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Sample records for bugs hemiptera cimicidae

  1. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  2. Knockdown and lethal effects of eight commercial nonconventional and two pyrethroid insecticides against moderately permethrin-resistant adult bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is undergoing a rapid resurgence in the United States during the last decade which has created a notable pest management challenge largely because the pest has developed resistance against DDT, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyreth...

  3. Fumigation of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): effective application rates for sulfuryl fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas W; Aikins, Michael J; Thoms, Ellen; Demark, Joe; Wang, Changlu

    2014-08-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has resurged recently as a domestic pest in North America with very limited options for decisive control. We report efficacy studies with sulfuryl fluoride (SF) toward use as a structural fumigant to control bed bugs. Laboratory studies were conducted in which eggs, adults, and nymphs from a pesticide susceptible laboratory population were fumigated for 24 h using SF at 99.8% purity in airtight, 3.8-liter glass containers under two temperatures, 25 degrees C and 15 degrees C. Bed bugs were placed in separate ventilated glass vials and wrapped in mattress padding before fumigation. The gas concentration within each jar was determined using quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dose-response trials using eggs of known age (48-96 h) were conducted at five or six target concentrations measured as concentration x time accumulated dosages (g-h/m3) and one untreated control at each temperature. Each target dose was replicated in four different fumigation containers (replicates), with at least 32 eggs per replicate. The number of hatched and unhatched eggs postfumigation, and number of live and dead nymphs that resulted from hatched eggs, were evaluated daily for at least 1 wk after egg hatch. The lethal accumulated dosage (LAD99) for bed bug eggs was 69.1 (95% fiducial limits [FLs] of 62.9-79.5) g-h/m3 at 25 degrees C and 149.3 (95% FLs of 134.4-177.9) g-h/m3 at 15 degrees C. Confirmatory trials with dosages of 1.5x the LAD99 were conducted at 25 degrees C and 1.5x the threshold mortality dose at 15 degrees C with at least 15 adults, 13 late-instar nymphs and 79 eggs of known age per replicate. At 25 degrees C, a target dosage of 103.7 g-h/m3 resulted in 100% mortality of adults and late-instar nymphs. Nymphs emerged and survived from two of 439 eggs treated with SF dosages that were 6-7 g-h/m3 less than the target dosage. No nymphs emerged from eggs fumigated with dosages > 97.9 g-h/m3 in the

  4. Alarm pheromones and chemical communication in nymphs of the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Christoph Liedtke

    Full Text Available The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little is known about the chemical signalling and pheromone-based behaviour of the tropical species. Here, we show that the antennal morphology and volatile emission of C. hemipterus closely resembles those of C. lectularius and we test their behavioural responses to conspecific odour emissions. Two major volatiles are emitted by male, female and nymph C. hemipterus under stress, (E-2-hexenal and (E-2-octenal. Notably, nymph emissions show contrasting ratios of these compounds to adults and are further characterized by the addition of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal. The discovery of this nymph pheromone in C. hemipterus is potentially the cause of a repellent effect observed in the bio-tests, where nymph odours induce a significantly stronger repellent reaction in conspecifics than adult odours. Our results suggest that pheromone-based pest control methods developed for C. lectularius could be applicable to C. hemipterus, with the unique nymph blend showing promising practical properties.

  5. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

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    Zachary C. DeVries

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a “per-bug” basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 − 0.692 ng·bug−1] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 − 0.724 ng·bug−1] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 − 0.386 ng·bug−1]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 − 0.176 ng·mg−1], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 − 0.134 ng·mg−1], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019–0.102 ng·mg−1]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs.

  6. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brittany E Campbell; Dini M Miller

    2015-01-01

      Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain...

  7. High Levels of Resistance in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), to Neonicotinoid Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alvaro; Anderson, Troy D

    2016-05-01

    The rapid increase of bed bug populations resistant to pyrethroids demands the development of novel control tactics. Products combining pyrethroids and neonicotinoids have become very popular for bed bug control in the United States, but there are concerns about evolution of resistance to these compounds. Laboratory assays were used to measure the toxicity of topical applications of four neonicotinoids to a susceptible population and three pyrethroid-resistant populations. Activity of esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and cytochrome P450s of all strains was also evaluated. High levels of resistance to four neonicotinoids, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam, relative to the susceptible Fort Dix population, were detected in populations collected from human dwellings in Cincinnati and Michigan. Because activity of detoxifying enzymes was increased in these two populations, our results suggest that these enzymes have some involvement in neonicotinoid resistance, but other resistance mechanisms might be involved as well. Detection of high levels of resistance to neonicotinoids further limits the options for chemical control of bed bugs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin. The lethal concentration (LC50 for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development.

  9. Horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.; hemiptera: cimicidae.

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    Yasmin Akhtar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. This phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. Since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: To demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in C. lectularius, an exposed (donor bed bug, following a 10-minute acquisition period, was placed with unexposed (recipient bed bugs. Mortality data clearly demonstrates that diatomaceous earth (DE 51 was actively transferred from a single exposed bug to unexposed bugs in a concentration dependent manner. LC50 values varied from 24.4 mg at 48 h to 5.1 mg at 216 h when a single exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs. LT50 values also exhibited a concentration response. LT50 values varied from 1.8 days to 8.4 days when a 'donor' bug exposed to 20 and 5 mg of dust respectively was placed with 5 'recipient' bugs. Dust was also actively transferred from adult bed bugs to the nymphs. In addition we observed horizontal transfer of botanical insecticides including neem, ryania, and rotenone to varying degrees. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data clearly demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, C. lectularius. Use of a fluorescent dust provided visual confirmation that contaminated bed bugs transfer dust to untreated bed bugs in harborage. This result is important because bedbugs live in hard-to-reach places and interaction between conspecifics can be exploited for delivery and dissemination of management products directed at this public health pest.

  10. Toxicity of selected essential oils, silicone oils, and paraffino oil against the common bed bug, cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) resurged in the U.S. and many other countries over the past decade. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous “green pesticides”, mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic ...

  11. Laboratory efficacy of mycoparasitic fungi (Aspergillus tubingensis and Trichoderma harzianum against tropical bed bugs (Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

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    Zulaikha Zahran

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Approaches to the bed bugs treatment should be explored in-depth using a natural biological agent like fungus especially A. tubingensis to reduce this pest population, in order to replace chemical methods.

  12. No Detectable Insecticide Resistance in Swallow Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Following Long-Term Exposure to Naled (Dibrom 8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runjaic, Jelena; Bellovich, Ian J; Page, Catherine E; Brown, Charles R; Booth, Warren

    2017-07-01

    The swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath, is a hematophagous ectoparasite of the cliff swallow, Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Vieillot, and is closely related to bed bugs (Cimex spp.). Evolution of insecticide resistance has been documented for bed bugs but not studied in Oeciacus. For periods of 17 and 32 yr, two cliff swallow colonies in western Nebraska were treated during the summer breeding season using the organophosphate insecticide Dibrom. Despite continual treatments, O. vicarius has been observed frequently within these colonies. We evaluated the efficacy of Dibrom 8 on O. vicarius during the 2016 season at two treated colonies and four that had never experienced treatment. Dibrom 8 was found to be effective in 100% of trials, with immobilization within minutes and death within 72 h, for individuals from all colonies. In control treatments (water), individuals collected from treated colonies exhibited greater survival than individuals from untreated colonies, and those from active colonies (bugs fed) had greater survival than those from inactive colonies (bugs unfed). A residual effect was observed in both lab and field trials: 100% mortality occurred in the lab after exposure to filter paper substrates treated both 5 and 10 d earlier, and in the field, nests treated once early in the season had O. vicarius counts 43 d later that were <1% of those from untreated nests within the same colony. We hypothesize that the lack of resistance results from the limited potential for resistance allele fixation due to outbreeding and frequent immigration of insecticide-naïve individuals. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Detection of Reduced Susceptibility to Chlorfenapyr- and Bifenthrin-Containing Products in Field Populations of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Aaron R; Scharf, Michael E; Bennett, Gary W; Gondhalekar, Ameya D

    2017-06-01

    Insecticide resistance is a major impediment for effective control of Cimex lectularius L. Previous resistance detection studies with bed bugs have focused on certain pyrethroid, neonicotinoid, organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbamate insecticides. Within the pyrethroid class, resistance studies have mostly been limited to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and alpha- and beta-cyfluthrin. The goal of this study was to develop diagnostic concentration bioassays for assessing bed bug susceptibility levels to chlorfenapyr- and bifenthrin-containing products. First, glass vial and filter paper bioassay methods were compared for their utility in susceptibility monitoring. Statistical comparison of toxicity data between bioassays indicated that the vial assay was less confounded by assay susbtrate effects, required less insecticide, and was faster, especially for chlorfenapyr. Next, using vial diagnostic concentrations (LC99) for each insecticide, 10 laboratory-adapted field strains and the Harlan lab-susceptible strain were screened for susceptibility to chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin. The results of this study reveal recent bed bug susceptibility levels to certain chlorfenapyr- and bifenthrin-containing products. Reduced susceptibility was detected in three and five field strains to chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin, respectively. Detection of reduced susceptibility suggests that certain strains may be segregating toward greater chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin resistance. These results merit continuous resistance monitoring efforts to detect chlorfenapyr and bifenthrin susceptibility shifts. Additionally, to reduce insecticide selection pressures and delay resistance development, adoption of integrated bed bug control strategies that combine chemical and nonchemical methods is recommended. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A survey on the infestation levels of tropical bed bugs in Peninsular Malaysia: Current updates and status on resurgence of Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zahran Zulaikha; Ab Majid Abdul Hafiz; Abd Rahim Abd Hafis; Ahmad Abu Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey current bed bugs infestation status in 11 states and federal territory in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: Targeted sampling in the urban areas was performed and the sites in each state were selected based on foreign workers’ abundance and reports from pest control professionals in Malaysia. The collected bed bugs were classified into different strains obtained at the respective sites. Results: Out of all 185 surveyed sites, approximately 38 of them have be...

  15. Relatively Small Quantities of CO2, Ammonium Bicarbonate, and a Blend of (E)-2-Hexenal Plus (E)-2-Octenal Attract Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John F; Ferrandino, Francis J; Vasil, Michael P; Bedoukian, Robert H; Maher, Marie; Mckenzie, Karen

    2017-03-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., feed on humans, have increased exponentially in the past two decades in many major cities throughout the world, have caused intense infestations, and have become a significant health concern. Improved traps are needed to detect early infestations, to assess control programs, and for control of bed bugs. Carbon dioxide released alone or simultaneously with other attractants into three types of traps at the relatively low rate of 1 ml/min caught significantly more bed bugs than untreated controls in a 183- by 183-cm arena. This finding may enable CO2 to be used more economically in traps. Three percent ammonium bicarbonate released at a rate of ≤0.03 ml/h also caught significantly more bed bugs than untreated controls. A blend of (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal at concentrations of 0.025% or 0.1% each and released at 0.02 ml/h attracted significantly more bed bugs than untreated controls. These findings ought to improve detection of bed bugs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A survey on the infestation levels of tropical bed bugs in Peninsular Malaysia: Current updates and status on resurgence of Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahran Zulaikha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey current bed bugs infestation status in 11 states and federal territory in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: Targeted sampling in the urban areas was performed and the sites in each state were selected based on foreign workers’ abundance and reports from pest control professionals in Malaysia. The collected bed bugs were classified into different strains obtained at the respective sites. Results: Out of all 185 surveyed sites, approximately 38 of them have been actively infested with one species, Cimex hemipterus (F.. A high number of collected bed bugs were found in the states of Perak (24.8%, Selangor (21.0% and Kedah (16.1%. In terms of preferred harborages, bedding, crevices in walls and floors and cushion seats were common locations with 49.2% infestation. Bed bugs were dominantly found in dormitories of foreign workers (51.6% compared to residential houses and public accommodations such as hotels and airports. Conclusions: Migration activities and reused infested furniture probably were the possible reasons to bed bug resurgence.

  17. Undesirable dispersal of eggs and early-stage nymphs of the bed bug Hemiptera: cimicidae) by static electricity and air currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement of whole live insects or other small arthropods attributed to static electricity has been reported only rarely. While viewing bed bugs in plastic or glass Petri dishes using a dissecting microscope, individual eggs and early stage nymphs were occasionally observed to move suddenly and rapid...

  18. Rusingeria nom. nov, a new substitute name for Usingeria Coetzee & Segerman, 1992 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Maureen; Kment, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Rusingeria nom. nov. is established as a new substitute name for Usingeria Coetzee & Segerman, 1992 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae), which is junior homonym of Usingeria Schouteden, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae). The following new combination is proposed: Rusingeria transvaalensis (Coetzee & Segerman, 1992), comb. nov., for Usingeria transvaalensis Coetzee & Segerman, 1992.

  19. Primer registro del Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae como huésped nativo primario de Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae First record of Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae as primary native host of Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Cimicidae: Hemiptera: Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L Carpintero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta como huésped primario nativo de la chinche Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae al Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Su presencia en la provincia del Chaco constituye además un nuevo registro distribucional de esta chinche en la República Argentina. Se agrega una breve discusión acerca de la taxonomía de la misma y se comparan algunos parámetros poblacionales con los de otras especies de cimícidos. Finalmente, se discuten las vías de infestación posibles en el estado actual de conocimiento, incluyendo otras aves (Furnariidae y murciélagos (Chiroptera.The primary natural host of cimicid bug Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae is presented as Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Its presence in the Chaco province is also a new distributional record of this bug in Argentina. A brief discussion about the taxonomy is also given and some population parameters are compared with those of other bug species. Finally, we discuss possible infestation ways in the current state of knowledge, including other birds (Furnariidae and bats (Chiroptera.

  20. Spatial Distribution of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Reay-Jones, Francis P. F.

    2014-01-01

    A two-year study was conducted in South Carolina wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae)) fields to describe spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which were sampled weekly with sweep nets. In 2010, the main phytophagous stink bugs caught in a grid sampling plan across two fields were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), the rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and the red shouldered stink bug,...

  1. Real-Time Measurement of Volatile Chemicals Released by Bed Bugs during Mating Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund; Liu, Dezhao; Adamsen, Anders Peter

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) problems have increased dramatically in many parts of the world, leading to a renewed interest in their chemical ecology. Most studies of bed bug semiochemicals have been based on the collection of volatiles over a period of time followed by chemical...

  2. Os Cimicídeos e sua importância em Saúde Pública (Hemiptera-Heteroptera; Cimicidae The Cimicidae and their importance in Public Health (Hemiptera-Heteroptera; Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se atualização de conhecimentos sobre insetos da família Cimicidae, ou percevejos, de interesse em saúde pública. Após fornecer elementos de morfologia, externa e interna, dedica-se atenção à biologia e ecologia desses insetos, em especial modo, focalizando o relacionamento com o homem e seu ambiente. As espécies Cimex lectularius e C. hemipterus são tratadas em particular, com revisão dos dados disponíveis sobre o possível papel vetor desses percevejos na transmissão de agentes infecciosos. São apresentados dados sobre a classificação e distribuição geográfica. Fornecem-se dados sobre meios de controle. Inclui chaves para identificação de formas adultas e imaturas, além de vestígios que possam servir de indícios para as atividades de vigilância epidemiológica.A review of the Cimicidae of importance in public health is presented. After a general morphological study, special attention is given to knowledge of the biology and ecology of bed-bugs, mainly as regards their relation to the human environment and the possibility of their role in disease transmission. The species Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus are given particular attention and data on their relevance to questions of public health are revised. Taxonomy, biosystematic and geographical distribution are presented, the epidemiologically important groups listed and control measures discussed. The paper ends with identification keys for both adult and immature stages as well as for arthropod indoor fecal traces.

  3. Spatial distribution of stink bugs (hemiptera: pentatomidae) in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F

    2014-01-01

    A two-year study was conducted in South Carolina wheat (Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae)) fields to describe spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which were sampled weekly with sweep nets. In 2010, the main phytophagous stink bugs caught in a grid sampling plan across two fields were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), the rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and the red shouldered stink bug, Thyanta custator (F.), for both adults and nymphs. In 2011, the main phytophagous stink bugs were E. servus, O. pugnax, N. viridula, and T. custator across two fields. Adult stink bug counts adjacent to fallow fields were 2.1-fold greater for all species combined compared with counts adjacent to woods. Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (SADIE) indicated significant aggregation for 35% of analyses for adults and nymph stink bugs at each sampling date. As a measure of spatial and temporal stability, positive SADIE association indices among sampling dates recorded 11, 36, 43, and 16% of analyses for adult E. servus and 7, 50, 50, and 14% for adult O. pugnax in fields A, B, C, and D, respectively. Adult and nymph stink bugs were spatially associated within wheat fields based on SADIE association indices. Seasonal counts of stink bugs were spatially associated with spike counts at least once for each species across the four fields. Future work may investigate practices to reduce stink bug buildup on wheat in the spring and movement to susceptible crops such as corn, Zea mays L.

  4. Effects of ultralow oxygen and vacuum treatments on bed bug (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of bed bugs has always been problematic, balancing among efficacy, safety, and cost. In this study, ultralow oxygen (ULO) and vacuum treatments were tested on bed bugs to develop a safer, effective, and environmental friendly solution to bed bug infestations. ULO treatments were establishe...

  5. True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusanka Jerinic-Prodanovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839, A. confusus Reuter, 1884, A. nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794, A. nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761, Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, O. minutus (Linnaeus, 1758 and O. niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843, Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862, D. ruber (Linnaeus, 1758, D. lutescens (Schilling, 1836, Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763, Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888, Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758, Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Ps. quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Ps. flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843. The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants.

  6. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus aggregation pheromone in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  7. A remarkable fossil leptosaldine bug from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Leptopodomorpha: Leptopodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Yuri A; Heiss, Ernst

    2016-07-11

    A new genus and species of leptosaldine bugs, Leptosaldinea cobbeni gen. et sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Leptopodidae) is described and illustrated from Burmese Middle Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) amber found in Kachin State, northern Myanmar. This is the third record of a leptosaldine bug from Burmese amber. A brief analysis of the characters and systematic relationships of Leptosaldinae is provided.

  8. Association of Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), with cotton boll rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  9. Behavioral Responses of Nymph and Adult Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to Colored Harborages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Corraine A; Pereira, Roberto M; Koehler, Philip G; McNeill, Seth A; Baldwin, Rebecca W

    2016-07-01

    Behavioral bioassays were conducted to determine whether bed bug adults and nymphs prefer specific colored harborages. Two-choice and seven-choice behavioral color assays indicate that red (28.5%) and black (23.4%) harborages are optimal harborage choices for bed bugs. Yellow and green harborages appear to repel bed bugs. Harborage color preferences change according to gender, nutritional status, aggregation, and life stage. Female bed bugs prefer harborages with shorter wavelengths (lilac-14.5% and violet-11.5%) compared to males, whereas males prefer harborages with longer wavelengths (red-37.5% and black-32%) compared with females. The preference for orange and violet harborages is stronger when bed bugs are fed as opposed to when they are starved. Lone bed bugs (30%) prefer to be in black harborages while red harborages appear to be the optimum harborage color for bed bugs in more natural mixed aggregations (35.5%). Bed bug nymphs preferred different colored harborages at each stage of development, which is indicative of their developing eye structures and pigments. First instars showed no significant preference for any colored harborage soon after hatching. However, by the fifth instar, 27.5% of nymphs significantly preferred red and black harborages (which was a similar preference to adult bed bugs). The proportion of oviposited eggs was significantly greater under blue, red, and black harborages compared to other colored harborages tested. The use of visual cues such as specific colors offers great potential for improving bed bug monitoring tools by increasing trap captures. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L. CARPINTERO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («hornero» y de Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («gorrión», fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («golondrina doméstica», Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra» e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («golondrina tijerita». El parásito no fue hallado en cajas-nido de Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («golondrina de ceja blanca». Nuestros resultados constituyen la primera cita de Caminicimex furnarii para golondrinas. La interacción poblacional entre estas aves, asociada al hábito de usar nidos ajenos, explicaría la presencia de la misma especie de chinche en sus nidos. En función de esta idea, se sugieren otros posibles huéspedes para C. furnarii.

  11. Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) effects of insect density and bloom period of infestation on cotton damage and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  12. The mitogenome of the brown pod-sucking bug Clavigralla tomentosicollis (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown pod-sucking bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stäl (Hemiptera: Coreidae), causes significant damage to cultivated cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp, a staple crop in sub-Saharan Africa. C. tomentosicollis pierce and suck sap from cowpea pods, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. The compl...

  13. Density and egg parasitism of stink bugs (hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in elderberry and dispersal into crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinavia hilaris (Say), Euschistus servus (Say), E. tristigmus (Say), and Thyanta custator custator (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are serious pests of crops in the southeastern USA, but little is known concerning the dispersal of these stink bugs from non-crop host plants in woodland habitats into ...

  14. The assassin bug genera Nagustoides and Stenolemus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) newly recorded from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tadashi; Naka, Takeru

    2016-09-07

    Two assassin bug genera, Nagustoides Miller, 1954 of Harpactorinae and Stenolemus Signoret, 1858 of Emesinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), are recorded from Japan for the first time, with the presence of the representative species N. lii Zhao, Cai & Ren, 2006 and S. alikakay Rédei & Tsai, 2010. Distribution ranges of the two species are revised by the present finding.

  15. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-06-18

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  16. Stink bug species composition and relative abundance of the redbanded stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in soybean in the upper gulf coast Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyavhare, Suhas S; Way, Michael O; Medina, Raul F

    2014-12-01

    Stink bugs are the primary arthropod soybean pests in the southern United States. Historically, important stink bug species damaging soybeans in the southern United States included the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L.), the green stink bug Chinavia hilaris (Say), and the brown stink bug Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). The redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), has recently become an economic pest of soybean in the southern region of the United States, especially in Louisiana and Texas. Little is known about current stink bug species composition and relative abundance in Texan soybean agro-ecosystems. To fill this gap, commercial soybean fields in the Upper Gulf Coast of Texas were sampled weekly during the growing season using a sweep net throughout R2 (full flowering) to R7 (beginning maturity) from 2011 to 2013. Adults and nymphs (third, fourth, and fifth instars) of redbanded stink bug, southern green stink bug, green stink bug, and brown stink bug were counted per 25 sweeps. The relative abundance of redbanded stink bug was significantly higher than any other stink bug species throughout 2011-2013. Over 65% of the total population of major stink bugs collected during this period were redbanded stink bugs and ≍19% were southern green stink bugs. The highest redbanded stink bug densities and the highest ratio of redbanded stink bug nymphs to adults were recorded at R7. Results from this study show that redbanded stink bug has become the predominant stink bug species in soybean in the Upper Gulf Coast of Texas.

  17. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  18. First report of seasonal trap capture for Halyomorpha halys (Stal) Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and native stink bugs in central Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive insect pest in the United States, has recently expanded its range to the Coastal Plain region of Georgia. This study was conducted to monitor the BMSB, as well as native stink bugs, near woodland f...

  19. Trap Cropping Systems and a Physical Barrier for Suppression of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E; Lou, X; Mizell, R F; Johnson, C J

    2015-10-01

    Euschistus servus (Say), Nezara viridula (L.), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the ability of trap cropping systems, pheromone-baited stink bug traps, and a synthetic physical barrier at the peanut-to-cotton interface to manage stink bugs in cotton. The physical barrier was the most effective management tactic. Stink bug density in cotton was lowest for this treatment. In 2010, boll injury was lower for the physical barrier compared to the other treatments except for soybean with stink bug traps. In 2011, boll injury was lower for this treatment compared to the control. Soybean was an effective trap crop, reducing both stink bug density in cotton and boll injury regardless if used alone or in combination with either stink bug traps or buckwheat. Incorporation of buckwheat in soybean enhanced parasitism of E. servus egg masses by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. The insertion of eyelets in the lid of the insect-collecting device of a stink bug trap allowed adult stink bug parasitoids, but not E. servus, to escape. Stand-alone stink bug traps were not very effective in deterring colonization of cotton by stink bugs or reducing boll injury. The paucity of effective alternative control measures available for stink bug management justifies further full-scale evaluations into these management tactics for control of these pests in crops. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae en Argentina Presence of Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae in nests of swallows and martins (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L. Carpintero

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («hornero» y de Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («gorrión», fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («golondrina doméstica», Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra» e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («golondrina tijerita». El parásito no fue hallado en cajas-nido de Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («golondrina de ceja blanca». Nuestros resultados constituyen la primera cita de Caminicimex furnarii para golondrinas. La interacción poblacional entre estas aves, asociada al hábito de usar nidos ajenos, explicaría la presencia de la misma especie de chinche en sus nidos. En función de esta idea, se sugieren otros posibles huéspedes para C. furnarii.Nests of four species of Hirundinidae that nest in Argentina were prospected for Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, a parasite of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («oven bird» and Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («house sparrow» was found in nests of three species of Hirundinidae: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («gray-breasted martin», Progne elegans Baird («southern martin» and Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («barn swallow». The parasite was not found in nest boxes of Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («white-rumped swallow». Caminicimex furnarii is recorded for first time parasitizing swallows and martins. Interaction among these bird populations, associated with usurpation nests behavior, may explain the presence of the same cimicid species at the nests. According this idea, other possible C. furnarii hosts are suggested.

  1. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of Hemiptera reveals adaptive innovations driving the diversification of true bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Leavengood, John M.; Chapman, Eric G.; Burkhardt, Daniel; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Liu, Jinpeng; Cai, Wanzhi

    2017-01-01

    Hemiptera, the largest non-holometabolous order of insects, represents approximately 7% of metazoan diversity. With extraordinary life histories and highly specialized morphological adaptations, hemipterans have exploited diverse habitats and food sources through approximately 300 Myr of evolution. To elucidate the phylogeny and evolutionary history of Hemiptera, we carried out the most comprehensive mitogenomics analysis on the richest taxon sampling to date covering all the suborders and infraorders, including 34 newly sequenced and 94 published mitogenomes. With optimized branch length and sequence heterogeneity, Bayesian analyses using a site-heterogeneous mixture model resolved the higher-level hemipteran phylogeny as (Sternorrhyncha, (Auchenorrhyncha, (Coleorrhyncha, Heteroptera))). Ancestral character state reconstruction and divergence time estimation suggest that the success of true bugs (Heteroptera) is probably due to angiosperm coevolution, but key adaptive innovations (e.g. prognathous mouthpart, predatory behaviour, and haemelytron) facilitated multiple independent shifts among diverse feeding habits and multiple independent colonizations of aquatic habitats. PMID:28878063

  2. Evidence of Tolerance to Silica-Based Desiccant Dusts in a Pyrethroid-Resistant Strain of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    David G. Lilly; Cameron E Webb; Doggett, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide resistance in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus) has become widespread, which has necessitated the development of new IPM (Integrated Pest Management) strategies and products for the eradication of infestations. Two promising options are the diatomaceous earth and silica gel-based desiccant dusts, both of which induce dehydration and eventual death upon bed bugs exposed to these products. However, the impact of underlying mechanisms that confer resistance to insecti...

  3. Monitoring of brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) population dynamics in corn to predict its abundance using weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious economic pest of corn production in the Southeastern U. S. The BSB population dynamics was monitored for 17 wks from tasseling to pre-harvest of corn plants (i.e., late May to mid-September) using pheromone ...

  4. Melt With This Kiss: Paralyzing and Liquefying Venom of The Assassin Bug Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew A; Madio, Bruno; Jin, Jiayi; Undheim, Eivind A B; Fry, Bryan G; King, Glenn F

    2017-04-01

    Assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) are venomous insects, most of which prey on invertebrates. Assassin bug venom has features in common with venoms from other animals, such as paralyzing and lethal activity when injected, and a molecular composition that includes disulfide-rich peptide neurotoxins. Uniquely, this venom also has strong liquefying activity that has been hypothesized to facilitate feeding through the narrow channel of the proboscis-a structure inherited from sap- and phloem-feeding phytophagous hemipterans and adapted during the evolution of Heteroptera into a fang and feeding structure. However, further understanding of the function of assassin bug venom is impeded by the lack of proteomic studies detailing its molecular composition.By using a combined transcriptomic/proteomic approach, we show that the venom proteome of the harpactorine assassin bug Pristhesancus plagipennis includes a complex suite of >100 proteins comprising disulfide-rich peptides, CUB domain proteins, cystatins, putative cytolytic toxins, triabin-like protein, odorant-binding protein, S1 proteases, catabolic enzymes, putative nutrient-binding proteins, plus eight families of proteins without homology to characterized proteins. S1 proteases, CUB domain proteins, putative cytolytic toxins, and other novel proteins in the 10-16-kDa mass range, were the most abundant venom components. Thus, in addition to putative neurotoxins, assassin bug venom includes a high proportion of enzymatic and cytolytic venom components likely to be well suited to tissue liquefaction. Our results also provide insight into the trophic switch to blood-feeding by the kissing bugs (Reduviidae: Triatominae). Although some protein families such as triabins occur in the venoms of both predaceous and blood-feeding reduviids, the composition of venoms produced by these two groups is revealed to differ markedly. These results provide insights into the venom evolution in the insect suborder

  5. Checklist of water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha) of Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klementová, Barbora Reduciendo; Kment, Petr; Svitok, Marek

    2015-12-16

    The water bugs represent a significant component of the freshwater biota, play an important role in trophic webs, and may have considerable economic importance. Nevertheless, systematic research of this group has been underdeveloped in Slovakia (central Europe) for decades. This work presents a list of water bug species of Slovakia based on an exhaustive review of the literature (time span: 1808-2013) and on more than 14,000 individuals collected during extensive field campaigns (2010-2014) or obtained from insect collections. Fifty-six species belonging to 11 families of Heteroptera were recorded from a total of 767 sites. Seven species were recorded for the first time from Slovakia during our research. Among those, the first exact records of Corixa panzeri Fieber, 1848, Sigara (Subsigara) distincta (Fieber, 1848), Notonecta (Notonecta) lutea Müller, 1776, Notonecta (Notonecta) maculata Fabricius, 1794 and Microvelia (Microvelia) buenoi Drake, 1920 are provided here. Confusion concerning the records of two additional species, Arctocorisa carinata carinata (C. R. Sahlberg, 1819) and Hesperocorixa parallela (Fieber, 1860) is clarified. The water bugs species inventory appears to be nearly complete (~97 %) given an asymptotic richness estimate. The occurrence of other species is discussed taking into account their habitat requirements and distribution in neighbouring countries. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  6. Evidence of Tolerance to Silica-Based Desiccant Dusts in a Pyrethroid-Resistant Strain of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, David G; Webb, Cameron E; Doggett, Stephen L

    2016-12-09

    Insecticide resistance in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus) has become widespread, which has necessitated the development of new IPM (Integrated Pest Management) strategies and products for the eradication of infestations. Two promising options are the diatomaceous earth and silica gel-based desiccant dusts, both of which induce dehydration and eventual death upon bed bugs exposed to these products. However, the impact of underlying mechanisms that confer resistance to insecticides, such as cuticle thickening, on the performance of these dusts has yet to be determined. In the present study, two desiccant dusts, CimeXa Insecticide Dust (silica gel) and Bed Bug Killer Powder (diatomaceous earth) were evaluated against two strains of C. lectularius; one highly pyrethroid-resistant and one insecticide-susceptible. Label-rate doses of both products produced 100% mortality in both strains, albeit over dissimilar time-frames (3-4 days with CimeXa vs. 14 days with Bed Bug Killer). Sub-label rate exposure to CimeXa indicated that the pyrethroid-resistant strain possessed a degree of tolerance to this product, surviving 50% longer than the susceptible strain. This is the first study to suggest that mechanisms conferring resistance to pyrethroids, such as cuticular thickening, may have potential secondary impacts on non-synthetic insecticides, including desiccant dusts, which target the bed bug's cuticle.

  7. Squash Bug

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Diane; Barnhill, James

    2009-01-01

    Squash bug (Anasa tristis) is a “true bug” with piercingsucking mouthparts (Order Hemiptera) in the leaffooted bug family (Coreidae). It is common throughout the U.S. and found from Canada to Central America. Adults (Fig. 1) emit a foul odor when disturbed and may be called “stink bugs”; however, true stink bugs are in a different true bug family.

  8. Evidence of Tolerance to Silica-Based Desiccant Dusts in a Pyrethroid-Resistant Strain of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Lilly

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus has become widespread, which has necessitated the development of new IPM (Integrated Pest Management strategies and products for the eradication of infestations. Two promising options are the diatomaceous earth and silica gel-based desiccant dusts, both of which induce dehydration and eventual death upon bed bugs exposed to these products. However, the impact of underlying mechanisms that confer resistance to insecticides, such as cuticle thickening, on the performance of these dusts has yet to be determined. In the present study, two desiccant dusts, CimeXa Insecticide Dust (silica gel and Bed Bug Killer Powder (diatomaceous earth were evaluated against two strains of C. lectularius; one highly pyrethroid-resistant and one insecticide-susceptible. Label-rate doses of both products produced 100% mortality in both strains, albeit over dissimilar time-frames (3–4 days with CimeXa vs. 14 days with Bed Bug Killer. Sub-label rate exposure to CimeXa indicated that the pyrethroid-resistant strain possessed a degree of tolerance to this product, surviving 50% longer than the susceptible strain. This is the first study to suggest that mechanisms conferring resistance to pyrethroids, such as cuticular thickening, may have potential secondary impacts on non-synthetic insecticides, including desiccant dusts, which target the bed bug’s cuticle.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): evidence from mitochondrial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jimeng; Li, Ming; Dong, Pengzhi; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2009-01-01

    Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea) + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea))). PMID:19523246

  10. A quantitative analysis of a modified feeding method for rearing Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin-Heady, Eva; DeMark, Joseph J; Nolting, Steve; Bennett, Gary; Saltzmann, Kurt; Hamm, Ronda L

    2013-10-01

    A modified artificial feeding system was developed for rearing Cimex lectularius and compared with the most widely used artificial feeding method which requires custom-made glassware and a circulating water bath to warm the blood. The petri dish method reduces some of the drawbacks from the current water bath method, such as the possibility of flooding bed bug rearing jars with water or blood and the need for expensive custom-made glassware. Field and lab strain first instar nymphs were given a 15 or 30 min interval to feed for 6-9 weeks. Analysis of bed bugs that fed during a 6 week time period showed that there was no significant difference in the numbers that fed using the petri dish method compared with those that fed using the water bath method. Development of the nymphs also showed that there was no significant difference in the time required to produce adults by either method. The petri dish method is an attractive alternative to the water bath method. Set-up is less complex, quicker, multiple jars of bed bugs can be fed at the same time, petri dishes of blood are disposable for easy clean-up and the potential of fatality due to flooding with blood or water is reduced. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effect of Moxidectin on Bed Bug Feeding, Development, Fecundity, and Survivorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae, is a blood-feeding ectoparasite which experienced world-wide resurgence during recent decades. The control of bed bugs is often challenging, due to their cryptic nature and resistance to commonly used insecticides. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the antiparasitic drug moxidectin on bed bug survival, reproduction, and development. The LC50 (lethal concentration to kill half the members of a tested population of moxidectin against bed bug male adults, female adults, and large nymphs were 52.7 (95% CI (confidence interval: 39.5–70.8, 29.3 (95% CI: 20.7–40.5, and 29.1 ng/mL (95% CI: 23.3–35.3, respectively. Moxidectin (≥ 25 ng/mL reduced egg laying of bed bug females, but showed no significant effect on egg hatching. One time feeding on rabbit blood containing 20 and 40 ng/mL moxidectin showed no negative effects in bed bug feeding and blood meal ingestion, but significantly reduced digestion rates and nymph molting rates. Although moxidectin at concentrations of 20 and 40 ng/mL only caused moderate mortality in bed bugs, it significantly interrupted digestion, development, and oviposition of survived bed bugs for at least one week after feeding. Moxidectin is a promising supplement of the existing bed bug control materials if its use on humans can be approved in the future.

  12. Rapid, high-throughput detection of azalea lace bug (Hemiptera: Tingidae) predation by Chrysoperla rufilabris (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), using fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Timothy A; Boyd, David W

    2006-12-01

    Azalea lace bugs, Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott) (Hemiptera: Tingidae), are the most common pest of azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) in nursery production and the landscape. Although pesticides are commonly used to control lace bugs, natural enemies can be a significant source of lace bug mortality. Lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) are natural enemies of lace bugs and easily consume them in laboratory studies. Field studies on lacewing biocontrol of azalea lace bugs are underway; however, monitoring lacewing predation in a nursery environment by direct observation is impractical. Here, we describe a fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction method to estimate S. pyrioides consumption based on the gut contents of lacewing predators. Lace bug DNA was detected in fed lacewings up to 32 h after ingestion. More than 80% of the ingested lace bugs were detected using our method with only one false positive result. The assay is both high-throughput and relatively inexpensive, making it a practical approach to documenting lace bug predation in the field.

  13. Cold Tolerance and Supercooling Capacity of the Redbanded Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastola, Anup; Davis, Jeffrey A

    2017-12-08

    The redbanded stink bug Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive stink bug species in the United States. First documented as a soybean pest in Louisiana in the year 2000, this species continues to spread in the Mid-South region of the United States. We designed laboratory and field studies to investigate supercooling points, lethal exposure time (LT), critical thermal minimum (CTmin), and winter mortality of this species. The mean supercooling points (SCP) ± SE of adult field collected P. guildinii ranged from -8.3 ± 0.2°C (highest) in March to -11.0 ± 0.2°C (lowest) in January. Significant differences in SCP occurred over the months and between sexes with significant interactions between month and sex. The CTmin was significantly different between adults and nymphs (third, fourth, and fifth instars combined). LT50 and LT90 were evaluated at subzero temperatures of 0°C, -2°C, and -5°C. There were significant differences in LT50 and LT90 among the temperature treatments. Winter survival significantly differed between the two study years and decreased with progression of winter months. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Comparative Mitogenomics of Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Identifying the AGG Codon Reassignments between Serine and Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi

    2014-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes are very important to understand the molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of the insects. The Miridae are the largest family of Heteroptera encompassing more than 11,000 described species and of great economic importance. For better understanding the diversity and the evolution of plant bugs, we sequence five new mitochondrial genomes and present the first comparative analysis of nine mitochondrial genomes of mirids available to date. Our result showed that gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor were conserved in plant bugs. Intra-genus species shared more conserved genomic characteristics, such as nucleotide and amino acid composition of protein-coding genes, secondary structure and anticodon mutations of tRNAs, and non-coding sequences. Control region possessed several distinct characteristics, including: variable size, abundant tandem repetitions, and intra-genus conservation; and was useful in evolutionary and population genetic studies. The AGG codon reassignments were investigated between serine and lysine in the genera Adelphocoris and other cimicomorphans. Our analysis revealed correlated evolution between reassignments of the AGG codon and specific point mutations at the antidocons of tRNALys and tRNASer(AGN). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that mitochondrial genome sequences were useful in resolving family level relationship of Cimicomorpha. Comparative evolutionary analysis of plant bug mitochondrial genomes allowed the identification of previously neglected coding genes or non-coding regions as potential molecular markers. The finding of the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine indicated the parallel evolution of the genetic code in Hemiptera mitochondrial genomes. PMID:24988409

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: evidence from mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Qiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea.

  16. Comparative mitogenomics of plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae: identifying the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Insect mitochondrial genomes are very important to understand the molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of the insects. The Miridae are the largest family of Heteroptera encompassing more than 11,000 described species and of great economic importance. For better understanding the diversity and the evolution of plant bugs, we sequence five new mitochondrial genomes and present the first comparative analysis of nine mitochondrial genomes of mirids available to date. Our result showed that gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor were conserved in plant bugs. Intra-genus species shared more conserved genomic characteristics, such as nucleotide and amino acid composition of protein-coding genes, secondary structure and anticodon mutations of tRNAs, and non-coding sequences. Control region possessed several distinct characteristics, including: variable size, abundant tandem repetitions, and intra-genus conservation; and was useful in evolutionary and population genetic studies. The AGG codon reassignments were investigated between serine and lysine in the genera Adelphocoris and other cimicomorphans. Our analysis revealed correlated evolution between reassignments of the AGG codon and specific point mutations at the antidocons of tRNALys and tRNASer(AGN. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that mitochondrial genome sequences were useful in resolving family level relationship of Cimicomorpha. Comparative evolutionary analysis of plant bug mitochondrial genomes allowed the identification of previously neglected coding genes or non-coding regions as potential molecular markers. The finding of the AGG codon reassignments between serine and lysine indicated the parallel evolution of the genetic code in Hemiptera mitochondrial genomes.

  17. First record of Megacydnus secundus J. A. Lis, 2002, a representative of Afrotropical endemic burrower bug genus from Uganda, and an annotated checklist of Ugandan Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Jerzy A; Lis, Barbara

    2014-05-14

    The Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea) is a true bug family with almost 700 species distributed worldwide (Lis 1996, 1999, 2006). These bugs usually dig in the ground (e.g., sand, soil, litter) and, therefore, are commonly known as the burrower bugs or burrowing bugs. Digging in the ground is possible because of several morphological adaptations, including well-developed tibial combs (Lis and Schaefer 2005), coxal combs (Lis 2010), and strong hair-like and peg-like setae on the head margins in larval and adult stages (Lis and Pluot-Sigwalt 2002) (see: Fig. 1A).

  18. Bed bugs, their blood sources and life history parameters: a comparison of artificial and natural feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aak, A; Rukke, B A

    2014-03-01

    A blood-feeding system that utilizes a small amount of whole heparinized human blood in parafilm bags is described in detail, and similarities and differences between artificially fed and naturally rodent-fed bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) are discussed. Blood with high levels of heparin (10%) was unsuitable for artificial colony rearing, whereas bed bugs fed on 1% heparinized blood and those that naturally ingested rat blood completed their lifecycle with similar stage structures over time, with no significant differences in mortality. No differences in feeding efficiency or fertility were found in a direct comparison of bed bugs maintained under each of these two treatments, but analysis of the full lifecycle revealed that artificially fed bed bugs became significantly smaller and laid fewer eggs than rodent-fed bed bugs. The level of membrane stretching regulated the number of bed bugs that fed. When the membrane was stretched to twice its length and width, 96% of bed bugs successfully fed through the parafilm. Whole heparinized blood that was stored at 6 °C for ≥ 14 days failed to retain its nutritional value and the amount of blood consumed and number of consecutive moults were significantly reduced. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Survey of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) egg parasitoids in wheat, soybean, and vegetable crops in southeast Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, A L; Herbert, D A; Kuhar, T P; Kamminga, K

    2009-04-01

    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) cause significant damage to many different crops and horticultural commodities in Virginia. However, little is known about the species diversity or impact of stink bug egg parasitoids in the state. A survey was conducted in 2005 and 2006 (May through September) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and several vegetable crops by collecting natural egg masses of various stink bug species and by monitoring sentinel egg masses. A total of 570 Euschistus servus (Say) eggs in 26 egg masses, 11,197 Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) eggs in 939 egg masses, 15 Podisus maculiventris (Say) eggs in 2 egg masses, and 546 Acrosternum hilare (Say) eggs in 18 egg masses were field collected and returned to the laboratory, where emerging parasitoids were identified to species. In addition, 2,512 laboratory-reared E. servus eggs and 230 P. maculiventris eggs were placed as sentinels into crop fields and collected after 7 d, and parasitoid or stink bug emergence was recorded. Four species of hymenopteran parasitoids in the family Scelionidae were recovered from stink bug eggs: Telenomus podisi Ashmead, Trissolcus basalis Wollaston, Trissolcus edessae Fouts, and Trissolcus euschisti Ashmead. In addition, one parasitoid in the family Mymaridae (Hymenoptera) was recovered. Parasitism rates were highest in E. servus with 89.7 and 49.2% of egg masses and individual eggs parasitized, respectively. The predominant parasitoid species was T. podisi.

  20. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  1. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Seasonality and Distribution Pattern of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Virginia Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, S; Kuhar, T P; Laub, C A; Pfeiffer, D G

    2015-08-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a highly polyphagous invasive insect pest from eastern Asia that feeds on numerous fruit, vegetable, and field crops. Four commercial vineyards in Virginia were sampled in 2012 and 2013 to study the basic biology, seasonality, and distribution pattern of H. halys in vineyards. At each vineyard, two blocks were selected. Weekly 3-min timed count visual samplings were performed in border and interior sections from late May until mid-September. Overwintering adult bugs were first detected in vineyards in May; however, the timing of first detection differed among vineyards. Egg masses were found primarily in June and July, and were usually found on the lower surface of grape leaves, although they were occasionally on the upper leaf surface, on the berry, or on the rachis. All developmental stages of H. halys were found in vineyards, suggesting that grape can serve as a reproductive host for H. halys. Substantial variation in H. halys densities was found among vineyards and throughout the growing season. The first instars were found on egg masses and after molting, dispersed throughout the grape vines. The date on which the first egg mass was collected was considered as a biofix. Based on a degree-day model, there were sufficient degree-days for completion of a generation in Virginia vineyards. Significantly higher numbers of H. halys were collected in border sections compared with interior sections. These results are discussed in relation to the potential pest status of H. halys in vineyards and implications for possible control strategies. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Inter- and intraspecific variation in defensive compounds produced by five neotropical stink bug species (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Martín; Borges, Miguel; Laumann, Raúl A; Moraes, Maria C B

    2007-07-01

    The differences in composition of defensive secretions between nymphs, adult males and adult females of Chinavia impicticornis (=Acrosternum impicticorne), Chinavia ubica (=Acrosternum ubicum), Euschistus heros, Dichelops melacanthus and Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) were analysed within and between species using compositional log-ratio statistics and canonical variates analysis. Differences in composition between nymphs, males and females were found for all species, as well as when all species were pooled. In particular, tetradecanal appears to be a predominantly nymphal compound in D. melacanthus, E. heros and P. guildinii. In the two Chinavia species 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and an unknown compound were more dominant in nymphs. The interspecific analysis revealed a good separation of defensive compounds according to their taxonomic relationship. Thus, the two Chinavia species grouped together, with (E)-2-decenal and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, contributing to this separation. The other three species also differed from each other, with (E)-2-octenal associated to D. melacanthus, (E)-2-hexenal to P. guildinii and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and tetradecanal to E. heros. The pooled analysis of stage ignoring species revealed tetradecanal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-decenal (tentative identification) strongly associated to nymphs. Thus, there are predictable differences between stages, and many of the differences are conserved between species. Consideration of these differences could prove to be important in understanding stink bug-natural enemy interactions, and in optimising biocontrol efforts.

  4. IPM of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) using trap and refuge crops within tomato fields in North Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southern Green Stink Bug (SGSB), Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a serious insect pest of tomatoes and numerous vegetable and fruit plants in north Florida. We evaluated three trap crops and three refuge crops to investigate their potential to be used for IPM (Integrated Pest Manag...

