosistémica debido a que es un omnívoro dominante.Mangrove deforestation is widespread in the Greater Caribbean but its impact on macrobenthos has not been evaluated to date. In order to assess the impact of mangrove conversion to pasture, densities and shell sizes of two dominant gastropods (Neritina virginea and Melampus coffeus were compared among four mangrove types: 1 Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringing mangroves, 2 Avicennia germinans-dominated basin mangroves, 3 Mixed-species basin mangroves, and 4 A. germinansbasin mangroves converted to pastures, in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf

  8. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF THE NERITIDAE (GASTROPODA: NERITIMORPHA BASED ON THE MITOCHONDRIAL GENES CYTOCHROME OXIDASE I (COI AND 16S rRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Fernando Quintero Galvis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The family Neritidae has representatives in tropical and subtropical regions that occur in a variety of environments, and its known fossil record dates back to the late Cretaceous. However there have been few studies of molecular phylogeny in this family. We performed a phylogenetic reconstruction of the family Neritidae using the COI (722 bp and the 16S rRNA (559 bp regions of the mitochondrial genome. Neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference were performed.The best phylogenetic reconstruction was obtained using the COI region, and we consider it an appropriate marker for phylogenetic studies within the group. Consensus analysis (COI +16S rRNA generally obtained the same tree topologies and confirmed that the genus Nerita is monophyletic. The consensus analysis using parsimony recovered a monophyletic group consisting of the genera Neritina, Septaria, Theodoxus, Puperita, and Clithon, while in the Bayesian analyses Theodoxus is separated from the other genera. The phylogenetic status of the species from the genus Nerita from the Colombian Caribbean generated in this study was consistent with that reported for the genus in previous studies. In the resulting consensus tree obtained using maximum parsimony, we included information on habitat type for each species, to map the evolution by habitat. Species of the family Neritidae possibly have their origin in marine environments, which is consistent with conclusions from previous reports based on anatomical studies.Filogenia molecular de la familia Neritidae (Gastropoda: Neritimorpha con base en los genes mitocondriales citocromo oxidasa I (COI y 16S rRNALa familia Neritidae cuenta con representantes en regiones tropicales y subtropicales adaptadas a diferentes ambientes, con un registro fósil que data para finales del Cretáceo. Sin embargo no se han realizado estudios de filogenia molecular en la familia. En este estudio se realizó una reconstrucción filogen

  9. Effects of plant cover on the macrofauna of Spartina marshes in northern Brazil

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    Cesar França Braga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on macrofauna density and diversity, and the height and density of Spartina brasiliensis, were obtained from salt marsh beds of a tropical estuary in northern Brazil. Sampling was carried out at four distinct times of the year, during the wet and dry seasons and in the transition periods between these. Sampling was also carried out in salt marshes of three size classes, small, medium and large. Variables were analyzed in relation to time of year and salt marsh size class. Overall, 46 taxa were found, with polychaetes, isopods and the gastropod Neritina virginea dominating the fauna. Macrofauna density and diversity were positively correlated with culm density, indicating a possible role in protection from predation. All the three variables were higher during the transitional periods between the wet and dry seasons and seasonal changes in rainfall, salinity and light availability may influence mortality, food availability and settlement of the macrofauna. There was no effect of salt marsh size on either the macrofauna or the vegetation.Dados sobre a densidade e diversidade da macrofauna em relação à altura e densidade de Spartina brasiliensis foram obtidos em bancos de marismas em um estuário tropical no norte do Brasil. A amostragem foi realizada quatro vezes durante um ano, nas estações chuvosa, seca e nos períodos de transição entre estas. A amostragem foi realizada em marismas de três classes de tamanho: pequeno, médio e grande. As variáveis foram analisadas em relação às estações do ano e das classes de tamanho das marismas. Um total de 46 táxons foram encontrados, com os poliquetos, isopodos e o gastropódo Neritina virginea dominando a fauna, resultados similares a estudos realizados em marismas no sul do Brasil. A densidade e a diversidade da macrofauna foram correlacionadas positivamente com a densidade de colmos da vegetação, indicando um possível papel da vegetação em proteção contra predação. Todas as

  10. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta): importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R N M; Dias, T L P

    2014-08-01

    The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H'=1.25). Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa (C. B. Adams, 1845) was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  11. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF THE NERITIDAE (GASTROPODA: NERITIMORPHA BASED ON THE MITOCHONDRIAL GENES CYTOCHROME OXIDASE I (COI AND 16S rRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIAN QUINTERO-GALVIS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La familia Neritidae cuenta con representantes en regiones tropicales y subtropicales adaptadas a diferentes ambientes, con un registro fósil que data para finales del Cretáceo. Sin embargo no se han realizado estudios de filogenia molecular en la familia. En este estudio se realizó una reconstrucción filogenética de la familia Neritidae utilizando las regiones COI (722 pb y 16S rRNA (559 pb del genoma mitocondrial. Se realizaron análisis de distancias de Neighbor-Joining, Máxima Parsimonia e Inferencia Bayesiana. La mejor reconstrucción filogenética fue mediante la región COI, considerándola un marcador apropiado para realizar estudios filogenéticos dentro del grupo. El consenso de las relaciones filogenéticas (COI+16S rRNA permitió confirmar que el género Nerita es monofilético. El consenso del análisis de parsimonia reveló un grupo monofilético formado por los géneros Neritina, Septaria, Theodoxus, Puperita y Clithon, mientras que en el análisis bayesiano Theodoxus se encuentra separado de los otros géneros. El resultado en las especies del género Nerita del Caribe colombiano fue consistente con lo reportado para el género en estudios previos. En el árbol resultante del análisis de parsimonia se sobrepuso la información del hábitat de cada especie, para mapear la evolución por hábitat. Se obtuvo como resultado que las especies de la familia Neritidae posiblemente tengan su ori- gen en un ambiente marino, siendo congruente con lo repor- tado en estudios anatómicos realizados anteriormente.

