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Sample records for bug oncopeltus fasciatus

  1. Effects of gamma radiation on nymphal development and reproductive capacity of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Hemiptera - Lygaeidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiation adversely affected important fitness components of Oncopeltus fasciatus, particularly as expressed by nymphal development, subsequent reproductive capacity, mating competitiveness and longevity. Early treated 5th instar nymphs are about 2X more sensitive to gamma radiation than late treated 5th instar nymphs based upon LD50 values. The extremes in sensitivity were 5.01 kilorads (krad) for early treated males and 13.09 krad for females treated late in the 5th instar. Wing deformities resulted from doses in the same range as those for mortality. Fifty percent of early treated males had wing deformities at a dose of 10.81 krad while a dose of 12.5 and 12.89 krad was necessary for 50% wing deformities in males and females, respectively, when treated late in the 5th instar. Fecundity and fertility were affected at lower dosages of radiation than for mortality. The treatment of both sexes produced the greatest effect. Fecundity was reduced by 50% at 1.22 krad, while 50% reduction in fertility occurred at about half that dose, or 0.66 krad. Somewhat greater doses were required when females alone were treated and mated with untreated males. In this case a 50% reduction occurred with 1.87 and 1.07 krad for fecundity and fertility, respectively. When males alone were treated, ED50 values were 2.24 and 1.58 krad for fecundity and fertility, respectively

  2. The immune response of hemocytes of the insect Oncopeltus fasciatus against the flagellate Phytomonas serpens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L Alves e Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Phytomonas includes parasites that are etiological agents of important plant diseases, especially in Central and South America. These parasites are transmitted to plants via the bite of an infected phytophagous hemipteran. Despite the economic impact of these parasites, many basic questions regarding the genus Phytomonas remain unanswered, such as the mechanism by which the parasites cope with the immune response of the insect vector. In this report, using a model of systemic infection, we describe the function of Oncopeltus fasciatus hemocytes in the immune response towards the tomato parasite Phytomonas serpens. Hemocytes respond to infection by trapping parasites in nodular structures and phagocytizing the parasites. In electron microscopy of hemocytes, parasites were located inside vacuoles, which appear fused with lysosomes. The parasites reached the O. fasciatus salivary glands at least six hours post-infection. After 72 hours post-infection, many parasites were attached to the salivary gland outer surface. Thus, the cellular responses did not kill all the parasites.

  3. Diverging functions of Scr between embryonic and post-embryonic development in a hemimetabolous insect, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesebro, John; Hrycaj, Steven; Mahfooz, Najmus; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2009-05-01

    Hemimetabolous insects undergo an ancestral mode of development in which embryos hatch into first nymphs that resemble miniature adults. While recent studies have shown that homeotic (hox) genes establish segmental identity of first nymphs during embryogenesis, no information exists on the function of these genes during post-embryogenesis. To determine whether and to what degree hox genes influence the formation of adult morphologies, we performed a functional analysis of Sex combs reduced (Scr) during post-embryonic development in Oncopeltus fasciatus. The main effect was observed in prothorax of Scr-RNAi adults, and ranged from significant alterations in its size and shape to a near complete transformation of its posterior half toward a T2-like identity. Furthermore, while the consecutive application of Scr-RNAi at both of the final two post-embryonic stages (fourth and fifth) did result in formation of ectopic wings on T1, the individual applications at each of these stages did not. These experiments provide two new insights into evolution of wings. First, the role of Scr in wing repression appears to be conserved in both holo- and hemimetabolous insects. Second, the prolonged Scr-depletion (spanning at least two nymphal stages) is both necessary and sufficient to restart wing program. At the same time, other structures that were previously established during embryogenesis are either unaffected (T1 legs) or display only minor changes (labium) in adults. These observations reveal a temporal and spatial divergence of Scr roles during embryonic (main effect in labium) and post-embryonic (main effect in prothorax) development.

  4. Current Status of Marine Snakes from Jaffna Peninsula, Sri Lanka with Description of Hitherto Unrecorded Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus (Schneider, 1799

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sivashanthini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As only a few study reported on sea snakes of Sri Lanka, a study was undertaken from June 2003 to November 2004 in the coast of Jaffna Peninsula which lies in the Northern part of Sri Lanka. Out of the 121 specimens examined, 9 species under 5 genera in two families were documented in the coastal waters of both Valvettiturai to Point Pedro and the Jaffna lagoon waters. This includes Hydrophis fasciatus fasciatus which is no longer known in Sri Lanka increased the number of Hydrophis species to 8, thus the total number of sea snakes inhabiting the coastal waters of Sri Lanka become 14 in Hydrophiidae. Of the sea snakes collected, Lapemis curtus (33.88% and Praescutata viperina (23.97% were the commonly recorded species. Least recorded species were H. lapemoides, H. fasciatus fasciatus, Kerilia jerdonii jerdonii and Acrochordus granulatus (0.83, 0.83, 2.47 and 2.47%, respectively.

  5. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have bed bugs, not fleas, ticks or other insects. You can compare your insect to the pictures on our Identifying bed bugs ... bedbugs Bed Bugs Home Learn about Bed Bugs — Characteristics of Bed Bugs — Finding Bed Bugs Protecting Your ...

  6. Bug Prioritization to Facilitate Bug Report Triage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaweria Kanwal; Onaiza Maqbool

    2012-01-01

    The large number of new bug reports received in bug repositories of software systems makes their management a challenging task.Handling these reports manually is time consuming,and often results in delaying the resolution of important bugs. To address this issue,a recommender may be developed which automatically prioritizes the new bug reports.In this paper,we propose and evaluate a classification based approach to build such a recommender.We use the Na(ǐ)ve Bayes and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers,and present a comparison to evaluate which classifier performs better in terms of accuracy.Since a bug report contains both categorical and text features,another evaluation we perform is to determine the combination of features that better determines the priority of a bug.To evaluate the bug priority recommender,we use precision and recall measures and also propose two new measures,Nearest False Negatives (NFN) and Nearest False Positives (NFP),which provide insight into the results produced by precision and recall.Our findings are that the results of SVM are better than the Na(ǐ)ve Bayes algorithm for text features,whereas for categorical features,Na(ǐ)ve Bayes performance is better than SVM.The highest accurácy is achieved with SVM when categorical and text features are combined for training.

  7. Centronotus fasciatus Bl. & Schn. aan de Nederlandsche kust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popta, C.M.L.

    1916-01-01

    In de collectie van het Leidsche Museum bevindt zich een Centronotus fasciatus Bl. & Sch., volgens de opgave op het etiket afkomstig van de Hollandsche kust. De kenmerken van dit individu, dat 230 mm. lang is, zijn: De hoogte van het langwerpige lichaam gaat 9 7/12 en de lengte van den, evenals het

  8. Characterization and toxicity of Amanita cokeri extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drehmel, Dennis C; Chilton, William Scott

    2002-02-01

    The nonprotein amino acids 2-amino-3-cyclopropylbutanoic acid and 2-amino-5-chloro-4-pentenoic acid were isolated from the mushroom Amanita cokeri. The cyclopropyl amino acid is toxic to the fungus Cercospora kikuchii, the arthropod Oncopeltus fasciatus (milk weed bug), and the bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia amylovora, and Xanthomonas campestris. Toxicity to bacteria was reversible by addition of isoleucine to the medium. No toxicity was observed for 2-amino-5-chloro-4-pentenoic acid.

  9. Bug City: Bees [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography, fun…

  10. What to Do When You're Bugged by Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What to Do When You're Bugged by Bugs ...

  11. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how you select a company. Related Information Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs - highlights ways that all levels of government, community, academia and private industry can work together to reduce bed bugs across ...

  12. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  13. City Bug Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the wider contexts of digital policy, transparency, digitisation and how this changes city administration and the role of the (digital) publics, using City Bug Report as a design case. Employing a mix between design research and action research, the authors exemplify and analy...

  14. Insects: Bugged Out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  15. Populations of North American bean thrips, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande) (Thysanoptera : Thripidae : Panchaetothripinae) not detected in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoddle, M S; Stosic, C D; Mound, L A

    2006-01-01

    Caliothrips fasciatus is native to the USA and western Mexico and overwintering adults are regular contaminants in the 'navel' of navel oranges exported from California, USA to Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere. Due to the long history of regular interceptions of C. fasciatus in Australia, a survey for this thrips was undertaken around airports, seaports, public recreational parks and major agricultural areas in the states of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Weste...

  16. Bug City: Flies & Mosquitoes [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children (grades 1-6) learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon, including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic…

  17. Transcriptomic immune response of the cotton stainer Dysdercus fasciatus to experimental elimination of vitamin-supplementing intestinal symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Bauer

    Full Text Available The acquisition and vertical transmission of bacterial symbionts plays an important role in insect evolution and ecology. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the stable maintenance and control of mutualistic bacteria remain poorly understood. The cotton stainer Dysdercus fasciatus harbours the actinobacterial symbionts Coriobacterium glomerans and Gordonibacter sp. in its midgut. The symbionts supplement limiting B vitamins and thereby significantly contribute to the host's fitness. In this study, we experimentally disrupted the symbionts' vertical transmission route and performed comparative transcriptomic analyses of genes expressed in the gut of aposymbiotic (symbiont-free and control individuals to study the host immune response in presence and absence of the mutualists. Annotation of assembled cDNA reads identified a considerable number of genes involved in the innate immune system, including different protein isoforms of several immune effector proteins (specifically i-type lysozyme, defensin, hemiptericin, and pyrrhocoricin, suggesting the possibility for a highly differentiated response towards the complex resident microbial community. Gene expression analyses revealed a constitutive expression of transcripts involved in signal transduction of the main insect immune pathways, but differential expression of certain antimicrobial peptide genes. Specifically, qPCRs confirmed the significant down-regulation of c-type lysozyme and up-regulation of hemiptericin in aposymbiotic individuals. The high expression of c-type lysozyme in symbiont-containing bugs may serve to lyse symbiont cells and thereby harvest B-vitamins that are necessary for subsistence on the deficient diet of Malvales seeds. Our findings suggest a sophisticated host response to perturbation of the symbiotic gut microbiota, indicating that the innate immune system not only plays an important role in combating pathogens, but also serves as a communication interface

  18. Ontogeny of the immune system in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhizhong; He, Tao; Li, Jun; Gao, Tianxiang

    2013-09-01

    Histogenesis of the immune system and specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus from fertilization to 50 days after hatching (DAH). The pronephric tubule primordium developed in the embryo, 14 h 30 min post fertilization. The spleen anlage was observed between the swim bladder and the intestine at 5 DAH, and the thymus was formed as a paired structure under the pharyngeal epithelium above the gill arch at 10 DAH. The order of the immune organs becoming lymphoid was the pronephric kidney (10 DAH), thymus (15 DAH) and spleen (21 DAH). As the embryo developed, the specific activity of SOD gradually increased until hatching, but subsequently SOD activity continuously decreased to a minimum at 14 DAH. After the spleen became lymphoid, the specific activity of SOD was relatively stable. It is suggested that the immaturity of the lymphoid organs and low specific activity of SOD was the cause of the high mortality of fingerlings 12 to 16 DAH.

  19. Snake cathelicidin from Bungarus fasciatus is a potent peptide antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cathelicidins are a family of antimicrobial peptides acting as multifunctional effector molecules of innate immunity, which are firstly found in mammalians. Recently, several cathelicidins have also been found from chickens and fishes. No cathelicidins from other non-mammalian vertebrates have been reported. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, a cathelicidin-like antimicrobial peptide named cathelicidin-BF has been purified from the snake venoms of Bungarus fasciatus and its cDNA sequence was cloned from the cDNA library, which confirm the presence of cathelicidin in reptiles. As other cathelicidins, the precursor of cathelicidin-BF has cathelin-like domain at the N terminus and carry the mature cathelicidin-BF at the C terminus, but it has an atypical acidic fragment insertion between the cathelin-like domain and the C-terminus. The acidic fragment is similar to acidic domains of amphibian antimicrobial precursors. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the snake cathelicidin had the nearest evolution relationship with platypus cathelicidin. The secondary structure of cathelicidin-BF investigated by CD and NMR spectroscopy in the presence of the helicogenic solvent TFE is an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation as many other cathelicidins. The antimicrobial activities of cathelicidin BF against forty strains of microorganisms were tested. Cathelicidin-BF efficiently killed bacteria and some fungal species including clinically isolated drug-resistance microorganisms. It was especially active against Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, it could exert antimicrobial activity against some saprophytic fungus. No hemolytic and cytotoxic activity was observed at the dose of up to 400 microg/ml. Cathelicidin-BF could exist stably in the mice plasma for at least 2.5 hours. CONCLUSION: Discovery of snake cathelicidin with atypical structural and functional characterization offers new insights on the evolution of cathelicidins. Potent, broad

  20. The BUG BITBUS Universal Gateway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BITBUS Universal Gateway (BUG) provides a unique, cost effective solution to many different computer interface problems. Each BUG node, utilizing ''on board'' intelligence, has the ability to provide a communication link between BITBUS protocol and other computer-signal interfaces. Among them, IEEE-488, RS232, and raw analog and binary signal 1/0. BITBUS is a multidrop, multinode link with the ability to communicate over great distances. By using this method of signal transfer, along with the communication conversion ability of the BUG, one could accomplish such things as the ability to run IEEE-488 instruments over great distances, extend a multidrop links to RS232 instruments, and provide a convenient interface point for remote analog and binary 1/0 signals, all on one homogeneous network. The BUG not only provides this through the wired ''twisted pair'' standard of BITBUS, but extends the ability to fiber optic communications for signal transfer over extreme distances and through electrically ''noisy'' environments

  1. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  2. 42 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Feature-sensitive verification pursues effective analysis of the exponentially many variants of a program family. However, researchers lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, occurring in real large-scale systems. Such a collection of bugs is a requirement for goal-oriented research......, serving to evaluate tool implementations of feature-sensitive analyses by testing them on real bugs. We present a qualitative study of 42 variability bugs collected from bug-fixing commits to the Linux kernel repository. We analyze each of the bugs, and record the results in a database. In addition, we...

  3. Breeding strategy of Acrossocheilus fasciatus in the Puxi Stream of the Huangshan Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunzhi YAN; Lili GUO; Xiuying XIANG; Yilong XI; Yifeng CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Breeding strategies of Acrossocheilus fasciatus were studied from 592 specimens collected monthly during May 2007 and April 2008 in the Puxi Stream of the Huangshan Mountain.Sex ratio of the studied population was 0.90:1(♀:♂),not significantly different from 1 : 1. Both sexes reached their first sexual maturity at age 2 ( the second calendar year of their birth). Fifty percent of females and males reached maturity at a total length of 69.75 mm and 69.36 nun respectively, and the minimum total length was 61.54 mm and 58.96 mm, respectively. Based on the monthly changes in gonado-sematic index and egg-development process, the breeding season of the population was from May to August, with one obvious interval (in June) occurring in the breeding activity for the females. The nonsynchronous development of oocytes observed in mature ovaries indicated that A. fasciatus is a batch spawner. Absolute fecundity of A. fasciatus ranged from 308 to 2002 eggs with a mean of 857 eggs, increased significantly with total length, and was significantly different among three age groups. Relative fecundity ranged from 38.63 to 71.70 egg/g with a mean of 53.29 egg/g, and was not significantly different among the three age groups. It was suggested that these reproductive characteristics were adaptive strategies for A. fasciatus to acclimatize to lotic water where environmental factors were unstable but predictable [Current Zoology 55 (5) : 350 - 356, 2009].

  4. 40 Variability Bugs in the Linux Kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abal Rivas, Iago; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Feature-sensitive verification is a recent field that pursues the effective analysis of the exponential number of variants of a program family. Today researchers lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, and occurring in real large-scale software. Such a collection of bugs is a requi......Feature-sensitive verification is a recent field that pursues the effective analysis of the exponential number of variants of a program family. Today researchers lack examples of concrete bugs induced by variability, and occurring in real large-scale software. Such a collection of bugs...... is a requirement for goal-oriented research, serving to evaluate tool implementations of feature-sensitive analyses by testing them on real bugs. We present a qualitative study of 40 variability bugs collected from bug-fixing commits to the Linux kernel repository. We investigate each of the 40 bugs, recording...

  5. How to Keep Bug Bites At Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160047.html How to Keep Bug Bites at Bay CDC offers advice on thwarting ... 23, 2016 SATURDAY, July 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Bug bites can make you more than itchy. Ticks, ...

  6. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  7. The Great Bug Hunt Is Back!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Rapley, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk" and Martin Rapley, presenter of "The Big Bug Experience," are again running the Great Bug Hunt in 2012. Simply identify a habitat, explore and discover the bugs that live there, photograph or draw them and record findings--it's that simple. The winner will be the submission with the…

  8. Four bugs on a rectangle

    KAUST Repository

    Chapman, S. J.

    2010-11-10

    The idealized mathematical problem of four bugs in cyclic pursuit starting from a 2-by-1 rectangle is considered, and asymptotic formulas are derived to describe the motion. In contrast to the famous case of four bugs on a square, here the trajectories quickly freeze to essentially one dimension. After the first rotation about the centre point, the scale of the configuration has shrunk by a factor of 10427907250, and this number is then exponentiated four more times with each successive cycle. Relations to Knuth\\'s double-arrow notation and level-index arithmetic are discussed. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society.

  9. Zero bugs and program faster

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Kate

    2015-01-01

    A book about programming, improving skill, and avoiding mistakes. The author spent two years researching every bug avoidance technique she could find. This book contains the best of them. If you want to program faster, with fewer bugs, and write more secure code, buy this book! "This is the best book I have ever read." - Anonymous reviewer "Four score and seven years ago this book helped me debug my server code." -Abraham Lincoln "Would my Javascript have memory leaks without this book? Would fishes fly without water?" -Socrates "This book is the greatest victory since the Spanish Armada, and the best about programming." -Queen Elizabeth

  10. Bed bug aggregation pheromone finally identified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Regine; Britton, Robert; Holmes, Michael; Zhai, Huimin; Draper, Jason; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-01-19

    Bed bugs have become a global epidemic and current detection tools are poorly suited for routine surveillance. Despite intense research on bed bug aggregation behavior and the aggregation pheromone, which could be used as a chemical lure, the complete composition of this pheromone has thus far proven elusive. Here, we report that the bed bug aggregation pheromone comprises five volatile components (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, 2-hexanone), which attract bed bugs to safe shelters, and one less-volatile component (histamine), which causes their arrestment upon contact. In infested premises, a blend of all six components is highly effective at luring bed bugs into traps. The trapping of juvenile and adult bed bugs, with or without recent blood meals, provides strong evidence that this unique pheromone bait could become an effective and inexpensive tool for bed bug detection and potentially their control. PMID:25529634

  11. Testicular Cycle of Colisa fasciatus (Bl. and Schn.) under Hexavalent Chromium Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Anuradha Shukla; J.P. Shukla

    2013-01-01

    Healthy specimens of Colisa fasciatus exposed to sub lethal concentration of hexavalent chromium (4.8 mg/L) for 15 days revealed no significant alterations in any testicular architecture during its different phases. However, 30 days exposure revealed distarded shape of lobule and lobular wall, scattered interstitial leydig cells during preparatory phase of testicular cycle where as during spawning phase of testicular cycle, dissolution of germinal epithelium, reduced intra lobular spaces and ...

  12. Effects of Starvation in Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus and Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    OpenAIRE

    Park, In-Seok; Gil, Hyun Woo; Yoo, Gwang Yeol; Oh, Ji Su

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of various dietary conditions on the growth, phenotypic traits, and morphometric dimensions of rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus and on the morphometric dimensions of sectioned olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Rock bream in the fed group increased in body weight, standard length, and condition factor, but these parameters decreased significantly for fish in the starved group (P < 0.05). The head connection dimensions of fish in the fed group decreased, while for...

  13. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were truly…

  14. Bugging forecast: unknown, disliked, occasionally intimate. Bed bugs in Germany meet unprepared people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Seidel

    Full Text Available Bed bugs appear to be feared more than vector insects and other household pests. The reasons for this exaggerated fear are not fully understood. One hypothesis is that the folk knowledge on recognising and controlling bed bugs decreased as bed bugs became rarer in the 1960s and led to irrational perceptions. Here, we examine people's ability to recognise a bed bug and their response what to do in case of an infestation. We found that 13% of a sample of 391 people in four large German cities recognised a bed bug; 15% of all respondents would call a pest controller in case of bed bug infestation. This results in the pessimistic estimate that 97% of all early-stage infestations could go untreated. We discuss additional scenarios. The effectiveness of efforts to educate people about the presence of bed bugs has never been tested, but our sample is useful to guide future studies. We found three sources of information were associated with increased recognition rates of bed bugs: a previous contacts with bed bugs (60% recognition, b knowledge from friends or relatives (25% and school or education courses (15%. By contrast, people who heard of bed bugs from television, print media or the Internet showed reduced recognition rates. We propose that the former factors be tested for educational interventions. In Germany, the bed bug is an estranged creature to many people, a fact that seems to hinder rational approaches to their control.

  15. Given Enough Eyeballs, All Bugs Are Shallow? Revisiting Eric Raymond with Bug Bounty Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Maillart, Thomas; Grossklags, Jens; Chuang, John

    2016-01-01

    Bug bounty programs offer a modern platform for organizations to crowdsource their software security and for security researchers to be fairly rewarded for the vulnerabilities they find. Little is known however on the incentives set by bug bounty programs: How they drive new bug discoveries, and how they supposedly improve security through the progressive exhaustion of discoverable vulnerabilities. Here, we recognize that bug bounty programs create tensions, for organizations running them on the one hand, and for security researchers on the other hand. At the level of one bug bounty program, security researchers face a sort of St-Petersburg paradox: The probability of finding additional bugs decays fast, and thus can hardly be matched with a sufficient increase of monetary rewards. Furthermore, bug bounty program managers have an incentive to gather the largest possible crowd to ensure a larger pool of expertise, which in turn increases competition among security researchers. As a result, we find that researc...

  16. Predicting the fix time of bugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, E.; Pinzger, M.; Gall, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Two important questions concerning the coordination of development effort are which bugs to fix first and how long it takes to fix them. In this paper we investigate empirically the relationships between bug report attributes and the time to fix. The objective is to compute prediction models that ca

  17. Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Wenning, Paul; Eddy, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the resurgence of bed bugs in the U.S. has occurred at an alarming rate. Assumptions have been made that socioeconomic status is not associated with the prevalence of bed bug infestations. Little information is available at the local level, however, about the prevalence of bed bugs in private homes. The authors' pilot study aimed to identify prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs in one higher income village in Ohio utilizing survey methodology. Responses from 96 individuals who completed the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs survey were utilized for analysis. The majority of the sample respondents were white and 95% reported that they owned their residence. Only 6% knew someone with bed bugs. Additionally, 52% reported they were somewhat concerned about bed bugs. About 46% reported that they had changed their behavior. For a higher income area, the prevalence was dissimilar to the rate reported in the general public (about 20%). This suggests that bed bugs may be an environmental issue effecting low-income populations disproportionately. Further research is needed in areas of differing socioeconomic levels. PMID:26427264

  18. Pronounced population genetic differentiation in the rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yongshuang; Li, Jun; Ren, Guijing; Ma, Daoyuan; Wang, Yanfeng; Xiao, ZhiZhong; Xu, Shihong

    2016-05-01

    The population genetic structure of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) along the coastal waters of China was estimated based on three mtDNA fragments (D-loop, COI, and Cytb). A total of 112 polymorphic sites were checked, which defined 63 haplotypes. A pattern with high levels of haplotype diversity (hCOI = 0.886 ± 0.034, hCytb = 0.874 ± 0.023) and low levels of nucleotide diversity (лCOI = 0.009 ± 0.005, лCytb = 0.006 ± 0.003) was detected based on the COI and Cytb fragments, and high levels of genetic diversity (hD-loop = 0.995 ± 0.007, лD-loop = 0.021 ± 0.011) were detected from the mtDNA D-loop. The population genetic diversity of O. fasciatus in south China was significantly higher than those of north China. Three genealogical clades were checked in the O. fasciatus populations based on the NJ and MST analyses of mtDNA COI gene sequence, and the genetic distances among the clades ranged from 0.018 to 0.025. Significant population genetic differentiation was also checked based on the Fst (0.331, p = 0.000) and exact p (0.000) test analyses. No significant population differentiations were checked based on mtDNA D-loop and Cytb fragments. Using a variety of phylogenetic methods, coalescent reasoning, and molecular dating interpreted in conjunction with paleoclimatic and physiographic evidences, we inferred that the genetic make-up of extant populations of O. fasciatus was shaped by Pleistocene environmental impacts on the historical demography of this species. Coalescent analyses (neutrality tests, mismatch distribution analysis, and Bayesian skyline analyses) showed that the species along coastline of China has experienced population expansions originated in its most recent history at about 169-175 kya before present. PMID:25427804

  19. Bug Localization in Test-Driven Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ficco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Software development teams that use agile methodologies are increasingly adopting the test-driven development practice (TDD. TDD allows to produce software by iterative and incremental work cycle, and with a strict control over the process, favouring an early detection of bugs. However, when applied to large and complex systems, TDD benefits are not so obvious; manually locating and fixing bugs introduced during the iterative development steps is a nontrivial task. In such systems, the propagation chains following the bugs activation can be unacceptably long and intricate, and the size of the code to be analyzed is often too large. In this paper, a bug localization technique specifically tailored to TDD is presented. The technique is embedded in the TDD cycle, and it aims to improve developers' ability to locate bugs as soon as possible. It is implemented in a tool and experimentally evaluated on newly developed Java programs.

  20. Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Ntzoufras, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling using WinBUGS Bayesian Modeling Using WinBUGS provides an easily accessible introduction to the use of WinBUGS programming techniques in a variety of Bayesian modeling settings. The author provides an accessible treatment of the topic, offering readers a smooth introduction to the principles of Bayesian modeling with detailed guidance on the practical implementation of key principles. The book begins with a basic introduction to Bayesian inference and the WinBUGS software and goes on to cover key topics, including: Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms in Bayesian inference Generalized linear models Bayesian hierarchical models Predictive distribution and model checking Bayesian model and variable evaluation Computational notes and screen captures illustrate the use of both WinBUGS as well as R software to apply the discussed techniques. Exercises at the end of each chapter allow readers to test their understanding of the presented concepts and all ...

  1. Static testing detects bugs; Le test statique chasse les bugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parisot, F.

    2012-01-15

    The particle detectors at the LHC generate a huge quantity of data that is processed by a software that is constantly modified and upgraded. This software that is complex and made up of 2.5 million lines is prone to errors. CERN physicists have chosen an approach based on static testing to assure a better quality. The static analysis tool from the Coverity company has allowed the detection of 40.000 bugs in the software during just the first try. Now any modification of the software goes through a step of static testing. (A.C.)

  2. Language-independent conceptual "bugs" in novice programming

    OpenAIRE

    Pea, Roy D.

    1986-01-01

    This article argues for the existence of persistent conceptual "bugs" in how novices program and understand programs. These bugs are not specific to a given programming language, but appear to be language-independent. Furthermore, such bugs occur for novices from primary school to college age. Three different classes of bugs-parallelism, intentionality, and egocentrism - are identified, and exemplified through student errors. It is suggested that these classes of conceptual bugs are rooted in...

  3. Analysing the Resolution of Security Bugs in Software Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Saad

    2015-01-01

    Security bugs in software systems are often reported after incidents of malicious attacks. Developers often need to resolve these bugs quickly in order to maintain the security of such systems. Bug resolution includes two kinds of activities: triaging confirms that the bugs are indeed security problems, after which fixing involves making changes to the code. It is reported in the literature that, statistically, security bugs are reopened more often compared to others, which poses two new ...

  4. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  5. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    OpenAIRE

    Changlu Wang; Xiujun Wen

    2011-01-01

    The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We conducted telephone interviews of staff from 77 Health and Epidemic Prevention Stations in six Chinese cities in November 2...

  6. Techniques for Specifying Bug Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R W; Misherghi, G

    2007-04-30

    We present our on-going work to develop techniques for specifying source code signatures of bug patterns. Specifically, we discuss two approaches. The first approach directly analyzes a program in the intermediate representation (IR) of the ROSE compiler infrastructure using ROSE's API. The second analyzes the program using the bddbddb system of Lam, Whaley, et al.. In this approach, we store the IR produced by ROSE as a relational database, express patterns as declarative inference rules on relations in the language Datalog, and bddbddb implements the Datalog programs using binary decision diagram (BDD) techniques. Both approaches readily apply to large-scale applications, since ROSE provides full type analysis, control flow, and other available analysis information. In this paper, we primarily consider bug patterns expressed with respect to the structure of the source code or the control flow, or both. More complex techniques to specify patterns that are functions of data flow properties may be addressed by either of the above approaches, but are not directly treated here. Our Datalog-based work includes explicit support for expressing patterns on the use of the Message Passing Interface (MPI) in parallel distributed memory programs. We show examples of this on-going work as well.

  7. Bed bug outbreak in a neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, T; Kumar, A; Saili, A

    2015-10-01

    There has been a worldwide increase in bed bug infestations over the last 10-15 years. A major stigma is placed upon the institutions found to be infested. We report our experience with an outbreak of the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, in a neonatal unit. The outbreak not only affected the admitted newborns and mothers by causing a wide variety of rashes and inducing sleeplessness, but also impinged upon the health professionals and their families by producing similar symptomology. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of, and for each healthcare facility to have, bed bug prevention and control policies. PMID:25591490

  8. The existence of a bug chasing subculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, David A; Roloff, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This study attempted to authenticate the existence of a controversial subculture of gay men, the 'bug chasers', whose main attribute is an active desire to voluntarily contract the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and examine the tenacity with which this subculture actually searches for seroconversion. Using a quasi-randomized survey of personal profiles, bug chasers were compared against barebackers, a culture of gay men that practice intentional unprotected anal intercourse. Bug chasers were authenticated as an observable subculture of barebackers where most reported apathy to the serostatus of their partner or an active want of a serodiscordant partner, and a preference towards practicing unprotected anal intercourse. As anticipated, two subgroups with varying tenacities were found within the sample of bug chasers. Apathetic chasers were found only to be in search of partners with sero-ambiguous status. Ardent chasers were found only to be in search of certifiably serodiscordant partners.

  9. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs

    OpenAIRE

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: Bipolar disorder Symptoms: Bordeline personality disorder Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bed bug infestation Specialty: Psychiatry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. Case Report: We present a case, based on a coroner’s investigation report, of a woman...

  10. Inhibition of toxic actions of phospholipase A2 isolated & characterized from the Indian Banded Krait (Bungarus fasciatus) venom by synthetic herbal compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Antony; Bhattacharya, Shamik; Mukherjee, Sanghamitra; Inn-ho-Tsai,; Gomes, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is one of the major constituents of krait venom associated with several pathophysiological actions like myotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, etc. As there was no specific antiserum available against Bungarus fasciatus venom, this study was done with synthetic herbal compounds, anti PLA2 rabbit antiserum and commercial polyvalent snake venom antiserum to neutralize the PLA2 induced toxicities in experimental models. Methods: B. fasciatus ...

  11. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  12. Estimation of dynamic energy budget parameters for the Mediterranean toothcarp (Aphanius fasciatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, A.; Montalto, V.; Lika, K.; Sanfilippo, M.; Manganaro, A.; Sarà, G.

    2014-11-01

    Organisms adopt different sets of physiological, behavioural and morphological trade-offs in order to cope with natural environmental fluctuations. This has consequential rebounds on ecological processes and population dynamics. Such aspects become crucial for sex-dimorphic species, where sex-specific growth variation could mirror different tactics both in energy acquisition and investment between maximum female and male body size with cascading effects on population demography. To date, different approaches have been used in order to understand the causes of individual growth rate changes in ectotherm indeterminate growers, most of which failed. Here, we propose the use of a mechanistic model based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB; Koojiman, 2010) to investigate potential differences in energy allocation strategies adopted by individuals of different genders with the Mediterranean toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821) as the model species. We collected literature and field data in order to study differences in energy allocation strategies between females and males of the same species by generating projections of possible growth performances: (1) throughout their entire life span and (2) under a context of varying functional responses. Generally, the present exercise of simulations returned different patterns of growth performance among females and males of A. fasciatus, with the former being able to better optimize energetic trade-offs under optimal environmental conditions. The present DEB parameterization exercise represents an essential step towards developing a mechanistic approach to depict metabolic strategies, which are at the base of observed sexual differences, and how such differences may impair ultimate fitness at individual and, therefore, population levels.

  13. Prevention and Control of Bed Bugs in Residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a backpack Bed bugs along a mattress seam Bed bugs on the underside of a box ... Controlling an infestation requires very detailed work, much moving and disassembly of furniture, and specialty equipment. Careful ...

  14. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2015-02-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:25404068

  15. Pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease: Bug or no bug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta; Maia; Bosca-Watts; Joan; Tosca; Rosario; Anton; Maria; Mora; Miguel; Minguez; Francisco; Mora

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of an infectious origin in inflammatory bowel disease(IBD)has been postulated since the first description of Crohn’s disease(CD).Many observations implicate bacteria as a trigger for the development of CD:lesions occur in regions with higher bacterial concentrations;aphthous ulcers occur in Peyer’s patches;inflammation resolves when the fecal stream is diverted and is reactivated following reinfusion ofbowel contents;severity of the disease is correlated with bacterial density in the mucosa;granulomas can contain bacteria;and susceptible mice raised in germfree conditions develop inflammation when bacteria are introduced in the 1990’s,several studies sought to establish a relationship with viral infections and the onset of IBD,finally concluding that no direct link had been demonstrated.In the past fifteen years,evidence relating IBD pathogenesis to Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis,salmonella,campylobacter,etc.,has been found.The tendency now under discussion to regard microbiota as the primary catalyst has led to the latest studies on microbiota as pathogens,focusing on Escherichia coli,mainly in ileal CD.The present review discusses the literature available on these"bugs".

  16. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen

    2012-06-01

    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  17. How Does the Degree of Variability Affect Bug-Finding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean; Brabrand, Claus; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    -based programs. We measure speed and precision for bug finding tasks defined at three different degrees of variability on several subject programs derived from real systems. The results show that the speed of bug finding decreases linearly with the number of features, while effectiveness of finding bugs...... place. The difficulty in reasoning about several configurations is a likely reason why the variability bugs are actually introduced in configurable programs. We hope that the detailed findings presented here will inspire the creation of programmer support tools addressing the challenges faced...... by developers when reasoning about configurations, contributing to more effective debugging and, ultimately, fewer bugs in highly-configurable systems....