  5. Diversity of Symbiotic Organs and Bacterial Endosymbionts of Lygaeoid Bugs of the Families Blissidae and Lygaeidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Patricia; Dettner, Konrad; Kehl, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Here we present comparative data on the localization and identity of intracellular symbionts among the superfamily Lygaeoidea (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomomorpha). Five different lygaeoid species from the families Blissidae and Lygaeidae (sensu stricto; including the subfamilies Lygaeinae and Orsillinae) were analyzed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that all the bugs studied possess paired bacteriomes that are differently shaped in the abdomen and harbor specific endosymbionts therein. The endosymbionts were also detected in female gonads and at the anterior poles of developing eggs, indicating vertical transmission of the endosymbionts via ovarial passage, in contrast to the posthatch symbiont transmission commonly found among pentatomoid bugs (Pentatomomorpha: Pentatomoidea). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and groEL genes showed that the endosymbionts of Ischnodemus sabuleti, Arocatus longiceps, Belonochilus numenius, Orsillus depressus, and Ortholomus punctipennis constitute at least four distinct clades in the Gammaproteobacteria. The endosymbiont phylogeny did not agree with the host phylogeny based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, but there was a local cospeciating pattern within the subfamily Orsillinae. Meanwhile, the endosymbiont of Belonochilus numenius (Lygaeidae: Orsillinae), although harbored in paired bacteriomes as in other lygaeoid bugs of the related genera Nysius, Ortholomus, and Orsillus, was phylogenetically close to “Candidatus Rohrkolberia cinguli,” the endosymbiont of Chilacis typhae (Lygaeoidea: Artheneidae), suggesting an endosymbiont replacement in this lineage. The diverse endosymbionts and the differently shaped bacteriomes may reflect independent evolutionary origins of the endosymbiotic systems among lygaeoid bugs. PMID:22307293

  6. A Survey of the Species of Squash Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) Egg Parasitoids in Virginia and Their Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James M; Kuhar, Thomas P

    2017-11-06

    Squash bug, Anasa tristis DeGeer (Hemiptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of squash and pumpkins in the United States. In order to better understand the importance of natural egg parasitism of this species in Virginia, we conducted a 2-yr statewide survey. In total, 1,127 squash bug egg masses (~20,000 total eggs) were sampled from squash and pumpkins from 43 counties in Virginia from 2014 to 2015. Egg masses were brought back to the lab to record levels of squash bug nymphal emergence or adult parasitoid eclosion and identification. Over 50% of the total squash bug eggs collected statewide were parasitized. Gryon pennsylvanicum Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) was the predominant egg parasitoid accounting for over 98% of all parasitoid adults recovered. The only other species emerging from squash bug eggs was Anastatus reduvii Howard (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), which is a generalist parasitoid. G. pennsylvanicum was found in 75% of the counties surveyed with the highest levels of parasitism occurring in the Northern, Southwestern Mountain, and Western Piedmont regions of the state and the lowest levels of parasitism occurring in the Tidewater region in the southeastern portion of the state. Based on this 2-yr survey, G. pennsylvanicum was determined to be a major natural enemy of squash bug, significantly reducing the number of nymphs that emerge from deposited eggs. Conservation of this natural enemy should therefore be a priority for integrated pest management programs in cucurbits. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Squash Bug (Espanol)

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Diane; Barnhill, James

    2013-01-01

    Squash bug (Anasa tristis) is a “true bug” with piercingsucking mouthparts (Order Hemiptera) in the leaffooted bug family (Coreidae). It is common throughout the U.S. and found from Canada to Central America. Adults (Fig. 1) emit a foul odor when disturbed and may be called “stink bugs”; however, true stink bugs are in a different true bug family.

  8. Diurnal activities of the brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in and near tasseling corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for effective management of the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus, in corn and other crops has been increasing in recent years. To identify when and where the stink bugs are most likely to occur for targeted insecticide application, diurnal activities of stink bugs in and near the field...

  9. Assessing Genetic Diversity in Four Stink Bug Species, Chinavia hilaris, Chlorochroa uhleri, Chlorochroa sayi, and Thyanta pallidovirens (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Using DNA Barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, A K; Joyce, A L; Torres, R; Higbee, B S

    2017-12-05

    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are an economically important group of insects that attack numerous crops in the central valley of California. Management of these pests using pheromones or biological control can be species specific, and proper identification of insect species is essential for effective management. The objective was to examine genetic variability in four species of stink bugs, which included Chinavia hilaris (Say) (= Acrosternum hilare) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) , Chlorochroa uhleri (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) , Chlorochroa sayi (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and Thyanta pallidovirens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and to determine whether there may be cryptic species present. Stink bugs were collected in pistachios or on adjacent vegetation when abundant in the central valley of California. The mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene region (i.e., the barcode) was sequenced for each individual. Data were combined with available GenBank accessions for each species and used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Divergence between genera ranged from 11.2 to 15.7%, whereas divergence between the two Chlorochroa spp. was 4.6%. Genetic variation within Chinavia hilaris collections was up to 4.7%, which suggests the presence of a cryptic species. Genetic divergence was highest between individuals of Chinavia hilaris from the west coast and the east coast of the United States. In contrast, genetic variation within individuals of C. uhleri and Ch. sayi was less than 1%. Nine haplotypes were found for Chinavia hilaris, five for C. uhleri, three for Ch. sayi, and five for T. pallidovirens. The relevance of correct species identification and genetic diversity to stink bug management practices was discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. Types of true bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) deposited in the Museo de La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy

    2015-06-25

    A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality.

  11. Effects of Temperatures on Immature Development and Survival of the Invasive Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Darcy A; Ganjisaffar, Fatemeh; Palumbo, John C; Perring, Thomas M

    2017-12-05

    Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a non-native stink bug that feeds primarily on cole crops and wild mustards. Its invasion into desert agriculture in California and Arizona presents a conundrum between rapid pest development at warm temperatures and severe damage to cool season crops. In this study, the development and survival of B. hilaris were determined at nine constant temperatures (ranging from 20-42°C) when reared on organically grown broccoli florets. Egg hatching was greatly delayed at 20°C, and first instar nymphs did not survive at this temperature. No eggs hatched at 42°C. The highest survival rates (70.0-86.7%) of B. hilaris were observed at temperatures ranging from 24 to 35°C. The total developmental rate of B. hilaris from egg to adult increased from 0.027 to 0.066/d from 24 to 35°C, and then slightly dropped to 0.064/d at 39°C. Based on the linear model, B. hilaris requires 285.4 degree-days to complete its development. The Briere 1 model predicted the lower and upper temperature thresholds as 16.7 and 42.7°C, respectively. The optimal temperature for development (TOpt) was estimated as 36°C. According to the results, B. hilaris is well adapted to warm conditions, and temperatures of 33-39°C are well suited for B. hilaris development. Information from this study helps explain the rapid range expansion of B. hilaris across the southern United States and will be instrumental in predicting future expansion across the rest of the country and in other parts of the world. The relationship between thermal thresholds and invasion dynamics of this pest are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Seasonal phenology and natural enemies of the squash bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kimberly B; Yeargan, Kenneth V

    2008-06-01

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis (De Geer), is a major indigenous pest of Cucurbita species across the United States and a vector of cucurbit yellow vine disease. The seasonal phenology of the squash bug in central Kentucky and its natural enemies were studied using summer squash planted sequentially throughout the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The squash bug was first detected on 5 June 2005 and 3 June 2006. In both years, peak numbers of all squash bug stages occurred in July and August. Our field data, substantiated by published degree-day models for squash bug development, suggest one complete and a partial second generation of squash bugs in 2005 and one complete generation of squash bugs in 2006. The most abundant ground-active predators in squash fields included Araneae, Carabidae, Staphylinidae, and Geocoridae. Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer) and Geocoris punctipes (Say) were the most abundant foliage-inhabiting predators. Direct field observations of predators feeding on squash bugs or their eggs included G. punctipes, Pagasa fusca (Stein), and Nabis sp. The parasitoids Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius) and Gyron pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) were found also. Squash bug egg masses were monitored to determine predation and parasitism rates in the field. In four studies during 2005 and 2006, predation rates were low (7% or less), and parasitism ranged from 0 to 31%. Overall, squash bug egg mortality increased as the season progressed.

  13. Response of Soybean Genotypes Challenged by a Stink Bug Complex (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E S; Silva, J P G F; Baldin, E L L; Pierozzi, C G; Cunha, L S; Canassa, V F; Pannuti, L E R; Lourenção, A L

    2016-04-01

    Pentatomids (stink bugs) are major pests of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merril. These pests reach high levels of infestation, cause severe damage to seeds by feeding, are linked to leaf retention, and are difficult to control. Host plant resistance is considered to be a valuable tool in integrated pest management and can assist in reducing the damage caused by stink bugs. This research evaluated the resistance of soybean genotypes in Brazil to the stink bug complex, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.), redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), green belly stink bug, Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), and Edessa meditabunda (F.), by assessing infestation assay, yield reduction, seed damage, and leaf retention. Certain genotypes expressed different categories of resistance: least infested, low yield reduction, low levels of damage in seeds, and low levels of leaf retention. PI lines and IAC 78-2318 showed antixenotic resistance, and ‘IAC 100’ showed tolerance for the stink bug complex. This is the first study to evaluate several parameters of yield and seed quality using different soybean maturity groups under relatively high infestation by the three stink bugs species. The promising genotypes might be used in regions with a high incidence of stink bugs to manage their populations in combination with other integrated pest management practices.

  14. Species composition and seasonal abundance of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Louisiana soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, J H; Davis, J A; Micinski, S; Hardke, J T; Price, P; Leonard, B R

    2013-08-01

    In Louisiana during the last decade, the redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), has become a significant and yield-limiting pest of soybean. The redbanded stink bug was previously reported in the United States in 1892, but was never considered an economically important pest until recently. Soybeans representing four maturity groups (MG) III, IV, V, and VI were sampled weekly from beginning bloom (R1) to physiological maturity (R8) during 2008-2010 at five locations across Louisiana to determine the Pentatomidae composition. In total, 13,146 stink bugs were captured and subsequently identified to species. The predominant species included the redbanded stink bug (54.2%); southern green stink bug (27.1%), Nezara viridula L.; brown stink bug (6.6%), Euschistus servus (Say); and green stink bug (5.5%), Acrosternum hilare (Say). Redbanded stink bug comprised the largest percentage of the complex collected at four of the five survey sites. Numbers exceeding action thresholds of this stink bug complex were only detected during R4 to R7 growth stages. Redbanded stink bug accounted for the largest percentage of the stink bug complex in early maturing soybean varieties (MG III [86%] and IV [60%]) and declined in later maturing soybeans (MG V [54%] and VI [50%]). The redbanded stink bug was initially identified in southern Louisiana during 2000 and had been reported in all soybean producing regions in Louisiana by 2006. This survey is the first to report the redbanded stink bug as a predominant pest of soybeans from locations within the United States.

  15. FIRST RECORD OF PHYTOPHAGOUS BUG PARAFURIUS DISCIFER (STÄL, 1860 (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE ATTACKING OF CALLA LILY IN BRAZIL

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    Lívia Mendes Carvalho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The calla lily is a cut flower highly appreciated in the composition of floral arrangements and gardens. The calla lily is susceptible to pests that affect plant and the lack of technologies for pest control is difficult due to the increase in the indiscriminate use of insecticides. In São João del Rei, State of Minas Gerais (21º 08' 00" S, 44º 15' 40" W it was first recorded the occurrence of phytophagous bug Parafurius discifer (Stäl, 1860 (Hemiptera: Miridae attacking leaves of calla lily in Brazil. This species has the potential to be a pest of calla lily and therefore damage this orfirstnamental plant. A better knowledge of this species could help in the search for alternative control more effective and sustainable.

  16. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Infestations in Tree Borders and Subsequent Patterns of Abundance in Soybean Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, B L; Kuhar, T P; Herbert, D A; Brewster, C C; Hogue, J W; Aigner, J D

    2017-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the Mid-Atlantic United States. In order to assess the influence of nonmanaged wooded borders on H. halys infestation patterns in soybean, 12 soybean fields in Orange and Madison Counties, VA, were sampled each week from July to October in 2013 or 2014 for H. halys. At each location, five 2-min visual counts of H. halys life stages were made on tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima Mill.) and other favorable host trees along a wooded border, on the adjacent soybean edge, 15 m into the soybean field, and 30 m into the field. Seasonal data showed a clear trend at all locations of H. halys densities building up on A. altissima-dominated wooded borders in July, then, gradually moving into adjacent soybean field edges later in the summer. Halyomorpha halys did not move far from the invading field edge, with approximately half as many bugs being present at 15 m into the field and very few being detected 30 m into the field. These results have implications for continued monitoring and management using field border sprays, particularly on edges adjacent to woods. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neo tropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

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    Moraes, Maria C.B.; Pareja, Martin; Laumann, Raul A.; Borges, Miguel [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo Tematico Controle Biologico

    2008-09-15

    In recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. The stink bugs Chinavia impicticornis (Stal), C. ubica (Rolston), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Thyanta perditor (Westwood) and Tibraca limbativentris (Stal) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. The main compounds identified on the glands of Brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the E isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(E)-2-alkenals. The first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from Nezara viridula L., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. Later the soybean stink bug E. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyl decanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyl dodecanoate, and methyl E2, Z4-decadienoate. Recently, three new Brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. Males of T. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2E, 4Z, 6Z-decatrienoate. Whereas, the stink bug, P. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene beta-sesqui phellandrene, and the stink bug T. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. In this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from Brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs. (author)

  18. Genetic Variability of Two Leaffooted Bugs, Leptoglossus clypealis and Leptoglossus zonatus (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in the Central Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, A L; Higbee, B S; Haviland, D R; Brailovsky, H

    2017-10-16

    Leaffooted plant bugs (LFPBs) (Leptoglossus spp., Guérin-Méneville) (Hemiptera: Coreidae) are large seed-feeding bugs native to the Western Hemisphere. In California, several Leptoglossus spp. feed on almonds, pistachios, and pomegranate and are occasional pests. The objective of this study was to survey the different species of Leptoglossus present in almond, pistachio, and pomegranate orchards in the Central Valley of California. We used two molecular markers, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and mitochondrial DNA COI, to determine the number of species or strains of each species, and to infer whether individuals of each species move and possibly interbreed with populations from the other host plants. Two species of leaffooted bugs were abundant, Leptoglossus clypealis Heidemann, and Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas). L. clypealis was collected in almond and pistachio, while L. zonatus was found on all three host plants, but was the dominant species in pomegranate. The AFLP results indicated that L. clypealis consisted of one species, which suggests it moves between almonds and pistachios during the growing season. Mitochondrial DNA COI for L. clypealis found 1-2% divergence between sequences, and a high haplotype diversity of 0.979 with 17 haplotypes. The AFLP results for L. zonatus found two genetically divergent populations which were morphologically similar. The mtDNA COI sequences for L. zonatus were used for haplotype analysis; three haplotypes were found in California, with one haplotype shared with collections from Brazil. The importance of genetic variability and cryptic species for pest management are discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  19. Epidaus wangi (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), a new assassin bug from Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhu, Guangxiang; Wang, Jianyun; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-08-18

    Epidaus wangi Chen, Zhu, Wang & Cai, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) from Tibet, China, is described and illustrated based on male and female specimens. The new species is morphologically similar to E. tuberosus Yang, 1940. The new species represents the first record of Epidaus species from Tibet.

  20. Ecological patterns of blood-feeding by kissing-bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Rabinovich

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Host use by vectors is important in understanding the transmission of zoonotic diseases, which can affect humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Here, a synthesis of host exploitation patterns by kissing-bugs, vectors of Chagas disease, is presented. For this synthesis, an extensive literature review restricted to feeding sources analysed by precipitin tests was conducted. Modern tools from community ecology and multivariate statistics were used to determine patterns of segregation in host use. Rather than innate preferences for host species, host use by kissing-bugs is influenced by the habitats they colonise. One of the major limitations of studies on kissing-bug foraging has been the exclusive focus on the dominant vector species. We propose that expanding foraging studies to consider the community of vectors will substantially increase the understanding of Chagas disease transmission ecology. Our results indicate that host accessibility is a major factor that shapes the blood-foraging patterns of kissing-bugs. Therefore, from an applied perspective, measures that are directed at disrupting the contact between humans and kissing-bugs, such as housing improvement, are among the most desirable strategies for Chagas disease control.

  1. New synonymies in the plant bug family Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Fedor V

    2016-12-09

    The plant bug fauna of China is highly diverse and relatively poorly documented, with almost 900 currently known species, about a half of which had been revealed during the last two decades (Qi et al. 2003, 2007, Konstantinov & Namyatova 2008, 2009, Konstantinov et al. 2013). Future studies would almost certainly reveal many new species from the region. However, the present day distributions of Chinese plant bugs apparently reflect significant climate change since the Tertiary Period, and are largely influenced by influx of species from other regions. Particularly, the plant bug fauna of the Northwestern China is most similar to the faunas of Central Asia and Mongolia, having almost identical generic composition and sharing many common species (Kerzhner & Josifov 1999). This paper provides seven new synonymies of Miridae originally known from Central Asia and Mongolia and recently described as new from the Northern China.

  2. Assessment of Feeding Acceptance and Injury of Kerman Pistachios, Pistacia vera, by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Matthew T; Hernandez, Gabriel; Nay, Justin; Hoddle, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, California (CA) is the primary commercial producer of pistachio nuts, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae). The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive and polyphagous insect pest from Asia, has established in urban areas in several pistachio-growing counties in CA. Breeding BMSB populations have not been detected in commercial pistachio acreage. However, the detection of BMSB in Kern and Fresno counties, major Kerman pistachio producing areas in CA, underscored key knowledge gaps on BMSB ecology in CA and motivated investigations on the susceptibility of pistachio nuts to BMSB feeding. Laboratory feeding trials conducted in quarantine under permit indicated that adult BMSB stylets can penetrate developing pistachio shells and associated feeding was correlated with kernel necrosis for nuts collected mid to late season (June to August 2016). Feeding damage estimates indicated that higher levels of kernel injury were associated with female BMSB when compared to feeding by male BMSB. These results suggest that there is probable risk of feeding damage to field grown pistachios from BMSB. The implications of this study for BMSB pest management in the CA pistachio system and future research directions are discussed. PMID:29117381

  3. Assessment of Feeding Acceptance and Injury of Kerman Pistachios, Pistacia vera, by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Jesús R; Kamiyama, Matthew T; Hernandez, Gabriel; Nay, Justin; Hoddle, Mark S; Gao, Yulin

    2017-09-01

    In the United States, California (CA) is the primary commercial producer of pistachio nuts, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae). The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an invasive and polyphagous insect pest from Asia, has established in urban areas in several pistachio-growing counties in CA. Breeding BMSB populations have not been detected in commercial pistachio acreage. However, the detection of BMSB in Kern and Fresno counties, major Kerman pistachio producing areas in CA, underscored key knowledge gaps on BMSB ecology in CA and motivated investigations on the susceptibility of pistachio nuts to BMSB feeding. Laboratory feeding trials conducted in quarantine under permit indicated that adult BMSB stylets can penetrate developing pistachio shells and associated feeding was correlated with kernel necrosis for nuts collected mid to late season (June to August 2016). Feeding damage estimates indicated that higher levels of kernel injury were associated with female BMSB when compared to feeding by male BMSB. These results suggest that there is probable risk of feeding damage to field grown pistachios from BMSB. The implications of this study for BMSB pest management in the CA pistachio system and future research directions are discussed. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  4. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Stalk-Eyed Bug Chauliops fallax Scott, and the Monophyly of Malcidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Gao, Cuiqing; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    Chauliops fallax Scott, 1874 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Malcidae: Chauliopinae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of soybean and rice fields in Asia. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,739 bp long, with an A+T content of 73.7%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and a control region. All genes were arranged in the same order as most of other Heteroptera. A remarkable strand bias was found for all nine protein coding genes (PCGs) encoded by the majority strand were positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew, whereas the reverse were found in the remaining four PCGs encoded by the minority strand and two rRNA genes. The models of secondary structures for the two rRNA genes of sequenced true bugs and Lygaeoidea were predicted. 16S rRNA consisted of six domains (domain III is absent as in other known arthropod mitochondrial genomes) and 45 helices, while three domains and 27 helices for 12S rRNA. The control region consists of five subregions: a microsatellite-like region, a tandem repeats region and other three motifs. The unusual intergenic spacer between tRNA-H and ND4 only found in the species of Lygaeoidea, not in other heteropteran species, may be the synapomorphy of this superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on all the 13 PCGs showed that Chauliopinae was the sister group of Malcinae and the monophyly of Lygaeoidea. PMID:23390534

  5. Ontogenetic trajectory and allometry of Diplonychus rusticus (Fabricius), an Oriental aquatic bug (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) from the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Dnyaneshwar; Morey, Rashmi; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Padhye, Sameer M; Paripatyadar, Shruti V

    2017-03-01

    Despite being one of the dominant groups in freshwater ecosystems, morphological and ontogenetic studies on aquatic Hemiptera have received little attention in the Oriental region. We present the ontogenetic trajectory and allometry of the widespread Oriental belostomatid species, Diplonychus rusticus (Fabricius) for the first time. We have measured nine different morphological variables throughout the growth of the bug using both field captured and laboratory reared specimens. Our results suggest that the developmental instars can be distinguished by the size variables, as seen in the Principal Component Analysis. On the basis of a CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) based regression tree, we also show that the characters - total length without head and maximum width - prove to be adequate for effective instar identification. The multivariate allometric growth pattern shows that different body parts exhibit different types of allometry. This is apparent in the allometry exhibited by forelegs and mid and hind legs, which show allometry of opposite polarities. This may be due to the different functions attributed to these body parts. Our results show that the growth pattern in D. rusticus is comparable with the New World genus Belostoma, suggesting a conserved growth pattern in the family Belostomatidae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cell lines derived from the squash bug, anasa tristis (coreidae: hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The squash bug, Anasa tristis, is a pest of cucurbits that exerts direct damage on crops and is a vector of plant pathogens. We established cell lines from this insect to serve as tools for basic biology, such as virology and immunology, as well as applied studies, such as insecticide development pr...

  7. First records of the dicyphine plant bug Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Bryocorinae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread plant bug Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) is reported for the first time from Mexico. In this paper we provide a diagnosis and photographs of the adult male and female, discuss its habits as a plant pest and a predator and potential biocontrol agent of soft-bodied arthropods, and review ...

  8. Insights into the saliva of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2), but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4).

  9. Insights into the saliva of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Peiffer

    Full Text Available We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2, but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4.

  10. Insights into the Saliva of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2), but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4). PMID:24586332

  11. Estimating potential stylet penetration of southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) - A mathematical modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern green stink bugs, Nezara viridula (L.), and related species are significant pests of cotton in the U.S. Cotton Belt. Using their stylets, adults introduce disease pathogens of cotton into cotton bolls, and preliminary data indicates nymphs can also ingest these pathogens. Data is lacking ...

  12. A Laboratory Evaluation of Chemigation to Manage Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xing; Roberts, Phillip M; Porter, Wesley M; Perry, Calvin D; Toews, Michael D

    2017-04-01

    Application of insecticides for stink bug management through overhead irrigation, also called chemigation, could reduce application costs, soil compaction, and applicator exposure, while enabling growers to treat multiple fields simultaneously. The objective of these laboratory experiments was to compare knockdown, survival, and efficacy of insecticides when appropriately diluted for ground sprayer and chemigation applications. Treatments included water, bifenthrin [0.11 kg (AI)/ha] and dicrotophos [0.56 kg (AI)/ha] diluted for a ground sprayer (93.5 liters/ha), bifenthrin and dicrotophos diluted for chemigation (25,396 liters/ha), and bifenthrin and dicrotophos plus adjuvants diluted for ground sprayer or chemigation. Two- to 14-day-old adults of Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Halyomorpha halys (Stål) were briefly submerged in appropriately diluted insecticides and then introduced into a disposable petri dish with or without food. Dishes were placed in a growth chamber provisioned with digital video cameras to monitor knockdown and feeding after insecticide exposure. Knockdown was visually assessed at 24 h after treatment followed by mortality and recovery from knockdown at 48 h after treatment. All stink bugs were knocked down within 1 h and never recovered when exposed at ground sprayer dilutions. However, many bugs survived chemigation dilutions. Less than half of the stink bugs were knocked down when exposed to dicrotophos (with or without adjuvants) and survival ranged from 17 to 77%, compared to 7-90% survival when exposed to bifenthrin at chemigation dilutions. These results strongly suggest that chemigation applications for stink bug management need to be closely examined. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. First record of the thread-legged assassin bug genus Proguithera from Japan, with description of a new species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tadashi; Naka, Takeru

    2016-11-02

    The thread-legged assassin bug genus Proguithera Wygodzinsky, 1966 of the emesine tribe Leistarchini (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) is recorded from Japan for the first time, and a new species P. kiinugama sp. nov., the third representative of this genus, is described based on specimens from Ishigaki-jima Island in the Ryukyu Islands. This new species can be distinguished from its congeners primarily by the absence of a median longitudinal sulcus on the anterior pronotal lobe, forewing with an incomplete cross vein connecting the M+Cu vein and a submarginal vein basad of the discal cell, and the anteroventral series of the profemur consisting of about 30 spine-like setae.

  14. First records of two flower bug genera from Myanmar (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae: Anthocorinae: Oriini), with description of a new species of Bilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Tomohide; Yamada, Kazutaka; Soe, Zayar; Naing, Shine Shane

    2016-08-31

    Two oriine flower bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) genera, Bilia Distant, 1904 and Wollastoniella Reuter, 1884 are reported from Myanmar for the first time, diagnosed, and discussed. A new species, Bilia burma Yasunaga & Yamada sp. nov., is described, with information on the immature form, habitat and assumed prey; its closest sister species, B. castanea (Carvalho, 1951), is also re-diagnosed. Wollastoniella rotunda Yasunaga & Miyamoto, 1993 originally described from northern Thailand, is also documented along with its immature form and new host association. Both of the anthocorids found in Myanmar co-occurred with lace bugs (Tingidae). A checklist of all current members of Bilia and Wollastoniella is provided. The phylogenic positions of Bilia and Wollastoniella in the tribe Oriini is discussed.

  15. Milkweed (Gentianales: Apocynaceae): a farmscape resource for increasing parasitism of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and providing nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Carpenter, J E

    2014-04-01

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, the stink bugs Nezara viridula (L.) and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and the leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.) (Hemiptera: Coreidae), disperse at crop-to-crop interfaces to feed on bolls in cotton. The main objective of this study was to determine whether insecticide-free tropical milkweed (Asclepias curassavica L.), a nectar-producing plant, can increase parasitism of these bugs by Trichopoda pennipes (F.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) and provide nectar to monarch butterflies and insect pollinators in these farmscapes. Peanut-cotton plots with and without flowering milkweed plants were established in 2009 and 2010. Adult T. pennipes, monarch butterflies, honey bees, and native insect pollinators readily fed on floral nectar of milkweed. Monarch larvae feeding on milkweed vegetation successfully developed into pupae. In 2009, N. viridula was the primary host of T. pennipes in cotton, and parasitism of this pest by the parasitoid was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (61.6%) than in control cotton (13.3%). In 2010, parasitism of N. viridula, C. hilaris, and L. phyllopus by T. pennipes was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (24.0%) than in control cotton (1.1%). For both years of the study, these treatment differences were not owing to a response by the parasitoid to differences in host density, because density of hosts was not significantly different between treatments. In conclusion, incorporation of milkweed in peanut-cotton plots increased stink bug parasitism in cotton and provided nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

  16. Effects of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding Injury on Sweet Corn Yield and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissel, William J; Mason, Charles E; Whalen, Joanne; Hough-Goldstein, Judith; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2015-06-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an Asian species that now dominates the stink bug complex in many cultivated crops throughout the mid-Atlantic United States. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) is a preferred host of H. halys, and the bug can cause kernel injury on developing ears. Currently, there is limited information available on which plant growth stages are most sensitive to H. halys feeding or density of bugs required to cause yield and quality reductions on processing and fresh market sweet corn ears. In 2011 and 2012, sweet corn ears were infested at three different corn growth stages: silking (R1), blister (R2), and milk (R3) at densities of zero, one, three, and five H. halys adults per ear for 7 d. At harvest, four yield measurements were assessed and ears were inspected for quality reductions. The greatest yield loss from H. halys occurred when infestations were initiated during early stages of ear development, and the greatest quality reductions (damaged kernels) occurred during later stages of ear development. A density of one H. halys per ear resulted in levels of kernel damage great enough to cause significant quality reductions. This study highlights the ability of H. halys to cause substantial economic losses in both fresh market and processing sweet corn in a relatively short period of time at low population densities. Therefore, infestations by this insect in sweet corn must be considered when making pest management decisions in regions where it has become established. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Redbanded Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Infestation and Occurrence of Delayed Maturity in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyavhare, Suhas S; Way, Michael O; Pearson, Rebecca A; Medina, Raul F

    2015-08-01

    Studies done in Brazilian soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merril, in the 1970s suggested the redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), is principally responsible for delayed maturity in this crop. This stink bug species has recently emerged as a serious pest of soybean in the southern United States, where little is known about its association with the occurrence of delayed maturity disorder. Also, the mechanism behind stink bug-induced soybean delayed maturity remains unknown. It is believed that stink bug feeding during pod development stages results in reduced pod-seed load, causing alteration of source-sink ratio and eventually delayed maturity. To determine the P. guildinii threshold triggering delayed maturity in soybean, experiments were conducted with varying levels of P. guildinii infestation (0, 2, 4, and 8 adults per 0.3 m) during the R4 to R5 soybean growth stages. In addition, to determine if soybean delayed maturity is exclusively because of reduced pod load, experiments with different levels of mechanical pod removal (0, 25, 50, and 75%) were conducted on field-grown soybeans. P. guildinii densities up to 4 adults per 0.3 m did not trigger occurrence of delayed maturity. However, a density of 8 adults per 0.3 m produced a significant increase in the number of green leaves retained on plants at maturity (i.e., delayed maturity). There was no effect of mechanical pod removal on green leaf retention. The lack of a significant positive correlation between mechanical pod removal and green leaf retention indicates the involvement of mechanism(s) other than reduced pod load in the occurrence of soybean delayed maturity. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Traps and trap placement may affect location of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and increase injury to tomato fruits in home gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Chris; Martinson, Holly M; Raupp, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of field crops, fruit orchards, commercial vegetables, ornamental plants, and home vegetable gardens. Pheromone-baited traps designed to attract, trap, and kill H. halys are marketed for use in home gardens to reduce damage to plants. To test this assertion, we conducted the following experiment: One group of 15 gardeners placed stink bug traps at the end of a row of tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum (L.), in their vegetable garden and another group of 14 placed no traps in their garden and served as controls. Gardeners with traps were no more or less likely to have H. halys on tomato plants than those without traps, but the abundance of H. halys on tomato fruits was marginally greater in gardens with traps. However, tomato fruits grown in gardens with traps sustained significantly more injury than tomato fruits grown in gardens without traps. Furthermore, tomato fruits on plants near the trap housed more H. halys than tomato fruits on plants at the end of a row away from the trap. Traps may be useful in identifying gardens where H. halys is likely to be found and ones in which stink bug injury to tomatoes is likely. We found no evidence that stink bug traps protected tomatoes from H. halys, and it appears that the addition of traps to gardens may increase injury to tomato fruits.

  19. Populations of Rice Grain Bug,Paraeuscosmetus pallicomis, (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in Weed-free Paddy Field, Weedy Paddy Field and Paddy Dykes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Tamrin; Nasruddin, Andi; Agus, Nurariaty

    2017-07-01

    Research on the populations of rice grain bug Paraeuscosmetus pallicomis Dallas (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in paddy field ecosystems was performed with the aim to determine the populations of rice grain bug in weed-free paddy field, weedy paddy field, and paddy dykes. Experiment was carried out in the village of Paccellekang in the district of Patallasang of Gowa Regency in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Observations were performed during the milky grain stage (85 days after planting), the mature grain stage (105 days after planting), and one day after harvest (115 days after transplanting). Results showed that 85 days after the transplanting, the populations of rice grain bug was significantly higher in the weedy paddy field compared to weed-free field and paddy dykes with total numbers of 1.75, 3.53, and 0.31 insects per 2 hills, respectively. Similarly, 105 days after the transplanting, 2.53, 5.53, and 0.11 insects per hill, respectively. However, one day after the harvest (115 days after transplanting) the number of insects in weed-free field decreased, while in the dykes increased, and the weedy plot still had the highest number of insects per 2 hills. Our results suggested that weeds played an important role in regulating the bug population by providing alternative shelter and foods for the insect.

  20. Monitoring of brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) population dynamics in corn to predict its abundance using weather data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Cottrell, Ted E; Buntin, G David; Li, Xianchun; Wang, Wei; Zhuang, Hong

    2017-10-13

    The brown stink bug (BSB), Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious economic pest of corn production in the southeastern United States. The BSB population dynamics was monitored for 17 weeks from tasseling to preharvest of corn plants (i.e., late May to mid-September) using pheromone traps in three corn fields from 2005 to 2009. The trap data showed two peaks in early June and mid-August, respectively. The relationship between trap catch and pregrowing season weather data was examined using correlation and stepwise multiple factor regression analyses. Weather indices used for the analyses were accumulated growing degree day (AGDD), number of days with minimum temperature below 0 °C (Subz), accumulated daily maximum (AMaxT) and minimum temperatures (AMinT) and rainfall (ARain). The weather indices were calculated with lower (10 °C) and upper (35 °C) as biological thresholds. The parameters used in regression analysis were seasonal abundance (or overall mean of BSB adult catch) (BSBm), number of BSB adults caught at a peak (PeakBSB), and peak week (Peakwk). The BSBm was negatively related to high temperature (AmaxT or AGDD) consistently, whereas 1stPeakBSB was positively correlated to both ARain and Subz, irrespective of weather data durations (the first 4, 4.5, and 5 months). In contrast, the 7-month weather data (AGDD7) were negatively correlated to the BSBm only, but not correlated to the second PeakBSB. The 5-year monitoring study demonstrated that weather data can be used to predict the BSB abundance at its first peak in tasseling corn fields in the southeastern U.S. states. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the stalk-eyed bug Chauliops fallax Scott, and the monophyly of Malcidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera.

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    Teng Li

    Full Text Available Chauliops fallax Scott, 1874 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Malcidae: Chauliopinae is one of the most destructive insect pests of soybean and rice fields in Asia. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,739 bp long, with an A+T content of 73.7%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and a control region. All genes were arranged in the same order as most of other Heteroptera. A remarkable strand bias was found for all nine protein coding genes (PCGs encoded by the majority strand were positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew, whereas the reverse were found in the remaining four PCGs encoded by the minority strand and two rRNA genes. The models of secondary structures for the two rRNA genes of sequenced true bugs and Lygaeoidea were predicted. 16S rRNA consisted of six domains (domain III is absent as in other known arthropod mitochondrial genomes and 45 helices, while three domains and 27 helices for 12S rRNA. The control region consists of five subregions: a microsatellite-like region, a tandem repeats region and other three motifs. The unusual intergenic spacer between tRNA-H and ND4 only found in the species of Lygaeoidea, not in other heteropteran species, may be the synapomorphy of this superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on all the 13 PCGs showed that Chauliopinae was the sister group of Malcinae and the monophyly of Lygaeoidea.

  2. Morphology and Proteome Characterization of the Salivary Glands of the Western Chinch Bug (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, Crystal; Wayadande, Astri; Baird, Lisa; Nandakumar, Renu; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Amundsen, Keenan; Donze-Reiner, Teresa; Baxendale, Frederick; Sarath, Gautam; Heng-Moss, Tiffany

    2015-08-01

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides (Nuttall) due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland morphology and the associated salivary complex of this insect. Whole and sectioned B. occiduus salivary glands were visualized using light and scanning electron microscopy to determine overall structure and cell types of the salivary glands and their individual lobes. Microscopy revealed a pair of trilobed principal glands and a pair of tubular accessory glands of differing cellular types. To link structure with function, the salivary gland proteome was characterized using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The salivary proteome analysis resulted in B. occiduus sequences matching 228 nonhomologous protein sequences of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), with many specific to the proteins present in the salivary proteome of A. pisum. A number of sequences were assigned the molecular function of hydrolase and oxido-reductase activity, with one specific protein sequence revealing a peroxidase-like function. This is the first study to characterize the salivary proteome of B. occiduus and the first of any species in the family Blissidae. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Relationship between external stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) boll-feeding symptoms and internal boll damage with respect to cotton lint gin-out and fiber quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinka, Eric L; Herbert, Ames; Malone, Sean; Van Duyn, John W; Roberts, Phillip; Bradley, J R; Bacheler, Jack S

    2010-12-01

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., bolls from 17 field locations in northeastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia, having 20% or greater internal boll damage, were studied to determine the relationship between external feeding symptoms and internal damage caused by stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding. In 2006 and 2007, two cohorts of 100 bolls each were sampled at all field locations. The first cohort was removed as bolls reached approximately quarter size in diameter (2.4 cm). External and internal symptoms of stink bug feeding were assessed and tabulated. Concurrent to when the first cohort was collected, a second cohort of quarter-size-diameter bolls was identified, tagged, examined in situ for external feeding symptoms (sunken lesions), and harvested at the black seed coat stage. Harvested bolls were assessed for internal damage and locks were categorized (undamaged, minor damage, or major damage), dried, and ginned. Lint samples from each damage category were submitted for high volume instrument and advanced fiber information system quality analyses. Significant, moderately strong Pearson correlation coefficients existed between number of external stink bug feeding lesions and internal damage. Pearson correlation of total external lesions with total internal damage was stronger than any correlation among the other single components compared. Predictability plots indicated a rapid increase in relationship strength when relating external stink bug lesions to internal damage as the number of external lesions increased. Approximately 90% predictability of internal damage was achieved with four (2006) or six (2007) external lesions per boll. Gin-turnout and fiber quality decreased with increasing intensity of internal stink bug damage.

  4. First observation of alternative food usage (extrafloral nectar by the assassin bug Atopozelus opsimus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

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    Rhainer Guillermo-Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Assassin bugs (Reduviidae are voracious insects that prey on other arthropods. Recent evidences have pointed out that these predators also feed on plant derived substances in rare opportunities. The present study describes the feeding behavior of the reduviid Atopozelus opsimus on extrafloral nectaries of Inga vera (Fabaceae in a Neotropical savanna area. It was investigated if the insects feed more frequently of extrafloral nectar or prey, and if individuals of different stages of development vary according to feeding behavior. Notably, the results suggest that the diet of all instars and adults consist mainly of extrafloral nectar (N = 1013, in detriment of captured prey ingestion (N = 18. Also, there was no variation on feeding behavior and life stage.

  5. Building-Up of a DNA Barcode Library for True Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Germany Reveals Taxonomic Uncertainties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Hendrich, Lars; Küchler, Stefan M.; Deister, Fabian; Morinière, Jérome; Gossner, Martin M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species) our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae), Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae), Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae)) as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833) (Aradidae) or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811) (Anthocoridae)). PMID:25203616

  6. Building-up of a DNA barcode library for true bugs (insecta: hemiptera: heteroptera) of Germany reveals taxonomic uncertainties and surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J; Hendrich, Lars; Küchler, Stefan M; Deister, Fabian; Morinière, Jérome; Gossner, Martin M

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species) our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae), Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae), Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae)) as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833) (Aradidae) or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811) (Anthocoridae)).

  7. Life history parameters of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a stink bug injurious to pistachios in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Paul G; Daane, Kent M

    2014-02-01

    Life history parameters were established under controlled laboratory conditions for the green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (= Acrosternum hilare), to improve pest control in pistachios in California. Parameters measured and calculated included survival and development at seven constant temperatures (ranging from 15 to 35 degrees C), development time, upper and lower development thresholds, thermal constants, fecundity, generation time, net reproductive rate, and intrinsic rate of increase. C. hilaris did not complete development at 15 and 35 degrees C. Within the range of 20-27.5 degrees C, development time decreased linearly with temperature; it increased again at 30 degrees C. The lower threshold was calculated by linear methods to be 12.3 degrees C, and the thermal constant was calculated to be 588 degree days. Fastest development was recorded at 27.5 degrees C, whereas greatest survival was observed at 22.5 degrees C. At 27.5 degrees C, mean fecundity was 53.5 eggs per female, mean generation time was 74.4 d, net reproductive rate was 20.09, and intrinsic rate of increase was 0.04. Use of a nonlinear model yielded estimates of 13.2, 28.4, and 33.4 degrees C, for the lower threshold, optimum temperature, and upper threshold, respectively. Results were compared with similar studies and interpreted in the light of pest management needs in pistachio. Increased emphasis on monitoring and management ofoverwintering sites and early-season migration are recommended.

  8. Halophilanema prolata n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae, a parasite of the intertidal bug, Saldula laticollis (Reuter(Hemiptera: Saldidae on the Oregon coast

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    Poinar George O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is rare to find terrestrial nematode lineages parasitizing arthropods inhabiting the intertidal or littoral zone of the oceans. During an ecological study along the Oregon dunes, an allantonematid nematode (Tylenchomorpha: Allantonematidae was discovered parasitizing the intertidal shore bug, Saldula laticollis (Reuter(Hemiptera: Saldidae. This shore bug is adapted to an intertidal environment and can survive short periods of submergence during high tides. The present study describes the nematode parasite and discusses aspects of its development, ecology and evolution. Methods Adults and last instar nymphs of S. laticollis (Hemiptera: Saldidae were collected from the high intertidal zone among clumps of Juncus L. (Juncaceae plants at Waldport, Oregon on October 3, 2011. The bugs were dissected in 1% saline solution and the nematodes killed in 1% Ringers solution and immediately fixed in 5% formalin (at 20°C. Third stage juveniles removed from infected hosts were maintained in 1% saline solution until they matured to the adult stage, molted and mated. Results Halophilanema prolata n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae is described from last instar nymphs and adults of the intertidal bug, Saldula laticollis on the Oregon coast. The new genus can be distinguished from other genera in the Allantonematidae by a stylet lacking basal knobs in both sexes, an excretory pore located behind the nerve ring, ribbed spicules, a gubernaculum, the absence of a bursa and the elongate-tubular shape of the ovoviviparous parasitic females. Studies of the organogenesis of Halophilanema showed development to third stage juveniles in the uterus of parasitic females. Maturation to the free-living adults and mating occurred in the environment. The incidence of infection of S. laticollis ranged from 0% to 85% depending on the microhabitat in the intertidal zone. Conclusions Based on the habitat and morphological characters, it is proposed

  9. Phylogenetics and biogeography of the endemic Madagascan millipede assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthman, Michael; Weirauch, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    For at least the past 80my, Madagascar, a major biodiversity hotspot, has been isolated from all other landmasses. This long-term isolation, along with geologic and climatic factors within Madagascar and throughout the Indian Ocean, has undoubtedly influenced the evolution of the island's biota. However, few systematic analyses incorporating modern divergence dating and biogeographic analyses have focused on Madagascan insects. The diverse Madagascan millipede assassin bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae) offer an opportunity to contribute to a limited body of insect-related research that explores Madagascar's historical biogeography. A molecular dataset (COI mtDNA and 18S, 28S D2 and D3-D5 rDNAs) for 56 taxa (39 ingroup) and a combined morphological (145 characters) and molecular dataset for 110 taxa (93 ingroup) are analyzed with maximum likelihood (ML) and parsimony approaches. Based on the molecular ML phylogeny, divergence times were estimated using fossil and secondary calibrations and biogeographic analyses performed using DIVA, DEC, and DEC+j models to determine the role and patterns of vicariance and dispersal in the origin of Madagascan Ectrichodiinae. Results indicate that Ectrichodiinae in Madagascar do not form a monophyletic group, different clades are closely related to Afrotropical and Oriental lineages, and have colonized the island via transoceanic dispersal at least twice from the Oriental region and once from the Afrotropical region in the last ∼68my. Additionally, the DEC+j and DIVA models infer a single out-of-Madagascar dispersal event to the Afrotropical region. Oceanic and geologic factors that may have facilitated dispersal between these three regions are discussed. Results of the combined analyses are used to explore character support for Madagascan taxa and inform taxonomic diagnoses. Our results are congruent with the small but growing body of biogeographic research supporting Cenozoic transoceanic dispersal for Madagascan

  10. Flight behavior of foraging and overwintering brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D-H; Leskey, T C

    2015-10-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is a highly polyphagous invasive species attacking both cultivated and wild plants increasing its threat to ecosystems as a global pest. However, dispersal biology of this invasive species is not well understood. This study evaluated the flight capacity and behavior of H. halys under laboratory, semi-field, and field conditions. Flight mills were used to measure the baseline flight capacity of adults collected year round from the field and included both foraging and overwintering populations. The effects of abiotic conditions such as wind speed and temperatures on the free flight parameters of H. halys were evaluated under semi-field and field conditions. The mean flight distances over a 22-h period were 2442 and 2083 m for male and female, respectively. Most individuals (89%) flew <5 km, though some flew much further with a maximum flight distance observed of 117 km. Flight distances by H. halys increased after emergence from overwintering sites in spring and reached their highest point in June. The incidence of take off by H. halys was significantly affected by the wind speed; when provided with still air conditions, 83% of individuals took off, but the rates decreased to <10% when wind speed was increased to or above 0.75 m s-1. The incidence of take off by H. halys was significantly affected by ambient temperature and light intensity in the field, whereas relative humidity and insect sex did not. When the temperature was at 10-15°C, 3% of individuals took off, but the proportion of H. halys taking flight increased to 61, 84, and 87% at 15-20, 20-25, and 25-30°C, respectively. In the field, prevailing flight direction was biased toward the opposite direction of the sun's position, especially in the morning. The implications of H. halys flight biology are discussed in the context of developing monitoring and management programs for this invasive species.

  11. Frugivory by Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Alters Blueberry Fruit Chemistry and Preference by Conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yucheng; Giusti, M Monica; Parker, Joyce; Salamanca, Jordano; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2016-10-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive pest from Asia that feeds on many agricultural crops in the United States, including blueberries. Yet, the effects of H. halys feeding on fruit chemistry and induced resistance to insects remain unknown. Here we hypothesized that frugivory by H. halys changes fruit chemical composition, which in turn affects insect feeding behavior. In field experiments, blueberry fruit was either mechanically injured or injured by 0 (control), 2, 5, or 10 H. halys Total soluble solids (°Brix) and anthocyanin and phenolic content in injured and uninjured fruits, as well as their effects on feeding behavior by conspecifics, were measured subsequently in the laboratory. Results showed lower °Brix values in injured fruit as compared with uninjured fruit. Fruit injured by 2 and 5 H. halys also had 32 and 20% higher total phenolics, respectively, than the uninjured controls. The proportions of the anthocyanins derived from delphinidin, cyanidin, and petunidin increased, whereas those from malvidin decreased, in fruit after mechanical wounding and frugivory by H. halys In dual-choice tests, H. halys fed more often on uninjured fruit than those previously injured by conspecifics. These results show that frugivory by H. halys reduces the amounts of soluble solids, alters anthocyanin ratios, and increases levels of phenolics, and, as a result, injured fruits were a less preferred food source for conspecifics. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effects of frugivory on fruit chemistry and induced fruit resistance against a fruit-eating herbivore. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Carbohydrases in the digestive system of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

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    Ghamari, Mahboob; Hosseininaveh, Vahid; Darvishzadeh, Ali; Chougule, Nanasaheb P

    2014-04-01

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris, is a generalist predator of insects and has been used in biological control. However, information on the digestion of food in this insect is lacking. Therefore, we have studied the digestive system in P. maculiventris, and further characterized carbohydrases in the digestive tract. The midgut of all developmental stages was composed of anterior, median, and posterior regions. The volumes of the anterior midgut decreased and the median midgut increased in older instars and adults, suggesting a more important role of the median midgut in food digestion. However, carbohydrase activities were predominant in the anterior midgut. In comparing the specific activity of carbohydrases, α-amylase activity was more in the salivary glands (with two distinct activity bands in zymograms), and glucosidase and galactosidase activities were more in the midgut. Salivary α-amylases were detected in the prey hemolymph, demonstrating the role of these enzymes in extra-oral digestion. However, the catalytic efficiency of midgut α-amylase activity was approximately twofold more than that of the salivary gland enzymes, and was more efficient in digesting soluble starch than glycogen. Midgut α-amylases were developmentally regulated, as one isoform was found in first instar compared to three isoforms in fifth instar nymphs. Starvation significantly affected carbohydrase activities in the midgut, and acarbose inhibited α-amylases from both the salivary glands and midgut in vitro and in vivo. The structural diversity and developmental regulation of carbohydrases in the digestive system of P. maculiventris demonstrate the importance of these enzymes in extra-oral and intra-tract digestion, and may explain the capability of the hemipteran to utilize diverse food sources. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Optimization an optimal artificial diet for the predatory bug Orius sauteri (hemiptera: anthocoridae.