  12. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta: importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RNM Queiroz

    Full Text Available The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H′=1.25. Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa(C. B. Adams, 1845 was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758 in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  13. Efecto de la conversión del manglar a potrero sobre la densidad y tallas de dos gasterópodos en el delta del río Turbo (golfo de Urabá, Caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Blanco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El delta del río Turbo es una de las áreas del golfo de Urabá, Colombia donde la tala de manglar es más extensa y activa, por lo tanto, se evaluó el impacto de la conversión de manglar a potrero, comparando la densidad y talla promedio de dos gasterópodos (Neritina virginea y Melampus coffeus, variables dasonómicas, físico-químicas intersticiales y granulométricas del suelo entre varios parches de: 1 manglar de franja, 2 manglar de cuenca, 3 manglar de cuenca mixto y 4 manglar de cuenca convertido a potrero, en el delta del río Turbo de este golfo, entre enero y diciembre 2009. Las densidades y tallas de los gasterópodos fueron mayores en el manglar de franja. N. virginea fue muy abundante pero disminuyó hacia el manglar de cuenca (debido a sus hábitos diádromos, y desapareció casi completamente en los potreros, donde los individuos estuvieron agregados en las pocas áreas anegadas. En los potreros, los individuos de M. coffeus estuvieron agrupados en los árboles remanentes debido a su hábito arborícola y su condición de pulmonado. Se sugiere que la escasez de los gasterópodos está relacionada con la degradación del microhábitat físico, y la alteración de propiedades del suelo. Finalmente, también planteamos que la extinción local de N. virginea debida a la tala puede ejercer fuertes efectos negativos sobre la función ecosistémica debido a que es un omnívoro dominante.

  14. Deforestación y sedimentación en los manglares del Golfo de Urabá Síntesis de los impactos sobre la fauna macrobéntica e íctica en el delta del río Turbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Taborda-Marín

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una síntesis de la investigación que relaciona la deforestación y el cambio del uso del suelo de laplanicie costera de la cuenca del río Turbo con los efectos sobre la fauna estuarina de su delta. Se contextualiza estacuenca dentro la variabilidad hidroclimatológica (caudales y precipitación del costado oriental del golfo de Urabá. Secuantifi có la tasa de pérdida del bosque de la planicie costera debido al aumento de cultivos, lo cual puede explicar elincremento del transporte de sedimentos hacia los ríos y al mar. A pesar de la expansión deltaica, el área de manglaresdisminuyó como producto del aumento de cultivos y potreros. Se documentó que la disminución de la densidad de ungasterópodo dominante (Neritina virginea en claros del manglar, bordes y potreros, por alteraciones en su microhábitat,puede ser utilizada como un bioindicador. Las altas tasas de sedimentación podrían ser responsables de la pobrezafaunística del bentos, pero no parecen tener un efecto signifi cativo sobre las especies actualmente dominantes. Ladiversidad y abundancia de peces refl ejó una mayor infl uencia de la sedimentación en las zonas más cercanas a ladescarga fl uvial. Se relacionó la condición social de las comunidades con los cambios en el paisaje. Se establecióel estado actual del ecosistema, que será la base para proponer medidas de manejo y conservación para prevenir yrestaurar los daños causados a los manglares y a la zona costera.

  15. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF THE NERITIDAE (GASTROPODA: NERITIMORPHA BASED ON THE MITOCHONDRIAL GENES CYTOCHROME OXIDASE I (COI AND 16S rRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Fernando Quintero Galvis

    2013-05-01

    La familia Neritidae cuenta con representantes en regiones tropicales y subtropicales adaptadas a diferentes ambientes, con un registro fósil que data para finales del Cretáceo. Sin embargo no se han realizado estudios de filogenia molecular en la familia. En este estudio se realizó una reconstrucción filogenética de la familia Neritidae utilizando las regiones COI (722 pb y 16S rRNA (559 pb del genoma mitocondrial. Se realizaron análisis de distancias de Neighbor-Joining, Máxima Parsimonia e Inferencia Bayesiana. La mejor reconstrucción filogenética fue mediante la región COI, considerándola un marcador apropiado para realizar estudios filogenéticos dentro del grupo. El consenso de las relaciones filogenéticas (COI+16S rRNA permitió confirmar que el género Nerita es monofilético. El consenso del análisis de parsimonia reveló un grupo monofilético formado por los géneros Neritina, Septaria, Theodoxus, Puperita y Clithon, mientras que en el análisis bayesiano Theodoxus se encuentra separado de los otros géneros. El resultado en las especies del género Nerita del Caribe colombiano fue consistente con lo reportado para el género en estudios previos. En el árbol resultante del análisis de parsimonia se sobrepuso la

  16. [Effects mangrove conversion to pasture on density and shell size of two gastropods in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Caribbean coast of Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Juan F; Castaño, María C

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove deforestation is widespread in the Greater Caribbean but its impact on macrobenthos has not been evaluated to date. In order to assess the impact of mangrove conversion to pasture, densities and shell sizes of two dominant gastropods (Neritina virginea and Melampus coffeus) were compared among four mangrove types: 1) Rhizophora mangle-dominated fringing mangroves, 2) Avicennia germinans-dominated basin mangroves, 3) Mixed-species basin mangroves, and 4) A. germinans- basin mangroves converted to pastures, in the Turbo River Delta (Urabá Gulf, Colombia). Mangrove types were polygon-delimited with satellite images and color aerial photographs were taken in 2009. Various (nmangrove type were sampled in January, July and December 2009, and a total (nmangrove types. Mean density and size of both gastropod species were measured. The results showed that the mean density and size of both species were significantly greater in R. mangle-fringing mangroves. N. virginea density decreased gradually towards the A. germinans-basin mangroves seemly related to the diadromous life-history. This species nearly disappeared in the neighboring pastures because individuals were constrained to a few remaining flooded areas. In the pastures, M. coffeus individuals were clumped in the remaining A. germinans trees due to its climbing behavior as a pulmonate. We hypothesize that the decline of these two gastropods was related to physical microhabitat (e.g. trees, prop roots, and seedlings) degradation, and alteration of soil properties (e.g. temperature, pH, organic matter content). Finally, we also hypothesize that the local extinction of N. virginea due to clear-cutting may exert strong negative effects on the ecosystem function because it is a dominant omnivore.