  18. Chromosomal Diversification Higher Than Molecular Variation in Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalco, Karine Frehner; Pazza, Rubens; Brandão, Karina de Oliveira; Garcia, Caroline; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; de Almeida-Toledo, Lurdes Foresti

    2016-08-01

    Comprising a large number of species, the genus Astyanax has been intensively studied by several approaches to elucidate its evolutionary relationships. Such studies have demonstrated that many nominal species are artificial clusters where distinct taxa are grouped under the same denomination. Astyanax aff. fasciatus stands out due to its high karyotypic diversity, since cytogenetic studies have reported three standard cytotypes (2n = 46, 48, and 50), as well as cases of sympatry between cytotypes, variant cytotypes, and B chromosomes. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the reliability of the chromosomal differences in relation to the analysis of the ATPase6/8 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence, thereby providing subsidies to the evolutionary reconstruction of this group. Nine populations from four distinct hydrographic basins along Southeastern Brazil were analyzed. These are the first cytogenetic data collected for four of them. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 5S rDNA probe evidenced the presence of a standard phenotype for the group and the existence of a new arrangement in the individuals from Ribeira de Iguape River. Besides the karyotypic variation, the genetic distance was low among the studied populations and some aspects of the evolutionary relationships among distinct cytotypes/populations could be ascertained by phylogeographic studies. The incipient molecular structuring of certain cytotypes in different hydrographic basins indicates the role of different evolutionary processes on the diversification of the group. PMID:27148810

  19. The sensory basis of olfactory search behavior in banded kokopu ( Galaxias fasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Cindy F; Montgomery, John C; Dennis, Todd E

    2002-08-01

    The sensory basis of olfactory search behavior was investigated in the banded kokopu, Galaxias fasciatus, using a flow tank. In the presence of a 2 cm s(-1) current flow, banded kokopu use both water current and chemical information to locate a food odor source. The superficial neuromasts of the lateral line system mediate the rheotactic component of the odor search. A physical block of one olfactory nostril did not affect the olfactory search strategy employed by banded kokopu in still water or in the presence of a current flow. Thus, there is no evidence that banded kokopu perform a bilateral comparison of the olfactory stimulus during their odor search. Previously, olfaction and gustation have been the only sensory systems shown to directly mediate orientation and movement towards odor sources in fish. The use of hydrodynamic cues by fish in location of an olfactory source has been previously proposed, but without direct experimental identification of the sensory systems employed. This study identifies the contributing roles of both olfactory and hydrodynamic sensory systems to the olfactory search repertoire of fish. PMID:12209343

  20. Improvements on the accuracy of beam bugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At LLNL resistive wall monitors are used to measure the current and position used on ETA-II show a droop in signal due to a fast redistribution time constant of the signals. This paper presents the analysis and experimental test of the beam bugs used for beam current and position measurements in and after the fast kicker. It concludes with an outline of present and future changes that can be made to improve the accuracy of these beam bugs. of intense electron beams in electron induction linacs and beam transport lines. These, known locally as ''beam bugs'', have been used throughout linear induction accelerators as essential diagnostics of beam current and location. Recently, the development of a fast beam kicker has required improvement in the accuracy of measuring the position of beams. By picking off signals at more than the usual four positions around the monitor, beam position measurement error can be greatly reduced. A second significant source of error is the mechanical variation of the resistor around the bug

  1. Improvements on the accuracy of beam bugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At LLNL resistive wall monitors are used to measure the current and position used on ETA-II show a droop in signal due to a fast redistribution time constant of the signals. This paper presents the analysis and experimental test of the beam bugs used for beam current and position measurements in and after the fast kicker. It concludes with an outline of present and future changes that can be made to improve the accuracy of these beam bugs. of intense electron beams in electron induction linacs and beam transport lines. These, known locally as beam bugs, have been used throughout linear induction accelerators as essential diagnostics of beam current and location. Recently, the development of a fast beam kicker has required improvement in the accuracy of measuring the position of beams. By picking off signals at more than the usual four positions around the monitor, beam position measurement error can be greatly reduced. A second significant source of error is the mechanical variation of the resistor around the bug

  2. Using "BUGS" to Increase Student Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Janet I.; Duffy, Mary Lou

    2007-01-01

    Technology is only as good as the results it produces. The use of simple radiophones and earbuds can provide support in action for students with disabilities as they learn to advocate for themselves at planning meetings. This article provides background for using bug-in-ear technology, including a training methods and materials list with students…

  3. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Zhang, Aijun; Liu, Chaofeng

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control, and their bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has an urgent need for materials and methods to reduce bed bug introduction and bites during work, travel, or sleep. A repellent product will help achieve these goals by discouraging and preventing bed bugs from moving to a protected area. We evaluated the repellency of three commercially available insect repellent or control materials and five nonregistered materials with the goal of identifying safe and effective bed bug repellents. The two commercial repellent products that contained 7% picaridin or 0.5% permethrin had little repellency against bed bugs. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the most commonly used insect repellent, provided a high level of repellency against bed bugs. When a host cue (carbon dioxide) was present, the minimum DEET concentration to repel > or = 94% of the bed bugs for a9-h period was 10%. The longevity of repellency of DEET was concentration dependent. At 25% concentration, DEET-treated fabric surface remained highly repellent to bed bugs for a 14-d period. However, DEET has a strong smell and dissolves certain plastic materials. Therefore, we evaluated several odorless, noncorrosive, and potentially effective repellents. Isolongifolenone and isolongifolanone, two natural products and recently reported insect repellents, exhibited strong repellent property against bed bugs but at significantly lower levels than DEET. Three novel potential repellent compounds discovered by Bedoukian Research Inc. (Danbury, CT) exhibited similar level of repellency and longevity as DEET for repelling bed bugs. These nonirritant and odorless compounds are promising candidates as alternatives to DEET for reducing the spread of bed bugs and bed bug bites. PMID:24498754

  4. Surface swimming behavior of the curculionid Ochetina uniformis Pascoe (Erirhininae, Stenopelmini and Ludovix fasciatus (Gyllenhal (Curculioninae, Erodiscini Comportamento de nado superficial exibido pelos Curculionidae Ochetina uniformis Pascoe (Erirhininae, Stenopelmini e Ludovix fasciatus (Gyllenhal (Curculioninae, Erodiscini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Oliveira de Sousa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The swimming behavior exhibited by specimens of L. fasciatus and O. uniformis was analyzed frame-by-frame with video observation recorded with a digital camera, attached to a stereomicroscope. Adults of O. uniformis, an aquatic insect, swim with all three pairs of legs. During the process of swimming the majority of the abdomen and rostrum remain submerged, part of the fore and hind tibiae remain above the surface, while the mid tibiae remain submerged. The mesothoracic legs, during the power-stroke stage, provide the greatest thrust while the metathoracic legs provide the least forward propulsion. The prothoracic legs, extended forward, help to direct the swimming. The semi-aquatic specie L. fasciatus shows the same swimming style as O. uniformis, that is, with movement of all the three pairs of legs; the mesothoracic legs are responsible for the main propulsion. The insect body remains on the water surface during the process of swimming, while the legs remain submerged. Both species complete a swimming cycle in 0.33 and 0.32 seconds, respectively, with an average speed of 1.38 cm/s and a maximum and minimum swimming duration time of 11.15 and 5.05 minutes, respectively, for L. fasciatus. The swimming behavior exhibited by O. uniformis and L. fasciatus corresponds to the style known as a breast strokelike maneuver. This is the first record of this kind of swimming for both species here observed and increases to seven the number of genera of Curculionidae exhibiting this behavior.O comportamento de nado exibido por indivíduos de L. fasciatus e O. uniformis foi analisado quadro a quadro através de imagens obtidas com o auxílio de uma câmera fotográfica digital com opção de vídeo, acoplada a um estereomicroscópio. Foi demonstrado que O. uniformis, espécie aquática, nada com o auxílio dos três pares de pernas. Durante este processo a maior parte do abdome e rostro localizam-se abaixo da superfície da água, parte das t

  5. Convergent evolution of the red- and green-like visual pigment genes in fish, Astyanax fasciatus, and human.

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, R; Yokoyama, S

    1990-01-01

    We have isolated and sequenced genes from the blind cave fish, Astyanax fasciatus, that are homologous to the human red and green visual pigment genes. The data strongly suggest that, like human, these fish have one red-like visual pigment gene and multiple green-like visual pigment genes. By comparing the DNA sequences of the human and fish visual pigment genes and knowing their phylogenetic relationship, one can infer the direction of amino acid substitutions in the red and green visual pig...

  6. Convergent evolution of the red- and green-like visual pigment genes in fish, Astyanax fasciatus, and human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have isolated and sequenced genes from the blind cave fish, Astyanax fasciatus, that are homologous to the human red and green visual pigment genes. The data strongly suggest that, like human, these fish have one red-like visual pigment gene and multiple green-like visual pigment genes. By comparing the DNA sequences of the human and fish visual pigment genes and knowing their phylogenetic relationship, one can infer the direction of amino acid substitutions in the red and green visual pigments. The results indicate that the red pigments in human and fish evolved from the green pigment independently by identical amino acid substitutions in only a few key positions

  7. To parallelize or not to parallelize, bugs issue

    OpenAIRE

    El-Nashar, Alaa I.; Masaki, Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Program correctness is one of the most difficult challenges in parallel programming. Message Passing Interface MPI is widely used in writing parallel applications. Since MPI is not a compiled language, the programmer will be enfaced with several programming bugs.This paper presents the most common programming bugs arise in MPI programs to help the programmer to compromise between the advantage of parallelism and the extra effort needed to detect and fix such bugs. An algebraic specification o...

  8. A sensor-based motion planner:Situated-Bug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居鹤华; 崔平远; 崔祜涛

    2003-01-01

    Propose a new sensor-based motion planning approach of Situated-Bug, which is composed of goal-oriented behavior, boundary following behavior and goal-oriented obstacle avoidance behavior, which are based on fuzzy control. The situated-Bug selects its behaviors according to robot orientation, instead of positions and hit points like other Bug algorithms, and its convergence proves robust to sensor noise, and it can guide the robots running for long rang traverse. At the same time, the design of the Situated-Bug is presented. Simulation results show that the approach is effective and practical.

  9. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Michael D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  10. Climbing Ability of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottel, B A; Pereira, R M; Gezan, S A; Qing, R; Sigmund, W M; Koehler, P G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors. PMID:26334801

  11. Susceptibility of Bed Bugs to Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Damodar

    1964-04-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of a normal laboratory strain of the bed bug, cimex hemipterus fabricius to certain synthetic insecticides, viz. dieldrin, diazinon and malathion was investigated in relation to DDT and lindance. The data were subjected to probit analysis. It was found that diazinon was the most effective insecticide, as residual films on filter papers, and was followed by malathion, lindane and DDT/dieldrin. It was also found that c. hemipterus was fairly susceptible to all the insecticides investigated.

  12. 谁的青春没Bug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑桑; 黑牛(图)

    2012-01-01

    Bug One:都是找Bug界高手 世界上,有一种人,以找Bug(缺陷)为生命的动力源泉。那说的就是我了。我把这项活动当成学习之余的最佳娱乐。老妈大爱《美人心计》。我一边陪她看,一边给她讲Bug。

  13. Systematics of treefrogs of the Hypsiboas calcaratus and Hypsiboas fasciatus species complex (Anura, Hylidae with the description of four new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Caminer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the systematics of the Hypsiboas calcaratus species complex, a group of widely distributed Amazonian hylid frogs. A comprehensive analysis of genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic datasets uncovered the existence of eleven candidate species, six of which are confirmed. Two of them correspond to Hypsiboas fasciatus and Hypsiboas calcaratus and the remaining four are new species that we describe here. Hypsiboas fasciatus sensu stricto has a geographic range restricted to the eastern Andean foothills of southern Ecuador while Hypsiboas calcaratus sensu stricto has a wide distribution in the Amazon basin. Hypsiboas almendarizae sp. n. occurs at elevations between 500 and 1950 m in central and northern Ecuador; the other new species (H. maculateralis sp. n., H. alfaroi sp. n., and H. tetete sp. n. occur at elevations below 500 m in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The new species differ from H. calcaratus and H. fasciatus in morphology, advertisement calls, and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Five candidate species from the Guianan region, Peru, and Bolivia are left as unconfirmed. Examination of the type material of Hyla steinbachi, from Bolivia, shows that it is not conspecific with H. fasciatus and thus is removed from its synonymy.

  14. In-vitro Neurotoxicity of Two Malaysian Krait Species (Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus Venoms: Neutralization by Monovalent and Polyvalent Antivenoms from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad Rusmili

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bungarus candidus and Bungarus fasciatus are two species of krait found in Southeast Asia. Envenoming by these snakes is often characterized by neurotoxicity and, without treatment, causes considerable morbidity and mortality. In this study, the in vitro neurotoxicity of each species, and the effectiveness of two monovalent antivenoms and a polyvalent antivenom, against the neurotoxic effects of the venoms, were examined in a skeletal muscle preparation. Both venoms caused concentration-dependent inhibition of indirect twitches, and attenuated responses to exogenous nicotinic receptor agonists, in the chick biventer preparation, with B. candidus venom being more potent than B. fasciatus venom. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis indicated different profiles between the venoms. Despite these differences, most proteins bands were recognized by all three antivenoms. Antivenom, added prior to the venoms, attenuated the neurotoxic effect of the venoms. Interestingly, the respective monovalent antivenoms did not neutralize the effects of the venom from the other Bungarus species indicating a relative absence of cross-neutralization. Addition of a high concentration of polyvalent antivenom, at the t90 time point after addition of venom, partially reversed the neurotoxicity of B. fasciatus venom but not B. candidus venom. The monovalent antivenoms had no significant effect when added at the t90 time point. This study showed that B. candidus and B. fasciatus venoms display marked in vitro neurotoxicity in the chick biventer preparation and administration of antivenoms at high dose is necessary to prevent or reverse neurotoxicity.

  15. Impact of acadja fisheries on the population dynamics of Sarotherodon melanotheron and Hemichromis fasciatus in a Lake Nokoué (Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyonkuru C.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In Lake Nokoué fishermen have developed the acadjas system which operates as an extensive aquaculture practice. Little is known about the population dynamics of fish fauna which colonizes those acadjas. Therefore, population parameters of two cichlids of Lake Nokoué, Sarotherodon melanotheron and Hemichromis fasciatus, sampled in areas within and without acadjas were investigated using length-frequency data collected between June 2003 and December 2004. For the two species, asymptotic length, L∞ was higher within than without acadjas (26.8 cm and 24.1 cm respectively for S. melanotheron; 18.5 cm and 16.5 cm respectively for H. faciatus. K and Φ′ values recorded outside acadjas were higher than inside acadjas for H. fasciatus whereas the same values were very slightly different without and within acadjas for S. melanotheron. H. fasciatus is a fish predator and branches or woody debris of acadjas are not favourable for its hunting activities.The total and natural mortality rates for the two species were higher outside than inside acadjas showing so the role of protection insured by acadjas systems. Acadjas have more impact on H. fasciatus than on S. melanotheron. A possibility of management is to reorganize the distribution of acadjas over Lake Nokoué in order to keep some areas in which no acadjas would be allowed for fish species that growth is better without acadjas.

  16. Studies towards the Sex Pheromone of the Green Capsid Bug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, F.P.

    2001-01-01

    The green capsid bug, Lygocoris pabulinus (L.) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a serious pest in fruit orchards, which is difficult to control. Because it is difficult to determine the actual population density, fruit growers apply insecticides against the green capsid bug on regular times to reduce the r

  17. Towards Easing the Diagnosis of Bugs in OS Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Henrik; Hansen, René Rydhof; Lawall, Julia Laetitia;

    2007-01-01

    The rapid detection and treatment of bugs in operating systems code is essential to maintain the overall security and dependability of a computing system.  A number of techniques have been proposed for detecting bugs, but little has been done to help developers analyze and treat them.  In this pa...

  18. Bed Bug Epidemic: A Challenge to Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Ritzel, Dale O.; Haramis, Linn D.; Bliss, Kadi R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, reported cases of bed bug infestations in the U.S. and throughout the world have escalated dramatically, posing a global public health problem. Although bed bugs are not known to transmit disease to humans, they pose both direct and indirect public health challenges in terms of health effects, treatment, cost, and resource…

  19. Catching the Bug: How Virtual Coaching Improves Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Megan

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author describes virtual coaching and why it is so effective. The following six points of virtual coaching are explained: (1) Also known as bug-in-ear coaching, virtual coaching is not new; (2) Virtual coaching can save money and time; (3) Bug-in-ear coaching increases the frequency of observations for novice teachers; (4) It…

  20. Bed bug detection: Current technologies and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates current technologies used to detect bed bug infestations, and presents new information regarding the underlying chemical basis of canines scent detection. The manuscript also reports new and future devices that may play a part in bed bug detection in the future....

  1. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug, (hemiptra: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control and their painful bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has a strong need for materials and methods ...

  2. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. PMID:26470083

  3. Potential nontarget effects of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) used for biological control of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.; Heyer, K.; Zhioua, E.

    2002-01-01

    The potential for nontarget effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, when used for biological control of ticks, was assessed in laboratory trials. Fungal pathogenicity was studied against convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, house crickets, Acheta domesticus (L.), and milkweed bugs, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Fungal spores applied with a spray tower produced significant mortality in H. convergens and A. domesticus, but effects on O. fasciatus were marginal. Treated insects placed with untreated individuals resulted in mortality from horizontal transmission to untreated beetles and crickets, but not milkweed bugs. Spread of fungal infection in the beetles resulted in mortality on days 4-10 after treatment, while in crickets mortality was on day 2 after treatment, suggesting different levels of pathogenicity and possibly different modes of transmission. Therefore, M. anisopliae varies in pathogenicity to different insects. Inundative applications can potentially affect nontarget species, but M. anisopliae is already widely distributed in North America, so applications for tick control generally would not introduce a novel pathogen into the environment. Pathogenicity in lab trials does not, by itself, demonstrate activity under natural conditions, so field trials are needed to confirm these results and to assess methods to minimize nontarget exposure.

  4. Finding Error Handling Bugs in OpenSSL using Coccinelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Laurie, Ben; Hansen, René Rydhof;

    2010-01-01

    OpenSSL is a library providing various functionalities relating to secure network communication.  Detecting and fixing bugs in OpenSSL code is thus essential, particularly when such bugs can lead to malicious attacks.  In previous work, we have proposed a methodology for finding API usage protoco...... it was possible to correct the bugs automatically.  Our patches correcting these bugs have been accepted by the OpenSSL developers.  This work furthermore confirms the applicability of our methodology to user-level code....... in Linux kernel code using the program matching and transformation engine Coccinelle.  In this work, we report on our experience in applying this methodology to OpenSSL, focusing on API usage protocols related to error handling.  We have detected over 30 bugs in a recent OpenSSL snapshot, and in many cases...

  5. Morphological and Physiological Characteristics that Contribute to Insecticide Resistance in Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L.) Eggs.

    OpenAIRE

    Delong, Brittany E

    2014-01-01

    Although bed bug eggs are a difficult life stage to control with our currently labeled insecticides, few studies have examined how bed bug egg morphology and physiology is potentially related to pesticide resistance in bed bug eggs. Bed bug egg morphological features were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the chorion and respiration structures were identified. Scanning electron microscopy photographs and bed bug egg measurements indicated there were no morphological differ...

  6. Do Stack Traces Help Developers Fix Bugs?

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, A; Bettenburg, N.; Premraj, R

    2010-01-01

    A widely shared belief in the software engineering community is that stack traces are much sought after by developers to support them in debugging. But limited empirical evidence is available to confirm the value of stack traces to developers. In this paper, we seek to provide such evidence by conducting an empirical study on the usage of stack traces by developers from the ECLIPSE project. Our results provide strong evidence to this effect and also throws light on some of the patterns in bug...

  7. NO BUG: biobased mosquitoes repellent textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ciera, Lucy Wanjiru; Nierstrasz, Vincent; De Clerck, Karen; Van Langenhove, Lieva

    2011-01-01

    This research work is part of the FP7 No-Bug project (Novel release system and biobased utilities for insect repellent textiles). The main interest of the project is personal protective textiles against insects (mosquitoes) for application not only in tropical areas where vector borne diseases are a major threat to the public health but also in European countries where the presence of mosquitoes can be nuisance. Malaria and dengue fever are well known diseases that cause a lot of deaths in th...

  8. Glutathione peroxidase 1 expression, malondialdehyde levels and histological alterations in the liver of Acrossocheilus fasciatus exposed to cadmium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Di; Sheng, Zhang; Wang, You-Fa; Han, Ying-Li; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jun-Quan

    2016-03-10

    Cadmium (Cd) is known as a widespread pollutant in aquatic environment. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is attributed to Cd exposure, which may affect the growth, development and physiological metabolism of aquatic organisms. In response to these unfavorable damages, antioxidant systems have been developed to protect against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of glutathione peroxidase 1 genes (GPx-1a and GPx-1b) in the liver of Acrossocheilus fasciatus after Cd administration. Total RNA extraction, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) were performed in order to clone the A. fasciatus GPx-1a and GPx-1b full-length cDNA sequences and partial fragment of β-actin cDNA from the liver for the first time. Tissue-specific expression analysis proved that GPx-1 genes were widely expressed in the liver, kidney, gill, testis, muscle, spleen, heart and brain. The changes of GPx-1 mRNA and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver treated with Cd were measured. In addition, the acute toxic effects of Cd on the microstructure of the liver were studied using light microscopy. These results suggest that GPx-1, MDA and liver histology which represent molecular, biochemical and histological levels, can be used as potential biomarkers to monitor Cd pollution. The overall findings also highlight the potential use of those three bio-indicators combined together as a multi-level tool (molecular, biochemical and histological levels) when monitoring Cd contamination and other possible exogenetic pollutants in aquatic environment.

  9. Altruism during predation in an assassin bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Revel, Messika; Azémar, Frédéric; Roux, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Zelus annulosus is an assassin bug species mostly noted on Hirtella physophora, a myrmecophyte specifically associated with the ant Allomerus decemarticulatus known to build traps on host tree twigs to ambush insect preys. The Z. annulosus females lay egg clutches protected by a sticky substance. To avoid being trapped, the first three instars of nymphs remain grouped in a clutch beneath the leaves on which they hatched, yet from time to time, they climb onto the upper side to group ambush preys. Long-distance prey detection permits these bugs to capture flying or jumping insects that alight on their leaves. Like some other Zelus species, the sticky substance of the sundew setae on their forelegs aids in prey capture. Group ambushing permits early instars to capture insects that they then share or not depending on prey size and the hunger of the successful nymphs. Fourth and fifth instars, with greater needs, rather ambush solitarily on different host tree leaves, but attract siblings to share large preys. Communal feeding permits faster prey consumption, enabling small nymphs to return sooner to the shelter of their leaves. By improving the regularity of feeding for each nymph, it likely regulates nymphal development, synchronizing molting and subsequently limiting cannibalism.

  10. Analysis of functional and numerical responses of spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris when reared on kudzu bug, Megacopta cribaria (Hemiptera: Plataspididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spined solder bug (Podisus maculiventris) is a predatory insect that feeds on a wide array of species. The immatures of this predatory species have five instars. All stages are predatory except for the 1st instar nymphs. Kudzu bugs (Megacopta cribaria) are shield bugs that are deemed a pest of ...

  11. Rediscovery of Microgecko helenae fasciatus (Schmidtler and Schmidtler, 1972) from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran with Notes on Taxonomy, Morphology, and Habitat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali GHOLAMIFARD; Nasrullah RASTEGAR-POUYANI; Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI

    2015-01-01

    During extensive field work in the Zagros Mountains, western Iran, from October 2013 to November 2014, twenty five localities in different areas of the Kermanshah Province were investigated. Nineteen specimens of Schmidtler’s dwarf gecko, Microgecko helenae fasciatus, were collected from six localities in western and southeastern regions of the Kermanshah Province. This new collection verifies the presence of M. h. fasciatus in the area after the description of Schmidtler and Schmidtler of the holotype specimen in 1972. All of the collected specimens are consistent with the described specimens in diagnostic characters, as have a uniform dorsal pattern with five distinct dark crossbars and white posterior margins as well as the higher number of dorsal scales between axilla and groin. Detailed morphology of the new specimens is discussed and compared with those of rare previous records. Taxonomy, distribution, and habitat types of this tiny gecko in the western foothills of the Zagros Mountains are also discussed.

  12. 谈软件测试中的Bug%Talking about Bug in the Software Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳华

    2006-01-01

    软件测试在软件的开发过程中越来越重要,那么软件测试的目的是什么?软件测试中什么是Bug?重点分析软件测试中Bug出现的几个原因,在软件测试中发现Bug的方法.

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Younger skin Kids’ zone ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings Frostbite ...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bug bite or sting could turn into something serious – particularly if you have been bitten or stung ... bite: This could be a sign of Lyme disease, which should be treated with antibiotics. A fever ...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Biting flies Mites Bees, wasps and hornets Spiders Ticks Fire ants Most bug bites and stings can ... red, donut-shaped rash that develops after a tick bite: This could be a sign of Lyme ...

  16. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Triatomine Bug FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with plastered walls and sealed entryways to prevent insect invasion, triatomine bugs rarely infest indoor areas of ... should be consulted if considering the use of insecticides. Please note that roach hotels or other "bait" ...

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, ... Member resources Practice Tools Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients AAD Resources For: Dermatologists in the US ...

  18. True bug (Heteroptera) impact on cocoa fruit mortality and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yede; Babin, R; Djieto-Lordon, C; Cilas, C; Dibog, L; Mahob, R; Bilong, C F Bilong

    2012-08-01

    The real impact of true bug damage on cocoa pods has never been assessed precisely. We conducted a 2-yr study on 1,080 cocoa trees on 36 farms in Cameroon to assess the contribution of true bugs to fruit mortality and production loss. The cocoa fruiting cycle, fruit mortality, and damage caused by true bugs as well as other pests and diseases were monitored on a weekly basis. True bug damage also was described on 2,500 ripe pods per year. Pod weight, bean number, and bean weight were measured and compared for different degrees and types of damage on the ripe pods. Our results showed that true bugs were the main external cause of young fruit abortion. They reduced the abundance of young fruit by up to 10%. In contrast, although one-third of the ripe pods sampled had true bug lesions, only 4% were moderately to heavily damaged. The mean weight of ripe pods was reduced by 12% when there was medium to heavy damage. While the mean weight of wet beans was reduced significantly (by 3-10%), the number of beans per pod was not changed by damage. Despite the reduction in mean weight, the overall weight of beans for the pods sampled was reduced by fruit mortality.

  19. Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2015-01-01

    The common bed bug Cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. The ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. This study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptors to human odorants with the Xenopus expression system. The results showed that the D type of olfactory sensilla play a predominant role in detecting the human odorants tested. Different human odorants elicited different neuronal responses with different firing frequencies and temporal dynamics. Particularly, aldehydes and alcohols are the most effective stimuli in triggering strong response while none of the carboxylic acids showed a strong stimulation. Functional characterization of two bed bug odorant receptors and co-receptors in response to human odorants revealed their specific responses to the aldehyde human odorants. Taken together, the findings of this study not only provide exciting new insights into the human odorant detection of bed bugs, but also offer valuable information for developing new reagents (attractants or repellents) for the bed bug control. PMID:26522967

  20. Bed bugs and possible transmission of human pathogens: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Olivia; Ho, Derek; Glick, Sharon; Jagdeo, Jared

    2016-10-01

    The global population of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, family Cimicidae) has undergone a significant resurgence since the late 1990s. This is likely due to an increase in global travel, trade, and the number of insecticide-resistant bed bugs. The global bed bug population is estimated to be increasing by 100-500 % annually. The worldwide spread of bed bugs is concerning, because they are a significant socioeconomic burden and a major concern to public health. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, bed bugs are "a pest of significant health importance." Additionally, 68 % of U.S. pest professionals reported that bed bugs are the most challenging pest to treat. Upwards of 45 disease pathogens have been reported in bed bugs. Recent studies report that bed bugs may be competent vectors for pathogens, such as Bartonella quintana and Trypanosoma cruzi. However, public health reports have thus far failed to produce evidence that major infectious disease outbreaks have been associated with bed bugs. Since many disease pathogens have previously been reported in bed bugs and the worldwide bed bug population is now drastically increasing, it stands to reason to wonder if bed bugs might transmit human pathogens. This review includes a literature search on recently published clinical and laboratory studies (1990-2016) investigating bed bugs as potential vectors of infectious disease, and reports the significant findings and limitations of the reviewed studies. To date, no published study has demonstrated a causal relationship between bed bugs and infectious disease transmission in humans. Also, we present and propose to expand on previous hypotheses as to why bed bugs do not transmit human pathogens. Bed bugs may contain "neutralizing factors" that attenuate pathogen virulence and, thereby, decrease the ability of bed bugs to transmit infectious disease. PMID:27295087

  1. Categorizing Bugs with Social Networks: A Case Study on Four Open Source Software Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Zanetti, Marcelo Serrano; Tessone, Claudio Juan; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Efficient bug triaging procedures are an important precondition for successful collaborative software engineering projects. Triaging bugs can become a laborious task particularly in open source software (OSS) projects with a large base of comparably inexperienced part-time contributors. In this paper, we propose an efficient and practical method to identify valid bug reports which a) refer to an actual software bug, b) are not duplicates and c) contain enough information to be processed right away. Our classification is based on nine measures to quantify the social embeddedness of bug reporters in the collaboration network. We demonstrate its applicability in a case study, using a comprehensive data set of more than 700,000 bug reports obtained from the Bugzilla installation of four major OSS communities, for a period of more than ten years. For those projects that exhibit the lowest fraction of valid bug reports, we find that the bug reporters' position in the collaboration network is a strong indicator for ...

  2. Host-Seeking Behavior in the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernard R. Lewis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The reemergence of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, has recently spawned a frenzy of public, media, and academic attention. In response to the growing rate of infestation, considerable work has been focused on identifying the various host cues utilized by the bed bug in search of a meal. Most of these behavioral studies examine movement within a confined environment, such as a Petri dish. This has prevented a more complete understanding of the insect’s host-seeking process. This work describes a novel method for studying host-seeking behavior, using various movement parameters, in a time-lapse photography system. With the use of human breath as an attractant, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed how bed bugs navigate their environment between its harborage and the host. Levels of behavioral activity varied dramatically between bed bugs in the presence and absence of host odor. Bed bugs demonstrated not simply activation, but attraction to the chemical components of breath. Localized, stop-start host-seeking behavior or alternating periods of movement and pause were observed among bed bugs placed in the environment void of human breath, while those exposed to human breath demonstrated long range, stop-start host-seeking behavior. A more comprehensive understanding of bed bug host-seeking can lead to the development of traps and monitors that account for unique subtleties in their behavior. The time-lapse photography system uses a large, artificial environment and could also be employed to study other aspects of the insect’s behavioral patterns.

  3. Kissing Bug (Triatoma spp.) Intrusion into Homes: Troublesome Bites and Domiciliation

    OpenAIRE

    Klotz, Stephen A.; F. Mazda Shirazi; Keith Boesen; Beatty, Norman L.; Dorn, Patricia L.; Shannon Smith; Schmidt, Justin O

    2016-01-01

    Kissing bugs (Triatoma spp.) frequently enter homes and bite human and pet occupants. Bites may lead to severe allergic reactions and, in some cases, death. Kissing bugs are also vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. In general, modern houses in the United States are not conducive to domiciliation of kissing bugs (bugs living out their entire life within the home with the presence of eggs, nymphs, adults, and exuviae). Construction features such as concrete foundations, s...

  4. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Reid, William R; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a "per-bug" basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 - 0.692) ng·bug(-1)] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 - 0.724) ng·bug(-1)] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 - 0.386) ng·bug(-1)]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 - 0.176) ng·mg(-1)], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 - 0.134) ng·mg(-1)], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019-0.102) ng·mg(-)¹]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs. PMID:26463068

  5. The testis and ovary transcriptomes of the rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus: A bony fish with a unique neo Y chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus is considerably one of the most economically important marine fish in East Asia and has a unique neo-Y chromosome system that is a good model to study the sex determination and differentiation in fish. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the testis and ovary tissues of rock bream. A total of 40,004,378 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406649 and 53,108,992 (NCBI SRA database SRX1406648 high quality reads were obtained from testis and ovary RNA sequencing, respectively, and 60,421 contigs (with average length of 1301 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 14,036 contigs that show gender-enriched expressional profile with either testis-enriched (237 contigs or ovary-enriched (581 contigs with RPKM >100. There are 237 male- and 582 female-abundant expressed genes that show sex dimorphic expression. We hope that the gonad transcriptome and those gender-enriched transcripts of rock bream can provide some insight into the understanding of genome-wide transcriptome profile of teleost gonad tissue and give useful information in fish gonad development.

  6. Estimation of the dietary essential amino acid requirements of colliroja Astyanax fasciatus by using the ideal protein concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Colliroja, Astyanax fasciatus, is a new aquaculture species, and information on its dietary essential amino acid requirements is lacking. The whole body composition of 120 farmed fish (16.2 ± 8.8 g was determined to estimate the dietary essential amino acid requirement based on the ideal protein concept ((each essential amino acid/lysine x100, and the findings were correlated to the whole body essential amino acid content of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. The dietary essential amino acids, including cysteine and tyrosine, accounted for 5.46, 4.62, 1.16, 3.28, 5.63, 2.01, 2.59, 2.84, 4.66, 3.39, 0.65, and 3.51% of the total protein for lysine, arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, methionine+tyrosine, phenylalanine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine, respectively. There were positive linear and high correlations (r = 0.971 between the whole body amino acid profiles of colliroja and Nile tilapia. Thus, the whole body amino acid profile of colliroja might be used to estimate accurately the essential amino acid requirement.

  7. Three sympatric karyomorphs in the fish Astyanax fasciatus (Teleostei, Characidae do not seem to hybridize in natural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maressa Ferreira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety individuals of the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 were collected at Água da Madalena stream (Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil and analyzed for diploid chromosome number 2n and karyotype composition as well as for the chromosomal location of the 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA. Whereas no chromosome differences were associated with sex, three different karyomorphs with diploid chromosome numbers 2n=46, 2n=48 and 2n=50 were found. No intermediate 2n numbers were discovered. The 2n=50 karyomorph showed some differences in 18S rDNA location compared to the two other karyomorphs. Finally, all specimens with the 2n=46 karyomorph showed the presence of a partly heterochromatic macro supernumerary chromosome, which was absent in all individuals with the two other karyomorphs. All these results suggest that indviduals of the three different karyomorphs are not likely to hybridize in the examined populations. Our findings strongly suggest the presence of three separate species (sensu biological species concept easily diagnosed on the basis of differences in the diploid chromosome numbers and other chromosomal markers.

  8. Role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    Full Text Available The role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior has been demonstrated. However, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. We investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. Results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to yellow, green, blue, and white harborages. A bed bug trapping device with a black or red exterior surface was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than that with a white exterior surface. Bed bugs exhibited strong orientation behavior toward vertical objects. The height (15 vs. 30 cm tall and color (brown vs. black of the vertical object had no significant effect on orientation behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs could differentiate color and detect vertical objects at very low background light conditions, but not in complete darkness. Bed bug preference to different substrate textures (mechanoreception was also explored. Bed bugs preferred dyed tape compared to painted tape, textured painted plastic, and felt. These results revealed that substrate color, presence of vertical objects, and substrate texture affect host-seeking and harborage-searching behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs may use a combination of vision, mechanoreception, and chemoreception to locate hosts and seek harborages.

  9. Holistic Evaluation Framework for Automated Bug Triage Systems: Integration of Developer Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. V. Akila

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bug Triage is an important aspect of Open Source Software Development. Automated Bug Triage system is essential to reduce the cost and effort incurred by manual Bug Triage. At present, the metrics that are available in the literature to evaluate the Automated Bug Triage System are only recommendation centric. These metrics address only the correctness and coverage of the Automated Bug Triage System. Thus, there is a need for user-centric evaluation of the Bug Triage System. The two types of metrics to evaluate the Automated Bug Triage System include Recommendation Metrics and User Metrics. There is a need to corroborate the results produced by the Recommendation Metrics with User Metrics. To this end, this paper furnishes a Holistic Evaluation Framework for Bug Triage System by integrating the developer performance into the evaluation framework. The Automated Bug Triage System is also to retrieve a set of developers for resolving a bug. Hence, this paper proposes Key Performance Indicators (KPI for appraising a developer’s effectiveness in contribution towards the resolution of the bug. By applying the KPIs on the retrieved set of developers, the Bug Triage System can be evaluated quantitatively.

  10. Diurnal activities of the brown stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in and near tasseling corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for effective management of the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus, in corn and other crops has been increasing in recent years. To identify when and where the stink bugs are most likely to occur for targeted insecticide application, diurnal activities of stink bugs in and near the field...

  11. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel;

    2009-01-01

    the tools on specific kinds of bugs and to relate the results to patterns in the source code. We propose a declarative approach to bug finding in Linux OS code using a control-flow based program search engine. Our approach is WYSIWIB (What You See Is Where It Bugs), since the programmer expresses...

  12. Role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior has been demonstrated. However, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. We investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. Results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to yellow, green, blue, and white harborages. A bed bug trapping device with a black or red exterior surface was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than that with a white exterior surface. Bed bugs exhibited strong orientation behavior toward vertical objects. The height (15 vs. 30 cm tall) and color (brown vs. black) of the vertical object had no significant effect on orientation behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs could differentiate color and detect vertical objects at very low background light conditions, but not in complete darkness. Bed bug preference to different substrate textures (mechanoreception) was also explored. Bed bugs preferred dyed tape compared to painted tape, textured painted plastic, and felt. These results revealed that substrate color, presence of vertical objects, and substrate texture affect host-seeking and harborage-searching behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs may use a combination of vision, mechanoreception, and chemoreception to locate hosts and seek harborages. PMID:25748041

  13. An outbreak of bed bug infestation in an office building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumblatt, Jane A Gwira; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Stull-Lane, Annica; Jones, Timothy F

    2014-04-01

    Since 2000, resurgence in bed bugs has occurred in the U.S. Reports of infestations of homes, hospitals, hotels, and offices have been described. On September 1, 2011, complaints of itching and bites among workers in an office were reported to the Tennessee Department of Health. A retrospective cohort study and environmental assessments were performed in response to the complaints. Canines certified to detect live bed bugs were used to inspect the office and arthropod samples were collected. Of 76 office workers, 61 (80%) were interviewed; 39 (64%) met the case definition. Pruritic maculopapular lesions were consistent with arthropod bites. One collected arthropod sample was identified as a bed bug by three entomologists. Exposures associated with symptoms included working in a cubicle in which a canine identified bed bugs (risk ratio [RR]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-3.6), and self-reported seasonal allergies (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.4). Bed bugs represent a reemerging and challenging environmental problem with clinical, psychological, and financial impacts. PMID:24749221

  14. Group living accelerates bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2014-01-01

    For many insect species, group living provides physiological and behavioral benefits, including faster development. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) live in aggregations composed of eggs, nymphs, and adults of various ages. Our aim was to determine whether bed bug nymphs reared in groups develop faster than solitary nymphs. We reared first instars either in isolation or in groups from hatching to adult emergence and recorded their development time. In addition, we investigated the effects of group housing on same-age nymphs versus nymphs reared with adults. Nymphal development was 2.2 d faster in grouped nymphs than in solitary-housed nymphs, representing 7.3% faster overall development. However, this grouping effect did not appear to be influenced by group composition. Thus, similar to other gregarious insect species, nymph development in bed bugs is faster in aggregations than in isolation. PMID:24605482

  15. Spatial, seasonal and ontogenetic variation in the diet of Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Ostariophysi: Characidae in an Atlantic Forest river, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lazzarini Wolff

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study described the feeding habits of the characin Astyanax aff. fasciatus. The diet compositions of specimens from two sites (A and B on a river in Southern Brazil were compared according to the size of individuals and seasonal period. The collections were performed monthly from March 2005 to February 2006, where the stomach contents of 290 specimens were assessed. Food items for A. aff. fasciatus were basically composed of plants and insects, especially leaf fragments, seeds, fruits, filamentous algae, aquatic and terrestrial insects and insect fragments. At site A, the most common items were insect and plant fragments. Conversely at site B, plant fragments were more representative. In general, all items of animal origin showed the highest feeding index values at site A, whereas at site B detritus and grass items were more abundant. The composition of items varied seasonally, with higher diversity of items being recorded during the spring at both sites. Smaller individuals preferred items of animal origin, while the larger ones consumed mainly items of plant origin. According to its size, A. aff. fasciatus in this study may be considered a species with insectivorous tendencies when immature or herbivorous tendencies when adult. Nevertheless, its feeding habits may be flexible according to resource availability, showing wide ontogenetic, besides spatial and temporal variation.Este estudo descreveu os hábitos alimentares do lambari Astyanax aff. fasciatus. Foram comparadas as composições alimentares de espécimes de dois sítios (A e B de um rio no sul do Brasil de acordo com o tamanho dos indivíduos e do período sazonal. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente de março de 2005 a fevereiro de 2006, sendo o conteúdo estomacal de 290 exemplares analisado. A dieta de A. aff. fasciatus foi composta basicamente por plantas e insetos, especialmente fragmentos de folhas, sementes, frutos, algas filamentosas, insetos aquáticos e terrestres

  16. Analysis of BUG Management%浅析BUG管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓叶

    2011-01-01

    In the process of software test,BUG management is a very important aspect,which is a bridge between the testers and developers,effective management of the BUG will improve the quality and efficiency of project teams.%在软件测试的过程中,BUG管理是一个很重要的环节,它是测试人员和开发人员之间的桥梁,对BUG进行有效的管理,能够提高项目团队的工作质量和效率。

  17. Trap Cropping Systems and a Physical Barrier for Suppression of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E; Lou, X; Mizell, R F; Johnson, C J

    2015-10-01

    Euschistus servus (Say), Nezara viridula (L.), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the ability of trap cropping systems, pheromone-baited stink bug traps, and a synthetic physical barrier at the peanut-to-cotton interface to manage stink bugs in cotton. The physical barrier was the most effective management tactic. Stink bug density in cotton was lowest for this treatment. In 2010, boll injury was lower for the physical barrier compared to the other treatments except for soybean with stink bug traps. In 2011, boll injury was lower for this treatment compared to the control. Soybean was an effective trap crop, reducing both stink bug density in cotton and boll injury regardless if used alone or in combination with either stink bug traps or buckwheat. Incorporation of buckwheat in soybean enhanced parasitism of E. servus egg masses by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. The insertion of eyelets in the lid of the insect-collecting device of a stink bug trap allowed adult stink bug parasitoids, but not E. servus, to escape. Stand-alone stink bug traps were not very effective in deterring colonization of cotton by stink bugs or reducing boll injury. The paucity of effective alternative control measures available for stink bug management justifies further full-scale evaluations into these management tactics for control of these pests in crops. PMID:26453721

  18. Potential of Essential Oil-Based Pesticides and Detergents for Bed Bug Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The bed bug, (Cimex lectularius L.), is a difficult pest to control. Prevalence of insecticide resistance among bed bug populations and concerns over human-insecticide exposure has stimulated the development of alternative bed bug control materials. Many essential oil-based pesticides and detergent insecticides targeting bed bugs have been developed in recent years. We evaluated the efficacy of nine essential oil-based products and two detergents using direct spray and residual contact bioassays in the laboratory. Two conventional insecticides, Temprid SC (imidacloprid and β-cyfluthrin) and Demand CS (λ-cyhalothrin), were used for comparison. Among the 11 nonsynthetic insecticides tested, only EcoRaider (1% geraniol, 1% cedar extract, and 2% sodium lauryl sulfate) and Bed Bug Patrol (0.003% clove oil, 1% peppermint oil, and 1.3% sodium lauryl sulfate) caused >90% mortality of nymphs in direct spray and forced exposure residual assays. However, the efficacy of EcoRaider and Bed Bug Patrol was significantly lower than that of Temprid SC and Demand CS in choice exposure residual bioassay. Direct spray of EcoRaider caused 87% egg mortality, whereas the other nonsynthetic insecticides had little effect on bed bug eggs. EcoRaider and Bed Bug Patrol did not exhibit detectable repellency against bed bugs in the presence of a carbon dioxide source. These findings suggest that EcoRaider and Bed Bug Patrol are potentially useful pesticides for controlling bed bug infestations, but further testing in naturally infested environments is needed. PMID:26470082

  19. Host Searching and Aggregation Activity of Recently Fed and Unfed Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Reis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Groups of starved, virgin adult male or female bed bugs were stimulated to search for a host by the presence of a heated artificial feeder. Some of the bed bug groups were allowed to obtain a blood meal and some were not. After the removal of the feeder, bed bugs were observed throughout the scotophase to record their searching and aggregation behavior. Groups of male and female bed bugs that were unable to obtain a blood meal continued to search in the arena for the majority of the scotophase. Bed bugs that were able to obtain a blood meal returned to their shelter to aggregate 30 min after feeding. Overall, the proportion of bed bugs aggregating in shelters during the scotophase was significantly greater for those that had fed successfully than those that had not. However, all bed bugs, regardless of feeding status, began to return to shelters to aggregate 2 h prior to the photophase.