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    Xiao-Ling Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flower bug Orius sauteri is an important polyphagous predator that is widely used for the biological control of mites and aphids. However, the optimal conditions for mass rearing of this insect are still unclear, thus limiting its application. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we investigated the optimal ingredients of an artificial diet for raising O. sauteri using a microencapsulation technique. The ingredients included egg yolk (vitellus, whole-pupa homogenate of the Tussah silk moth (Antheraea paphia, honey, sucrose, rapeseed (Brassica napus pollen and sinkaline. We tested 25 combinations of the above ingredients using an orthogonal experimental design. Using statistical analysis, we confirmed the main effect factors amongst the components, and selected five optimal combinations based on different biological and physiological characters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results showed that, although different artificial diet formats significantly influenced the development and reproductive ability of O. sauteri, the complete development of O. sauteri to sexual maturity could only be achieved by optimizing the artificial diet according to specific biological characters. In general, pupae of A. paphia had more influence on O sauteri development than did artificial components. The results of a follow-up test of locomotory and respiratory capacity indicated that respiratory quotient, metabolic rate and average creeping speed were all influenced by different diets. Furthermore, the field evaluations of mating preference, predatory consumption and population dispersion also demonstrated the benefits that could be provided by optimal artificial diets. CONCLUSIONS: A microencapsulated artificial diet overcame many of the difficulties highlighted by previous studies on the mass rearing of O. sauteri. Optimization of the microencapsulated artificial diet directly increased the biological and physiological characters investigated. Successive

  14. In BOLD we trust? A commentary on the reliability of specimen identification for DNA barcoding: a case study on burrower bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Jerzy A; Lis, Barbara; Ziaja, Dariusz J

    2016-05-20

    An assessment was performed regarding the accuracy of various types of data deposited in the Barcode of Life Data system (BOLD) related to the true bug family Cydnidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Taxonomic nomenclature and classification, identification reliability, and the correctness of the data provided in the "Taxon description" were analyzed and commented on with respect to both available versions of the BOLD system, i.e. version 3 and beta version 4. Numerous mistakes in taxonomy, the relevance of the taxa names, and species misidentifications in BOLD version 3 were found and, more importantly, similar errors were detected in BOLD version 4 as well. We suggest that if the BOLD system is presumed to be taxonomically trustworthy, it can't exist without an adequate a priori identification of barcoded specimens. Otherwise, the erroneous data deposited onto the BOLD platform will have a negative impact on studies in which molecular data imported from BOLD are utilized.

  15. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dilip Venugopal

    Full Text Available The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855, contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  16. Adjacent habitat influence on stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) densities and the associated damage at field corn and soybean edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, P Dilip; Coffey, Peter L; Dively, Galen P; Lamp, William O

    2014-01-01

    The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855), contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields.

  17. Morphology and proteome characterization of the salivary glands of the western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus (Hemiptera: Blissidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber, is a serious pest of buffalograss due to physical and chemical damage caused during the feeding process. Although previous work has investigated the feeding behaviors of chinch bugs in the Blissus complex, no study to date has explored salivary gland ...

  18. Biochemical Assay Detects Feeding Damage to Loblolly Pine Seeds Caused by the Leaffooted Pine Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron G. Lait; Daniel R. Miller; Sarah L. Bates; John H. Borden; Allison R. Kermode

    2003-01-01

    A large number of proteins in salivary gland extracts of the leaffooted pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus Say, were strongly recognized by a polyclonal antibody-based assay developed for detecting saliva of the western conifer seed bug, Lepfoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, in lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var...

  19. Patogenicidade do fungo entomopatogênico Beauveria bassiana sobre o percevejo Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae / Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana against the grass bug Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Barboza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae é uma praga de cereais cultivados e pastagens, e o controle microbiano é uma alternativa para manter estas populações abaixo do nível de dano econômico. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade do isolado CG 460 de Beauveria bassiana sobre este percevejo. Insetos adultos foram inoculados em laboratório com cinco concentrações de conídios (1,0x105; 1,0x106; 1,0x107; 1,0x108 e 1,0x109 conídios.mL-1 e alimentados com folhas de trigo. A mortalidade total e confirmada (conidiogênese sobre os insetos mortos foram avaliadas durante seis dias consecutivos. O isolado apresentou alta capacidade infectiva sobre o mirideo, com mortalidade total variando de 40 a 90%. A mortalidade confirmada apresentou uma correlação linear positiva com a concentração de conídios. A taxa de conidiogênese nas concentrações mais baixas do inoculo foi em torno de 26%, sendo que nas concentrações maiores os valores chegaram a 70%. O tempo letal 50 para a concentração 109 foi de 4,3 dias.AbstractThe grass bug, Collaria scenica (Hemiptera: Miridae, is a pest of cereal crops and pastures, and the microbial control is an alternative to maintain the pest population below economic injury level. The present work had the objective to assess the pathogenicity isolate CG460 of Beauveria bassiana against this grass bug. Adult insects had been inoculated in laboratory with five conidia concentrations (1.0x105, 1.0x106, 1.0x107, 1.0x108, 1.0x109 conidia.mL-1, and fed with wheat leaves. Total and confirmed mortality (sporulation on the dead insects had been assessed during six consecutive days. CG460 showed high virulency on the grass bug, with the total mortality ranged from 40 to 90%. Confirmed mortality presented positive and linear correlation with the conidia concentrations. The conidiogenesis rates in the lowest concentrations of inoculum were around 26%, being that in the highest

  20. Host range of the exotic brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), implications for future distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary Bernon; Karen M. Bernhard; Anne L. Nielsen; James F. Stimmel; E. Richard Hoebeke; Maureen E. Carter

    2007-01-01

    Halyomorpha halys, (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest in eastern Asia on soybeans and woody plants, including broadleaved trees and fruit trees. A population was discovered in Allentown, PA in 2001. H. halys is also a nuisance pest as it overwinters in homes and other buildings. Based on earlier reports to the Lehigh County...

  1. Scratching the surface? Taxonomic revision of the subgenus Schizoptera (Odontorhagus) reveals vast undocumented biodiversity in the largest litter bug genus Schizoptera Fieber (Hemiptera: Dipsocoromorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Stephanie; Weirauch, Christiane

    2016-11-03

    Schizoptera Fieber, currently the largest genus of litter bugs (Hemiptera: Dipsocoromorpha), comprises 61 extant species in 4 subgenera. Specimens are abundant in New World bulk and residue samples. Schizoptera species showcase stunning morphology including intricate, asymmetrical genitalia in males that have proven to provide excellent species diagnostic features in the past. Recent bulk sample sorting efforts have revealed a vast number of Schizoptera specimens from across the New World, with the majority representing undescribed species. We here taxonomically revise the subgenus Schizoptera (Odontorhagus) that has recently been shown to form a monophyletic group within Schizoptera. Characterized by the blunt tooth on the posterior margin of the propleuron, Schizoptera (Odontorhagus) previously comprised 10 species from Central and the northern part of South America. We here describe 20 new species in S. (Odontorhagus): S. acuta, n. sp., S. angularis, n. sp., S. ansata, n. sp., S. aspera, n. sp., S. brevis, n. sp., S. dentata, n. sp., S. dolosa, n. sp., S. enigmatica, n. sp., S. exacta, n. sp., S. gorgonensis, n. sp., S. insidiosa, n. sp., S. monstrosa, n. sp., S. piscicaudata, n. sp., S. quasicompleta, n. sp., S. radicata, n. sp., S. serrata, n. sp., S. simpla, n. sp., S. singularis, n. sp., S. trivialis, n. sp., S. ungulata, n. sp., increasing the species count of Schizoptera to 81. We provide morphological documentation including digital habitus images and genitalic drawings for all new species and document and redescribe existing species where feasible. Distribution maps and a key to the species of Schizoptera (Odontorhagus) are also presented. We predict that similar increases in species numbers are to be expected for the remaining subgenera of Schizoptera, making this genus a very diverse lineage of minute litter bugs.

  2. Variation in social and sexual behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bugs (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae): the role of toxic and non-toxic food.

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    Burdfield-Steel, Emily R; Dougherty, Liam R; Smith, Lynsey A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding variation in social behaviour both within and among species continues to be a challenge. Evolutionary or ecological theory typically predicts the optimal behaviour for an animal under a given set of circumstances, yet the real world presents much greater variation in behaviour than predicted. This variation is apparent in many social and sexual interactions, including mate choice, and has led to a renewed focus on individual variation in behaviour. Here we explore within and among species variation in social behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bug (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera). These species are Müllerian mimics, with characteristic warning colouration advertising their chemical toxicity. We examine the role of diet in generating variation in two key behaviours: social aggregation of nymphs and mate choice. We test how behaviour varies with exposure to either milkweed (a source of defensive compounds) or sunflower (that provides no defence). We show that although the four species vary in their food preferences, and diet influences their life-history (as highlighted by body size), social aggregation and mate choice is relatively unaffected by diet. We discuss our findings in terms of the evolution of aposematism, the importance of automimicry, and the role of diet in generating behavioural variation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Using Calendula officinalis as a floral resource to enhance aphid and thrips suppression by the flower bug Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Guo, Xiaojun; Tan, Xiaoling; Desneux, Nicolas; Zappala, Lucia; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Su

    2017-03-01

    The flower bug Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is widely used as a biocontrol agent against thrips and aphids infesting greenhouse vegetables in Asia. The survival and oviposition of such predators, as well as the biocontrol services they provide, may be enhanced by adding extra floral resources to the crops. In the present study we investigated the effects of the plant Calendula officinalis L., used as a floral resource, for promoting the control of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) by O. sauteri under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Results showed that the presence of C. officinalis enhanced aphid and thrips suppression via an increased O. sauteri population growth. The predator populations responded positively to the addition of C. officinalis in the system, and they also varied as a function of the temperatures tested under laboratory conditions. In a similar way, predator populations varied among seasons, with the highest densities recorded in May in the greenhouse. C. officinalis can be used to increase available resources for natural enemies used in agricultural crops, notably in greenhouses. This study also provides evidence that increasing floral resources can enhance pest suppression provided by O. sauteri. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Up-regulation of carbon metabolism-related glyoxylate cycle and toxin production in Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 during infection of bean bug, Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ting; Lee, Se Jin; Nai, Yu-Shin; Kim, Sihyeon; Kim, Jae Su

    2016-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana (Bb) is used as an environment-friendly biopesticide. However, the molecular mechanisms of Bb-host interactions are not well understood. Herein, RNA isolated from B. bassiana (Bb JEF-007) and Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae) infected with this strain were firstly subjected to high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze and compare transcriptomes. Due to lack of fungal and host genome information, fungal transcriptome was processed to partially exclude non-infection specific genes and host-flora. Differentially Expressed Gene (DEG) analysis showed that 2381 genes were up-regulated and 2303 genes were down-regulated upon infection. Most DEGs were classified into the categories of single-organism, cellular and metabolism processes by Gene Ontology analysis. Most DEGs were involved in metabolic pathways based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway mapping. Carbon metabolism-related enzymes in the glyoxylate cycle were significantly up-regulated, suggesting a possible role for them in Bb growth in the host. Additionally, transcript levels of several fungal genes were dramatically increased after infection, such as cytotoxic lectin-like protein, bacterial-like toxin, proteins related to cell wall formation, hyphal growth, nutrient uptake, and halogenated compound synthesis. This work provides insight into how entomopathogenic B. bassiana grows in agriculturally harmful bean bug at 6 d post infection. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. First records in Italy of the red-listed shore bug Salda henschii (Reuter, 1891) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Saldidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Fabio; Norbiato, Margherita; Dogliotti, Marco

    2017-03-06

    Salda henschii (Reuter, 1891) is a boreo-montane species of Saldidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) restricted to mountain bogs and streams in central Europe (e.g., Western Carpathians, Alps) and to freshwater wetlands in lowland coastal areas in northern Europe (Fennoscandia); it is a vicariant of the arctic (Holarctic) element S. sahlbergi Reuter, 1875 (Hoberlandt 1977; Schuh et al. 1987; Péricart 1990; Lindskog 1991; Vinokurov 2010).

  6. Parasitism of stink bug eggs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae of soybean fields in the Triângulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Madelaine Venzon

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the seasonal occurrence of stink bug egg parasitoids was carried out in soybean fields in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Collections of egg masses of stink bugs and monitoring of population levels of mobile stages were done weekly during the 1993/94 and 1994/95 soybean seasons. Piezodorus guildinii and Euschistus heros were the most abundant stink bugs throughout the survey. Rates of parasitism in P. guildinii eggs ranged from 50.2 to 77% in 1993/94 and from 31.3 to 44.1% in the 1994/95 soybean season. Parasitism in E. heros eggs ranged from 50.6 to 64.7 % in 1993/94 but no parasitized eggs were found in 1994/95. Telenomus podisi was the main parasitoid collected and the only species found to parasitize E. heros eggs. Trissolcus brochymenae and Ooencyrtus sp. were found attacking P. guildinii eggs, but at low levels. We discuss the contribution of egg parasitoids to natural control of stink bugs.

  7. A remarkable new plant bug genus and species (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Deraocorinae) from the Australian wet tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Reza; Cassis, Gerasimos

    2017-02-15

    A new genus and new species of deraeocorine plant bug, Kalamemiris gen. nov. and Kalamemiris collessi sp. nov., is described from Australia. Illustrations of male genitalia, scanning electron micrographs of key characters of the male and female habitus, as well as male genitalic characters are provided. The diagnosis of the new genus is made in comparison to other deraeocorines of the Australian biogeographic region.

  8. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls charcterized by boll age, size and damage ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our studies over 2 years (2009 and 2010) and 2 locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated the relationship of feeding-injury of the verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant, to a range of cotton boll age classes further defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis...

  9. Verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) feeding injury to cotton bolls characterized by boll age, size, and damage ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Brewer, Michael J; Parker, Roy D; Adamczyk, J J

    2013-02-01

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Distant), has been present in south Texas for several years but has more recently been documented as an economic threat to cultivated cotton, (Gossypium hirsutum L. Our studies over 2 yr (2009 and 2010) and two locations (Weslaco and Corpus Christi, TX) investigated feeding-injury of the verde plant bug to a range of cotton boll age classes defined by boll diameter and accumulated degree-days (anthesis to the time of infesting) for first-position cotton bolls infested with the plant bugs. The most detrimental damage to younger cotton holls from verde plant bug feeding was boll abscission. Cotton bolls verde plant bug injured bolls compared with the controls up to 162 ACDD or a mean boll diameter 2.0 cm. Cotton seed weights were significantly reduced up to 179 ACDD or a boll diameter of 2.0 cm at Weslaco in 2009, and up to 317 ACDD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco in 2010 when compared with the noninfested controls. Lint weight per cotton boll for infested and noninfested bolls was significantly reduced up to 262 ACDD or boll diameter 2.5 for Corpus Christi in 2010 and up to 288 ACCD or boll diameter 2.6 cm for Weslaco, TX, in 2010. Damage ratings (dependant variable) regressed against infested and noninfested seed-cotton weights showed that in every instance, the infested cotton bolls had a strong and significant relationship with damage ratings for all age classes of bolls. Damage ratings for the infested cotton bolls that did not abscise by harvest showed visual signs of verde plant bug feeding injury and the subsequent development ofboll rot; however, these two forms of injury causing lint and seed mass loss are hard to differentiate from open or boll-locked cotton bolls. Based on the results of both lint and seed loss over 2 yr and four studies cotton bolls should be protected up to approximately 300 ACDD or a boll diameter of 2.5 cm. This equilibrates to bolls that are 12-14 d of age dependent upon daily maximum

  10. Review and three new species of the flat bug genus Neochelonoderus Hoberlandt, 1967 from East Africa (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Ernst; Grebennikov, Vasily

    2015-04-17

    The apterous East African Mezirinae flat bug genus Neochelonoderus Hoberlandt 1967 is revised. In addition to known species from Burundi (N. basilewskyi) and Democratic Republic of the Congo (N. straeleni), two new species from Tanzania (N. talaus n. sp. and N. areius n. sp.) and one from Zambia (N. hoberlandti n. sp.) are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Neochelonoderus is presented.

  11. Biochemical characterisation of the tissue degrading enzyme, collagenase, in the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghamari Mahboob

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Podisus maculiventris (Say is a generalist predator attacking many insect species from different orders. The bug injects saliva into its prey's body. The ingested hemolymph and liquefied internal tissues pass through the bug's alimentary tract. Collagenase working on peptide bonds of collagen and basement membrane proteins, leads to the disintegration of the prey's internal organs. As yet, there is an almost complete lack of knowledge on the collagenase activity in P. maculiventris. The collagenase activity of the salivary glands and midgut was optimum at pH 8.0 which was congruent with the optimal pH of the total proteolytic activity of the salivary glands. More collagenolytic activity was determined in the posterior lobe of the salivary glands and anterior midgut. Significant inhibition of collagenolytic activity by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA revealed the enzyme is a metalloproteinase. The collagenase activity notably decreased when the bug went hungry. The salivary gland collagenase is a vital enzyme in extra-oral digestion and facilitates the action of other digestive enzymes. The midgut collagenase may be involved in the digestion of the ingested muscle fibers. The collagenase probably acts as an intoxicating agent in the saliva (venom of P. maculiventris. Paralysing toxins are present in the salivary gland secretion.

  12. Field attraction of the stink bug Euschistus conspersus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to synthetic pheromone-baited host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, C H; Brunner, J F; Doerr, M D; Kahn, A D

    2001-12-01

    The attraction of the stink bug Euschistus conspersus Uhler to sources of the synthetic pheromone component methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate was investigated in a series of field experiments in native vegetation surrounding commercial apple orchards in Washington. In experiments with pheromone lures placed inside two different tube-type traps, stink bugs were attracted to the immediate area around traps in large numbers, but very few were caught in the traps. Pheromone lures attached directly to the host plant mullein, Verbascum thapsus L., demonstrated that these 'baited" plants attracted significantly more E. conspersus than unbaited plants. Spring (reproductive) and summer (reproductively diapausing) E. conspersus adults, both males and females, were attracted to pheromone-baited plants. There was no significant difference in the number of male or female E. conspersus attracted to pheromone-baited traps or plants in any of the experiments, further characterizing methyl (2E,4Z)-decadienoate as an aggregation, and not a sex pheromone. Stink bug aggregations formed within 24-48 h of lure placement on mullein plants and remained constant until the lure was removed after which aggregations declined over 3-4 d to the level of unbaited plants. The implications of these studies for E. conspersus monitoring and management are discussed.

  13. Use of artificial substrates of different colors for oviposition by the brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to a rearing methodology for the brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, in the laboratory, we evaluated oviposition on artificial substrates of different colors. During six days, oviposition was evaluated daily, by counting the total number of eggs, number of clutches, and eggs/clutch. Females laid 12,463 eggs, in 1,677 clutches, resulting in an average of 7.28 ± 0.44 eggs/clutch. Black, brown, and green felt had the most eggs and clutches. The results demonstrated that many colors are suitable as oviposition substrate for E. heros, providing information for the mass rearing of this insect.

  14. Three new species of the ant-mimetic plant bug genus Pilophorus from Japan (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae: Pilophorini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Tomohide; Duwal, Ram Keshari

    2016-05-31

    Three new species of the ant-mimetic plant bug genus Pilophorus Hahn, P. maeharai, P. nakatanii and P. tagoi, are described from Japan, with information on their host associations. The genus is briefly diagnosed and discussed, including P. typicus (Distant) which is assumed to have two genotypes based on mitochondrial sequence data. The generic placement of P. tagoi, at first sight reminiscent of a certain member of Pherolepis Kulik, is also proven definitely. A checklist of all currently known species of Pilophorus in Japan is provided, with compiled distribution and host records.

  15. Climate Change Impacts on the Potential Distribution and Abundance of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) With Special Reference to North America and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistner, Erica Jean

    2017-12-08

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål; Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), has recently emerged as a harmful pest of horticultural crops in North America and Europe. Native to East Asia, this highly polyphagous insect is spreading rapidly worldwide. Climate change will add further complications to managing this species in terms of both geographic distribution and population growth. This study used CLIMEX to compare potential H. halys distribution under recent and future climate models using one emission scenario (A2) with two different global circulation models, CSIRO Mk3.0 and MIROC-H. Simulated changes in seasonal phenology and voltinism were examined. Under the possible future climate scenarios, suitable range in Europe expands northward. In North America, the suitable H. halys range shifts northward into Canada and contracts from its southern temperature range limits in the United States due to increased heat stress. Prolonged periods of warm temperatures resulted in longer H. halys growing seasons. However, future climate scenarios indicated that rising summer temperatures decrease H. halys growth potential compared to recent climatic conditions, which in turn, may reduce mid-summer crop damage. Climate change may increase the number of H. halys generations produced annually, thereby enabling the invasive insect to become multivoltine in the northern latitudes of North America and Europe where it is currently reported to be univoltine. These results indicate prime horticultural production areas in Europe, the northeastern United States, and southeastern Canada are at greatest risk from H. halys under both current and possible future climates. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Long-term patterns and feeding sites of southern green stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Hawaii macadamia orchards, and sampling for management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M G; Follett, P A; Golden, M

    2007-12-01

    Southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula, Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a pest of macadamia nuts, causing pitting to kernels by feeding. In spite of its pest status, many aspects of the ecology of this insect in macadamia orchards are poorly understood. This study analyzes long-term N. viridula damage to macadamia nuts and investigates the extent to which damage to nuts occurs in the tree canopy, prior to nut-drop. We show that there are distinct seasonal peaks in damage detected after harvest and that, over six years of data collection, mean damage levels were fairly low, albeit with spikes in damage levels recorded. Sampling nuts at peak harvest periods from different strata in the trees and from the ground showed that incidence of damaged nuts within the canopy was typically half as high as on the fallen nuts. Damage to fallen nuts may have occurred prior to nut-drop, and continued to accumulate after nut-drop. These results show that management of N. viridula within macadamia canopies, as opposed to only on fallen nuts, is important. A sampling procedure and predictive model for estimating late-season damage based on early-season damage samples is provided. The model uses January and March damage measurements (based on samples with set level of accuracy), mean temperature and month of the year for which damage is predicted. Early-season damage of 6-10% predicts late-season damage levels that should justify N. viridula suppression based on the nominal threshold (13% damage) used by kernel processors to reject nuts based on damage.

  17. Temporal Effects on the Incidence and Severity of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding Injury to Peaches and Apples during the Fruiting Period in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V; Nita, Mizuho; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Exclusion cages were used to compare the incidence and severity of feeding injury from brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on 'Redhaven' peaches, 'Golden Delicious' apples, and 'Smoothee Golden' apples at harvest, following sequential periods of exposure to natural H. halys populations during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in Virginia. The fruit used in these experiments were in orchards or on trees that were not managed for H. halys. Treatments were sets of 50 fruit that were always caged, never caged, or exposed during one interval during the fruiting period of peaches and apples in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The cages effectively prevented feeding injury from H. halys. Peaches and apples that were never caged showed the highest percentages of injured fruit at harvest. Exposure treatment had a significant effect on the percentage of fruit showing external injury at harvest in both years for apples and in 2012 for peaches, and a significant effect on the percentage of apples and peaches showing internal injury at harvest in both years. There was no consistent effect of each exposure period on peach injury, but apples exposed during the mid- to latter portion of the season tended to show most injury. Across all exposure periods, more internal than external injuries were recorded at harvest from peaches, while apples tended to have equal or very similar numbers of both kinds of injury. The implications of these results to H. halys management in eastern apple orchards are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Determination of Growth Stage-Specific Response of Soybean to Redbanded Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and its Relationship to the Development of Flat Pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyavhare, Suhas S; Way, Michael O; Medina, Raul F

    2015-08-01

    The redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), has recently emerged as a serious pest of soybean in the southern United States. Field cage studies were conducted to determine the response of R2 to R6 stage soybean to P. guildinii infestation. Soybean at R2 to R6 stages was infested with zero, one, two, and four P. guildinii adults per 0.3 m for 10 d using cylindrical wire mesh cages. Plant response was measured in terms of number of flat pods, seed yield, test weight, and number of seeds per pod. Results from a 2012 study showed significant yield reduction in response to P. guildinii infestations during the R3 to R6 stages. While results from a similar 2013 study showed a significant yield reduction only when R5 and R6 stage soybean were infested. Decrease in yield was owing to the combination of reduced seed weight and increased numbers of flat pods as a result of P. guildinii infestation. In addition, a field experiment was conducted to determine if flat pods are localized to the regions of P. guildinii feeding. Adults were confined to certain portions of plants (bottom, top, and both) using specially designed cages isolating these portions of the plants. Results from this experiment showed a significantly higher percentage of flat pods on plant portions infested with P. guildinii than those kept free of P. guildinii infestation, indicating that flat pods are the result of direct P. guildinii damage and are localized to the area of P. guildinii feeding. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The first assess of the haplotypes from COI gene sequences in species of spittlebugs (Cicadomorpha: Hemiptera) and aquatic true bugs (Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha: Hemiptera) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanhole, M M U; Marchesin, S R C; Pereira, L L V; Moreira, F F F; Barbosa, J F; Valério, J R; Itoyama, M M

    2013-11-07

    We made the first analysis of the COI gene sequences of 22 species of spittlebugs and aquatic true bugs sampled in São Paulo State (Brazil) and used this information to determine the variability within these groups. Considering each codon position, we observed that the third base was the most variable, and the first base was the most conserved. Among species, Mahanarva fimbriolata and Deois flavopicta had the greatest genetic distance (0.181), and Notozulia entreriana and Mahanarva sp had the smallest distance (0.055), with an average variation of 0.119. In Gerromorpha, the greatest distance occurred between Halobatopsis platensis and Rhagovelia zela (0.401), while between Cylindrostethus palmaris and Brachymetra albinervis albinervis, the distance was only 0.187; the average value observed for the Gerromorpha was 0.265. In the Nepomorpha, the species Buenoa antigone antigone and Belostoma micantulum had the greatest genetic distance (0.337), while Martarega brasiliensis and B. a. antigone had the smallest (0.154). The average value observed for Nepomorpha was 0.203. In Cicadomorpha (Auchenorrhyncha) and Nepomorpha (Heteroptera), the COI gene has been conserved; however, it is still useful for characterization of the different taxa. COI analysis was unable to resolve some of the Gerromorpha groups.

  20. Dusky Cotton Bug Oxycarenus spp. (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Hibernating Sites and Management by using Plant Extracts under Laboratory Conditions

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    Abbas Muneer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus spp., has now attained the status of a major pest of cotton crops that affects lint as well as the seed quality of cotton. Surveys were conducted to explore the hibernating sites in the districts Faisalabad, Multan and Bahawalpur. The efficacies of six different plant extracts, i.e. Neem (Azadirachta indica, Milkweed (Calotropis procera, Moringa (Moringa oleifera, Citrus (Citrus sinensis, Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum and Castor (Ricinus communis were tested by using three different concentrations of each plant extract, i.e. 5, 2.5 and 1.5% under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C and 70±5% RH. The data were recorded 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after treatment application. However, Psidium guajava, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Mangifera indica were graded as host plants heavily infested by Oxycarenus spp. Results (α≤0.05 indicated that increasing the concentration of extracts also increased the mortality. Nicotiana tobacum and Calotropis procera respectively displayed maximum 72 and 71, 84 and 80, 97 and 89% mortality at all concentrations, i.e. 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00%, after 96 hours of application. Two concentrations (2.5 and 5% are the most suitable for obtaining significant control of the dusky cotton bug.

  1. Population Genetic Baseline of the First Plataspid Stink Bug Symbiosis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Reported in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Tracie M.; Eaton, Tyler D.

    2011-01-01

    The stink bug, Megacopta cribraria, has an obligate relationship with a bacterial endosymbiont which allows it to feed on legumes. The insect is a pest of soybeans in Asia and was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in October 2009 on kudzu vine, Pueraria montana, in North Georgia, USA. By October 2010 M. cribraria had been confirmed in 80 counties in Georgia actively feeding on kudzu vine and soybean plants. Since the symbiosis may support the bug's ecological expansions, a population genetic baseline for the symbiosis was developed from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nuDNA) gene sequence collected from each insect and its primary γ- proteobacterium and secondary α -proteobacterium endosymbionts. A single mitochondrial DNA haplotype was found in all insects sampled in Georgia and South Carolina identified as GA1. The GAI haplotype appears to be rapidly dispersing across Georgia and into contiguous states. Primary and secondary endosymbiont gene sequences from M. cribraria in Georgia were the same as those found in recently collected Megacopta samples from Japan. The implications of these data are discussed. PMID:26467727

  2. Population Genetic Baseline of the First Plataspid Stink Bug Symbiosis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae) Reported in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Tracie M Jenkins; Eaton, Tyler D

    2011-06-24

    The stink bug, Megacopta cribraria, has an obligate relationship with a bacterial endosymbiont which allows it to feed on legumes. The insect is a pest of soybeans in Asia and was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in October 2009 on kudzu vine, Pueraria montana, in North Georgia, USA. By October 2010 M. cribraria had been confirmed in 80 counties in Georgia actively feeding on kudzu vine and soybean plants. Since the symbiosis may support the bug's ecological expansions, a population genetic baseline for the symbiosis was developed from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nuDNA) gene sequence collected from each insect and its primary g- proteobacterium and secondary a -proteobacterium endosymbionts. A single mitochondrial DNA haplotype was found in all insects sampled in Georgia and South Carolina identified as GA1. The GAI haplotype appears to be rapidly dispersing across Georgia and into contiguous states. Primary and secondary endosymbiont gene sequences from M. cribraria in Georgia were the same as those found in recently collected Megacopta samples from Japan. The implications of these data are discussed.

  3. Culturing and Characterization of Gut Symbiont Burkholderia spp. from the Southern Chinch Bug, Blissus insularis (Hemiptera: Blissidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Buss, Eileen A; Boucias, Drion G

    2016-06-01

    The phloem-feeding Southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis, harbors a high density of the exocellular bacterial symbiont Burkholderia in the lumen of specialized midgut crypts. Here we developed an organ culture method that initially involved incubating the B. insularis crypts in osmotically balanced insect cell culture medium. This approach enabled the crypt-inhabiting Burkholderia spp. to make a transition to an in vitro environment and to be subsequently cultured in standard bacteriological media. Examinations using ribotyping and BOX-PCR fingerprinting techniques demonstrated that most in vitro-produced bacterial cultures were identical to their crypt-inhabiting Burkholderia counterparts. Genomic and physiological analyses of gut-symbiotic Burkholderia spp. that were isolated individually from two separate B. insularis laboratory colonies revealed that the majority of individual insects harbored a single Burkholderia ribotype in their midgut crypts, resulting in a diverse Burkholderia community within each colony. The diversity was also exhibited by the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these Burkholderia cultures. Access to cultures of crypt-inhabiting bacteria provides an opportunity to investigate the interaction between symbiotic Burkholderia spp. and the B. insularis host. Furthermore, the culturing method provides an alternative strategy for establishing in vitro cultures of other fastidious insect-associated bacterial symbionts. An organ culture method was developed to establish in vitro cultures of a fastidious Burkholderia symbiont associated with the midgut crypts of the Southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis The identities of the resulting cultures were confirmed using the genomic and physiological features of Burkholderia cultures isolated from B. insularis crypts, showing that host insects maintained the diversity of Burkholderia spp. over multiple generations. The availability of characterized gut-symbiotic Burkholderia cultures provides

  4. Toxicity of essential oils from leaves of Piperaceae species in rice stalk stink bug eggs, Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

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    Diones Krinski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tibraca limbativentris to is an important rice pest and occurs in all rice-growing regions of Latin America. The control this insect is accomplished with synthetic chemical insecticides, however, new approaches are needed to reduce risks to the environment, to the natural enemies and also to avoid the onset of insecticides resistance. This study was designed to assess the toxicity of essential oils (EOs from leaves of Piper aduncum, P. gaudichaudianum, P. malacophyllum, P. marginatum and P. tuberculatum (Piperaceae on rice stalk stink bug eggs, T. limbativentris. Essential oils were extracted with steam distillation and dilutions were made for bioassays at concentrations of 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0%. Essential oils from all species of Piperaceae displayed ovicidal activity. The LC50 values indicated that both younger and older eggs were susceptible to these oils. Ovicidal activity is related to the potential toxicity of several compounds, especially dilapiolle, myristicin, cubebene, α-guaiene, longifolene, prezizane, spathulenol, sabinene and δ-2-carene. Thus, EOs tested showed promising results for use as biorational botanical insecticides.

  5. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll rotting bacteria vectored by the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, E G; Bell, A A; Duke, S E

    2016-09-01

    To determine the capacity of the brown stink bug (BSB) (Euschistus servus) to transmit an infective Pantoea agglomerans strain Sc 1-R into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) bolls. A laboratory colony of BSB was maintained on fresh green beans. Either sterile or Sc 1-R contaminated beans were offered to adult insects. Strain Sc 1-R holds rifampicin resistance (Rif(r) ). Insects were then caged with unopened greenhouse-grown bolls. After 2 days, BSB were surface sterilized, ground, and then plated on media with and without Rif. Two weeks later, seed with lint were ground and plated on media with and without Rif. Microbes were recovered on nonselective media from all BSBs and from seed/lint at concentrations reaching 10(9)  CFU g(-1) tissue. Rif(r) bacteria were recovered strictly from insects exposed to Sc1-R and from diseased seed/lint of respective bolls. Euschistus servus was capable of transmitting strain Sc 1-R into bolls resulting in disease. Insects not exposed to the pathogen deposited bacteria yet the nonpathogenic microbes produced insignificant damage to the boll tissue. This is the first study to concretely show the capacity of the BSB to transmit an infective P. agglomerans strain resulting in boll disease. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Population dynamics and structure of the neotropical bark bug Phloea subquadrata (Hemiptera: Phloeidae) on Plinia cauliflora (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomão, Adriana T; Vasconcellos-Neto, João

    2010-12-01

    Phloea subquadrata Spinola, 1837 (Pentatomoidea: Phloeidae) belongs to a small family of sap feeding bugs that live on tree trunks, on which they are cryptic because of their coloration and flat body. There are a few studies concerning phloeid anatomy and biology, but almost nothing is known about their ecology. In this study, population dynamics and structure of P. subquadrata on the host tree Plinia cauliflora (Myrtaceae) were investigated during 3 yr in a semideciduous forest in southeast Brazil. Nymphs and adults were active all year round, but the egg-laying season was mainly restricted to the warm, rainy season (September-March). Population density slightly increased at the end of this season because of reproduction. Population age structure changed markedly over time, with nymphs reaching the adult stage in the subsequent early-to-mid rainy season. Abiotic factors, such as rainfall and temperature, were correlated with female oviposition and population dynamics and phenology. Sex ratio was male-biased, not differing from 1:1 only during the adult recruitment period (October-January). Under dry weather conditions, phloeids were distributed closer to the base of the tree trunks when compared with rainy conditions. Our results suggest that seasonality and variations in weather conditions are important driving forces of population dynamics and phenology of P. subquadrata, as well as the microhabitat selection on host trees. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  7. Spatial Distribution of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Injury at Harvest in Mid-Atlantic Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V; Stallings, Jonathan W; Leskey, Tracy C; Krawczyk, Greg; Polk, Dean; Butler, Bryan; Bergh, J Christopher

    2014-10-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), injury to late-season apple cultivars was measured at harvest in 2011 and 2012 in commercial orchards in four mid-Atlantic states. In each orchard block, a border zone (adjacent to woods), an interior zone (near orchard center), and an intermediate zone (between border and interior zones) comprised 1-3 tree rows per zone, depending on block size. Just before commercial harvest, 10 fruit were sampled from the upper, middle, and lower third of the canopy from five trees in each zone. After 3-5 wk in cold storage, fruit were examined for external and internal injury, and severity of internal injury (number of injury sites per fruit) from H. halys. A zero-inflated negative binomial model accounted for significant variation among the orchards and showed that apples from the upper canopy of border zone trees had the highest probability of experiencing external and internal injury. A minor interaction was detected among the orchards and zones for injury prevalence and severity, but there was no evidence of an orchard showing less expected injury in the border zone compared with other zones. Adjusting for orchard-to-orchard variation, differences in injury distributions among the zones and canopies were primarily due to injury prevalence rather than expected injury severity. The implications of these results to scouting and managing H. halys in eastern apple orchards are discussed. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  8. Biochemical aspects of the soybean response to herbivory injury by the brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbó, Renata Velozo; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Silva, Luciano Paulino; Mehta, Angela; Moraes, Maria Carolina Blassioli; Paula, Débora Pires

    2014-01-01

    Plant defense response is an elaborate biochemical process shown to depend on the plant genetic background and on the biological stressor. This work evaluated the soybean biochemical foliar response to brown stink bug herbivory injury through an analysis of redox metabolism and proteomic 2DE profiles of susceptible (BRS Silvania RR) and resistant (IAC-100) varieties. The activity of lipoxygenase-3, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase was monitored every 24 h up to 96 h. In the susceptible variety, injury caused an increase in the activities of lipoxygenase 3 and guaiacol peroxidase, no change in ascorbate peroxidase, and a decrease in catalase. In the resistant variety, injury did not cause an alteration of any of these enzymes. The proteomic profiles were evaluated after 24 h of injury and revealed to have a similar proportion (4-5%) of differential protein expression in both varieties. The differential proteins, identified by mass spectrometry, in the susceptible variety were related to general stress responses, to plant defense, and to fungal infections. However, in the resistant variety, the identified change in protein profile was related to Calvin cycle enzymes. While the susceptible variety showed adaptive changes in redox metabolism and expression of stress-responsive proteins, the resistant showed a defense response to circumvent the biological stressor.

  9. Biochemical aspects of the soybean response to herbivory injury by the brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Velozo Timbó

    Full Text Available Plant defense response is an elaborate biochemical process shown to depend on the plant genetic background and on the biological stressor. This work evaluated the soybean biochemical foliar response to brown stink bug herbivory injury through an analysis of redox metabolism and proteomic 2DE profiles of susceptible (BRS Silvania RR and resistant (IAC-100 varieties. The activity of lipoxygenase-3, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase was monitored every 24 h up to 96 h. In the susceptible variety, injury caused an increase in the activities of lipoxygenase 3 and guaiacol peroxidase, no change in ascorbate peroxidase, and a decrease in catalase. In the resistant variety, injury did not cause an alteration of any of these enzymes. The proteomic profiles were evaluated after 24 h of injury and revealed to have a similar proportion (4-5% of differential protein expression in both varieties. The differential proteins, identified by mass spectrometry, in the susceptible variety were related to general stress responses, to plant defense, and to fungal infections. However, in the resistant variety, the identified change in protein profile was related to Calvin cycle enzymes. While the susceptible variety showed adaptive changes in redox metabolism and expression of stress-responsive proteins, the resistant showed a defense response to circumvent the biological stressor.

  10. Population Genetic Baseline of the First Plataspid Stink Bug Symbiosis (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae Reported in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D. Eaton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The stink bug, Megacopta cribraria, has an obligate relationship with a bacterial endosymbiont which allows it to feed on legumes. The insect is a pest of soybeans in Asia and was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in October 2009 on kudzu vine, Pueraria montana, in North Georgia, USA. By October 2010 M. cribraria had been confirmed in 80 counties in Georgia actively feeding on kudzu vine and soybean plants. Since the symbiosis may support the bug’s ecological expansions, a population genetic baseline for the symbiosis was developed from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nuDNA gene sequence collected from each insect and its primary g- proteobacterium and secondary a -proteobacterium endosymbionts. A single mitochondrial DNA haplotype was found in all insects sampled in Georgia and South Carolina identified as GA1. The GAI haplotype appears to be rapidly dispersing across Georgia and into contiguous states. Primary and secondary endosymbiont gene sequences from M. cribraria in Georgia were the same as those found in recently collected Megacopta samples from Japan. The implications of these data are discussed.

  11. A new species and a new synonymy of the plant bug genus Fulvius from Japan (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Cylapinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Tomohide; Wolski, Andrzej

    2017-02-20

    Fulvius Stål (Cylapinae: Fulviini) is a large plant bug genus, with more than 80 described species distributed throughout the world (Schuh, 1995; 2002-2014). In Japan, five species listed below have been recorded mostly from the subtropical Ryukyu arc (Yasunaga, 2000, 2001; Yasunaga & Miyamoto, 2006; Yasunaga et al., 2012). Our recent closer examinations of these Japanese species suggest that (1) what was previously identified as Fulvius dimidiatus Poppius represents an undescribed species, and (2) F. nakatai Yasunaga & Miyamoto described from Okinawa Island is evidently conspecific with F. subnitens Poppius that was described from New Guinea but is now known from pantropical zones as well as Taiwan, Europe and United States (Gorczyca, 2006; Henry et al., 2011). The present paper provides a revised checklist for the Japanese species of Fulvius, with updated distributional records. A new species, F. nozawai, is diagnosed and described, its habitat and biology are also documented, and Fulvius nakatai is proposed as a junior synonym of the pantropical F. subnitens.

  12. Evaluating lepidopteran defoliation resistance in soybean breeding lines containing the stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) resistance IAC-100 cultivar in their pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Robert M; Buss, Glenn R

    2007-06-01

    Sixty-five soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, breeding lines containing 'IAC-100' in their pedigrees were evaluated for their resistance to lepidopteran defoliation in replicated field trials during 2001-2005. Three soybean cultivars, IAC-100 (with resistance to stink bug [Hemiptera: Pentatomidael feeding), 'Dillon', and 'Hutcheson', also were included in the evaluations. The percentage defoliation among these 68 entries ranged from 4.3 to 28.3% in 2001 and from 35.0 to 99.0% in 2002. Lepidopteran caterpillars, primarily Anticarsia gemmatalis Hiibner, but also some Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) and Hypena scabra (F.), peaked at 14.3 per row-meter on 11 September 2001 and at 39.7 per row-meter on 22 August 2002. Twenty-six entries with better resistance potential, plus two cultivars, were selected for continued evaluations in 2003 and 2004. Defoliation ranged from 23.3 to 56.7% among the 28 entries in 2003 and from 16.3 to 42.5% in 2004, with peak caterpillar densities of 20.3 per row-meter on 17 September 2003 and 14.5 per row-meter on 8 September 2004. From these differential responses, 12 entries were included for advanced resistance evaluations in 2005. The breeding line entries 52 (IAC-100 X V89-1301), 23 (IAC-100 X V89-1301), and 14 (IAC-100 X V71-370), plus entry 37 (IAC-100) had lower defoliation rankings during all 5 yr of this study, with the entry having the lowest defoliation ranked 1 and the entry with highest defoliation ranked either 68, 28, or 12, based on the number of entries evaluated each year. The overall mean rankings of these four entries over the 5 yr of this study were 4.4, 3.0, 4.2, and 4.6, respectively. A fifth entry, 30 (IAC-100 x V71-370), was in the top group with lower defoliation in 4 yr of this 5-yr study, and it had an overall mean ranking of 5.6. A sixth entry, 35 (Hutcheson X IAC-100), had moderate resistance (overall ranking of 19.2) compared with the standard Hutcheson (30.8 ranking of a possible highest ranking of 40

  13. A case of extensive congregation of Man-faced Stink Bug Catacanthus incarnatus (Drury (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae together with new host records from western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Waghmare

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the congregation of Stink Bug Catacanthus incarnatus. For the first time this bug was reported at high altitude i.e., 792m. The study reports the congregation of C. incarnatus on four new host plant species viz., Ixora brachiata, Memecylon umbellatum, Glochidion ellipticum and Olea dioica. More infestation was observed on I. brachiata. 

  14. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S; Reisig, Dominic D; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Roe, R Michael

    2016-09-16

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae: A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudh Dhammi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F., poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  16. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    OpenAIRE

    Toews Michael D; Mustafic Adnan; Xia Jinjun; Haidekker Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accura...

  17. Assessment of the impact of the egg parasitoid, Paratelenoumus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) on populations of the kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kudzu bug has become a pest of economic importance ever since its introduction to the Southeastern United States from Asia in 2009. It causes serious economic damage to legume crops (soybeans, bean, pigeon pea, mung bean, velvet bean etc.) and is a nuisance to home owners. One natural egg parasi...

  18. Review of the New World Tigava lace bug complex (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Tingidae), with the description of two new genera and two new species and a key to genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lace bug (Tingidae) genera belonging to the New World Tigava complex are reviewed. The two new genera and new species Mexicotingis brailovskyi, from Mexico, and Paraceratotingis convergens, from Venezuela, are described. Diagnoses, descriptions, and digital color photographs of the new taxa, d...

  19. Multiple model mimicry and feeding behavior of the spider web-inhabiting damsel bug, Arachnocoris berytoides Uhler (Hemiptera: Nabidae), from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier E. Mercado; Jorge A. Santiago-Blay

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical genus, Arachnocoris Scott groups thirteen species of specialized spider web-inhabiting damsel bugs (Nabidae) distributed from Panama to Brazil and the West Indies. We present new information on the web behavior of A. berytoides Uhler from Puerto Rico. Three different life stages were observed on the spider webs, suggesting this species likely depends on...

  20. Tropidosteptes forestierae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirinae): A new species of plant bug injuring ornamental Florida swampprivet, Forestiera segregata (Oleaceae), in South Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mirine plant bug Tropidosteptes forestierae, n. sp. is described from Collier County, Florida, where it was found causing serious injury to an extensive ornamental hedge of Florida swampprivet, Forestiera segretata (Jacq.) Krug & Urb. (Oleaceae). Adults, the fifth instar, and egg are described; ...

  1. Natural enemy impact on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), in organic agroecosystems: A regional assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding natural enemy impacts on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), gives insight into the population dynamics of this invasive pest and the potential for biological control. This two-year study provides a broad-scale assessment of mortality factors affecting s...