  17. Please mind the gap – Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2016-04-26

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106–500 μm and 500–2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  18. Please mind the gap - Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, John K; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106-500 μm and 500-2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but also improve the estimates of biodiversity in coral reef benthic communities. This study lays the foundations for further studies looking at integrating traditional reef survey methodologies with complementary approaches, such as metabarcoding, which investigate other components of

  19. Rapid assessment survey for exotic benthic species in the São Sebastião Channel, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C Marques

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of biological invasions can be roughly divided into three parts: detection, monitoring, mitigation. Here, our objectives were to describe the marine fauna of the area of the port of São Sebastião (on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, in the São Sebastião Channel, SSC to detect introduced species. Descriptions of the faunal community of the SSC with respect to native and allochthonous (invasive or potentially so diversity are lacking for all invertebrate groups. Sampling was carried out by specialists within each taxonomic group, in December 2009, following the protocol of the Rapid Assessment Survey (RAS in three areas with artificial structures as substrates. A total of 142 species were identified (61 native, 15 introduced, 62 cryptogenic, 4 not classified, of which 17 were Polychaeta (12, 1, 1, 3, 24 Ascidiacea (3, 6, 15, 0, 36 Bryozoa (17, 0, 18, 1, 27 Cmdana (2, 1, 24, 0, 20 Crustacea (11, 4, 5, 0, 2 Entoprocta (native, 16 Mollusca (13, 3, 0, 0. Twelve species are new occurrences for the SSC. Among the introduced taxa, two are new for coastal Brazil. Estimates of introduced taxa are conservative as the results of molecular studies suggest that some species previously considered cryptogenic are indeed introduced. We emphasize that the large number of cryptogenic species illustrates the need for a long-term monitoring program, especially in areas most susceptible to bioinvasion. We conclude that rapid assessment studies, even in relatively well-known regions, can be very useful for the detection of introduced species and we recommend that they be carried out on a larger scale in all ports with heavy ship traffic.

  20. Coastal dunes with high content of rhodolith (coralline red algae) bioclasts: Pleistocene formations on Maio and São Nicolau in the Cape Verde archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Markes E.; Baarli, B. Gudveig; da Silva, Carlos M.; Cachão, Mário; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Mayoral, Eduardo J.; Santos, Ana

    2013-03-01

    Rhodoliths are spherical growths (coralline red algae) that contribute bioclasts to coastal dunes in the Gulf of California (Mexico) and the Canary Islands (North Atlantic). Pleistocene dunes on Maio and São Nicolau islands in the Cape Verde archipelago were studied to quantify rhodolith contribution relative to other sources. Near Pilão Cão on Maio, a transverse dune at Lomba Greija covers 0.3 km2, exposing stoss slopes that dip 8°-10° NE and leeward slip faces that dip 28°-32° SW and SE. Point counts on thin-section samples show that basalt and other non-carbonate materials account for 5%, on average, whereas fine matrix and voided space (dissolved grains) account for 67%. Among remaining identifiable bioclasts (coralline red algae, mollusks, corals, foraminifera, and echinoderms), rhodolith grains with an average diameter of 0.5 mm account for 74%. Near Carriçal at Covoadinha de Chacina on the SE coast of São Nicolau, the stoss slope dips 8° SE for 70-80 m on narrow longitudinal dunes. Point counts on a thin-section sample taken 2.5 m above basement rock, reveal that basalt and other non-carbonate materials account for 10%, on average, whereas fine matrix and voided spaces account for 60%. Among identifiable bioclasts from the remainder (coralline red algae, mollusks, echinoderms, and bryozoa), rhodolith grains ranging in size from 0.5 to 1 mm account for 96%. Potential enrichment from coralline red algae may be overlooked in coastal dunes, because content normally is described as dominated by mollusk shells, the tests from abundant foraminifera, and/or ooids.

  1. Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species

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    A. ZENETOS

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This collaborative effort by many specialists across the Mediterranean presents an updated annotated list of alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Alien species have been grouped into six broad categories namely established, casual, questionable, cryptogenic, excluded and invasive, and presented in lists of major ecofunctional/taxonomic groups. The establishment success within each group is provided while the questionable and excluded records are commented in brief. A total of 963 alien species have been reported from the Mediterranean until December 2005, 218 of which have been classified as excluded (23% leaving 745 of the recorded species as valid aliens. Of these 385 (52% are already well established, 262 (35% are casual records, while 98 species (13% remain “questionable” records. The species cited in this work belong mostly to zoobenthos and in particular to Mollusca and Crustacea, while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two groups which prevail among alien biota in the Mediterranean. The available information depends greatly on the taxonomic group examined. Thus, besides the three groups explicitly addressed in the CIESM atlas series (Fish, Decapoda/Crustacea and Mollusca, which are however updated in the present work, Polychaeta, Phytobenthos, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton are also addressed in this study. Among other zoobenthic taxa sufficiently covered in this study are Echinodermata, Sipuncula, Bryozoa and Ascidiacea. On the contrary, taxa such as Foraminifera, Amphipoda and Isopoda, that are not well studied in the Mediterranean, are insufficiently covered. A gap of knowledge is also noticed in Parasites, which, although ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, have been relatively unexplored as to their role in marine invasions. Conclusively the lack of funding purely systematic studies in the region has led to underestimation of the number of aliens in the Mediterranean. Emphasis is put on those species that are