  20. Using research and education to implement practical bed bug control programs in multifamily housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary W; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Wang, Changlu; Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Gibb, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Multifamily housing facilities serving low-income populations have been at the forefront of bed bug outbreaks. Research conducted in the past 8 years has consistently proven that integrated pest management (IPM) is the best approach for successful suppression of bed bug infestations. Bed bug IPM in multifamily settings is especially dependent upon a collaborative community or building-wide effort involving residents, building staff and pest control technicians. Other components of a bed bug IPM program include regular monitoring to detect early-stage bed bug infestations and combined use of non-chemical and chemical interventions. Lastly, to reduce reinfestation rates and costs associated with bed bug control, it is critical to continue periodic monitoring and implement preventive control measures even after successful elimination of bed bugs has been achieved. PMID:26251256

  1. Transcriptomics of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are blood-feeding insects poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Resistance of C. lectularius to insecticides/pesticides is one factor thought to be involved in its sudden resurgence. Despite its high-impact status, scant knowledge exists at the genomic level for C. lectularius. Hence, we subjected the C. lectularius transcriptome to 454 pyrosequencing in order to identify potential genes involved in pesticide resistance. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained a total of 216,419 reads with 79,596,412 bp, which were assembled into 35,646 expressed sequence tags (3902 contigs and 31744 singletons. Nearly 85.9% of the C. lectularius sequences showed similarity to insect sequences, but 44.8% of the deduced proteins of C. lectularius did not show similarity with sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis revealed putative members of several detoxification pathways involved in pesticide resistance. Lamprin domains, Protein Kinase domains, Protein Tyrosine Kinase domains and cytochrome P450 domains were among the top Pfam domains predicted for the C. lectularius sequences. An initial assessment of putative defense genes, including a cytochrome P450 and a glutathione-S-transferase (GST, revealed high transcript levels for the cytochrome P450 (CYP9 in pesticide-exposed versus pesticide-susceptible C. lectularius populations. A significant number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (296 and microsatellite loci (370 were predicted in the C. lectularius sequences. Furthermore, 59 putative sequences of Wolbachia were retrieved from the database. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of C. lectularius. This pyrosequencing effort provides clues to the identification of potential detoxification genes involved in pesticide resistance of C. lectularius and lays the foundation for

  2. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-15 receptor α from rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jin-Sol; Shim, Sang Hee; Hwang, Seong Don; Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Dae-Won; Park, Chan-Il

    2013-10-01

    Mammalian interleukin (IL)-15 plays an important role in the activation of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells along with its receptor α (IL-15Rα). To understand the potential roles of IL-15 and IL-15Rα in fish, we identified IL-15 and IL-15Rα cDNA from rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) and investigated their gene expression profiles after bacterial and viral infection. Coding regions of rock bream (Rb) IL-15 and RbIL-15Rα cDNAs were 534 and 402 bp encoding 177 and 133 amino acid residues, respectively. The sushi domain of IL-15Rα was highly conserved between rock bream and other species. Unlike other IL-15Rαs, RbIL-15Rα does not have a transmembrane region. Gene expression of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα was widely expressed in different tissues of healthy fish, especially immune-related tissues. RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα were highly induced in the kidney and spleen after infection with Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae and red seabream iridovirus. Gene expression patterns of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα were similar in the kidney and spleen after pathogen infection. However, these genes were differentially induced in the liver after pathogen infection. These results suggest that the different responses of RbIL-15 and RbIL-15Rα to pathogen infection may be induced by different tissues or cell types. PMID:23911652

  3. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a rash after a bug bite, see a board-certified dermatologist immediately. FIND A FREE SPOTme® SKIN CANCER SCREENING FIND A DERMATOLOGIST Advanced Search Explore AAD Member resources Practice Tools Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients AAD Resources For: ...

  4. Using Amaranthus palmeri pollen to mark captured tarnished plant bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild host plants play an important role for tarnished plant bug (TPB), Lygus lineolaris, populations during the early spring and during the fall when cultivated crops are not flowering. Determining TPB dispersal into and out of cotton fields and native habitats is important for managing this insect...

  5. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  6. Bug Diagnosis by String Matching: Application to ILTS for Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Tokuda, Naoyuki

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a new template-automaton-based knowledge database system for an interactive intelligent language tutoring system (ILTS) for Japanese-English translation, whereby model translations as well as a taxonomy of bugs extracted from ill-formed translations typical of nonnative learners are collected. (Author/VWL)

  7. Cold tolerance of bed bugs and practical recommendations for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Joelle F; Eaton, Marc; Kells, Stephen A; Morin, Victor; Wang, Changlu

    2013-12-01

    Bed bugs were exposed to freezing temperatures for various exposure times to determine cold tolerance and mortality estimates for multiple life stages. The mean supercooling point for all bed bug life stages ranged from -21.3 degrees C to -30.3 degrees C, with the egg stage reporting the lowest value. A probit analysis provided a lower lethal temperature (LLT99) of -31.2 degrees C when estimates from all life stages were combined, demonstrating that all stages of bed bugs are not capable of surviving temperatures below body freezing and are therefore freeze intolerant. At conditions above the LLT99, bed bug mortality depended on temperature and exposure time at temperatures above LLT99. Based on our model estimates, survival was estimated for temperatures above -12 degrees C even after 1 wk of continuous exposure. However, exposure to temperatures below -13 degrees C will result in 100% mortality in d to ensure mortality of all life stages. Unfortunately, sublethal exposure to lower temperatures did not prevent subsequent feeding behavior in surviving stages. Practical recommendations for management of potentially infested items are discussed. PMID:24498745

  8. Bullous reactions to bed bug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates bullous cutaneous reactions and sequential histopathology in an individual sensitized to bed bug bites in an effort to better understand the allergic response and histology associated with these bites. There was a progression of the inflammatory response across time ranging from...

  9. Cuticular hydrocarbons from the bed bug Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentane extracts of male and female bed bugs were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in an effort to identify cuticular hydrocarbons. Seventeen hydrocarbons accounting for nearly 99% of the compounds eluting in the cuticular hydrocarbon region were identified. The sample contained ...

  10. Revision of Allobenedenia Yamaguti, 1963 (Monogenoidea: Capsalidae) with the description of A. zhangi n. sp. from Epinephelus fasciatus (Teleostei: Serranidae) in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingbao, Yang; Kritsky, Delane C; Yuan, Sun

    2004-11-01

    Allobenedenia Yamaguti, 1963 is revised to include capsalid species with five radial septa in the haptor. Megalocotyloides Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1967 and Allosprostonia Lawler & Hargis, 1968 are considered junior synonyms of Allobenedenia. Eight described species comprise the genus: A. convoluta (Yamaguti, 1937) Yamaguti, 1963 (type-species), A. epinepheli (Bychowsky & Nagibina, 1967) n. comb., A. patagonica (Evdokimova, 1969) n. comb., A. pedunculata Raju & Rao, 1980, A. pseudomarginata (Bravo-Hollis, 1958) n. comb., A. sebastodi (Egorova, 1994) n. comb., A. yamagutii (Egorova, 1994) n. comb. and A. zhangi n. sp. A. ishikawae (Goto, 1894) Yamaguti, 1963 is considered a species inquirenda; Megalocotyloides hongkongensis Wu, Lu & Woo, 2002 is placed in synonymy with A. yamagutii; M. grandiloba (Paperna & Kohn, 1964) Egorova & Aleshkina, 1984 is provisionally returned to Megalocotyle as M. grandiloba Paperna & Kohn, 1964; and specimens identified as M. grandiloba from Serranus cabrilla (Serranidae) by Buhrnheim et al. (1973) are considered an undescribed species of Allobenedenia. A. zhangi n. sp. is described from the external surface of Epinephelus fasciatus (Serranidae) of Allobenedenia. A. zhangi n. sp. is described from the external surface of Epinephelus fasciatus (Serranidae) in the South China Sea and is characterised by having an elongtate proximally uncoiled male copulatory organ extending to near the level of the anterior margin of the ovary, a large prostatic reservoir apparently external to the male copulatory canal, and a submedial protuberance on the dorsal surface of the accessory sclerite of the haptor. PMID:15542951

  11. 松江鲈鱼胚胎及仔稚鱼形态观察%Morphologic Observation on Embryonic and Larval Development of Trachidermus fasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一杰; 张美昭; 温海深

    2012-01-01

    对松江鲈鱼胚胎和仔稚鱼发育过程进行了观察,描述了从受精卵至稚鱼各发育时期的形态特征。结果表明,松江鲈鱼受精卵为不规则圆球形,颜色各异,有淡黄、黄、橘红3种颜色;在水温6~11℃、盐度33~34的条件下,经过30 d发育而破膜。初孵仔鱼全长6.6 mm,通体透明,5日龄后开始摄食,再经过35 d的发育,达到幼鱼期。%Through observing the embryonic and larval development of Trachidermus fasciatus ,the present study described the morphological characteristics of each period which from fertilized eggs to larva.Results showed that the fertilized eggs of Trachidermus fasciatus were irregular round, and had different colors,like light yellow, yellow and orange. Hatching occurred after 30 days' fertilization at 6-11℃, the water salinity was 33-34.The full length of the new larva was 6.6 mm, and the body was transparent.After 5 days, the larva began to feed and they reached young fish period eventually 35 days later.

  12. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  13. Ability of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) defensive secretions (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal to attract adult bed bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate and timely surveillance of bed bug infestations is critical for development of effective control strategies. While the bed bug produced volatiles (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal are considered defensive secretions, through use of EthoVision® video-tracking software we demonstrate that low ...

  14. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna L Saenz

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector.

  15. Participatory Practices in Open Source Educational Software - The Case of the Moodle Bug Tracker Community

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Eamon

    2014-01-01

    The Moodle bug tracker is a boundary object that faces software developers who write and maintain Moodle’s code whilst simultaneously exposing an interface to a much wider public world of ordinary Moodle users. Bugs can be fixed and new features requested by recording them in this boundary object which then tracks their progress. Such tracking has proven a powerful lure for researchers and despite much study of the phenomenon of open source bug fixing and software building, much remains to be...

  16. The odorant receptor co-receptor from the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immo A Hansen

    Full Text Available Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs and odorant receptors (ORs associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco. Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers.

  17. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary C. DeVries

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a “per-bug” basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 − 0.692 ng·bug−1] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 − 0.724 ng·bug−1] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 − 0.386 ng·bug−1]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 − 0.176 ng·mg−1], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 − 0.134 ng·mg−1], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019–0.102 ng·mg−1]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs.

  18. LED-Induced fluorescence and image analysis to detect stink bug damage in cotton bolls

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafic, Adnan; Roberts, Erin E; Toews, Michael D.; Haidekker, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Background Stink bugs represent a major agricultural pest complex attacking more than 200 wild and cultivated plants, including cotton in the southeastern US. Stink bug feeding on developing cotton bolls will cause boll abortion or lint staining and thus reduced yield and lint value. Current methods for stink bug detection involve manual harvesting and cracking open of a sizable number of immature cotton bolls for visual inspection. This process is cumbersome, time consuming, and requires a m...

  19. The odorant receptor co-receptor from the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Immo A; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Blakely, Brittny N; Hammond, John I; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Monroy, Erika Y; Maio, William A; Romero, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs) associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco). Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers. PMID:25411789

  20. Posttreatment Feeding Affects Mortality of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Exposed to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide sprays and dusts are used for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. In natural environments, bed bugs have daily access to hosts after they are exposed to insecticides. The established laboratory insecticide bioassay protocols do not provide feeding after insecticide treatments, which can result in inflated mortality compared with what would be encountered in the field. We evaluated the effect of posttreatment feeding on mortality of bed bugs treated with different insecticides. None of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the amount of blood consumed and percent feeding. The effect of posttreatment feeding on bed bug mortality varied among different insecticides. Feeding significantly reduced mortality in bed bugs exposed to deltamethrin spray, an essential oil mixture (Bed Bug Fix) spray, and diatomaceous earth dust. Feeding increased the mean survival time for bed bugs treated with chlorfenapyr spray and a spray containing an essential oil mixture (Ecoraider), but did not affect the final mortality. First instars hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray had reduced feeding compared with nymphs hatched from nontreated eggs. Those nymphs hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray and successfully fed had reduced mortality and a higher mean survival time than those without feeding. We conclude that the availability of a bloodmeal after insecticide exposure has a significant effect on bed bug mortality. Protocols for insecticide efficacy testing should consider offering a bloodmeal to the treated bed bugs within 1 to 3 d after treatment.

  1. Moving From the Old to the New: Insecticide Research on Bed Bugs since the Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Romero

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of bed bugs in many countries over the last 50 years has resulted in a lack of modern research into the toxicology of this pest. Although bed bugs resurged in the late 1990s, published research related to insecticides has lagged behind and only began to appear in 2006. The difficulty in controlling bed bugs triggered the interest of both private and academic sectors to determine the value of currently available insecticides. What follows, is updated information on effectiveness of products, studies on insecticide susceptibility, identification of mechanisms of insecticide resistance and chemical strategies proposed to overcome resistance in modern bed bug populations.

  2. A methodology for quantitatively managing the bug fixing process using Mahalanobis Taguchi system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The controlling of bug fixing process during the system testing phase of software development life cycle is very important for fixing all the detected bugs within the scheduled time. The presence of open bugs often delays the release of the software or result in releasing the software with compromised functionalities. These can lead to customer dissatisfaction, cost overrun and eventually the loss of market share. In this paper, the authors propose a methodology to quantitatively manage the bug fixing process during system testing. The proposed methodology identifies the critical milestones in the system testing phase which differentiates the successful projects from the unsuccessful ones using Mahalanobis Taguchi system. Then a model is developed to predict whether a project is successful or not with the bug fix progress at critical milestones as control factors. Finally the model is used to control the bug fixing process. It is found that the performance of the proposed methodology using Mahalanobis Taguchi system is superior to the models developed using other multi-dimensional pattern recognition techniques. The proposed methodology also reduces the number of control points providing the managers with more options and flexibility to utilize the bug fixing resources across system testing phase. Moreover the methodology allows the mangers to carry out mid- course corrections to bring the bug fixing process back on track so that all the detected bugs can be fixed on time. The methodology is validated with eight new projects and the results are very encouraging.

  3. Effectiveness of a Sugar-Yeast Monitor and a Chemical Lure for Detecting Bed Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Effective bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) monitors have been actively sought in the past few years to help detect bed bugs and measure the effectiveness of treatments. Most of the available active monitors are either expensive or ineffective. We designed a simple and affordable active bed bug monitor that uses sugar-yeast fermentation and an experimental chemical lure to detect bed bugs. The sugar-yeast mixture released carbon dioxide at a similar rate (average 405.1 ml/min) as dry ice (average 397.0 ml/min) during the first 8 h after activation. In naturally infested apartments, the sugar-yeast monitor containing an experimental chemical lure (nonanal, L-lactic acid, 1-octen-3-ol, and spearmint oil) was equally effective as the dry ice monitor containing the same lure in trapping bed bugs. Placing one sugar-yeast monitor per apartment for 1-d was equally effective as 11-d placement of 6-18 Climbup insect interceptors (a commonly used bed bug monitor) under furniture legs for trapping bed bugs. When carbon dioxide was present, pair-wise comparisons showed the experimental lure increased trap catch by 7.2 times. This sugar-yeast monitor with a chemical lure is an affordable and effective tool for monitoring bed bugs. This monitor is especially useful for monitoring bed bugs where a human host is not present. PMID:26470258

  4. Posttreatment Feeding Affects Mortality of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Exposed to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide sprays and dusts are used for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. In natural environments, bed bugs have daily access to hosts after they are exposed to insecticides. The established laboratory insecticide bioassay protocols do not provide feeding after insecticide treatments, which can result in inflated mortality compared with what would be encountered in the field. We evaluated the effect of posttreatment feeding on mortality of bed bugs treated with different insecticides. None of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the amount of blood consumed and percent feeding. The effect of posttreatment feeding on bed bug mortality varied among different insecticides. Feeding significantly reduced mortality in bed bugs exposed to deltamethrin spray, an essential oil mixture (Bed Bug Fix) spray, and diatomaceous earth dust. Feeding increased the mean survival time for bed bugs treated with chlorfenapyr spray and a spray containing an essential oil mixture (Ecoraider), but did not affect the final mortality. First instars hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray had reduced feeding compared with nymphs hatched from nontreated eggs. Those nymphs hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray and successfully fed had reduced mortality and a higher mean survival time than those without feeding. We conclude that the availability of a bloodmeal after insecticide exposure has a significant effect on bed bug mortality. Protocols for insecticide efficacy testing should consider offering a bloodmeal to the treated bed bugs within 1 to 3 d after treatment. PMID:26494709

  5. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae from a hypersaline environment in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huyse Tine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea. A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas. Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2. This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt. Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide

  6. The eyelid sign: a clue to bed bug bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Kim A; Zaenglein, Andrea L

    2014-01-01

    In pediatric patients, determining the culprit insect in arthropod assaults can be challenging. The patient's history may be vague, the causative insect may not be readily associated with the bites, and the clinical appearance of bites can be variable. Six pediatric patients from the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center dermatology offices with bed bug bites were identified. All had bites involving the face, trunk, and extremities. Five patients demonstrated papules on one upper eyelid associated with erythema and edema. One patient had papules on both upper eyelids. When an arthropod assault is suspected, the "eyelid sign," i.e., bites involving the upper eyelid associated with erythema and edema, may point to bed bugs. PMID:24649832

  7. Bed bugs evolved unique adaptive strategy to resist pyrethroid insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Zhu; Hemant Gujar; Jennifer R. Gordon; Haynes, Kenneth F; Michael F. Potter; Palli, Subba R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have facilitated a genome-wide analysis of the insecticide resistance-associated genes in insects. Through bed bug, Cimex lectularius transcriptome analysis, we identified 14 molecular markers associated with pyrethroid resistance. Our studies revealed that most of the resistance-associated genes functioning in diverse mechanisms are expressed in the epidermal layer of the integument, which could prevent or slow down the toxin from reac...

  8. True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusanka Jerinic-Prodanovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839, A. confusus Reuter, 1884, A. nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794, A. nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761, Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, O. minutus (Linnaeus, 1758 and O. niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843, Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862, D. ruber (Linnaeus, 1758, D. lutescens (Schilling, 1836, Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763, Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888, Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758, Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Ps. quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Ps. flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843. The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants.

  9. Learning from Mistakes --- A Comprehensive Study on Real World Concurrency Bug Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reality of multi-core hardware has made concurrent programs pervasive. Unfortunately, writing correct concurrent programs is difficult. Addressing this challenge requires advances in multiple directions, including concurrency bug detection, concurrent program testing, concurrent programming model design, etc. Designing effective techniques in all these directions will significantly benefit from a deep understanding of real world concurrency bug characteristics. This paper provides the first (to the best of our knowledge) comprehensive real world concurrency bug characteristic study. Specifically, we have carefully examined concurrency bug patterns, manifestation, and fix strategies of 105 randomly selected real world concurrency bugs from 4 representative server and client opensource applications (MySQL, Apache, Mozilla and OpenOffice). Our study reveals several interesting findings and provides useful guidance for concurrency bug detection, testing, and concurrent programming language design. Some of our findings are as follows: (1) Around one third of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs are caused by violation to programmers order intentions, which may not be easily expressed via synchronization primitives like locks and transactional memories; (2) Around 34% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs involve multiple variables, which are not well addressed by existing bug detection tools; (3) About 92% of the examined concurrency bugs can be reliably triggered by enforcing certain orders among no more than 4 memory accesses. This indicates that testing concurrent programs can target at exploring possible orders among every small groups of memory accesses, instead of among all memory accesses; (4) About 73% of the examined non-deadlock concurrency bugs were not fixed by simply adding or changing locks, and many of the fixes were not correct at the first try, indicating the difficulty of reasoning concurrent execution by programmers.

  10. WYSIWIB: A Declarative Approach to Finding Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Brunel, Julien Pierre Manuel; Hansen, Rene Rydhof;

    2008-01-01

    Although a number of approaches to finding bugs in systems code have been proposed, bugs still remain to be found. Current approaches have emphasized scalability more than usability, and as a result it is difficult to relate the results to particular patterns found in the source code and to contr...

  11. WYSIWYB: A Declarative Approach to Finding API Protocols and Bugs in Linux Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia; Palix, Nicolas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof;

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of approaches to finding bugs in systems code have been proposed, bugs still remain to be found. Current approaches have emphasized scalability more than usability, and as a result it is difficult to relate the results to particular patterns found in the source code and to contr...

  12. Real-Time Measurement of Volatile Chemicals Released by Bed Bugs during Mating Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund; Liu, Dezhao; Adamsen, Anders Peter

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) problems have increased dramatically in many parts of the world, leading to a renewed interest in their chemical ecology. Most studies of bed bug semiochemicals have been based on the collection of volatiles over a period of time followed by chemical...

  13. Behavioral Responses of the Bed Bug to Permethrin-Impregnated ActiveGuard™ Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Harrison

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ActiveGuard™ Mattress Liners have been used to control house dust mites, and they also are commercially available as an integrated pest management tool for use against bed bugs (Cimex lectularius. The aim of our study was to evaluate responses of numerous populations of the bed bug to the permethrin-impregnated fabric, with particular regard to contact toxicity, repellency, and feeding inhibition. Continuous exposure to ActiveGuard fabric resulted in rapid intoxication for three of four populations, with 87 to 100% of moderately pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible bed bugs succumbing by 1 d. In comparison, a highly resistant population reached 22% mortality at 10 d. Video data revealed that bed bugs readily traversed ActiveGuard fabric and spent a considerable amount of time moving about and resting on it during a 12-h period. ActiveGuard fabric was non-repellent to bed bugs from five tested populations. Furthermore, significantly fewer bed bugs successfully fed to repletion through ActiveGuard fabric than through blank fabric for the five populations. With just 30 min of feeding exposure, mortality ranged from 4% to 83%, depending upon the bed bug strain. These laboratory studies indicate that ActiveGuard liners adversely affected bed bugs from diverse populations.

  14. Comparing Fine-Grained Source Code Changes And Code Churn For Bug Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giger, E.; Pinzger, M.; Gall, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of research effort has been dedicated to learning prediction models that allow project managers to efficiently allocate resources to those parts of a software system that most likely are bug-prone and therefore critical. Prominent measures for building bug prediction models are

  15. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  16. Influence of buffalograss management practices on Western chinch bug and its beneficial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Jeffrey; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Baxendale, Frederick; Gaussoin, Roch; Frank, Kevin; Young, Linda

    2007-02-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to document the influence of selected buffalograss, Buchloë dactyloides (Nuttall) Engelmann, management practices (three mowing heights and five nitrogen levels) on the seasonal abundance of the western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae), and its beneficial arthropods. Vacuum, pitfall, and sticky traps samples were collected every 14 d from the middle of May through October from western chinch bug-resistant ('Prestige') and -susceptible ('378') buffalograss management plots. In total, 27,374 and 108,908 western chinch bugs were collected in vacuum and pitfall traps, respectively. More than 78% of all western chinch bugs were collected from the highly susceptible buffalograss 378. Significantly more bigeyed bugs (Geocoridae: Geocoris spp.) were collected from the 378 buffalograsss management plots than the Prestige plots. In contrast, buffalograss cultivar had little influence on the abundance of other beneficial arthropods collected. Statistically, western chinch bugs were least abundant at the lowest mowing height (2.5 cm) and increased in abundance with increasing fertility. Numerically, however, differences among management levels on western chinch bug abundance were minimal. Numerous beneficial arthropods were collected from buffalograss management plots, including spiders, predatory ants, ground beetles (Carabidae), rove beetles (Staphylinidae), bigeyed bugs, and several species of hymenopterous parasitoids. In general, beneficial arthropods were essentially unaffected by either mowing height or nitrogen level. Scelionid wasps represented 66.3% of the total parasitoids collected. The total number of scelionid wasps collected among the three mowing heights and five nitrogen levels were approximately equal. PMID:17370821

  17. Genome assembly and geospatial phylogenomics of the bed bug Cimex lectularius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A.; Reeves, Darryl; Brugler, Mercer R.; Narechania, Apurva; Simon, Sabrina; Durrett, Russell; Foox, Jonathan; Shianna, Kevin; Schatz, Michael C.; Gandara, Jorge; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Lam, Ernest T.; Hastie, Alex R.; Chan, Saki; Cao, Han; Saghbini, Michael; Kentsis, Alex; Planet, Paul J.; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Tessler, Michael; Baker, Richard; DeSalle, Rob; Sorkin, Louis N.; Kolokotronis, Sergios Orestis; Siddall, Mark E.; Amato, George; Mason, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) has been a persistent pest of humans for thousands of years, yet the genetic basis of the bed bug's basic biology and adaptation to dense human environments is largely unknown. Here we report the assembly, annotation and phylogenetic mapping of the 697.9-Mb

  18. Vision in the common bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): eye morphology and spectral sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs as pests of public health importance recently experienced a resurgence in populations throughout the U.S. and other countries. Consequently, recent research efforts have focused on improving understanding of bed bug physiology and behavior to improve management. While few studies have inves...

  19. Using Single Sensillum Recording to Detect Olfactory Neuron Responses of Bed Bugs to Semiochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2016-01-01

    The insect olfactory system plays an important role in detecting semiochemicals in the environment. In particular, the antennal sensilla which house single or multiple neurons inside, are considered to make the major contribution in responding to the chemical stimuli. By directly recording action potential in the olfactory sensillum after exposure to stimuli, single sensillum recording (SSR) technique provides a powerful approach for investigating the neural responses of insects to chemical stimuli. For the bed bug, which is a notorious human parasite, multiple types of olfactory sensillum have been characterized. In this study, we demonstrated neural responses of bed bug olfactory sensilla to two chemical stimuli and the dose-dependent responses to one of them using the SSR method. This approach enables researchers to conduct early screening for individual chemical stimuli on the bed bug olfactory sensilla, which would provide valuable information for the development of new bed bug attractants or repellents and benefits the bed bug control efforts. PMID:26862929

  20. Mark-Release-Recapture Reveals Extensive Movement of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L. within and between Apartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cooper

    Full Text Available Understanding movement and dispersal of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. under field conditions is important in the control of infestations and for managing the spread of bed bugs to new locations. We investigated bed bug movement within and between apartments using mark-release-recapture (m-r-r technique combined with apartment-wide monitoring using pitfall-style interceptors. Bed bugs were collected, marked, and released in six apartments. The distribution of marked and unmarked bed bugs in these apartments and their 24 neighboring units were monitored over 32 days. Extensive movement of marked bed bugs within and between apartments occurred regardless of the number of bed bugs released or presence/absence of a host. Comparison of marked and unmarked bed bug distributions confirms that the extensive bed bug activity observed was not an artifact of the m-r-r technique used. Marked bed bugs were recovered in apartments neighboring five of six m-r-r apartments. Their dispersal rates at 14 or 15 d were 0.0-5.0%. The estimated number of bed bugs per apartment in the six m-r-r apartments was 2,433-14,291 at 4-7 d after release. Longevity of bed bugs in the absence of a host was recorded in a vacant apartment. Marked large nymphs (3rd- 5th instar, adult females, and adult males continued to be recovered up to 57, 113, and 134 d after host absence, respectively. Among the naturally existing unmarked bed bugs, unfed small nymphs (1st- 2nd instar were recovered up to 134 d; large nymphs and adults were still found at 155 d when the study ended. Our findings provide important insight into the behavioral ecology of bed bugs in infested apartments and have significant implications in regards to eradication programs and managing the spread of bed bugs within multi-occupancy dwellings.

  1. Mark-Release-Recapture Reveals Extensive Movement of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) within and between Apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2015-01-01

    Understanding movement and dispersal of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) under field conditions is important in the control of infestations and for managing the spread of bed bugs to new locations. We investigated bed bug movement within and between apartments using mark-release-recapture (m-r-r) technique combined with apartment-wide monitoring using pitfall-style interceptors. Bed bugs were collected, marked, and released in six apartments. The distribution of marked and unmarked bed bugs in these apartments and their 24 neighboring units were monitored over 32 days. Extensive movement of marked bed bugs within and between apartments occurred regardless of the number of bed bugs released or presence/absence of a host. Comparison of marked and unmarked bed bug distributions confirms that the extensive bed bug activity observed was not an artifact of the m-r-r technique used. Marked bed bugs were recovered in apartments neighboring five of six m-r-r apartments. Their dispersal rates at 14 or 15 d were 0.0-5.0%. The estimated number of bed bugs per apartment in the six m-r-r apartments was 2,433-14,291 at 4-7 d after release. Longevity of bed bugs in the absence of a host was recorded in a vacant apartment. Marked large nymphs (3rd- 5th instar), adult females, and adult males continued to be recovered up to 57, 113, and 134 d after host absence, respectively. Among the naturally existing unmarked bed bugs, unfed small nymphs (1st- 2nd instar) were recovered up to 134 d; large nymphs and adults were still found at 155 d when the study ended. Our findings provide important insight into the behavioral ecology of bed bugs in infested apartments and have significant implications in regards to eradication programs and managing the spread of bed bugs within multi-occupancy dwellings. PMID:26352145

  2. The chemical volatiles (semiochemicals) produced by neo tropical stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Maria C.B.; Pareja, Martin; Laumann, Raul A.; Borges, Miguel [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo Tematico Controle Biologico

    2008-09-15

    In recent years the growing concern about environmental changes and how we are using the natural resources have triggered a search for natural products as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The stink bugs produce a wide variety of chemical compounds (semiochemicals) that show potential to manage these insects. The stink bugs Chinavia impicticornis (Stal), C. ubica (Rolston), Dichelops melacanthus (Dallas), Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Thyanta perditor (Westwood) and Tibraca limbativentris (Stal) had their blends of defensive compounds evaluated both qualitative and quantitatively. The main compounds identified on the glands of Brazilian stink bugs are: 2-alkenals, mainly the E isomer; saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons; and 4 oxo-(E)-2-alkenals. The first sex attractant determined from a stink bug was obtained from Nezara viridula L., and consists on a mix of two isomers cis - and trans bisabolene-epoxides. Later the soybean stink bug E. heros was also studied and its sex attractant was identified as three esters methyl: 2,6,10-trimethyl decanoate, methyl 2,6,10-trimethyl dodecanoate, and methyl E2, Z4-decadienoate. Recently, three new Brazilian sting bugs were studied and had their sex attractant elucidated. Males of T. perditor produce the ester, methyl 2E, 4Z, 6Z-decatrienoate. Whereas, the stink bug, P. guildinii has as sexual pheromone, the sesquiterpene beta-sesqui phellandrene, and the stink bug T. limbativentris produces as sex attractant the zingiberenol. In this review we discuss the advances obtained on the behaviour and identification of sex and defensive compound of stink bugs from Brazilian crops and the application of this knowledge to manage the stink bugs. (author)

  3. Diffusion Rates and Dispersal Patterns of Unfed versus Recently Fed Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Goddard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug problems have been increasing since the 1980s, and accordingly, there have been intensive efforts to better understand their biology and behavior for control purposes. Understanding bed bug diffusion rates and dispersal patterns from one site to another (or lack thereof is a key component in prevention and control campaigns. This study analyzed diffusion rates and dispersal patterns in a population of bed bugs, recently fed and unfed, in both one-dimensional and two-dimensional settings. When placed in the middle of a 71 cm × 2.7 cm artificial lane, approximately half of the bugs regardless of feeding status stayed at or near the release point during the 10 min observation periods, while about a fourth of them walked to the end of the lane. When placed in the middle of an arena measuring 51 cm × 76 cm and allowed to walk in any direction, approximately one-fourth of bed bugs, fed or unfed, still remained near their release point (no significant difference between fed or unfed. As for long-distance dispersal, 11/50 (22% of recently fed bed bugs moved as far as possible in the arena during the 10 min replications, while only 2/50 (4% unfed bed bugs moved to the maximum distance. This difference was significantly different (p < 0.0038, and indicates that unfed bed bugs did not move as far as recently fed ones. A mathematical diffusion model was used to quantify bed bug movements and an estimated diffusion rate range of 0.00006 cm2/s to 0.416 cm2/s was determined, which is almost no movement to a predicted root mean squared distance of approximately 19 cm per 10 min. The results of this study suggest that bed bugs, upon initial introduction into a new area, would have a difficult time traversing long distances when left alone to randomly disperse.

  4. Comparison of Three Bed Bug Management Strategies in a Low-Income Apartment Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. infestations are currently controlled by a variety of non-chemical and chemical methods. There have been few studies on the comparative effectiveness of these control techniques. We evaluated three bed bug management strategies in an apartment building: (1 non-chemical methods only (n = 9; (2 insecticides only (n = 6; and (3 integrated pest management including both non-chemical methods and insecticides (n = 9. The apartments were one-bedroom units occupied by seniors or people with disabilities. Bed bug numbers in each apartment were determined by visual inspection and/or installing intercepting devices under bed and sofa legs. The median (min, max bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and integrated pest management (IPM treatment were: 4 (1, 57, 19 (1, 250, and 14 (1, 219, respectively prior to the treatments. The apartments were retreated if found necessary during biweekly to monthly inspections. After 10 weeks, bed bugs were found to be eliminated from 67, 33, and 44% of the apartments in the three treatment groups, respectively. The final (after 10 weeks median (min, max bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and IPM treatment were: 0 (0, 134, 11.5 (0, 58, and 1 (0, 38, respectively. There were no significant differences in the speed of bed bug count reduction or the final bed bug counts. Lack of resident cooperation partially contributed to the failure in eliminating bed bugs from some of the apartments. Results of this study suggest that non-chemical methods can effectively eliminate bed bugs in lightly infested apartments.

  5. Doing bayesian data analysis a tutorial with R and BUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Kruschke, John K

    2011-01-01

    There is an explosion of interest in Bayesian statistics, primarily because recently created computational methods have finally made Bayesian analysis obtainable to a wide audience. Doing Bayesian Data Analysis, A Tutorial Introduction with R and BUGS provides an accessible approach to Bayesian data analysis, as material is explained clearly with concrete examples. The book begins with the basics, including essential concepts of probability and random sampling, and gradually progresses to advanced hierarchical modeling methods for realistic data. The text delivers comprehensive coverage of all

  6. The bugs book a practical introduction to Bayesian analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lunn, David; Best, Nicky; Thomas, Andrew; Spiegelhalter, David

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Probability and ParametersProbabilityProbability distributionsCalculating properties of probability distributionsMonte Carlo integrationMonte Carlo Simulations Using BUGSIntroduction to BUGSDoodleBUGSUsing BUGS to simulate from distributionsTransformations of random variablesComplex calculations using Monte CarloMultivariate Monte Carlo analysisPredictions with unknown parametersIntroduction to Bayesian InferenceBayesian learningPosterior predictive distributionsConjugate Bayesian inferenceInference about a discrete parameterCombinations of conjugate analysesBayesian and classica

  7. kin reaction to bed bugs bite reflecting erythema multiforme. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Andres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex spp. are wingless, hematophagous arthropods causing bites, which generates wide range of skin reaction and may be misdiagnosed with more serious disease as dermatitis herpetiformis, bullous pemphigoid or erythema multiforme. Differential diagnosis could be a challenge especially in western countries where bed bugs were forgotten since the Second World War. There are only a few reports of serious anaphylaxis after bed bugs exposition and the evidences about the role of bed bugs as vectors to some infectious diseases are not conclusive, but bites could be a source of physical ailments and psychological distress. We present a case of 24 year old female patient who had been bitten by bed bugs and primarily diagnosed with erythema multiforme. After releasing from hospitalization because of successful treatment patient developed another eruption of skin lesions, this time more characteristic to bed bugs bites during one day. The new diagnosis of bed bugs bites was confirmed with proving the presence of these arthropods in her rented apartment.