  2. Within-field spatial distribution of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)-induced boll injury in commercial cotton fields of the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulakkatu-Thodi, Ishakh; Reisig, Dominic D; Greene, Jeremy K; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Toews, Michael D

    2014-06-01

    Spatial distribution of boll injury caused by stink bugs to developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) bolls was studied in five commercial fields (≍22 ha each) in 2011 and 2012 to understand variability in boll injury dynamics within fields. Cotton bolls and stink bugs were sampled weekly from a georeferenced grid of sampling points (one sample per 0.40 ha) in each field, but no samples were taken within 30 m of field edges. The inverse distance weighted interpolation, variogram analysis, and Moran's I were used to describe spatial variability of boll damage within the fields. Boll injury was found to be spatially associated at distances ranging from ≍75 to 275 m with an average distance ≍150 m. An exponential variogram model was selected as the best fitting model to describe the spatial association in four of the five fields. Moran's I indicated that spatial association was significant in three of the five fields. The spread of boll injury from stink bugs was gradual in most fields and always exceeded the treatment threshold during the fourth or fifth week of bloom. Capture of stink bugs using a sweep net was inefficient, strongly suggesting that quantifying boll injury is a better sampling method and predictor of stink bug activity when sampling all but the edges of the field. These data suggest that scouts need to sample boll injury from sample locations separated by at least 150 m to assure independence in the central part of large fields. Second, future researchers who plan to use parametric statistical methods could use a 150-m grid, as opposed to a denser grid that would require greater time and effort.

  3. Potential geographic distribution of brown marmorated stink bug invasion (Halyomorpha halys)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Gengping; Bu, Wenjun; Gao, Yubao; Liu, Guoqing

    2012-01-01

    The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), native to Asia, is becoming an invasive species with a rapidly expanding range in North America and Europe...

  4. Ultrastructural analysis of salivary glands in a phytophagous stink bug revealed the presence of unexpected muscles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nathaly Castellanos; Luis C Martínez; Eder H Silva; Adenir V Teodoro; José Eduardo Serrão; Eugênio E Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The exceptional abilities of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to colonize a diverse group of plants have been attributed to the feeding behaviors and the functions of the salivary complex of these insects...

  5. Effect of climate change on annual fluctuations in the population density of the brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Ken

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between the population density of overwintering adults of the brown marmorated stink bug and the temperatures of each month during the preceding November to April was investigated in Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, from 1999 to 2012. The number of adults entering traps for overwintering at the monitored hibernation site differed considerably among years. There was a significant negative correlation between the increase ratio (the ratio of the number collected in the current year to the number collected in the previous year) and the mean daily maximum temperature of the preceding March and April. These results suggest that the proportion of surviving adult brown marmorated stink bug may be higher when temperatures in early spring (March and April) are lower, as the postoverwintering adults may need to survive without food for a shorter period of time.

  6. Review of the plant bug genus Fingulus Distant in Indochina (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Deraeocorini), with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Tomohide; Yamada, Kazutaka; Duangthisan, Jomsurang; Artchawakom, Taksin

    2016-08-24

    The deraeocorine plant bug genus Fingulus Distant from Indochina is reviewed, diagnosed and discussed. Seven species are currently recognized, including two new species described herein: F. angkorensis and F. rubricatus from Cambodia and Thailand. Behavior and habitat of F. angkorensis are documented, which was observed to be associated with two anthocorids and a thrips in leaf margin curl-galls produced by the thrips on a banyan tree Ficus microcarpa. A checklist including two species of the assumed sister genus Angerianus Distant is provided, with available distributional records; images of two Angerianus species are also shown for the first time.

  7. Identification and Expression Profile of Two Putative Odorant-Binding Proteins from the Neotropical Brown Stink Bug, Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, L R; Paula, D P; Zhou, J J; Liu, R; Pappas, G J; Moraes, M C B; Laumann, R A; Borges, M; Birkett, M A; Pickett, J A; Field, L M; Báo, S N

    2014-04-01

    This work presents the first identification of putative odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) from a member of the Pentatomidae, i.e. the brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Fabricius), an important pest of soybean in Brazil. Antennae from both sexes of E. heros adults (12 days old and unmated) were used to construct a cDNA library, from which two transcripts encoding putative E. heros OBPs (EherOBPs) were identified. The expression levels of EherOBP1 and EherOBP2 were found to be higher in male antennae than in female and there was difference in expression in legs, wings, and abdomens of the two sexes. The histolocalization of EherOBP1 and EherOBP2 transcripts in antennae also showed a sexual dimorphism in the chemoreception system, with different expression sites in the antennal segments between males and females, occurring predominantly at the base of the sensillum. The implications of these findings for stink bug chemoreception are discussed.

  8. Occurrence of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Wild Hosts in Nonmanaged Woodlands and Soybean Fields in North Carolina and Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, A J; Schoof, S C; Bickerton, M; Kamminga, K L; Jenrette, J C; Malone, S; Abney, M A; Herbert, D A; Reisig, D; Kuhar, T P; Walgenbach, J F

    2015-08-01

    Nonmanaged plants occurring along forest edges and in suburban settings were sampled for brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), in North Carolina (NC) and Virginia (VA) over the course of three growing seasons. Commercial soybeans (Glycine max), an attractive cultivated host, were also sampled in 2014 in NC and in VA from 2010-2014. Very few H. halys were found on nonmanaged plants or soybean fields in the coastal plain region of either state, but substantial populations were recorded in the piedmont and mountain regions. From 2011 to 2013, H. halys comprised from 51 to 97% of all stink bug species observed on nonmanaged plants in the piedmont and mountain regions. In VA, the distribution expanded from detection in 12 counties in 2010 to 53 counties in 2014, with economically damaging levels occurring in the piedmont region. During these studies, H. halys were observed to complete one and a partial second generation per year in western NC and southwestern VA, similar to that previously observed in regions farther north. Several plants were identified as preferred hosts, with tree of heaven, catalpa, yellowwood, paulownia, cherry, walnut, redbud, and grape having consistently high numbers of H. halys. Knowing that these plants are preferred by H. halys during certain stages of the insects' development will aid in the search for H. halys in new areas, as well as serve as one predictor of the likelihood of a certain area to attract and sustain large H. halys populations. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Behavioral Response of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to Semiochemicals Deployed Inside and Outside Anthropogenic Structures During the Overwintering Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William R; Acebes-Doria, Angelita; Ogburn, Emily; Kuhar, Thomas P; Walgenbach, James F; Bergh, J Christopher; Nottingham, Louis; Dimeglio, Anthony; Hipkins, Patricia; Leskey, Tracy C

    2017-06-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive species from Asia capable of causing severe agricultural damage. It can also be a nuisance pest when it enters and exits anthropogenic overwintering sites. In recent years, pheromone lures and traps for H. halys have been developed and used to monitor populations in field studies. To date, no study has investigated the applicability of these monitoring tools for use indoors by building residents during the overwintering period. Herein, we 1) assessed when in late winter (diapause) and spring (postdiapause) H. halys begins to respond to its pheromone (10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol), 2) evaluated whether pheromone-based tools can be used reliably for monitoring H. halys adults in unheated and heated buildings, and 3) elucidated the potential for indoor management using pheromone-baited traps. A 2-yr trapping study suggested that H. halys began to respond reliably to pheromone-baited traps after a critical photoperiod of 13.5 h in the spring. Captures before that point were not correlated with visual counts of bugs in buildings despite robust populations, suggesting currently available pheromone-baited traps were ineffective for surveillance of diapausing H. halys. Finally, because baited traps captured only 8-20% of the adult H. halys known to be present per location, they were not an effective indoor management tool for overwintering H. halys. Our study contributes important knowledge about the capacity of H. halys to perceive its pheromone during overwintering, and the ramifications thereof for building residents with nuisance problems. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Levels of Salivary Enzymes of Apolygus Lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae), From 1st Instar Nymph to Adult, and Their Potential Relation to Bug Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiumei; Xu, Xiuping; Gao, Yong; Yang, Qinmin; Zhu, Yunsheng; Wang, Jiqing; Wan, Fanghao; Zhou, Hongxu

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Apolygus lucorum has caused increasing damage to cotton and fruit trees in China. The salivary enzymes secreted by A. lucorum when sucking on host plants induce a series of biochemical reactions in plants, and the pre-oral digestion benefits the bug feeding. In this study, the food intake of A. lucorum from 1st instar nymphs to adults was measured, and the corresponding salivary activity of pectinase, amylase, cellulase, protease, polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase was determined. Daily food intake varied with developmental stage, peaking in 3rd and 4th instar nymphs. Pectinase, amylase, cellulase and protease were detected in both nymphal and adult saliva of A. lucorum, while neither polyphenol oxidase nor peroxidase was detected. Protease activity varied with food intake peaking at the 3rd-4th instar, and then slightly decreasing at the 5th instar. Levels of pectinase, amylase and cellulase increased significantly with the daily feeding level until the 3rd instar, corresponding with increasing damage to host plants. The activity of both cellulase and protease had a significant linear relationship with the average daily food intake. The increasing activity of enzymes in saliva explain stage-specific impacts of A. lucorum on the host plants, and suggest that optimal management of A. lucorum would be confined to its control threshold prior to the peak of daily feeding in the 3rd instar.

  11. Landscape factors facilitating the invasive dynamics and distribution of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), after arrival in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Adam M; Hamilton, George C; Nielsen, Anne L; Hahn, Noel; Green, Edwin J; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R

    2014-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, a native of Asia, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA. H. halys was first detected in the USA in the mid 1990s, dispersing to over 41 other states. Since 1998, H. halys has spread throughout New Jersey, becoming an important pest of agriculture, and a major nuisance in urban developments. In this study, we used spatial analysis, geostatistics, and Bayesian linear regression to investigate the invasion dynamics and colonization processes of this pest in New Jersey. We present the results of monitoring H. halys from 51 to 71 black light traps that were placed on farms throughout New Jersey from 2004 to 2011 and examined relationships between total yearly densities of H. halys and square hectares of 48 landscape/land use variables derived from urban, wetland, forest, and agriculture metadata, as well as distances to nearest highways. From these analyses we propose the following hypotheses: (1) H. halys density is strongly associated with urban developments and railroads during its initial establishment and dispersal from 2004 to 2006; (2) H. halys overwintering in multiple habitats and feeding on a variety of plants may have reduced the Allee effect, thus facilitating movement into the southernmost regions of the state by railroads from 2005 to 2008; (3) density of H. halys contracted in 2009 possibly from invading wetlands or sampling artifact; (4) subsequent invasion of H. halys from the northwest to the south in 2010 may conform to a stratified-dispersal model marked by rapid long-distance movement, from railroads and wetland rights-of-way; and (5) high densities of H. halys may be associated with agriculture in southern New Jersey in 2011. These landscape features associated with the invasion of H. halys in New Jersey may predict its potential rate of invasion across the USA and worldwide.

  12. Landscape factors facilitating the invasive dynamics and distribution of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, after arrival in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Wallner

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, a native of Asia, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA. H. halys was first detected in the USA in the mid 1990s, dispersing to over 41 other states. Since 1998, H. halys has spread throughout New Jersey, becoming an important pest of agriculture, and a major nuisance in urban developments. In this study, we used spatial analysis, geostatistics, and Bayesian linear regression to investigate the invasion dynamics and colonization processes of this pest in New Jersey. We present the results of monitoring H. halys from 51 to 71 black light traps that were placed on farms throughout New Jersey from 2004 to 2011 and examined relationships between total yearly densities of H. halys and square hectares of 48 landscape/land use variables derived from urban, wetland, forest, and agriculture metadata, as well as distances to nearest highways. From these analyses we propose the following hypotheses: (1 H. halys density is strongly associated with urban developments and railroads during its initial establishment and dispersal from 2004 to 2006; (2 H. halys overwintering in multiple habitats and feeding on a variety of plants may have reduced the Allee effect, thus facilitating movement into the southernmost regions of the state by railroads from 2005 to 2008; (3 density of H. halys contracted in 2009 possibly from invading wetlands or sampling artifact; (4 subsequent invasion of H. halys from the northwest to the south in 2010 may conform to a stratified-dispersal model marked by rapid long-distance movement, from railroads and wetland rights-of-way; and (5 high densities of H. halys may be associated with agriculture in southern New Jersey in 2011. These landscape features associated with the invasion of H. halys in New Jersey may predict its potential rate of invasion across the USA and worldwide.

  13. Landscape Factors Facilitating the Invasive Dynamics and Distribution of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), after Arrival in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Adam M.; Hamilton, George C.; Nielsen, Anne L.; Hahn, Noel; Green, Edwin J.; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R.

    2014-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, a native of Asia, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA. H. halys was first detected in the USA in the mid 1990s, dispersing to over 41 other states. Since 1998, H. halys has spread throughout New Jersey, becoming an important pest of agriculture, and a major nuisance in urban developments. In this study, we used spatial analysis, geostatistics, and Bayesian linear regression to investigate the invasion dynamics and colonization processes of this pest in New Jersey. We present the results of monitoring H. halys from 51 to 71 black light traps that were placed on farms throughout New Jersey from 2004 to 2011 and examined relationships between total yearly densities of H. halys and square hectares of 48 landscape/land use variables derived from urban, wetland, forest, and agriculture metadata, as well as distances to nearest highways. From these analyses we propose the following hypotheses: (1) H. halys density is strongly associated with urban developments and railroads during its initial establishment and dispersal from 2004 to 2006; (2) H. halys overwintering in multiple habitats and feeding on a variety of plants may have reduced the Allee effect, thus facilitating movement into the southernmost regions of the state by railroads from 2005 to 2008; (3) density of H. halys contracted in 2009 possibly from invading wetlands or sampling artifact; (4) subsequent invasion of H. halys from the northwest to the south in 2010 may conform to a stratified-dispersal model marked by rapid long-distance movement, from railroads and wetland rights-of-way; and (5) high densities of H. halys may be associated with agriculture in southern New Jersey in 2011. These landscape features associated with the invasion of H. halys in New Jersey may predict its potential rate of invasion across the USA and worldwide. PMID:24787576

  14. Susceptibility Of Grain Amaranth Lines To Hemipteran Bug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In trials conducted during the first rainy season of two conscutive years (1999 and 2000) to evaluate the relative susceptibility of 28 grain Amaranth lines to shield bug (Hemiptera) attack, three species namely Aspervia armigera F., Nezara viridula L. and Cletus ochraceus Herich-Schaffer were identified to be most important.

  15. Insecticide assays against the brown stink bug feeding on pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch (Juglandaceae), and other agronomic crops across the southeastern U.S. Management of this pest is mainly via insecticides. Many commercial products indicate o...

  16. Life table parameters of the dubas bug, Ommatissus lybicus (Hem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dubas bug, Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin (Hemiptera: Tropiduchidae) is one of the major pests of date palm in Bam region, Iran. In this study, life table parameters of O. lybicus were studied at 25, 30 and 35°C. The experiments were conducted in a leaf cage at 60 ± 5% RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L: D) h.

  17. Verde plant bug associatioin with boll damage including cotton boll rot and potential in-season indicators of damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  18. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    2017-01-01

    be exploited. Variability bugs are not confined to any particular type of bug, error-prone feature, or location. In addition to introducing an exponential number of program variants, variability increases the complexity of bugs due to unintended feature interactions, hidden features, combinations of layers...... and bug finding, but not terribly so. This is positive and consistent with the existence of highly-configurable software systems with hundreds, even thousands, of features, testifying that developers in the trenches are able to deal with variability.......Many modern software systems are highly configurable. They embrace variability to increase adaptability and to lower cost. To implement configurable software, developers often use the C preprocessor (CPP), which is a well-known technique, mainly in industry, to deal with variability in code...

  19. Phylogeny of the true water bugs (Nepomorpha: Hemiptera–Heteroptera) based on 16S and 28S rDNA and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebsgaard, Martin Bay; Andersen, Nils M.; Damgaard, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    Morphological characters and molecular sequence data were for the first time analysed separately and combined for the true water bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). Data from forty species representing all families were included, together with two outgroup species representing...

  20. Resurgencia de la chinche de cama Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera: Cimicidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V. VASSENA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las chinches de cama, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, son insectos he- mimetábolos de la familia Cimicidae, Orden Hemiptera. Son ectoparásitos hema- tófagos de aves y mamíferos, y existen dos especies predominantes: C. lectularius y C. hemipterus Fabricius. Las chinches de cama han sido plaga en el ambiente humano a lo largo de toda su historia. Antes de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, las infestaciones con chinches de cama eran muy comunes; pero después de la gue- rra, la prevalencia de infestación mundial experimentó una marcada disminución; y particularmente a partir de los años 1950, los casos empezaron a disminuir de manera significativa debido al uso de insecticidas de síntesis, principalmente el dicloro difenil tricloroetano (DDT. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, la situación parece haber cambiado y expertos en la materia hablan de un “resurgimiento” de la plaga en todo el mundo. Diferentes trabajos científicos, e incluso la divulgación en los medios de comunicación, no hacen más que mostrar que estamos ante la presencia de un importante problema sanitario como es el resurgimiento de este insecto parásito y que la Argentina no es ajena a él. En el presente trabajo se pudo confirmar la presencia de esta plaga urbana asociada al hábitat humano en dife- rentes ciudades de la Argentina.

  1. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Michael D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  2. Stink bug feeding induces fluorescence in developing cotton bolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jinjun; Mustafic, Adnan; Toews, Michael D; Haidekker, Mark A

    2011-08-04

    Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  3. Pentatomidae bugs associated with sunflower crops in the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul state and the action of Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae on sunfl ower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Sivori Silva dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were to identify the species of bugs attacking sunflowers in the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul state and to estimate the damage caused during the R6 and R8 stages. The bugs present in ten sunflower crops were collected, and their feeding sites were determined. The species Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794 was used to determine the damage by individualizing the capitula using mesh cages in the R6 and R8 stages. Each caged capitulum was infested with one, two, or four bugs. Besides E. heros (47.67%, Dichelops furcatus (Fabricius, 1775 (44.18%, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood, 1837 (4.65% and Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius, 1794 (3.48% were found. There were no significant differences among the treatments regarding the yield components (weight of 1000 sunflower seeds, germination power, oil and protein content. The tetrazolio test indicated that the bugs fed on the sunflower seeds.

  4. Chilocoris serratus n. sp., the first burrower bug species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae) recorded in Guinea-Bissau with an annotated checklist of the Afrotropical species of the genus Chilocoris Mayr, 1865.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Jerzy A; Lis, Barbara

    2016-04-14

    The first burrower bug species recorded in Guinea-Bissau, Chilocoris serratus n. sp., is described and compared with morphologically related species. Additionally, an annotated checklist of Afrotropical species of the genus Chilocoris is provided.

  5. Lightning Bugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 9. Lightning Bugs. B Gajendra Babu M Kannan. General Article Volume 7 Issue 9 September 2002 pp 49-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/09/0049-0055. Keywords.

  6. Chilocoris capensis n. sp., the first species of the genus Chilocoris Mayr, 1865 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae) recorded in the Republic of South Africa with an annotated checklist of South African burrower bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Jerzy A; Lis, Barbara; Compton, Stephen G

    2016-08-08

    Chilocoris capensis n. sp. collected from fallen ripe figs of broom cluster fig Ficus sur Forsskål, 1775, the first burrower bug species of the genus Chilocoris Mayr, 1865 recorded in the Republic of South Africa, is described and compared with Chilocoris laevicollis Horváth, 1919, the morphologically most closely allied Afrotropical species. Additionally, an annotated checklist of burrower bug species recorded in the Republic of South Africa is provided. The known biology of Afrotropical Chilocoris species is briefly summarized.

  7. Aportes al conocimiento de los cromosomas holocíneticos de Hemiptera: estudios citogenéticos y evolutivos en especies de Cimicomorpha

    OpenAIRE

    Poggio, María Georgina

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo de Tesis Doctoral se basa en el estudio citogenético clásico, molecular y evolutivo de especies de insectos hematófagos y predadores pertenecientes a las familias Cimicidae y Reduviidae del infraorden Cimicomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), que se caracterizan por presentar cromosomas holocinéticos. Se analizó el complemento cromosómico, el desarrollo meiótico masculino, el contenido, distribución y composición de la heterocromatina y el número y la localización de los gene...

  8. Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs was developed by the Federal Bed Bug Workgroup to clarify the federal role in bed bug control and highlight ways that government, community, academia and private industry can work together on bed bug issues.

  9. Review of the mirine plant bug genus Eurystylus Stål from Japan and Taiwan (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Mirinae), with descriptions of two new species, a new synonymy and a new combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Tomohide; Nakatani, Yukinobu; Chérot, Frédéric

    2017-02-03

    Species of the Old World mirine plant bug genus Eurystylus Stål (the Head Bugs) in Japan and Taiwan are reviewed. Four species are currently recognized. Two new species are diagnosed and described: E. ryukyus n. sp. (from SW Japan and Taiwan) and E. jingfui n. sp. (Taiwan). Two known species, E. coelestialium (Kirkaldy) and E. sauteri Poppius, are diagnosed; new distributional records are added for the latter. Two keys are provided to aid the identifications of (1) Eurystylus and four related genera and (2) the species of Eurystylus known from Japan and Taiwan. The phylogenetic relationships of Eurystylus with the assumed related genera are discussed. Eurystylomorpha Poppius is synonymized with Eurystylopsis Poppius, and a new combination, Eurystylopsis crassicornis (Poppius), is accordingly proposed.

  10. Parasitism and Predation on Sentinel Egg Masses of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Three Vegetable Crops: Importance of Dissections for Evaluating the Impact of Native Parasitoids on an Exotic Pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Mary L; Dieckhoff, Christine; Vinyard, Bryan T; Hoelmer, Kim A

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a survey to examine parasitism, predation, and the species composition of native parasitoids attacking sentinel egg masses of the invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), in bell pepper, squash, and tomato. A 2-yr survey was conducted for each crop. The species composition of parasitoids was determined for parasitoids that successfully emerged from eggs, parasitoids that were identified from dissections, and parasitoids that were found attending egg masses at the time of collection. The overall rate of brown marmorated stink bug nymphal emergence was 82.7% from laboratory-reared control egg masses compared with only 23.4% from sentinel egg masses due to a combination of predation, parasitism, and unknown mortality causes. Overall, 12.4% of sentinel eggs were parasitized. Parasitoids emerged successfully from only 2.3% of eggs, but they were dissected from an additional 10.1% of eggs. Telenomus podisi Ashmead was the predominant species identified from emerged parasitoids (57.4%), dissected parasitoids (90.2%), and parasitoids attending egg masses (77%). This study provides further evidence that the impact of native parasitoids on brown marmorated stink bug egg mortality may be greatly underestimated based solely on parasitoid emergence rates alone. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  11. Introduction to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Agency Search Search Bed Bugs Contact Us Share Introduction to Bed Bugs Photo credit: CDC/ CDC-DPDx; ... and Guidance Regulations About EPA EPA Administrator Current Leadership Organization Chart Staff Directory Planning, Budget and Results ...

  12. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  13. Potential of three trap crops in managing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on tomatoes in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in Florida. In this study, we examined the use of three species of trap crops to manage N. viridula in North Florida tomato crops in 2014 and 2015. We used striped sunflower (Helianthus ann...

  14. Instar- and stage-specific photoperiodic diapause response of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight)(Hemiptera:Miridae) is a polyphagous pest of numerous western crops. This pest overwinters in a relatively short duration adult diapause, but many details regarding diapause induction and maintenance remain unstudied. Instar-specific responses t...

  15. Morphological and genetic reappraisal of the Orius fauna of the western United States (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Examination of minute pirate bugs, Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from a broad geographic range in the western U.S. prompted a reappraisal of the taxonomic composition and geographic distribution of the fauna native to the western U.S. and Canada. Collecting efforts led to the di...

  16. Pseudowuiessa, a new genus of brachypterous Mezirinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kai; Bai, Xiaoshuan; Wu, Zhiyi; Heiss, Ernst; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-08-26

    A new brachypterous flat bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) genus and species, Pseudowuiessa producta Bai, Heiss & Cai, gen. nov. & sp. nov., is described from Yunnan, China. A key to related genera is given and the diagnostic characters of the new taxon are illustrated.

  17. Effective Bug Finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Iago Abal

    2017-01-01

    Lightweight bug finders (also known as code scanners) are becoming popular, they scale well and can find simple yet common programming errors. It is now considered a good practice to integrate these tools as part of your development process. The Linux project, for instance, has an automated testing...... service, known as the Kbuild robot, that runs a few of these code scanners. In this project, I have carefully studied tens of historical Linux bugs, and I have found that many of these bugs, despite being conceptually simple, were not caught by any code scanning tool. The reason is that, by design, code...... by matching temporal bug-patterns against the control-flow graph of this program abstraction. I have implemented a proof-of-concept bug finder based on this technique, EBA, and confirmed that it is both scalable and effective at finding bugs. On a benchmark of historical Linux double-lock bugs, EBA was able...

  18. Integrative review of indigenous arthropod natural enemies of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the establishment of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in North America and Europe, there has been a large, multi-group effort to characterize the composition and impact of the indigenous community of arthropod natural enemies attacking this invas...

  19. A new cavernicolous assassin bug of the genus Bagauda Bergroth (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) from the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Siddharth; Ghate, Hemant V

    2016-06-23

    A new cavernicolous, thread-legged assassin bug, Bagauda ernstmayri sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae), collected from a cave near Satara, in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India, is described. Its interaction with the web of an uloborid spider Zosis geniculata (Olivier, 1789) (Araneae: Uloboridae) is discussed.

  20. Influence of brown stink bug feeding, planting date and sampling time on common smut infection of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytopathogen infections are frequently influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors in a crop field. The effect of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), feeding and planting date and sampling time on common smut (Ustilago maydis) infection percentage of maize plants was exa...

  1. Genetics of a sex-linked recessive red eye color mutant of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inbred colony of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Miridae: Hemiptera), was observed to contain specimens with abnormal traits including red eyes, deformed antennae, and deformed legs. These specimens were isolated and back crossed to create stable phenotypic strain...

  2. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Bed Bugs Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Biology Resources for Health Professionals Publications Additional Resources Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  3. Bug City: Ants [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  4. Bug City: Beetles [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  5. Identification of Genes Potentially Responsible for extra-Oral Digestion and Overcoming Plant Defense from Salivary Glands of the Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Using cDNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Cheng; Yao, Jianxiu; Luttrell, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in tarnished plant bug (TPB, Lygus lineolaris [Palisot de Beauvois]) feeding. By facilitating the piercing, the enzyme-rich saliva may be used for extra-oral digestion and for overcoming plant defense before the plant fluids are ingested by TPBs. To identify salivary gland genes, mRNA was extracted from salivary glands and cDNA library clones were sequenced. A de novo-assembling of 7,000 Sanger sequences revealed 666 high-quality unique cDNAs with an average size of 624 bp, in which the identities of 347 cDNAs were determined using Blast2GO. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis indicated that these genes participate in eighteen metabolic pathways. Identifications of large number of enzyme genes in TPB salivary glands evidenced functions for extra-oral digestion and feeding damage mechanism, including 45 polygalacturonase, two α- amylase, one glucosidase, one glycan enzyme, one aminopeptidase, four lipase, and many serine protease cDNAs. The presence of multiple transcripts, multigene members, and high abundance of cell wall degradation enzymes (polygalacturonases) indicated that the enzyme-rich saliva may cause damage to plants by breaking down plant cell walls to make nutrients available for feeding. We also identified genes potentially involved in insect adaptation and detoxifying xenobiotics that may allow insects to overcome plant defense responses, including four glutathione S-transferases, three esterases, one cytochrome P450, and several serine proteases. The gene profiles of TPB salivary glands revealed in this study provides a foundation for further understanding and potential development of novel enzymatic inhibitors, or other RNAi approaches that may interrupt or minimize TPB feeding damage. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Potential of Three Trap Crops in Managing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Tomatoes in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, T L; Haseeb, M; Kanga, L H B; Legaspi, J C

    2017-10-11

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in Florida. In this study, we examined the use of three species of trap crops to manage N. viridula in North Florida tomato crops in 2014 and 2015. We used striped sunflower (Helianthus annuus) (Asterales: Asteraceae) and wild game feed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) (Poales: Poaceae) in both years, but different species of millet each year: browntop millet (Panicum ramosum) (Poales: Poaceae) in 2014 and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Poales: Poaceae) in 2015. The number of stink bug adults collected from wild game feed sorghum exceeded the number from sunflower, and none were collected from either species of millet. Sorghum attracted a significantly higher number of adults than did striped sunflower; however, both sunflower and sorghum attracted the adults of N. viridula. Adults of the pest feed on the sorghum panicle and sunflower head (inflorescence). Although fewer stink bugs were found feeding on sunflower, the sunflower was found to be a good source of other natural enemies and pollinators and also attracted significantly greater numbers of the brown stink bug Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) (another pest of tomatoes). While this study demonstrated the effectiveness of sorghum, we recommend that sorghum be planted with another trap crop, preferably sunflower, for better preventive control of the southern green stink bug. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bed Bugs URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/bedbugs.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  8. Toxicidade comparativa de lambda- cyalothrin à lagarta-da-soja, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hueb., 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae e ao percevejo verde, Nezara viridula (L., 1758 (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae Comparative toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin to the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hueb., 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae and to the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L., 1758 (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. de Baptista

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, através dos valores de dose letal (DL50, a toxicidade comparativa do inseticida piretróide lambda-cyalothrin à lagarta-da-soja, Anticarsia gemmatalis e à ninfas do percevejo verde, Nezara viridula, tomando-se como padrão de comparação o inseticida organofosforadomonocrotofós. Os experimentos foram realizados em condições de laboratório por técnica de aplicação tópica, sendo usadas lagartas e ninfas, ambas de 3° instar. As avaliações das mortalidades foram feitas 3, 6, 24, 48 e 72 horas após o tratamento. O parâmetro DL50 foi determinado por análises de probit através de software apropriado. Lambda-cyalothrin agiu mais rapidamente do que monocrotofós contra as lagartas, sendo cerca de 140 a 190 vezes mais tóxico para elas e de 20 a 40 vezes mais ativo contra as ninfas. O inseticida piretróide foi ainda de 5 a 9 vezes mais tóxico à lagarta-da-soja do que ao percevejo verde.The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin to the velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis and to the nymphs of the southern green stink bug, Nezara virídula. The lethal dose (LD50 values were compared with the ones of the organophosphoms insecticide monocrotophos. The experiments were performed under laboratory conditions by topical application technique to 3rd instars of both caterpillars and nymphs. Mortality evaluations were made at 3, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment. The LD50 parameters were determined by probit analyses through appropriate software. Lambda-cyhalothrin acted more rapidly than monocrotophos against the caterpillars, being approximately 140-190 times more toxic than the latter. Lambda-cyhalothrin was 20-40 times more active against the nymphs than monocrotophos. The pyrethroid insecticide was about 5-9 times more toxic to the velvetbean caterpillar than to the southern green stink bug.

  9. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Corn Farmscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E.; Tillman, P. Glynn

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in corn cropping systems. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes, when corn was adjacent to cotton, peanut, or both, was examined weekly. The spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops in corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. This stink bug was detected in six of seven corn–cotton farmscapes, four of six corn–peanut farmscapes, and in both corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. The frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (89.47%) was significantly higher than in peanut (7.02%) or corn (3.51%). This stink bug fed on noncrop hosts that grew in field borders adjacent to crops. The spatial distribution of C. hilaris in crops and the capture of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone-baited traps near noncrop hosts indicated that these hosts were sources of this stink bug dispersing into crops, primarily cotton. Significant aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton on some dates within corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. Maps of local clustering indices depicted small patches of C. hilaris in cotton or cotton–sorghum at the peanut–cotton interface. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes are discussed. PMID:25843581

  10. Selection of Soybean Pods by the Stink Bugs, Nezara viridula and Piezodorus guildinii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Gonzalo A. R.; Trumper, Eduardo V.

    2012-01-01

    Different biological parameters of the stink bugs, Nezara viridula L. and Piezodorus guildinii Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), are affected by the developmental stage of the soybean (Glycine max Merrill) pods they feed on. These effects of the soybean on the stink bugs could represent a selection pressure leading to the ability of these species to discriminate the phenological stage of soybean pods, and, therefore, to exhibit feeding preferences. We designed three studies: (1) Distant detection of soybean pods through an olfactometer; (2) Free choice tests to evaluate preferences for soybean pods of different developmental stages; (3) No choice tests to study effects of soybean pod development on feeding time and number of probes. Stink bugs showed no differential response to olfactometer arms with or without soybean pods, suggesting an inability to detect soybean volatiles. Free choice tests showed no species effects on pods selection, but significant differences among fifth instar nymphs, adult male, and adult females. Fifth instar nymphs fed more frequently on soybean pods of advanced development stages compared to female adults, despite previous evidence showing poor development of stink bugs fed pods of the same stage. No choice tests showed significant effects of stink bug species, stink bug stage and sex, and soybean pod phenology. N. viridula expressed shorter feeding times and higher numbers of probes than P. guildinii. The highest numbers of probes of both species were observed when they were fed soybean pods in early phenological stages. When placed in direct contact with food, fifth instar nymphs prefered to feed on more developed pods, despite these pods being suboptimal food items. These results suggest that for the ecological time framework of soybean-stink bugs coexistence, around thirty-five years in Argentina, the selection pressure was not enough for stink bugs to evolve food preferences that match their performance on soybean pods of

  11. New species of Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosymbiont on giant water bugs, Belostoma spp. (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae from southern Brazil Nova espécie do gênero Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosimbionte sobre baratas d´água, Belostoma spp. (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae da região sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. R. Amato

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 is described from southern Brazil, ectosymbiont on giant water bugs (aquatic hemipterans, Belostoma spp. from the greater Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul. Some hemipterans examined were positive for this species of Temnocephala and carried bunches of eggs between the first two pairs of legs and between the first pair of legs and the rostrum, as well as adult and young specimens. The adults were darkly pigmented (greenish-brown, mimetizing the color of the hemipteran hosts. The new species is similar to Temnocephala decarloi Moretto, 1978, from Argentina, the only other species of Temnocephala from belostomatid hemipterans known to date, by having an extra long and curved cirrus, but differs by having the distal portion of the introvert not bent as a 'full-bent' smoking pipe-like, as the author depicted originally for T. decarloi.Uma nova espécie de Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 é descrita para o sul do Brasil, ectosimbionte sobre baratas-d'água (hemípteros aquáticos, Belostoma spp. da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Vários hemípteros examinados estavam positivos para esta espécie do gênero Temnocephala, inclusive com posturas sempre localizadas na face ventral entre os dois primeiros pares de apêndices locomotores, e entre o primeiro par de pernas e o rostro. Espécimes adultos e jovens de tamanhos variados também foram sempre encontrados na face ventral do hemíptero. Os vermes adultos eram pigmentados (marrom-esverdeado, mimetizando a cor do exoesqueleto de seus hospedeiros. A nova espécie é semelhante à Temnocephala decarloi Moretto, 1978, descrita da Argentina, única espécie conhecida do gênero já encontrada sobre hemípteros belostomatídeos, por ter um cirro extremamente longo e curvo, mas difere desta por ter a porção distal do 'introvert' sem a forma típica de um cachimbo ('full-bent' como ilustrada pelo autor na descri

  12. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  13. Bacteria Associated With Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), With Special Reference to Those Transmitted by Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Park, Jong-Seok; Howells, Andrea; Tikhe, Chinmay V; Davis, Jeffrey A

    2017-02-01

    The redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), is a rapidly growing pest damaging southern US agriculture. Pentatomid stink bugs are known to vector bacterial, fungal, and viral plant diseases. However, bacteria associated with redbanded stink bugs and their vector potential have not yet been assessed. In this study, we 1) cultured and identified bacteria transmitted by feeding of redbanded stink bug and 2) described bacteria from guts of redbanded stink bug individuals using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Nineteen bacteria transmitted by feeding of redbanded stink bug on soybean agar were isolated and identified via Sanger sequencing of near full length 16S RNA genes. The transmitted bacteria belonged to at least a dozen species in eight genera and included potential plant pathogens (Phaseolibacter flectens), plant beneficials (Bacillus atropheus), and possible insect beneficials (Acinetobacter sp. and Citrobacter farmeri). A total of 284,448 reads were captured from Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the uncultured gut bacteria community. Fifty-one putative bacteria species (74% of the estimated total species richness) were identified via matches to NCBI databases. The bacteria metagenome contained potential plant and insect pathogens (Erwinia persicina, E. rhaponici, Brenneria nigrifluens, Ralstonia picketti, and Serratia marcescens) and beneficials (Pantoea dispersa, Klebsiella oxytoca, Clostridium butyricum, and Citrobacter farmeri). © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A new species of Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosymbiont on creeping water bugs, Cryphocricos granulosus De Carlo (Hemiptera, Naucoridae from southern Brazil Nova espécie de Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosimbionte sobre naucorídeos, Cryphocricos granulosus De Carlo (Hemiptera, Naucoridae da região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. R. Amato

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Temnocephala minutocirrus sp. nov., an ectosymbiont on Cryphocricos granulosus De Carlo, 1967, is described from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. One hundred and nine naucorids were examined, of which 36 (33% were positive for this species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849. In one sample of 94 creeping water bugs, 49 (52% were 4th instar nymphs, 6% of which were infested; 45 (48% were adults, either brachypterous (40 with 18 males and 22 females or macropterous (5 with 1 male and 4 females, 67% of which were infested (29% males and 38% females. Temnocephalan eggs were found both ventrally and dorsally: fixed on coxae, trochanters, and along the sternum between fore middle, and hind pairs of legs; basal of the abdominal area; and on the scutellum, clavus, and hemelytra. Juvenile and adult temnocephalans were always devoid of body pigmentation, and were found living on the ventral body surface, preferably over the sternum, between the middle and hind pairs of legs. The most distinctive features of this new species are: 1 unusually short cirrus, slightly curved, with introvert corresponding to 37% of its total length; 2 dorsolateral 'excretory' syncytial epidermal plates, elliptic, with excretory pore relatively equatorial, closer to inner limit of each plate; 3 two pairs of large disc gland cells (paranephrocytes? located centrally, just ahead of testes; 4 testes relatively large, but unequal in size, anterior pair smaller, always in the same zone, those of the same side, partially superposed; and (5 vagina with weak muscular wall and without muscular sphincters.Temnocephala minutocirrus sp. nov., ectosimbionte sobre Cryphocricos granulosus De Carlo, 1967, é descrita para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Cento e nove naucorídeos foram examinados, dos quais 36 (33% estavam positivos para esta espécie do gênero Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849. Em uma amostra de 94 hemípteros, 49 (52% eram ninfas de 4º instar, das quais, 6% estavam

  15. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  16. Bed Bug Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  17. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G. Virla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina; in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  18. Bug Forecast: A Method for Automatic Bug Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenc, Rudolf

    In this paper we present an approach and a toolset for automatic bug prediction during software development and maintenance. The toolset extends the Columbus source code quality framework, which is able to integrate into the regular builds, analyze the source code, calculate different quality attributes like product metrics and bad code smells; and monitor the changes of these attributes. The new bug forecast toolset connects to the bug tracking and version control systems and assigns the reported and fixed bugs to the source code classes from the past. It then applies machine learning methods to learn which values of which quality attributes typically characterized buggy classes. Based on this information it is able to predict bugs in current and future versions of the classes.

  19. Real-Time PCR Assay for the Identification of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet K Dhami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, is a gregarious crop pest that has rapidly spread across the world in the last two decades. It is an excellent hitchhiker species, especially as an over-wintering adult. During this period it is often associated with non-biological commodities such as shipping containers and machinery that travel long distances. Inadequate identification keys and similarity to common species has assisted its spread across Europe, while accurate identification from immature stages or eggs is not possible. We developed a real-time TaqMan PCR assay for the accurate and sensitive detection of the brown marmorated stink bug from all life stages. The assay performance against required diagnostic criterion and within a quarantine framework are described.

  20. Real-Time PCR Assay for the Identification of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Manpreet K; Dsouza, Melissa; Waite, David W; Anderson, Diane; Li, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a gregarious crop pest that has rapidly spread across the world in the last two decades. It is an excellent hitchhiker species, especially as an over-wintering adult. During this period it is often associated with non-biological commodities such as shipping containers and machinery that travel long distances. Inadequate identification keys and similarity to common species has assisted its spread across Europe, while accurate identification from immature stages or eggs is not possible. We developed a real-time TaqMan PCR assay for the accurate and sensitive detection of the brown marmorated stink bug from all life stages. The assay performance against required diagnostic criterion and within a quarantine framework are described.

  1. Harmonic radar tagging for tracking movement of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkay, Grant L; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K

    2013-10-01

    Harmonic radar tagging was investigated as a method for monitoring the movement of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Because adhesive toxicity and tag weight limit the use of this technology, initial efforts focused on selection of the optimal adhesive and design of harmonic radar tags to reduce impact on the movement of stink bugs. A design consisting of a 6-cm-long 0.10-mm-thick silver-plated copper monopole on the anode terminal of a three-contact Schottky barrier diode attached with Gorilla super glue provided a compromise between unimpaired movement and tracking range, adding an additional 8% to the weight of the stink bug while not significantly (P > 0.05) reducing walking or flying mobility in the laboratory. Recovery of tagged stink bugs in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and fallow fields ranged from 10 to 75% after 24 h, whereas marked stink bugs were recovered at rates of 0-35% by using sweep net or drop cloth sampling. The distance dispersed in the field was not impacted (P > 0.05) by crop, tagged status, or gender of the insect. Future research should examine possible improvements to the harmonic radar transceiver and the wire antenna to decrease encumbrance.

  2. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  3. Bug City: Aquatic Insects [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  4. 42 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    , serving to evaluate tool implementations of feature-sensitive analyses by testing them on real bugs. We present a qualitative study of 42 variability bugs collected from bug-fixing commits to the Linux kernel repository. We analyze each of the bugs, and record the results in a database. In addition, we...

  5. Seeding Dates and Cultivars Effects on Stink Bugs Population and Damage on Common Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Y G; Gómez, J R; Klingen, I

    2017-12-01

    Fields experiments were conducted during two growing seasons (2010-2011 and 2012-2013) at three seeding dates to identify stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) species and to determine their seasonal population density fluctuation and damage caused to three common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars "Ica Pijao," "Cubacueto 25-9," and "Chévere." Stink bug species observed were Nezara viridula (L.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Chinavia rolstoni (Rolston), Chinavia marginatum (Palisot de Beauvois), and Euschistus sp. The most prevalent species was N. viridula in both seasons. The largest number of stink bugs was found in beans seeded at the first (mid September) and third (beginning of January) seeding dates. Population peaked at BBCH 75 with 1.75, 0.43, and 1.25 stink bugs/10 plants in 2010-2011 and with 2.67, 0.45, and 1.3 stink bugs/10 plants in 2012-2013 in the fields seeded the first, second, and third seeding dates, respectively. The lowest numbers of stink bugs were found in beans seeded at the second (mid November) seeding date. A significant negative correlation between relative humidity and number of stink bugs was found in 2010-2011, and a similar tendency was observed in 2012-2013. The highest seed and pod damage levels occurred in cv. "Chévere" and the lowest in cv. "ICA Pijao" during both seasons. Results suggest that cv. "ICA Pijao" and the second (mid November) seeding date is the best choice to reduce stink bug damage.

  6. 40 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal Rivas, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Feature-sensitive verification is a recent field that pursues the effective analysis of the exponential number of variants of a program family. Today researchers lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, and occurring in real large-scale software. Such a collection of bugs...... variability affects and increases the complexity of software bugs....... is a requirement for goal-oriented research, serving to evaluate tool implementations of feature-sensitive analyses by testing them on real bugs. We present a qualitative study of 40 variability bugs collected from bug-fixing commits to the Linux kernel repository. We investigate each of the 40 bugs, recording...

  7. Barcoding Bugs: DNA-Based Identification of the True Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Doo-Sang; Foottit, Robert; Maw, Eric; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding, the analysis of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene, has been shown to provide an efficient method for the identification of species in a wide range of animal taxa. In order to assess the effectiveness of barcodes in the discrimination of Heteroptera, we examined 344 species belonging to 178 genera, drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 90% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 3% in 77% of congeneric species pairs. Instances where barcodes fail to distinguish species represented clusters of morphologically similar species, except one case of barcode identity between species in different genera. Several instances of deep intraspecific divergence were detected suggesting possible cryptic species. Conclusions/Significance Although this analysis encompasses 0.8% of the described global fauna, our results indicate that DNA barcodes will aid the identification of Heteroptera. This advance will be useful in pest management, regulatory and environmental applications and will also reveal species that require further taxonomic research. PMID:21526211

  8. Economic Injury Level of the Neotropical Brown Stink Bug Euschistus heros (F.) on Cotton Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, M F; Degrande, P E; Panizzi, A R; Toews, M D

    2017-06-01

    In Brazil, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), commonly disperses from soybeans to cotton fields. The establishment of an economic treatment threshold for this pest on cotton crops is required. Infestation levels of adults of E. heros were evaluated on cotton plants at preflowering, early flowering, boll filling, and full maturity by assessing external and internal symptoms of injury on bolls, seed cotton/lint production, and fiber quality parameters. A completely randomized experiment was designed to infest cotton plants in a greenhouse with 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 bugs/plant, except at the full-maturity stage in which only infestation with 8 bugs/plant and uninfested plants were evaluated. Results indicated that the preflowering, early-flowering, and full-maturity stages were not affected by E. heros. A linear regression model showed a significant increase in the number of internal punctures and warts in the boll-filling stage as the population of bugs increased. The average number of loci with mottled immature fibers was significantly higher at 4, 6, and 8 bugs compared with uninfested plants with data following a quadratic regression model. The seed and lint cotton was reduced by 18 and 25% at the maximum level of infestation (ca. 8 bugs/plant) in the boll-filling stage. The micronaire and yellowing indexes were, respectively, reduced and increased with the increase of the infestation levels. The economic injury level of E. heros on cotton plants at the boll-filling stage was determined as 0.5 adult/plant. Based on that, a treatment threshold of 0.1 adult/plant can be recommended to avoid economic losses.

  9. Saproxylic Hemiptera Habitat Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Robert L. Blinn; Gene. Kritsky

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the habitat requirements of organisms associated with dead wood is important in order to conserve them in managed forests. Unfortunately, many of the less diverse saproxylic taxa, including Hemiptera, remain largely unstudied. An effort to rear insects from dead wood taken from two forest types (an upland pine-dominated and a bottomland mixed hardwood),...

  10. City Bug Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analyse...... elements of both the design process, the organisational, the political and technological contexts. They point to the role of researchers and designers in exploring and understanding digital elements of public space as not merely registering structures but also actively engaging in public discourse...

  11. Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Area with Zika? Find a Clinic Yellow Fever Vaccination Clinics FAQ Stamaril clinics Disease Directory Resources Resources for Travelers Adventure Travel Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold ...

  12. Print a Bed Bug Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business card-sized lists of tips for prevention of bed bug infestations, one for general use around home, the other for travelers. Print a single card or a page of cards for distribution.