  2. Inter-annual variation (1991-1993) of the substratum-leaf colonization dynamics for aquatic fauna in different habitats of the lake of the hydroelectric of Balbina, Amazon Central, Brazil; Variacao interanual (1991-1993) da dinamica de colonizacao de substrato-folha por fauna aquatica, em diferentes habitats do lago da Hidreletrica de Balbina, Amazonia Central, Amazonas- Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela-Pena, Gladys

    1996-07-01

    Experiments on fauna colonization of submersed vegetal substrate in different depths of water column were done to evaluate the benthic community structure in three habitats of the Balbina hydroelectric dam in 1991, 1992 and 1993. In these experiments substrate exposition periods of up to 60 and 75 days were done. The fauna associated to the standard substrate (Mabea caudata) belonged to seven phyla: Arthropoda, Coelenterata, Nematoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Mollusca an Chordata. The most abundant and frequent families, during the studied period, were Naididae (Tubificida), Chydoridae (Cladocera) and Cenestheridae (Conchostraca), suggesting the persistence of these groups. In general, the pattern of colonization indicates some tendency to increase gradually with time of exposition of the substrate in the environment. Probably, the discontinuity of the tendencies is associated with the insects mobility and emergence. The initial colonization always was higher and quicker in the margin habitat, which indicates that the source of organisms is this habitat. This is due to better conditions of the environment such as availability of food and protection, associated with the submerged vegetation and wood. The community mean density during this study was 7, 312 ind/m{sup 2}. The density, the species richness index, and the diversity were correlated with abiotic variables such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, habitat and depth. Also, the density was correlated with total carbon and ammonium. Species richness was correlated with total carbon, ammonium and water color. The density, diversity and species richness were proportionally inverse to depth of the habitats and total absence of organisms ago 10 meter of depth, different from what is found in bottom of natural environments. This fact was attributed to the high concentration of nutrients, such as ammonium and dissolved iron, to the existence of toxic gases such a sulphide, and to the conditions of hypoxia in the deep

  3. Broad Phylogenetic Occurrence of the Oxygen-Binding Hemerythrins in Bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Paiva, Elisa M; Schrago, Carlos G; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2017-10-01

    Animal tissues need to be properly oxygenated for carrying out catabolic respiration and, as such, natural selection has presumably favored special molecules that can reversibly bind and transport oxygen. Hemoglobins, hemocyanins, and hemerythrins (Hrs) fulfill this role, with Hrs being the least studied. Knowledge of oxygen-binding proteins is crucial for understanding animal physiology. Hr genes are present in the three domains of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota; however, within Animalia, Hrs has been reported only in marine species in six phyla (Annelida, Brachiopoda, Priapulida, Bryozoa, Cnidaria, and Arthropoda). Given this observed Hr distribution, whether all metazoan Hrs share a common origin is circumspect. We investigated Hr diversity and evolution in metazoans, by employing in silico approaches to survey for Hrs from of 120 metazoan transcriptomes and genomes. We found 58 candidate Hr genes actively transcribed in 36 species distributed in 11 animal phyla, with new records in Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Nemertea, Phoronida, and Platyhelminthes. Moreover, we found that "Hrs" reported from Cnidaria and Arthropoda were not consistent with that of other metazoan Hrs. Contrary to previous suggestions that Hr genes were absent in deuterostomes, we find Hr genes present in deuterostomes and were likely present in early bilaterians, but not in nonbilaterian animal lineages. As expected, the Hr gene tree did not mirror metazoan phylogeny, suggesting that Hrs evolutionary history was complex and besides the oxygen carrying capacity, the drivers of Hr evolution may also consist of secondary functional specializations of the proteins, like immunological functions. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Diversity of hard-bottom fauna relative to environmental gradients in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

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    Andrey Voronkov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A baseline study of hard-bottom zoobenthos in relation to environmental gradients in Kongsfjorden, a glacial fjord in Svalbard, is presented, based on collections from 1996 to 1998. The total species richness in 62 samples from 0 to 30 m depth along five transects was 403 species. Because 32 taxa could not be identified to species level and because 11 species are probably new to science, the total number of identified species was 360. Of these, 47 species are new for Svalbard waters. Bryozoa was the most diverse group. Biogeographic composition revealed features of both Arctic and sub-Arctic properties of the fauna. Species richness, frequency of species occurrence, mean abundance and biomass generally decreased towards the tidal glaciers in inner Kongsfjorden. Among eight environmental factors, depth was most important for explaining variance in the composition of the zoobenthos. The diversity was consistently low at shallow depths, whereas the non-linear patterns of species composition of deeper samples indicated a transitional zone between surface and deeper water masses at 15–20 m depth. Groups of “colonial” and “non-colonial” species differed in diversity, biogeographic composition and distribution by location and depth as well as in relation to other environmental factors. “Non-colonial” species made a greater contribution than “colonial” species to total species richness, total occurrence and biomass in samples, and were more influenced by the depth gradient. Biogeographic composition was sensitive to variation of zoobenthic characteristics over the studied depth range. A list of recorded species and a description of sampling sites are presented.