  8. The Influence of Roughness and Pyrethroid Formulations on Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L. Resting Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Hottel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two-choice tests were conducted to examine the effect of surface roughness on the resting preference of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., on copper, basswood, and acrylic materials. The influence of pyrethroid formulation applications on resting preferences was also evaluated. Bed bugs were given the choice of resting between two sanded halves of each material tested. One half was sanded with a P60 grit sandpaper and the other with a less rough P600 grit sandpaper. A significantly higher proportion of bed bugs chose to rest on the rougher P60 grit sanded half of all materials tested. Pyrethroid applications were made to either the P60 grit half or both halves of acrylic arenas and resting preferences were again assessed. Behavioral responses of bed bugs to pyrethroid formulation applications varied depending on the bed bug strain used and the formulation applied. Bed bugs would still rest on the P60 grit half when Suspend SC formulation (0.06% deltamethrin was applied; however, an avoidance response was observed from a bed bug strain susceptible to D-Force aerosol formulations (0.06% deltamethrin. The avoidance behavior is likely attributed to one, more than one, or even an interaction of multiple spray constituents and not the active ingredient.

  9. The Influence of Roughness and Pyrethroid Formulations on Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L.) Resting Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottel, Benjamin A; Pereira, Roberto M; Koehler, Philip G

    2015-01-01

    Two-choice tests were conducted to examine the effect of surface roughness on the resting preference of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., on copper, basswood, and acrylic materials. The influence of pyrethroid formulation applications on resting preferences was also evaluated. Bed bugs were given the choice of resting between two sanded halves of each material tested. One half was sanded with a P60 grit sandpaper and the other with a less rough P600 grit sandpaper. A significantly higher proportion of bed bugs chose to rest on the rougher P60 grit sanded half of all materials tested. Pyrethroid applications were made to either the P60 grit half or both halves of acrylic arenas and resting preferences were again assessed. Behavioral responses of bed bugs to pyrethroid formulation applications varied depending on the bed bug strain used and the formulation applied. Bed bugs would still rest on the P60 grit half when Suspend SC formulation (0.06% deltamethrin) was applied; however, an avoidance response was observed from a bed bug strain susceptible to D-Force aerosol formulations (0.06% deltamethrin). The avoidance behavior is likely attributed to one, more than one, or even an interaction of multiple spray constituents and not the active ingredient. PMID:26463196

  10. Diffusion Rates and Dispersal Patterns of Unfed versus Recently Fed Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Jerome; Caprio, Michael; Goddard, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Bed bug problems have been increasing since the 1980s, and accordingly, there have been intensive efforts to better understand their biology and behavior for control purposes. Understanding bed bug diffusion rates and dispersal patterns from one site to another (or lack thereof) is a key component in prevention and control campaigns. This study analyzed diffusion rates and dispersal patterns in a population of bed bugs, recently fed and unfed, in both one-dimensional and two-dimensional settings. When placed in the middle of a 71 cm × 2.7 cm artificial lane, approximately half of the bugs regardless of feeding status stayed at or near the release point during the 10 min observation periods, while about a fourth of them walked to the end of the lane. When placed in the middle of an arena measuring 51 cm × 76 cm and allowed to walk in any direction, approximately one-fourth of bed bugs, fed or unfed, still remained near their release point (no significant difference between fed or unfed). As for long-distance dispersal, 11/50 (22%) of recently fed bed bugs moved as far as possible in the arena during the 10 min replications, while only 2/50 (4%) unfed bed bugs moved to the maximum distance. This difference was significantly different (p bed bug movements and an estimated diffusion rate range of 0.00006 cm²/s to 0.416 cm²/s was determined, which is almost no movement to a predicted root mean squared distance of approximately 19 cm per 10 min. The results of this study suggest that bed bugs, upon initial introduction into a new area, would have a difficult time traversing long distances when left alone to randomly disperse. PMID:26466900

  11. Sexual selection of male parental care in giant water bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Okuda, Noboru; Kudo, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Paternal care can be maintained under sexual selection, if it helps in attracting more mates. We tested the hypothesis in two giant water bug species, Appasus major and Appasus japonicus, that male parental care is sexually selected through female preference for caring males. Females were given an opportunity to choose between two males. In the first test of female mate choice, one male carried eggs on its back, while the other did not. The egg status was switched between these two males in the second test. The experiment revealed that females of both species preferred caring males (i.e. egg-bearing) to non-caring males. Nonetheless, the female mate preference for egg-bearing males was stronger in A. major than in A. japonicus. Our results suggest that sexual selection plays an important role in maintaining elaborate paternal care in giant water bugs, but the importance of egg-bearing by males in female mate choice varies among species. PMID:27293778

  12. Sexual selection of male parental care in giant water bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Shin-Ya; Okuda, Noboru; Kudo, Shin-Ichi

    2016-05-01

    Paternal care can be maintained under sexual selection, if it helps in attracting more mates. We tested the hypothesis in two giant water bug species, Appasus major and Appasus japonicus, that male parental care is sexually selected through female preference for caring males. Females were given an opportunity to choose between two males. In the first test of female mate choice, one male carried eggs on its back, while the other did not. The egg status was switched between these two males in the second test. The experiment revealed that females of both species preferred caring males (i.e. egg-bearing) to non-caring males. Nonetheless, the female mate preference for egg-bearing males was stronger in A. major than in A. japonicus. Our results suggest that sexual selection plays an important role in maintaining elaborate paternal care in giant water bugs, but the importance of egg-bearing by males in female mate choice varies among species. PMID:27293778

  13. Insecticide resistance in the bed bug comes with a cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jennifer R; Potter, Michael F; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to new environmental stress is often associated with an alteration of one or more life history parameters. Insecticide resistant populations of insects often have reduced fitness relative to susceptible populations in insecticide free environments. Our previous work showed that three populations of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., evolved significantly increased levels of resistance to one product containing both β-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid insecticides with only one generation of selection, which gave us an opportunity to explore potential tradeoffs between life history parameters and resistance using susceptible and resistant strains of the same populations. Life history tables were compiled by collecting weekly data on mortality and fecundity of bugs from each strain and treatment throughout their lives. Selection led to a male-biased sex ratio, shortened oviposition period, and decreased life-time reproductive rate. Generation time was shortened by selection, a change that represents a benefit rather than a cost. Using these life history characteristics we calculated that there would be a 90% return to pre-selection levels of susceptibility within 2- 6.5 generations depending on strain. The significant fitness costs associated with resistance suggest that insecticide rotation or utilization of non-insecticidal control tactics could be part of an effective resistance management strategy. PMID:26039510

  14. Population structure, reproductive biology and feeding of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 in an Upper Paraná River tributary, Misiones, Argentina Estrutura populacional, biologia reprodutiva e alimentação de Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier, 1819 em um tributário do alto Rio Paraná, Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes María Hirt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The genus Astyanax is one of the richest in number of species and has one of the widest geographical distributions in Argentina, being possible to find in nine ichthyogeographic ecoregions. The aim of the present work was to analyze the population structure of Astyanax fasciatus in the Garupá Stream, Province of Misiones, Argentina, considering its distribution by size, standard length-total weight relationship and aspects of its reproductive and feeding biology; METHODS: A total of eight experimental fishing campaigns were carried out between September 2002 and May 2004, in agreement with the seasons of the year, using a set of gillnets; RESULTS: We captured a total of 386 individuals, 70% of which in the Middle Basin in autumn and winter. The following gonad stages were identified in both males and females: resting, maturing, mature and spawning. The highest gonadal activity corresponded to the autumn-winter period. The Middle Basin showed the highest capture of individuals in reproductive activity, thus reflecting the seasonality of spawning. The average fecundity was of 4000 oocytes, being 1100 µm the largest oocyte diameter. The mean standard length of the total catch was 99.3 mm and females reached larger sizes than males (P OBJETIVO: O gênero Astyanax é um dos mais ricos em número de espécies e tem uma das maiores distribuições geográficas na Argentina, sendo possível encontrar em nove ecorregiões ictiogeográfica. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar a estrutura populacional de Astyanax fasciatus no arroio Garupá, Província de Misiones, na Argentina, considerando a sua distribuição por tamanho, relação peso-padrão de comprimento total e aspectos de sua biologia reprodutiva e alimentação; MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas oito operações de pescaria sazonais, entre setembro de 2002 e maio de 2004, com uma bateria de redes de emalhar; RESULTADOS: Foram capturados 386 indivíduos, 70% na Bacia Média no outono e

  15. Effect of feeding status on mortality response of adult bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to some insecticide products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Campbell, Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    Fresh and aged residual deposits of several insecticide products were tested against bed bug adults to determine if a recent bloodmeal affected their mortality response to the residues. The bed bugs with a recent bloodmeal survived significantly longer compared with the unfed ones on their exposure to fresh or aged residual deposits of chlorfenapyr and aged residual deposits of deltamethrin on a wooden substrate. Even though the survival time of fed bed bugs was significantly longer than that of unfed ones on their exposure to fresh residue of deltamethrin and aged residue of desiccant pyrethrin dust, these treatments resulted in similarly high final mortalities regardless of feeding status of the insects. Mortality responses of fed and unfed bed bugs were similar to fresh or aged residual deposits of imidacloprid + cyfluthrin combination and fresh residual deposits of desiccant pyrethrin dust. Topical application assays indicated that a recent bloodmeal significantly increased the bed bug's survival time for chlorfenapyr, but not for deltamethrin. Pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs also showed a similar increase in their survival time for chlorfenapyr after a bloodmeal. The comparison of mortality responses between fed and unfed bed bugs treated with similar amount of chlorfenapyr per fresh body weight indicated that increased body mass was not the primary cause for this bloodmeal-induced tolerance increase for chlorfenapyr. Because the surviving bed bugs can continue ovipositing, the effectiveness of chlorfenapyr residual deposits in bed bug harborages could be significantly affected by the feeding status of the adult bed bug populations. PMID:25026684

  16. Horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.; hemiptera: cimicidae.

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    Yasmin Akhtar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. This phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. Since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: To demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in C. lectularius, an exposed (donor bed bug, following a 10-minute acquisition period, was placed with unexposed (recipient bed bugs. Mortality data clearly demonstrates that diatomaceous earth (DE 51 was actively transferred from a single exposed bug to unexposed bugs in a concentration dependent manner. LC50 values varied from 24.4 mg at 48 h to 5.1 mg at 216 h when a single exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs. LT50 values also exhibited a concentration response. LT50 values varied from 1.8 days to 8.4 days when a 'donor' bug exposed to 20 and 5 mg of dust respectively was placed with 5 'recipient' bugs. Dust was also actively transferred from adult bed bugs to the nymphs. In addition we observed horizontal transfer of botanical insecticides including neem, ryania, and rotenone to varying degrees. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data clearly demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, C. lectularius. Use of a fluorescent dust provided visual confirmation that contaminated bed bugs transfer dust to untreated bed bugs in harborage. This result is important because bedbugs live in hard-to-reach places and interaction between conspecifics can be exploited for delivery and dissemination of management products directed at this public health pest.

  17. The loss of genetic diversity during captive breeding of the endangered sculpin, Trachidermus fasciatus, based on ISSR markers: implications for its conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Xiaoxiao; YANG Qiaoli; GAO Tianxiang; LI Chuangju

    2011-01-01

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to determine the genetic variation and genetic differentiation of cultured and wild populations of Trachidermus fasciatus,an endangered catadromous fish species in China.Six selected primers were used to amplify DNA samples from 85 individuals,and 353 loci were detected.Relatively low genetic diversity was detected in the cultured population (the percentage of polymorphic loci PPL=73.80%,Nei's gene diversity h=0.178 2,Shannon information index I=0.276 9).However,the genetic diversity at the species level was relatively high (PPL=91.78%; h=0.258 3,I=0.398 6).The UPGMA tree grouped together the genotypes almost according to their cultured and wild origin,showing distinct differences in genetic structure between wild and cultured populations.The pairwise Fst values confirmed significant genetic differentiation between wild and cultured samples.The cultivated population seems to be low in genetic diversity as a result of detrimental genetic effects in the captive population.The results suggest that ISSR markers are effective for rapid assessment of the degree of diversity of a population,thus giving important topical information relevant to preserving endangered species.

  18. Dynamics and cytochemistry of oogenesis in Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier (Teleostei, Characiformes, Characidae from Rio Sapucaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    José Antônio Dias Garcia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oogenesis involves a set of transformations which are undergone by female germ cells These cells change into oogonias and then into mature oocytes. Sexually mature female fish were collected monthly, during one year, from the Sapucaí River, a tributary of the Rio Grande, which is part of the Furnas Reservoir in the state of Minas Gerais. During the several stages of maturation, we observed small round oogonias with a large nucleus, a single nucleolus, and weakly stained cytoplasm with eosinophilic granules. The primary oocytes showed a large basophilic nucleus, with a developed peripheral nucleolus and a reduced cytoplasm. The previtellogenic oocytes presented voluminous cytoplasm and nucleus with several small peripheral nucleoli. The oocytes underwent vitellogenesis with the development of the zona radiata and the follicle cells. Their cytochemical reactions indicated that the two layers of the zona radiata of A. fasciatus contained proteins and polysaccharides. The initially squamous follicle cells, became cuboidal. In mature oocytes, the nucleus moved toward the periphery, next to the micropyle, and the yolk granules formed by proteins, fulfilled the cytoplasm. The clear unstained vesicles are likely to be the cortical alveoli in the perivitelline region.

  19. Acute Toxicity of Mercuric Chloride (HgCl2, Lead Chloride (PbCl2 and Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4 on Silver Dollar Fish (Metynnis fasciatus

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    Ali Sadeghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since heavy metals can accumulate in the tissues of aquatic organisms, they can cause a range of hazardous effects which can become harmful to humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of some heavy metals as potential dangerous substances by assessing the mortality effects of Mercuric Chloride (HgCl2, Lead Chloride (PbCl2 and Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4 pollutants on a freshwater fish, silver dollar (Metynnis fasciatus. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of mercuric chloride (HgCl2, lead chloride (Pbcl2 and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4 for 96h and their cumulative mortality was calculated in 24h intervals. Results were analyzed by SPSS 16 to obtain number of cumulative mortality and lethal concentrations (LC10-99. Results: LC50-96h was 0.94±0.41ppm, 86.84±1.04ppm and 32.24±1.41ppm for mercuric chloride, lead chloride and zinc sulfate, respectively. So, mercury had the highest toxicity to silver dollar fish. Conclusion: Mercuric chloride and lead chloride has the lowest and highest rate of mortality among these tree metals on silver dollar fish; however, the mortality rate was increased with increasing concentrations of toxins with time.

  20. Rediscovery of the 220-year-old holotype of the Banded Iguana, Brachylophus fasciatus (Brongniart, 1800) in the Paris Natural History Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineich, Ivan; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Natural History Museum herpetological collection (MNHN-RA) has seven historical specimens of Brachylophus spp. collected late in the 18th and early in the 19th centuries. Brachylophus fasciatus was described in 1800 by Brongniart but its type was subsequently considered as lost and never present in MNHN-RA collections. We found that 220 year old holotype among existing collections, registered without any data, and we show that it was donated to MNHN-RA from Brongniart’s private collection after his death in 1847. It was registered in the catalogue of 1851 but without any data or reference to its type status. According to the coloration (uncommon midbody saddle-like dorsal banding pattern) and morphometric data given in its original description and in the subsequent examination of the type in 1802 by Daudin and in 1805 by Brongniart we found that lost holotype in the collections. Another MNHN-RA specimen has Horn Islands (Wallis and Futuna) as the collection location but we show that most of the collections given to MNHN-RA by its collector, Louis Arnoux, have mixed localities in the MNHN-RA catalogues. We thus conclude that the locality is wrong and that the species never inhabited those islands located west of Western Samoa and north-east of Fiji.

  1. Study on the pathogen of red-skin disease of Aerossocheilus fasciatus%光唇鱼赤皮病病原研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉明; 周志明; 潘晓艺

    2010-01-01

    浙江新昌某养殖场的光唇鱼(Aerossocheilus fasciatus)爆发赤皮病,发生大量死亡,从患病鱼肝脏中分离到菌株GCL100301,通过人工感染试验,确定该菌株为病原.通过生理生化和分子生物学鉴定,该菌株GCL100301被鉴定为荧光假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fluorescens).通过对该菌株的药物敏感试验,发现其对环丙沙星、新霉素敏感,对青霉素、复方新诺明、先锋V、新生霉素、痢特灵和头孢噻吩完全耐药.研究结果为光唇鱼病害防治提供了理论依据.

  2. Establishment of caudal fin cell lines from tropical ornamental fishes Puntius fasciatus and Pristolepis fasciata endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, T Raja; Basheer, V S; Gopalakrishnan, A; Rathore, Gaurav; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Kumar, Raj; Jena, J K

    2013-12-01

    Two new cell lines, PFF and CFF were established from the caudal fin of the Puntius fasciatus, and Pristolepis fasciata respectively. Since their initiation, these cell lines (PFF and CFF) have been subcultured in L-15 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum for more than 35 passages at 28°C and both the cell lines were characterized. Karyotyping analysis of PFF and CFF cells at 25th passage indicated that the modal chromosome number was 2n=50 and 2n=48 respectively. The cell line was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen at -196°C and could be recovered from storage after six months with good cell viability. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the fragments of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rRNA and COI confirmed that the cell lines originated from the respective species. The bacterial extracellular products from Vibrio cholerae MTCC3904 and Aeromonas hydrophila were found to be toxic to PFF and CFF. Both the cells were resistant to the marine viral nervous necrosis virus (VNNV). No CPE could be found in both cell lines inoculated with the fish samples and cell culture supernatants were demonstrated free of SVC, iridovirus and KHV by molecular methods. These results indicated the absence of SVC, iridovirus and KHV in the ornamental fishes collected from the Western Ghats of India.

  3. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B.; Adelman, Zach N.; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C.; Szuter, Elise M.; Hagan, Richard W.; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M.; Nelson, David R.; Rosendale, Andrew J.; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M.; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R.; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J. Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D.; Scharf, Michael E.; Peterson, Brittany F.; Raje, Kapil R.; Hottel, Benjamin A.; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Murali, Shwetha C.; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L.; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C.; Muzny, Donna M.; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A.; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Vargo, Edward L.; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Jones, Jeffery W.; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D.; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Werren, John H.; Palli, Subba R.; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host–symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human–bed bug and symbiont–bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite. PMID:26836814

  4. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B; Adelman, Zach N; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C; Szuter, Elise M; Hagan, Richard W; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M; Nelson, David R; Rosendale, Andrew J; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Scharf, Michael E; Peterson, Brittany F; Raje, Kapil R; Hottel, Benjamin A; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S T; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Murali, Shwetha C; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C; Muzny, Donna M; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M; Vargo, Edward L; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T; Anderson, Michelle A E; Jones, Jeffery W; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Robertson, Hugh M; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Gibbs, Richard A; Werren, John H; Palli, Subba R; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host-symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human-bed bug and symbiont-bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite. PMID:26836814

  5. 温度对条石鲷幼鱼代谢率、排泄率及窒息点的影响%Impacts of temperature on metabolic, excretion rate and asphyxiation point of juvenile Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宣雄; 徐善良; 沈庞幼; 谷江稳; 颜付云; 邵波

    2012-01-01

    采用静水密闭式呼吸仪,分别测定了13,18,23,28和33℃5个水温梯度下条石鲷Oplegnathus asciatus幼鱼的代谢率、排泄率及窒息点.结果表明:(1)不同温度条件下,条石鲷幼鱼的代谢率和排泄率差异显著(p<0.05);当温度由13℃升高至28℃时,条石鲷幼鱼的代谢率和排泄率均随之升高;当水温为28℃时,其代谢率和排泄率达最大值,分别为(16.33±0.45) J/(g·h)和(1.03±0.04) J/(g·h),是13℃实验组的6.69倍和5.15倍;与28℃实验组相比,33℃实验组的代谢率和排泄率分别降低了19.04%和15.53%,33℃已超出了条石鲷幼鱼生长的最高适温.(2)实验温度下,条石鲷幼鱼的蛋白质供能比值为37.94%~72.24%,蛋白质是其主要能源物质.(3)条石鲷幼鱼的窒息点为(3.17~3.64) mg/L,并随水温升高而升高.(4)Q10值和蛋白质供能比值的变化特征表明,18~28℃是条石鲷幼鱼的适宜生长温度.%The metabolic, excretion rates and asphyxiation point of juvenile Oplegnathus fasciatus of an average body mass of (0. 61±0.14) g were measured at five different water temperatures(13, 18, 23, 28 and 33 ℃)with hydrostatic-closed breathing apparatus. The results showed that: (1) The metabolic and excretion rates have significant difference at different water temperatures(p<0. 05); The metabolic and excretion rates increased by 6. 69 times and 5. 15 times with the water temperature rising from 13 ℃ to 28 ℃, and the maximum value at 28 ℃ is (16. 33±0. 45) J/(g · H) and (1. 03±0. 04) J/(g · H) respectively, but they decreased by 19. 04% and 15. 53% at high water temperature of 33 ℃ compared with those at 28 TZ, which shows that 33 ℃ has exceed the optimum temperature for juvenile O. Fasciatus which leads to the decrease of metabolic rate and then the excretion rate. (2)The change regularity of the Q10 values reflectes the optimum temperature range for the juvenile O. Fasciatus, from 13 ℃ to 33 ℃ the value of Q

  6. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil *

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these inse...

  7. Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Heat, and Chemical Lures in Attracting the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. monitors incorporating carbon dioxide (CO2, heat, and chemical lures are being used for detecting bed bugs; however, there are few reported studies on the effectiveness of chemical lures in bed bug monitors and the interactions among chemical lure, CO2, and heat. We screened 12 chemicals for their attraction to bed bugs and evaluated interactions among chemical lures, CO2, and heat. The chemical lure mixture consisting of nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, spearmint oil, and coriander Egyptian oil was found to be most attractive to bed bugs and significantly increased the trap catches in laboratory bioassays. Adding this chemical lure mixture when CO2 was present increased the trap catches compared with traps baited with CO2 alone, whereas adding heat did not significantly increase trap catches when CO2 was present. Results suggest a combination of chemical lure and CO2 is essential for designing effective bed bug monitors.

  8. A door-to-door survey of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in row homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-07-01

    We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012-2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. PMID:24799372

  9. Records of assassin bug species (reduviidae, heteroptera reported biting man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. Hartwig

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available In southern Africa Acanthaspis obscura Stal, Pirates conspurcatus Distant, Rhinocoris segmentarius (Germar and Panto-feistes pnnceps Stal intlict painful bites on humans. Serious consequences can develop. This is unknown to the public in general. Adult A. obscura and P. conspurcatus are responsible for the greatest number of bites because they are positively phototropic. R, segmentarius is not attracted to light but is the most common local species. Bites happen accidentally and could largely be avoided if the bugs could be recognized. The first three species have a wide distribution. Various insects are preyed on. The R. segmentarius female can lay 358 fertile eggs in six batches over a period of 77 days without copulating once in this period. Adults are most active in mid-summer although found throughout the year. These three species are abundant in some years and scarce in others. Preventive measures include screening homes and decoy lights. Control involves spraying with carbaryl.

  10. Effect of stocking density on the growth, feeding and behavior of Oplegnathus fasciatus%养殖密度对条石鲷生长、摄食和行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳敏海; 彭志兰; 张凤萍; 罗海忠; 傅荣兵; 李来国

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, We studied effect of the breeding density to the effect of Oplegnathus fasciatus in the growth, feeding and behaviour, at the water temperature of 23 - 24 ℃. The experiment was divided into four groups named D1 , D2, D3 and D4, the initial desentiy was 1,2,3,4 kg/m^3 , respectively. The results showed that the larval Oplegnathus fasciatus mortality increased sharply beacause of the long-term high density, which was disadvantageous to the lives of the larval Oplegnathus fasciatus. But at the low density, the larval Oplegnathus fasciatus growed very fast. While at the long-term high density the growth was very slow, the specific growth rate dropped sharply ( P 〈 0.05 ). During the whole test, the feeding rate was decreased with the increase of the density in each tested group,the food net efficiency was higher in low denstiy than that in high density. In the whole test,the food net efficiency of D1 was the highest, then D2 , D3 , D4. We found that 6 kg/m^3 was most suitable feeding denstiy of Oplegnathus fasciatus, while the density was higher than 9 kg/m^3 which was unsuitable to the growth of Oplegnathus fasciatus.%在水温23~24℃的条件下,研究了养殖密度对条石鲷生长、摄食和行为的影响。试验设置D1、D2、D3和D4共4个养殖密度组,初始密度分别为1、2、3、4 kg/m^3。结果表明:长期的密度胁迫导致条石鲷幼鱼死亡率急剧升高,长期高密度养殖不利于条石鲷的存活。低密度条件下,条石鲷幼鱼生长迅速。长期高密度的胁迫下生长非常缓慢,特殊生长率显著下降(P〈0.05)。在整个试验过程中,各试验组的摄食率随着密度的逐步增加而逐渐减少;食物转化率在低密度时较高,整个试验阶段的食物转化率D1〉D2〉D3〉D4。条石鲷最适宜养殖密度在6 kg/m^3左右,密度达到9 kg/m^3后不适宜条石鲷的生长。研究亮点:目前国内外有关条石鲷养殖密度对摄食和生长的影响报道

  11. 条石鲷(Oplegnathus fasciatus)发育早期的脂肪酸组成变化研究*%THE STUDY OF FATTY ACID COMPONENTS IN EARLY DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE OF OPLEGNATHUS FASCIATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐善良; 王亚军; 王丹丽; 严小军

    2013-01-01

      采用GC/MS法分析了条石鲷(Oplegnathus fasciatus)的未受精卵、胚胎、仔鱼、稚鱼及幼鱼各阶段的脂肪酸组成特点及含量变动,旨在研究条石鲷发育早期脂肪酸的组成和变化规律。共检测到28种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸(SFA)13种,单不饱和脂肪酸(MUFA)7种,多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)8种。结果表明:(1)鱼卵中主要脂肪酸依次为 C16:0、C22:6(n-3)(DHA)、C20:5(n-3)(EPA)和C18:1(n-9)(油酸);(2)胚胎及内源性营养阶段,主要利用C16:0、C18:0以及C18:1作为能量来源, EPA和 DHA 被优先保存下来;(3)摄食轮虫和桡足类 AA、EPA、DHA 含量显著提高,摄食卤虫则C18:1(n-9)、C18:2(n-6)及C18:3(n-3)含量迅速增加;(4)在稚鱼期必需脂肪酸AA、DHA含量不足,而EPA过高,可能引起细胞膜磷脂中DHA与EPA比例失衡,出现稚鱼“死亡高峰”。%In order to investigate the fatty acid composition and changes of Oplegnathus fasciatus in early development, the total lipid and fatty acids composition of O. fasciatus in different developmental stages (unfertilized eggs, embryos, larval, juvenile, young) were measured by means of GC/MS. The O. fasciatus was sampled from the Hengma mariculture base of Ningbo Marine and Fisheries Research Institute, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province in May 2009. As a result, Twenty-eight fatty acids were detected in O. fasciatus, including 13 saturated fatty acids (SFA), 7 single unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 8 poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Found the following characteristics:(1) The major fatty acids in eggs followed by C16:0, C22:6 (n-3) (DHA), C20:5 (n-3) (EPA) and C18:1 (n-9) (oleic acid), and the content of C16:0 was topped in each stage; (2) C16:0, C18:0 (SFA) and C18:1 (MUFA) were main source of energy metabolism during embryos and internal nutrition, while the DHA and EPA were preferentially preserved; (3) Feeding rotifers and copepods can significantly im-prove the

  12. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) Infestations in Apartment Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Cooper, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F.) are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate) compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid). After 12 weeks, the three treatments-EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents' self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:26462944

  13. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius Infestations in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid. After 12 weeks, the three treatments—EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents’ self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance.

  14. Insect radiosensitivity: dose curves and dose-fractionation studies of dominant lethal mutations in the mature sperm of 4 insect species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, L.E.; Graham, C.K. (Department of Agriculture, Fargo, ND (USA))

    1984-06-01

    Males of 4 species of insects: Musca domestica L. (housefly) (Diptera), Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (milkweed bug) (Hemiptera), Anagasta kuhniella (Zeller) (mealmoth) (Lepidoptera) and Heliothis virescens (Fab.) (tobacco budworm) (Lepidoptera) were irradiated as adults. Dose-response curves for the induction of dominant lethal mutations in the mature sperm were constructed. The curves were analyzed mathematically and compared with theoretical computer simulated curves requiring 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 'hits' for the induction of a dominant lethal mutation. The 4 species belonging to 3 different orders of insects showed a wide range in radiation sensitivity and vastly different dose-response curves. When the data were analyzed by several mathematical models the authors found that a logistic response curve gave reasonably good fit with vastly different parameters for the 4 species. Dose-fractionation experiments showed no reduction in the frequency of lethal mutations induced in any species when an acute dose was fractionated into 2 equal exposures separated by an 8-h period.

  15. An assessment of beaked redfish (S. mentella and S. fasciatus) in NAFO division 3M (with an approach to the likely impact of recent 3M cod growth on redfish natural mortality)

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila de Melo, A.; SABORIDO-REY Fran; González-Troncoso, Diana; Pochtar, Maria; Alpoim, R. (Ricardo)

    2011-01-01

    The 3M redfish assessment is focused on the beaked redfish, regarded as a management unit composed of two populations from two very similar species: the Flemish Cap S. mentella and S. fasciatus. The reason for this approach is the historical dominance of this group in the 3M redfish commercial catch until 2005. However a new golden redfish fishery (S. marinus) started on September 2005 on shallower depths of the Flemish Cap bank above 300m. This new reality implied a revision of c...

  16. Complement factor D homolog involved in the alternative complement pathway of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus): Molecular and functional characterization and immune responsive mRNA expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godahewa, G I; Perera, N C N; Bathige, S D N K; Nam, Bo-Hye; Noh, Jae Koo; Lee, Jehee

    2016-08-01

    The complement system serves conventional role in the innate defense against common invading pathogens. Complement factor D (CfD) is vital to alternative complement pathway activation in cleaving complement factor B. This catalytic reaction forms the alternative C3 convertase that is crucial for complement-mediated pathogenesis. In this study, rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) CfD (OfCfD) was characterized and OfCfD mRNA expression was investigated. OfCfD encodes 277 amino acids (aa) for a 30-kDa polypeptide. A domain analysis of the deduced OfCfD aa sequence showed a single serine protease trypsin superfamily domain, a serine active region, three active sites, and three substrate-binding sites. Pairwise sequence comparisons indicated that OfCfD has the highest identity (84.5%) with Oreochromis niloticus CfD. The phylogenetic tree revealed a common ancestral origin of CfD members, with fish CfD distinct from other vertebrate orthologs. The structural arrangement of the OfCfD gene (2451 bp) contained five exons interrupted by four introns. A spatial transcriptional analysis indicated that OfCfD transcripts constitutively expressed in all of the examined rock bream tissues, and that they were highest in the spleen and liver. In addition, OfCfD transcripts were immunologically upregulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (12 h p.i.), Streptococcus iniae (12 h p.i.), rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) (6-12 h p.i.), and poly I:C (6 h p.i.) in spleen tissue. OfCfD is a trypsin protease and its recombinant protein showed strong protease activity similar to that of trypsin, indicating its catalytic function in the alternative pathway. Together, our findings suggest that OfCfD might be involved in immune responses in rock bream. PMID:27311435

  17. Effects of various LED light spectra on antioxidant and immune response in juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus exposed to bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Oh, Sung-Yong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in plastics and plasticizers. As an environmental toxin included in industrial wastewater, it contaminates the aquatic environment and is known to cause endocrine disruption in fish. Particular wavelengths of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are known to affect the endocrine regulation of fish. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of green and red LED light on the antioxidant and immune systems in juvenile rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) exposed to BPA. We used green and red LED exposure at two intensities (0.3 and 0.5W/m(2)) for 1, 3, and 5 days. We measured liver mRNA expression and plasma levels of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and caspase-3. Furthermore, we measured plasma levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lipid peroxidation (LPO), melatonin, and immunoglobulin M (IgM). DNA damage and apoptotic activity were measured using comet and terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays, respectively. We found that SOD, H2O2, and LPO increased significantly, whereas melatonin and IgM decreased significantly, suggesting that BPA induces oxidative stress and reduces immune function. Likewise, both DNA damage and apoptotic activity increased following BPA exposure. However, we found that exposure to green LED light effectively reduced the detrimental effects induced by BPA, including decreasing DNA damage, apoptotic activity, SOD mRNA expression, and plasma levels of SOD, H2O2, and LPO. Likewise, the plasma levels of melatonin and IgM increased. Thus, our results indicate that green light conditions effectively reduces oxidative stress and promotes the immune function in juvenile rock bream. PMID:27299659

  18. Application of agriculture-developed demographic analysis for the conservation of the Hawaiian alpine wekiu bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiben, Jesse; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Insects that should be considered for conservation attention are often overlooked because of a lack of data. The detailed information necessary to assess population growth, decline, and maximum range is particularly difficult to acquire for rare and cryptic species. Many of these difficulties can be overcome with the use of life table analyses and heat energy accumulation models common in agriculture. The wekiu bug (Nysius wekiuicola), endemic to the summit of one volcanic mountain in Hawaii, is a rare insect living in an environmentally sensitive alpine stone desert, where field-based population assessments would be inefficient or potentially detrimental to natural and cultural resources. We conducted laboratory experiments with the insects by manipulating rearing temperatures of laboratory colonies and made detailed observations of habitat conditions to develop life tables representing population growth parameters and environmental models for wekiu bug phenology and demographic change. Wekiu bugs developed at temperatures only found in its environment on sunny days and required the thermal buffer found on cinder cones for growth and population increase. Wekiu bugs required approximately 3.5 months to complete one generation. The bug developed optimally from 26 to 30 °C, temperatures that are much higher than the air temperature attains in its elevational range. The developmental temperature range of the species confirmed a physiological reason why the wekiu bug is only found on cinder cones. This physiology information can help guide population monitoring and inform habitat restoration and conservation. The wekiu bug was a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, and the developmental parameters we quantified were used to determine the species would not be listed as endangered or threatened. The use of developmental threshold experiments, life table analyses, and degree day modeling can directly inform otherwise unobservable habitat needs and

  19. Long-Term Efficacy of Various Natural or “Green” Insecticides against Bed Bugs: A Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Goddard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are resurging throughout the world, and, thus, effective pest control strategies are constantly needed. A few studies have evaluated 25(b and other natural, or so-called “green” products, as well as over-the-counter insecticides for bed bugs, but additional studies are needed to determine efficacy of bed bug control products. This double-blinded research project was initiated to examine long-term effectiveness of six commercially available natural or “green” insecticides against bed bugs and to compare them with three known traditional residual products. Water was used as a control. Products were evaluated against both susceptible and resistant strains of bed bugs (1200 bugs each, and two different substrates were used. Temprid® (Bayer Corporation, Monheim, Germany, Transport® (FMC Corp., Philadelphia, PA, USA, Invader® (FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA USA, Cimexa® (Rockwell Laboratories, Kansas City, MO, USA, and BBT-2000® (Swepe-Tite LLC, Tupelo, MS, USA were the only products which showed any substantial (>40% bed bug control upon exposure to treated substrates after the six-month waiting period, although results with the resistant bed bug strain were much reduced. Alpine dust® (BASF Corporation, Florham Park, NJ, USA killed 27% of bed bugs or less, depending on strain and substrate. EcoRaider® (North Bergen, NJ, USA and Mother Earth D® (Whitmire Microgen, Florham Park, NJ, USA (diatomaceous earth produced 11% control or less. Cimi-Shield Protect® (Pest Barrier, Carson, CA, USA showed no activity against bed bugs in this study. Analysis using SAS software showed a three-way interaction between treatment, substrate, and bed bug strain (Numerator DF 9; Denominator DF 80; F = 4.90; p < 0.0001.

  20. Improved Algorithm Based on the Parallel Main Line of BUG Theory%基于 BUG 理论的平行主线改进算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓辉; 丁洪伟; 王梦瑶; 赵一帆

    2016-01-01

    基于 Pioneer3机器人平台提出一种未知环境中的机器人路径规划的改进算法。在 BUG 理论的基础上,通过先锋机器人实时读取机器人角度偏差的能力,即时重新规划机器人到达目标点的路线。改进算法缩短了 BUG 理论中的运动路径,提高了机器人避障的效率。%One of the improved algorithms for robot path planning in an unknown environment is proposed in this paper under the background in Pioneer3 robot platform.Based on the BUG theory and using the ability to read real time deviation of robot angle by pio-neer robot,the robot plans a rode to reach the goal point immediately.The improved algorithm reduces the motion path in the BUG theory and improves the efficiency of the robot obstacle avoidance.