  13. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiles of Polygalacturonase Genes in Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Haijun; Lu, Yanhui; Liang, Gemei; Zhang, Yongjun; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) is an enzyme in the salivary glands of piercing-sucking mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) that plays a key role in plant feeding and injury. By constructing a full-length cDNA library, we cloned and characterized 14 PG genes from the salivary glands of Apolygus lucorum, a pestiferous mirid bug in cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China. BLAST search analysis showed that the amino acid sequences deduced from transcripts of the PG genes were closely related to PGs from other mirid bugs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PGs of mirid bugs had six main branches, PG1-PG6 (Genbank accession numbers: KF881899~KF881912). We investigated the mRNA expression patterns of the A. lucorum PG genes using real-time PCR. All 14 PGs were expressed significantly higher in the salivary glands than in other tissues (head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing). For eggs and nymphs, the expression levels of these PGs were much higher in the 5th instar stage than in the egg, and 1st and 3rd instar stages. The PG expression levels in 1-day-old adults were very low, and increased in 5, 20 and 30-day-old adults. Additionally, PG expression levels were generally similar between males and females. The possible physiological functions of PGs in A. lucorum were discussed. PMID:25955307

  14. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiles of Polygalacturonase Genes in Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase (PG is an enzyme in the salivary glands of piercing-sucking mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae that plays a key role in plant feeding and injury. By constructing a full-length cDNA library, we cloned and characterized 14 PG genes from the salivary glands of Apolygus lucorum, a pestiferous mirid bug in cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China. BLAST search analysis showed that the amino acid sequences deduced from transcripts of the PG genes were closely related to PGs from other mirid bugs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PGs of mirid bugs had six main branches, PG1-PG6 (Genbank accession numbers: KF881899~KF881912. We investigated the mRNA expression patterns of the A. lucorum PG genes using real-time PCR. All 14 PGs were expressed significantly higher in the salivary glands than in other tissues (head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing. For eggs and nymphs, the expression levels of these PGs were much higher in the 5th instar stage than in the egg, and 1st and 3rd instar stages. The PG expression levels in 1-day-old adults were very low, and increased in 5, 20 and 30-day-old adults. Additionally, PG expression levels were generally similar between males and females. The possible physiological functions of PGs in A. lucorum were discussed.

  15. Videos, Webinars, Blogs Related to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    These tools provide practical insight on issues such as integrated pest management (IPM) for schools, bed bug bites, how carpet beetles can help, bed bugs as hitchhikers, and preventing and controlling infestations.

  16. The Great Bug Hunt Is Back!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Rapley, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk" and Martin Rapley, presenter of "The Big Bug Experience," are again running the Great Bug Hunt in 2012. Simply identify a habitat, explore and discover the bugs that live there, photograph or draw them and record findings--it's that simple. The winner will be the…

  17. Zero bugs and program faster

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    A book about programming, improving skill, and avoiding mistakes. The author spent two years researching every bug avoidance technique she could find. This book contains the best of them. If you want to program faster, with fewer bugs, and write more secure code, buy this book! "This is the best book I have ever read." - Anonymous reviewer "Four score and seven years ago this book helped me debug my server code." -Abraham Lincoln "Would my Javascript have memory leaks without this book? Would fishes fly without water?" -Socrates "This book is the greatest victory since the Spanish Armada, and the best about programming." -Queen Elizabeth

  18. Gibbs Variable Selection using BUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Ntzoufras

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss and present in detail the implementation of Gibbs variable selection as defined by Dellaportas et al. (2000, 2002 using the BUGS software (Spiegelhalter et al. , 1996a,b,c. The specification of the likelihood, prior and pseudo-prior distributions of the parameters as well as the prior term and model probabilities are described in detail. Guidance is also provided for the calculation of the posterior probabilities within BUGS environment when the number of models is limited. We illustrate the application of this methodology in a variety of problems including linear regression, log-linear and binomial response models.

  19. Four bugs on a rectangle

    KAUST Repository

    Chapman, S. J.

    2010-11-10

    The idealized mathematical problem of four bugs in cyclic pursuit starting from a 2-by-1 rectangle is considered, and asymptotic formulas are derived to describe the motion. In contrast to the famous case of four bugs on a square, here the trajectories quickly freeze to essentially one dimension. After the first rotation about the centre point, the scale of the configuration has shrunk by a factor of 10427907250, and this number is then exponentiated four more times with each successive cycle. Relations to Knuth\\'s double-arrow notation and level-index arithmetic are discussed. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society.

  20. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  1. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were…

  2. Relative Toxicity of Spirotetramat to Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae) and its Egg Parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Naresh; Lim, Un Taek

    2017-10-01

    Spirotetramat, a lipid biosynthesis inhibitor, is effective against sucking insect pests but harmless to insect natural enemies. As spirotetramat can be registered for the management of sucking insect pests such as aphids and bugs in soybeans, we evaluated the insecticide against Riptortus pedestris (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Alydidae), one of the most important soybean pests in Korea, as well as its effect on two of its important egg parasitoids, Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Gryon japonicum (Ashmead; Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). Oral toxicities of five concentrations of spirotetramat (1.00, 0.50, 0.25, 0.13, and 0.06 ml/liter) were tested by feeding these test solutions to insects for 24 h after 12 h of starvation. The lethal median concentration (LC50) for second instars of the bean bug was 0.3 ml/liter after 48 h while values for fourth instars and adults were 9.2 and 19.0 ml/liter, respectively. The median lethal time (LT50) for bean bugs when exposed to a concentration of 0.50 ml/liter was 1.2-1.5 times less than that of the control, while in G. japonicum and O. nezarae it was 1.1-1.2 times less than the control. These results show that spirotetramat is less toxic to the egg parasitoids of bean bug than to bean bug itself and would thus be useful in an integrated management program for this pest. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites ... take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use ...

  4. The Spread of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae Species from its First Occurrence in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Grozea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lately in horticultural agroecosystems from Romania joined several insect species autochthonous. Among these is a species of bugs known as southern green stink bugs or Nezara viridula L. (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pentatomidae. Unlike other new entrants this bug species has a diversified polifagism being present in many plants but obvious damage produce only tomato fruit. The causes are unknown. Can be found in gardens, green spaces and parks. Often is observed in vegetable gardens where populations comprise all stages (egg, larva/nymph, adult. Although it has African origins of a warm area is interesting installation and survival in temperate zones like those in Europe. Presence in Europe appears to be more random which excludes primarily spread through the neighborhood. By observations made in west of Romania, during 2010-2015 we wanted to watch the evolution of the insect from the first point of occurrence (Timișoara, 2010. Also, were monitored tomato crops and ornamentals in gardens and green spaces from 5 counties. Only in four monitored counties it was observed this species. Most adults and larvae were registered in Timis county (5-6 adults or 7-8 larvae/tomato plant and 10 -11 adults or 15-20 larvae/ornamental shrub. In our country the insect has proven to be capable of a rapid spread in a relatively short time interval including surrounding counties.

  5. Identifying the predator complex of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): a comparative study of the efficacy of an ELISA and PCR gut content assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Valerie; Hagler, James; Daane, Kent; de León, Jesse; Groves, Russell

    2008-10-01

    A growing number of ecologists are using molecular gut content assays to qualitatively measure predation. The two most popular gut content assays are immunoassays employing pest-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays employing pest-specific DNA. Here, we present results from the first study to simultaneously use both methods to identify predators of the glassy winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). A total of 1,229 arthropod predators, representing 30 taxa, were collected from urban landscapes in central California and assayed first by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a GWSS egg-specific mAb and then by PCR using a GWSS-specific DNA marker that amplifies a 197-base pair fragment of its cytochrome oxidase gene (subunit I). The gut content analyses revealed that GWSS remains were present in 15.5% of the predators examined, with 18% of the spiders and 11% of the insect predators testing positive. Common spider predators included members of the Salticidae, Clubionidae, Anyphaenidae, Miturgidae, and Corinnidae families. Common insect predators included lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), praying mantis (Mantodea: Mantidae), ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), and damsel bugs (Hemiptera: Nabidae). Comparison of the two assays indicated that they were not equally effective at detecting GWSS remains in predator guts. The advantages of combining the attributes of both types of assays to more precisely assess field predation and the pros and cons of each assay for mass-screening predators are discussed.

  6. Predicting the fix time of bugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, E.; Pinzger, M.; Gall, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Two important questions concerning the coordination of development effort are which bugs to fix first and how long it takes to fix them. In this paper we investigate empirically the relationships between bug report attributes and the time to fix. The objective is to compute prediction models that

  7. Using Software Dependency to Bug Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Software maintenance, especially bug prediction, plays an important role in evaluating software quality and balancing development costs. This study attempts to use several quantitative network metrics to explore their relationships with bug prediction in terms of software dependency. Our work consists of four main steps. First, we constructed software dependency networks regarding five dependency scenes at the class-level granularity. Second, we used a set of nine representative and commonly used metrics—namely, centrality, degree, PageRank, and HITS, as well as modularity—to quantify the importance of each class. Third, we identified how these metrics were related to the proneness and severity of fixed bugs in Tomcat and Ant and determined the extent to which they were related. Finally, the significant metrics were considered as predictors for bug proneness and severity. The result suggests that there is a statistically significant relationship between class’s importance and bug prediction. Furthermore, betweenness centrality and out-degree metric yield an impressive accuracy for bug prediction and test prioritization. The best accuracy of our prediction for bug proneness and bug severity is up to 54.7% and 66.7% (top 50, Tomcat and 63.8% and 48.7% (top 100, Ant, respectively, within these two cases.

  8. Diagnosis of Subtraction Bugs Using Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Corter, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosis of misconceptions or "bugs" in procedural skills is difficult because of their unstable nature. This study addresses this problem by proposing and evaluating a probability-based approach to the diagnosis of bugs in children's multicolumn subtraction performance using Bayesian networks. This approach assumes a causal network relating…

  9. Bed Bugs: Clinical Relevance and Control Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Dominic E.; Peñas, Pablo F.; Russell, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Since the late 1990s, bed bugs of the species Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus have undergone a worldwide resurgence. These bed bugs are blood-sucking insects that readily bite humans. Cutaneous reactions may occur and can start out as small macular lesions that can develop into distinctive wheals of around 5 cm in diameter, which are accompanied by intense itching. Occasionally, bullous eruptions may result. If bed bugs are numerous, the patient can present with widespread urticaria or eythematous rashes. Often, bites occur in lines along the limbs. Over 40 pathogens have been detected in bed bugs, but there is no definitive evidence that they transmit any disease-causing organisms to humans. Anemia may result when bed bugs are numerous, and their allergens can trigger asthmatic reactions. The misuse of chemicals and other technologies for controlling bed bugs has the potential to have a deleterious impact on human health, while the insect itself can be the cause of significant psychological trauma. The control of bed bugs is challenging and should encompass a multidisciplinary approach utilizing nonchemical means of control and the judicious use of insecticides. For accommodation providers, risk management procedures should be implemented to reduce the potential of bed bug infestations. PMID:22232375

  10. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  11. All about Bugs. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Bugs fascinate children, and each kind of bug plays a special role in the circle of life. Some bugs pollinate plants, while others help to decompose plant and animal waste. In this videotape, students learn about the similar characteristics that all bugs share and compare them to their close cousins, the arachnids. This videotape correlates to the…

  12. Influence of brown stink bug feeding, planting date and sampling time on common smut infection of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Toews, Michael D; Buntin, G David; Carpenter, James E; Huffaker, Alisa; Schmelz, Eric A; Cottrell, Ted E; Abdo, Zaid

    2014-10-01

    Phytopathogen infections are frequently influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors in a crop field. The effect of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), feeding and planting date and sampling time on common smut (Ustilago maydis) infection percentage of maize plants was examined in 2005 and 2006, and 2010 and 2011, respectively. Brown stink bug adult feeding on maize hybrid "DKC6971" at flowering in 2005 and 2006 did not influence smut infection percentage when examined using 3 treatments (i.e., 0 adult, 5 adults, and 5 adults mixed with the smut spores). The smut infection percentages were stink bug feeding at flowering had no effect on smut infection in maize, and the best time for smut evaluation would be after flowering. The temperature and precipitation might have also influenced the percentage of smut-infected maize plants during the 4 years when the experiments were conducted. The similarity between kernel-colonizing U. maydis and Aspergillus flavus infections and genotype × environment interaction were also discussed. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Ntzoufras, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS provides an easily accessible introduction to the use of WinBUGS programming techniques in a variety of Bayesian modeling settings. The author provides an accessible treatment of the topic, offering readers a smooth introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling with detailed guidance on the practical implementation of key principles. The book begins with a basic introduction to Bayesian inference and the WinBUGS software and goes on to cover key topics, including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms in Bayesian inference Generalized linear models Bayesian hierarchical models Predictive distribution and model checking Bayesian model and variable evaluation Computational notes and screen captures illustrate the use of both WinBUGS as well as R software to apply the discussed techniques. Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their understanding of the presented concepts and all ...

  14. Bug Localization in Test-Driven Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ficco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Software development teams that use agile methodologies are increasingly adopting the test-driven development practice (TDD. TDD allows to produce software by iterative and incremental work cycle, and with a strict control over the process, favouring an early detection of bugs. However, when applied to large and complex systems, TDD benefits are not so obvious; manually locating and fixing bugs introduced during the iterative development steps is a nontrivial task. In such systems, the propagation chains following the bugs activation can be unacceptably long and intricate, and the size of the code to be analyzed is often too large. In this paper, a bug localization technique specifically tailored to TDD is presented. The technique is embedded in the TDD cycle, and it aims to improve developers' ability to locate bugs as soon as possible. It is implemented in a tool and experimentally evaluated on newly developed Java programs.

  15. The isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi from Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang; Hu, Junjie; Ouyang, Gecheng

    2017-01-01

    Litchi stink-bug, Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae), is one of the most widespread and destructive pest species on Litchi chinensis Sonn and Dimocarpus longan Lour in Southern China. Inappropriate use of chemical pesticides has resulted in serious environmental problems and food pollution. Generating an improved Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy for litchi stink-bug in orchard farming requires development of an effective biological control agent. Entomopathogenic fungi are regarded as a vital ecological factor in the suppression of pest populations under field conditions. With few effective fungi and pathogenic strains available to control litchi stink-bug, exploration of natural resources for promising entomopathogenic fungi is warranted. In this study, two pathogenic fungi were isolated from cadavers of adult T. papillosa. They were identified as Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana by morphological identification and rDNA-ITS homogeneous analysis. Infection of T. papillosa with B. bassiana and P. lilacinus occurred initially from the antennae, metameres, and inter-segmental membranes. Biological tests showed that the two entomopathogenic fungi induced high mortality in 2nd and 5th instar nymphs of T. papillosa. B. bassiana was highly virulent on 2nd instar nymphs of T. papillosa, with values for cadaver rate, LC50 and LT50 of 88.89%, 1.92 × 107 conidia/mL and 4.34 days respectively. This study provides two valuable entomopathogenic fungi from T. papillosa. This finding suggests that the highly virulent P. lilacinus and B. bassiana play an important role in the biocontrol of T. papillosa in China. These pathogenic fungi had no pollution or residue risk, and could provide an alternative option for IPM of litchi stink-bug.

  16. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae movement and distribution within a peach orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R. Blaauw

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.. Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow’s milk. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA to assess whether collected H. halys were “marked” with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys.

  17. The isolation and identification of pathogenic fungi from Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Meng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Litchi stink-bug, Tessaratoma papillosa Drury (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae, is one of the most widespread and destructive pest species on Litchi chinensis Sonn and Dimocarpus longan Lour in Southern China. Inappropriate use of chemical pesticides has resulted in serious environmental problems and food pollution. Generating an improved Integrated Pest Management (IPM strategy for litchi stink-bug in orchard farming requires development of an effective biological control agent. Entomopathogenic fungi are regarded as a vital ecological factor in the suppression of pest populations under field conditions. With few effective fungi and pathogenic strains available to control litchi stink-bug, exploration of natural resources for promising entomopathogenic fungi is warranted. Methods & Results In this study, two pathogenic fungi were isolated from cadavers of adult T. papillosa. They were identified as Paecilomyces lilacinus and Beauveria bassiana by morphological identification and rDNA-ITS homogeneous analysis. Infection of T. papillosa with B. bassiana and P. lilacinus occurred initially from the antennae, metameres, and inter-segmental membranes. Biological tests showed that the two entomopathogenic fungi induced high mortality in 2nd and 5th instar nymphs of T. papillosa. B. bassiana was highly virulent on 2nd instar nymphs of T. papillosa, with values for cadaver rate, LC50 and LT50 of 88.89%, 1.92 × 107 conidia/mL and 4.34 days respectively. Discussion This study provides two valuable entomopathogenic fungi from T. papillosa. This finding suggests that the highly virulent P. lilacinus and B. bassiana play an important role in the biocontrol of T. papillosa in China. These pathogenic fungi had no pollution or residue risk, and could provide an alternative option for IPM of litchi stink-bug.

  18. Ultrastructural analysis of salivary glands in a phytophagous stink bug revealed the presence of unexpected muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Nathaly; Martínez, Luis C; Silva, Eder H; Teodoro, Adenir V; Serrão, José Eduardo; Oliveira, Eugênio E

    2017-01-01

    The exceptional abilities of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) to colonize a diverse group of plants have been attributed to the feeding behaviors and the functions of the salivary complex of these insects. Here, we describe the ultrastructure of the salivary glands of the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, which is a major component of the pentatomid pest complex on soybeans, Glycine max, in the neotropics. Our results revealed a salivary gland complex consisting of two lobes (i.e., anterior and posterior), with a constriction between them (i.e., the hilum), in which the salivary and accessory gland ducts are inserted. The principal gland epithelium has a single layer of cells lining an enlarged lumen filled with saliva, and these cells are cuboidal, rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and secretory vesicles, with well-developed nuclei, all of which are typical features of protein-secreting cells. We report, for the first time in insects, the presence of a layer of muscle cells surrounding the columnar hilum epithelium. The accessory salivary gland cells are cuboidal with nuclei containing condensed chromatin and cytoplasm rich in vacuoles and rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating the potential involvement of these glands in water transport/secretion. The lumen content of each lobe of the principal gland suggests that the lobes produce different compounds. Thus, our results suggest that the E. heros salivary complex might have unconventional mechanisms to mix/release saliva, which might help explain the polyphagous abilities of these insects.

  19. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  20. Effects of temperature and food on the development of Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae); Efeitos da temperatura e do alimento no desenvolvimento de Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Fabio Souto [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], e-mail: fbio_almeida@yahoo.com.br; Goncalves, Lenicio [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal. Area de Biologia], e-mail: lencygon@globo.com

    2007-10-15

    Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae) is an important pest on Gossypium spp. (cotton tree), Citrus sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) crops. This insect also feeds on seeds of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (Bombacaceae). This work aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature and food on the development of D. maurus. Eight treatments were carried out, in six of them bugs were fed with seeds of C. speciosa and kept at 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30 {+-} 1 deg C, 80 {+-} 3% RH and 12h photo phase or in laboratory conditions (23.5 {+-} 2.6 deg C, 73.3 {+-} 9.9 % RH), and in the other two treatments bugs were fed with seeds of cotton variety IAC-22 and kept at 25 or 30 deg C. In all treatments five immature stages were observed. The increase of temperature caused reduction in the developmental time. The temperature of 15 deg C disabled nymphal eclosion and was also lethal to those nymphs ecloded at other temperatures. The lower mortality of nymphs occurred in the temperature of 25 deg C with cotton as food (24.07%). The lower threshold temperature (Tb) occurred for the first instar (11.54 deg C) and the higher for the second instar (15.33 deg C). The females of D. maurus required more degree-days (329.93 degree-days) than males (300.49 degree-days) until adult emergence. (author)

  1. Phylogenetic Signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera Mouthparts: Stylets Bundle, Sense Organs, and Labial Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Brożek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha. The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera, together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae. The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae, (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae, (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae, Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae.

  2. Phylogenetic Signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) Mouthparts: Stylets Bundle, Sense Organs, and Labial Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)). PMID:24883360

  3. Techniques for Specifying Bug Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R W; Misherghi, G

    2007-04-30

    We present our on-going work to develop techniques for specifying source code signatures of bug patterns. Specifically, we discuss two approaches. The first approach directly analyzes a program in the intermediate representation (IR) of the ROSE compiler infrastructure using ROSE's API. The second analyzes the program using the bddbddb system of Lam, Whaley, et al.. In this approach, we store the IR produced by ROSE as a relational database, express patterns as declarative inference rules on relations in the language Datalog, and bddbddb implements the Datalog programs using binary decision diagram (BDD) techniques. Both approaches readily apply to large-scale applications, since ROSE provides full type analysis, control flow, and other available analysis information. In this paper, we primarily consider bug patterns expressed with respect to the structure of the source code or the control flow, or both. More complex techniques to specify patterns that are functions of data flow properties may be addressed by either of the above approaches, but are not directly treated here. Our Datalog-based work includes explicit support for expressing patterns on the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in parallel distributed memory programs. We show examples of this on-going work as well.

  4. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home: Inspect the luggage rack in your hotel room for bed bugs. Check secondhand furniture, beds, ... Administrator Current Leadership Organization Chart Staff Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional ...

  5. Bed Bug Clearinghouse Publications in Other Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    This information is intended to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. These outreach materials are available in Spanish, Chinese, and French; and include action plans based on an IPM approach.

  6. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  7. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  8. Insecticide resistance in bedbugs in Thailand and laboratory evaluation of insecticides for the control of Cimex hemipterus and Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatsin, Apiwat; Thavara, Usavadee; Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn; Phusup, Yutthana; Jonjang, Nisarat; Khumsawads, Chayada; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Asavadachanukorn, Preecha; Mulla, Mir S; Siriyasatien, Padet; Debboun, Mustapha

    2011-09-01

    Bedbugs are found in many countries around the world, and in some regions they are resistant to numerous insecticides. This study surveyed bedbugs in Thailand and determined their resistance to insecticides. The surveys were carried out in six provinces that attract large numbers of foreign tourists: Bangkok, Chonburi, Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Phuket, and Krabi. Bedbugs were collected from hotels and colonized in the laboratory to evaluate their resistance to insecticides. Cimex hemipterus (F.) was found in some hotels in Bangkok, Chonburi, Phuket, and Krabi, whereas Cimex lectularius L. was found only in hotels in Chiang Mai. No bedbugs were found in Ubon Ratchathani. The colonized bedbugs showed resistance to groups of insecticides, including organochlorines (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane, dieldrin), carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur), organophosphates (malathion, fenitrothion), and pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, etofenprox) in tests using World Health Organization insecticide-impregnated papers. The new insecticides imidacloprid (neonicotinoid group), chlorfenapyr (pyrrole group), and fipronil (phenylpyrazole group) were effective against the bedbugs; however, organophosphate (diazinon), carbamates (fenobucarb, propoxur), and pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, etofenprox) were ineffective. Aerosols containing various pyrethroid insecticides with two to four different active ingredients were effective against the bedbugs. The results obtained from this study suggested that both species of bedbugs in Thailand have developed marked resistance to various groups of insecticides, especially those in the pyrethroid group, which are the most common insecticides used for pest control. Therefore, an integrated pest management should be implemented for managing bedbugs in Thailand.

  9. Seasonal resource value and male size influence male aggressive interactions in the leaf footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Zachary J; Allen, Pablo E; Miller, Christine W

    2017-05-01

    In animal contests, resource value (the quality of a given resource) and resource holding potential (a male's absolute fighting ability) are two important factors determining the level of engagement and outcome of contests. Few studies have tested these factors simultaneously. Here, we investigated whether natural, seasonal differences in cactus phenology (fruit quality) influence interactions between males in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae). We also considered whether males were more likely to interact when they were similar in size, as predicted by theory. Finally, we examined if male size relative to the size of an opponent predicted competitive success. We found that males have more interactions on cactus with high value ripe fruit, as we predicted. Further, we found that males that were closer in size were more likely to interact, and larger males were more likely to become dominant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Variable Levels of Resistance of Soybean Genotypes on the Performance of Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Efrain S; Canassa, Vinícius F; Bentivenha, José P F; Baldin, Edson L L; Pierozzi, Caroline G; Lourenção, André L; Pannuti, Luiz E R

    2017-10-10

    The Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is one of the major soybean pests in South America. This species is responsible for high levels of infestation, causes critical damage to seeds, it is associated with leaf retention on plants, and it is extremely difficult to manage. Host plant resistance is a notable technique to assist in reducing the stink bug population in soybean crops. The antibiosis resistance of soybean genotypes to E. heros was evaluated in laboratory. Genotypes L1-1-01, 'IAC 100', 'IAC 23', and 'Coodetec 208' increased the length of nymphal developmental time. PI 274453 and PI 227687 reduced egg viability and also adult body weight. PI 274454, 'IAC 19', PI 227687, and PI 229358 led to low nymphal viability. These results suggest that these genotypes may be useful in soybean breeding programs that focus on the development of genotypes resistant to E. heros. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Injury to preflowering and flowering cotton by brown stink bug and southern green stink bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willrich, M M; Leonard, B R; Temple, J

    2004-06-01

    The impact of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), and southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), injury was evaluated on preflowering and flowering cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., plants in no-choice tests. Vegetative stage cotton seedlings and reproductive structures, including flower buds (square) and bolls, were infested with adults and/or nymphs of both species. There were no significant differences in height, height to node ratio, square retention, and flower initiation for cotton seedlings or plants with a match-head square between southern green stink bug adult- or brown stink bug adult-infested and noninfested treatments. Abscission for individual large squares (precandle) and multiple squares (medium and small square on the same sympodial branch) was not significantly different among infested and noninfested treatments for the following species and developmental stages: brown stink bug adults, southern green stink bug adults, and third and fourth to fifth instar southern green stink bug nymphs. In boll infestation studies, the relationship between boll maturity, expressed as heat units beyond anthesis, and boll growth, abscission, hard locked carpels, seedcotton yield, and seed germination was measured. Brown stink bug induced abscission in bolls that had accumulated > 0-350 heat units beyond anthesis. Boll growth and seedcotton yield was significantly lower for bolls infested with brown stink bug through 266.5 and 550 heat units beyond anthesis, respectively. The proportion of hard locked carpels per boll was significantly greater for the infested treatment in a cohort of bolls that accumulated from 51 to 400 heat units beyond anthesis. Seed germination in bolls infested with brown stink bug was significantly lower in bolls aged 101-600 heat units beyond anthesis.

  12. Could You Spot Bed Bugs in A Hotel Room?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report saying it had bed bugs. "From a hotel industry perspective, it's worrisome that a single online report of bed bugs would cause the majority of travelers to book different accommodations, ... eradicated." Dermatologist Dr. Carrie Kovarik, an associate ...

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug ... Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients AAD Resources For: Dermatologists in the US and Canada Dermatologists outside ...

  14. Concurrency bugs in open source software: a case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara; Sundmark, Daniel; Eldh, Sigrid; Hansson, Hans

    2017-01-01

    ...., deadlocks and race conditions. In aiming to increase efficiency and effectiveness of debugging and bug-fixing for concurrent software, a deep understanding of concurrency bugs, their frequency and fixing-times would be helpful...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hair and scalp problems Itchy skin Painful skin / joints Rashes Scaly skin Skin cancer Why see a ... and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika ...

  16. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Triatomine Bug FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article (Transfusion — March 8, 2012): The United States Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Study: Evidence for Vector-borne Transmission of ... of reduviid bug that can carry the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that causes Chagas disease. Various triatomine bugs in ...

  17. Prevention and Control of Bed Bugs in Residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and do not impact bed bugs, and a lack of public awareness. In addition to homes and hotels, bed bugs are also found in schools, retail facilities, office buildings, libraries, and other public areas. Back ...

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy Action Center News Advocacy priorities AADA Health System Reform Principles Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic ... and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika ...

  19. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur da Silva Neumann

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy.

  20. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Arthur da Silva; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Ferreira, Jéssica da Silva; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Macedo, Rafael Enrique; Oliveira, José Henrique; Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Suffys, Philip Noel; Oliveira, Pedro L; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy.

  1. Cold Tolerance of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae): An Invasive Pest of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jessica I; Lamp, William O

    2017-12-08

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), first discovered in the United States in 2009, is an invasive pest of soybeans. From 2013 to 2016, Maryland has been the northern limit of its distribution in the United States. We sought to determine the physiological cold temperature limits, timing of movement to overwintering locations, and to characterize overwintering microhabitat temperature. We measured supercooling point (SCP) on three populations from distinct USDA plant hardiness zones in Maryland and Virginia between October and December of 2015. The average SCP across all sample months and populations was -12.6°C and no consistent trend of month or population location were observed. Additionally, we assessed the lower lethal temperature to kill 50% of the population (LLT50) at the same population locations in October and November 2015. The average LLT50 over both months and all three population locations was -5.1°C. Again, no consistent trend based on population location was observed but we did find a modest depression in the LLT50 values between October and November. We observed that kudzu bug overwinters in leaf litter and begins to move into the litter in late November to early December. Leaf litter moderates day to night temperature differences and was warmer than ambient temperature by an average of 0.7°C. Evidence suggests that the cold tolerance of the kudzu bug limits its distribution north of Maryland. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Genetic structure of Pseudococcus microcirculus (Hemiptera ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. A. ZETTLER

    Tozzetti) and the citrus mealy bug Planococcus citri. (Risso) are polyphagous pests that commonly use orna- .... tion from those previously developed for the citrus mealy bug Planococcus citri by Martins et al. (2012). ... We sent reaction products to the Georgia Genomics. Facility (University of Georgia) for electrophoresis.

  3. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  4. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  5. Sexual Success after Stress? Imidacloprid-Induced Hormesis in Males of the Neotropical Stink Bug Euschistus heros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddi, Khalid; Mendes, Marcos V; Barcellos, Marcelo S; Lino-Neto, José; Freitas, Hemerson L; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Oliveira, Eugênio E

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stress in newly-emerged adult insects can have dramatic consequences on their life traits (e.g., dispersion, survival and reproduction) as adults. For instance, insects sublethally exposed to environmental stressors (e.g., insecticides) can gain fitness benefits as a result of hormesis (i.e., benefits of low doses of compounds that would be toxic at higher doses). Here, we experimentally tested whether sublethal exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid would hormetically affect the sexual fitness of newly-emerged adults of the Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), which is the most abundant and prevalent insect pest in Neotropical soybean fields. We evaluated the sexual fitness of four couple combinations: unexposed couples, exposed females, exposed males, and exposed couples. Sublethal exposure to dry residues (i.e., contact) of imidacloprid (at 1% of recommended field rate) did not affect insect survival, but led to higher mating frequencies when at least one member of the couple was exposed. However, the average mating duration was shortened when only females were exposed to imidacloprid. Moreover, exposed males showed higher locomotory (walking) activity, lower respiration rates and induced higher fecundity rates when mated to unexposed females. Although the reproductive tracts of exposed males did not differ morphometrically from unexposed males, their accessory glands exhibited positive reactions for acidic and basic contents. Our findings suggest that males of the Neotropical brown stink bug hormetically increase their sexual fitness when cued by impending insecticidal stress in early adulthood.

  6. Sexual Success after Stress? Imidacloprid-Induced Hormesis in Males of the Neotropical Stink Bug Euschistus heros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Haddi

    Full Text Available Environmental stress in newly-emerged adult insects can have dramatic consequences on their life traits (e.g., dispersion, survival and reproduction as adults. For instance, insects sublethally exposed to environmental stressors (e.g., insecticides can gain fitness benefits as a result of hormesis (i.e., benefits of low doses of compounds that would be toxic at higher doses. Here, we experimentally tested whether sublethal exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid would hormetically affect the sexual fitness of newly-emerged adults of the Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, which is the most abundant and prevalent insect pest in Neotropical soybean fields. We evaluated the sexual fitness of four couple combinations: unexposed couples, exposed females, exposed males, and exposed couples. Sublethal exposure to dry residues (i.e., contact of imidacloprid (at 1% of recommended field rate did not affect insect survival, but led to higher mating frequencies when at least one member of the couple was exposed. However, the average mating duration was shortened when only females were exposed to imidacloprid. Moreover, exposed males showed higher locomotory (walking activity, lower respiration rates and induced higher fecundity rates when mated to unexposed females. Although the reproductive tracts of exposed males did not differ morphometrically from unexposed males, their accessory glands exhibited positive reactions for acidic and basic contents. Our findings suggest that males of the Neotropical brown stink bug hormetically increase their sexual fitness when cued by impending insecticidal stress in early adulthood.

  7. Triatomine bugs, their microbiota and Trypanosoma cruzi: asymmetric responses of bacteria to an infected blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Sebastián; Villavicencio, Bianca; Correia, Nathália; Costa, Jane; Haag, Karen L

    2016-12-09

    Triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) are vectors of the flagellate Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The study of triatomine gut microbiota has gained relevance in the last years due to its possible role in vector competence and prospective use in control strategies. The objective of this study is to examine changes in the gut microbiota composition of triatomines in response to a T. cruzi-infected blood meal and identifying key factors determining those changes. We sampled colony-reared individuals from six triatomine vectors (Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma brasiliensis, T. infestans, T. juazeirensis and T. sherlocki) comparing experimentally T. cruzi strain 0354-challenged and non-challenged insects. The microbiota of gut and gonad tissues was characterized using high throughput sequencing of region V3-V4 of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The triatomine microbiota had a low intra-individual diversity, and a high inter-individual variation within the same host species. Arsenophonous appeared as the dominant triatomine bacterial symbiont in our study (59% of the total 16S coverage), but there were significant differences in the distribution of bacterial genera among vectors. In Rhodnius prolixus the dominant symbiont was Pectobacterium. Trypanosoma cruzi-challenge significantly affects microbiota composition, with challenged vectors harbouring a significantly more diverse bacterial community, both in the gut and the gonads. Our results show that blood-feeding with T. cruzi epimastigotes strongly affects microbiota composition in a species-specific manner. We suggest that triatomine-adapted enterobacteria such as Arsenophonus could be used as stable vectors for genetic transformation of triatomine bugs and control of Chagas disease.

  8. Insecticidal Management and Movement of the Brown Stink Bug, Euschistus servus, in Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D.

    2011-01-01

    In eastern North Carolina, some brown stink bugs, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are suspected to pass the F1 generation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Poales: Poaceae) before moving into corn (Zea mays L.) (Poales: Poaceae). These pests can injure corn ears as they develop. To test their effectiveness as a management tactic, pyrethroids were aerially applied to field corn in two experiments, one with 0.77 ha plots and another with 85 ha plots. Euschistus servus population abundance was monitored over time in both experiments and yield was assessed in the larger of the two experiments. In the smaller experiment, the populations were spatially monitored in a 6.3 ha area of corn adjacent to a recently harvested wheat field (352 sampling points of 6.1 row-meters in all but the first sampling event). Overall E. servus abundance decreased throughout the monitoring period in the sampling area of the smaller experiment, but remained unchanged over time in the large-scale experiment. During all sampling periods in both experiments, abundance was the same between treatments. Yield was unaffected by treatment where it was measured in the larger experiment. In the smaller experiment, E. servus were initially aggregated at the field edge of the corn (two, six and 13 days following the wheat harvest). Sixteen days following the wheat harvest they were randomly distributed in the corn. Although it was not directly measured, stink bugs are suspected to move the cornfield edge as a result of the adjacent wheat harvest. More study of the biology of E. servus is needed, specifically in the area of host preference, phenology and movement to explain these phenomena and to produce better management strategies for these pests. PMID:22950984

  9. Identity of Two Sympatric Species of Orius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jeffrey P.; Shirk, Paul D.; Kelley, Karen; Lewis, Tamera M.; Horton, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The minute pirate bugs, Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), are closely related species known to be sympatric in north Florida. Here, male and female genitalia, DNA sequences, and the effects of within- and between-species pairings on egg production and egg development were examined to develop a better understanding of the relationship between these two species. Interspecific matings between the two species did not result in viable progeny. Although there were gross similarities in the morphology of the male parameres (external genitalia) between the two species, the cone in O. pumilio was much broader with a greater spiral twist and the flagellum was longer than in O. insidiosus. Correspondingly, there were differences in the morphology of the copulatory tubes of the females of the two species. In O. insidiosus, the organ was somewhat longer than in O. pumilio and oriented parallel to the abdominal midline, while the copulatory tube in O. pumilio tilted slightly towards the midline. Additionally, the copulatory tube for O. pumilio included a sclerotized basal mound that was not present in O. insidiosus. These morphological differences suggest that successful copulation between these species could be difficult. In contrast to conspecific matings, interspecific matings resulted in few or no eggs laid over a period of two weeks and no viable progeny. Comparison of the 18S ribosomal gene ITS-1 sequences between the two species demonstrated only 91% homology. When yolk protein contents were examined to determine whether reproductive physiology had shifted to full egg production, interspecifically mated females contained amounts of yolk protein comparable to that in fed, but unmated females; this was less than 10% of the yolk protein previously found in fed and conspecifically mated females. These findings together confirm that O. insidiosus and O. pumilio are indeed two separate species. PMID:21265614

  10. Morphological diversity of the labial sensilla of phytophagous and predatory Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with reference to their possible functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shama; Ahmad, Ayashaa; Brożek, Jolanta; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

    2015-11-05

    Sensory structure on the labial surface of five genera of Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) belonging to two subfamilies i.e. Asopinae and Pentatominae have been studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Three representatives of the subfamily Pentatominae (phytophagous)-Dolycoris indicus (Stal), Plautia crossota (Dallas) and Piezodorus hybneri (Gmelin) and two of Asopinae (predatory)-Perillus bioculatus (Fabricius) and Eocanthecona furcellata (Wolff) were studied to morphologically characterize and compare the sensory structures present on the labium. Six types of labial sensilla were found on their labial tip and surface. The labial sensilla identified were sensilla peg (SP), basiconica (SB), campaniformia (SCa), chaetica (SCh), styloconica (SStc) and trichodea (ST). Their possible functions were discussed relating to morphology and location. A new form of sensilla basiconica was also observed in D. indicus. Sensilla styloconica were restricted only to the predatory pentatomid bugs. Cuticular projections (Cpr) on the sensorial region of the studied pentatomids were also observed along with labial cuticular pores.

  11. Color Preference of Harlequin Bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMeglio, Anthony S; Kuhar, Thomas P; Weber, Donald C

    2017-10-01

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is an important pest of Brassica crops in the southern United States. Regional populations are highly variable and unpredictable from farm-to-farm, and therefore accurate monitoring of activity would greatly improve IPM decision-making and the timing of control tactics. To our knowledge, there is no monitoring device or proven trapping system for this pest. We contribute new knowledge of harlequin bug visual ecology, which will aid in the development of an effective trap. In both lab and field color choice experiments, harlequin bug adults and large nymphs responded positively to green and black colors, and statistically less frequently to yellow, white, purple, or red with the exception of adult females, which were most attracted to red and green in the lab, but green and black in the field. We conclude that future trapping devices for harlequin bug should be green or black in color. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Laboratory Rearing of the Hairy Chinch Bug

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, P. B.; Ratcliffe, R. H.; Steinhauer, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory procedures were developed for rearing the hairy chinch bug Blissus leucopterus hirtus Montandon, on corn sections in 236.6 ml cardboard cartons. There was significantly higher survival of nymphs and adults when eggs were surface sterilized in 2% sodium hypochlorite solution as compared to those treated with a 1% solution or untreated eggs. Adult survival was significantly higher (P

  13. Comparative mitogenomic analysis of mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae and evaluation of potential DNA barcoding markers

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    Juan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The family Miridae is one of the most species-rich families of insects. To better understand the diversity and evolution of mirids, we determined the mitogenome of Lygus pratenszs and re-sequenced the mitogenomes of four mirids (i.e., Apolygus lucorum, Adelphocoris suturalis, Ade. fasciaticollis and Ade. lineolatus. We performed a comparative analysis for 15 mitogenomic sequences representing 11 species of five genera within Miridae and evaluated the potential of these mitochondrial genes as molecular markers. Our results showed that the general mitogenomic features (gene content, gene arrangement, base composition and codon usage were well conserved among these mirids. Four protein-coding genes (PCGs (cox1, cox3, nad1 and nad3 had no length variability, where nad5 showed the largest size variation; no intraspecific length variation was found in PCGs. Two PCGs (nad4 and nad5 showed relatively high substitution rates at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, where cox1 had the lowest substitution rate. The Ka/Ks values for all PCGs were far lower than 1 (<0.59, but the Ka/Ks values of cox1-barcode sequences were always larger than 1 (1.34 –15.20, indicating that the 658 bp sequences of cox1 may be not the appropriate marker due to positive selection or selection relaxation. Phylogenetic analyses based on two concatenated mitogenomic datasets consistently supported the relationship of Nesidiocoris + (Trigonotylus + (Adelphocoris + (Apolygus + Lygus, as revealed by nad4, nad5, rrnL and the combined 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs, respectively. Taken sequence length, substitution rate and phylogenetic signal together, the individual genes (nad4, nad5 and rrnL and the combined 22 tRNAs could been used as potential molecular markers for Miridae at various taxonomic levels. Our results suggest that it is essential to evaluate and select suitable markers for different taxa groups when performing phylogenetic, population genetic and species identification studies.

  14. Salivary digestive enzymes of the wheat bug, Eurygaster integriceps (Insecta: Hemiptera: Scutelleridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali Reza; Dastranj, Mehdi

    2014-06-01

    The digestive enzymes from salivary gland complexes (SGC) of Eurygaster integriceps, and their response to starvation and feeding were studied. Moreover, digestive amylases were partially purified and characterized by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. The SGC are composed of two sections, the principal glands and accessory glands. The principal glands are further divided into the anterior lobes and posterior lobes. The SGC main enzyme was α-amylase, which hydrolyzed starch better than glycogen. The other carbohydrases were also present in the SGC complexes. Enzymatic activities toward mannose (α/β-mannosidases) were little in comparison to activities against glucose (α/β-glucosidases) and galactose (α/β-galactosidases), the latter being the greatest. Acid phosphatase showed higher activity than alkaline phosphatase. There was no measurable activity for lipase and aminopeptidase. Proteolytic activity was detected against general and specific protease substrates. Activities of all enzymes were increased in response to feeding in comparison to starved insects, revealing their induction and secretion in response to feeding pulse. The SGC amylases eluted in four major peaks and post-electrophoretic detection of the α-amylases demonstrated the existence of at least five isoamylases in the SGC. The physiological implication of these findings in pre-oral digestion of E. integriceps is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Phylogenetic divergences of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the aquatic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    of phylogenetic inferences largely confirm the widely accepted phylogenetic context. Estimation of the divergence time based on the phylogenetic results revealed that Gerromorpha, Nepomorpha and Leptopodomorpha originated successively during the period from the Late Permian to Early Triassic (269-246 Ma......). This timescale is consistent with the origin and radiation time of various aquatic holometabolans....

  16. Resin gathering in neotropical resin bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): functional and comparative morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Dimitri; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Weirauch, Christiane

    2011-02-01

    Apiomerini (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) collect plant resins with their forelegs and use these sticky substances for prey capture or maternal care. These behaviors have not been described in detail and morphological structures involved in resin gathering, transfer, and storage remain virtually undocumented. We here describe these behaviors in Apiomerus flaviventris and document the involved structures. To place them in a comparative context, we describe and document leg and abdominal structures in 14 additional species of Apiomerini that represent all but one of the 12 recent genera in the tribe. Based on these morphological data in combination with the behavioral observations on A. flaviventris, we infer behavioral and functional hypotheses for the remaining genera within the tribe Apiomerini. Setal abdominal patches for resin storage are associated with maternal care so far only documented for species of Apiomerus. Based on the occurrence of these patches in several other genera, we propose that maternal care is widespread within the tribe. Ventral abdominal glands are widespread within female Apiomerini. We propose that their products may prevent hardening of stored resins thus providing long-term supply for egg coating. Judging from the diverse setal types and arrangements on the front legs, we predict six different behavioral patterns of resin gathering within the tribe. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Microbial community of predatory bugs of the genus Macrolophus (Hemiptera: Miridae

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    Machtelinckx Thijs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predatory mirids of the genus Macrolophus are key natural enemies of various economically important agricultural pests. Both M. caliginosus and M. pygmaeus are commercially available for the augmentative biological control of arthropod pests in European greenhouses. The latter species is known to be infected with Wolbachia -inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility in its host- but the presence of other endosymbionts has not been demonstrated. In the present study, the microbial diversity was examined in various populations of M. caliginosus and M. pygmaeus by 16S rRNA sequencing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results Besides Wolbachia, a co-infection of 2 Rickettsia species was detected in all M. pygmaeus populations. Based on a concatenated alignment of the 16S rRNA gene, the gltA gene and the coxA gene, the first is phylogenetically related to Rickettsia bellii, whereas the other is closely related to Rickettsia limoniae. All M. caliginosus populations were infected with the same Wolbachia and limoniae-like Rickettsia strain as M. pygmaeus, but did not harbour the bellii-like Rickettsia strain. Interestingly, individuals with a single infection were not found. A PCR assay on the ovaries of M. pygmaeus and M. caliginosus indicated that all endosymbionts are vertically transmitted. The presence of Wolbachia and Rickettsia in oocytes was confirmed by a fluorescence in situ hybridisation. A bio-assay comparing an infected and an uninfected M. pygmaeus population suggested that the endosymbionts had minor effects on nymphal development of their insect host and did not influence its fecundity. Conclusion Two species of the palaearctic mirid genus Macrolophus are infected with multiple endosymbionts, including Wolbachia and Rickettsia. Independent of the origin, all tested populations of both M. pygmaeus and M. caliginosus were infected with three and two endosymbionts, respectively. There was no indication that infection with endosymbiotic bacteria had a fitness cost in terms of development and fecundity of the predators.

  18. Microbial community of predatory bugs of the genus Macrolophus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machtelinckx, T.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Van De Wiele, T.; Boon, N.; De Vos, W.H.; Sanchez, J.A.; Nannini, M.; Gheysen, G.; De Clercq, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The predatory mirids of the genus Macrolophus are key natural enemies of various economically important agricultural pests. Both M. caliginosus and M. pygmaeus are commercially available for the augmentative biological control of arthropod pests in European greenhouses. The latter

  19. What do we know about the phylogeny of the semi-aquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    and Metrobatini, and even well-known genera, such as Aquarius, Limnometra, Tenagogonus and Halobates, are not monophyletic. As taxonomic classifications should be based on observable morphological characters, and at the same time reflect phylogenetic relationships, a considerable task lays ahead in obtaining...

  20. Cytogenetics of the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha (Hemiptera, Heteroptera): a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Grozeva, Snejana M.; Nokkala, Seppo; Nokkala, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Cimicomorpha is one of the largest and highly diversified infraorders of the Heteroptera. This group is also highly diversified cytogenetically and demonstrates a number of unusual cytogenetic characters such as holokinetic chromosomes; m-chromosomes; multiple sex chromosome systems; post-reduction of sex chromosomes in meiosis; variation in the presence/absence of chiasmata in spermatogenesis; different types of achiasmate meiosis. We present here a review of essential cytogenetic characters of the Cimicomorpha and outline the chief objectives and goals of future investigations in the field. PMID:22287915

  1. An annotated checklist of burrower bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae from Bali (Indonesia with new records*

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    Lis Jerzy A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An annotated checklist of the Balinese Cydnidae is provided. Three species (Chilocoris adelphus, Macroscytus dominiqueae, M. javanus are recorded for the first time from Bali, including the first Indonesian record for M. dominiqueae. Fromundus pygmaeus is recorded for the second time from the island. Our study increases the number of Cydnidae recorded from Bali to seven, and that known from Indonesia to 58.