  5. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'ONGHIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  6. Mississippian clastic-to-carbonate transition in the northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska: Depositional cycles of the Endicott and Lisburne Groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepain, D.L.; Crowden, R.K.; Watts, K.F. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The Ellesmerian sequence in northeastern Alaska consists of a thick succession of Mississippian to Lower Cretaceous platform carbonate and terrigenous clastic rocks. At the base of the Ellesmerian sequence, clastic rocks of the Endicott Group are the lower part of a major transgressive sequence that passes gradationally upward into carbonates of the Lisburne Group. In the Endicott Group, the basal Kekiktuk Conglomerate was deposited in fluvial and marginal marine environments. A broad suite of tidally influenced, shallow-marine environments are recorded in the overlying Kayak Shale. The transition into carbonate platform rocks of the Lisburne Group is recorded in a series of depositional cycles developed within the upper half of the Kayak Shale. In the lower beds of the transition, the depositional cycles are multiple upward-thickening and upward-coarsening successions composed of (1) organic-rich siltstone containing flaser-bedded and lenticular-bedded fine-grained sandstone, (2) fine-grained, ripple-laminated quartzarenite, and (3) an intensely bioturbated horizon of medium- to coarse-grained quartzarenite that contains scattered brachiopods, bryozoa, and crinoids. Each cycle is terminated by a sharp transgressive surface that consists of a thin shale drape. Near the top of the Kayak Shale, the coarse-grained horizons become increasingly replaced by wackestone, grainstone, and coralline boundstone. Despite the lithologic change, the vertical upward-thickening and upward-coarsening cycles continue in the basal limestone of the Lisburne Group. Repeated upward-shallowing episodes, followed by coastal onlap, are likely mechanisms for this cyclicity and suggests a genetic relation between both the clastic and carbonate depositional cycles.

  7. A budget of marine and terrigenous sediments, Hanalei Bay, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, R.S.; Fletcher, C.H.; Harney, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    The sediment budget of Hanalei Bay on the north shore of Kauai was calculated using sedimentological and geophysical methods. The calculations of the budget subsequently allowed an interpretation of the Holocene history of the bay. The bay sediments are easily separated into marine (carbonate) and terrigenous (siliciclastic) grains. Surficial sediments are dominated by carbonate grains ( ??? 70%) of coralline algae, coral, and mollusc fragments as well as foraminifera, Halimeda, bryozoa, and echinoderm tests. However, siliciclastic grains (e.g. olivine, plagioclase, volcanic lithics) from the Hanalei River watershed draining shield volcanic highlands are the most common individual grain type ( ??? 27%) and form a zone of high concentration from the mouth of the Hanalei River into the center of the bay. Flooding in the bay by the post-glacial sea-level rise began soon after 11.7 kyears. The resulting marine environment caused the net deposition of 45.5 ?? 1.5 ?? 106 m3 of sediment in the bay and approximately 33.7 ?? 11.2 ?? 106 m3 of sediment on the Hanalei coastal plain. The total volume of carbonate sediment stored in the bay and coastal plain is greater than the volume likely to have been produced exclusively within the bay during the same time. Calculations indicate that approximately 2490 m3 year-1 have been imported into the bay or coastal plain and deposited since 11,700 years ago. The majority of this sediment influx is likely delivered from the east by the strong tradewind-driven littoral currents that characterize Kauai's north shore. Net carbonate sediment deposition in Hanalei Bay peaked at a rate of 15,500 m3 year-1 between 5000 and 3000 years ago (when sea level may have been 2 m above present) diminishing to 3890 m3 year-1 from 1000 years ago to the present. This influx is likely to have played a significant role in the mid to late Holocene progradation of the Hanalei shoreline. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Local Ecological Knowledge Indicates Temporal Trends of Benthic Invertebrates Species of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Bastari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Adriatic Sea, shifts in benthic community structure have been attributed to multiple stressors, from the effects of climate change to the impacts of commercial fishing. Some fishing practices, such as bottom trawling, have caused a widespread decline in exploited fish stocks. Bottom trawling is also expected to have negative impacts on benthic habitats, usually structured by and hosting a large array of invertebrate species, which provide important ecological services to fish and commercial invertebrate stocks. However, in contrast to commercial species for which long-term time series of the abundance exist, data on these habitat-forming invertebrates are scarce, as they are usually caught as bycatch and discarded. Therefore, there is great uncertainty about their long-term trends, and if these populations are stable or declining. Here we used interview surveys conducted with bottom-trawling fishers of the central Adriatic Sea to gather local ecological knowledge on megabenthos abundance occurring in their fishing domain, as an alternative source of information to conventional fisheries data. We interviewed 44 fishers, from the most important ports of the Marche region of Italy, to understand how megabenthic species have changed in abundance within the area since the 1980s. Specifically, we asked fishers to provide qualitative abundance scores for 18 invertebrate species in five phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Bryozoa, Mollusca, and Echinodermata based on their recollection of these species' presence in bycatch. We stratified responses in homogeneous temporal periods and geographic sectors of the study area, and analyzed their response with mixed effect ordered logistic regression models in order to evaluate spatiotemporal changes in the perceived abundance of each species. Our analysis suggests that the abundance of the sponge Geodia cydonium, the molluscs Pecten jacobaeus, Atrina fragilis, Neopycnodonte cochlear, and the group of