  1. Oviposition and Sex Ratio of the Redbanded Stink Bug, Piezodorous guildinii, in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Joshua H; Davis, Jeffrey A; Hardke, Jarrod T; Price, Paul P; Leonard, B Rogers

    2016-01-01

    Redbanded stink bug, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), is a significant soybean pest across the mid-south region of the United States. The objectives of these studies were to characterize: (1) redbanded stink bug oviposition in relationship to soybean maturity group (MG), plant structure, crop phenology, and vertical distribution within the plant canopy; and (2) redbanded stink bug adult sex ratios in relationship to soybean phenology. A total of 5645 redbanded stink bug eggs in 421 egg masses (clusters) were field collected from naturally-occurring populations in MG IV and V soybean over a three year period (2009 to 2011). The mean number of eggs within a cluster was 16.6 ± 0.3. Plant structures by MG interactions were highly significant with more egg masses oviposited on leaves in MG IV (79.4%) and more on pods in MG V (72.7%). The ratio of females to males was similar in all soybean growth stages except R5, where the sex ratio increased to 1.4:1, coinciding with peak oviposition. Only 29.9% of egg clusters in MG IV and 18.3% of egg clusters in MG V were oviposited in the upper 35 cm of the soybean canopy. Based on these results, sampling strategies and insecticide application placement for stink bugs may require modification. PMID:27322333

  2. Chemically Mediated Arrestment of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, by Volatiles Associated with Exuviae of Conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hwan Choe

    Full Text Available Extracts of the exuviae (cast skins of nymphal bed bugs (Cimex lectularius were analyzed for volatile compounds that might contribute to arrestment of adult bed bugs. Four volatile aldehydes, (E-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal, (E-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal were consistently detected in the headspace of freshly shed exuviae regardless of the developmental stages from which the exuviae were obtained. Quantification of the aldehydes in the solvent extracts of homogenized fresh, 45- or 99-d aged 5th instar exuviae indicated that the aldehydes are present in the exuviae and dissipate over time, through evaporation or degradation. Microscopic observation of the fifth instar exuviae indicated that the dorsal abdominal glands on the exuviae maintained their pocket-like structures with gland reservoirs, within which the aldehydes might be retained. Two-choice olfactometer studies with the volatiles from exuviae or a synthetic blend mimicking the volatiles indicated that adult bed bugs tend to settle close to sources of the aldehydes. Our results imply that the presence and accumulation of bed bug exuviae and the aldehydes volatilizing from the exuviae might mediate bed bugs' interaction with their microhabitats.

  3. A Tool for Testing of Inheritance Related Bugs in Object Oriented Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Geetha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Object oriented software development different from traditional development products. In object oriented software polymorphism, inheritance, dynamic binding are the important features. An inheritance property is the main feature. The compilers usually detect the syntax oriented errors only. Some of the property errors may be located in the product. Data flow testing is an appropriate testing method for testing program futures. This test analysis structure of the software and gives the flow of property. This study is designed to detect the hidden errors with reference to the inheritance property. Inputs of the tool are set of classes and packages. Outputs of the tools are hierarchies of the classes, methods, attributes and a set of inheritance related bugs like naked access, spaghetti inheritance bugs are automatically detected by the tool. The tool is developed as three major modules. They are code analysis, knowledge base preparation and bugs analysis. The code analysis module is designed to parse extract details from the code. The knowledge base preparation module is designed to prepare the knowledge base about the program details. The bug's analysis module is designed to extract bugs related information from the database. It is a static testing. This study focused on Java programs.

  4. Ecological patterns of blood-feeding by kissing-bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Rabinovich

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Host use by vectors is important in understanding the transmission of zoonotic diseases, which can affect humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Here, a synthesis of host exploitation patterns by kissing-bugs, vectors of Chagas disease, is presented. For this synthesis, an extensive literature review restricted to feeding sources analysed by precipitin tests was conducted. Modern tools from community ecology and multivariate statistics were used to determine patterns of segregation in host use. Rather than innate preferences for host species, host use by kissing-bugs is influenced by the habitats they colonise. One of the major limitations of studies on kissing-bug foraging has been the exclusive focus on the dominant vector species. We propose that expanding foraging studies to consider the community of vectors will substantially increase the understanding of Chagas disease transmission ecology. Our results indicate that host accessibility is a major factor that shapes the blood-foraging patterns of kissing-bugs. Therefore, from an applied perspective, measures that are directed at disrupting the contact between humans and kissing-bugs, such as housing improvement, are among the most desirable strategies for Chagas disease control.

  5. Chemically Mediated Arrestment of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, by Volatiles Associated with Exuviae of Conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Park, Hoeun; Vo, Claudia; Knyshov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of the exuviae (cast skins) of nymphal bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) were analyzed for volatile compounds that might contribute to arrestment of adult bed bugs. Four volatile aldehydes, (E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal were consistently detected in the headspace of freshly shed exuviae regardless of the developmental stages from which the exuviae were obtained. Quantification of the aldehydes in the solvent extracts of homogenized fresh, 45- or 99-d aged 5th instar exuviae indicated that the aldehydes are present in the exuviae and dissipate over time, through evaporation or degradation. Microscopic observation of the fifth instar exuviae indicated that the dorsal abdominal glands on the exuviae maintained their pocket-like structures with gland reservoirs, within which the aldehydes might be retained. Two-choice olfactometer studies with the volatiles from exuviae or a synthetic blend mimicking the volatiles indicated that adult bed bugs tend to settle close to sources of the aldehydes. Our results imply that the presence and accumulation of bed bug exuviae and the aldehydes volatilizing from the exuviae might mediate bed bugs' interaction with their microhabitats. PMID:27434044

  6. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  7. "The Bug Investigators": Assessment of a School Teaching Resource to Improve Hygiene and Prudent Use of Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Cliodna A. M.; Bowen, Jo; Gelb, David; Charlett, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to measure the effectiveness of the "Bug Investigators" pack in improving children's knowledge about micro-organisms, hygiene and antibiotics when it is used within the National Curriculum in junior schools. Design/methodology/approach: Teaching, using the "Bug Investigators" pack, was given by Gloucestershire…

  8. The Social Validity of Bug-in-Ear Coaching: Findings from Two Studies Implemented in Inclusive Early Childhood Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Jennifer R.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Rahn, Naomi L.

    2015-01-01

    Coaching is a promising method for providing professional development, which takes many forms. One such form is real-time coaching through bug-in-ear technology. This study explored the social validity of bug-in-ear coaching when provided as a form of professional development with preservice and in-service early childhood educators. Data from two…

  9. Virtual Reality Check: Teachers Use Bug-in-Ear Coaching to Practice Feedback Techniques with Student Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, Marti; Carter, Richard A., Jr.; Aronin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    There is not just one way to give feedback, nor is there just one kind of feedback. Bug-in-ear technology, which allows coaches to give teachers in the classroom immediate feedback, has been used successfully for 35 years. In an updated twist on this method, researchers at the University of Kansas used bug-in-ear coaching in a virtual classroom…

  10. Evaluation of cimi-shield knock-out bed bug eliminator against house fly (Musca domestica) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimi-Shield Knock-Out (CSKO) Bed Bug Eliminator is a green treatment labeled for use against bed bugs, carpet beetles, ants, roaches, fleas, ticks, silverfish, millipedes and centipedes. The active ingredient is soybean oil. If CSKO is formulated according to label instructions and sprayed directly ...

  11. OpenSSL vulnerabilities: the Heartbleed Bug and Cupid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Sorin Jerca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we expose the importance of information security in today's context of fast technological evolution. Our main objective is to study one of the most recent security issue, discovered in the well-known OpenSSL cryptographic software library, named “the Heartbleed Bug”. This is a serious vulnerability of the Heartbeat Extension for the transport layer security protocols (TLS/DTLS implementation in OpenSSL. This weakness allows remote attackers to obtain sensitive information (secret keys used for X.509 certificates, user credentials, instant messages, emails and other critical documents and communication for applications such as web, email, instant messaging and some virtual private networks, which should be protected, under normal conditions, by the SSL/TLS encryption. Further, “Cupid”, shows that the bug can be used, with the same effect, against any device which implies Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP authentication mechanisms and a vulnerable version of OpenSSL. In addition we present guidelines, fixes and methods for preventing and managing possible attacks against vulnerable systems.

  12. Host plant preference of harlequin bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and evaluation of a trap cropping strategy for its control in collard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Anna K; Kuhar, Thomas P; Pfeiffer, Douglas G; Tholl, Dorothea B; Freeman, Joshua H; Doughty, Hélène B; Schultz, Peter B

    2013-02-01

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cole crops, causing cosmetic damage in low populations, while heavy pest pressure can kill plants or entire fields. Field studies were conducted to evaluate a trap crop for control of harlequin bug in collard. Field-cage choice tests found that potential trap crop plant species, mustard (Brassica juncea 'Southern Giant Curled'), rapeseed (B. napus 'Athena'), rapini (B. rapa), and arugula (Eruca satica) attracted more harlequin bugs than collard (B. oleracea 'Champion') and a nonbrassica control, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris'Bronco'). Mustard was the most consistently selected by harlequin bug over collard in choice tests, and was found to be an effective trap crop for reducing feeding injury on collard at two experimental sites. Augmentation of the mustard trap crop with a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide provided no added control of harlequin bug for the 10 wk duration in the spring season. PMID:23448042

  13. Host plant preference of harlequin bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and evaluation of a trap cropping strategy for its control in collard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Anna K; Kuhar, Thomas P; Pfeiffer, Douglas G; Tholl, Dorothea B; Freeman, Joshua H; Doughty, Hélène B; Schultz, Peter B

    2013-02-01

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cole crops, causing cosmetic damage in low populations, while heavy pest pressure can kill plants or entire fields. Field studies were conducted to evaluate a trap crop for control of harlequin bug in collard. Field-cage choice tests found that potential trap crop plant species, mustard (Brassica juncea 'Southern Giant Curled'), rapeseed (B. napus 'Athena'), rapini (B. rapa), and arugula (Eruca satica) attracted more harlequin bugs than collard (B. oleracea 'Champion') and a nonbrassica control, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris'Bronco'). Mustard was the most consistently selected by harlequin bug over collard in choice tests, and was found to be an effective trap crop for reducing feeding injury on collard at two experimental sites. Augmentation of the mustard trap crop with a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide provided no added control of harlequin bug for the 10 wk duration in the spring season.

  14. Seasons, Searches, and Intentions: What The Internet Can Tell Us About The Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentana-Lledo, Daniel; Barbu, Corentin M; Ngo, Michelle N; Wu, Yage; Sethuraman, Karthik; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) is once again prevalent in the United States. We investigated temporal patterns in Google search queries for bed bugs and co-occurring terms, and conducted in-person surveys to explore the intentions behind searches that included those terms. Searches for "bed bugs" rose steadily through 2011 and then plateaued, suggesting that the epidemic has reached an equilibrium in the United States. However, queries including terms that survey respondents associated strongly with having bed bugs (e.g., "exterminator," "remedies") continued to climb, while terms more closely associated with informational searches (e.g., "hotels," "about") fell. Respondents' rankings of terms and nonseasonal trends in Google search volume as assessed by a cosinor model were significantly correlated (Kendall's Tau-b P = 0.015). We find no evidence from Google Trends that the bed bug epidemic in the United States has reached equilibrium. PMID:26474879

  15. A High-Performance Vacuum Cleaner for Bed Bug Sampling: A Useful Tool for Medical Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Almeras, Lionel; Leulmi, Hamza; Parola, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Arthropods can be captured by two modes: a passive mode using traps or an active mode mainly based on the use of mouth or powered aspirators. These apparatuses are useful tools for collecting large numbers of crawling, flying, resting, or jumping arthropod specimens, particularly small specimens, such as mosquitoes or sandflies, for laboratory experiments or breeding. Different aspirator models are used to collect various arthropod specimens. However, to our knowledge, no specific system is currently available for the reliable sampling of live bed bugs in the field. Thus, we described a new system based on a classic autonomous house aspirator that requires few modifications for the collecting bed bugs. The low weight and size of this apparatus is advantageous, and it provides for rapid and secure bed bug sampling for medical entomology purposes. PMID:26334829

  16. Evaluating the online activity of users of the e-Bug web site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quincey, Ed; Kostkova, Patty; Jawaheer, Gawesh; Farrell, David; McNulty, Cliodna A M; Weinberg, Julius

    2011-06-01

    Web server log analysis is being increasingly used to evaluate the user behaviour on healthcare resource web sites due to the detailed record of activity that they contain. This study aimed to use this information to evaluate the e-Bug web site, a healthcare resource that provides a range of educational resources about microbes, hand and respiratory hygiene, and antibiotics. This evaluation was conducted by analysing the web server logs of the e-Bug web site for the period January 2008 to November 2009, using a proprietary application named Sawmill. The e-Bug web site has had >900,000 page views generated from >88,000 users, with an increase in May 2009 during the swine flu epidemic and a further increase in September 2009 following the official launch of e-Bug. The majority of visitors were from the UK, but visits were recorded from 190 different countries. Word(®) document resources were downloaded >169,000 times, with the most popular being a swine flu factsheet. PowerPoint(®) document resources were downloaded >36,000 times, with the most popular relating to the 'chain of infection'. The majority of visitor referrals originated from search engines, with the most popular referral keywords being variations on the e-Bug name. The most common non-search engine referrals were from other healthcare resources and agencies. Use of the site has increased markedly since the official launch of e-Bug, with average page views of >200,000 per month, from a range of countries, illustrating the international demand for a teaching resource for microbes, hygiene and antibiotics.

  17. Bayesian Analysis Made Simple An Excel GUI for WinBUGS

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Philip

    2011-01-01

    From simple NLMs to complex GLMMs, this book describes how to use the GUI for WinBUGS - BugsXLA - an Excel add-in written by the author that allows a range of Bayesian models to be easily specified. With case studies throughout, the text shows how to routinely apply even the more complex aspects of model specification, such as GLMMs, outlier robust models, random effects Emax models, auto-regressive errors, and Bayesian variable selection. It provides brief, up-to-date discussions of current issues in the practical application of Bayesian methods. The author also explains how to obtain free so

  18. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention. PMID:25830996

  19. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention. PMID:25830996

  20. Reproductive biomarkers responses induced by xenoestrogens in the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus inhabiting a South American reservoir: An integrated field and laboratory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Paula S.; Pinheiro, Ana Paula B. [Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, C.P. 486, 30161-970, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Bazzoli, Nilo [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zoologia de Vertebrados, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, PUC Minas, Belo Horizonte 30535-610, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Rizzo, Elizete, E-mail: ictio@icb.ufmg.br [Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, C.P. 486, 30161-970, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    Field studies evaluating the effects of endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) on the fish reproduction are scarce worldwide. The goal of this study was to assess hepatic levels of vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), and relating them to reproductive endpoints in a wild fish population habiting a reservoir that receive domestic sewage, agricultural and industrial residues. Adult fish Astyanax fasciatus were sampled during the reproductive season in five sites from the Furnas Reservoir, Grande River, and Paraguay–Paraná basin. As a control to field data, fish were experimentally exposed via dietary intake, to oestradiol benzoate (OB) for 7 days. Fish from site with little anthropogenic interference showed hepatic levels of Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II similar to those from the non-treated experimental group. In sites located immediately downstream from the municipal wastewater discharges, the water total oestrogen was >120 ng/l, and male fish displayed increased Vtg and Zrp and decreased IGF-I levels similar to OB treated fish. In females, levels of Vtg, Zrp, IGF-I and IGF-II suggest an impairment of final oocyte maturation and spawning, as also detected by frequency of over-ripening, follicular atresia and fecundity. At the sites that receive agricultural and industrial residues, the water total oestrogen was <50 ng/l and females showed decreased Zrp and increased IGF-II levels associated to reduced diameter of vitellogenic follicles, indicating an inhibition of oocyte growth. Overall, the current study reports oestrogenic contamination impairing the reproduction of a wild fish from a hydroeletric reservoir and, the data contribute to improving the current knowledge on relationship between hepatic Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II, and reproductive endpoints in a teleost fish. In addition, our data point out novel reproductive biomarkers (IGF-I, IGF-II and over-ripening) to assessing xenoestrogenic

  1. Reproductive biomarkers responses induced by xenoestrogens in the characid fish Astyanax fasciatus inhabiting a South American reservoir: An integrated field and laboratory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field studies evaluating the effects of endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) on the fish reproduction are scarce worldwide. The goal of this study was to assess hepatic levels of vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), and relating them to reproductive endpoints in a wild fish population habiting a reservoir that receive domestic sewage, agricultural and industrial residues. Adult fish Astyanax fasciatus were sampled during the reproductive season in five sites from the Furnas Reservoir, Grande River, and Paraguay–Paraná basin. As a control to field data, fish were experimentally exposed via dietary intake, to oestradiol benzoate (OB) for 7 days. Fish from site with little anthropogenic interference showed hepatic levels of Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II similar to those from the non-treated experimental group. In sites located immediately downstream from the municipal wastewater discharges, the water total oestrogen was >120 ng/l, and male fish displayed increased Vtg and Zrp and decreased IGF-I levels similar to OB treated fish. In females, levels of Vtg, Zrp, IGF-I and IGF-II suggest an impairment of final oocyte maturation and spawning, as also detected by frequency of over-ripening, follicular atresia and fecundity. At the sites that receive agricultural and industrial residues, the water total oestrogen was <50 ng/l and females showed decreased Zrp and increased IGF-II levels associated to reduced diameter of vitellogenic follicles, indicating an inhibition of oocyte growth. Overall, the current study reports oestrogenic contamination impairing the reproduction of a wild fish from a hydroeletric reservoir and, the data contribute to improving the current knowledge on relationship between hepatic Vtg, Zrp and IGF-I and IGF-II, and reproductive endpoints in a teleost fish. In addition, our data point out novel reproductive biomarkers (IGF-I, IGF-II and over-ripening) to assessing xenoestrogenic

  2. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  3. Deep sequencing of pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs reveals multiple mechanisms of resistance within a single population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach N Adelman

    Full Text Available A frightening resurgence of bed bug infestations has occurred over the last 10 years in the U.S. and current chemical methods have been inadequate for controlling this pest due to widespread insecticide resistance. Little is known about the mechanisms of resistance present in U.S. bed bug populations, making it extremely difficult to develop intelligent strategies for their control. We have identified bed bugs collected in Richmond, VA which exhibit both kdr-type (L925I and metabolic resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Using LD(50 bioassays, we determined that resistance ratios for Richmond strain bed bugs were ∼5200-fold to the insecticide deltamethrin. To identify metabolic genes potentially involved in the detoxification of pyrethroids, we performed deep-sequencing of the adult bed bug transcriptome, obtaining more than 2.5 million reads on the 454 titanium platform. Following assembly, analysis of newly identified gene transcripts in both Harlan (susceptible and Richmond (resistant bed bugs revealed several candidate cytochrome P450 and carboxylesterase genes which were significantly over-expressed in the resistant strain, consistent with the idea of increased metabolic resistance. These data will accelerate efforts to understand the biochemical basis for insecticide resistance in bed bugs, and provide molecular markers to assist in the surveillance of metabolic resistance.

  4. Competence of Cimex lectularius Bed Bugs for the Transmission of Bartonella quintana, the Agent of Trench Fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Leulmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella quintana, the etiologic agent of trench fever and other human diseases, is transmitted by the feces of body lice. Recently, this bacterium has been detected in other arthropod families such as bed bugs, which begs the question of their involvement in B. quintana transmission. Although several infectious pathogens have been reported and are suggested to be transmitted by bed bugs, the evidence regarding their competence as vectors is unclear.Bed bugs at the adult and instar developmental stages were fed three successive human blood meals inoculated with B. quintana bacterium from day one (D1 to D5; subsequently they were fed with pathogen-free human blood until the end of the experiment. Bed bugs and feces were collected in time series, to evaluate their capacities to acquire, multiply and expel viable B. quintana using molecular biology, immunohistochemistry and cultures assays. B. quintana was detected molecularly in 100% of randomly selected experimentally infected bed bug specimens (D3. The monitoring of B. quintana in bed bug feces showed that the bacterium was detectable starting on the 3rd day post-infection (pi and persisted until day 18±1 pi. Although immunohistochemistry assays localized the bacteria to the gastrointestinal bed bug gut, the detection of B. quintana in the first and second instar larva stages suggested a vertical non-transovarial transmission of the bacterium.The present work demonstrated for the first time that bed bugs can acquire, maintain for more than 2 weeks and release viable B. quintana organisms following a stercorarial shedding. We also observed the vertical transmission of the bacterium to their progeny. Although the biological role of bed bugs in the transmission of B. quintana under natural conditions has yet to be confirmed, the present work highlights the need to reconsider monitoring of these arthropods for the transmission of human pathogens.

  5. Resistance to Acephate in Tarnished Plant Bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) Populations in the Mississippi River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    A monitoring program to detect resistance in tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), populations in the delta of AR, LA, and MS, was conducted by testing populations collected from weeds with a glass-vial bioassay at 20 different delta locations from the fall of 2001 through the...

  6. Unveiling Exception Handling Bug Hazards in Android Based on GitHub and Google Code Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, R.; Almeida, L.; Gousios, G.; Van Deursen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study mining the exception stack traces included in 159,048 issues reported on Android projects hosted in GitHub (482 projects) and Google Code (157 projects). The goal of this study is to investigate whether stack trace information can reveal bug hazards related to exception

  7. Influence of maize and pigweed on tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) populations infesting cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of maize, lea mays L., and pigweed, Amaranthus spp., on populations of tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), adults infesting cotton, Gossypium hirsucum L., in the Mississippi Delta was studied using stable isotope analyses. Cotton fields adjacent to maize and th...

  8. Analysis of tarnished plant bug movement using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), is the primary pest of cotton across the Midsouth of the United States. Movement into cotton fields occurs during the summer from other host plants, both cultivated and wild. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) has been used in other studies to ...

  9. Flight behavior of foraging and overwintering brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal), is a highly polyphagous invasive species attacking both cultivated and wild plants. This increases its threat to ecosystems as a global pest. However, dispersal biology of this invasive species is not well understood. This study evaluated the f...

  10. Chemically Mediated Arrestment of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, by Volatiles Associated with Exuviae of Conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Park, Hoeun; Vo, Claudia; Knyshov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of the exuviae (cast skins) of nymphal bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) were analyzed for volatile compounds that might contribute to arrestment of adult bed bugs. Four volatile aldehydes, (E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal were consistently detected in the headspace of freshly shed exuviae regardless of the developmental stages from which the exuviae were obtained. Quantification of the aldehydes in the solvent extracts of homogenized fresh, 45- or 99-d aged 5th instar exuviae indicated that the aldehydes are present in the exuviae and dissipate over time, through evaporation or degradation. Microscopic observation of the fifth instar exuviae indicated that the dorsal abdominal glands on the exuviae maintained their pocket-like structures with gland reservoirs, within which the aldehydes might be retained. Two-choice olfactometer studies with the volatiles from exuviae or a synthetic blend mimicking the volatiles indicated that adult bed bugs tend to settle close to sources of the aldehydes. Our results imply that the presence and accumulation of bed bug exuviae and the aldehydes volatilizing from the exuviae might mediate bed bugs’ interaction with their microhabitats. PMID:27434044

  11. Evaluation of mirid predatory bugs and release strategy for aphid control in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Bloemhard, C.M.J.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Schelt, van J.; Ingegno, B.L.; Tavella, L.

    2015-01-01

    Zoophytophagous predators of the family Miridae (Heteroptera), which feed both on plant and prey, often maintain a close relationship with certain host plants. In this study, we aimed to select a suitable mirid predatory bug for aphid control in sweet pepper. Four species were compared: Macrolophus

  12. Cloning and expression profiling of odorant-binding proteins in the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    In insects, the perception and discrimination of odorants requires the involvement of odorant binding proteins (OBPs). To gain a better molecular understanding of olfaction in the agronomic pest, Lygus lineolaris (tarnished plant bug), we used a transcriptomics-based approach to identify potential ...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS CONTENTS IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF BUG RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorbiłowicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of industry, agriculture, and transport contributes to an increased environmental pollution by heavy metals. The aim of the study was preliminary assessment of the contents of selected metals (lead, cobalt, copper, chromium, cadmium and nickel in the sediments of Bug river. The study comprised part of the river flowing through Poland. It was found that the Bug river sediments are not contaminated in respect to the content of tested metals. Based on the analysis of the study results, these metals can be lined up in the following order: Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Co > Cd. Statistical analysis showed that copper and chromium occur in Bug river sediments in forms bindings with organic matter in majority of cases. The granulometric analysis of sediments from Bug river revealed the largest percentage of two fractions: 1.0–0.2 mm with average of 47.7 ± 19.77% and 0.2–0.1 mm with average of 20.6 ± 7.7%. These are the dominant fractions with the accumulation of metals in river sediments, which has been confirmed by statistical analysis.

  14. The Impact of Test Case Summaries on Bug Fixing Performance: An Empirical Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panichella, S.; Panichella, A.; Beller, M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Gall, H.

    2015-01-01

    Automated test generation tools have been widely investigated with the goal of reducing the cost of testing activities. However, generated tests have been shown not to help developers in detecting and finding more bugs even though they reach higher structural coverage compared to manual testing. The

  15. Real-time measurement of volatile chemicals released by bed bugs during mating activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Kilpinen

    Full Text Available In recent years, bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae problems have increased dramatically in many parts of the world, leading to a renewed interest in their chemical ecology. Most studies of bed bug semiochemicals have been based on the collection of volatiles over a period of time followed by chemical analysis. Here we present for the first time, a combination of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and video analysis for real-time measurement of semiochemicals emitted by isolated groups of bed bugs during specific behavioural activities. The most distinct peaks in the proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry recordings were always observed close to the termination of mating attempts, corresponding to the defensive emissions that bed bugs have been suspected to exploit for prevention of unwanted copulations. The main components of these emissions were (E-2-hexenal and (E-2-octenal recorded in ratios between 1:3 and 3:1. In the current study, the quantity varied over 1000 fold for both of the compounds with up to 40 µg total release in a single emission. Males also emit defensive compounds due to homosexual copulation attempts by other males, and no significant differences were observed in the ratio or the amount of the two components released from males or females. In summary, this study has demonstrated that combining proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry with video analysis can provide detailed information about semiochemicals emitted during specific behavioural activities.

  16. Alarm pheromones and chemical communication in nymphs of the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Christoph Liedtke

    Full Text Available The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little is known about the chemical signalling and pheromone-based behaviour of the tropical species. Here, we show that the antennal morphology and volatile emission of C. hemipterus closely resembles those of C. lectularius and we test their behavioural responses to conspecific odour emissions. Two major volatiles are emitted by male, female and nymph C. hemipterus under stress, (E-2-hexenal and (E-2-octenal. Notably, nymph emissions show contrasting ratios of these compounds to adults and are further characterized by the addition of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal. The discovery of this nymph pheromone in C. hemipterus is potentially the cause of a repellent effect observed in the bio-tests, where nymph odours induce a significantly stronger repellent reaction in conspecifics than adult odours. Our results suggest that pheromone-based pest control methods developed for C. lectularius could be applicable to C. hemipterus, with the unique nymph blend showing promising practical properties.

  17. Temperature and Time Requirements for Controlling Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius under Commercial Heat Treatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Kells

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing effective alternative approaches for disinfesting bed bugs from residential spaces requires a balance between obtaining complete insect mortality, while minimizing costs and energy consumption. One method of disinfestation is the application of lethal high temperatures directly to rooms and contents within a structure (termed whole-room heat treatments. However, temperature and time parameters for efficacy in whole-room heat treatments are unknown given the slower rate of temperature increase and the probable variability of end-point temperatures within a treated room. The objective of these experiments was to explore requirements to produce maximum mortality from heat exposure using conditions that are more characteristic of whole-room heat treatments. Bed bugs were exposed in an acute lethal temperature (LTemp trial, or time trials at sub-acute lethal temperatures (LTime. The lethal temperature (LTemp99 for adults was 48.3 °C, while LTemp99 for eggs was 54.8 °C. Adult bed bugs exposed to 45 °C had a LTime99 of 94.8 min, while eggs survived 7 h at 45 °C and only 71.5 min at 48 °C. We discuss differences in exposure methodologies, potential reasons why bed bugs can withstand higher temperatures and future directions for research.

  18. Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marko, V.; Bogya, S.; Kondorosy, E.; Blommers, L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the abu

  19. Impact of insect management on population dynamics and insecticide resistance of tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot De Beauvois) is a highly polyphagous insect that feeds on numerous wild and cultivated host plants. Although transgenic crops expressing insecticidal toxins have been available for approximately 20 years for some insect crop pests, none have been d...

  20. Southeastern USA regional landscape patterns and population dynamics of the stink bug, Euchistus servus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus is an economically important pest of many agronomic crops in the southern USA, motivating the study of factors influencing population build-up in agricultural regions and landscapes to facilitate management. Methods: ArcGIS was used to characteriz...

  1. The Effects of "Bug-in-Ear" Supervision on Special Education Teachers' Delivery of Learn Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Janet I.; Brady, Michael P.; Duffy, Mary Lou; Scott, Jack; Pollard, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    Supervision and coaching strategies that provide immediate feedback can help improve instruction for novice teachers. In this study, feedback was provided to teachers using "bug-in-ear" technology to coach them to deliver effective instructional interactions: "learn units." Three novice teachers in K-8 classrooms with students with disabilities…

  2. The spined soldier bug Podisus: an important commercial and natural predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris is an important generalist predator of many species of insect pests in different horticultural crops. We studied the effects of temperature, prey preference, reproduction in laboratory and field studies, and population dynamics. We found the following ge...

  3. Evaluation of Four Bed Bug Traps for Surveillance of the Brown Dog Tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnohan, Lucas P; Kaufman, Phillip E; Allan, Sandra A; Gezan, Salvador A; Weeks, Emma N I

    2015-03-01

    The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle), can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acaricide treatment is currently the primary method of control, but can be costly and can lead to the development of acaricide resistance in tick populations. Traps of various designs can be used to help monitor and manage populations of indoor pests, such as cockroaches and bed bugs, but there are currently no commercially available traps for use with brown dog tick infestations. This study included a comparison of four commercially available bed bug traps (NightWatch [BioSensory Inc., Putnam, CT], Bed Bug Beacon [PackTite, Fort Collins, CO], ClimbUp [Susan McKnight Inc., Memphis, TN], and Verify [FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA]) with regard to their efficacy in capturing brown dog ticks, and also compared tick attraction to ClimbUp traps baited with several stimuli including CO2. Significantly more ticks were captured and attracted to the NightWatch and CO2-baited ClimbUp traps than the other two trap models. The results suggest that bed bug traps may be useful in brown dog tick monitoring, and CO2 will likely be an important component of a trapping system employed in the future. PMID:26336310

  4. Antennal olfactory sensilla responses to insect chemical repellents in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Haynes, Kenneth F; Appel, Arthur G; Liu, Nannan

    2014-06-01

    Populations of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera; Cimicidae), a temporary ectoparasite on both humans and animals, have surged in many developed countries. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, C. lectularius relies on its olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment, including both attractants and repellents. To elucidate the olfactory responses of the common bed bug to commonly used insect chemical repellents, particularly haematophagous repellents, we investigated the neuronal responses of individual olfactory sensilla in C. lectularius' antennae to 52 insect chemical repellents, both synthetic and botanic. Different types of sensilla displayed highly distinctive response profiles. While C sensilla did not respond to any of the insect chemical repellents, Dγ sensilla proved to be the most sensitive in response to terpene-derived insect chemical repellents. Different chemical repellents elicited neuronal responses with differing temporal characteristics, and the responses of the olfactory sensilla to the insect chemical repellents were dose-dependent, with an olfactory response to the terpene-derived chemical repellent, but not to the non-terpene-derived chemical repellents. Overall, this study furnishes a comprehensive map of the olfactory response of bed bugs to commonly used insect chemical repellents, providing useful information for those developing new agents (attractants or repellents) for bed bug control. PMID:24817385

  5. [The worldwide expansion of bed bugs also constitutes a problem in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, C; Vander Pan, A

    2014-05-01

    Worldwide, reports of the spread of the bed bugs Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus (in Australia) are increasing. Irrespective of hygiene conditions, the insects can be especially found in hotels and hostels as well as in other holiday accommodation, health facilities, transport and in the secondhand trade. From these localities the insects spread to private households. A bed bug infestation may well have health consequences and constitutes a heavy burden for those affected. The global spread of bed bugs appears to be multifactorially conditioned and the causes are controversially discussed. The spread could be explained, among other things, by the increase in international travel and trade in used goods. The limited availability of insecticides with long-term effects and the development of resistance to available agents could play a crucial role. In the absence of official data it is impossible to quantify the extent of the spread in Germany but pest controllers and public authorities report increasing numbers of cases and problems in control. As in other countries the latter appear to be caused among other things by the development of drug resistance (particularly pyrethroids). Against this background, prevention and thus the education of the public on the habits and dissemination routes of these insects remain crucial in order to counteract the spread of bed bugs. PMID:24781909

  6. Long-Term Efficacy of Various Natural or “Green” Insecticides against Bed Bugs: A Double-Blind Study

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Bed bugs are resurging throughout the world, and, thus, effective pest control strategies are constantly needed. A few studies have evaluated 25(b) and other natural, or so-called “green” products, as well as over-the-counter insecticides for bed bugs, but additional studies are needed to determine efficacy of bed bug control products. This double-blinded research project was initiated to examine long-term effectiveness of six commercially available natural or “green” insecticides against bed...

  7. Stress Tolerance of Bed Bugs: A Review of Factors That Cause Trauma to Cimex lectularius and C. Hemipterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Benoit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent emergence of bed bugs (Cimex spp. has prompted a significant expansion of research devoted to this pest. The ability to survive and recover from stress has significant implications on the distribution and survival of insects, and bed bugs are no exception. Research on bed bug stress tolerance has shown considerable progress and necessitates a review on this topic. Bed bugs have an extraordinary ability to resist dehydration between bloodmeals, and this represents a critical factor allowing their prolonged survival when no host is available. High relative humidities are detrimental to bed bugs, leading to reduced survival in comparison to those held at lower relative humidities. Continual exposure of bed bugs, eggs and mobile stages, to temperatures below freezing and short term exposure (=1 h to temperatures below −16 to −18 °C results in mortality. The upper thermal limit for short term exposure of eggs, nymphs and adults is between 40–45 °C for the common (Cimex lectularius and tropical (C. hemipterus bed bugs. Long-term exposure to temperatures above 35 °C results in significant reduction in survival of mobile bed bugs. Eggs for C. lectularius and C. hemipterus are no longer viable when held below 10 °C or above 37 °C throughout embryogenesis. Blood feeding, although necessary for survival and reproduction, is discussed as a stress due to thermal and osmotic fluctuations that result from ingesting a warm bloodmeal from a vertebrate host. Cold, heat, water stress and blood feeding prompted the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps. Pesticide application is a common human-induced stress for urban pests, and recent studies have documented pesticide resistance in many bed bug populations. High levels of traumatic insemination (mating of bed bugs has been linked to reduced survival and fecundity along with possibly exposing individuals to microbial infections after cuticular penetration by the paramere (=male reproductive organ

  8. 光唇鱼(Acrossocheilus fasciatus)胚胎及仔、稚鱼的发育%THE DEVELOPMENT OF EMBRYO, LARVA AND JUVENILE OF A CROSSOCHEIL US FASCIATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜建湖; 张德明; 竺俊全; 雷世勇; 张玉明

    2012-01-01

    The potential economic fish Acrossocheilus fasciatus has obvious advances for studies on the development of embryo, larva and juvenile. As far as we know, the development of this species remains unknown. In our current work, we aim to reveal how the embryonic, larval and juvenile development via artificial insemination in A. fasciatus. The results show that the fertilized egg of A. fasciatus is in shape of spherical, featured by sinking and slight-adhesive. When the temperature is 23--25℃, the duration of hatching lasts 46h 45min. The process of embryonic development undergoes the following 7 stages: blastoderm, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, neurula, organogenesis and hatching. When the temperature is 24--27℃, the duration of larval and juvenile development lasts 22 days. The newly hatched larvae have big yolk sac and the rudiment of pectoral fin and anus are formed at this stage. With the decreasing of yolk sac, the larvae begin to ingestion and transform to mixed feeding stage at 4 DAH (day after hatching). 3 days later, the yolk sac of larvae exhaust absolutely and enter into the exogenous feeding stage, meanwhile eight pigment strips and fins are all formed. Since then the larval development steps to the late larvae stage. As the larvae grow to the 14 DAH, most fin rays are formed integrity. The for- mation of scales starts from the 16 DAH and entirely complete at the 22 DAH. From now on, the ontogeny ofA. fasciatus gets to the fingerling stage.%采用干法授精方法获得受精卵,在人工培育条件下观察了光唇鱼胚胎及仔、稚鱼发育过程。结果表明,光唇鱼受精卵呈圆球形,沉性、弱粘性。在水温23—25℃下,胚胎发育历时46h45min,经历了胚盘形成、卵裂、囊胚、原肠胚、神经胚、器官形成和孵化等阶段。在水温24~27℃下,仔、稚鱼发育历时22d,初孵仔鱼具有较大的卵黄囊,胸鳍原基及肛门原基形成;4日龄仔鱼开口摄食,进

  9. Study on the Nutritional Components in the Muscles of Acrossocheilus fasciatus and Acrossocheilus labiatus%光唇鱼与厚唇鱼肌肉营养成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇希; 应建平

    2012-01-01

    [目的]比较光唇鱼和厚唇鱼的肌肉营养成分与氨基酸含量.[方法]对光唇鱼和厚唇鱼的肌肉营养成分进行测定,并探讨了2种鱼的营养价值.[结果]光唇鱼粗蛋白含量为19.4%,高于厚唇鱼(18.9%).光唇鱼粗脂肪含量为1.05%,比其他鱼类低,具有良好的适口性.光唇鱼氨基酸总量达13.19%,也高于厚唇鱼(13.04%).光唇鱼的必需氨基酸总量为5.31%,而必需氨基酸的占氨基酸总量的40.27%,均高于厚唇鱼.从与鱼肉味道相关的4种鲜味氨基酸来看,光唇鱼为5.11%,也高于厚唇鱼.[结论]该研究为光唇鱼和厚唇鱼的配合饲料研制和人工繁殖提供理论依据.%[ Objective] The research aimed to compare the nutritional components and amino acid content in the muscles of Acrossocheilus fasciatus and Acrossocheilus labiatus. [Method] The nutritional components in the muscles of A. fascialus and A. tabiatus were determined and the nutritional values of two fish varieties were discussed. [ Result] The content of crude protein in A. fascialus was 19.4% , higher lhan that of/4. labiatus( 18.9% ). The content of crude fat in A. fascialus was 1.05% , lower than that in other fishes. Therefore, A. fascialus had a good edibility. The total amount of amino acids in A. fascialus reached 13.19% , higher than that of 4. labiatus( 13.04% ). The amount of essential amino acids in A. fasciatus was 5. 31% and the proportion of essential amitio acids in total amount of amino acids was 40. 27% , which were both higher than that of A. labiatus. The content of four kinds of flavor amino acids that was related to the flavour of fish in A. fasciatus was 5.11%, higher than that in A. labiatus, [ Conclusion] The research provided theoretical basis for the production of the compound feed and the artificial breeding of A. fasciatus and A. labiatus.