  2. Toxicity of three aphicides to the generalist predators Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo R R; Michaud, J P; Bain, Clint L; Torres, Jorge B

    2017-07-01

    Recent widespread infestations of the invasive sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in sorghum fields in the southern USA have created demand for insecticides that will provide effective control of sugarcane aphid, while conserving those beneficial species that contribute to biological control of the pest. We tested the susceptibility of both adult and immature stages of two aphid predators, the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), to three aphicides, flonicamid, sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone. Flonicamid was innocuous to both species regardless of life stage or route of exposure. Lacewing adults were more susceptible to sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone than were larvae, and had higher mortality when fed contaminated honey solution than when contacting residues on an inert surface. When laid in sunflower stems treated with these two materials, eggs of O. insidiosus hatched successfully, but nymphs experienced significant mortality when exposed to treated stems, likely due to phytophagous behavior that resulted in some insecticide ingestion. Despite these impacts, we conclude that both sulfoxaflor and flupyradifurone are likely to be relatively innocuous in comparison to more broad-spectrum insecticides and are thus potentially compatible with biological control and overall management of M. sacchari in grain sorghum.

  3. Performance of nymphs and adults of Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae on soybean pods at different developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émerson D. M. Oliveira

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the laboratory to test the suitability of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] pods at different phenological stages of development (R3-R8 on the performance of nymphs and adults of the small green stink bug Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae. Nymphs and adults showed better performance when fed on soybean pods during the pod-filling stage (R5-R6, compared to those fed on soybean pods at the remaining stages of development. When fed on soybean pods without seeds (R3-R4 no nymphs survived and no adults reproduced.Estudos foram conduzidos em laboratório para testar a adequabilidade de vagens de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] em diferentes fases fenológicas (R3-R8 na performance de ninfas e adultos do percevejo verde pequeno Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae. Tanto ninfas como adultos mostraram uma melhor performance quando se alimentaram das vagens de soja na fase de enchimento de grãos (R5-R6, comparado com aqueles que se alimentaram de vagens de soja nas demais fases de desenvolvimento. Em vagens sem grãos (R3-R4 nenhuma ninfa sobreviveu e não houve reprodução.

  4. Potential geographic distribution of brown marmorated stink bug invasion (Halyomorpha halys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengping Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, native to Asia, is becoming an invasive species with a rapidly expanding range in North America and Europe. In the US, it is a household pest and also caused unprecedented damage to agriculture crops. Exploring its climatic limits and estimating its potential geographic distribution can provide critical information for management strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS: We used direct climate comparisons to explore the climatic niche occupied by native and invasive populations of BMSB. Ecological niche modelings based on the native range were used to anticipate the potential distribution of BMSB worldwide. Conversely, niche models based on the introduced range were used to locate the original invasive propagates in Asia. Areas with high invasion potential were identified by two niche modeling algorithms (i.e., Maxent and GARP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reduced dimensionality of environmental space improves native model transferability in the invade area. Projecting models from invasive population back to native distributional areas offers valuable information on the potential source regions of the invasive populations. Our models anticipated successfully the current disjunct distribution of BMSB in the US. The original propagates are hypothesized to have come from northern Japan or western Korea. High climate suitable areas at risk of invasion include latitudes between 30°-50° including northern Europe, northeastern North America, southern Australia and the North Island of New Zealand. Angola in Africa and Uruguay in South America also showed high climate suitability.

  5. Employing immunomarkers to track dispersal and trophic relationships of a piercing-sucking predator, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jessica L; Hagler, James R; Kaplan, Ian

    2012-12-01

    Immunoproteins are markers that are useful for monitoring dispersal and/or pest consumption, but current application techniques are less effective for the large guild of piercing-sucking predators important in biocontrol. We quantified the use of protein immunomarks in tracking emigration of spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris Say (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and predation on the hornworm caterpillar, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). An external protein mark was topically applied to adult P. maculiventris to assess persistence under field conditions for >2 wk. Internal marks were incorporated into the artificial diet of M. sexta to test retention of the internal mark in the prey and uptake of the mark by predators. External marks remained detectable in 100% of individuals after 3 d and >50% still tested positive at 12 d after application in the field. Internal diet-based marking was also effective in tracking feeding by P. maculiventris on M. sexta, especially using rabbit IgG that was far more persistent than chicken IgY. Nearly 90% of stink bugs fed caterpillars previously reared on protein-enriched diet retained their mark for 24 h. Surprisingly, diet concentration and time reared on diet had comparatively little impact on mark retention. Development on unmarked tomato leaves clearly diluted the initial diet mark, but plant-reared individuals that were marked were still successfully detected in 35 and 20% of the predators.

  6. Virulence of entomopathogenic bacteria in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietri, Jose E; Liang, Dangsheng

    2017-10-24

    Due in part to the development of insecticide resistance, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has overcome human intervention efforts to make a global resurgence. The failure of chemical pesticides has created a need for novel strategies to combat bed bugs. While a number of insect pests are susceptible to the use of entomopathogenic microbes or microbial-derived toxins, biological control methods have not been thoroughly explored in bed bugs. Here, we tested the virulence of three entomopathogenic bacterial species in C. lectularius to determine their potential for bed bug control. We examined bed bug survival after inoculation with live or heat-killed Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis at varying temperatures. We also analyzed the viability and growth of the same bacteria in infected bed bugs. All three bacterial species were pathogenic to bed bugs. However, the effects of S. marcescens and P. fluorescens were temperature-dependent while the lethality of B. thuringiensis israelensis was not. In addition, bacterial virulence was partly dependent on the route of infection but was not strongly associated with proliferation. Thus, our results suggest multiple possible mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity in the bed bug and indicate that entomopathogenic bacteria, or products derived from them, may have useful applications for bed bug control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Towards Easing the Diagnosis of Bugs in OS Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Henrik; Hansen, René Rydhof; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2007-01-01

    The rapid detection and treatment of bugs in operating systems code is essential to maintain the overall security and dependability of a computing system.  A number of techniques have been proposed for detecting bugs, but little has been done to help developers analyze and treat them.  In this pa......The rapid detection and treatment of bugs in operating systems code is essential to maintain the overall security and dependability of a computing system.  A number of techniques have been proposed for detecting bugs, but little has been done to help developers analyze and treat them...

  8. The e-Bug project in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, Pia; Dunais, Brigitte; Urcun, Jeanne-Marie; Michard, Jean-Louis; Loarer, Christian; Azanowsky, Jean-Michel; Vincent, Isabelle; Jestin, Christine; Housseau, Bruno; de Warren, Anne; Dellamonica, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    The high rates of antibiotic prescriptions and antimicrobial resistance in France motivated its participation in the European e-Bug school project concerning microbes, and infection transmission, prevention and treatment. The prospect of raising awareness among children, helping them to adopt suitable attitudes and behaviour towards infection transmission and treatment starting from childhood, generated enthusiastic support from relevant national educational and health institutions throughout the Project. France was actively involved in every stage: background research showed that the subject matter was best suited to the national science curricula of the fourth and fifth forms in junior schools, and the sixth and ninth forms in senior schools; a focus group study with junior and senior teachers elicited teachers' needs concerning teaching resources; and a qualitative and quantitative evaluation, after translation and pack review, enabled further adaptation of the packs. This evaluation showed an overall enthusiastic reception by teachers and their students in France, and reassured teachers on the ease of use of the Project's resources and students' progress. The e-Bug Project was launched through a national institutional implementation plan in September 2009 and orders for e-Bug tools increased rapidly. By the end of October, 57% of all senior science teachers and 16% of all junior school teachers had ordered the pack. France is one of the most frequent users of the e-Bug web site. The collaboration with both educational and health partners was particularly helpful to implementing the Project, and this was confirmed by the favourable reception and participation of teachers and students in the field.

  9. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Peanut-Cotton Farmscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P Glynn; Cottrell, Ted E

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States, but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in agricultural farmscapes. Therefore, spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes where cotton fields adjoined peanut was examined weekly. Spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using SADIE (Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices) methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops. For the six peanut-cotton farmscapes studied, the frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (94.8%) was significantly higher than in peanut (5.2%), and nymphs were rarely detected in peanut, indicating that peanut was not a source of C. hilaris into cotton. Significantly, aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton. Maps of local clustering indices depicted patches of C. hilaris in cotton, mainly at field edges including the peanut-to-cotton interface. Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) and elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis [L.] R. Bolli) grew in habitats adjacent to crops, C. hilaris were captured in pheromone-baited stink bug traps in these habitats, and in most instances, C. hilaris were observed feeding on black cherry and elderberry in these habitats before colonization of cotton. Spatial distribution of C. hilaris in these farmscapes revealed that C. hilaris colonized cotton field edges near these two noncrop hosts. Altogether, these findings suggest that black cherry and elderberry were sources of C. hilaris into cotton. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in peanut-cotton farmscapes are discussed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Peanut-Cotton Farmscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P. Glynn; Cottrell, Ted E.

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States, but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in agricultural farmscapes. Therefore, spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes where cotton fields adjoined peanut was examined weekly. Spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using SADIE (Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices) methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops. For the six peanut-cotton farmscapes studied, the frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (94.8%) was significantly higher than in peanut (5.2%), and nymphs were rarely detected in peanut, indicating that peanut was not a source of C. hilaris into cotton. Significantly, aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton. Maps of local clustering indices depicted patches of C. hilaris in cotton, mainly at field edges including the peanut-to-cotton interface. Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) and elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis [L.] R. Bolli) grew in habitats adjacent to crops, C. hilaris were captured in pheromone-baited stink bug traps in these habitats, and in most instances, C. hilaris were observed feeding on black cherry and elderberry in these habitats before colonization of cotton. Spatial distribution of C. hilaris in these farmscapes revealed that C. hilaris colonized cotton field edges near these two noncrop hosts. Altogether, these findings suggest that black cherry and elderberry were sources of C. hilaris into cotton. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in peanut-cotton farmscapes are discussed. PMID:26175464

  11. Early-season host switching in Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae of differing host breadth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The mirid bugs Adelphocoris suturalis (Jakovlev, Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze and Adelphocoris fasciaticollis (Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae are common pests of several agricultural crops. These three species have vastly different geographical distributions, phenologies and abundances, all of which are linked to their reliance on local plants. Previous work has shown notable differences in Adelphocoris spp. host use for overwintering. In this study, we assessed the extent to which each of the Adelphocoris spp. relies on some of its major overwinter hosts for spring development. Over the course of four consecutive years (2009-2012, we conducted population surveys on 77 different plant species from 39 families. During the spring, A. fasciaticollis used the broadest range of hosts, as it was found on 35 plant species, followed by A. suturalis (15 species and A. lineolatus (7 species. Abundances of the species greatly differed between host plants, with A. fasciaticollis reaching the highest abundance on Chinese date (Ziziphus jujuba Mill., whereas both A. suturalis and A. lineolatus preferred alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. The host breadths of the three Adelphocoris spp. differed greatly between subsequent spring and winter seasons. The generalist species exhibited the least host fidelity, with A. suturalis and A. lineolatus using 8 of 22 and 4 of 12 overwinter host species for spring development, respectively. By contrast, the comparative specialist A. fasciaticollis relied on 9 of its 11 overwinter plants as early-season hosts. We highlight important seasonal changes in host breadth and interspecific differences in the extent of host switching behavior between the winter and spring seasons. These findings benefit our understanding of the evolutionary interactions between mirid bugs and their host plants and can be used to guide early-season population management.

  12. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  13. Studies towards the sex pheromone of the green capsid bug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, F.P.

    2001-01-01

    The green capsid bug, Lygocoris pabulinus (L.) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a serious pest in fruit orchards, which is difficult to control. Because it is difficult to determine the actual population density, fruit growers apply insecticides against the green capsid bug on

  14. An automated approach for finding variable-constant pairing bugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Lo, David

    2010-01-01

    program-analysis and data-mining based approach to identify the uses of named constants and to identify anomalies in these uses.  We have applied our approach to a recent version of the Linux kernel and have found a number of bugs affecting both correctness and software maintenance.  Many of these bugs...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it under the mattress for maximum protection. Pay attention to outbreaks. Check the CDC Travel Health Notices website and heed travel warnings and recommendations. Sometimes, despite one’s greatest efforts, bug bites still happen. Fortunately, most bug bites ...

  16. Competition: Butterflies eliminate milkweed bugs from a Caribbean Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Nigel R; Dingle, Hugh

    1978-01-01

    By eliminating the food plant, Asclepias curassavica, monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, have virtually eliminated milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus spp., from the island of Barbados. The relatively open terrain of Barbados means the plants have no refuge; the butterflies survive on an alternate milkweed food plant, Calotropis procera, whose thick-walled pods make seeds unavailable to the bugs.

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you’re visiting areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and other bugs, use insect repellent that contains ...

  18. Software bug prediction using object-oriented metrics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This model is capable of predicting the existence of bugs in a class if found, during software validation using metrics. The designed model forecasts the occurrences of bugs in a class when any new system is tested on it. For this experiment some open source similar types of defect datasets (projects) have been collected ...

  19. True bug (Heteroptera) impact on cocoa fruit mortality and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yede; Babin, R; Djieto-Lordon, C; Cilas, C; Dibog, L; Mahob, R; Bilong, C F Bilong

    2012-08-01

    The real impact of true bug damage on cocoa pods has never been assessed precisely. We conducted a 2-yr study on 1,080 cocoa trees on 36 farms in Cameroon to assess the contribution of true bugs to fruit mortality and production loss. The cocoa fruiting cycle, fruit mortality, and damage caused by true bugs as well as other pests and diseases were monitored on a weekly basis. True bug damage also was described on 2,500 ripe pods per year. Pod weight, bean number, and bean weight were measured and compared for different degrees and types of damage on the ripe pods. Our results showed that true bugs were the main external cause of young fruit abortion. They reduced the abundance of young fruit by up to 10%. In contrast, although one-third of the ripe pods sampled had true bug lesions, only 4% were moderately to heavily damaged. The mean weight of ripe pods was reduced by 12% when there was medium to heavy damage. While the mean weight of wet beans was reduced significantly (by 3-10%), the number of beans per pod was not changed by damage. Despite the reduction in mean weight, the overall weight of beans for the pods sampled was reduced by bug damage on mature pods is negligible on cocoa farms in Cameroon. However, true bugs have a significant impact on young fruit mortality.

  20. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ...

  1. Catching the Bug: How Virtual Coaching Improves Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Megan

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author describes virtual coaching and why it is so effective. The following six points of virtual coaching are explained: (1) Also known as bug-in-ear coaching, virtual coaching is not new; (2) Virtual coaching can save money and time; (3) Bug-in-ear coaching increases the frequency of observations for novice teachers; (4) It…

  2. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug ... areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help ...

  3. Bed Bug Epidemic: A Challenge to Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Ritzel, Dale O.; Haramis, Linn D.; Bliss, Kadi R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, reported cases of bed bug infestations in the U.S. and throughout the world have escalated dramatically, posing a global public health problem. Although bed bugs are not known to transmit disease to humans, they pose both direct and indirect public health challenges in terms of health effects, treatment, cost, and resource…

  4. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Page of Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For mass distribution: two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  5. Electronically Monitored Labial Dabbing and Stylet ‘Probing’ Behaviors of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys, in Simulated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G.; Walton, Vaughn M.; Shearer, Peter W.; Rondon, Silvia I.

    2014-01-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive polyphagous agricultural and urban nuisance pest of Asian origin that is becoming widespread in North America and Europe. Despite the economic importance of pentatomid pests worldwide, their feeding behavior is poorly understood. Electronically monitored insect feeding (EMIF) technology is a useful tool in studies of feeding behavior of Hemiptera. Here we examined H. halys feeding behavior using an EMIF system designed for high throughput studies in environmental chambers. Our objectives were to quantify feeding activity by monitoring proboscis contacts with green beans, including labial dabbing and stylet penetration of the beans, which we collectively define as ‘probes’. We examined frequency and duration of ‘probes’ in field-collected H. halys over 48 hours and we determined how environmental conditions could affect diel and seasonal periodicity of ‘probing’ activity. We found differences in ‘probing’ activity between months when the assays were conducted. These differences in activity may have reflected different environmental conditions, and they also coincide with what is known about the phenology of H. halys. While a substantial number of ‘probes’ occurred during scotophase, including some of the longest mean ‘probe’ durations, activity was either lower or similar to ‘probing’ activity levels during photophase on average. We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys ‘probing’ behavior and may influence periodicity of activity. Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which ‘probing’ of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1°C (95% CI), and that ‘probing’ does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6°C (95% CI). We estimated that the optimal temperature for ‘probing’ is between 16 and 17°C. PMID:25474148

  6. Electronically monitored labial dabbing and stylet 'probing' behaviors of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in simulated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G; Walton, Vaughn M; Shearer, Peter W; Rondon, Silvia I

    2014-01-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive polyphagous agricultural and urban nuisance pest of Asian origin that is becoming widespread in North America and Europe. Despite the economic importance of pentatomid pests worldwide, their feeding behavior is poorly understood. Electronically monitored insect feeding (EMIF) technology is a useful tool in studies of feeding behavior of Hemiptera. Here we examined H. halys feeding behavior using an EMIF system designed for high throughput studies in environmental chambers. Our objectives were to quantify feeding activity by monitoring proboscis contacts with green beans, including labial dabbing and stylet penetration of the beans, which we collectively define as 'probes'. We examined frequency and duration of 'probes' in field-collected H. halys over 48 hours and we determined how environmental conditions could affect diel and seasonal periodicity of 'probing' activity. We found differences in 'probing' activity between months when the assays were conducted. These differences in activity may have reflected different environmental conditions, and they also coincide with what is known about the phenology of H. halys. While a substantial number of 'probes' occurred during scotophase, including some of the longest mean 'probe' durations, activity was either lower or similar to 'probing' activity levels during photophase on average. We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity. Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI). We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

  7. Electronically monitored labial dabbing and stylet 'probing' behaviors of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in simulated environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik G Wiman

    Full Text Available Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål, (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae is an invasive polyphagous agricultural and urban nuisance pest of Asian origin that is becoming widespread in North America and Europe. Despite the economic importance of pentatomid pests worldwide, their feeding behavior is poorly understood. Electronically monitored insect feeding (EMIF technology is a useful tool in studies of feeding behavior of Hemiptera. Here we examined H. halys feeding behavior using an EMIF system designed for high throughput studies in environmental chambers. Our objectives were to quantify feeding activity by monitoring proboscis contacts with green beans, including labial dabbing and stylet penetration of the beans, which we collectively define as 'probes'. We examined frequency and duration of 'probes' in field-collected H. halys over 48 hours and we determined how environmental conditions could affect diel and seasonal periodicity of 'probing' activity. We found differences in 'probing' activity between months when the assays were conducted. These differences in activity may have reflected different environmental conditions, and they also coincide with what is known about the phenology of H. halys. While a substantial number of 'probes' occurred during scotophase, including some of the longest mean 'probe' durations, activity was either lower or similar to 'probing' activity levels during photophase on average. We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity. Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI, and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI. We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

  8. How Does the Degree of Variability Affect Bug-Finding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Software projects embrace variability to increase adaptability and to lower cost; however, others blame variability for increasing complexity and making reasoning about programs more difficult. We carry out a controlled experiment to quantify the impact of variability on debugging of preprocessor......-based programs. We measure speed and precision for bug finding tasks defined at three different degrees of variability on several subject programs derived from real systems. The results show that the speed of bug finding decreases linearly with the number of features, while effectiveness of finding bugs...... is relatively independent of the degree of variability. Still, identifying the set of configurations in which the bug manifests itself is difficult already for a low number of features. Surprisingly, identifying the exact set of affected configurations appears to be harder than finding the bug in the first...

  9. Green plant bug from South Texas gets a common name - the "verde plant" bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some cotton producers from south Texas and the Gulf Coast regions have been unfortunate over the last few years because they have had to deal with a green plant bug, Creontiades signatus, that will feed on cotton fruit. The insect was initially, and erroneously, thought to be Creontiades dilutus, an...

  10. Presencia de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae en el Noroeste Argentino (NOA Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in North West Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Augier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se amplía la distribución de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae para el Noroeste Argentino.The distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is expanded to North West Argentina.

  11. Rapid transcriptome sequencing of an invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Lu, Yong; Kumar, Nikhil; Creasy, Todd; Daugherty, Sean; Chibucos, Marcus C; Orvis, Joshua; Shetty, Amol; Ott, Sandra; Flowers, Melissa; Sengamalay, Naomi; Tallon, Luke J; Pick, Leslie; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C

    2014-08-29

    Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Insecta:Hemiptera;Pentatomidae), commonly known as the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), is an invasive pest of the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, causing economically important damage to a wide range of crops. Native to Asia, BMSB was first observed in Allentown, PA, USA, in 1996, and this pest is now well-established throughout the US mid-Atlantic region and beyond. In addition to the serious threat BMSB poses to agriculture, BMSB has become a nuisance to homeowners, invading home gardens and congregating in large numbers in human-made structures, including homes, to overwinter. Despite its significance as an agricultural pest with limited control options, only 100 bp of BMSB sequence data was available in public databases when this project began. Transcriptome sequencing was undertaken to provide a molecular resource to the research community to inform the development of pest control strategies and to provide molecular data for population genetics studies of BMSB. Using normalized, strand-specific libraries, we sequenced pools of all BMSB life stages on the Illumina HiSeq. Trinity was used to assemble 200,000 putative transcripts in >100,000 components. A novel bioinformatic method that analyzed the strand-specificity of the data reduced this to 53,071 putative transcripts from 18,573 components. By integrating multiple other data types, we narrowed this further to 13,211 representative transcripts. Bacterial endosymbiont genes were identified in this dataset, some of which have a copy number consistent with being lateral gene transfers between endosymbiont genomes and Hemiptera, including ankyrin-repeat related proteins, lysozyme, and mannanase. Such genes and endosymbionts may provide novel targets for BMSB-specific biocontrol. This study demonstrates the utility of strand-specific sequencing in generating shotgun transcriptomes and that rapid sequencing shotgun transcriptomes is possible without the need for extensive

  12. Intraspecific Variation of Eysarcoris guttigerus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Japanese Southwest Population Based on Mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, Takuya; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Nomura, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The white-spotted globular bug Eysarcoris guttigerus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is widely distributed in East Asia and the Pacific region. In Japan, the species is found in grassy or composite weeds in the western area of the main islands and Ryukyu Islands of Japan. One notable characteristic of the Eysarcoris genus is the two white spots on the scutellum. This is not the case with the Ishigaki Island population, however, which sports red spots instead of white, suggesting that intraspecific variation exists in the species. Therefore, we investigated intraspecific variation in E. guttigerus using mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2), cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), cytochrome b (Cytb), tRNA-Serine (tRNA(ser)), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), and 16S ribosomal RNA (16SrRNA) genes from 13 populations of Japan. The obtained maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was divided into three groups--Group 1: Mainland, Group 2: Central Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa-Amamioshima Islands), and Group 3: South Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki Island). The Ishigaki population was significantly separated from the other populations with consistent differences in spot color. The estimated period of divergence between the Ishigaki population and the other populations was consistent with the period of formation of the Kerama Gap in the Ryukyu arc. Thus, the process of formation of the Kerama Gap may have influenced the intraspecific variation of E. guttigerus. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  13. Genetics, realized heritability and possible mechanism of chlorfenapyr resistance in Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Saif; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2016-10-01

    Dusky cotton bug (DCB), Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera) is a serious pest of cotton and other malvaceous plants. Chlorfenapyr, a broad spectrum, N-substituted, halogenated pyrrole insecticide is used extensively to control many insect pests in cotton, including DCB. In this study, we investigated a field strain of DCB to assess its potential to develop resistance to chlorfenapyr. After six generations of continuous selection pressure with chlorfenapyr, DCB had a 7.24-fold and 149.06-fold resistance ratio (RR) at G1 and G6, respectively. The genetic basis of inheritance of chlorfenapyr resistance was also studied by crossing the chlorfenapyr selected (Chlorfenapyr-SEL) and laboratory population (Lab-PK). Results revealed an autosomal and incompletely dominant mode of inheritance for chlorfenapyr resistance in the Chlorfenapyr-SEL population of DCB. The results of the monogenic model test showed chlorfenapyr resistance was controlled by multiple genes. Estimated realized heritability for chlorfenapyr resistance in the tested DCB strain was 0.123. Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide and S, S, S-butyl phosphorotrithioate revealed chlorfenapyr resistance might be due to esterase activity. These results would be useful for devising an effective resistance management strategy against DCB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Feeding preference ofNezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and attractiveness of soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrain de Santana Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nezara viridula (L. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae is a cosmopolitan insect that causes economic damages to several cultures, in particular soybeans (Glycine max [L.] Merr. Among the techniques that involve Integrated Pest Management, the resistance of plants is pointed as a tool of great value and can contribute to the reduction of populations of insects. The feeding preferences of adults of southern green stink bug (N. viridula, and the attractiveness of soybean genotypes were evaluated under laboratory conditions to detect the most resistant material against attack from this insect. A choice test, using mature grains and green pods of the genotypes was carried out, in which the number of individuals attracted in different periods was counted. Feeding preference was evaluated in the choice tests using green pods and the number of pricks and the average time spent feeding by pricks were evaluated. In addition, texture and trichome density in the green pods were evaluated. The mature grains of 'TMG 117RR' and 'TMG 121RR' were less attractive to the adults of N. viridula. Regarding the green pods, 'IAC 17' and PI 227687 were less attractive; 'IAC 17' and 'IAC PL1' were less consumed, indicating the feeding non-preference as a resistance mechanism. 'IAC 17', 'TMG-117RR' and PI 227687 presented high levels of trichome density, and in 'IAC 17' this morphological characteristic was considered to be the main resistance factor against N. viridula. These results may be useful for breeding programs that focus on the resistance of soybeans to insects.

  15. SNIFFER: a System that Understands Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    further inbrmation. If the bug the sniffer knows about is present, it proditces a detailed error report. This jcporr includes a high level sutmmary of...he ILisp Machine was chosen h,’c,tte it has the high speed and Lirgc rtinco l ic keuired hN Snilffer. The programs Sibl1ttd to tihe S.,ilml eiCl 1,0...are only two ways to compare objects. One can ask if’ they are eq. mecaning that they ha~e the same name or address 0% hich is equivalent to asking if

  16. Spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs in southeastern farmscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkay, Grant L; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Toews, Michael D; Greene, Jeremy K; Bridges, William C

    2015-01-01

    A 3-yr study (2009-2011) was conducted to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of stink bugs in three commercial farmscapes. Study locations were replicated in South Carolina and Georgia, in an agriculturally diverse region known as the southeastern coastal plain. Crops included wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.), corn, Zea mays (L.), soybean, Glycine max (L.), cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and peanut, Arachis hypogaea (L.). Farmscapes were sampled weekly using whole-plant examinations for corn, with all other crops sampled using sweep nets. The predominant pest species of phytophagous stink bugs were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say), the green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say), and the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). Chi-square tests indicated a departure from a normal distribution in 77% of analyses of the variance to mean ratio, with 37% of slopes of Taylor's power law and 30% of coefficient β of Iwao's patchiness regression significantly greater than one, indicating aggregated distributions. Spatial Analyses by Distance IndicEs (SADIE) indicated aggregated patterns of stink bugs in 18% of year-end totals and 42% of weekly counts, with 80% of adults and nymphs positively associated using the SADIE association tool. Maximum stink bug densities in each crop occurred when the plants were producing fruit. Stink bugs exhibited greater densities in crops adjacent to soybean in Barnwell and Lee Counties compared with crops adjacent to corn or fallow areas. The diversity of crops and relatively small size of fields in the Southeast leads to colonization of patches within a farmscape. The ecological and management implications of the spatial and temporal distribution of stink bugs within farmscapes are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. Altruism during predation in an assassin bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Revel, Messika; Azémar, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Zelus annulosus is an assassin bug species mostly noted on Hirtella physophora, a myrmecophyte specifically associated with the ant Allomerus decemarticulatus known to build traps on host tree twigs to ambush insect preys. The Z. annulosus females lay egg clutches protected by a sticky substance. To avoid being trapped, the first three instars of nymphs remain grouped in a clutch beneath the leaves on which they hatched, yet from time to time, they climb onto the upper side to group ambush preys. Long-distance prey detection permits these bugs to capture flying or jumping insects that alight on their leaves. Like some other Zelus species, the sticky substance of the sundew setae on their forelegs aids in prey capture. Group ambushing permits early instars to capture insects that they then share or not depending on prey size and the hunger of the successful nymphs. Fourth and fifth instars, with greater needs, rather ambush solitarily on different host tree leaves, but attract siblings to share large preys. Communal feeding permits faster prey consumption, enabling small nymphs to return sooner to the shelter of their leaves. By improving the regularity of feeding for each nymph, it likely regulates nymphal development, synchronizing molting and subsequently limiting cannibalism.

  18. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) for flowering host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult) A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum); in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia). Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  19. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür for flowering host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum; in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia. Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  20. Functional Response of Three Species of Predatory Pirate Bugs Attacking Eggs of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Obiratanea S; Ramos, Rodrigo S; Gontijo, Lessando M; Picanço, Marcelo C

    2015-04-01

    The functional response and predation parameters of three species of predatory pirate bugs Amphiareus constrictus (Stal), Blaptostethus pallescens Poppius, and Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) were evaluated at four different densities of eggs of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Experiments were conducted in Petri dishes containing a tomato leaf disk infested with the pest eggs, and maintained inside growth chamber with environmental conditions of 25 ± 2 °C, 70 ± 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h. A. constrictus and B. pallescens showed a type III functional response where predation increased at a decreasing rate after egg density was higher than 12 per leaf disk, reaching an upper plateau of 18.86 and 25.42 eggs per 24 hours, respectively. By contrast, O. tristicolor showed a type II functional response where the number of eggs preyed upon increased at a decreasing rate as egg density increased, reaching an upper limit of 15.20 eggs per 24 hours. The predator equations used in this study estimated handling time of 1.25, 0.87, 0.96 h for A. constrictus, B. pallescens, and O. tristicolor, respectively. The lower handling time and possible higher attack rate of B. pallescens suggests a higher efficiency and probably greater impact on the pest population. If conservation or classical biological control of T. absoluta is to be implemented, then prioritizing which natural enemy species is the most efficient is an important first step. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Phenology of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in a California Urban Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Chuck A; Daane, Kent M

    2018-01-30

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an invasive pest that has been resident in California since 2006. To better understand its seasonal phenology, we used baited traps to estimate nymph and adult population densities in midtown Sacramento, the focal area of the Northern California invasion. Adult H. halys populations were found soon after trapping began in February (2015-2016) or March (2014); the first egg masses for 2014, 2015, and 2016 were found on 5 May, 17 April, and 12 April, respectively, and the first nymphs were found 3 June, 19 May, and 9 May, respectively. There were two generations per year, with one peak in June and another in September. Summer temperatures above 36°C in July and August were associated with reduced catches in traps of both nymphs and adults. This extreme heat may have helped to form two clear nymph peaks and suppressed egg deposition. In 2016, two trap types and four lures were also compared. Trap type influenced season-long nymph captures, with fewer nymphs in double cone traps than pyramid traps. Lure type influenced season-long trap catch, with more nymphs and adults trapped with the Rescue lure than the AgBio Combo lure, Alpha Scents, or Trécé Pherocon Combo lures, although this difference was only associated with the capture of nymphs and we did not compare for longevity or seasonal variation. These data are discussed with respect to H. halys' phenology from the mid-Atlantic region. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Machine Learning or Information Retrieval Techniques for Bug Triaging: Which is better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Goyal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bugs are the inevitable part of a software system. Nowadays, large software development projects even release beta versions of their products to gather bug reports from users. The collected bug reports are then worked upon by various developers in order to resolve the defects and make the final software product more reliable. The high frequency of incoming bugs makes the bug handling a difficult and time consuming task. Bug assignment is an integral part of bug triaging that aims at the process of assigning a suitable developer for the reported bug who corrects the source code in order to resolve the bug. There are various semi and fully automated techniques to ease the task of bug assignment. This paper presents the current state of the art of various techniques used for bug report assignment. Through exhaustive research, the authors have observed that machine learning and information retrieval based bug assignment approaches are most popular in literature. A deeper investigation has shown that the trend of techniques is taking a shift from machine learning based approaches towards information retrieval based approaches. Therefore, the focus of this work is to find the reason behind the observed drift and thus a comparative analysis is conducted on the bug reports of the Mozilla, Eclipse, Gnome and Open Office projects in the Bugzilla repository. The results of the study show that the information retrieval based technique yields better efficiency in recommending the developers for bug reports.

  3. Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans. PMID:24575310

  4. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Rotation PICMED Grant Professionalism Award Resident-Fellow QI Project Award Resident International Grant Resident Scholarship to Legislative ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  5. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs Quality DataDerm Quality measures Clinical guidelines Appropriate use criteria Choosing Wisely Education Online Learning Center MOC ... prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and ...

  6. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme ... and tuck your shirt into your pants. You can also pre-treat outer layers of clothing with ...

  7. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Younger skin Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How ...

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated ... nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site= ...

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... wooded area, dress appropriately to prevent bug bites. Cover exposed skin as much as possible by wearing ... Advanced Search Explore AAD Member resources Practice Tools Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients AAD Resources For: ...

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care ... bites and stings can be safely treated at home. To treat bug bites and stings at home, ...

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How ...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and other bugs, use insect ... in the great outdoors, use bed nets to protect against mosquitoes. Look for one that has been ...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... State advocacy grants Advocate of the Year Award Step therapy legislation Scope of practice Melanoma state reporting ... known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug ...

  16. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re visiting areas with known ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and Lectureship Clarence S. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B. Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members ... skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad. ...

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Dermatology Dialogues in Dermatology quizzes JAAD quizzes CME transcript program AAD publications JAAD JAAD Case Reports Dermatology ... so that they can examine you for a transmitted disease. Additional related resources Bug bites and stings: ...

  19. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and scalp problems Itchy skin Painful skin / joints Rashes Scaly skin Skin cancer Why see a board- ... symptoms after a bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or ...

  20. Bed bugs - What the GP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L; Russell, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Since the mid 1990s, there has been a global resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex spp.), which are blood feeding insects that readily bite humans. Patients suffering with bite reactions are increasingly presenting to medical practitioners. This article reviews the various clinical consequences of bed bug bites and outlines management strategies. Common dermatological responses include the early development of small macular spots that may later progress into prominent wheals accompanied by intense itching. Patients exposed to numerous bed bugs can present with a widespread erythematous rash or urticaria. Bullous eruptions are not uncommon and anaphylaxis has been reported, albeit rarely. There is no evidence that bed bugs transmit human pathogens, but they are responsible for significant psychological distress, can produce anaemia when abundant, and have been implicated in the triggering of asthmatic reactions. Symptomatic control involves treatment of the patient with antihistamines and corticosteroids, and ensuring that the infestation responsible for the problem is effectively eliminated.

  1. Nymphal and adult performance of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), as a potential alternative host for egg parasitoids multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Wilsimar A.A. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Correa-Ferreira, Beatriz S. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2001-12-15

    This research aimed to evaluate the potential of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) as host for multiplication of egg parasitoids, by determining the nymphal and adult performance of E. heros from laboratory and the field, comparing with Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), under mass conditions. One hundred eggs of E. heros and N. viridula were placed among the leaves of soybean plants contained in cages (50x50x70 cm) and observation were made until adult emergence. The nymphs fed on soybean pods, dry soybean and peanuts seeds. The number of nymphs that reached adulthood and the development time were calculated. The survivorship and reproduction performance of laboratory and field populations of E. heros and N. viridula were evaluated during 13 weeks in February-May 1999. The number of eggs produced by 100 pairs of stink bugs per cage containing the same diet was recorded. Nymphal development time of E. heros and N. viridula was 33.0 and 34.0 days and 65.0% and 71.3% of nymphs reached adulthood, respectively. Adults of E. heros reared under laboratory conditions produced 2.5 times more eggs (5547.0 eggs/cage) than those collected in the field (2262.7 eggs/cage). The adult field population of E. heros had reduced reproduction and longevity due to parasitism by Hexacladia smithii Ash. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The N. viridula adults collected in the field produced 1.7 times more eggs (6304.9 eggs/cage) than those reared in the laboratory (3609.2 eggs/cage). E. heros laboratory reared is a promising host for egg parasitoids multiplication when compared with N. viridula collected in the field. (author)

  2. Natural infection of vertebrate hosts by different lineages of Buggy Creek virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R; Moore, Amy T; O'Brien, Valerie A; Padhi, Abinash; Knutie, Sarah A; Young, Ginger R; Komar, Nicholas

    2010-05-01

    Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) is an arbovirus transmitted by the ectoparasitic swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius) to cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus). BCRV occurs in two lineages (A and B) that are sympatric in bird nesting colonies in the central Great Plains, USA. Previous work on lineages isolated exclusively from swallow bugs suggested that lineage A relies on amplification by avian hosts, in contrast to lineage B, which is maintained mostly among bugs. We report the first data on the BCRV lineages isolated from vertebrate hosts under natural conditions. Lineage A was overrepresented among isolates from nestling house sparrows, relative to the proportions of the two lineages found in unfed bug vectors at the same site at the start of the summer transmission season. Haplotype diversity of each lineage was higher in bugs than in sparrows, indicating reduced genetic diversity of virus amplified in the vertebrate host. BCRV appears to have diverged into two lineages based on different modes of transmission.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Li, Hu; Cai, Wanzhi; Yan, Fengming; Wang, Jianyun; Song, Fan

    2016-11-01

    Here, we reconstructed the Hemiptera phylogeny based on the expanded mitochondrial protein-coding genes and the nuclear 18S rRNA gene, separately. The differential rates of change across lineages may associate with long-branch attraction (LBA) effect and result in conflicting estimates of phylogeny from different types of data. To reduce the potential effects of systematic biases on inferences of topology, various data coding schemes, site removal method, and different algorithms were utilized in phylogenetic reconstruction. We show that the outgroups Phthiraptera, Thysanoptera, and the ingroup Sternorrhyncha share similar base composition, and exhibit "long branches" relative to other hemipterans. Thus, the long-branch attraction between these groups is suspected to cause the failure of recovering Hemiptera under the homogeneous model. In contrast, a monophyletic Hemiptera is supported when heterogeneous model is utilized in the analysis. Although higher level phylogenetic relationships within Hemiptera remain to be answered, consensus between analyses is beginning to converge on a stable phylogeny.

  4. Metagenomics of Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Metagenomics approach was used to identify unknown organisms which live in association with the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Metagenomics combines molecular biology and genetics to identify, and characterize genetic material from unique biological ...

  5. Toxicity of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) Essential Oil Against Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and Non-Effect on Egg Parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchen, L M; Piton, L P; Dall'Oglio, E L; Butnariu, A R; Pereira, M J B

    2016-10-01

    Plant essential oils have been recognized as significant natural resources for insecticides. Herein, we have assessed the toxicity of the essential oil of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) against Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a key soybean pest in Neotropical America. In addition, we have assessed its effect on the performance of egg parasitoids. The essential oil was obtained from the leaves of P. aduncum via hydrodistillation. Subsequently, bioassays of the concentration response to eggs (contact and immersion methods), nymphs, and adults (topical application) were conducted, to assess the lethal effects on the stink bug. We also evaluated the performance of parasitism and adult emergence of egg parasitoids, when the host eggs were treated with essential oil. In the egg bioassay, both exposure methods were efficient for unviable eggs (immersion LC50 = 15.64 mg mL-1; contact LC50 = 21.29 mg mL-1), with the highlight on the immersion method. The bioassay with nymphs indicated a higher toxicity of essential oil, with lower concentrations (LC50 = 11.37 mg mL-1) being required to cause the death of insects. For adults, a reduction in survival of insects was observed, and consequently, there was a reduction in the number of individuals in the next generation. Although the essential oil was toxic to E. heros, it exhibited lower toxicity for egg parasitoids, as there was no effect on parasitism and the emergence of wasps. We discuss likely explanations for such selectivity. In summary, we found that the essential oil was promising for the control of E. heros, because it caused deleterious effects at all development stages of the stink bug and had no effect on parasitism and emergence of the egg parasitoids, which suggested compatibility with biological control.

  6. A Molecular Phylogeny of Hemiptera Inferred from Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Song; Ai-Ping Liang; Cui-Ping Bu

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of tw...

  7. Status Survey for the Dismal Swamp- Green Stink Bug (Chlorochroa dismalia) in Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Dismal Swamp green stink bug (Chlorochroa dismalia), also known as the Dismal Swamp chlorochroan bug, is one of 52 members of the Family Pentatomidae (Order...

  8. NÃO-PREFERÊNCIA PARA A OVIPOSIÇÃO DE PERCEVEJO-DE- RENDA Vatiga illudens (Hemiptera: Tingidae POR CULTIVARES DE MANDIOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a não preferência para a oviposição de Vatiga illudens (Drake, 1922 (Hemiptera: Tingidae importante inseto com potencial de causar danos econômicos em cultivares de mandioca. Compararam-se as cultivares Kiriris, N-25, Fécula Branca, IAC 90, M Ecu 72 e IAC 576, essas com potencial produtivo para a região sul de Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram realizados ensaios de preferência para oviposição, com o teste sem chance de escolha, em condições de semi-campo. Um casal adulto de V. illudens foi liberado nas folhas de mandioca das respectivas cultivares. Permitiu-se a alimentação e oviposição desses insetos por 72 horas. Avaliou-se o número de ovos/fêmea/folha, o número de excrementos/casal/folha e o índice de preferência para oviposição. A cultivar M Ecu 72 revelou-se altamente resistente ao percevejo-de-renda. Esse estudo evidenciou que há mecanismos de resistência a V. illudens em cultivares de mandioca, o que justifica a realização de novos estudos sobre essas cultivares em programas de seleção, visando o controle dessa praga e identificação de tais mecanismos.Non-Preference for Oviposition Cassava Lace Bug Vatiga illudens (Hemiptera: Tingidae by Cassava CultivarsThe aim of this study was to evaluate the non-preference for oviposition Vatiga illudens (Drake, 1922 (Hemiptera: Tingidae in cassava cultivars. The following cultivars were compared: Kiriris, N-25, Fécula Branca, IAC 90, M Ecu 72 and IAC 576, preference tests for oviposition were conducted, with a choice test in semi-field conditions. An adult double V. illudens was released in the leaves of cassava of their cultivars. Allowed to feeding and oviposition of these insects for 72 hours. We evaluated the number of eggs / female / leaf, the number of droppings / couple / sheet and the preference index for oviposition. The cultivar M Ecu 72 demonstrated to be highly resistant to cassava lace bug. This study showed that there are

  9. Host-Seeking Behavior in the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernard R. Lewis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The reemergence of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, has recently spawned a frenzy of public, media, and academic attention. In response to the growing rate of infestation, considerable work has been focused on identifying the various host cues utilized by the bed bug in search of a meal. Most of these behavioral studies examine movement within a confined environment, such as a Petri dish. This has prevented a more complete understanding of the insect’s host-seeking process. This work describes a novel method for studying host-seeking behavior, using various movement parameters, in a time-lapse photography system. With the use of human breath as an attractant, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed how bed bugs navigate their environment between its harborage and the host. Levels of behavioral activity varied dramatically between bed bugs in the presence and absence of host odor. Bed bugs demonstrated not simply activation, but attraction to the chemical components of breath. Localized, stop-start host-seeking behavior or alternating periods of movement and pause were observed among bed bugs placed in the environment void of human breath, while those exposed to human breath demonstrated long range, stop-start host-seeking behavior. A more comprehensive understanding of bed bug host-seeking can lead to the development of traps and monitors that account for unique subtleties in their behavior. The time-lapse photography system uses a large, artificial environment and could also be employed to study other aspects of the insect’s behavioral patterns.

  10. NRFixer: Sentiment Based Model for Predicting the Fixability of Non-Reproducible Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Goyal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Software maintenance is an essential step in software development life cycle. Nowadays, software companies spend approximately 45\\% of total cost in maintenance activities. Large software projects maintain bug repositories to collect, organize and resolve bug reports. Sometimes it is difficult to reproduce the reported bug with the information present in a bug report and thus this bug is marked with resolution non-reproducible (NR. When NR bugs are reconsidered, a few of them might get fixed (NR-to-fix leaving the others with the same resolution (NR. To analyse the behaviour of developers towards NR-to-fix and NR bugs, the sentiment analysis of NR bug report textual contents has been conducted. The sentiment analysis of bug reports shows that NR bugs' sentiments incline towards more negativity than reproducible bugs. Also, there is a noticeable opinion drift found in the sentiments of NR-to-fix bug reports. Observations driven from this analysis were an inspiration to develop a model that can judge the fixability of NR bugs. Thus a framework, {NRFixer,} which predicts the probability of NR bug fixation, is proposed. {NRFixer} was evaluated with two dimensions. The first dimension considers meta-fields of bug reports (model-1 and the other dimension additionally incorporates the sentiments (model-2 of developers for prediction. Both models were compared using various machine learning classifiers (Zero-R, naive Bayes, J48, random tree and random forest. The bug reports of Firefox and Eclipse projects were used to test {NRFixer}. In Firefox and Eclipse projects, J48 and Naive Bayes classifiers achieve the best prediction accuracy, respectively. It was observed that the inclusion of sentiments in the prediction model shows a rise in the prediction accuracy ranging from 2 to 5\\% for various classifiers.

  11. Role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    Full Text Available The role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior has been demonstrated. However, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. We investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. Results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to yellow, green, blue, and white harborages. A bed bug trapping device with a black or red exterior surface was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than that with a white exterior surface. Bed bugs exhibited strong orientation behavior toward vertical objects. The height (15 vs. 30 cm tall and color (brown vs. black of the vertical object had no significant effect on orientation behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs could differentiate color and detect vertical objects at very low background light conditions, but not in complete darkness. Bed bug preference to different substrate textures (mechanoreception was also explored. Bed bugs preferred dyed tape compared to painted tape, textured painted plastic, and felt. These results revealed that substrate color, presence of vertical objects, and substrate texture affect host-seeking and harborage-searching behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs may use a combination of vision, mechanoreception, and chemoreception to locate hosts and seek harborages.

  12. New Records and Distribution Expansions of Aquatic Heteropterous from Colombia (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Nancy Padilla Gil

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three species water bugs were registered; 21 semiaquatic and 12 aquatic (Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha. Expansions of the geographical range for 24 species and nine species were recorded for the first time for Colombia Cryptocricos rufus DeCarlo, 1940; Gelastocoris bolivianus De Carlo, 1954; Ranatra tuberculifrons Montandon, 1907; Neoplea borelii, Kirkaldy, 1899; Hydrometra exalla Drake y Lauck, 1959; Hebrus plaumanni Porter, 1952; Merragata hebroides White, 1877; Rheumatobates drakei, Hungerford, 1954; Microvelia hinei Drake, 1920; for each of these species were considered a diagnosis and illustration of taxonomic characters. The distribution by department and municipality and an illustrative map was given for all species.  Nuevos registros y ampliación de la distribución de heterópteros acuáticos en Colombia (Hemiptera, Heteroptera RESUMENSe registran 33 especies de chinches acuáticas; 21 semiacuáticas y 12 acuáticas (Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha. Se amplia el rango geográfico para 24 especies y nueve especies son registradas por primera vez para Colombia: Cryptocricos rufus DeCarlo, 1940; Gelastocoris bolivianus De Carlo, 1954; Ranatra tuberculifrons Montandon, 1907; Neoplea borelii (Kirkaldy, 1899; Hydrometra exalla Drake y Lauck, 1959; Hebrus plaumanni Porter, 1952; Merragata hebroides White, 1877; Rheumatobates drakei (Hungerford, 1954; Microvelia hinei Drake, 1920; para cada una de estas especies se considera una diagnosis e ilustración de los caracteres taxonómicos. Para todas las especies se proporcionan la distribución por departamento y municipio y un mapa ilustrativo.