  9. Diversity and Activity of Communities Inhabiting Plastic Debris in the North Pacific Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jessica A.; Clemente, Tara M.; Viviani, Donn A.; Fong, Allison A.; Thomas, Kimberley A.; Kemp, Paul; Karl, David M.; White, Angelicque E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Marine plastic debris has become a significant concern in ocean ecosystems worldwide. Little is known, however, about its influence on microbial community structure and function. In 2008, we surveyed microbial communities and metabolic activities in seawater and on plastic on an oceanographic expedition through the “great Pacific garbage patch.” The concentration of plastic particles in surface seawater within different size classes (2 to 5 mm and >5 mm) ranged from 0.35 to 3.7 particles m−3 across sampling stations. These densities and the particle size distribution were consistent with previous values reported in the North Pacific Ocean. Net community oxygen production (NCP = gross primary production − community respiration) on plastic debris was positive and so net autotrophic, whereas NCP in bulk seawater was close to zero. Scanning electron microscopy and metagenomic sequencing of plastic-attached communities revealed the dominance of a few metazoan taxa and a diverse assemblage of photoautotrophic and heterotrophic protists and bacteria. Bryozoa, Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated all plastic particles, regardless of particle size. Bacteria inhabiting plastic were taxonomically distinct from the surrounding picoplankton and appeared well adapted to a surface-associated lifestyle. Genes with significantly higher abundances among plastic-attached bacteria included che genes, secretion system genes, and nifH genes, suggesting enrichment for chemotaxis, frequent cell-to-cell interactions, and nitrogen fixation. In aggregate, our findings suggest that plastic debris forms a habitat for complex microbial assemblages that have lifestyles, metabolic pathways, and biogeochemical activities that are distinct from those of free-living planktonic microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Marine plastic debris is a growing concern that has captured the general public’s attention. While the negative impacts of plastic debris on

  10. Phylogenomics of Lophotrochozoa with Consideration of Systematic Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocot, Kevin M; Struck, Torsten H; Merkel, Julia; Waits, Damien S; Todt, Christiane; Brannock, Pamela M; Weese, David A; Cannon, Johanna T; Moroz, Leonid L; Lieb, Bernhard; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2017-03-01

    . Moreover, our systematic approach for dissection of phylogenomic data can be applied to explore sources of incongruence and poor support in any phylogenomic data set. [Annelida; Brachiopoda; Bryozoa; Entoprocta; Mollusca; Nemertea; Phoronida; Platyzoa; Polyzoa; Spiralia; Trochozoa.]. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

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    Dennis P Gordon

    Full Text Available The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2, is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010, including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied

  12. Pumice rafting and faunal dispersion during 2001 2002 in the Southwest Pacific: record of a dacitic submarine explosive eruption from Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, S. E.; Cook, A.; Evans, J. P.; Colls, P. W.; Wells, M. G.; Lawrence, M. G.; Jell, J. S.; Greig, A.; Leslie, R.

    2004-10-01

    small-volume eruption, such as observed here, and the geological implications for the transport of sessile taxa over large distances are significant. An avenue for future research is to examine whether speciation events and volcanicity are linked; the periodic development of globalism for some taxa (e.g., corals, gastropods, bryozoa) may correlate in time and/or space with voluminous silicic igneous events capable of producing >10 6 km 3 of silicic pumice-rich pyroclastic material and emplaced into ocean basins.

  13. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Oligocene-Miocene deposits of the Tethyan Seaway, Qom Formation, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaghi Sadr, Fatemeh; Schmiedl, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    The Cenozoic climate transition from greenhouse to icehouse conditions was associated with major paleogeographic changes in the Tethyan realm. The closure of the Tethyan Seaway and its Iranian gateways during the terminal Paleogene and early Neogene, between approximately 28 and 18 million years, influenced the latitudinal exchange of water masses and energy and is documented in sediment successions of the Qom formation in central Iran. Little is known on the spatial expression and the exact depositional histories of the Qom Formation on orbital time-scales, including a lack of quantitative sea-level reconstructions and studies on the impact of climatic and tectonic changes on marine ecosystems and sedimentation processes. The PhD project focuses on the investigation of lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, paleoecology and paleoenvironmental evolution of the Iranian gateways based on late Oligocene to early Miocene foraminiferal faunas and carbonate facies from selected sediment sections of the Qom Basin. The Qom Formation was deposited in the Central Iranian back-arc basin during the Oligocene-Miocene. In this study foraminiferal faunas and carbonate microfacies were studied based on total 191 samples of two section of Qom Formation. One of them is Molkabad section, which is located northwest of Molkabad mountains, southeast of Garmsar. The section mainly consists of limestones, calcareous marls, marls, and gypsum-bearing marls with a total thickness of 760 meters. The Qom Formation at Molkabad section overlies Eocene rocks with an unconformity and consists of the following lithostratigraphic units (from the lower to upper part): Lithothamnium Limestone, Lower Marl Limestone, Bryozoa Limestone, and Upper Marl Group. The Molkabad fault separates the Qom Formation from the overlying Upper Red Formation. The other section is located at Navab anticline in Qom Formation .The section mainly consist of limestone, marl, and gypsum with a total thickness of 318 meters Navab

  14. Marine biodiversity of Aotearoa New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dennis P; Beaumont, Jennifer; MacDiarmid, Alison; Robertson, Donald A; Ahyong, Shane T

    2010-08-02

    The marine-biodiversity assessment of New Zealand (Aotearoa as known to Māori) is confined to the 200 nautical-mile boundary of the Exclusive Economic Zone, which, at 4.2 million km(2), is one of the largest in the world. It spans 30 degrees of latitude and includes a high diversity of seafloor relief, including a trench 10 km deep. Much of this region remains unexplored biologically, especially the 50% of the EEZ deeper than 2,000 m. Knowledge of the marine biota is based on more than 200 years of marine exploration in the region. The major oceanographic data repository is the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), which is involved in several Census of Marine Life field projects and is the location of the Southwestern Pacific Regional OBIS Node; NIWA is also data manager and custodian for fisheries research data owned by the Ministry of Fisheries. Related data sources cover alien species, environmental measures, and historical information. Museum collections in New Zealand hold more than 800,000 registered lots representing several million specimens. During the past decade, 220 taxonomic specialists (85 marine) from 18 countries have been engaged in a project to review New Zealand's entire biodiversity. The above-mentioned marine information sources, published literature, and reports were scrutinized to give the results summarized here for the first time (current to 2010), including data on endemism and invasive species. There are 17,135 living species in the EEZ. This diversity includes 4,315 known undescribed species in collections. Species diversity for the most intensively studied phylum-level taxa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa, Kinorhyncha, Echinodermata, Chordata) is more or less equivalent to that in the ERMS (European Register of Marine Species) region, which is 5.5 times larger in area than the New Zealand EEZ. The implication is that, when all other New Zealand phyla are equally well studied, total marine

  15. River-Borne Sediment Exports, Sedimentation Rates, and Influence on Benthos and Leaflitter Breakdown in Southern Caribbean Mangroves (uraba, Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J. F.; Taborda, A.; Arroyave, A.