  10. Effects of starvation and molting on the metabolic rate of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) is a common hematophagous pest in the urban environment and is capable of surviving extended periods of starvation. However, the relationship between starvation and metabolism in bed bugs is not well understood. To better understand this relationship, we measured the metabolism of all life stages for >900 h after feeding (starvation) using closed-system respirometry. Measurements were made around molting for the immature life stages, which occurs only after a blood meal. In addition, both mated and unmated adults were measured. Starvation and molting had significant effects on the metabolism of the bed bug. Mass-specific metabolic rate (V(O2); mL g(-1) h(-1)) declined in a curvilinear fashion with the period of starvation for adults and with the postmolting period for immature bed bugs (used to standardize all immature life stages). A standard curve was developed to depict the generalized pattern of metabolic decline observed in all life stages that molted. Individual metabolic comparisons among life stages that molted revealed some differences in metabolic rate between unmated males and females. In addition, the mass scaling coefficient was found to decline with starvation time (postmolting time) for all life stages that molted. In most life stages, the ratio of V(CO2) to V(O2) (respiratory exchange ratio) declined over time, indicating a change in metabolic substrate with starvation. Finally, daily percent loss in body mass declined in a pattern similar to that of V(O2). The observed patterns in metabolic decline are evaluated in relation to the life history of bed bugs. In addition, the evolutionary development of these patterns is discussed. The metabolic pattern after feeding was also found to share several similarities with that of other ectothermic species. PMID:25590593

  11. Allometric growth in rock bream larvae (Oplegnathus fasciatus Temminck et Schlegel 1844)%条石鲷早期发育阶段的生长模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何滔; 肖志忠; 刘清华; 李军

    2012-01-01

    The rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, a subtropical and carnivorous species, is an economically important marine fish in East Asia. The high commercial and ornamental value makes it a promising aquaculture species in the future. However, to some extent, the lack of information on ontogenetic development has restricted the breeding industry of this species. In this study, the allometric growth in rock bream was analyzed. The results are as follows: at the general condition for fingerling-production, the total length and body weight of rock bream larvae were measured from hatching to 50 days post hatching. The increase of total length and body weight could be estimated with the Cubic function and took on the S-Curve. The curve could be divided into three phases and each phase possessed different growth rate. The head length, head height, trunk height, eye diameter, mouth width, rostrum length, abdomen length, and tail fin length of rock bream were measured and the relationship between them and the total length was analyzed. The result showed the allometric growth in rock bream larvae. By analyzing the inflexion points in growth curves, in combination with morphological development of the larvae, we found that some important organs (head, mouth, eye, digestive tract and fins) had developed prior to other ones. In rearing rock bream larvae, the best environmental condition should be established by making the important organs prior development.%为研究条石鲷在早期发育阶段的生长特性和重要功能器官的异速生长规律,测定了条石鲷仔稚幼鱼(0~50日龄)全长和体质量随日龄的生长变化. 通过统计学方法分析发现,全长、体质量随日龄的变化均符合Cubic函数关系式,其变化曲线呈S型.全长、体质量随日龄的变化可分为3个阶段,不同阶段的全长、体质量生长率具有显著性差异(P<0.05).运用SPSS 13.0和OriginPro 7.5软件分析了条石鲷仔稚幼鱼头长、头高、体高、

  12. 条石鲷消化道发育的组织学观察%Histological study of the ontogeny of the digestive tract in Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马道远; 于道德; 肖永双; 刘清华; 徐世宏; 李军; 肖志忠

    2011-01-01

    Under artificial culture conditions, the developments of the digestive system and its associated glands were examined histologically in Oplegnathus fasciatus from the first day until the 45th day post hatching (dph).The digestive tube of the first hatching larva was undifferentiated and straight. On the 1st dph, the rudimentary digestive lumen formed as the larve developed. On the second dph (TL, 2.61~2.98 mm), the intestine began to connected with the oesophagus. On the third dph (TL, 2.56~2.89 mm), the upper and lower jaw moved with the mouth and anus opening, indicated the first external feeding. At this time, the digestive tract, consisting of buccopharynx, oesophagus, stomach anlage, intestine and rectum, and the digestive glands, including liver and pancreas, being accompanied by the gas bladder anlage, formed. On the 4th dph (TL, 2.73~3.05 mm), the yolk sac was almost completely absorbed, with residual oil globule, and the acidophilic supranuclear vesicles were seen in the rectum. On the 22 dph, the the gastric gland began to differentiate and was not functional until the 45th dph.%对人工养殖的条石鲷(Oplegnathus fasciatus)仔、幼稚鱼消化道及消化腺的发育过程进行了系统的组织学观察。研究表明: 初孵仔鱼 (体长1.66~2.20 mm)的消化道完全处于未分化状态。1 日龄仔鱼全长1.83~2.32 mm, 消化道中部开始形成空腔, 为初始的消化道腔。2 日龄仔鱼全长2.61~2.98 mm, 小肠与食道打通。3 日龄仔鱼全长2.56~2.89 mm, 上下颌开启, 口和肛门与外界开通, 部分仔鱼开口摄食。此时消化道已经分化为口咽腔、食道、胃前体、肠和直肠, 消化器官肝脏和胰腺及鳔原基出现。4 日龄仔鱼全长2.73~3.05 mm, 卵黄囊吸收殆尽, 油球残存, 鳔原基进一步增生, 后肠已经出现嗜伊红囊。22日龄, 胃腺开始分化, 至45 日龄, 大部分胃腺结构上分化成熟。本研究结果将为优

  13. Are environmental factors responsible for geographic variation in the sex ratio of the Greenlandic seed-bug Nysius groenlandicus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2010-01-01

    Until recently nothing indicated an unequal sex ratio in the widespread Greenland seed-bug Nysius groenlandicus (Zetterstedt) (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). However, recently populations more or less devoid of males were discovered in high arctic Northeast Greenland. This initiated an inspection...

  14. Nocturnal Plant Bugs Use cis-Jasmone to Locate Inflorescences of an Araceae as Feeding and Mating Site

    OpenAIRE

    Etl, Florian; Berger, Andreas; Weber, Anton; Schönenberger, Jürg; Dötterl, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Inflorescences of Araceae pollinated by cyclocephaline scarab beetles are visited frequently by a wide array of other arthropods that exploit floral resources without taking part in pollination, including earwigs, flies, and true bugs. To date, nothing is known about the cues these insect visitors use to locate the inflorescences and whether or to what extent floral scents play a role. An aroid visited by large numbers of plant bugs (Miridae) in addition to cyclocephaline scarab beetle pollin...

  15. Effectiveness of a Reduced-Risk Insecticide Based Bed Bug Management Program in Low-Income Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. infestations are becoming increasingly common in low-income communities. Once they are introduced, elimination is very difficult. As part of the efforts to develop effective and safe bed bug management programs, we conducted a laboratory study evaluating the efficacy of a reduced-risk insecticide—Alpine aerosol (0.5% dinotefuran. We then conducted a field evaluation of a reduced-risk insecticide based integrated pest management (IPM program in low-income family apartments with young children. In laboratory evaluations, direct spray and 5 min exposure to dry Alpine aerosol residue caused 100.0 ± 0.0 and 91.7 ± 8.3% mortality to bed bug nymphs, respectively. Direct Alpine aerosol spray killed 91.3 ± 4.3% of the eggs. The IPM program included education, steam, bagging infested linens, placing intercepting devices under furniture legs and corners of rooms, applying Alpine aerosol and Alpine dust (0.25% dinotefuran, 95% diatomaceous earth dust, and regularly scheduled monitoring and re-treatment. Nine apartments ranging from 1–1,428 (median: 29 bed bugs based on visual inspection and Climbup interceptor counts were included. Over a 6-month period, an average 172 g insecticide (Alpine aerosol + Alpine dust was used in each apartment, a 96% reduction in pesticide usage compared to chemical only treatment reported in a similar environment. The IPM program resulted in an average of 96.8 ± 2.2% reduction in the number of bed bugs. However, elimination of bed bugs was only achieved in three lightly infested apartments (<30 bed bugs at the beginning. Elimination success was closely correlated with the level of bed bug populations.

  16. Influence of planting date on stink bug injury, yield, fiber quality, and economic returns in Georgia cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulakkatu-Thodi, Ishakh; Shurley, Donald; Toews, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Phytophagous stink bugs are economically important pests of annual and perennial crops in the southeastern United States. Because of insecticide resistance and risk of secondary pest outbreaks, there is interest in identifying cultural practices that could lead to reduced insecticide applications. The objective of this project was to assess the importance of cotton planting date on stink bug damage to cotton. Unsprayed cotton plots with biweekly planting dates were established at three locations in southern Georgia in each of two crop years. During the bloom cycle, stink bug-induced boll injury was estimated weekly in each plot. Plots were subsequently defoliated, mechanically harvested, and ginned to assess differences in fiber yield and quality attributable to stink bug injury. Results show that the rate of boll damage generally increased more rapidly through the bloom cycle for planting dates in June compared with May. Similarly, estimates of boll damage from June-planted cotton more frequently exceeded the stink bug treatment threshold compared with May-planted cotton. In 2011, mean lint yield and economic returns from May planting dates were significantly greater than June planting dates. In 2012, lint yield and economic returns were greater in plots established in early May compared with later planting dates. Estimates of HVI color + b, a measure of fiber yellowness, were lower in early May-planted cotton compared with June planting. These data show that growers need to be aware of increased stink bug damage potential when planting late. PMID:24772545

  17. Attractiveness of harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica, aggregation pheromone: field response to isomers, ratios, and dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Donald C; Cabrera Walsh, Guillermo; DiMeglio, Anthony S; Athanas, Michael M; Leskey, Tracy C; Khrimian, Ashot

    2014-12-01

    A two-component pheromone, (3S,6S,7R,10S)- and (3S,6S,7R,10R)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol (murgantiol), present in emissions from adult male harlequin bugs, Murgantia histrionica, is most attractive in field bioassays to adults and nymphs in the naturally occurring ratio of ca. 1.4:1. Each of the two individual synthetic stereoisomers is highly attractive to male and female adults and nymphs, but is more attractive in combination and when deployed with a harlequin bug host plant. Blends of 8 stereoisomers also are highly attractive, suggesting that isomers not found in the natural pheromone are not repellent. Deployment of an inexpensive non-stereospecific synthetic pheromone holds promise for efficient trapping and/or use in trap-crops for this important pest in North America. PMID:25380993

  18. Real-Time PCR Assay for the Identification of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet K Dhami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, is a gregarious crop pest that has rapidly spread across the world in the last two decades. It is an excellent hitchhiker species, especially as an over-wintering adult. During this period it is often associated with non-biological commodities such as shipping containers and machinery that travel long distances. Inadequate identification keys and similarity to common species has assisted its spread across Europe, while accurate identification from immature stages or eggs is not possible. We developed a real-time TaqMan PCR assay for the accurate and sensitive detection of the brown marmorated stink bug from all life stages. The assay performance against required diagnostic criterion and within a quarantine framework are described.

  19. Survey of Water Bugs in Bankim, a New Buruli Ulcer Endemic Area in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Meyin A. Ebong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae, their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction.

  20. Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Solange Meyin A; Eyangoh, Sara; Marion, Estelle; Landier, Jordi; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Legall, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and document their relative abundance, diversity, and spatial distribution. Collection of aquatic bugs was realized over a period of one month by daily direct capture in different aquatic environments (streams, ponds, and rivers) and through light traps at night. Globally, the data obtained showed the presence of five families (Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Nepidae, Notonectidae, and Gerridae), their abundance, distribution and diversity varying according to the type of aquatic environments and light attraction. PMID:22666273

  1. Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L. Population Composition as Determined by Baited Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Schaafsma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two established field populations of bed bugs were sampled using host-mimicking traps baited with a combination of CO2, heat and a synthetic kairomone. The proportion of first instar nymphs (between 52% and 78% of all captured insects was significantly higher than reported in previous studies, which had employed different sampling methods. The proportion of adults was correspondingly much lower than previously reported, between 5% and 7% of total capture. As many as 120 bed bugs were captured in a single trap in one night; the variation in catches between sampling locations within the same room and between days at the same location indicates that multiple nights of trapping may be required to obtain an accurate representation of population structure.

  2. An Efficient Technique for Bayesian Modelling of Family Data Using the BUGS software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold T Bae

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Linear mixed models have become a popular tool to analyze continuous data from family-based designs by using random effects that model the correlation of subjects from the same family. However, mixed models for family data are challenging to implement with the BUGS (Bayesian inference Using Gibbs Sampling software because of the high-dimensional covariance matrix of the random effects. This paper describes an efficient parameterization that utilizes the singular value decomposition of the covariance matrix of random effects, includes the BUGS code for such implementation, and extends the parameterization to generalized linear mixed models. The implementation is evaluated using simulated data and an example from a large family-based study is presented with a comparison to other existing methods.

  3. The Creation of BugBag. Redesign of Insect Trap for Biological Pest Control

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Mads Rømer; Andersen, Jakob Wulff

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The project is based on research on pheromones and the project SoftPest Multitrap. Copenhagen Universitys Science and Life Sciences, more specifically Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, has researched and developed the pheromonis for mass trapping of the Strawberry Blossom Weevil (Anthonomus Rubi) and the European Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus Rugulipennis). Our foucus is on the user-experience Associated with the pheromonibased traps. Especially the distrubution, as...

  4. Do haematophagous bugs assess skin surface temperature to detect blood vessels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that some blood-sucking insects have the ability to reach vessels under the host skin with their mouthparts to feed blood from inside them. However, the process by which they locate these vessels remains largely unknown. Less than 5% of the skin is occupied by blood vessels and thus, it is not likely that insects rely on a "random search strategy", since it would increase the probability of being killed by their hosts. Indeed, heterogeneities along the skin surface might offer exploitable information for guiding insect's bites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested whether the bug Rhodnius prolixus can evaluate temperature discontinuities along the body surface in order to locate vessels before piercing the host skin. When placed over a rabbit ear, the bug's first bites were mostly directed towards the main vessels. When insects were confronted to artificial linear heat sources presenting a temperature gradient against the background, most bites were directly addressed to the warmer linear source, notwithstanding the temperature of both, the source and the background. Finally, tests performed using uni- and bilaterally antennectomized insects revealed that the bilateral integration of thermal inputs from both antennae is necessary for precisely directing bites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: R. prolixus may be able to exploit the temperature differences observed over the skin surface to locate blood vessles. Bugs bite the warmest targets regardless of the target/background temperatures, suggesting that they do not bite choosing a preferred temperature, but select temperature discontinuities along the skin. This strategy seems to be an efficient one for finding blood vessels within a wide temperature range, allowing finding them on different hosts, as well as on different areas of the host body. Our study also adds new insight about the use of antennal thermal inputs by blood sucking bugs.

  5. Reproduction and fecundity of the golden loach, Sabanejewia baltica Witkowski, 1994 from Bug River in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchno, Dorota; Boroń, Alicja

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we report for the first time the results of histology of the golden loach (S. baltica) gonads (25 females and 8 males) and absolute fecundity of females from the Bug River during the reproductive season. The golden loach has an asynchronous ovary and spawns in batches. The absolute fecundity of the golden loach ranged from 1507 to 7220 eggs (3050±1377). We hypothesize that the golden loach spawns twice a year. PMID:22472941

  6. Ooencyrtus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), egg parasitoids of the pistachio green stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Mohammad; Mehrnejad, M Reza

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with three species of Ooencyrtus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) obtained from eggs of the green stink bug, Brachynema germarii (Kolenati) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) infesting pistachio plants in Iran. Two new species, Ooencyrtus iranicus Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov. and O. pistaciae Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov., are described, and O. telenomicida (Vassiliev) is newly recorded from Iran, redescribed and illustrated. A key to some species considered similar to the species treated here is also given. PMID:27395169

  7. A peculiar new virus-spermatozoon association in the bug Raphigaster nebulosa (Poda) (Heteroptera-Insecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercati, David; Dallai, Romano

    2016-01-01

    The sperm of the heteropteran bug Raphigaster nebulosa (Poda) are of two types, differing in length and size of their flagella. The thicker sperm are shorter than the thinner ones and have large mitochondrial derivatives. The presence of virus particles associated with the plasma membrane of thinner sperm is described for the first time; thicker sperm are immune to virus infection. The fact that virus particles are present on thinner sperm only initiates considerations on the transmission of virus.

  8. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of G Alpha Proteins from the Western Tarnished Plant Bug, Lygus hesperus

    OpenAIRE

    J Joe Hull; Meixian Wang

    2014-01-01

    The Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins play critical roles in the activation of diverse signal transduction cascades. However, the role of these genes in chemosensation remains to be fully elucidated. To initiate a comprehensive survey of signal transduction genes, we used homology-based cloning methods and transcriptome data mining to identity Gα subunits in the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight). Among the nine sequences identified were single variants of the Gαi, Gαo...

  9. Effects of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding Injury on Sweet Corn Yield and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissel, William J; Mason, Charles E; Whalen, Joanne; Hough-Goldstein, Judith; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2015-06-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an Asian species that now dominates the stink bug complex in many cultivated crops throughout the mid-Atlantic United States. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) is a preferred host of H. halys, and the bug can cause kernel injury on developing ears. Currently, there is limited information available on which plant growth stages are most sensitive to H. halys feeding or density of bugs required to cause yield and quality reductions on processing and fresh market sweet corn ears. In 2011 and 2012, sweet corn ears were infested at three different corn growth stages: silking (R1), blister (R2), and milk (R3) at densities of zero, one, three, and five H. halys adults per ear for 7 d. At harvest, four yield measurements were assessed and ears were inspected for quality reductions. The greatest yield loss from H. halys occurred when infestations were initiated during early stages of ear development, and the greatest quality reductions (damaged kernels) occurred during later stages of ear development. A density of one H. halys per ear resulted in levels of kernel damage great enough to cause significant quality reductions. This study highlights the ability of H. halys to cause substantial economic losses in both fresh market and processing sweet corn in a relatively short period of time at low population densities. Therefore, infestations by this insect in sweet corn must be considered when making pest management decisions in regions where it has become established. PMID:26470230

  10. Document. Year 2000: mobilization against the bug; Dossier. An 2000: mobilisation contre le bogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, S

    1999-10-01

    The year 2000 bug threatens installations, laboratories or scientific experiments. To prevent risks, the Cea controls all the installations with priority for the systems involved in public health and environment safety. This paper presents the management and the planning of the actions with a particular attention concerning the following installations: the experimental nuclear reactor Orphee; the Tore Supra tokamak; physic research software, clean rooms; radiation monitoring; public prevention of earthquake; hazardous materials, toxins or virus study laboratories; wastes storage. (A.L.B.)

  11. Efficacy of Organic Insecticides and Repellents against Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Morehead, John Adam

    2016-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is a major pest of vegetable crops, fruit crops, and even ornamental plants in the Mid-Atlantic States. Organic growers have limited chemical options to manage this pest, and are in need of better management options. Several organically-approved insecticides including pyrethrins (Pyganic), azadirachtin (Aza-Direct), azadirachtin + pyrethrins (Azera), spinosad (Entrust), potassium salts of fatty acids (M-Pede), sabadilla alkaloid...

  12. Survey of water bugs in bankim, a new buruli ulcer endemic area in cameroon.

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-François Guégan; Philippe Legall; Jordi Landier; Laurent Marsollier; Estelle Marion; Sara Eyangoh; Solange Meyin A Ebong

    2012-01-01

    Buruli ulcer is a debitliating human skin disease with an unknown transmission mode although epidemiological data link it with swampy areas. Data available suggest that aquatic insects play a role in the dissemination and/or transmission of this disease. However, their biodiversity and biology remain poorly documented. We conducted an entomological survey in Bankim, Cameroon, an area recently described as endemic for Buruli ulcer in order to identify the commonly occurring aquatic bugs and do...

  13. Geological and Mineralogical-technological features chromite ore from nickel-weathering crusts Average Bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkov E.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Conditions of occurrence and distribution features of chromites ore bodies in the ultra-basic nickel bearing weathering crusts of Middle Bug Area are considered. Main types of exogenous chromites ores in weathering crusts and beyond of them are identified as well as mineralogical, chemical and grain features of mineralization are given. Obtained data are substantiated in order to apply them while developing the efficient schemes of mining and processing of exogenous chromites ores.

  14. True bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera) of Botswana-Bibliographical inventory and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Andreas; Deckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of insect biodiversity of Botswana is far from perfect. By 2015, there were only inventories publicly available for butterflies, dragonflies and grasshoppers. Here we report 331 species and subspecies of true bugs (Heteroptera), of which 242 records were extracted from scattered published literature and online sources, and 89 (27%) are new records for Botswana. These data significantly increase the number of insect species known from Botswana by roughly 30%. PMID:27395110

  15. Host association drives genetic divergence in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Balvín, Ondřej; Vargo, Edward L; Vilímová, Jitka; Schal, Coby

    2015-03-01

    Genetic differentiation may exist among sympatric populations of a species due to long-term associations with alternative hosts (i.e. host-associated differentiation). While host-associated differentiation has been documented in several phytophagus insects, there are far fewer cases known in animal parasites. The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, a wingless insect, represents a potential model organism for elucidating the processes involved in host-associated differentiation in animal parasites with relatively limited mobility. In conjunction with the expansion of modern humans from Africa into Eurasia, it has been speculated that bed bugs extended their host range from bats to humans in their shared cave domiciles throughout Eurasia. C. lectularius that associate with humans have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas those associated with bats occur across Europe, often in human-built structures. We assessed genetic structure and gene flow within and among populations collected in association with each host using mtDNA, microsatellite loci and knock-down resistance gene variants. Both nuclear and mitochondrial data support a lack of significant contemporary gene flow between host-specific populations. Within locations human-associated bed bug populations exhibit limited genetic diversity and elevated levels of inbreeding, likely due to human-mediated movement, infrequent additional introduction events per infestation, and pest control. In contrast, populations within bat roosts exhibit higher genetic diversity and lower levels of relatedness, suggesting populations are stable with temporal fluctuations due to host dispersal and bug mortality. In concert with previously published evidence of morphological and behavioural differentiation, the genetic data presented here suggest C. lectularius is currently undergoing lineage divergence through host association. PMID:25611460

  16. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Sriyanka

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward.

  17. Chiasmate male meiosis in six species of water bugs from infraorders Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera

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    Snejana Grozeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The type of male meiosis is a stable character at the family level in the order Heteroptera and provides additional information on the relationships between taxa. The most common pattern, probably ancestral in the order is chiasmate meiosis; however achiasmate meiosis has been described in five families of terrestrial Heteroptera, all belonging to the infraorder Cimicomorpha (Anthocoridae, Microphysidae, Cimicidae, Miridae, Nabidae. Among water bugs, achiasmate meiosis is reported in the families Saldidae (Leptopodomorpha and Мicronectidae (Nepomorpha. Regarding the third infraorder of water bugs, Gerromorpha, data on meiotic patterns are absent, except for the Limnogonus aduncus Drake, Harris, 1933 (Gerridae possessing chiasmate meiosis. In this paper, the male meiotic pattern of six water bugs species from infraorders Nepomorpha (Plea minutissima minnutissima Leach, 1817 and Gerromorpha (Mesovelia furcata Mulsant, Ray, 1852, Microvelia reticulata (Burmeister, 1835, Gerris costae fieberi Stichel, 1938, Hydrometra gracilenta Horváth, 1899, Velia pelagonensis Hoberlandt, 1941 is studied, and the karyotypes of the last two species are described for the first time. In the species examined, bivalents are chiasmate, so all these species possess chiasmate meiosis in males.

  18. Genetic parameters and selection strategies for soybean genotypes resistant to the stink bug-complex

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    Cláudio Roberto Cardoso de Godoi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean genotypes resistant to stink bugs are derived from complex breeding processes obtained through indirect selection. The aim of the present work was to estimate genetic parameters for guiding selection strategies towards resistant genotypes, based on those traits associated with responses to pod-attacking stink bugs, such as the grain filling period (GFP, leaf retention (LR, percentage index of pod damage (PIPD and percentage of spotted seeds (PSS. We assessed the parental lines IAC-100 (resistant and FT-Estrela (susceptible, the progenies F2 and F4, 30 progenies F2:3, 30 progenies BC1F2:3 and 30 progenies BC2F2:3, besides the cultivars BRS Celeste and MGBR-46 (Conquista. Three field experiments, using randomized complete block design with three replications, were installed in Goiânia-GO, in the 2002/03 season. Each experiment consisted of 36 treatments (6 common and 30 regular. Heritability estimates were: 74.6 and 36.1 (GFP; 51.9 and 19.9 (LR; 49.6 and 49.6 (PIPD and 55.8 and 20.3 (PSS, in both the broad and narrow senses, respectively. Based on these results, we concluded that the best strategy for obtaining stink bug-resistant genotypes consists of selecting the PIPD trait in early generations (F3 or F4, followed by selection for the GFP, LR and PSS traits in generations with higher endogamy levels.

  19. Genetic parameters and selection strategies for soybean genotypes resistant to the stink bug-complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoi, Cláudio Roberto Cardoso; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2009-04-01

    Soybean genotypes resistant to stink bugs are derived from complex breeding processes obtained through indirect selection. The aim of the present work was to estimate genetic parameters for guiding selection strategies towards resistant genotypes, based on those traits associated with responses to pod-attacking stink bugs, such as the grain filling period (GFP), leaf retention (LR), percentage index of pod damage (PIPD) and percentage of spotted seeds (PSS). We assessed the parental lines IAC-100 (resistant) and FT-Estrela (susceptible), the progenies F(2) and F (4) , 30 progenies F (2:3) , 30 progenies BC (1) F (2:3) and 30 progenies BC (2) F (2:3) , besides the cultivars BRS Celeste and MGBR-46 (Conquista). Three field experiments, using randomized complete block design with three replications, were installed in Goiânia-GO, in the 2002/03 season. Each experiment consisted of 36 treatments (6 common and 30 regular). Heritability estimates were: 74.6 and 36.1 (GFP); 51.9 and 19.9 (LR); 49.6 and 49.6 (PIPD) and 55.8 and 20.3 (PSS), in both the broad and narrow senses, respectively. Based on these results, we concluded that the best strategy for obtaining stink bug-resistant genotypes consists of selecting the PIPD trait in early generations (F (3) or F (4) ), followed by selection for the GFP, LR and PSS traits in generations with higher endogamy levels.

  20. Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam: An aid for research and teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, S.W.; Olney, M.; Covington, J.M.; Egerton, V.M.; Jiang, S.; Ramdeen, D.K.; ,; Schrader, H.; Sims, P.A.; Wood, A.S.; Davis, A.; Davenport, D.R.; Doepler, N.; Falcon, W.; Lopez, C.; Pressley, T.; Swedberg, O.L.; Harwood, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare/BugCam© is an interactive, icon-driven digital-image database/software package that displays over 500 illustrated Cenozoic Antarctic diatom taxa along with original descriptions (including over 100 generic and 20 family-group descriptions). This digital catalog is designed primarily for use by micropaleontologists working in the field (at sea or on the Antarctic continent) where hard-copy literature resources are limited. This new package will also be useful for classroom/lab teaching as well as for any paleontologists making or refining taxonomic identifications at the microscope. The database (Cenozoic Antarctic DiatomWare) is displayed via a custom software program (BugCam) written in Visual Basic for use on PCs running Windows 95 or later operating systems. BugCam is a flexible image display program that utilizes an intuitive thumbnail “tree” structure for navigation through the database. The data are stored on Micrsosoft EXCEL spread sheets, hence no separate relational database program is necessary to run the package

  1. Genome assembly and geospatial phylogenomics of the bed bug Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; Reeves, Darryl; Brugler, Mercer R; Narechania, Apurva; Simon, Sabrina; Durrett, Russell; Foox, Jonathan; Shianna, Kevin; Schatz, Michael C; Gandara, Jorge; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Lam, Ernest T; Hastie, Alex R; Chan, Saki; Cao, Han; Saghbini, Michael; Kentsis, Alex; Planet, Paul J; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Tessler, Michael; Baker, Richard; DeSalle, Rob; Sorkin, Louis N; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Siddall, Mark E; Amato, George; Mason, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) has been a persistent pest of humans for thousands of years, yet the genetic basis of the bed bug's basic biology and adaptation to dense human environments is largely unknown. Here we report the assembly, annotation and phylogenetic mapping of the 697.9-Mb Cimex lectularius genome, with an N50 of 971 kb, using both long and short read technologies. A RNA-seq time course across all five developmental stages and male and female adults generated 36,985 coding and noncoding gene models. The most pronounced change in gene expression during the life cycle occurs after feeding on human blood and included genes from the Wolbachia endosymbiont, which shows a simultaneous and coordinated host/commensal response to haematophagous activity. These data provide a rich genetic resource for mapping activity and density of C. lectularius across human hosts and cities, which can help track, manage and control bed bug infestations. PMID:26836631

  2. Genetic Variability and Geographic Diversity of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Populations from the Midwest Using Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Ralph B; Lalithambika, Sreedevi; Kamble, Shripat T

    2015-07-01

    With the recent global resurgence of the bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.), there is a need to better understand its biology, ecology, and ability to establish populations. Bed bugs are domestic pests that feed mainly on mammalian blood. Although bed bugs have not been implicated as vectors of pathogens, their biting activity inflicts severe insomnia and allergic reactions. Moreover, they have recently developed resistance to various insecticides, which requires further molecular research to determine genetic variation and appropriate interventions. Population dynamics, including genetic differentiation and genetic distance of 10 populations from the Midwest were analyzed in this study. The bed bug samples collected by pest control companies were genotyped using eight species-specific microsatellite markers. Results showed all eight markers were polymorphic, with 8-16 alleles per locus, suggesting high genetic diversity. The FST values were >0.25, signifying pronounced genetic differentiation. The G-test results also indicated high genetic differentiation among populations. The frequency of the most common allele across all eight loci was 0.42. The coefficient of relatedness between each of the populations was >0.5, indicative of sibling or parent-offspring relationships, while the FIS and its confidence interval values were statistically insignificant within the populations tested. The populations departed from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, possibly because of high heterozygosity. The genetic distance analysis using a neighbor-joining tree showed that the populations from Kansas City, MO, were genetically separate from most of those from Nebraska, indicating a geographic pattern of genetic structure. Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of using microsatellite markers to study bed bugs population structure, thereby improving our understanding of bed bug population dynamics in the Midwest. Overall, this study showed a high genetic diversity and identified several

  3. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

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    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  4. A case of extensive congregation of Man-faced Stink Bug Catacanthus incarnatus (Drury (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae together with new host records from western Maharashtra, India

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    S.H. Waghmare

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the congregation of Stink Bug Catacanthus incarnatus. For the first time this bug was reported at high altitude i.e., 792m. The study reports the congregation of C. incarnatus on four new host plant species viz., Ixora brachiata, Memecylon umbellatum, Glochidion ellipticum and Olea dioica. More infestation was observed on I. brachiata. 

  5. Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS): The Effectiveness of an Afterschool Environmental Science Program for Increasing Female Students' Interest in Science Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Ellison, Amber; Lim, Okyoung; Periathiruvadi, Sita

    2012-01-01

    Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS) was an afterschool program for 4th and 5th grade girls that provided authentic learning experiences in environmental science as well as valuable female mentoring opportunities in an effort to increase participants' academic achievement in science. BUGS participants demonstrated significantly greater amounts of…

  6. Bed bugs reproductive life cycle in the clothes of a patient suffering from Alzheimer's disease results in iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabou, Marcela; Imperiale, Delphine Gallo; Andrès, Emmanuel; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Foeglé, Jacinthe; Lavigne, Thierry; Kaltenbach, Georges; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of an 82-year-old patient, hospitalized for malaise. Her clothes were infested by numerous insects and the entomological analysis identified them as being Cimex lectularius (bed bugs). The history of the patient highlighted severe cognitive impairment. The biological assessment initially showed a profound microcytic, aregenerative, iron deficiency anemia. A vitamin B12 deficiency due to pernicious anemia (positive intrinsic factor antibodies) was also highlighted, but this was not enough to explain the anemia without macrocytosis. Laboratory tests, endoscopy and a CT scan eliminated a tumor etiology responsible for occult bleeding. The patient had a mild itchy rash which was linked to the massive colonization by the bed bugs. The C. lectularius bite is most often considered benign because it is not a vector of infectious agents. Far from trivial, a massive human colonization by bed bugs may cause such a hematic depletion that severe microcytic anemia may result. PMID:23673315

  7. RNA interference of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in reduced insecticide resistance in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

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    Fang Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR plays a central role in cytochrome P450 action. The genes coding for P450s are not yet fully identified in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius. Hence, we decided to clone cDNA and knockdown the expression of the gene coding for CPR which is suggested to be required for the function of all P450s to determine whether or not P450s are involved in resistance of bed bugs to insecticides. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The full length Cimex lectularius CPR (ClCPR cDNA was isolated from a deltamethrin resistant bed bug population (CIN-1 using a combined PCR strategy. Bioinformatics and in silico modeling were employed to identify three conserved binding domains (FMN, FAD, NADP, a FAD binding motif, and the catalytic residues. The critical amino acids involved in FMN, FAD, NADP binding and their putative functions were also analyzed. No signal peptide but a membrane anchor domain with 21 amino acids which facilitates the localization of ClCPR on the endoplasmic reticulum was identified in ClCPR protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ClCPR is closer to the CPR from the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis than to the CPRs from the other insect species studied. The ClCPR gene was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues tested but showed an increase in expression as immature stages develop into adults. We exploited the traumatic insemination mechanism of bed bugs to inject dsRNA and successfully knockdown the expression of the gene coding for ClCPR. Suppression of the ClCPR expression increased susceptibility to deltamethrin in resistant populations but not in the susceptible population of bed bugs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that P450-mediated metabolic detoxification may serve as one of the resistance mechanisms in bed bugs.

  8. Effects of Various Interventions, Including Mass Trapping with Passive Pitfall Traps, on Low-Level Bed Bug Populations in Apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of various interventions on low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., populations in occupied apartments. The first experiment was conducted in occupied apartments under three intervention conditions: never treated (Group I), recently treated with no further treatment (Group II), and recently treated with continued treatment (Group III). Each apartment was monitored with pitfall-style traps (interceptors) installed at beds and upholstered furniture (sleeping and resting areas) along with ∼18 additional interceptors throughout the apartment. The traps were inspected every 2 wk. After 22 wk, bed bugs had been eliminated (zero trap catch for eight consecutive weeks and none detected in visual inspections) in 96, 87, and 100% of the apartments in Groups I, II, and III, respectively. The second experiment investigated the impact of interceptors as a control measure in apartments with low-level infestations. In the treatment group, interceptors were continuously installed at and away from sleeping and resting areas and were inspected every 2 wk for 16 wk. In the control group, interceptors were placed in a similar fashion as the treatment group but were only placed during 6–8 and 14–16 wk to obtain bed bug counts. Bed bug counts were significantly lower at 8 wk in the treatment group than in the control group. At 16 wk, bed bugs were eliminated in 50% of the apartments in the treatment group. The implications of our results in the development of bed bug management strategies and monitoring protocols are discussed. PMID:26637535

  9. Sublethal Effects of ActiveGuard Exposure on Feeding Behavior and Fecundity of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan C; Bryant, Joshua L; Sivakoff, Frances S

    2015-05-01

    Sublethal exposure to pesticides can alter insect behavior with potential for population-level consequences. We investigated sublethal effects of ActiveGuard, a permethrin-impregnated fabric, on feeding behavior and fecundity of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) from five populations that ranged from susceptible to highly pyrethroid resistant. After exposure to ActiveGuard fabric or untreated fabric for 1 or 10 min, adult virgin female bed bugs were individually observed when offered a blood meal to determine feeding attempts and weight gain. Because bed bug feeding behavior is tightly coupled with its fecundity, all females were then mated, and the number of eggs laid and egg hatch rate were used as fecundity measures. We observed that pyrethroid-resistant and -susceptible bugs were not significantly different for all feeding and fecundity parameters. Bed bugs exposed to ActiveGuard for 10 min were significantly less likely to attempt to feed or successfully feed, and their average blood meal size was significantly smaller compared with individuals in all other groups. Independent of whether or not feeding occurred, females exposed to ActiveGuard for 10 min were significantly more likely to lay no eggs. Only a single female exposed to ActiveGuard for 10 min laid any eggs. Among the other fabric treatment-exposure time groups, there were no observable differences in egg numbers or hatch rates. Brief exposure of 10 min to ActiveGuard fabric appeared to decrease feeding and fecundity of pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible bed bugs, suggesting the potentially important role of sublethal exposure for the control of this ectoparasitic insect. PMID:26334815

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: evidence from mitochondrial genomes

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    Xie Qiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea.

  11. Predation Potential of the Water Bugs Sphaerodema rusticum on the Sewage Snails Physa acuta

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    G Aditya

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The sewage snail Physa acuta is a serious threat to certain economic plants and to the purification plant of sewage works by rendering the biofilters ineffective. Various attempts are being made to control it. The efficacy of the predacious water bugs Sphaerodema rusticum was judged experimentally, in the laboratory in the potential control of P. acuta. It is revealed that, when supplied separately, the first, second and third instar and the adult S. rusticum did not attack P. acuta belonging to 3.1-8 mm, 5.1-8 mm, 7.1-8 mm and <= 3 mm size classes respectively. In the remaining trials predation rate varied from zero to eight (average 2.3 individuals per predator per day. In experiments with P. acuta belonging to all the size classes supplied together, none, except the first instar S. rusticum, attacked the prey individuals belonging to the lowest (<= 3 mm size class. The first and second instar S. rusticum, in both trials did not attack P. acuta larger than 4 mm and 5 mm in shell length respectively. The water bugs belonging to the third, fourth, fifth instar and adult stages though preyed upon P. acuta with 3.1-8 mm shell length. The average rate of predation by a single S. rusticum varied from 0.14-3.08 individuals per day depending upon the size of P. acuta and the stage of S. rusticum. A single S. rusticum, irrespective of instar and adult stages, destroyed on average 4.16 P. acuta daily irrespective of sizes. It is estimated that one S. rusticum could destroy 1,360 P. acuta in its life time. The results clearly indicate that the water bug S. rusticum may be used to control the snails P. acuta.