  13. Review of the biology, ecology, and management of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Short, Brent D; Joseph, Shimat V; Bergh, J Christopher; Leskey, Tracy C

    2013-08-01

    Native to China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was first detected in the United States in the mid-1990s. Since establishing in the United States, this invasive species has caused significant economic losses in agriculture and created major nuisance problems for home and business owners, especially in the mid-Atlantic region. Basic and applied questions on H. halys have been addressed in its native range in Asia since the mid-1900s and the research outcomes have been published in at least 216 articles from China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. In Asia, H. halys is described as an occasional or outbreak pest of a number of crops such as apple, pear, persimmon, and soybeans. This species is considered a nuisance pest as well, particularly in Japan. This review summarizes 100 articles primarily translated from Chinese, Japanese, and Korean to English. The content of this review focuses on the biology, ecology, and management of H. halys in Asia, with specific emphasis on nomenclature, life history, host range, damage, economic importance, sampling and monitoring tools, and management strategies. This information from the native range of H. halys provides greater context and understanding of its biology, ecology, and management in North America.

  14. Two compounds in bed bug feces are sufficient to elicit off-host aggregation by bed bugs, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Joelle F; Vers, Leonard M Ver; Moon, Roger D; Kells, Stephen A

    2017-01-01

    After feeding, bed bugs aggregate in cracks and crevices near a host. Aggregation and arrestment are mediated by tactile and chemical stimuli associated with the bugs' feces and exuviae. Volatiles derived from fecally stained filter papers were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and evaluated using a multichoice behavioral assay to determine their impact on bed bug aggregation. In addition, crude fecal extracts were collected in methanol, analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and evaluated in open-air multichoice behavioral assays. The SPME method was used to detect (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal in heated bed bug feces. The presence of these two volatile components did not affect aggregation. Analysis of the crude fecal extracts revealed several semi-volatile nitrogenous compounds, a carboxylic acid and a sulfur-based compound. Adult antennae responded to compounds eluted from three regions of the crude extract using GC-EAD. A combination of two compounds, dimethyl trisulfide and methyldiethanolamine, resulted in aggregation responses equivalent to the original crude extract. Bed bug aggregation is mediated by semi-volatile compounds derived from fecal extracts, and two compounds are sufficient to elicit aggregation. The two compounds identified here could be used to enhance the effectiveness of insecticidal applications or improve monitoring techniques. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina: Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae), their inquiline birds and mammals, new hosts for Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turienzo, Paola; Di Iorio, Osvaldo

    2014-06-03

    The insect fauna in nests of Coryphistera alaudina Burmeister, 1860 (Aves: Furnariidae) were studied in the provinces of Santiago del Estero, Chaco, Córdoba, and La Pampa in Argentina. A total of 7364 insect specimens comprising 77 taxa in a total of 29 families and 7 orders was found in their nests: 40 identified to species, 23 identified to genus, and 14 identified to family. Coryphistera alaudina and some of their vertebrate inquilines are new host records for the triatomine bugs Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911 and/or Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The insects in the nests of C. alaudina are separated by functional guilds, and their permanence time inside the nests are presented in a new manner and discussed.

  16. Empirical Analysis and Automated Classification of Security Bug Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyo, Jacob P.

    2016-01-01

    With the ever expanding amount of sensitive data being placed into computer systems, the need for effective cybersecurity is of utmost importance. However, there is a shortage of detailed empirical studies of security vulnerabilities from which cybersecurity metrics and best practices could be determined. This thesis has two main research goals: (1) to explore the distribution and characteristics of security vulnerabilities based on the information provided in bug tracking systems and (2) to develop data analytics approaches for automatic classification of bug reports as security or non-security related. This work is based on using three NASA datasets as case studies. The empirical analysis showed that the majority of software vulnerabilities belong only to a small number of types. Addressing these types of vulnerabilities will consequently lead to cost efficient improvement of software security. Since this analysis requires labeling of each bug report in the bug tracking system, we explored using machine learning to automate the classification of each bug report as a security or non-security related (two-class classification), as well as each security related bug report as specific security type (multiclass classification). In addition to using supervised machine learning algorithms, a novel unsupervised machine learning approach is proposed. An ac- curacy of 92%, recall of 96%, precision of 92%, probability of false alarm of 4%, F-Score of 81% and G-Score of 90% were the best results achieved during two-class classification. Furthermore, an accuracy of 80%, recall of 80%, precision of 94%, and F-score of 85% were the best results achieved during multiclass classification.

  17. Developing e-Bug web games to teach microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David; Kostkova, Patty; Lazareck, Lisa; Weerasinghe, Dasun; Weinberg, Julius; Lecky, Donna M; Adriaenssens, Niels; Koprivová Herotová, Tereza; Holt, Jette; Touboul, Pia; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Koncan, Raffaella; Olczak-Pienkowska, Anna; Avô, António Brito; Campos, José; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2011-06-01

    As a complement to the e-Bug teaching pack, two e-Bug games were developed to provide content that aimed to entertain as well as to educate. A set of agreed learning outcomes (LOs) were provided by the scientific partners of the e-Bug Project and the games were developed using user-centred design techniques (the needs, wants and limitations of the potential game players were assessed at each stage of the design process). The e-Bug games were designed for two age groups: Junior (9-12 year olds); and Senior (13-15 year olds). A study using focus groups was done to gain an understanding as to the types of games enjoyed by the target users. According to the preliminary study, the Junior Game was developed as a platform game and the Senior Game was developed as a story-based detective game. The Junior Game consists of five levels, each associated with a set of LOs. Similarly, the Senior Game consists of four missions, each comprising five stages using problem-based learning techniques and LOs. In this paper, the process of development for each game is described in detail and an illustration is provided of how each game level or mission addresses the target LOs. Development of the games used feedback acquired from children in four schools across the UK (Glasgow, London and two in Gloucester). The children were selected according to their willingness to participate. European Partners of the e-Bug Project also provided further support, translation and requests for modifications. The knowledge gained of LOs and further evaluation of the games is continuing, and preliminary results are in press. The final versions of the games, translated into 11 European languages, are available online via www.e-bug.eu.

  18. Usage of data warehouse for analysing software's bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živanov, Danijel; Krstićev, Danijela Boberić; Mirković, Duško

    2017-07-01

    We analysed the database schema of Bugzilla system and taking into account user's requirements for reporting, we presented a dimensional model for the data warehouse which will be used for reporting software defects. The idea proposed in this paper is not to throw away Bugzilla system because it certainly has many strengths, but to make integration of Bugzilla and the proposed data warehouse. Bugzilla would continue to be used for recording bugs that occur during the development and maintenance of software while the data warehouse would be used for storing data on bugs in an appropriate form, which is more suitable for analysis.

  19. Using research and education to implement practical bed bug control programs in multifamily housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary W; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Wang, Changlu; Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Gibb, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Multifamily housing facilities serving low-income populations have been at the forefront of bed bug outbreaks. Research conducted in the past 8 years has consistently proven that integrated pest management (IPM) is the best approach for successful suppression of bed bug infestations. Bed bug IPM in multifamily settings is especially dependent upon a collaborative community or building-wide effort involving residents, building staff and pest control technicians. Other components of a bed bug IPM program include regular monitoring to detect early-stage bed bug infestations and combined use of non-chemical and chemical interventions. Lastly, to reduce reinfestation rates and costs associated with bed bug control, it is critical to continue periodic monitoring and implement preventive control measures even after successful elimination of bed bugs has been achieved. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  1. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha,Cicadomorpha,Heteroptera, and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  2. Transcriptomics of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are blood-feeding insects poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Resistance of C. lectularius to insecticides/pesticides is one factor thought to be involved in its sudden resurgence. Despite its high-impact status, scant knowledge exists at the genomic level for C. lectularius. Hence, we subjected the C. lectularius transcriptome to 454 pyrosequencing in order to identify potential genes involved in pesticide resistance. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained a total of 216,419 reads with 79,596,412 bp, which were assembled into 35,646 expressed sequence tags (3902 contigs and 31744 singletons. Nearly 85.9% of the C. lectularius sequences showed similarity to insect sequences, but 44.8% of the deduced proteins of C. lectularius did not show similarity with sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis revealed putative members of several detoxification pathways involved in pesticide resistance. Lamprin domains, Protein Kinase domains, Protein Tyrosine Kinase domains and cytochrome P450 domains were among the top Pfam domains predicted for the C. lectularius sequences. An initial assessment of putative defense genes, including a cytochrome P450 and a glutathione-S-transferase (GST, revealed high transcript levels for the cytochrome P450 (CYP9 in pesticide-exposed versus pesticide-susceptible C. lectularius populations. A significant number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (296 and microsatellite loci (370 were predicted in the C. lectularius sequences. Furthermore, 59 putative sequences of Wolbachia were retrieved from the database. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of C. lectularius. This pyrosequencing effort provides clues to the identification of potential detoxification genes involved in pesticide resistance of C. lectularius and lays the foundation for

  3. Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? A agressividade da presa altera o comportamento de ataque do predador Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Braga da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? The stink bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae is a predator found in several Brazilian regions, which possesses desirable attributes as a natural control agent and in biological control programs. The aim of this study was to test if the attack behavior and predation success of S. cincticeps were affected by prey species. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, and Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Geometridae were offered to S. cincticeps in laboratory bioassays where predatory attack and prey defensive behaviors were observed for 2-hour periods. The attack behavior of S. cincticeps changed with the prey species offered. More than 25% of T. molitor and S. frugiperda larvae were immediately attacked, but T. arnobia was not immediately attacked by S. cincticeps. Successful attack (i.e., successful insertion of the predator stylets into the prey depends on the region of the body attacked, with a greater proportion of successful attacks in the anterior than in the median or posterior regions. Larvae of T. arnobia and S. frugiperda displayed a sequence of abrupt head and body movements in response to S. cincticeps attack. Attempts of predation were more successful on T. molitor and S. frugiperda than on T. arnobia. Information about the differential attack behavior of S. cincticeps on different prey species is important for designing successful biological control programs using this hemipteran predator.A agressividade da presa altera o comportamento de ataque do predador Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? O percevejo Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae é um predador encontrado em várias regiões brasileiras, que possui atributos desejáveis como agente de controle natural ou em

  4. Combination of plant and insect eggs as food sources facilitates ovarian development in an omnivorous bug Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Li, Wenjing; Li, Yunhe; Wu, Kongming G

    2013-06-01

    Diet nutrient is considered as an important regulatory factor for reproduction of insects. To understand the effect of different food sources on the reproductive physiology of Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), the ovarian development in adult females was investigated when they were fed on green beans (Gb), combination of green beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Helicoverpa armigera eggs (GbHe), or H. armigera eggs (He). A female of A. lucorum has two ovaries, and each ovary contained seven yellowish ovarioles. Females fed on Gb or GbHe had larger ovaries and the ovarioles contained larger numbers of oocytes compared with those fed on He. Females in GeHe treatment has significantly higher number of follicles per ovary throughout the whole adult period compared with those in Gb or He treatment. Furthermore, the length of the best developed ovariole was affected by the diet type. The females fed on GbHe had the most developed ovarioles, with significantly longer ovarioles than those fed on Gb or He. A method was described to quantitatively score the degree of ovarian development in the current study. Similarly, the ovarian development scores were significantly higher for females in GbHe treatment than those in other two diet treatments. The ovarian development significantly delayed for females fed on He. Our results demonstrate that A. lucorum, as an omnivorous insect species, can acquire nutrients from both plant and animal origin food sources, and the combination of plants and animal food sources can significantly facilitate the ovary development of its females.

  5. Frequency, efficiency, and physical characteristics of predation by generalist predators of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The native generalist predator community of Halyomorpha halys, an invasive species in the United States and Europe, remains poorly studied. The aims of the current study were to determine which generalist predators that are commonly found in mid-Atlantic orchards and vegetable crops are capable of ...

  6. Influence of air pollutants on ecosystems. Pt. 8. Bug fauna (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) in the emission area of a fertilizer factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, W.

    1985-01-01

    On a primary Mesobrometum-grassland catena in the immission area of a phosphate-fertilizer factory the fauna of Heteroptera is analysed by semi-quantitative standardized sweepnet samplings. Along the immission gradient the grassland catena is subdivided into 5 sampling areas. Dominance structure, species diversity and evenness (Shannon-Wiener) as well as identity indices (Jaccard, Renkonen, Wainstein) are calculated. The sampling areas are compared separated in groups of consumers. The stress by immission affects the distribution of phytophages in an indirect way by foodplants. The predators are influenced imperceptible. The abundance of salt tolerant phytophagous species increases towards the emittent. In this case values of species diversity and evenness are small. Contrary to that, diversity and evenness of predators increase by rising pollution. A coefficient of association (Southwood) is calculated for the predator-prey system of Nabis brevis and Notostira elongata. The results are compared with those made in undisturbed Mesobrometum-plant communities of the near surroundings.

  7. Contribution to the faunistics of shore bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Leptopodomorpha) in the Palaearctic Region and the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, Nikolay N; Kment, Petr

    2015-10-09

    New distributional data on 33 species of the infraorder Leptopodomorpha (3 species of the family Leptopodidae and 30 species and subspecies of Saldidae) from the Palaearctic Region and Himalayas are provided. The following new or confirmed records are listed: Chartoscirta cocksii (Curtis, 1835) from Kosovo; Halosalda halophila (Jakovlev, 1876), Saldula amplicollis (Reuter, 1891) and Saldula xanthochila (Fieber, 1859) from Iran; Macrosaldula jakowleffi (Reuter, 1891) from Nepal and Pakistan; Macrosaldula scotica (Curtis, 1835) from Uzbekistan; Macrosaldula variabilis (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835), Saldula lindskogi Vinokurov, 2004, Saldula opacula (Zetterstedt, 1838) from Afghanistan; Micracanthia ornatula (Reuter, 1881) from Oman; Saldula fucicola (J. Sahlberg, 1870) from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bulgaria; Saldula lindbergi Lindskog, 1975 from Lebanon; Saldula melanoscela (Fieber, 1859) from Iran and Montenegro; Saldula palustris (Douglas, 1874) and Saldula pilosella hirsuta (Reuter, 1888) from Montenegro; Saldula orthochila (Fieber, 1859) from Afghanistan and Pakistan; Saldula pallipes (Fabricius, 1794) from Montenegro and Nepal; Saldula pilosella pilosella (Thomson, 1871) from Libya; and Saldula saltatoria (Linnaeus, 1758) from Iran and Nepal. A tabular checklist of Leptopodomorpha of Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan is also provided.

  8. Attitudes toward Invertebrates: Are Educational "Bug Banquets" Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looy, Heather; Wood, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Scientists have used educational presentations and "bug banquets" to alter widespread negative attitudes toward invertebrates. In this article, the authors explore whether such presentations have a measurable affect on attitudes. Junior high, high school, and university students completed an attitude survey focusing on invertebrates in…

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Particularly if you’re visiting areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to ... bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and other ...

  11. Cuticular hydrocarbons from the bed bug Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentane extracts of male and female bed bugs were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in an effort to identify cuticular hydrocarbons. Seventeen hydrocarbons accounting for nearly 99% of the compounds eluting in the cuticular hydrocarbon region were identified. The sample contained ...

  12. Color preference of harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is an important pest of Brassica crops in the southern United States. Regional populations are highly variable and unpredictable from farm to farm, and therefore accurate monitoring of activity would greatly improve IPM decision-making and the timing of c...

  13. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  14. sesame harvest loss caused by sesame seed bug, elasmolomus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    ABSTRACT: Sesame is an important cash crop in Ethiopia. In Humera, farmers are largely dependent on this important cash crop for their living. The production rate is, however, lower than the national average. There could be many factors for its reduced productivity, but pests especially sesame seed bug is one of the ...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re visiting areas with known insect-borne diseases, it’s important to ... at night or hiking in a densely-wooded area, dress appropriately to prevent bug bites. Cover exposed ...

  16. Finding Error Handling Bugs in OpenSSL using Coccinelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Laurie, Ben; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    in Linux kernel code using the program matching and transformation engine Coccinelle.  In this work, we report on our experience in applying this methodology to OpenSSL, focusing on API usage protocols related to error handling.  We have detected over 30 bugs in a recent OpenSSL snapshot, and in many cases...

  17. Evaluating damage to nursery crops by brown marmorated stink bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyomorpha halys, commonly known as the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), has become a major pest and nuisance since it arrived in the US in 1998 for both agricultural growers and homeowners. They can feed on ~200 different plant species, several of which are important ornamental crop species. The...

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a tick When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite Splinters Treating sunburn Wound care Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ ...

  19. A Bug That Can Dig a Hole in the Stomach!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 3. A Bug That Can Dig a Hole in the Stomach! - The Discovery that Revolutionized the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer. M E Sandeepa Dipshikha Chakravartty. General Article Volume 11 Issue 3 March 2006 pp 36-40 ...

  20. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  1. Assessing stink bug resistance in soybean breeding lines containing genes from germplasm IAC-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Robert M; Buss, Glenn R; Roberts, Phillip M

    2007-08-01

    Sixty-five soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., breeding lines containing the stink bug resistant 'IAC-100' in their pedigrees were evaluated for their resistance to stink bug, primarily southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula L., feeding in replicated field trials from 2001 to 2005. Plots were sampled throughout the season for stink bug abundance, and, at harvest, seed samples were rated for stink bug-induced kernel damage. Individual seeds were categorized as having none, light, moderate, or heavy damage plus 100-seed wt and plot yields were determined. Both ground cloth and sweep net sampling procedures were used to compare stink bug densities between the soybean entries. Stink bug densities varied between years; however, in the years when populations exceeded four per row-meter or six per 25 sweeps, there were more damaged soybean seeds (>25%) in the entries with higher stink bug numbers. During the first 2 yr of evaluations, the mean stink bug-damaged soybean seeds ranged from 10.0 to 38.2%. From these differential responses, 28 entries were selected for continued study in 2003-2004. In 2003, stink bug-damaged soybean seeds were low, with damage ranging from 2.9 to 18.2%. In 2004, stink bug damage ranged from 8.8 to 53.2%. From these 28 lines, 12 entries were selected for an advanced field screening trial in 2005, including the IAC-100 and 'Hutcheson'. Damaged soybean seeds ranged from 18.5 to 54.1% among these 12 entries in 2005, under heavy stink bug pressure. From these evaluations, four breeding lines with either Hutcheson X IAC-100 or IAC-100 x 'V71-370' in their genealogy were identified as possible breeding material for future soybean stink bug resistance cultivar development.

  2. DAMPAK APLIKASI INSEKTISIDA PERMETRIN TERHADAP HAMA PENGISAP BIJAIJ HELOPELTIS SPP. (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE DAN ARTROPODA NON-TARGET PADA PERTANAMAN KAKAO (THEOBROMA CACAO L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosma Hasibuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Impact of Permethrin-Insecticide Application on Mirid Pest of Cocoa Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae and on Non-target  Arthropods in Cocoa Plantations (Theobroma cacao L.. Cocoa mirid bugs, Helopeltis spp., (Hemiptera: Miridae are the most important pest of cocoa in Indonesia. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of permethrin on cocoa mirids and non-target arthropods at a cocoa plantation in specific place. A randomized complete block design was used in which each of four blocks consisted of 5 treatments (4 concentrations of permethrin; 50; 100; 200; and 250 ppm and control. The results indicated that the application of permethrin significantly increased the cocoa mirids mortaliiy throughout all sprayed cocoa trees (up to 100% 72 h after application. Even at 1 h after application, the percentage of Cocoa mirids mortality 29.2% - 53.9% on cocoa trees sprayed with permethrin at concentrations of 50 - 250 ppm was significantly higher than that on control plant (3.6%. At 72 h after treatments, application of permethrin at concentrations of 200 and 250 ppm caused a complete kill (mortalty of 100% in the test mirids. Meanwhile, ground cloths caught at least 22 fanilies of abore-ground arthropods that were found killed by permethrin applications. Moreover, the number of non-target arthropods killed by permethrin at concentrations of 100 - 250 ppm (27.3 - 85.3 individuals/ground cloth were signifcantly higher than that on control trees. These results demonstrated that despite high efficacy of permethrin in controlling of cocoa mirids (Hetopeltis spp., its application also had adverse effects on non-target arthropods incocoa plantations.

  3. Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Braga da Silva

    Full Text Available Does the aggressiveness of the prey modify the attack behavior of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae? The stink bug Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae is a predator found in several Brazilian regions, which possesses desirable attributes as a natural control agent and in biological control programs. The aim of this study was to test if the attack behavior and predation success of S. cincticeps were affected by prey species. Larvae of Tenebrio molitor (L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, and Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll (Lepidoptera, Geometridae were offered to S. cincticeps in laboratory bioassays where predatory attack and prey defensive behaviors were observed for 2-hour periods. The attack behavior of S. cincticeps changed with the prey species offered. More than 25% of T. molitor and S. frugiperda larvae were immediately attacked, but T. arnobia was not immediately attacked by S. cincticeps. Successful attack (i.e., successful insertion of the predator stylets into the prey depends on the region of the body attacked, with a greater proportion of successful attacks in the anterior than in the median or posterior regions. Larvae of T. arnobia and S. frugiperda displayed a sequence of abrupt head and body movements in response to S. cincticeps attack. Attempts of predation were more successful on T. molitor and S. frugiperda than on T. arnobia. Information about the differential attack behavior of S. cincticeps on different prey species is important for designing successful biological control programs using this hemipteran predator.

  4. Resource quality affects weapon and testis size and the ability of these traits to respond to selection in the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Daniel A; Munoz, Patricio R; Gezan, Salvador A; Miller, Christine W

    2016-04-01

    The size of weapons and testes can be central to male reproductive success. Yet, the expression of these traits is often extremely variable. Studies are needed that take a more complete organism perspective, investigating the sources of variation in both traits simultaneously and using developmental conditions that mimic those in nature. In this study, we investigated the components of variation in weapon and testis sizes using the leaf-footed cactus bug, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) on three natural developmental diets. We show that the developmental diet has profound effects on both weapon and testis expression and scaling. Intriguingly, males in the medium-quality diet express large weapons but have relatively tiny testes, suggesting complex allocation decisions. We also find that heritability, evolvability, and additive genetic variation are highest in the high-quality diet for testis and body mass. This result suggests that these traits may have an enhanced ability to respond to selection during a small window of time each year when this diet is available. Taken together, these results illustrate that normal, seasonal fluctuations in the nutritional environment may play a large role in the expression of sexually selected traits and the ability of these traits to respond to selection.

  5. Use of chromatin remodeling ATPases as RNAi targets for parental control of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) and Neotropical brown stink bug (Euschistus heros).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishilevich, Elane; Vélez, Ana M; Khajuria, Chitvan; Frey, Meghan L F; Hamm, Ronda L; Wang, Haichuan; Schulenberg, Greg A; Bowling, Andrew J; Pence, Heather E; Gandra, Premchand; Arora, Kanika; Storer, Nicholas P; Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-04-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism that is present in animals and plants and is triggered by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA), depending on the organism. In the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), RNAi can be achieved by feeding rootworms dsRNA added to artificial diet or plant tissues transformed to express dsRNA. The effect of RNAi depends on the targeted gene function and can range from an absence of phenotypic response to readily apparent responses, including lethality. Furthermore, RNAi can directly affect individuals that consume dsRNA or the effect may be transferred to the next generation. Our previous work described the potential use of genes involved in embryonic development as a parental RNAi technology for the control of WCR. In this study, we describe the use of chromatin-remodeling ATPases as target genes to achieve parental gene silencing in two insect pests, a coleopteran, WCR, and a hemipteran, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Our results show that dsRNA targeting chromatin-remodeling ATPase transcripts, brahma, mi-2, and iswi strongly reduced the fecundity of the exposed females in both insect species. Additionally, knockdown of chd1 reduced the fecundity of E. heros. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effective Bug Finding in C Programs with Shape and Effect Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Software projects tend to suffer from conceptually simple resource manipulation bugs, such as accessing a de-allocated memory region, or acquiring a non-reentrant lock twice. Static code scanners are used extensively to remove these bugs from projects like the Linux kernel. Yet, when the manipula......Software projects tend to suffer from conceptually simple resource manipulation bugs, such as accessing a de-allocated memory region, or acquiring a non-reentrant lock twice. Static code scanners are used extensively to remove these bugs from projects like the Linux kernel. Yet, when...... the Linux kernel. Our results show that our tool is more effective at finding bugs than similar code-scanning tools. EBA analyzes the drivers/ directory of Linux (nine thousand files) in less than thirty minutes, and uncovers a handful previously unknown double-lock bugs in various drivers....

  7. The odorant receptor co-receptor from the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immo A Hansen

    Full Text Available Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs and odorant receptors (ORs associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco. Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers.

  8. Decision-Making and Turn Alternation in Pill Bugs (Armadillidium Vulgare)

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Tohru

    1999-01-01

    Twelve pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare, Isopoda, Cmstacean) were examined in 200 successive T-mazes. When obstacles are present, A. vulgare tend to move by means of turn alternation, which is generally considered an innate adaptive behavior. With a decrease in air moisture, the bugs have a tendency to increase their turn alternation rate. However, in such long successive T-mazes as in this study, continued turn alternation should actually accelerate the bugs' desiccation. This fact implies t...

  9. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna L Saenz

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector.

  10. Temporal Dynamics and Electronic Nose Detection of Stink Bug-Induced Volatile Emissions from Cotton Bolls

    OpenAIRE

    Degenhardt, David C.; Greene, Jeremy K.; Ahmad Khalilian

    2012-01-01

    Management decisions for stink bugs (Pentatomidae) in Bt cotton are complicated by time-consuming sampling methods, and there is a need for more efficient detection tools. Volatile compounds are released from cotton bolls in response to feeding by stink bugs, and electronic nose (E-nose) technology may be useful for detecting boll damage. In this study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of volatile emissions in response to feeding by stink bugs and tested the ability of E-nose to discrimi...

  11. Catalog of the phylloxerids of the world (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalog of the phylloxerids (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, three being synonyms. Thirty-five genus-group names, of which six are subjectively valid, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. Ni...

  12. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin Favret; Nathan P. Havill; Gary L. Miller; Masakazu Sano; Benjamin Victor

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of...

  13. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. ...

  14. Vibrational communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the substrate-borne vibrational signals used in communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (an economically devastating disease of citrus), in an anechoic chamber and an olfactometer. Males and females both primarily pro...

  15. Spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) [Chapter XXIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann M. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Elatobium abietinum Walker is a spruce-feeding aphid that in Europe is referred to as the green spruce aphid (Day et al., 1998a) (Fig. 1). However, in North America E. abietinum is known simply as the spruce aphid, while the common name "green spruce aphid" refers to a different species, Cinara fornacula Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (http://www.entsoc.org/...

  16. Redescription of Dardjilingia Yang (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salini, S

    2016-07-26

    The genus Dardjilingia Yang, 1936 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Lestonocorini), comprising a single species, Dardjilingia nigriventris Yang, 1936, is redescribed and illustrated, including the descriptions of male and female genitalia for the first time. The genus Dardjilingia is removed from the present tribe Lestonocorini.

  17. A methodology for quantitatively managing the bug fixing process using Mahalanobis Taguchi system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The controlling of bug fixing process during the system testing phase of software development life cycle is very important for fixing all the detected bugs within the scheduled time. The presence of open bugs often delays the release of the software or result in releasing the software with compromised functionalities. These can lead to customer dissatisfaction, cost overrun and eventually the loss of market share. In this paper, the authors propose a methodology to quantitatively manage the bug fixing process during system testing. The proposed methodology identifies the critical milestones in the system testing phase which differentiates the successful projects from the unsuccessful ones using Mahalanobis Taguchi system. Then a model is developed to predict whether a project is successful or not with the bug fix progress at critical milestones as control factors. Finally the model is used to control the bug fixing process. It is found that the performance of the proposed methodology using Mahalanobis Taguchi system is superior to the models developed using other multi-dimensional pattern recognition techniques. The proposed methodology also reduces the number of control points providing the managers with more options and flexibility to utilize the bug fixing resources across system testing phase. Moreover the methodology allows the mangers to carry out mid- course corrections to bring the bug fixing process back on track so that all the detected bugs can be fixed on time. The methodology is validated with eight new projects and the results are very encouraging.

  18. Optimization of the Bugs Classification of the Ticketing System in Software Development: a Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danar Ardhito

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer bug elimination is an important phase in the software development process. A ticketing system is usually used to classify the identified bug type and to assign a suitable developer. This system is handled manually and error prone. This paper proposes a new bug classification method using the fast string search algorithm. The method searches the error string and compares it to the full text. The approach is deployed to the software development process at PT. Selaras Anugerah Lestari and it results in a significant reduction in the average value of the time required to handle the bugs.

  19. Rapid killing of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) on surfaces using heat: application to luggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    The resistance of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) to chemical insecticides has motivated the development of non-chemical control methods such as heat treatment. However, because bed bugs tend to hide in cracks or crevices, their behavior incidentally generates a thermally insulated microenvironment for themselves. Bed bugs located on the outer surface of luggage are less insulated and potentially more vulnerable to brief heat treatment. Soft-sided suitcases with adult male bed bugs on the outside were exposed to an air temperature of 70-75 °C. It took 6 min to kill all of the bed bugs, even those that had concealed themselves under zipper flaps or decorative piping. During heating, only one bed bug (out of 250 in total) moved into the luggage (through a closed zipper). Over long periods of time (24 h) at room temperature, adult male bed bugs on the exterior of luggage only infrequently moved inside; only 3% (5/170) had moved inside during 24 h. Brief exterior heat treatment of luggage is a promising way to reduce the spread of bed bugs being transported on the outer surface of luggage. This treatment will not kill bed bugs inside the luggage, but could be a component of integrated management for this pest. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Stylet biogenesis in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Joseph M

    2017-07-01

    The discovery of 'Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum', causal agent of certain solanaceous and apiaceous crop diseases, inside the functional (intrastadial) and pharate stylet anatomy of the potato psyllid prompted elucidation of the mechanism of stylet replacement as a novel exit portal in the transmission pathway. In Hemiptera, presumptive (formative) stylets, secreted during consecutive pharate instars, replace functional stylets lost with the exuviae. In potato psyllids, each functional stylet has a hollow core filled with a cytology that extends out of the core to form a hemispherical aggregate of cells, the 'end-cap', somewhat resembling a golf ball on a tee. A tightly folded mass of extremely thin cells, the 'matrix', occurs inside the end-cap. Micrograph interpretations indicate that during the pharate stage, the end-cap apolyses from the core and 'deconstructs' to release and expand the matrix into a long, coiled tube, the 'atrium'. Cells that were in contact with the inner walls of the functional stylet core maintain their position at the apex of the tube, and secrete a new stylet, apex first, the growing length of which descends into the tube until completed. They then despool from the coils into their functional position as the exuviae is shed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA Barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106

  2. eBug--teaching children hygiene principles using educational games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostkova, Patty; Farrell, David; de Quincey, Ed; Weinberg, Julius; Lecky, Donna; McNulty, Cliodna

    2010-01-01

    Technology enhanced education has been recently established as a new approach for all stages of education. However, among these new IT media it is computer games playing the central role in delivering education in particular to children and teenagers, however, real world sound evaluation is often given little attention. The EU funded e-Bug project developed web games aimed at children to teach basic principles of prudent antibiotics use, hand and respiratory hygiene and aims to reinforces an awareness of microbes, hand and respiratory hygiene among junior and senior school children in 10 countries in Europe. An educational pack implemented in schools across Europe is complemented by Internet web games for two age groups teaching a set of learning objectives (LOs) using a fast and interactive platform game design for junior children and investigate detective games based on PBL principles for senior children. In this paper, we present the design of e-Bug junior and senior games and evaluation results.

  3. Bed bugs, leeches and hookworm larvae in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Hengge, Ulrich R

    2009-01-01

    Bed bugs, leeches, and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans are skin infestations that are usually considered of minor importance because they produce discomfort rather than cause or transmit disease. Bed bugs have been increasing tremendously in high-income countries in recent years, causing distress to affected individuals and economic loss. Infestation by land leeches causes mainly unpleasant skin reactions, whereas infestation by aquatic leeches may be more dangerous, leading to anemia and in severe cases, to death. Cutaneous larva migrans produces an intense pruritus that can be exasperating for the patient and cause sleep disturbance. An overview is given of these three infestations with a discussion of the causative agents, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.

  4. Insecticide resistance in the bed bug comes with a cost

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer R. Gordon; Potter, Michael F.; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to new environmental stress is often associated with an alteration of one or more life history parameters. Insecticide resistant populations of insects often have reduced fitness relative to susceptible populations in insecticide free environments. Our previous work showed that three populations of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., evolved significantly increased levels of resistance to one product containing both ?-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid insecticides with only one generation of...

  5. An elementary introduction to Bayesian computing using WinBUGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryback, D G; Stout, N K; Rosenberg, M A

    2001-01-01

    Bayesian statistics provides effective techniques for analyzing data and translating the results to inform decision making. This paper provides an elementary tutorial overview of the WinBUGS software for performing Bayesian statistical analysis. Background information on the computational methods used by the software is provided. Two examples drawn from the field of medical decision making are presented to illustrate the features and functionality of the software.

  6. Endophytic fungi alter sucking bug responses to cotton reproductive structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, Gregory A; Tessnow, Ashley; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa

    2017-03-22

    All plants including cotton host a wide range of microorganisms as endophytes. There is a growing appreciation of the prevalence, ecological significance and management potential of facultative fungal endophytes in protecting plants from pests, pathogens and environmental stressors. Hemipteran sucking bugs have emerged as major pests across the U.S. cotton belt, reducing yields directly by feeding on developing reproductive structures and indirectly by vectoring plant pathogens. We used no-choice and simultaneous choice assays to examine the host selection behavior of western tarnished plant bugs (Lygus hesperus) and southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula) in response to developing flower buds and fruits from cotton plants colonized by 1 of 2 candidate beneficial fungal endophytes, Phialemonium inflatum or Beauveria bassiana. Both insect species exhibited strong negative responses to flower buds (L. hesperus) and fruits (N. viridula) from plants that had been colonized by candidate endophytic fungi relative to control plants under both no-choice and choice conditions. Behavioral responses of both species indicated that the insects were deterred prior to contact with plant tissues from endophyte-colonized plants, suggesting a putative role for volatile compounds in mediating the negative response. Our results highlight the role of fungal endophytes as plant mutualists that can have positive effects on plant resistance to pests. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. New substitute name for the genus Poliocoris Slater, 1994 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Rhyparochromidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dao-Wei; Chen, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Neopoliocoris nom. n., a new substitute name is proposed for Poliocoris Slater, 1994 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae), preoccupied by Poliocoris Kirkaldy, 1910 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). A new combination, Neopoliocoris umbrosus (Slater, 1994), comb. n. is proposed for Poliocoris umbrosus Slater, 1994. PMID:25685013

  8. Rediscovering digitules in Aphidomorpha and the question of homology among Sternorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe like setae on a species of Phylloxera (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, Aphidomorpha) by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, ...

  9. First record of the thread-legged assassin bug Myiophanes greeni Distant, 1903 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Siddharth; Ghate, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    While surveying bugs and spiders in the caves of Satara District, Maharashtra, one of us (SK) collected a thread-legged bug associated with a spider web. A Sri Lankan Emesinae bug, Myiophanes greeni Distant (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) is reported for the first time from India. The species is redescribed with several illustrations including male genitalia.

  10. Role of enhanced detoxication in a deltamethrin-resistant population of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola González Audino

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Deltamethrin and other pyrethroids have been extensively used in Argentina since 1980, for the chemical control of Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Recently, resistance to deltamethrin was detected in field populations by the survival of bugs exposed by topical application to the diagnostic dose estimated on the CIPEIN susceptible strain. Results of the current study showed low resistant ratios (RRs to deltamethrin for the resistant populations (RR ranged from 2.0 for San Luis colony to 7.9 for Salta colony. Biochemical studies were made on the most resistant colony (Salta and the susceptible strain (CIPEIN, in order to establish the importance of degradative mechanisms as a cause of the detected resistance. Esterase activity was measured on 3 days old first instars through phenylthioacetate and a-naphtyl acetate activities. The results showed a significant difference in no cholinesterase esterase activity from susceptible (7.6 ± 0,7 µM S./i.min. and Salta resistant colony (9.5 ± 0.8 µM S./i.min.. Cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase (P450 activity was measured on individual insects through ethoxycoumarine deethylase (ECOD activity using a fluorescence micro plate reader. The dependence of ECOD activity on age and body region of the nymphs, and pH and time of incubation were studied in order to optimize the measurement. As a result, comparative studies were performed on abdomens of 2 days old first instars at pH 7.2 and 4 h incubation time. ECOD activity of first nymphs was significantly lower in the susceptible colony (61.3 ± 9.08 pg ECOD/ insect than in the resistant one (108.1± 5.7 pg ECOD/ insect. These results suggest that degradative esterases (no-cholinesterase and mono-oxygenases cytochrome P450, play an important role in the resistance to deltamethrin in Salta colony from Argentina.

  11. Genetic Relationships and Spatial Genetic Structure Among Populations of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Colombia and Venezuela Based on Mitochondrial Cytochrome-b Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Marín, K P; Angulo-Silva, V M; Hernández-Torres, J; Ruiz-García, M

    2017-06-01

    One hundred twenty Rhodnius prolixus (Stal) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) specimens from 6 Colombian Departments and 1 Venezuelan State had 594-bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene sequenced to improve the understanding of evolutionary processes that shape the main vector of Chagas disease. The levels of genetic diversity for this species were low-medium with reference to other bugs. The genetic heterogeneity among the populations was very limited which means there has been extensive gene flow and/or very recent split processes. The overall sample as well as some individual populations showed evidence of recent population expansions (with the exception of Arauca, which yielded evidence of a bottleneck for a mismatch distribution). This expansion (11,000 or 2000-25,000 year ago depending of two procedures employed) coincides with the ending of the last intense glacial conditions during the Pleistocene and the beginning of the Holocene that had a warmer and wetter climate. Some of our autocorrelation analyses (AIDA and Genetic Landscape Interpolation Analysis) indicated local patches of high genetic similarity but no globally significant spatial structure. We did show an original haplotype distributed throughout the entirety of the geographical area studied.

  12. Bug-in-Ear eCoaching: Impacts on Novice Early Childhood Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygas Coogle, Christan; Ottley, Jennifer R.; Rahn, Naomi L.; Storie, Sloan

    2018-01-01

    A multiple-probe, single-case design was used to determine the effects of bug-in-ear eCoaching on teachers' use of two targeted naturalistic communication strategies and focus children's responses to these strategies. Results indicated that bug-in-ear eCoaching enhanced teachers' use of communication strategies and the appropriate responses of…

  13. Chemoreception to aggregation pheromones in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Xiong, Caixing; Liu, Nannan

    2017-03-01

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, is an obligate blood-feeding insect that is resurgent worldwide, posing a threat to human beings through its biting nuisance and disease transmission. Bed bug aggregation pheromone is considered a very promising attractant for use in the monitoring and management of bed bugs, but as yet little is known regarding the sensory physiology of bed bugs related to this pheromone. This study examined how the individual components of aggregation pheromone are perceived by the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in different types of olfactory sensilla in bed bugs and the molecular basis for the ORNs' responses to the aggregation pheromone. We found that the ORNs in the D olfactory sensilla played a predominant role in detecting all the components of aggregation pheromone except for histamine, which was only recognized by the C sensilla. Bed bugs' E sensilla, which include four functionally distinct groups, showed only a very weak but variant sensitivity (both excitatory and inhibitory) to the components of aggregation pheromone. Functional tests of 15 odorant receptors (ORs) in response to the components of aggregation pheromone revealed that most of these components were encoded by multiple ORs with various tuning properties. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of how bed bug aggregation pheromone is perceived and recognized in the peripheral olfactory system and will contribute useful information to support the development of synthetic attractants for bed bug monitoring and control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    Although a number of approaches to finding bugs in systems code have been proposed, bugs still remain to be found. Current approaches have emphasized scalability more than usability, and as a result it is difficult to relate the results to particular patterns found in the source code and to contr...

  15. Comparing Fine-Grained Source Code Changes And Code Churn For Bug Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, E.; Pinzger, M.; Gall, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of research effort has been dedicated to learning prediction models that allow project managers to efficiently allocate resources to those parts of a software system that most likely are bug-prone and therefore critical. Prominent measures for building bug prediction models are

  16. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Eliminating OS bugs is essential to ensuring the reliability of infrastructures ranging from embedded systems to servers.  Several tools based on static analysis have been proposed for finding bugs in OS code. They have, however, emphasized scalability over usability, making it difficult to focus...

  17. WYSIWYB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Lawall, Julia; Palix, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of approaches to finding bugs in systems code have been proposed, bugs still remain to be found. Current approaches have emphasized scalability more than usability, and as a result it is difficult to relate the results to particular patterns found in the source code and to contr...

  18. Verde plant bug is associated with cottong boll rot in South Texas cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde plant bug was the dominant boll-feeding sucking bug species (>98% of insects collected using a beat bucket) from peak to late bloom in cotton fields near the coast along the Coastal Bend of South Texas, from Port Lavaca to the Lower Rio qrande Valley in 2010 and 2011. It was common in fields w...

  19. Endemism analysis of Neotropical Pentatomidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Ferrari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.

  20. Aggregation and Association of NDVI, Boll Injury, and Stink Bugs in North Carolina Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Dominic D; Reay-Jones, F P F; Meijer, A D

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of herbivorous stink bugs in southeastern U.S. cotton remains problematic. Remote sensing was explored to improve sampling of these pests and associated boll injury. Two adjacent 14.5-ha cotton fields were grid sampled in 2011 and 2012 by collecting stink bug adults and bolls every week during the third, fourth, and fifth weeks of bloom. Satellite remote sensing data were collected during the third week of bloom during both years, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values were calculated. Stink bugs were spatially aggregated on the third week of bloom in 2011. Boll injury from stink bugs was spatially aggregated during the fourth week of bloom in 2012. The NDVI values were aggregated during both years. There was a positive association and correlation between stink bug numbers and NDVI values, as well as injured bolls and NDVI values, during the third week of bloom in 2011. During the third week of bloom in 2012, NDVI values were negatively correlated with stink bug numbers. During the fourth week of bloom in 2011, stink bug numbers and boll injury were both positively associated and correlated with NDVI values. During the fourth week of bloom in 2012, stink bugs were negatively correlated with NDVI values, and boll injury was negatively associated and correlated with NDVI values. This study suggests the potential of remote sensing as a tool to assist with sampling stink bugs in cotton, although more research is needed using NDVI and other plant measurements to predict stink bug injury. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  1. Early perception of stink bug damage in developing seeds of field-grown soybean induces chemical defences and reduces bug attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Romina; Barneto, Jesica; Barriga, Lucia G; Sardoy, Pedro M; Balestrasse, Karina; Andrade, Andrea M; Pagano, Eduardo A; Alemano, Sergio G; Zavala, Jorge A

    2016-08-01

    Southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula L.) invade field-grown soybean crops, where they feed on developing seeds and inject phytotoxic saliva, which causes yield reduction. Although leaf responses to herbivory are well studied, no information is available about the regulation of defences in seeds. This study demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 are expressed and activated in developing seeds of field-grown soybean and regulate a defensive response after stink bug damage. Although 10-20 min after stink bug feeding on seeds induced the expression of MPK3, MPK6 and MPK4, only MPK6 was phosphorylated after damage. Herbivory induced an early peak of jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation and ethylene (ET) emission after 3 h in developing seeds, whereas salicylic acid (SA) was also induced early, and at increasing levels up to 72 h after damage. Damaged seeds upregulated defensive genes typically modulated by JA/ET or SA, which in turn reduced the activity of digestive enzymes in the gut of stink bugs. Induced seeds were less preferred by stink bugs. This study shows that stink bug damage induces seed defences, which is perceived early by MPKs that may activate defence metabolic pathways in developing seeds of field-grown soybean. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Photosharing websites may improve Hemiptera biodiversity knowledge and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goula, Marta; Sesma, José-Manuel; Vivas, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Internet photosharing websites is a very recent and powerful tool for the study of biodiversity, and a meeting point of general public fond of nature and professional naturalists. The article discusses when an uploaded picture is scientifically valuable, and the benefits of structured hosting websites for the most fruitful information retrieval. Examples are given of faunistic, biological, ecological and conservation results concerning Hemiptera provided by information download from photosharing websites. PMID:24003310

  3. Mitochondrial DNA divergence in Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Lygus is widely distributed in North America and Eurasia. The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, is one of the most serious pest species within this genus having >300 different plant hosts. The intra-specific genetic diversity of L. lineolaris is being examined by employing mitochondri...

  4. The bugs book a practical introduction to Bayesian analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lunn, David; Best, Nicky; Thomas, Andrew; Spiegelhalter, David

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Probability and ParametersProbabilityProbability distributionsCalculating properties of probability distributionsMonte Carlo integrationMonte Carlo Simulations Using BUGSIntroduction to BUGSDoodleBUGSUsing BUGS to simulate from distributionsTransformations of random variablesComplex calculations using Monte CarloMultivariate Monte Carlo analysisPredictions with unknown parametersIntroduction to Bayesian InferenceBayesian learningPosterior predictive distributionsConjugate Bayesian inferenceInference about a discrete parameterCombinations of conjugate analysesBayesian and classica

  5. The Influence of Roughness and Pyrethroid Formulations on Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L. Resting Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Hottel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two-choice tests were conducted to examine the effect of surface roughness on the resting preference of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., on copper, basswood, and acrylic materials. The influence of pyrethroid formulation applications on resting preferences was also evaluated. Bed bugs were given the choice of resting between two sanded halves of each material tested. One half was sanded with a P60 grit sandpaper and the other with a less rough P600 grit sandpaper. A significantly higher proportion of bed bugs chose to rest on the rougher P60 grit sanded half of all materials tested. Pyrethroid applications were made to either the P60 grit half or both halves of acrylic arenas and resting preferences were again assessed. Behavioral responses of bed bugs to pyrethroid formulation applications varied depending on the bed bug strain used and the formulation applied. Bed bugs would still rest on the P60 grit half when Suspend SC formulation (0.06% deltamethrin was applied; however, an avoidance response was observed from a bed bug strain susceptible to D-Force aerosol formulations (0.06% deltamethrin. The avoidance behavior is likely attributed to one, more than one, or even an interaction of multiple spray constituents and not the active ingredient.