    2011-12-01

    Deposition of river-borne sediments is a major issue in coastal ecosystems worldwide, but no study has been conducted in Neotropical mangroves. Mangroves in the Urabá Gulf (Southern Caribbean coast of Colombia) receive one of the highest sediment loads (crop district. Annual sedimentation rates were computed based in monthly samplings (2009-2010) in mangrove fringes across the Turbo River Delta using bottom-fixed 1L-cylinders (n=15). A significant spatial variation (0.04-0.9 ton m-2 yr-1) was observed among sampling stations within the delta, but the highest trapping occurred on river's main channel (2.54 ton m-2 yr-1). Temporal variation was smaller than spatial variation. Monitoring (twenty 1-m2 quadrats x 3 sites x 12 months) of a dominant mangrove-floor gastropod (Neritina virginea) observed a positive increase of density (4-125 ind. m-2: One-way ANOVA: p<0.001) along a sedimentation gradient (monthly means for low and high sedimentation sites: 3-69 kg m-2 yr-1). The role of N. virginea on leaflitter breakdown relative to sedimentation level was experimentally tested in a black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) stand by using 180 wire-mesh cages (15 x 15 x 25 cm) placed on the forest floor as experimental units, to prevent snail and crab access. After clearing existing snails and litter from the muddy bottom, each cage was placed and 1 senescent leaf of A. germinans and 7 snails were introduced (previously weighed) (snail abundance was similar to background densities). Three levels of area-weighed sedimentation rates (1, 3 and 18 g per cage) were daily added to test the impacts of the field-observed sedimentation gradient. The experiment was carried out during one month. Fresh leaf mass was different among treatments during the first week, increasing in proportion to the sedimentation rate probably due to leaf soaking. However, there was no difference in fresh leaf weight loss (average: 67%) among sediment levels after one month. Fresh weight loss (range: 81

  16. Composite biostratigraphy and microfacies analysis of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous carbonate platform to slope successions in Sivrihisar (Eskişehir) region (NW Turkey, Pontides): Remarks on the palaeogeographic evolution of the Western Sakarya Zo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Serdar G.; Altıner, Demir; Okay, Aral I.

    2017-04-01

    , microencrusters, worm tubes, bivalve, crinoid and echinoid fragments). These deposits represent the background pelagic deposition on the slope. The slope facies are mainly composed of bioclastic-peloidal/ bioclastic-intraclastic packstone, rudstone-grainstone, bioclastic-lithoclastic floatstone-rudstone and reflect generally the increase in the amount of platform derived material (benthic foraminifera, microencrusters, worm tubes, corals, sponges, bryozoa). The matrix of these coarse grained deposits also contains pelagic taxa (calpionellids, radiolaria, Saccocoma sp., Globochaete sp., Pithonella sp., aptyhci). The slope facies are sometimes intercalataed with the toe-of-slope type facies indicating quiescence periods. The shallow marine carbonate platform deposits are characterized by peloidal-intraclastic poorly washed grainstone with bioclasts, bioclastic mudstone-wackestone, intraclastic packstone-rudstone and contain several shallow marine fossils (benthic foraminifera, encrustres and rare echnoid, bivalve and coral fragments) without any pelagic taxa. These carbonates are interpreted as back-reef platform deposits that should not be far away from the platform margin due to the co-occurence of Protopeneroplis striata and Mohlerina basiliensis, abundant in the shelf edge and reefal areas with the complex benthic foraminifera, Labyrinthina mirabilis common in lagoonal areas. If the position of the studied sections with respect to the EBBCP is considered, the studied basin and slope facies should represent the southern platform margin and slope environments of this carbonate platform that faced an ocean to the south during the Jurassic-Cretaceous. The slope and basinal facies overthrusted by the shallow marine deposits in a region situated to the south of the main İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan (İAE) suture suggests an important disruption and shortening of the EBBCP margin and slope deposits related to the closure of the İAE ocean.

  17. Matrotrophy and placentation in invertebrates: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Lidgard, Scott; Gordon, Dennis P; Schwaha, Thomas; Genikhovich, Grigory; Ereskovsky, Alexander V