  12. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera) in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Philippe; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Guilbert, Eric; Njiokou, Flobert; Marsollier, Laurent; Guégan, Jean-François; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Eyangoh, Sara; Harry, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera) represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens) was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens) was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for “DNA barcoding”) and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs), which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41–45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and “DNA barcoding” reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy. PMID:27149077

  13. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera in Cameroon.

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    Solange Meyin A Ebong

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding" and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs, which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  14. Mortality, temporary sterilization, and maternal effects of sublethal heat in bed bugs.

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    Bjørn Arne Rukke

    Full Text Available Adult bed bugs were exposed to the sublethal temperatures 34.0°C, 35.5°C, 37.0°C, 38.5°C, or 40.0°C for 3, 6, or 9 days. The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect. The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success. Adult fecundity remained low for up to 40 days after heat exposure, and the time until fertility was restored correlated with the temperature-sum experienced during heat exposure. Three or 6 days of parental exposure to 38.5°C significantly lowered their offspring's feeding and moulting ability, which consequently led to a failure to continue beyond the third instar. Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected. Eggs that were deposited during heat treatment exhibited high levels of mortality also at 34.0°C and 35.5°C. The observed negative effects of temperatures between 34.0°C and 40.0°C may be utilized in pest management, and sublethal temperature exposure ought to be further investigated as an additional tool to decimate or potentially eradicate bed bug populations. The effect of parental heat exposure on progeny demonstrates the importance of including maternal considerations when studying bed bug environmental stress reactions.

  15. [Yield of soybean genotypes under infestation of the velvetbean caterpillar and stink bugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenção, André L; Reco, Paulo C; Braga, Nelson R; Valle, Giuliana E do; Pinheiro, José B

    2010-01-01

    Three soybean experiments, one for each maturation group (early, semi-early, and medium), were installed in the field in Assis, State of São Paulo, during the 2003/2004 growing season to evaluate damage caused by Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hubn.) and by the soybean stink bug complex, Euschistus heros (F.), Piezodorus guildinii (West.), and Nezara viridula (L.). The experiments were installed again in 2004/2005, with the exception of the early cycle group. Defoliation caused by A. gemmatalis was evaluated by the percentage estimate of leaf area cut in the first year only, due to low caterpillar infestations in 2004/2005. All three stink bug species were present in both growing seasons. In 2003/2004, E. heros was predominant over the other two; in the following year, all three species occurred in similar numbers. The productivity criterion was adopted to evaluate stink bug damage. Based on both growing seasons and mainly considering productivity, a few lines could be selected within each maturation group for new field studies or for hybridizations in breeding programs. Among the early germplasm varieties, lines IAC 98-4540, IAC 98-4576, and IAC 98-3123 can be highlighted as promising; the latter also showed little defoliation by A. gemmatalis; in the semi-early group, IAC 98-4017, IAC 98-2663, and IAC 98-4250 were prominent, with steady productivity in both years; in the medium group, IAC 98-4136, the most productive, as well as IAC 98-4140 and IAC 98-4133, all with little defoliation, can be pointed out as promising. PMID:20498967

  16. Mortality, temporary sterilization, and maternal effects of sublethal heat in bed bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Aak, Anders; Edgar, Kristin Skarsfjord

    2015-01-01

    Adult bed bugs were exposed to the sublethal temperatures 34.0°C, 35.5°C, 37.0°C, 38.5°C, or 40.0°C for 3, 6, or 9 days. The two uppermost temperatures induced 100% mortality within 9 and 2 days, respectively, whereas 34.0°C had no observable effect. The intermediate temperatures interacted with time to induce a limited level of mortality but had distinct effects on fecundity, reflected by decreases in the number of eggs produced and hatching success. Adult fecundity remained low for up to 40 days after heat exposure, and the time until fertility was restored correlated with the temperature-sum experienced during heat exposure. Three or 6 days of parental exposure to 38.5°C significantly lowered their offspring's feeding and moulting ability, which consequently led to a failure to continue beyond the third instar. Eggs that were deposited at 22.0°C before being exposed to 37.0°C for 3 or 6 days died, whereas eggs that were exposed to lower temperatures were not significantly affected. Eggs that were deposited during heat treatment exhibited high levels of mortality also at 34.0°C and 35.5°C. The observed negative effects of temperatures between 34.0°C and 40.0°C may be utilized in pest management, and sublethal temperature exposure ought to be further investigated as an additional tool to decimate or potentially eradicate bed bug populations. The effect of parental heat exposure on progeny demonstrates the importance of including maternal considerations when studying bed bug environmental stress reactions. PMID:25996999

  17. Reproduction barrier between two lineages of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) (Heteroptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrocka, Kamila; Balvín, Ondřej; Bartonička, Tomáš

    2015-08-01

    Populations of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, have increased in recent years spreading into numerous urban areas across the Western world and making them an increasingly important pest of the twenty-first century. Research into hybridization within and between different lineages of bed bugs can help us to understand processes of micro- and macro-evolution in these ectoparasites and may inform the control of this pest species. Hybridization experiments between two host lineages of bed bug (C. lectularius) from Central Europe (Czech Republic), those associated with humans and those with bats, were conducted under laboratory conditions. Number of eggs and early instars were compared between crosses of mixed host lineages (interspecific mating) with pairs from the same host lineage, those from the same locality and same lineage from different localities (intraspecific mating). While crosses within host lineages resulted in egg production and later instars, crosses between different host lineages were unsuccessful, although of the mated females possessed sperm in their mesospermaleges and/or seminal conceptacles. These crosses did not even result in egg production. Moreover, in the mixed lineage crosses, mortality rates in adults were higher (51 and 50% higher in bat and human lineage, respectively) than in those animals from the same lineage. Survival of adults was in pairs from the same locality slightly higher than in pairs from different localities and differed statistically. These results support the existence of post-mating barriers and show reproductive isolation between two lineages of C. lectularius. Bat and human host adaptations can promote evolving of such barriers and can be product of alloxenic speciation. PMID:25952703

  18. The central projection of cephalic mechanosensory axons in the haematophagous bug Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insausti Teresita C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The projections of mechanosensory hairs located on the dorsal and lateral head of the adult haematophagous bug Triatoma infestans were analyzed by means of cobalt filling. Axons run into the anterior and posterior tegumentary nerve and project through the brain to the ventral nerve cord. The fibres are small in diameter and run as a fascicle. Some branches run into suboesophageal and prothoracic centres; others run as far as to the mesothoracic ganglion. These sensory projections resemble that of wind-sensitive head hairs of the locust. The functional role of this sensory system in this species is discussed.

  19. New Jurassic Fossil True Bugs of the Pachymeridiidae (Hemiptera:Pentatomomorpha) from Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yunzhi; CAI Wanzhi; REN Dong

    2008-01-01

    Four new fossil genera and species of true bugs from the family Pachymeridiidae,Beipiaocoris multifurcus, Bellicoris mirabilis, Nitoculus regillus, and Viriosinervis stolidus, are described. New specimens were collected from the Middle and Upper Jurassic non-marine sedimentary strata from the Jiulongshan and Yixian Formations of northeast China. The species Karatavocoris asiatica Becker-Migdisova, 1963, which was considered to be a member of the family Coreidae is transferred to the Pachymeridiidae. A new map of all known and newly discovered fossil pachymeridiid localities is given. The diagnosis of the family is modified.

  20. Data Races vs. Data Race Bugs: Telling the Difference with Portend

    OpenAIRE

    George Candea; Baris Kasikci; Cristian Zamfir; and George Candea

    2012-01-01

    Even though most data races are harmless, the harmful ones are at the heart of some of the worst concurrency bugs. Alas, spotting just the harmful data races in programs is like finding a needle in a haystack: 76%-90% of the true data races reported by state-of-the- art race detectors turn out to be harmless [45]. We present Portend, a tool that not only detects races but also automatically classifies them based on their potential con- sequences: Could they lead to crashes or hangs? Could th...

  1. ASGARD: an open-access database of annotated transcriptomes for emerging model arthropod species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Victor; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2012-01-01

    The increased throughput and decreased cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS) have shifted the bottleneck genomic research from sequencing to annotation, analysis and accessibility. This is particularly challenging for research communities working on organisms that lack the basic infrastructure of a sequenced genome, or an efficient way to utilize whatever sequence data may be available. Here we present a new database, the Assembled Searchable Giant Arthropod Read Database (ASGARD). This database is a repository and search engine for transcriptomic data from arthropods that are of high interest to multiple research communities but currently lack sequenced genomes. We demonstrate the functionality and utility of ASGARD using de novo assembled transcriptomes from the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We have annotated these transcriptomes to assign putative orthology, coding region determination, protein domain identification and Gene Ontology (GO) term annotation to all possible assembly products. ASGARD allows users to search all assemblies by orthology annotation, GO term annotation or Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. User-friendly features of ASGARD include search term auto-completion suggestions based on database content, the ability to download assembly product sequences in FASTA format, direct links to NCBI data for predicted orthologs and graphical representation of the location of protein domains and matches to similar sequences from the NCBI non-redundant database. ASGARD will be a useful repository for transcriptome data from future NGS studies on these and other emerging model arthropods, regardless of sequencing platform, assembly or annotation status. This database thus provides easy, one-stop access to multi-species annotated transcriptome information. We anticipate that this database will be useful for members of multiple research communities, including developmental

  2. Studies of Resurgent Bed Bugs: Population Genetic Structure, Impact of Aggregation on Development and Molecular Screening for Bartonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Virna Lisa

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) has created an unprecedented demand for research on its biology. The main objectives of this dissertation research were to investigate several aspects of bed bug biology: infestation and dispersal dynamics at a large and small geographical scale using molecular markers, to determine the impact of aggregation on bed bug development and to screen bed bug populations for a re-emergent pathogen. First, we studied the infestation and dispersal dynamics of bed bugs at large geographical scale (e.g., across cities, states). Although bed bug infestations are on the rise, there is a poor understanding of their dispersal patterns and sources of infestation. We conducted a genetic study of 21 bed bug infestations from the eastern United States. We genotyped samples comprised of 8 - 10 individuals per infestation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Despite high genetic diversity across all infestations, with 5 -- 17 alleles per locus (mean = 10.3), we found low genetic diversity (1 -- 4 alleles per locus) within all but one of the infestations. These results suggest that nearly all the studied infestations were started by a small propagule possibly consisting of a singly mated female and/or her progeny. All infestations were strongly genetically differentiated from each other (mean pairwise FST between populations = 0.68) and we did not find strong evidence of a geographic pattern of structuring. The high level of genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States together with the lack of geographically organized structure is consistent with multiple introductions into the United States from foreign sources. This work is described in Chapter 2 and was published in the Journal of Medical Entomology in 2012. Second, we investigated dispersal and infestation dynamics of bed bugs at a fine geographical scale within three multistory apartment buildings: one from Raleigh, NC and two from Jersey City, NJ

  3. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Frédéric; Delaunay, Pascal; Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Perrin, Yvon; Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus) has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs) and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs). These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division) in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken. PMID:27605306

  4. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdain Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs. These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken.

  5. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Frédéric; Delaunay, Pascal; Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Perrin, Yvon; Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus) has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs) and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs). These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division) in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken. PMID:27605306

  6. Alarm Odor Compounds of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Exhibit Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagun, Steven; Collins, Elliot; Martin, Caleb; Nolan, E Joseph; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Some insects release scented compounds as a defense against predators that also exhibit antimicrobial activity. Trans-2-octenal and trans-2-decenal are the major alarm aldehydes responsible for the scent of Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug. Previous research has shown these aldehydes are antifungal and produce an antipredatory effect, but have never been tested for antibacterial activity. We hypothesized that these compounds functioned similarly to the analogous multifunctional action of earwig compounds, so we tested whether these aldehydes could inhibit the growth of bacteria. Disk diffusion assays indicated that these aldehydes significantly inhibited the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in vitro. Moreover, mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) coated in stink bug aldehydes showed a substantial reduction in bacterial colonization compared to vehicle-treated insects. These results suggest that brown marmorated stinkbug aldehydes are indeed antibacterial agents and serve a multifunctional role for this insect. Therefore, stinkbug aldehydes may have potential for use as chemical antimicrobials.

  7. Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Knill, David C; Huang, Samuel J; Yung, Amanda; Ding, Jian; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-06-19

    Stereopsis is the rich impression of three-dimensionality, based on binocular disparity-the differences between the two retinal images of the same world. However, a substantial proportion of the population is stereo-deficient, and relies mostly on monocular cues to judge the relative depth or distance of objects in the environment. Here we trained adults who were stereo blind or stereo-deficient owing to strabismus and/or amblyopia in a natural visuomotor task-a 'bug squashing' game-in a virtual reality environment. The subjects' task was to squash a virtual dichoptic bug on a slanted surface, by hitting it with a physical cylinder they held in their hand. The perceived surface slant was determined by monocular texture and stereoscopic cues, with these cues being either consistent or in conflict, allowing us to track the relative weighting of monocular versus stereoscopic cues as training in the task progressed. Following training most participants showed greater reliance on stereoscopic cues, reduced suppression and improved stereoacuity. Importantly, the training-induced changes in relative stereo weights were significant predictors of the improvements in stereoacuity. We conclude that some adults deprived of normal binocular vision and insensitive to the disparity information can, with appropriate experience, recover access to more reliable stereoscopic information.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'.

  8. Endosymbiotic Bacteria Associated with the Mealy Bug, Rhizoecus amorphophalli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreerag, Ravikumar Sreekala; Jayaprakas, C A; Ragesh, L; Kumar, Sasidharan Nishanth

    2014-01-01

    The mealy bug, Rhizoecus amorphophalli, is a menace to the aroid farmers due to the intensive infestation on stored tubers. Spraying of pesticides was able to control this pest but it always left a chance for fungal growth. Bacterial endosymbionts associated with the insects provide several benefits to their host. Since such endosymbionts play a vital role even in the physiology of their host, revealing the types of bacteria associated with mealy bug will give basic information, which may throw light on the management of this noxious pest. The present study is the first to identify bacterial endosymbionts associated with R. amorphophalli employing phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA sequencing. Three culturable bacteria, namely, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus gallinarum, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, were isolated from R. amorphophalli. Moreover, the antibiotic susceptibility tests against the isolated bacteria showed that all the isolates were susceptible to the three antibiotics tested, except cephalexin. Recently, endosymbionts are used as effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) and the present study will stand as a connecting link in identification and effective utilization of these endosymbionts as BCAs for management of R. amorphophalli.

  9. Recovering stereo vision by squashing virtual bugs in a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Knill, David C; Huang, Samuel J; Yung, Amanda; Ding, Jian; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Bavelier, Daphne; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-06-19

    Stereopsis is the rich impression of three-dimensionality, based on binocular disparity-the differences between the two retinal images of the same world. However, a substantial proportion of the population is stereo-deficient, and relies mostly on monocular cues to judge the relative depth or distance of objects in the environment. Here we trained adults who were stereo blind or stereo-deficient owing to strabismus and/or amblyopia in a natural visuomotor task-a 'bug squashing' game-in a virtual reality environment. The subjects' task was to squash a virtual dichoptic bug on a slanted surface, by hitting it with a physical cylinder they held in their hand. The perceived surface slant was determined by monocular texture and stereoscopic cues, with these cues being either consistent or in conflict, allowing us to track the relative weighting of monocular versus stereoscopic cues as training in the task progressed. Following training most participants showed greater reliance on stereoscopic cues, reduced suppression and improved stereoacuity. Importantly, the training-induced changes in relative stereo weights were significant predictors of the improvements in stereoacuity. We conclude that some adults deprived of normal binocular vision and insensitive to the disparity information can, with appropriate experience, recover access to more reliable stereoscopic information.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269607

  10. Efficacy of Selected Insecticide Sprays and Aerosols against the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the residual efficacy of four liquid sprays and four ready-to-use aerosols that are commonly used in the U.S. against a field-collected bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., strain with moderate resistance level to pyrethroids. The four liquid sprays were: Tandem (0.1% thiamethoxam, 0.03% lambda-cyhalothrin, Temprid SC (0.05% imidacloprid, 0.025% cyfluthrin, Transport GHP (0.05% acetamiprid, 0.06% bifenthrin, and Demand CS (0.03% lambda-cyhalothrin. The four aerosols were: Alpine (0.5% dinotefuran, Bedlam (0.4% sumithrin, 1.6% MGK 264, Bedlam Plus (0.4% sumithrin, 1% MGK 264, 0.05% imidacloprid, and Phantom (0.5% chlorfenapyr. Bed bugs were confined for 4 h to treated substrates (aged 24 h. Four substrates were tested: fabric, unpainted wood, painted wood, and vinyl. Bedlam, Demand CS, and Temprid SC resulted in ≤70% mortality on all tested substrates. Among the other five products, substrate type significantly affected their residual efficacy, except for Transport GHP, which caused ≥89.7% mortality regardless of the substrate. The effect of exposure time (5 min, 4 h, and 24 h on the efficacy of Transport GHP and Phantom aerosol also was evaluated. A 4 h continuous exposure to Phantom aerosol or Transport GHP residue caused similar mortality to 24 h exposure and higher mortality than 5 min exposure.

  11. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management. PMID:26470241

  12. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin. The lethal concentration (LC50 for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development.

  13. Molecular characterization of Wolbachia infection in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius collected from several localities in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhoundi Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia symbionts are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that have been detected in numerous insects including bed bugs. The objective of this study, the first epidemiological study in Europe, was to screen Wolbachia infection among Cimex lectularius collected in the field, using PCR targeting the surface protein gene (wsp, and to compare obtained Wolbachia strains with those reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius as well as other Wolbachia groups. For this purpose, 284 bed bug specimens were caught and studied from eight different regions of France including the suburbs of Paris, Bouches-du-Rhône, Lot-et-Garonne, and five localities in Alpes-Maritimes. Among the samples, 166 were adults and the remaining 118 were considered nymphs. In all, 47 out of 118 nymphs (40% and 61 out of 166 adults (37% were found positive on wsp screening. Among the positive cases, 10 samples were selected randomly for sequencing. The sequences had 100% homology with wsp sequences belonging to the F-supergroup strains of Wolbachia. Therefore, we confirm the similarity of Wolbachia strains detected in this epidemiological study to Wolbachia spp. reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius.

  14. Molecular characterization of Wolbachia infection in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) collected from several localities in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Cannet, Arnaud; Loubatier, Céline; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Izri, Arezki; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia symbionts are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that have been detected in numerous insects including bed bugs. The objective of this study, the first epidemiological study in Europe, was to screen Wolbachia infection among Cimex lectularius collected in the field, using PCR targeting the surface protein gene (wsp), and to compare obtained Wolbachia strains with those reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius as well as other Wolbachia groups. For this purpose, 284 bed bug specimens were caught and studied from eight different regions of France including the suburbs of Paris, Bouches-du-Rhône, Lot-et-Garonne, and five localities in Alpes-Maritimes. Among the samples, 166 were adults and the remaining 118 were considered nymphs. In all, 47 out of 118 nymphs (40%) and 61 out of 166 adults (37%) were found positive on wsp screening. Among the positive cases, 10 samples were selected randomly for sequencing. The sequences had 100% homology with wsp sequences belonging to the F-supergroup strains of Wolbachia. Therefore, we confirm the similarity of Wolbachia strains detected in this epidemiological study to Wolbachia spp. reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius. PMID:27492563

  15. Efficacy of Selected Insecticide Sprays and Aerosols against the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Zha, Chen; Cooper, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the residual efficacy of four liquid sprays and four ready-to-use aerosols that are commonly used in the U.S. against a field-collected bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., strain with moderate resistance level to pyrethroids. The four liquid sprays were: Tandem (0.1% thiamethoxam, 0.03% lambda-cyhalothrin), Temprid SC (0.05% imidacloprid, 0.025% cyfluthrin), Transport GHP (0.05% acetamiprid, 0.06% bifenthrin), and Demand CS (0.03% lambda-cyhalothrin). The four aerosols were: Alpine (0.5% dinotefuran), Bedlam (0.4% sumithrin, 1.6% MGK 264), Bedlam Plus (0.4% sumithrin, 1% MGK 264, 0.05% imidacloprid), and Phantom (0.5% chlorfenapyr). Bed bugs were confined for 4 h to treated substrates (aged 24 h). Four substrates were tested: fabric, unpainted wood, painted wood, and vinyl. Bedlam, Demand CS, and Temprid SC resulted in ≤70% mortality on all tested substrates. Among the other five products, substrate type significantly affected their residual efficacy, except for Transport GHP, which caused ≥89.7% mortality regardless of the substrate. The effect of exposure time (5 min, 4 h, and 24 h) on the efficacy of Transport GHP and Phantom aerosol also was evaluated. A 4 h continuous exposure to Phantom aerosol or Transport GHP residue caused similar mortality to 24 h exposure and higher mortality than 5 min exposure. PMID:26840334

  16. Extensive Mitochondrial Heteroplasmy in Natural Populations of a Resurging Human Pest, the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, G A; Balvin, O; Schal, C; Vargo, E L; Booth, W

    2015-07-01

    Homoplasmy, the occurrence of a single mitochondrial DNA haplotype within an individual, has been the accepted condition across most organisms in the animal kingdom. In recent years, a number of exceptions to this rule have been reported, largely due to the ease with which single nucleotide polymorphisms can be detected. Evidence of heteroplasmy-two or more mitochondrial variants within a single individual-has now been documented in a number of invertebrates; however, when present, heteroplasmy usually occurs at low frequencies both within individuals and within populations. The implications of heteroplasmy may be far reaching, both to the individual in relation to its health and fitness, and when considering the evolutionary dynamics of populations. We present novel evidence for frequent mtDNA heteroplasmy in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Our findings show that heteroplasmy is common, with 5 of 29 (17%) populations screened exhibiting two mitochondrial variants in a ∼1:2 ratio within each individual. We hypothesize that the mechanism underlying heteroplasmy in bed bugs is paternal leakage because some haplotypes were shared among unrelated populations and no evidence for nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences was detected. PMID:26335484

  17. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brittany E; Miller, Dini M

    2015-01-01

    Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development. PMID:26463070

  18. Influence of brown stink bug feeding, planting date and sampling time on common smut infection of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytopathogen infections are frequently influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors in a crop field. The effect of brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), feeding and planting date and sampling time on common smut (Ustilago maydis) infection percentage of maize plants was exa...

  19. Regulatory roles of biogenic amines and juvenile hormone in the reproductive behavior of the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mating induces behavioral and physiological changes in the plant bug Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae). Males enter a post-mating refractory period, lasting 24 hrs, during which they replenish the contents of their accessory glands and seminal vesicles. Females experience a similar loss of ...

  20. Predation and Parasitism Rates on Sentinel and Naturally Occurring Egg Masses of the Squash Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal changes in egg predation and parasitism rates on sentinel and naturally occurring (wild) egg masses of the squash bug, Anasa tristis (DeGeer), were evaluated in squash fields in Maryland from June through September in 2013 and 2014. Rates of egg predation and parasitism were significantly ...

  1. How Are They Now? Longer Term Effects of eCoaching through Online Bug-in-Ear Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Marcia L.; Schumacker, Randall E.; Gregg, Madeleine; Howard, Pamela W.; Gable, Robert A.; Zigmond, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, using mixed methods, we investigated the longer term effects of eCoaching through advanced online bug-in-ear (BIE) technology. Quantitative data on five dependent variables were extracted from 14 participants' electronically archived video files at three points in time--Spring 1 (i.e., baseline, which was the first semester of…

  2. Impact of Bug-in-Ear Professional Development on Early Childhood Co-Teachers' Use of Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Jennifer R.; Coogle, Christan G.; Rahn, Naomi L.; Spear, Caitlin F.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to build the capacity of early childhood teachers to implement evidence-based strategies. We investigated the efficacy of professional development with bug-in-ear peer coaching in improving teachers' use of communication strategies, the teachers' maintenance of strategies post intervention, and the social validity of the…

  3. Supporting Early Childhood Educators' Use of Embedded Communication Strategies by Providing Feedback via Bug-in-Ear Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggie, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coaching provided with bug-in-ear technology, the frequency of the early childhood educators' use of targeted communication strategies and children's expressive communication. Four multiple-baseline single-case design experiments were completed to evaluate these relationships.…

  4. There's a Bug in Your Ear!: Using Technology to Increase the Accuracy of DTT Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Tracy; Vasquez, Eleazar, III.

    2014-01-01

    Many professionals have successfully implemented discrete trial teaching in the past. However, there have not been extensive studies examining the accuracy of discrete trial teaching implementation. This study investigated the use of Bug in Ear feedback on the accuracy of discrete trial teaching implementation among two pre-service teachers…

  5. Bed bugs are back and also arriving is the southernmost record of Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndez, Eduardo I; Carvajal, Máriom A

    2014-09-01

    The arrival and establishment of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L., 1755 in Magallanes Region (Chile) is reported. The present record is the southernmost for this species in America. The circumstances that provided for the species reaching this southern locality are discussed. PMID:25276939

  6. Cuticle Thickening in a Pyrethroid-Resistant Strain of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, David G; Latham, Sharissa L; Webb, Cameron E; Doggett, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Thickening of the integument as a mechanism of resistance to insecticides is a well recognised phenomenon in the insect world and, in recent times, has been found in insects exhibiting pyrethroid-resistance. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., is widespread and has been frequently inferred as a reason for the pest's resurgence. Overexpression of cuticle depositing proteins has been demonstrated in pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs although, to date, no morphological analysis of the cuticle has been undertaken in order to confirm a phenotypic link. This paper describes examination of the cuticle thickness of a highly pyrethroid-resistant field strain collected in Sydney, Australia, in response to time-to-knockdown upon forced exposure to a pyrethroid insecticide. Mean cuticle thickness was positively correlated to time-to-knockdown, with significant differences observed between bugs knocked-down at 2 hours, 4 hours, and those still unaffected at 24 hours. Further analysis also demonstrated that the 24 hours survivors possessed a statistically significantly thicker cuticle when compared to a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of C. lectularius. This study demonstrates that cuticle thickening is present within a pyrethroid-resistant strain of C. lectularius and that, even within a stable resistant strain, cuticle thickness will vary according to time-to-knockdown upon exposure to an insecticide. This response should thus be considered in future studies on the cuticle of insecticide-resistant bed bugs and, potentially, other insects. PMID:27073871

  7. Biology of Stethoconus praefectus (Heteroptera: Miridae), a newly established predator of the avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera: Tingidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stethoconus praefectus (Distant) (Heteroptera: Miridae) was recently discovered in Florida preying on the avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta perseae (Heidemann) (Heteroptera: Tingidae). Its life cycle and effectiveness as a predator of P. perseae were investigated at 26 plus or minus 1 degrees centigrad...

  8. Molecular cloning and expression of three polygalacturonase cDNAs from the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three unique cDNAs encoding putative polygalacturonase enzymes were isolated from the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae). The three nucleotide sequences were dissimilar to one another, but the deduced amino acid sequences were similar to each other and ...

  9. Fumigation of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): effective application rates for sulfuryl fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas W; Aikins, Michael J; Thoms, Ellen; Demark, Joe; Wang, Changlu

    2014-08-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has resurged recently as a domestic pest in North America with very limited options for decisive control. We report efficacy studies with sulfuryl fluoride (SF) toward use as a structural fumigant to control bed bugs. Laboratory studies were conducted in which eggs, adults, and nymphs from a pesticide susceptible laboratory population were fumigated for 24 h using SF at 99.8% purity in airtight, 3.8-liter glass containers under two temperatures, 25 degrees C and 15 degrees C. Bed bugs were placed in separate ventilated glass vials and wrapped in mattress padding before fumigation. The gas concentration within each jar was determined using quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dose-response trials using eggs of known age (48-96 h) were conducted at five or six target concentrations measured as concentration x time accumulated dosages (g-h/m3) and one untreated control at each temperature. Each target dose was replicated in four different fumigation containers (replicates), with at least 32 eggs per replicate. The number of hatched and unhatched eggs postfumigation, and number of live and dead nymphs that resulted from hatched eggs, were evaluated daily for at least 1 wk after egg hatch. The lethal accumulated dosage (LAD99) for bed bug eggs was 69.1 (95% fiducial limits [FLs] of 62.9-79.5) g-h/m3 at 25 degrees C and 149.3 (95% FLs of 134.4-177.9) g-h/m3 at 15 degrees C. Confirmatory trials with dosages of 1.5x the LAD99 were conducted at 25 degrees C and 1.5x the threshold mortality dose at 15 degrees C with at least 15 adults, 13 late-instar nymphs and 79 eggs of known age per replicate. At 25 degrees C, a target dosage of 103.7 g-h/m3 resulted in 100% mortality of adults and late-instar nymphs. Nymphs emerged and survived from two of 439 eggs treated with SF dosages that were 6-7 g-h/m3 less than the target dosage. No nymphs emerged from eggs fumigated with dosages > 97.9 g-h/m3 in the

  10. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food. PMID:26731419

  11. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Musundire

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS and coupled gas chromatography (GC-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1 at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  12. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musundire, Robert; Osuga, Isaac M; Cheseto, Xavier; Irungu, Janet; Torto, Baldwyn

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, amino acids and essential fatty acids using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Qtof-MS) and coupled gas chromatography (GC)-MS. We also performed proximate analysis to determine nutritional components. We identified the human carcinogen mycotoxin (aflatoxin B1) at low levels in edible stink bugs that were stored in traditonally woven wooden dung smeared baskets and gunny bags previously used to store cereals. However, it was absent in insects stored in clean zip lock bags. On the other hand, we identified 10 fatty acids, of which 7 are considered essential fatty acids for human nutrition and health; 4 flavonoids and 12 amino acids of which two are considered the most limiting amino acids in cereal based diets. The edible stink bug also contained high crude protein and fats but was a poor source of minerals, except for phosphorus which was found in relatively high levels. Our results show that the edible stink bug is a nutrient- and antioxidant-rich source of food and health benefits for human consumption. As such, use of better handling and storage methods can help eliminate contamination of the edible stink bug with the carcinogen aflatoxin and ensure its safety as human food.

  13. Estimating the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius: Comparing thermolimit respirometry with traditional visual methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2016-07-01

    Evaluating the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) in insects has provided a number of challenges. Visual observations of endpoints (onset of spasms, loss of righting response, etc.) can be difficult to measure consistently, especially with smaller insects. To resolve this problem, Lighton and Turner (2004) developed a new technique: thermolimit respirometry (TLR). TLR combines real time measurements of both metabolism (V·CO2) and activity to provide two independent, objective measures of CTmax. However, several questions still remain regarding the precision of TLR and how accurate it is in relation to traditional methods. Therefore, we evaluated CTmax of bed bugs using both traditional (visual) methods and TLR at three important metabolic periods following feeding (1d, 9d, and 21d). Both methods provided similar estimates of CTmax, although traditional methods produced consistently lower values (0.7-1°C lower than TLR). Despite similar levels of precision, TLR provided a more complete profile of thermal tolerance, describing changes in metabolism and activity leading up to the CTmax, not available through traditional methods. In addition, feeding status had a significant effect on bed bug CTmax, with bed bugs starved 9d (45.19[±0.20]°C) having the greatest thermal tolerance, followed by bed bugs starved 1d (44.64[±0.28]°C), and finally bed bugs starved 21d (44.12[±0.28]°C). Accuracy of traditional visual methods in relation to TLR is highly dependent on the selected endpoint; however, when performed correctly, both methods provide precise, accurate, and reliable estimations of CTmax. PMID:26970580

  14. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S; Reisig, Dominic D; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Roe, R Michael

    2016-09-16

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27649166

  16. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae: A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudh Dhammi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F., poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  17. Status of Urban Bed Bug Infestations in Southern China: An Analysis of Pest Control Service Records in Shenzhen in 2012 and Dongguan in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Cai, Xuquan; Xu, Yijuan

    2015-01-01

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex spp.) in many developed countries has drawn increasing attention worldwide. The status of urban bed bug infestations were investigated in Shenzhen and Dongguan, two major cities in southern Guangdong Province of southern China, based on pest control service records from two different companies (one during 2012 and another during 2013). The results showed that Shenzhen and Dongguan have a severe problem with bed bug infestations: the control of bed bugs is a constant concern, except during the winter. In Shenzhen, a similar number of premises were treated for bed bugs in central business districts and suburban districts. However, in Dongguan, more premises were treated for bed bugs in suburban districts than in central business districts. The treatment rate for worker sleeping quarters, apartments, hotel, and private houses in Shenzhen was 53.8, 43.0, 1.9, and 1.3%, respectively. The percentage of treated rooms was 56.1% for worker sleeping quarters and 91.1% for apartments. In Dongguan, the treatment rate for worker sleeping quarters, apartments, hotel, and private houses was 90.0, 10.0, 0.0, and 0.0%, respectively. PMID:26336282

  18. Bugs as drugs, part two: worms, leeches, scorpions, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniack, E Paul

    2011-03-01

    In this second of a two-part series analyzing the evidence for the use of organisms as medicine, the use of a number of different "bugs" (worms, leeches, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders) is detailed. Several live organisms are used as treatments: leeches for plastic surgery and osteoarthritis and the helminths Trichuris suis and Necator americanus for inflammatory bowel disease. Leech saliva is the source of a number of anticoagulants, including the antithrombin agent hirudin and its synthetic analogues, which have been approved for human use. Predatory arthropods, such as certain species of snails, spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and ticks provide a trove of potential analgesic peptides in their venom. A synthetic analogue of a snail venom peptide, ziconotide, has been approved for human use and is used as an alternative to opioids in severe pain cases. Arthropods, such as ticks, have venom that contains anticoagulants and centipede venom has a protein that corrects abnormalities in lipid metabolism. PMID:21438646

  19. First observation of alternative food usage (extrafloral nectar by the assassin bug Atopozelus opsimus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhainer Guillermo-Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Assassin bugs (Reduviidae are voracious insects that prey on other arthropods. Recent evidences have pointed out that these predators also feed on plant derived substances in rare opportunities. The present study describes the feeding behavior of the reduviid Atopozelus opsimus on extrafloral nectaries of Inga vera (Fabaceae in a Neotropical savanna area. It was investigated if the insects feed more frequently of extrafloral nectar or prey, and if individuals of different stages of development vary according to feeding behavior. Notably, the results suggest that the diet of all instars and adults consist mainly of extrafloral nectar (N = 1013, in detriment of captured prey ingestion (N = 18. Also, there was no variation on feeding behavior and life stage.

  20. Molecular characterization of tea mosquito bug from tea growing regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthi, M; Chandrashekara, K N; Arvinth, S; Raj Kumar, R

    2016-09-01

    The tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis (Hemiptera: Miridae), is an insidious pest that poses a significant economical threat to tea plantations. As a basic first step to control this pest is authentic identification, but the inability to determine morphological characters of Helopeltis species makes this process very difficult. DNA barcoding is a reliable alternative to traditional morphological identification of this pest. Since tea is cultivated in different parts of the country, an attempt was made to molecular characterization of Helopeltis. This is the first report on molecular identification and diversity characterization of Helopeltis collected from tea growing regions of southern and north India, using cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrial (mt) DNA. Beginning with the molecular identification of this pest is essential to start an effective pest management strategy, and will provide basic information for diffusion pattern, population dynamics and chemical application. PMID:26186305

  1. The cost of being an omnivore: mandible wear from plant feeding in a true bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitberg, Bernard D.; Gillespie, David R.; Quiring, Donald M. J.; Alma, Colleen R.; Jenner, Wade H.; Perry, Jennifer; Peterson, Jason H.; Salomon, Maxence; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2005-09-01

    Evolutionary and ecological transitions from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding may be constrained by the ability of the animal to cope with disparate types of foods, even if preadaptations for such behaviour exist. The omnivorous true bug, Dicyphus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) requires both animals (small, soft-bodied insects) and plants in its diet and obtains the majority of its dietary and metabolic water from plant feeding. Serrations on the lateral margins of the mandibular stylets wear with age, and this wear is exacerbated when the insects feed on plants compared to those provided free water and no plants. D. hesperus that feed on plants attack fewer prey but consumed similar amounts of prey tissue compared to individuals that were provided free water. Although others have shown mandible wear for plant-chewing animals we show for the first time that plant feeding can impose similar wear on plant-piercing animals as well.

  2. Strategies for fitting nonlinear ecological models in R, AD Model Builder, and BUGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolker, Benjamin M.; Gardner, Beth; Maunder, Mark; Berg, Casper W.; Brooks, Mollie; Comita, Liza; Crone, Elizabeth; Cubaynes, Sarah; Davies, Trevor; de Valpine, Perry; Ford, Jessica; Gimenez, Olivier; Kéry, Marc; Kim, Eun Jung; Lennert-Cody, Cleridy; Magunsson, Arni; Martell, Steve; Nash, John; Nielson, Anders; Regentz, Jim; Skaug, Hans; Zipkin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    1. Ecologists often use nonlinear fitting techniques to estimate the parameters of complex ecological models, with attendant frustration. This paper compares three open-source model fitting tools and discusses general strategies for defining and fitting models. 2. R is convenient and (relatively) easy to learn, AD Model Builder is fast and robust but comes with a steep learning curve, while BUGS provides the greatest flexibility at the price of speed. 3. Our model-fitting suggestions range from general cultural advice (where possible, use the tools and models that are most common in your subfield) to specific suggestions about how to change the mathematical description of models to make them more amenable to parameter estimation. 4. A companion web site (https://groups.nceas.ucsb.edu/nonlinear-modeling/projects) presents detailed examples of application of the three tools to a variety of typical ecological estimation problems; each example links both to a detailed project report and to full source code and data.