  6. Evaluation of chlorfenapyr for control of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Alvaro; Potter, Michael F; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2010-11-01

    The presence of bed bug populations resistant to pyrethroids demands the development of new control tactics, including the use of insecticides with new modes of action. Insecticides that disrupt oxidative phosphorylation in insect mitochondria can be an option. Laboratory assays were used to measure the toxicity of chlorfenapyr to susceptible strains and two strains highly resistant to pyrethroids. The effectiveness of two chlorfenapyr-based formulations was compared, and behavioral responses of bed bugs to dry residues of aerosol sprays were evaluated. Chlorfenapyr was effective against all bed bug strains, killing them at a similar rate, regardless of their susceptibility status to pyrethroids. Dry residues aged for 4 months were as toxic as fresh dry residues. The aerosol formulation had contact activity and caused faster mortality than a water-based formulation. Bed bugs did not avoid resting on surfaces treated with aerosol. Chlorfenapyr is an option for controlling pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs. While it does not cause quick knockdown, its long residual activity and no avoidance behavior of bed bugs to dry residues appear to make this insecticide suitable for bed bug control. A faster insecticidal effect is obtained with the aerosol formulation, suggesting greater bioavailability of the toxicant. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Ecosystem-Based Incorporation of Nectar-Producing Plants for Stink Bug Parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Glynn

    2017-06-24

    Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction, but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests for crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of stink bugs potentially can enhance biocontrol of these pests. Knowledge of spatial and temporal availability and distribution of stink bugs in host plants is necessary for appropriate timing and placement of flowering plants in agroecosystems. Stink bugs move between closely associated host plants throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their host plants. In peanut-cotton farmscapes, stink bugs develop in peanut, and subsequently the adults disperse into adjacent cotton. Parasitism of Nezara viridula (L.) adults by Trichopoda pennipes (F.) at the peanut-cotton interface was significantly higher in cotton with a strip of milkweed or buckwheat between the two crops than in cotton alone. Milkweed and buckwheat also provided nectar to a wide range of insect pollinators. Monarch butterflies fed on milkweed. When placed between peanut and cotton, a strip of soybean was an effective trap crop for cotton, reducing economic damage. Incorporation of buckwheat near soybean enhanced parasitism of Euschistus servus (Say) eggs by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. In conclusion, nectar provision enhances biocontrol of stink bugs, acts together with other management tactics for stink bug control, and aids in conservation of natural enemies, insect pollinators, and the monarch butterfly.

  8. Ecosystem-Based Incorporation of Nectar-Producing Plants for Stink Bug Parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynn Tillman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult parasitoids of pest insects rely on floral resources for survival and reproduction, but can be food-deprived in intensively managed agricultural systems lacking these resources. Stink bugs are serious pests for crops in southwest Georgia. Provisioning nectar-producing plants for parasitoids of stink bugs potentially can enhance biocontrol of these pests. Knowledge of spatial and temporal availability and distribution of stink bugs in host plants is necessary for appropriate timing and placement of flowering plants in agroecosystems. Stink bugs move between closely associated host plants throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their host plants. In peanut-cotton farmscapes, stink bugs develop in peanut, and subsequently the adults disperse into adjacent cotton. Parasitism of Nezara viridula (L. adults by Trichopoda pennipes (F. at the peanut-cotton interface was significantly higher in cotton with a strip of milkweed or buckwheat between the two crops than in cotton alone. Milkweed and buckwheat also provided nectar to a wide range of insect pollinators. Monarch butterflies fed on milkweed. When placed between peanut and cotton, a strip of soybean was an effective trap crop for cotton, reducing economic damage. Incorporation of buckwheat near soybean enhanced parasitism of Euschistus servus (Say eggs by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. In conclusion, nectar provision enhances biocontrol of stink bugs, acts together with other management tactics for stink bug control, and aids in conservation of natural enemies, insect pollinators, and the monarch butterfly.

  9. LED-Induced fluorescence and image analysis to detect stink bug damage in cotton bolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafic, Adnan; Roberts, Erin E; Toews, Michael D; Haidekker, Mark A

    2013-02-20

    Stink bugs represent a major agricultural pest complex attacking more than 200 wild and cultivated plants, including cotton in the southeastern US. Stink bug feeding on developing cotton bolls will cause boll abortion or lint staining and thus reduced yield and lint value. Current methods for stink bug detection involve manual harvesting and cracking open of a sizable number of immature cotton bolls for visual inspection. This process is cumbersome, time consuming, and requires a moderate level of experience to obtain accurate estimates. To improve detection of stink bug feeding, we present here a method based on fluorescent imaging and subsequent image analyses to determine the likelihood of stink bug damage in cotton bolls. Damage to different structures of cotton bolls including lint and carpal wall can be observed under blue LED-induced fluorescence. Generally speaking, damaged regions fluoresce green, whereas non-damaged regions with chlorophyll fluoresce red. However, similar fluorescence emission is also observable on cotton bolls that have not been fed upon by stink bugs. Criteria based on fluorescent intensity and the size of the fluorescent spot allow to differentiate between true positives (fluorescent regions associated with stink bug feeding) and false positives (fluorescent regions due to other causes). We found a detection rates with two combined criteria of 87% for true-positive marks and of 8% for false-positive marks. The imaging technique presented herein gives rise to a possible detection apparatus where a cotton boll is imaged in the field and images processed by software. The unique fluorescent signature left by stink bugs can be used to determine with high probability if a cotton boll has been punctured by a stink bug. We believe this technique, when integrated in a suitable device, could be used for more accurate detection in the field and allow for more optimized application of pest control.

  10. Impact of brown stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) feeding on corn grain yield components and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xinzhi; Da, Kedong; Buntin, G David; Cottrell, Ted E; Tillman, P Glynn; Olson, Dawn M; Powell, Robert; Lee, R Dewey; Wilson, Jeffrey P; Scully, Brian T

    2010-12-01

    Brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), damage on developing corn, Zea mays L., ears was examined in 2005 and 2006 by using eight parameters related to its yield and kernel quality. Stink bug infestations were initiated when the corn plants were at tasseling (VT), mid-silking (R1), and blister (R2) stages by using zero, three, and six in 2005 or zero, one, two, and four bugs per ear in 2006, and maintained for 9 d. The percentage of discolored kernels was affected by stink bug number in both years, but not always affected by plant growth stage. The growth stage effect on the percentage of discolored kernels was significant in 2006, but not in 2005. The percentage of aborted kernels was affected by both stink bug number and plant growth stage in 2005 but not in 2006. Kernel weight was significantly reduced when three E. sercus adults were confined on a corn ear at stage VT or R1 for 9 d in 2005, whereas one or two adults per ear resulted in no kernel weight loss, but four E. servus adults did cause significant kernel weight loss at stage VT in 2006. Stink bug feeding injury at stage R2 did not affect kernel damage, ear weight or grain weight in either year. The infestation duration (9 or 18 d) was positively correlated to the percentage of discolored kernels but did not affect kernel or ear weight. Based on the regression equations between the kernel weight and stink bug number, the gain threshold or economic injury level should be 0.5 bugs per ear for 9 d at stage VT and less for stage R1. This information will be useful in developing management guidelines for stink bugs in field corn during ear formation and early grain filling stages.

  11. Infestation by triatomine bugs in indigenous communities of Valledupar, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, Marleny; Soto, Hugo; Parra, Edgar; Torres, Mariela; Carrillo, Pilar; Lugo, Ligia; Colorado, Johana; Arias, Maria Teresa

    2011-08-01

    To calculate triatomine infestation indices in indigenous communities in Colombia. A descriptive study was carried out in 19 communities in Valledupar Municipality, Cesar Department, Colombia. During June to December, 2007, triatromine bugs were collected from their resting places in households. Taxonomic identification was made according to the keys by Lent & Wygodzinsky. An infection process in animal model and isozyme analysis of triatomine feces were performed. Rhodnius prolixus showed a density index of 154.7%, for Triatoma dimidiata was 102.45%, T. maculata 109.25% and Panstrogylus geniculatus 0.3%. The mean infestation index was 40.54%, and mean Trypanosoma infection index was 9.4%. Of five hemocultures positive for T. cruzi, three were enzimatically identified as T. cruzi group I. Biopsies revealed few pathologic characteristics of infective process with these strains isolated from domiciliary triatomine bugs. The high triatomine infestation indices in households and the T. cruzi infection index are evidence of active transmission of Chagas disease. The situation merits a vector control program and serological survey of the population at risk. The genetic characterization of T. cruzi strains as group I agrees with other findings on strains in this region of Colombia.

  12. Insecticide resistance in the bed bug comes with a cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jennifer R; Potter, Michael F; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2015-06-03

    Adaptation to new environmental stress is often associated with an alteration of one or more life history parameters. Insecticide resistant populations of insects often have reduced fitness relative to susceptible populations in insecticide free environments. Our previous work showed that three populations of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., evolved significantly increased levels of resistance to one product containing both β-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid insecticides with only one generation of selection, which gave us an opportunity to explore potential tradeoffs between life history parameters and resistance using susceptible and resistant strains of the same populations. Life history tables were compiled by collecting weekly data on mortality and fecundity of bugs from each strain and treatment throughout their lives. Selection led to a male-biased sex ratio, shortened oviposition period, and decreased life-time reproductive rate. Generation time was shortened by selection, a change that represents a benefit rather than a cost. Using these life history characteristics we calculated that there would be a 90% return to pre-selection levels of susceptibility within 2- 6.5 generations depending on strain. The significant fitness costs associated with resistance suggest that insecticide rotation or utilization of non-insecticidal control tactics could be part of an effective resistance management strategy.

  13. Bioengineered bugs, drugs and contentious issues in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Ananda M

    2010-01-01

    Bioengineered bugs, as is the scope of this journal, have great potential in various practical applications. A corollary to bringing useful products to the market is that such products need protection from copying by other people or businesses. Such government-sponsored protections are legally enforced through a patent, copyright or trademark/trade secret system commonly known as intellectual property rights. A condition for obtaining a patent is that the invention must not be disclosed to public either through seminars, informal public disclosures or publications in journals, although in the United States, there is a one year grace period that is allowed to obtain a patent after public disclosure. This article describes my personal experience in obtaining a patent in 1980 on a genetically manipulated bacterium designed for oil spill cleanup. This patent application went through a series of court cases that finally ended up in the Supreme Court of the United States. I also mention a similar contentious legal issue that is on the horizon and that the readers of Bioengineered Bugs should be aware of. Finally, I have taken the opportunity to describe my current efforts to bring to the market some unique potential multi-disease-targeting candidate drugs from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gonococci/meningococci that, if found non-toxic and efficacious in humans, will revolutionize the drug industry. To ensure their marketability, we are trying to develop a patent portfolio that will ensure that they will be legally protected and such protections will be broad-based and enforceable.

  14. Biology of a Neotropical Harlequin Stink Bug, Runibia perspicua (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro, A L; Panizzi, A R; Lucini, T

    2017-12-07

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted with nymphs and adults of the Neotropical stink bug Runibia perspicua (F.) to evaluate their biology on plants. Total nymph mortality was ca. 13% on immature fruits of Brunfelsia australis Benth. (IFBA) and 90% on raw shelled peanuts, Arachis hypogaea L. (RSP); no nymphs survived on immature pods of green bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., or on immature fruits of privet, Ligustrum lucidum Ait. Nymph developmental time was ca. 36 on IFBA and 55 days on RSP. Body weight was significantly greater when nymphs were raised isolated compared to those raised in groups. Adult feeding activity was greater than third instars on IFBA. Adult longevity on IFBA + cherry tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. fruit, reached ca. 150 days. On IFBA, fecundity was 2.5 egg masses/female and 48.3 eggs/female; 25.6% of the eggs hatched. Adults did not reproduce on tomato. Body weight gain did not increase significantly for both sexes during the first four weeks of adult life on IFBA. In the field, plants of B. australis were surveyed in Passo Fundo, RS (28°15'S; 52°24'W). The majority of egg masses were deposited on the lower (abaxial) surface of leaves. Nymphs aggregated on immature fruits, and adults were seldom found on the plants. These are the first data on the performance of R. perspicua on B. australis indicating that this plant species is suitable to the bug's biology.

  15. The HACMS program: using formal methods to eliminate exploitable bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launchbury, John; Richards, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    For decades, formal methods have offered the promise of verified software that does not have exploitable bugs. Until recently, however, it has not been possible to verify software of sufficient complexity to be useful. Recently, that situation has changed. SeL4 is an open-source operating system microkernel efficient enough to be used in a wide range of practical applications. Its designers proved it to be fully functionally correct, ensuring the absence of buffer overflows, null pointer exceptions, use-after-free errors, etc., and guaranteeing integrity and confidentiality. The CompCert Verifying C Compiler maps source C programs to provably equivalent assembly language, ensuring the absence of exploitable bugs in the compiler. A number of factors have enabled this revolution, including faster processors, increased automation, more extensive infrastructure, specialized logics and the decision to co-develop code and correctness proofs rather than verify existing artefacts. In this paper, we explore the promise and limitations of current formal-methods techniques. We discuss these issues in the context of DARPA’s HACMS program, which had as its goal the creation of high-assurance software for vehicles, including quadcopters, helicopters and automobiles. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Verified trustworthy software systems’. PMID:28871050

  16. Application of native prick test in diagnosis of bed bug allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Łukasz; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was case report of the patient with systemic reaction after a bed bug (Cimex lectularius) bite. A 23-year-old female, previously healthy, reports systemic reaction, including rash on her corpus and limbs, itching, nausea, conciseness disorder, forcing her to call the ambulance. The interview revealed that the bed bug occurs in the patient's apartment. A prick-by-prick test with bed bug excretion was made. The skin test with native allergen was strongly positive (histamine 5 mm/5 mm, prick-by-prick 12 mm/8 mm). The prick-by-prick test was useful in objective confirmation of the source of symptoms. PMID:24278049

  17. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  18. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  19. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Alyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...

  20. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  1. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Aphids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...

  2. Host Plant Effects on the Development, Survival, and Reproduction of Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Grapevines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Bertin; L. C. Bortoli; M. Botton; J.R.P. Parra

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1893) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is one of the most frequent and abundant mealybugs in Brazilian vineyards, where it causes direct and indirect damage to the vines...

  3. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), to pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch) foliage can result in leaf senescence and abscission. The plant growth regulators chlorforfenuron (CPPU), gibberellic acid (GA3) and aminoet...

  4. Host range specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samita Limbu; Katie Cassidy; Melody Keena; Patrick Tobin; Kelli Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is...

  5. Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larval development and predation of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samita Limbu; Melody A. Keena; David Long; Nancy Ostiguy; Kelli. Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Development time and prey consumption of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae by instar, strain, and temperature were evaluated. S. camptodromus, a specialist predator of hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera:...

  6. A transcriptome survey spanning life stages and sexes of the Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Science.gov (United States)

    The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolure...

  7. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B.; Adelman, Zach N.; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C.; Szuter, Elise M.; Hagan, Richard W.; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M.; Nelson, David R.; Rosendale, Andrew J.; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M.; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R.; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J. Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D.; Scharf, Michael E.; Peterson, Brittany F.; Raje, Kapil R.; Hottel, Benjamin A.; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Murali, Shwetha C.; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L.; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C.; Muzny, Donna M.; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A.; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Vargo, Edward L.; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Jones, Jeffery W.; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D.; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Werren, John H.; Palli, Subba R.; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host–symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human–bed bug and symbiont–bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite. PMID:26836814

  8. Landscape Factors Influencing Stink Bug Injury in Mid-Atlantic Tomato Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin B; Troyer, Rachael R; Watrous, Kristal M; Tooker, John F; Fleischer, Shelby J

    2017-02-01

    Landscape structure and diversity influence insect species abundance. In agricultural systems, adjacent crop and non-crop habitats can influence pest species population dynamics and intensify economic damage. To investigate the influence of landscape factors on stink bug damage in agricultural systems, we assessed stink bug damage from 30 processing tomato fields in the mid-Atlantic United States and analyzed landscape structure and geographic location. We found that forest shape and size, and geographic location strongly influenced stink bug damage. Landscapes with larger forest edge in southern portions of the mid-Atlantic region experienced the greatest damage, perhaps owing to the introduction of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug. We conclude that landscape structure will likely influence damage rates in nearby agricultural fields.

  9. Phenology of brown marmorated stink bug described using female reproductive development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielsen, Anne L; Fleischer, Shelby; Hamilton, George C; Hancock, Tori; Krawczyk, Gregorz; Lee, Jana C; Ogburn, Emily; Pote, John M; Raudenbush, Amy; Rucker, Ann; Saunders, Michael; Skillman, Victoria P; Sullivan, Jeanne; Timer, Jody; Walgenbach, James; Wiman, Nik G; Leskey, Tracy C

    2017-01-01

    .... We expand on the use of a temperature‐based process defining timing of reproduction through the incorporation of female reproductive physiology for the invasive pentatomid species Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug. A five...

  10. An Insight Into the Sialotranscriptome of Triatoma rubida (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    José M. C. Ribeiro; Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Van M Pham; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Reisenman, Carolina E.

    2012-01-01

    The kissing bug Triatoma rubida (Uhler, 1894) is found in southwestern United States and parts of Mexico where it is found infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, invades human dwellings and causes allergies from their bites. Although the protein salivary composition of several triatomine species is known, not a single salivary protein sequence is known from T. rubida. Furthermore, the salivary diversity of related hematophagous arthropods is very large probably because of the immune pressure from t...

  11. An annotated catalog of the Iranian Reduvioidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Hassan; Moulet, Pierre; Cai, Wanzhi; Karimi, Javad

    2013-01-01

    An updated list of Iranian Reduvioidea Latreille (families Pachynomidae, Reduviidae) is presented and discussed in this paper. For Iranian fauna, there are records of one species of Pachynomidae and 109 species and subspecies of assassin bugs (Reduviidae) distributed in 24 genera and subgenera, and seven subfamilies, Emesinae, Harpactorinae, Holoptilinae, Peiratinae, Phymatinae, Reduviinae, and Stenopodainae. We report 6 new country records and one new species, Empicoris baerensprungi (Dohrn, 1863) for Asian fauna. Synonyms and distribution data are also given.

  12. Morphological and Behavioral Convergence in Extinct and Extant Bugs: The Systematics and Biology of a New Unusual Fossil Lace Bug from the Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wappler, Torsten; Guilbert, Eric; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Wedmann, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    The bug Gyaclavator kohlsi Wappler, Guilbert, Wedmann et Labandeira, gen. et sp. nov., represents a new extinct genus of lace bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingidae) occurring in latest early Eocene deposits of the Green River Formation, from the southern Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado, in North America. Gyaclavator can be placed within the Tingidae with certainty, perhaps it is sistergroup to Cantacaderinae. If it belongs to Cantacaderinae, it is the first fossil record of this group for North America. Gyaclavator has unique, conspicuous antennae bearing a specialized, highly dilated distiflagellomere, likely important for intra- or intersex reproductive competition and attraction. This character parallels similar antennae in leaf-footed bugs (Coreidae), and probably is associated with a behavioral convergence as well. PMID:26267108

  13. Morphological and behavioral convergence in extinct and extant bugs: the systematics and biology of a new unusual fossil lace bug from the eocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Wappler

    Full Text Available The bug Gyaclavator kohlsi Wappler, Guilbert, Wedmann et Labandeira, gen. et sp. nov., represents a new extinct genus of lace bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera: Tingidae occurring in latest early Eocene deposits of the Green River Formation, from the southern Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado, in North America. Gyaclavator can be placed within the Tingidae with certainty, perhaps it is sistergroup to Cantacaderinae. If it belongs to Cantacaderinae, it is the first fossil record of this group for North America. Gyaclavator has unique, conspicuous antennae bearing a specialized, highly dilated distiflagellomere, likely important for intra- or intersex reproductive competition and attraction. This character parallels similar antennae in leaf-footed bugs (Coreidae, and probably is associated with a behavioral convergence as well.

  14. Bug22 influences cilium morphology and the post-translational modification of ciliary microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Mendes Maia

    2014-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are organelles essential for motility and sensing of environmental stimuli. Depending on the cell type, cilia acquire a defined set of functions and, accordingly, are built with an appropriate length and molecular composition. Several ciliary proteins display a high degree of conservation throughout evolution and mutations in ciliary genes are associated with various diseases such as ciliopathies and infertility. Here, we describe the role of the highly conserved ciliary protein, Bug22, in Drosophila. Previous studies in unicellular organisms have shown that Bug22 is required for proper cilia function, but its exact role in ciliogenesis has not been investigated yet. Null Bug22 mutant flies display cilia-associated phenotypes and nervous system defects. Furthermore, sperm differentiation is blocked at the individualization stage, due to impaired migration of the individualization machinery. Tubulin post-translational modifications (PTMs such as polyglycylation, polyglutamylation or acetylation, are determinants of microtubule (MT functions and stability in centrioles, cilia and neurons. We found defects in the timely incorporation of polyglycylation in sperm axonemal MTs of Bug22 mutants. In addition, we found that depletion of human Bug22 in RPE1 cells resulted in the appearance of longer cilia and reduced axonemal polyglutamylation. Our work identifies Bug22 as a protein that plays a conserved role in the regulation of PTMs of the ciliary axoneme.

  15. A survey of patients with bed bugs in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheele, Johnathan M; Gaines, Stephanie; Maurer, Nicholas; Coppolino, Katirina; Li, Jennifer S; Pound, Amy; Luk, Jeffrey H; Mandac, Ed

    2017-05-01

    Bed bugs are one of the most important human ectoparasites in the United States, and a growing problem in the emergency department. We evaluated 40 emergency department (ED) patients found with a bed bug. The data show that ED patients with bed bugs are statistically more likely to be male, older, more likely to be admitted to the hospital, have higher triage emergency severity index (ESI) scores, and arrive by ambulance than the general ED patient population (pbed bugs were found 108min after a patient arrived to the ED, after 35% of subjects had already received a blood draw, and after 23% had already received a radiology study; putting other ED patients and staff at risk for acquiring the infestation. We found that 13% and 18% of subjects had wheezing and a papular rash, respectively on physical exam. Of those patients found with a bed bug in the ED, 42% reported having bed bugs at home and 21% reporting having a possible home infestation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Host Range Specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), A Predator of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.

  17. Diaspididae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea in sori of two fern species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    2015-12-01

    Duas Espécies de Cochonilhas (Hemiptera: Diaspididae Associadas com Soros de Samambaias Resumo. A presente comunicação relata a presença de duas espécies de cochonilhas Hemiberlesia palmae (Cockerell e Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley (Coccoidea, Diaspididae, associadas respectivamente com Asplenium serratum L. (Aspleniaceae e Niphidium crassifolium (L. Lellinger (Polypodiaceae. É o primeiro registro de uma samambaia como planta hospedeira de Hemiberlesia palmae.  Nas duas espécies de samambaias, os diaspidídeos encontravam-se concentrados principalmente ao redor dos soros.

  18. An overview on the ecology of Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Cleber; Justi, Silvia A

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, the American trypanosomiasis, is an important neglected tropical illness caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) and transmitted by insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Here we provide an overview on the current knowledge about Triatominae ecology, its association with human, T. cruzi infection and the immediate consequences of habitat fragmentation. We also discuss the geographic distribution of the species and the importance of predicting their distributions to control programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Wayne B.; Reese, Justin; International Psyllid Genome Consortium, The

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera), is an important pest of citrus because it vectors bacteria responsible for huanglongbing, which is one of the most serious diseases of citrus worldwide.  The first genome draft of D. citri (DIACI_1.0) was completed in 2011 (ARS, Ft. Pierce, FL), however, gaps in the assembly prompted additional sequencing using the long run PacBio system at the Los Alamos National Lab, NM.  The revised draft genome (DIACI_1.1) was assembled using the new...

  20. Records of assassin bug species (reduviidae, heteroptera reported biting man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. Hartwig

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa Acanthaspis obscura Stal, Pirates conspurcatus Distant, Rhinocoris segmentarius (Germar and Panto-feistes pnnceps Stal intlict painful bites on humans. Serious consequences can develop. This is unknown to the public in general. Adult A. obscura and P. conspurcatus are responsible for the greatest number of bites because they are positively phototropic. R, segmentarius is not attracted to light but is the most common local species. Bites happen accidentally and could largely be avoided if the bugs could be recognized. The first three species have a wide distribution. Various insects are preyed on. The R. segmentarius female can lay 358 fertile eggs in six batches over a period of 77 days without copulating once in this period. Adults are most active in mid-summer although found throughout the year. These three species are abundant in some years and scarce in others. Preventive measures include screening homes and decoy lights. Control involves spraying with carbaryl.

  1. Crystallization and melting of bacteria colonies and Brownian bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Francisco; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2008-02-01

    Motivated by the existence of remarkably ordered cluster arrays of bacteria colonies growing in Petri dishes and related problems, we study the spontaneous emergence of clustering and patterns in a simple nonequilibrium system: the individual-based interacting Brownian bug model. We map this discrete model into a continuous Langevin equation which is the starting point for our extensive numerical analyses. For the two-dimensional case we report on the spontaneous generation of localized clusters of activity as well as a melting-freezing transition from a disordered or isotropic phase to an ordered one characterized by hexagonal patterns. We study in detail the analogies and differences with the well-established Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young theory of equilibrium melting, as well as with another competing theory. For that, we study translational and orientational correlations and perform a careful defect analysis. We find a nonstandard one-stage, defect-mediated transition whose nature is only partially elucidated.

  2. Annotated catalogue of Iranian burrower bugs (Heteroptera, Pentatomoidea, Cydnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghahari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of burrower bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomoidea: Cydnidae of Iran is provided. A total of 58 species from 5 subfamilies, 6 tribes and 22 genera is listed in this paper. Of these, 14 species are newly recorded from Iran: Byrsinus fossor (Mulsant & Rey, 1866, Byrsinus nigroscutellatus (Montandon, 1900, Byrsinus penicillatus Wagner, 1964, Canthophorus wagneri Asanova, 1964, Crocistethus waltlianus (Fieber, 1837, Geotomus antennatus Signoret, 1883, Sehirus cypriacus Dohrn, 1860, Sehirus dissimilis Horváth, 1919, Sehirus luctuosus Mulsant & Rey, 1866, Sehirus ovatus (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1840, Sehirus parens Mulsant & Rey, 1866, Sehirus planiceps Horváth, 1895, Stibaropus henkei (Jakovlev, 1874 and Tritomegas delagrangei (Puton, 1888. Additional Iranian records are provided for Byrsinus laeviceps (Kerzhner, 1972, Exosehirus marginatus (Signoret, 1881b, Fromundus pygmaeus (Dallas, 1851, Geotomus elongatus (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1840, Geotomus punctulatus (Costa, 1847, Ochetostethus sahlbergi Wagner, 1952 and Tritomegas bicolor (Linnaeus, 1758.

  3. Microfluidic photomechanic infrared receptors in a pyrophilous flat bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke; Gebhardt, Michael; Schmitz, Helmut

    2008-05-01

    Infrared (IR) receptors are so far known only in boid and crotalid snakes and in three genera of pyrophilous beetles that seek out forest fires. Pyrophilous insects can also be found in other orders, however, so it can be hypothesised that IR receptors also occur in some of these species. We investigated the pyrophilous Australian flat bug Aradus albicornis and found a small number of dome-shaped sensilla (diameter 13 μm) on the prothorax, which have previously not been described. Ultrastructural investigations revealed that the sensilla are characterised by a fluid-filled inner compartment enclosed in a round cuticular shell. The cuticular apparatus is innervated by the dendrite of a ciliary mechanoreceptor, which is fluidically coupled to the inner compartment. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that the sensilla respond to brief warming by red laser light or to broadband IR radiation. Depending on the radiation intensity (4.4 549 mW/cm2 tested, threshold measured as 11.3 mW/cm2), first spike latencies varied between 3.4 and 7.5 ms. Thus, our findings demonstrate that A. albicornis most probably possesses photomechanic IR sensilla resembling the metathoracic IR sensilla of buprestid beetles of the genus Melanophila. In the Melanophila sensillum, IR radiation causes thermal expansion of a fluid, which rapidly deforms the dendritic membrane of a mechanosensory cell. The existence of photomechanic IR receptors in both beetles and bugs demonstrates a remarkable convergent evolution towards this particular biophysical transduction mechanism and suggests that it provides selective advantages over other possible solutions.

  4. Spatial Distribution and Coexisting Patterns of Adults and Nymphs of Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Paddy Rice Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs M; Maia, Aline H N; Barrigossi, José A F

    2016-12-01

    The rice stem stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a primary insect pest of paddy rice in South America. Knowledge of its spatial distribution can support sampling plans needed for timely decisions about pest control. This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults and nymphs of T. limbativentris and determine the spatial coexistence of these stages of development. Fifteen paddy rice fields were scouted once each season to estimate insect densities. Scouting was performed on regular grids with sampling points separated by ∼50 m. Moran's I and semivariograms were used to determine spatial distribution patterns. Spatial coexistence of nymphs and adults was explored via spatial point process. Here, adults and nymphs had typically contrasting spatial distribution patterns within the same field; however, the frequency of aggregation was not different between these developmental stages. Adults and nymphs were aggregated in seven fields and randomly distributed in the other eight fields. Uniform distribution of adults or nymphs was not observed. The study-wide semivariogram ranges were ∼40 m for adults and ∼55 m for nymphs. Nymphs and adults spatially coexisted on 67% of the fields. Coexisting patterns were classified using one of the following processes: stage-independent, bidirectional attractive, unidirectional attractive, bidirectional inhibiting, or unidirectional inhibiting. The information presented herein can be important for developing sampling plans for decision-making, implementing tactics for site-specific management, and monitoring areas free of T. limbativentrisResumoO percevejo-do-colmo Tibraca limbativentris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) é uma praga primária na cultura do arroz irrigado na América do Sul. O conhecimento de sua distribuição espacial é essencial para desenvolver planos de amostragem e para o controle desta praga. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a distribuição espacial de

  5. Physical barriers for suppression of movement of adult stink bugs into cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P Glynn

    2014-01-01

    Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the southeastern USA. Because adult stink bugs exhibit edge-mediated dispersal at crop-to-crop interfaces as they colonize cotton, strategic placement of physical barriers at these interfaces could manage these pests. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a physical barrier, either synthetic or plant-based, at the peanut-to-cotton interface for suppressing stink bugs that would move to cotton. In 2012 and 2013, sorghum sudangrass (2.4 and 2.1 m high, respectively) was significantly taller than cotton (1.4 and 1.3 m high, respectively) which was taller than peanut (0.4 and 0.5 m high, respectively). Buckwheat (0.6 m high), planted only in 2012, was significantly taller than peanut, but shorter than cotton. For both years of the study, sorghum sudangrass and a 1.8-m-high polypropylene barrier wall effectively deterred dispersal of stink bugs into cotton. Because each of these barriers was taller than cotton, their success in protecting cotton likely was due to disruption of the flight of stink bugs from low-growing peanut into cotton. The shortest barrier wall (0.6-m-high) did not suppress stink bug dispersal into cotton probably because it was approximately the same height as peanut. In 2012, flowering buckwheat increased the efficacy of Trichopoda pennipes (F.) attacking N. viridula in cotton although it did not deter dispersal of stink bugs. In conclusion, a barrier at least as tall as cotton can effectively retard the entry of stink bug adults into cotton.

  6. Likelihood of stink bugs colonizing crops: a case study in southeastern farmscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G

    2013-06-01

    Stink bugs, including Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), and Chinavia hilaris (Say), are economic pests across agricultural farmscapes where they can colonize closely associated crops. This 4-yr on-farm study was conducted to examine the likelihood of these three stink bug species colonizing crops in corn-cotton, corn-peanut-cotton, and peanut-cotton farmscapes by using odds ratios. Corn (Zea mays L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) served as host plants for E. servus and N. viridula. Corn did not serve as a host plant for C. hilaris. Although peanut was a relatively poor host plant, cotton was a relatively good host plant for this stink bug. For N. viridula and E. servus adults, the risk of crop colonization was higher for peanut in peanut-cotton farmscapes with corn than without corn and was highest for cotton in corn-peanut-cotton, followed by peanut-cotton, and lastly corn-cotton farmscapes. The likelihood of oviposition by E. servus, though, was higher in cotton in corn-cotton than peanut-cotton farmscapes. For C. hilaris adults, the risk of crop colonization was highest for cotton in peanut-cotton, followed by corn-peanut-cotton, and lastly corn-cotton farmscapes. Corn was more likely than peanut or cotton to harbor adults and immatures, i.e., egg masses and young nymphs, of N. viridula and E. servus. Adults of all three stink bug species colonized cotton more often than peanut in peanut-cotton farmscapes. However, oviposition by N. viridula and E. servus occurred more often in peanut than in cotton. These assessments of the likelihood of stink bug colonization are essential for modeling predictions of stink bug colonization and designing more comprehensive landscape management approaches for control of stink bugs in these farmscapes.

  7. Parasitism and predation of stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) eggs in Georgia corn fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G

    2010-08-01

    Nezara viridula L. and Euschistus servus (Say) are the predominant species of phytophagous stink bugs on corn, Zea mays L., in Georgia. Oebalus pugnax pugnax (F.) occurs in relatively low numbers, and the predatory stink bug Podisus maculiventris (Say) is commonly found. Limited information is available on natural biological control of these four stink bug species in Georgia corn fields; therefore, a 6-yr study of parasitism and predation of their eggs was initiated in 2003. Naturally occurring stink bug eggs were parasitized by six scelionid species, Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston), T. thyantae Ashmead, T. brochymenae (Ashmead), T. euschisti (Ashmead), Telenomus podisi Ashmead, Telenomus calvus Johnson, and one encyrtid species, Ooencyrtus sp. T. basalis was the most prevalent parasitoid of N. viridula, parasitizing E. servus and P. maculiventris eggs at low levels. T. podisi, the predominant parasitoid species emerging from eggs of E. servus and P. maculiventris, also parasitized O. p. pugnax eggs exclusively and parasitized N. viridula eggs at low levels. T. euschisti and T. thyantae parasitized E. servus egg masses. T. brochymenae parasitized eggs of both E. servus and P. maculiventris. T. calvus parasitized only P. maculiventris eggs. The same species of egg parasitoids that parasitized naturally occurring eggs of N. viridula and E. servus parasitized sentinel eggs of these bugs, except that no T. calvus and Ooencyrtus sp. were obtained from sentinel eggs, and T. thyantae and T. brochymenae emerged from sentinel eggs of N. viridula. Generally, parasitization of an egg mass was either greater than or equal to predation of sentinel eggs of N. viridula and E. servus. However, on some dates in late June and July, predation of sentinel egg masses was numerically approximately twice as high as parasitism. Results indicate stink bug egg parasitoids and predators are significant factors in the natural biological control of stink bugs in corn fields.

  8. Stability of Spatial Distributions of Stink Bugs, Boll Injury, and NDVI in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K; Bauer, Philip J

    2016-10-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the degree of aggregation of stink bugs and boll injury in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., and their spatial association with a multispectral vegetation index (normalized difference vegetation index [NDVI]). Using the spatial analysis by distance indices analyses, stink bugs were less frequently aggregated (17% for adults and 4% for nymphs) than boll injury (36%). NDVI values were also significantly aggregated within fields in 19 of 48 analyses (40%), with the majority of significant indices occurring in July and August. Paired NDVI datasets from different sampling dates were frequently associated (86.5% for weekly intervals among datasets). Spatial distributions of both stink bugs and boll injury were less stable than for NDVI, with positive associations varying from 12.5 to 25% for adult stink bugs for weekly intervals, depending on species. Spatial distributions of boll injury from stink bug feeding were more stable than stink bugs, with 46% positive associations among paired datasets with weekly intervals. NDVI values were positively associated with boll injury from stink bug feeding in 11 out of 22 analyses, with no significant negative associations. This indicates that NDVI has potential as a component of site-specific management. Future work should continue to examine the value of remote sensing for insect management in cotton, with an aim to develop tools such as risk assessment maps that will help growers to reduce insecticide inputs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Long-Term Efficacy of Various Natural or “Green” Insecticides against Bed Bugs: A Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Goddard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are resurging throughout the world, and, thus, effective pest control strategies are constantly needed. A few studies have evaluated 25(b and other natural, or so-called “green” products, as well as over-the-counter insecticides for bed bugs, but additional studies are needed to determine efficacy of bed bug control products. This double-blinded research project was initiated to examine long-term effectiveness of six commercially available natural or “green” insecticides against bed bugs and to compare them with three known traditional residual products. Water was used as a control. Products were evaluated against both susceptible and resistant strains of bed bugs (1200 bugs each, and two different substrates were used. Temprid® (Bayer Corporation, Monheim, Germany, Transport® (FMC Corp., Philadelphia, PA, USA, Invader® (FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA USA, Cimexa® (Rockwell Laboratories, Kansas City, MO, USA, and BBT-2000® (Swepe-Tite LLC, Tupelo, MS, USA were the only products which showed any substantial (>40% bed bug control upon exposure to treated substrates after the six-month waiting period, although results with the resistant bed bug strain were much reduced. Alpine dust® (BASF Corporation, Florham Park, NJ, USA killed 27% of bed bugs or less, depending on strain and substrate. EcoRaider® (North Bergen, NJ, USA and Mother Earth D® (Whitmire Microgen, Florham Park, NJ, USA (diatomaceous earth produced 11% control or less. Cimi-Shield Protect® (Pest Barrier, Carson, CA, USA showed no activity against bed bugs in this study. Analysis using SAS software showed a three-way interaction between treatment, substrate, and bed bug strain (Numerator DF 9; Denominator DF 80; F = 4.90; p < 0.0001.

  10. Long-Term Efficacy of Various Natural or "Green" Insecticides against Bed Bugs: A Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Jerome

    2014-11-28

    Bed bugs are resurging throughout the world, and, thus, effective pest control strategies are constantly needed. A few studies have evaluated 25(b) and other natural, or so-called "green" products, as well as over-the-counter insecticides for bed bugs, but additional studies are needed to determine efficacy of bed bug control products. This double-blinded research project was initiated to examine long-term effectiveness of six commercially available natural or "green" insecticides against bed bugs and to compare them with three known traditional residual products. Water was used as a control. Products were evaluated against both susceptible and resistant strains of bed bugs (1200 bugs each), and two different substrates were used. Temprid(®) (Bayer Corporation, Monheim, Germany), Transport(®) (FMC Corp., Philadelphia, PA, USA), Invader(®) (FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA USA), Cimexa(®) (Rockwell Laboratories, Kansas City, MO, USA), and BBT-2000(®) (Swepe-Tite LLC, Tupelo, MS, USA) were the only products which showed any substantial (>40%) bed bug control upon exposure to treated substrates after the six-month waiting period, although results with the resistant bed bug strain were much reduced. Alpine dust(®) (BASF Corporation, Florham Park, NJ, USA) killed 27% of bed bugs or less, depending on strain and substrate. EcoRaider(®) (North Bergen, NJ, USA) and Mother Earth D(®) (Whitmire Microgen, Florham Park, NJ, USA) (diatomaceous earth) produced 11% control or less. Cimi-Shield Protect(®) (Pest Barrier, Carson, CA, USA) showed no activity against bed bugs in this study. Analysis using SAS software showed a three-way interaction between treatment, substrate, and bed bug strain (Numerator DF 9; Denominator DF 80; F = 4.90; p < 0.0001).

  11. No impact of Bt soybean that express Cry1Ac protein on biological traits of Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae and its egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vieira Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No impact of Bt soybean that express Cry1Ac protein on biological traits of Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae and its egg parasitoid Telenomus podisi (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae. Biological traits of the stink bug Euschistus heros and its main biological control agent Telenomus podisi were evaluated under controlled environmental conditions (25 ± 2ºC; 60 ± 10% RH; and 14/10 h photoperiod by placing first instar nymphs into Petri dishes with pods originating from two soybean isolines (Bt-soybean MON 87701 × MON 89788, which expresses the Cry1Ac protein, and its near non-Bt isoline A5547 where they remained until the adult stage. Due to gregarious behavior exhibited by first instar nymphs, they were individualized only when at the second instar. Adults were separated by sex and weighed, and pronotum width of each individual was subsequently measured. They were placed into plastic boxes containing soybean grains of the same soybean isoline as food source. Egg viability and female fecundity were assessed in adult individuals. Adult females of T. podisi (up to 24h old were placed with eggs of E. heros from mothers reared on both soybean isolines. Nymphal development time, insect weight, pronotum width, sex ratio, female fecundity, and egg viability (% emergence of Euschistus heros did not differ between treatments. Eggto-adult development time, female longevity, sex ratio, and percentage of parasitized eggs were not impacted by the Bt-soybean (expressing Cry1Ac protein. Results indicate that the Bt-soybean, MON 87701 × MON 89788, has no direct significant impact on the two studied species.

  12. Toxicological, Enzymatic, and Molecular Assessment of the Insecticide Susceptibility Profile of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Triatominae) Populations From Rural Communities of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo-Orihuela, Pablo L; Vassena, Claudia V; Carvajal, Guillermo; Clark, Eva; Menacho, Silvio; Bozo, Ricardo; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn; Marcet, Paula L

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of insecticide resistance profiles has been reported across Bolivian domestic and sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), including some with levels proven to be a threat for vector control. In this work, the insecticide profile of domestic T. infestans was studied with standardized toxicological bioassays, in an area that has not undergone consistent vector control. F1 first-instar nymphs hatched in laboratory from bugs captured in three communities from the Santa Cruz Department were evaluated with different insecticides. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases was measured in individual insects to evaluate the possible mechanism of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids. In addition, the DNA sequence of sodium channel gene (kdr) was screened for two point mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance previously reported in T. infestans.All populations showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin and α-cypermethrin, albeit the RR50 values varied significantly among them. Increased P450 monooxygenases and permethrate esterases suggest the contribution, as detoxifying mechanisms, to the observed resistance to deltamethrin in all studied populations. No individuals presented either mutation associated to resistance in the kdr gene. The level of susceptibility to α-cypermethrin, the insecticide used by the local vector control program, falls within an acceptable range to continue its use in these populations. However, the observed RR50 values evidence the possibility of selection for resistance to pyrethroids, especially to deltamethrin. Consequently, the use of pyrethroid insecticides should be closely monitored in these communities, which should be kept under entomological surveillance and sustained interventions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  13. Automatic detection and identification of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus, and southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) using intraspecific substrate-borne vibrational signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stink bugs cost the southeastern cotton industry millions of dollars each year in crop losses and control costs. These losses are reduced by strategic pesticide applications; however, current methods of monitoring these pests for making management decisions are time-consuming and costly. Therefore, ...

  14. Neonicotinoid insecticide systemicity in soybean plants and its effect on brown stink bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudir José Basso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the application of pesticides on soybean fields, a vertical deposition gradient of the product can occur throughout the canopy, resulting in difficulties for controlling stink bugs that are in the middle and lower thirds of plants. This study aimed at evaluating the systemicity of thiamethoxam insecticide in different soybean phenological stages, using brown stink bugs as bioindicators of the pesticide efficacy. The study combined product application sites (lower, middle and upper third and stink bugs infestation areas at five soybean phenological stages (R2, R3, R4, R5.2 and R6. For the R2 and R5.2 stages, plants presented acropetal translocation of the product, being the effect more evident in the R2 stage. For the R3, R4 and R6 stages, the product translocation was not sufficient for controlling the stink bugs. In all stages, for treatments with direct exposure (same infestation and spraying place, stink bugs were satisfactorily controlled.

  15. Oviposition and Sex Ratio of the Redbanded Stink Bug, Piezodorous guildinii, in Soybean

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    Joshua H. Temple

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood, is a significant soybean pest across the mid-south region of the United States. The objectives of these studies were to characterize: (1 redbanded stink bug oviposition in relationship to soybean maturity group (MG, plant structure, crop phenology, and vertical distribution within the plant canopy; and (2 redbanded stink bug adult sex ratios in relationship to soybean phenology. A total of 5645 redbanded stink bug eggs in 421 egg masses (clusters were field collected from naturally-occurring populations in MG IV and V soybean over a three year period (2009 to 2011. The mean number of eggs within a cluster was 16.6 ± 0.3. Plant structures by MG interactions were highly significant with more egg masses oviposited on leaves in MG IV (79.4% and more on pods in MG V (72.7%. The ratio of females to males was similar in all soybean growth stages except R5, where the sex ratio increased to 1.4:1, coinciding with peak oviposition. Only 29.9% of egg clusters in MG IV and 18.3% of egg clusters in MG V were oviposited in the upper 35 cm of the soybean canopy. Based on these results, sampling strategies and insecticide application placement for stink bugs may require modification.

  16. Oviposition and Sex Ratio of the Redbanded Stink Bug, Piezodorous guildinii, in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Joshua H; Davis, Jeffrey A; Hardke, Jarrod T; Price, Paul P; Leonard, B Rogers

    2016-06-17

    Redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), is a significant soybean pest across the mid-south region of the United States. The objectives of these studies were to characterize: (1) redbanded stink bug oviposition in relationship to soybean maturity group (MG), plant structure, crop phenology, and vertical distribution within the plant canopy; and (2) redbanded stink bug adult sex ratios in relationship to soybean phenology. A total of 5645 redbanded stink bug eggs in 421 egg masses (clusters) were field collected from naturally-occurring populations in MG IV and V soybean over a three year period (2009 to 2011). The mean number of eggs within a cluster was 16.6 ± 0.3. Plant structures by MG interactions were highly significant with more egg masses oviposited on leaves in MG IV (79.4%) and more on pods in MG V (72.7%). The ratio of females to males was similar in all soybean growth stages except R5, where the sex ratio increased to 1.4:1, coinciding with peak oviposition. Only 29.9% of egg clusters in MG IV and 18.3% of egg clusters in MG V were oviposited in the upper 35 cm of the soybean canopy. Based on these results, sampling strategies and insecticide application placement for stink bugs may require modification.

  17. Impact of environmental variables on Dubas bug infestation rate: A case study from the Sultanate of Oman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalifa M Al-Kindi

    Full Text Available Date palm cultivation is economically important in the Sultanate of Oman, with significant financial investment coming from both the government and from private individuals. However, a global infestation of Dubas bug (Ommatissus lybicus Bergevin has impacted the Middle East region, and infestations of date palms have been widespread. In this study, spatial analysis and geostatistical techniques were used to model the spatial distribution of Dubas bug infestations to (a identify correlations between Dubas bug densities and different environmental variables, and (b predict the locations of future Dubas bug infestations in Oman. Firstly, we considered individual environmental variables and their correlations with infestation locations. Then, we applied more complex predictive models and regression analysis techniques to investigate the combinations of environmental factors most conducive to the survival and spread of the Dubas bug. Environmental variables including elevation, geology, and distance to drainage pathways were found to significantly affect Dubas bug infestations. In contrast, aspect and hillshade did not significantly impact on Dubas bug infestations. Understanding their distribution and therefore applying targeted controls on their spread is important for effective mapping, control and management (e.g., resource allocation of Dubas bug infestations.

  18. Stink bug genera and the role of sensory modalities: a still cloudy picture of functions and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone traps were used to monitor seasonal and diurnal population dynamics of the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus, and southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, in corn, cotton, and pecan fields to provide valuable basic insect biology information for farmers to select the best time for inse...

  19. Trap capture of brown and dusky stink bugs (Hempitera: Pentatomidae) as affected by pheromone dosage in dispensers and dispenser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown, Euschistus servus (Say), and dusky, E. tristigmus (Say), stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) readily respond to traps baited with the Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone methyl (2E, 4Z)-decadienoate. Previous studies examining trap capture of these stink bugs have used either labora...

  20. Virtual Reality Check: Teachers Use Bug-in-Ear Coaching to Practice Feedback Techniques with Student Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, Marti; Carter, Richard A., Jr.; Aronin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    There is not just one way to give feedback, nor is there just one kind of feedback. Bug-in-ear technology, which allows coaches to give teachers in the classroom immediate feedback, has been used successfully for 35 years. In an updated twist on this method, researchers at the University of Kansas used bug-in-ear coaching in a virtual classroom…