    2016-08-01

    Matrotrophy, the continuous extra-vitelline supply of nutrients from the parent to the progeny during gestation, is one of the masterpieces of nature, contributing to offspring fitness and often correlated with evolutionary diversification. The most elaborate form of matrotrophy-placentotrophy-is well known for its broad occurrence among vertebrates, but the comparative distribution and structural diversity of matrotrophic expression among invertebrates is wanting. In the first comprehensive analysis of matrotrophy across the animal kingdom, we report that regardless of the degree of expression, it is established or inferred in at least 21 of 34 animal phyla, significantly exceeding previous accounts and changing the old paradigm that these phenomena are infrequent among invertebrates. In 10 phyla, matrotrophy is represented by only one or a few species, whereas in 11 it is either not uncommon or widespread and even pervasive. Among invertebrate phyla, Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda and Bryozoa dominate, with 162, 83 and 53 partly or wholly matrotrophic families, respectively. In comparison, Chordata has more than 220 families that include or consist entirely of matrotrophic species. We analysed the distribution of reproductive patterns among and within invertebrate phyla using recently published molecular phylogenies: matrotrophy has seemingly evolved at least 140 times in all major superclades: Parazoa and Eumetazoa, Radiata and Bilateria, Protostomia and Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. In Cycliophora and some Digenea, it may have evolved twice in the same life cycle. The provisioning of developing young is associated with almost all known types of incubation chambers, with matrotrophic viviparity more widespread (20 phyla) than brooding (10 phyla). In nine phyla, both matrotrophic incubation types are present. Matrotrophy is expressed in five nutritive modes, of which histotrophy and placentotrophy are most prevalent. Oophagy, embryophagy and

  18. Nearly complete rRNA genes from 371 Animalia: updated structure-based alignment and detailed phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallatt, Jon; Craig, Catherine Waggoner; Yoder, Matthew J

    2012-09-01

    divergent cephalopod and urochordate sequences out of those clades. Unlikely to be correct, these refutations show for the first time that rRNA phylogeny can support some 'wrong' clades. Along with its weaknesses, the rRNA tree has strengths: It recovers many clades that are supported by independent evidence (e.g., Metazoa, Bilateria, Hexapoda, Nonoculata, Ambulacraria, Syndermata, and Thecostraca with Malacostraca) and shows good resolution within certain groups (e.g., in Platyhelminthes, Insecta, Cnidaria). As another strength, the newly added rRNA sequences yielded the first rRNA-based support for Carnivora and Cetartiodactyla (dolphin+llama) in Mammalia, for basic subdivisions of Bryozoa ('Gymnolaemata+Stenolaemata' versus Phylactolaemata), and for Oligostraca (ostracods+branchiurans+pentastomids+mystacocarids). Future improvement could come from better sequence-evolution models that account for base-compositional heterogeneity, and from combining rRNA with protein-coding genes in phylogenetic reconstruction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Surface-Water Diversion and Ground-Water Withdrawal on Streamflow and Habitat, Punaluu Stream, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Wolff, Reuben H.; Perreault, Jeff A.

    2006-01-01

    developed for streams in northeast Maui, Hawaii, were used to determine the effects of incremental changes in streamflow on physical habitat, in terms of weighted usable area (WUA) in Punaluu Stream. The effects of different diversion conditions on WUA for Neritina granosa and Awaous guamensis were evaluated by determining the average number of days per year for which WUA values are less than a specified reference value (during periods when discharge is less than or equal to the median natural discharge). For recent diverted conditions (1995-2004), the average number of days per year that WUA values are less than 50 or 75 percent of the WUA value at median natural discharge generally (1) decreases in a downstream direction, reflecting the effects of tributary inflows and ditch return flows, (2) is less than the corresponding number of days for constant diversion rates greater than about 4-5 cubic feet per second at a stream altitude of 10 feet, and (3) is greater than the corresponding number of days for a constant diversion rate of 10 cubic feet per second at stream altitudes of 40, 100, and 140 feet. The number of days that WUA values are less than 75 percent of the WUA value at median natural discharge generally increases substantially for constant diversion rates exceeding about 4-5 cubic feet per second. At stream altitudes of 10, 40, 100, and 200 feet and for constant diversion rates of up to 4 cubic feet per second, WUA values are less than 75 percent of the WUA value at median natural discharge for fewer than 13 days per year. At stream altitudes above 40 feet and for a constant diversion rate of 10 cubic feet per second, WUA values are less than 75 percent of the WUA value at median natural discharge for 131 to 183 days per year. Stream temperature is a factor that potentially could affect the abundance and distribution of native aquatic species. Measured stream temperatures immediately upstream and downstream from the diversion intake did not indicat

  20. Climate, vegetation and lake development at Sokli (northern Finland) during early MIS 3 at approx50 kyr: Revising earlier concepts on climate, glacial and vegetation dynamics in Fennoscandia during the Weichselian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmens, Karin F. (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-08-15

    Long sediment records that register environmental changes in formerly glaciated regions such as Fennoscandia in the period preceding the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) at approx 20 kyr are rare. The Weichselian history of Fennoscandia is based on the long-distance correlation of poorly dated stratigraphic fragmentary evidence and studies on glacial geomorphology. Environmental conditions during ice-free intervals have been mostly reconstructed based on low resolution palynological analysis only. Here we present the results of a detailed study of a for Fennoscandia unusually long and continuous sediment sequence that has been recovered from the Sokli basin in northern Finland. The Sokli sequence consists of tills, glacio-fluvial beds, and fluvial beds, interlayered with fossil-rich lacustrine sediments that according to multiple accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) 14C and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) datings extend from the present into the Penultimate Glacial representing the last approx130 kyr. This report focuses on the youngest Weichselian interstadial interval with ice-free conditions at Sokli dated to approx50 kyr in the early part of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. A comprehensive environmental reconstruction is made based on multi-proxy analysis on a two meter thick laminated, lacustrine clay-silt sequence, including lithological characteristics; organic content (loss-on-ignition, LOI); plant microfossils (pollen, spores, algal and fungal remains); macrofossils of plants (e.g. seeds, moss remains) and of aquatic animals (e.g. statoblasts of Bryozoa); head-capsules of chironomids (i.e. aquatic insects); and diatoms and other siliceous microfossils (e.g. phytolits, chrysophyte stomatocysts). Additionally, geomorphic evidence and analysis of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data are employed in the environmental reconstruction. Mean July temperatures are reconstructed by applying transfer functions to the pollen, chironomid and diatom records. The results