  3. Introducing Law Students to Public Health Law through a Bed Bug Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    As the scientific evidence emerges, individuals and institutions faced with bed bug infestations find themselves without the legal protections that are available against legally recognized nuisances and threats to the public's health, such as rats or mosquitos. As a result, they are a good example of how individuals, institutions and municipalities struggle to use the patchwork of public and private legal remedies that are often inadequate to face an emerging threat. This unit is designed to help students gain an awareness that often no one statute or case can be invoked as a complete solution to a legal problem, as well as the inherent limits of legal solutions in addressing public health problems that stem from poverty and powerlessness. PMID:26243066

  4. Seasonality and Distribution Pattern of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Virginia Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, S; Kuhar, T P; Laub, C A; Pfeiffer, D G

    2015-08-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a highly polyphagous invasive insect pest from eastern Asia that feeds on numerous fruit, vegetable, and field crops. Four commercial vineyards in Virginia were sampled in 2012 and 2013 to study the basic biology, seasonality, and distribution pattern of H. halys in vineyards. At each vineyard, two blocks were selected. Weekly 3-min timed count visual samplings were performed in border and interior sections from late May until mid-September. Overwintering adult bugs were first detected in vineyards in May; however, the timing of first detection differed among vineyards. Egg masses were found primarily in June and July, and were usually found on the lower surface of grape leaves, although they were occasionally on the upper leaf surface, on the berry, or on the rachis. All developmental stages of H. halys were found in vineyards, suggesting that grape can serve as a reproductive host for H. halys. Substantial variation in H. halys densities was found among vineyards and throughout the growing season. The first instars were found on egg masses and after molting, dispersed throughout the grape vines. The date on which the first egg mass was collected was considered as a biofix. Based on a degree-day model, there were sufficient degree-days for completion of a generation in Virginia vineyards. Significantly higher numbers of H. halys were collected in border sections compared with interior sections. These results are discussed in relation to the potential pest status of H. halys in vineyards and implications for possible control strategies. PMID:26470333

  5. Nymphs of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius produce anti-aphrodisiac defence against conspecific males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harraca Vincent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal wounding by traumatic insemination and the lack of a long distance attraction pheromone set the scene for unusual sexual signalling systems. Male bed bugs (Cimex lectularius mount any large, newly fed individual in an attempt to mate. Last instar nymphs overlap in size with mature females, which make them a potential target for interested males. However, nymphs lack the female's specific mating adaptations and may be severely injured by the abdominal wounding. We, therefore, hypothesized that nymphs emit chemical deterrents that act as an honest status signal, which prevents nymph sexual harassment and indirectly reduces energy costs for males. Results Behavioural mating assays showed that males mount nymphs significantly shorter time compared to females, although initial mounting preference was the same. In support of our hypothesis, nymphs experienced the same percentage of mating with sperm transfer as females if they were unable to emit (E-2-hexenal, (E-2-octenal 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal, from their dorsal abdominal glands. We report that the aldehydes and 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal are detected by olfactory receptor neurons housed in smooth and grooved peg sensilla, respectively, on the adult antennae, at biologically relevant concentrations. Behavioural experiments showed that application of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal or the two aldehydes at a nymph-emitted ratio, to a male/female pair during mounting initiation, decreased mating frequency to a rate comparable to that of a male/nymph pair. Conclusions By combining behavioural and sensory studies, we show that the nymph-specific alarm pheromone plays an important role in intra-specific communication in the common bed bug. Alarm pheromones are commonly looked upon as a system in predator/prey communication, but here we show that alarm pheromones may be used as multipurpose signals such as decreasing the risk of nymphal mating by males. See commentary: http

  6. The ecotopes and evolution of triatomine bugs (triatominae and their associated trypanosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaunt Michael

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatomine bug species such as Microtriatoma trinidadensis, Eratyrus mucronatus, Belminus herreri, Panstrongylus lignarius, and Triatoma tibiamaculata are exquisitely adapted to specialist niches. This suggests a long evolutionary history, as well as the recent dramatic spread a few eclectic, domiciliated triatomine species. Virtually all species of the genus Rhodnius are primarily associated with palms. The genus Panstrongylus is predominantly associated with burrows and tree cavities and the genus Triatoma with terrestrial rocky habitats or rodent burrows. Two major sub-divisions have been defined within the species Trypanosoma cruzi, as T. cruzi 1 (Z1 and T. cruzi 2 (Z2. The affinities of a third group (Z3 are uncertain. Host and habitat associations lead us to propose that T. cruzi 1 (Z1 has evolved in an arboreal, palm tree habitat with the triatomine tribe Rhodniini, in association with the opossum Didelphis. Similarly we propose that T. cruzi (Z2 and Z3 evolved in a terrestrial habitat in burrows and in rocky locations with the triatomine tribe Triatomini, in association with edentates, and/or possibly ground dwelling marsupials. Both sub-divisions of T. cruzi may have been contemporary in South America up to 65 million years ago. Alternatively, T. cruzi 2 (Z2 may have evolved more recently from T. cruzi 1 (Z1 by host transfers into rodents, edentates, and primates. We have constructed a molecular phylogeny of haematophagous vectors, including triatomine bugs, which suggests that faecal transmission of trypanosomes may be the ancestral route. A molecular clock phylogeny suggests that Rhodnius and Triatoma diverged before the arrival, about 40 million years ago, of bats and rodents into South America.

  7. Tremulatory and abdomen vibration signals enable communication through air in the stink bug Euschistus heros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Kavčič

    Full Text Available Communication by substrate-borne mechanical signals is widespread among animals but remains one of their least understood communication channels. Past studies of vibrational communication in insects have been oriented predominantly to communication during mating, showing that species- and sex-specific vibrational signals enable recognition and localization of potential mates on continuous solid substrates. No special attention has been paid to vibrational signals with less obvious specificity as well as to the possibility of vibrational communication across substrates that are not in physical contact. We aimed to reinvestigate emission of the aforementioned vibrational signals transmitted through a plant in the stink bug Euschistus heros (Pentatomidae: Pentatominae and to check whether individuals are able to communicate across adjecent, physically separated substrates. We used laser vibrometry for registration of substrate-borne vibrational signals on a bean plant. Using two bean plants separated for 3 to 7 cm between two most adjacent leaves, we investigated the possibility of transmission of these signals through air. Our study showed that males and females of E. heros communicate using tremulatory, percussion and buzzing signals in addition to the previously described signals produced by vibrations of the abdomen. Contrary to the latter, the first three signal types did not differ between sexes or between pentatomid species. Experiments with two physically separated plants showed significant searching behaviour and localization of vibrational signals of an E. heros male or a female, in response to abdominal vibration produced signals of a pair duetting on the neighbouring plant, in comparison to control where no animals were on the neighbouring plant. We also confirmed that transmission through air causes amplitude and frequency decay of vibrational signals, which suggests high-amplitude, low-frequency tremulatory signals of these stink bugs

  8. Bug Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copps, Patrick T.

    2007-01-01

    Insects and rodents in education facilities can cause structural damage, and they carry diseases that threaten food safety and the health of students and employees. To effectively prevent infestations and manage pests in a safe and eco-sensitive manner, many schools turn to integrated pest management (IPM) programs that emphasize environmentally…

  9. Apocalypse deterred : oil and gas community pulls out ahead in vaccinating itself against Y2K, the millennium bug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, M.

    1999-04-01

    Results of a survey of the membership of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) regarding efforts to deal with the threat posed by the Y2K millennium bug are reviewed. Survey results reveal that CAPP`s 170 member companies take the year 2000 date rollover very seriously, and the vast majority (99 per cent) have formal action plans to deal with the threat. The vast majority of plans have components that take into account the effects of the computer glitch on inventories, compliance and risk assessment matters, correction and replacement. All are doing testing and assessments involving business partners, and are developing contingency plans to keep operating if any problems develop despite all the efforts currently underway. Test results to date show low failure rates in field production control equipment. The current focus is on contingency plans for higher risk items. The downstream sector of the industry, involving transportation, distribution and retail marketing, is making similar efforts to minimize the threat of the Y2K bug, sometimes to the point of switching to new and improved equipment to vaccinate all its major operations against the expected computer failure. The cost of coping with the millennium bug is colossal. Canadian governments expect the cost to reach three billion dollars to purge the bug from government operations alone. Estimates of world-wide cost run to 530 billion dollars, plus another trillion dollars to clean up the aftermath of infections. Nevertheless, the current assessment is that the back of the problem has been broken at least in Canada, the United States and Western Europe. Nevertheless, there is no justification for complacency just yet.

  10. Aflatoxin Contamination Detected in Nutrient and Anti-Oxidant Rich Edible Stink Bug Stored in Recycled Grain Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Musundire; Osuga, Isaac M.; Xavier Cheseto; Janet Irungu; Baldwyn Torto

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been multi-agency promotion of entomophagy as an environmentally-friendly source of food for the ever increasing human population especially in the developing countries. However, food quality and safety concerns must first be addressed in this context. We addressed these concerns in the present study using the edible stink bug Encosternum delegorguei, which is widely consumed in southern Africa. We analysed for mycotoxins, and health beneficials including antioxidants, ami...

  11. Effect of loach consumption on the reproduction of giant water bug Kirkaldyia deyrolli: dietary selection, reproductive performance, and nutritional evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Izumi, Yohei; Tsumuki, Hisaaki

    2012-01-01

    Rice fields provide major habitats for lentic aquatic insects including the giant water bug Kirkaldyia (=Lethocerus) deyrolli (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae) in Japan. Previous researchers have emphasized that conserving populations of the frogs, Hyla japonicus and Rana nigromaculata, is very important for preserving K. deyrolli because these frogs were found to be a major component of the diet of K. deyrolli adults. However, these previous studies were carried out in rice fields with no loache...

  12. Apocalypse deterred : oil and gas community pulls out ahead in vaccinating itself against Y2K, the millennium bug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a survey of the membership of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) regarding efforts to deal with the threat posed by the Y2K millennium bug are reviewed. Survey results reveal that CAPP's 170 member companies take the year 2000 date rollover very seriously, and the vast majority (99 per cent) have formal action plans to deal with the threat. The vast majority of plans have components that take into account the effects of the computer glitch on inventories, compliance and risk assessment matters, correction and replacement. All are doing testing and assessments involving business partners, and are developing contingency plans to keep operating if any problems develop despite all the efforts currently underway. Test results to date show low failure rates in field production control equipment. The current focus is on contingency plans for higher risk items. The downstream sector of the industry, involving transportation, distribution and retail marketing, is making similar efforts to minimize the threat of the Y2K bug, sometimes to the point of switching to new and improved equipment to vaccinate all its major operations against the expected computer failure. The cost of coping with the millennium bug is colossal. Canadian governments expect the cost to reach three billion dollars to purge the bug from government operations alone. Estimates of world-wide cost run to 530 billion dollars, plus another trillion dollars to clean up the aftermath of infections. Nevertheless, the current assessment is that the back of the problem has been broken at least in Canada, the United States and Western Europe. Nevertheless, there is no justification for complacency just yet

  13. Occurrence, ecology and potential impact of the New Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni White (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Bonte, Jochem; Casteels, Hans; Maes, Martine; De Clercq, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    In 2002 the New Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni White was observed for the first time in the Netherlands and Belgium. The introduction of N. huttoni to our regions presumably occurred via overseas transport of apple and kiwi fruits from New Zealand. Laboratory experiments showed that both eggs and adults of N. huttoni were capable of surviving cold conditions similar to those in overseas transportation. Specimens were sampled in Belgium and the Netherlands, and a DNA sequence analysis indic...

  14. Phylogeography of a semi-aquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae): an evaluation of historical, geographical and ecological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Ye; Gengping Zhu; Jakob Damgaard; Xin Chen; Pingping Chen; Wenjun Bu

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical China is a centre of speciation and well known for its high biological diversity and endemism. To understand the impact of historical, geographical and ecological factors on the intraspecific lineage divergence of invertebrates, we examined these processes in a semiaquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae). Three hypotheses were developed using ecological niche models (ENM). We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial (COI + COII) and nuclear data (ITS1 + 5.8S + IT...

  15. Insecticide susceptibility of the green plant bug, Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür (Homoptera: Miridae) and two predatory arthropods

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zhengqun; Zhang Xuefeng; Liu Feng; Mu Wei

    2015-01-01

    The green plant bug (Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür) is a key pest of Bt cotton in China. Along with biological control, chemical control is one of the most important strategies in A. lucorum Integrated Pest Management (IPM). The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of eight conventional insecticides to A. lucorum and to assess the susceptibility of two generalist predators Chrysopa sinica (Jieder) and Propylaea japonica (Thunbery) to insecticides that are commonly used in A. lucorum m...

  16. Nocturnal Plant Bugs Use cis-Jasmone to Locate Inflorescences of an Araceae as Feeding and Mating Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etl, Florian; Berger, Andreas; Weber, Anton; Schönenberger, Jürg; Dötterl, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Inflorescences of Araceae pollinated by cyclocephaline scarab beetles are visited frequently by a wide array of other arthropods that exploit floral resources without taking part in pollination, including earwigs, flies, and true bugs. To date, nothing is known about the cues these insect visitors use to locate the inflorescences and whether or to what extent floral scents play a role. An aroid visited by large numbers of plant bugs (Miridae) in addition to cyclocephaline scarab beetle pollinators is the Neotropical species Dieffenbachia aurantiaca. We identified the plant bug species and investigated their behavior and arrival time on the inflorescences. To test the importance of olfactory cues in locating their host we conducted experiments with open and gauze-bagged inflorescences as well as natural scent samples of D. aurantiaca. Inflorescence scents were analyzed by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and the attractive potential of the main scent compound was determined by behavioral assays. Three species of Neella, the most common one being N. floridula, visited the inflorescences at nightfall, shortly after the beginning of scent emission, and showed feeding and copulation activity. Bagged inflorescences as well as natural scent samples attracted similar numbers of plant bugs as the non-bagged inflorescences, showing that olfactory cues are sufficient for them to locate their host. Cis-jasmone was the major component within the inflorescence scent bouquet. In two-choice field bioassays, this compound proved to be highly attractive to Neella, and thus obviously plays a key role in finding host plants. PMID:27074793

  17. Malformation of true bug (Heteroptera): a phenotype field study on the possible influence of artificial low-level radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Honegger, Cornelia; Wallimann, Peter

    2008-04-01

    The results of extensive field studies on the malformation of Western European true bugs (Heteroptera) are reviewed. More than 16,000 individuals were collected over two decades, and subjected to detailed visual inspection. Various types of disturbances were found and illustrated in detail. Depending on country, region, as well as local influences, severe disturbances and high degrees of malformation were noticed, especially in the sphere of nuclear-power installations in Switzerland (Aargau), France (La Hague), and Germany (Gundremmingen). Malformation reached values as high as 22 and 30% for morphological (MD) and total disturbance (TD), respectively. This is far above the values expected for natural populations (ca. 1%) or those determined for true bugs living in biotopes considered as relatively 'intact' (1-3%). A detailed chi-square test of the malformation data obtained for 650 true bugs from 13 collection sites near the nuclear-reprocessing plant La Hague showed a highly significant correlation (p=0.003) between malformation and wind exposure/local topography. Similar observations were made for other study sites. Currently, our data are best rationalized by assuming a direct influence between the release of anthropogenic radionuclides such as tritium ((3)H), carbon-14 ((14)C), or iodine-131 ((131)I), constantly emitted by nuclear-power and nuclear-reprocessing plants, as well as by Chernobyl and bomb-testing fallout, which is rich in caesium-137 ((137)Cs) and other long-lived noxious isotopes that have entered the food chain. The present work supports the growing evidence that low-level radiation, especially in the form of randomly scattered 'hot' alpha- and beta-particles, mainly transported via aerosols, puts a heavy burden on the biosphere in general, and on true bugs in particular. These insects could, thus, serve as sensitive 'bio-indicators' for future studies.

  18. Sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera, Tingidae) using a genome skimming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Arthur; Guilbert, Éric; Lhuillier, Émeline; Murienne, Jerôme

    2015-03-01

    Lace bugs (Tingidae) are a family of phytophagous heteropterans, some of which are important agricultural and forestry pests. They currently comprise around 2500 species distributed worldwide, for which only one mitochondrial genome has been described so far. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome and the nuclear ribosomal gene segment of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae using a genome skimming approach on an Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform. Fifty-four additional heteropteran mitogenomes, including the one of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata, were retrieved to allow for comparisons and phylogenetic analyses. P. perseae mitochondrial genome was determined to be 15,850 bp long, and presented the typical organisation of insect mitogenomes. The phylogenetic analysis placed P. perseae as a sister to C. ciliata but did not confirm the monophyly of Miroidae including Tingidae. Our results contradicted widely accepted phylogenetic hypothesis, which highlights the limits of analyses based on mitochondrial data only. Shotgun sequencing approaches should provide substantial improvements in harmonizing mitochondrial and nuclear databases.

  19. Biochemical characterisation of the tissue degrading enzyme, collagenase, in the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghamari Mahboob

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Podisus maculiventris (Say is a generalist predator attacking many insect species from different orders. The bug injects saliva into its prey's body. The ingested hemolymph and liquefied internal tissues pass through the bug's alimentary tract. Collagenase working on peptide bonds of collagen and basement membrane proteins, leads to the disintegration of the prey's internal organs. As yet, there is an almost complete lack of knowledge on the collagenase activity in P. maculiventris. The collagenase activity of the salivary glands and midgut was optimum at pH 8.0 which was congruent with the optimal pH of the total proteolytic activity of the salivary glands. More collagenolytic activity was determined in the posterior lobe of the salivary glands and anterior midgut. Significant inhibition of collagenolytic activity by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA revealed the enzyme is a metalloproteinase. The collagenase activity notably decreased when the bug went hungry. The salivary gland collagenase is a vital enzyme in extra-oral digestion and facilitates the action of other digestive enzymes. The midgut collagenase may be involved in the digestion of the ingested muscle fibers. The collagenase probably acts as an intoxicating agent in the saliva (venom of P. maculiventris. Paralysing toxins are present in the salivary gland secretion.

  20. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Random Effects Modeling in Magnetic Resonance Image Processing Using the BRugs Interface to WinBUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Gadian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of many magnetic resonance image (MRI data processing methods is the voxel-by-voxel (a voxel is a volume element manner in which the processing is performed. In general, however, MRI data are expected to exhibit some level of spatial correlation, rendering an independent-voxels treatment inefficient in its use of the data. Bayesian random effect models are expected to be more efficient owing to their information-borrowing behaviour. To illustrate the Bayesian random effects approach, this paper outlines a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC analysis of a perfusion MRI dataset, implemented in R using the BRugs package. BRugs provides an interface to WinBUGS and its GeoBUGS add-on. WinBUGS is a widely used programme for performing MCMC analyses, with a focus on Bayesian random effect models. A simultaneous modeling of both voxels (restricted to a region of interest and multiple subjects is demonstrated. Despite the low signal-to-noise ratio in the magnetic resonance signal intensity data, useful model signal intensity profiles are obtained. The merits of random effects modeling are discussed in comparison with the alternative approaches based on region-of-interest averaging and repeated independent voxels analysis. This paper focuses on perfusion MRI for the purpose of illustration, the main proposition being that random effects modeling is expected to be beneficial in many other MRI applications in which the signal-to-noise ratio is a limiting factor.

  1. Morphological and molecular characterization of fungus isolated from tropical bed bugs in Northern Peninsular Malaysia, Cimex hemipterus(Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul; Hafiz; Ab; Majid; Zulaikha; Zahran; Abd; Hafis; Abd; Rahim; Nor; Azliza; Ismail; Wardah; Abdul; Rahman; Kartiekasari; Syahidda; Mohammad; Zubairi; Hamady; Dieng; Tomomitsu; Satho

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate some morphological and molecular characteristics of fungal parasites isolated from wild tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus.Methods: A series of culture methods were used to obtain fungal isolates from i eld-collected bed bugs. Characteristics of the isolates such as colony appearance, mycelial texture and pigmentation were studied to explore their morphology. Isolates were also subjected to a PCRbased genotyping test.Results: There were noticeable dif erences in morphological characteristics among the four isolates. Conidial areas of one isolate were dark green, whereas those of the remaining colonies were olive-green, black or dark brown. Conidia of the dark green isolate were globose, while those of olive-green, black and dark brown isolates were globose to subglobose, globose to spherical and globose to subglobose/i nely roughened, respectively. These morphological specii cities and the molecular analyses showed that the fungal internal transcribed spacer ribosomal region and β-tubulin gene sequences of the isolates shared clade with Trichoderma and Aspergillus sequences.Conclusions: Overall, the new discovery of common pathogens in agricultural i eld developed in live bed bugs storage tank may initiate the use of biological agents in later years.

  2. Morphological and molecular characterization of fungus isolated from tropical bed bugs in Northern Peninsular Malaysia, Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera:Cimicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid; Zulaikha Zahran; Abd Hafis Abd Rahim; Nor Azliza Ismail; Wardah Abdul Rahman; Hamady Dieng; Tomomitsu Satho

    2015-01-01

    To investigate some morphological and molecular characteristics of fungal parasites isolated from wild tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus. Methods: A series of culture methods were used to obtain fungal isolates from field-collected bed bugs. Characteristics of the isolates such as colony appearance, mycelial texture and pigmentation were studied to explore their morphology. Isolates were also subjected to a PCR-based genotyping test. Results: There were noticeable differences in morphological characteristics among the four isolates. Conidial areas of one isolate were dark green, whereas those of the remaining colonies were olive-green, black or dark brown. Conidia of the dark green isolate were globose, while those of olive-green, black and dark brown isolates were globose to subglobose, globose to spherical and globose to subglobose/finely roughened, respectively. These morphological specificities and the molecular analyses showed that the fungal internal transcribed spacer ribosomal region and β-tubulin gene sequences of the isolates shared clade with Trichoderma and Aspergillus sequences. Conclusions: Overall, the new discovery of common pathogens in agricultural field developed in live bed bugs storage tank may initiate the use of biological agents in later years.

  3. Where do these bugs come from? Phenotypic structure of Triatoma infestans populations after control interventions in the Argentine Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sol Gaspe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available House re-invasion by native triatomines after insecticide-based control campaigns represents a major threat for Chagas disease vector control. We conducted a longitudinal intervention study in a rural section (Area III, 407 houses of Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina, and used wing geometric morphometry to compare pre-spray and post-spray (re-infestant bugs Triatoma infestans populations. The community-wide spraying with pyrethroids reduced the prevalence of house infestation by T. infestans from 31.9% to < 1% during a four-year follow-up, unlike our previous studies in the neighbouring Area I. Two groups of bug collection sites differing in wing shape variables before interventions (including 221 adults from 11 domiciles were used as a reference for assigning 44 post-spray adults. Wing shape variables from post-spray, high-density bug colonies and pre-spray groups were significantly different, suggesting that re-infestant insects had an external origin. Insects from one house differed strongly in wing shape variables from all other specimens. A further comparison between insects from both areas supported the existence of independent re-infestation processes within the same district. These results point to local heterogeneities in house re-infestation dynamics and emphasise the need to expand the geographic coverage of vector surveillance and control operations to the affected region.

  4. Scale insects and mealy bugs (Homoptera: Coccoidea) attacking deciduous fruit trees in the western north coast of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A K; Moursi Khadiga, S; Mesbah, H A; Abdel-Razak Soad, I

    2008-01-01

    This investigation covered a survey of scale insects and mealy bugs infesting ten growing species of deciduous fruit trees in three localities in Alexandria govemorate. These localities were Merghem, Burg El-Arab, and El-Nahda about 50 Km. West of Alexandria under both rain-fed and irrigation system conditions. The common inspected fruit trees were fig, white mulberry, pomegranate, apple, pear, apricot, European plum, peach, almond, and persimmon. It was shown that a group of twenty scale insects and meaty bug species pertaining to fifteen genera belonging to six families of the super family: Coccoidea were collected and identified during the elapsing period from January to December, 2004. Among these species, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) was recorded for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, many insect and non-insect parasitoids and predators were also found associated with these scale insects and mealy bugs on deciduous fruit trees in the three concerned localities throughout this investigation. These natural enemies were identified and recorded.

  5. Sequencing of the mitochondrial genome of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae (Heteroptera, Tingidae) using a genome skimming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Arthur; Guilbert, Éric; Lhuillier, Émeline; Murienne, Jerôme

    2015-03-01

    Lace bugs (Tingidae) are a family of phytophagous heteropterans, some of which are important agricultural and forestry pests. They currently comprise around 2500 species distributed worldwide, for which only one mitochondrial genome has been described so far. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome and the nuclear ribosomal gene segment of the avocado lace bug Pseudacysta perseae using a genome skimming approach on an Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform. Fifty-four additional heteropteran mitogenomes, including the one of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata, were retrieved to allow for comparisons and phylogenetic analyses. P. perseae mitochondrial genome was determined to be 15,850 bp long, and presented the typical organisation of insect mitogenomes. The phylogenetic analysis placed P. perseae as a sister to C. ciliata but did not confirm the monophyly of Miroidae including Tingidae. Our results contradicted widely accepted phylogenetic hypothesis, which highlights the limits of analyses based on mitochondrial data only. Shotgun sequencing approaches should provide substantial improvements in harmonizing mitochondrial and nuclear databases. PMID:25636225

  6. 南海区驯养条石鲷亲鱼的初次性成熟和产卵%First maturation and spawning of cultured Oplegnathus fasciatus broodstock in the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区又君; 李加儿; 林锋

    2014-01-01

    2008年4月初在广东省饶平县对2006年5月人工孵化和培育的2龄条石鲷( Oplegnathus fasciatus)成熟亲鱼进行激素诱导,研究和观察条石鲷亲鱼初次性成熟的繁殖生物学。结果显示,在南海区全人工养殖的条石鲷亲鱼初次性成熟年龄为2龄,成熟亲鱼的最小型为全长245 mm、体质量610 g,最大个体为全长300 mm、体质量1450 g;产卵季节为4月10日~7月15日,产卵盛期为4月中旬至6月下旬;为升温产卵型鱼类,产卵温度为20.0~28.8℃,适宜的产卵温度为20.7~27.6℃;雌、雄亲鱼发育同步,个体大小和成熟年龄差别不大;雌鱼属于一年一次分批产卵类型,产卵期超过3个月;24尾初次性成熟雌性亲鱼的总产卵量为3180.0×104粒,日最高产卵量为341.5×104粒;其产卵量和受精卵质量与水温的变化关系密切,受精卵的浮卵率随温度的变化而变化,在水温相对衡定时,浮卵率相对稳定并维持在80%~95%的较高水平;受精卵平均卵径为(0.860±0.023)mm,油球径为(0.191±0.009)mm。%In early April of 2008,we carried out hormone inducement in 2-year-old Oplegnathus fasciatus broodstocks hatched in May of 2006 in Raoping of Guangdong Province,so as to investgate their reproductive biology for first maturation. Results show that in the South China Sea,it took 2 years for the first maturation with biological minimum size of 245 mm in total length and 610 g in weight, maximum size being 300 mm and 1 450 g for the O. fasciatus broodstocks by complete artificial breeding. Spawning season was from A-pril 10 to July 15 with the peak period from middle April to late June. Being a thermo-dependent spawning type,the breeding tempera-ture of the fish ranged from 20. 0~28. 8 ℃ with suitable temperature of 20. 7~27. 6 ℃. Development was synchronous for both sexes and no significant difference was found in size and mature age. Being an annual spawning multiplicity

  7. HEAVY METALS IN ORGANS AND TISSUES OF STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS L. IN THE DNIEPER-BUG ESTUARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Sytnik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.To iInvestigate and analyze the peculiarities of the accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, Co, Ni and Mn in the organs (muscles, gills, liver, kidneys, fins, intestine and tissues of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 for detecting the patterns of their accumulation and predicting the effect of their toxicological load on the organism of sturgeons as well as for evaluating the polymetallic load on this species in the Dnieper-Bug estuary. Methodology. The material for the research was represented by 3+ – 4+ sterlet caught in the spring of 2016 in the Dnieper-Bug estuary. Organs and tissue samples were homogenized and then burned in a mixture of concentrated nitric (HNO3 and hydrochloric acid (HCl. The determination of heavy metals in organs and tissues of fish were performed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-3 and AAS-3N company "Carl Zeiss" (Jena, Germany. Findings. The distribution of heavy metals in organs and tissues of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L. of the Dnieper-Bug estuary in the spring of 2016 was characterized by heterogeneity and depended on their physico-chemical properties and functional characteristics of organs and tissues of the investigated fish. The highest quantities copper, zinc and iron are accumulated liver, while manganese and cobalt in gills. Toxic metals (lead and cadmium are more concentrated in gills, skin and liver. The maximum contents in the tissues and organs of sterlet were observed for iron and zinc, while the minimals ones — for cadmium and cobalt. Originality. The paper describes the actual data on the contents and peculiarities of heavy metal accumulation in the body of sterlet inhabiting the Dnieper-Bug estuary. Practical value. The paper contains the newest information on the accumulation and content of heavy metals in organs and tissues of sterlet in the Dnieper-Bug estuary. The results of the work will be used for future

  8. MatIab-based software for bug aIgorithm hardware-in-the-Ioop simuIation and testing%机器人 Bug 避障算法的 MatIab 半实物仿真软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄培奎; 赵祚喜; 吴志伟; 曹文君; 施垒; 刘雄

    2015-01-01

    A Pioneer3-AT mobile robot with laser range finder is employed as physical platform,and ARIA-Matlab software is used as a tool to communication.The path planning unit is designed as self-definition blocks in Simulink to implement two BUG algorithms.A Matlab Graphical User Interfaces (GUI)complete is developed for parameter setting and results displaying.As demonstrated by Broken-Bug and Arc-Bug algorithm developed by our team,the software presented work flexible both pure simu-lation,HIL simulation and physical implement with convinced results.Therefore,this software is a versatile and convenient tool for BUG algorithm development and verification,and is expected to work well with other sensor-based path planning algorithms with proper modification.%以外接激光测距仪的 Pioneer3-AT 移动机器人作为物理平台,用 ARIA-Matlab 接口软件实现对物理平台的控制与通信。通过 Simulink 自定义模块封装 Bug 算法,设计 Matlab Graphical User Interfaces (GUI)界面设置仿真参数和动态显示仿真结果。经由笔者开发的折线 Bug 与圆弧 Bug 算法实验表明,该软件可灵活执行纯仿真、半实物仿真与物理执行3种工作方式,实验结果与实际情况吻合,验证了 Bug 避障算法,对经由传感器实时数据采集的路径规划算法研究具有参考意义。

  9. Sex pheromone component ratios and mating isolation among three Lygus plant bug species of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A.; Fefer, Daniela; Levi-Zada, Anat

    2013-12-01

    The plant bugs Lygus hesperus, Lygus lineolaris, and Lygus elisus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are major pests of many agricultural crops in North America. Previous studies suggested that females release a sex pheromone attractive to males. Other studies showed that males and females contain microgram amounts of ( E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, hexyl butyrate, and ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate that are emitted as a defense against predators. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that female L. lineolaris and L. elisus have a 4:10 ratio of hexyl butyrate to ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate that is reversed from the 10:1 ratio in female L. hesperus (males of the three species have ~10:1 ratio). These reversed ratios among females of the species suggest a behavioral role. Because both sexes have nearly equal amounts of the major volatiles, females should release more to attract males. This expectation was supported because L. hesperus females released more hexyl butyrate (mean of 86 ng/h) during the night (1800-0700 hours) than did males (traps to test the attraction of species to blends of the volatiles with a subtractive method to detect synergism. Each species' major butyrate ester was released at 3 μg/h, the minor butyrate according to its ratio, and ( E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal at 2 μg/h. The resulting catches of only Lygus males suggest that ( E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal is an essential sex pheromone component for all three species, ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate is essential for L. elisus and L. lineolaris, and hexyl butyrate is essential for L. hesperus. However, all three components are recognized by each species since ratios of the butyrate esters are critical for conspecific attraction and heterospecific avoidance by males and thus play a role in reproductive isolation among the three species. Because L. hesperus males and females are known to emit these major volatiles for repelling ant predators, our study links defensive allomones in Lygus bugs with an additional use as sex pheromones.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Yu, Weiwei; Du, Yuzhou

    2013-12-10

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata, was sequenced in this study. It represents the first sequenced mitogenome of family Tingidae in Heteroptera. The mitogenome of C. ciliata is 15,257bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a large non-coding region. Gene arrangement, nucleotide content, codon usage, and amino acid composition and asymmetry indicate a high degree of conservation with six other species of Cimicomorpha. The 13 PCGs initiated with ATN as the start codon and terminated with TAA, TA or T as stop codon. The evolutionary rate of each PCG was different, among which ATP8 showed the highest rate while ATP6 indicated the lowest rate. The 22 tRNAs genes apparently fold into a typical cloverleaf structure; however, the anticodon (TTC) of trnSer (AGN) differs from other Heteropteran insects. Secondary structure modeling of rRNA genes revealed similarity to other insects, except for two incomplete helices (H1648 and H2735) in lrRNA. The predicted secondary structure of lrRNA indicates 45 helices in six domains, whereas srRNA has 27 helices in three domains. Three potential stem-loops and two tandem repeats (-TCTAAT-) were identified in the A+T-rich region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that C. ciliata is a sister group to other Heteroptera species based on analysis of the 13 PCGs.

  11. Gammaproteobacteria as essential primary symbionts in the striped shield bug, Graphosoma Lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamipour, Naeime; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2016-01-01

    Many members of suborder Heteroptra harbor heritable symbiotic bacteria. Here we characterize the gut symbiotic bacterium in Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by using molecular phylogeny, real-time PCR analysis as well as light and electron microscopy observations. The microscopy observations revealed the presence of a large number of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the crypts. A very high prevalence (98 to 100%) of the symbiont infection was found in the insect populations that strongly supports an intimate association between these two organisms. Real-time PCR analysis also showed that the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the crypts. The sequences of 16sr RNA and groEL genes of symbiont showed high levels of similarity (93 to 95%) to Pantoea agglomeranse and Erwinia herbicola Gammaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses placed G. lineatum symbiont in a well-defined branch, divergent from other stink bug bacterial symbionts. Co-evolutionary analysis showed lack of host-symbiont phylogenetic congruence. Surface sterilization of eggs resulted in increased pre-adult stage in the offspring (aposymbionts) in comparison to the normal. Also, fecundity, longevity, and adult stage were significantly decreased in the aposymbionts. Therefore, it seems that the symbiont might play a vital function in the host biology, in which host optimal development depends on the symbiont. PMID:27609055

  12. Revision of the Plant Bug Genus Tytthus (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Henry

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The phyline plant bug genus Tytthus Fieber, previously containing 19 species, is revised. Isoproba Osborn and Drake, 1915, incorrectly placed in the subfamily Bryocorinae, tribe Dicyphini, is synonymized as a junior synonym of Tytthus Fieber, syn. n.; the only included species, Isoproba picea Osborn and Drake is transferred to Tytthus, comb. n., as the senior synonym of T. hondurensis Carvalho, syn. n.; and T. koreanus Josifov and Kerzhner, 1972 is synonymized with T. chinensis (Stål 1860, syn. n.; and a lectotype for T. parviceps is designated. The six new species T. femoralis from Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, and Peru, T. fuscicornis from New Mexico (USA, T. mexicanus from Mexico, T. pallidus from Brazil and Panama, T. uniformis from Arizona and New Mexico (USA, and T. wheeleri from the eastern United States are described, bringing the total number of species for the genus to 24. A color adult habitus illustration of T. wheeleri, color photographs for each species (except T. juturnaiba Carvalho and Wallerstein, illustrations of male genitalia, scanning electron photomicrographs of selected structures of certain species, and an identification key are provided to facilitate species recognition. A phylogenetic analysis is offered to help infer relationships.

  13. Mapping and ultrastructure of antennal chemosensilla of the wheat bug Eurygaster maura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Romani; Marco Valerio Rossi Stacconi

    2009-01-01

    Antennae of the wheat stink bug Eurygaster maura L. (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) were investigated to elucidate structure and distribution of antennal chemosensilla in females. Five type of sensilla were identified and characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Type 1 sensilla are mechanical and contact chemoreceptors with a single apical pore. Types 2 and 3 sensilla are multiporous chemoreceptors both with typical features of olfactory sensilla. Type 4 are multiporous peg-like sensilla, short and with a grooved surface. Type 5 are sensilla coeloconica with a smooth and aporous peg completely inserted in a sub-cuticular chamber. All types are distributed on the two flagellar segments, but we considered only the apical flagellomere in which the largest number of sensilla are located. The most abundant sensilla are type 3, while the less numerous are type 5. All types, except type 2, decreased in number from the tip to the base of the segment. The lower density of sensilla was recorded on the dorsal-internal part of the apical antennomere, while the higher density was recorded on the opposite side (extemal-ventral).

  14. Residual infestation and recolonization during urban Triatoma infestans Bug Control Campaign, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Corentin M; Buttenheim, Alison M; Pumahuanca, Maria-Luz Hancco; Calderón, Javier E Quintanilla; Salazar, Renzo; Carrión, Malwina; Rospigliossi, Andy Catacora; Chavez, Fernando S Malaga; Alvarez, Karina Oppe; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease vector control campaigns are being conducted in Latin America, but little is known about medium-term or long-term effectiveness of these efforts, especially in urban areas. After analyzing entomologic data for 56,491 households during the treatment phase of a Triatoma infestans bug control campaign in Arequipa, Peru, during 2003-2011, we estimated that 97.1% of residual infestations are attributable to untreated households. Multivariate models for the surveillance phase of the campaign obtained during 2009-2012 confirm that nonparticipation in the initial treatment phase is a major risk factor (odds ratio [OR] 21.5, 95% CI 3.35-138). Infestation during surveillance also increased over time (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.15-2.09 per year). In addition, we observed a negative interaction between nonparticipation and time (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-0.99), suggesting that recolonization by vectors progressively dilutes risk associated with nonparticipation. Although the treatment phase was effective, recolonization in untreated households threatens the long-term success of vector control.

  15. Potential geographic distribution of brown marmorated stink bug invasion (Halyomorpha halys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengping Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, native to Asia, is becoming an invasive species with a rapidly expanding range in North America and Europe. In the US, it is a household pest and also caused unprecedented damage to agriculture crops. Exploring its climatic limits and estimating its potential geographic distribution can provide critical information for management strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS: We used direct climate comparisons to explore the climatic niche occupied by native and invasive populations of BMSB. Ecological niche modelings based on the native range were used to anticipate the potential distribution of BMSB worldwide. Conversely, niche models based on the introduced range were used to locate the original invasive propagates in Asia. Areas with high invasion potential were identified by two niche modeling algorithms (i.e., Maxent and GARP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Reduced dimensionality of environmental space improves native model transferability in the invade area. Projecting models from invasive population back to native distributional areas offers valuable information on the potential source regions of the invasive populations. Our models anticipated successfully the current disjunct distribution of BMSB in the US. The original propagates are hypothesized to have come from northern Japan or western Korea. High climate suitable areas at risk of invasion include latitudes between 30°-50° including northern Europe, northeastern North America, southern Australia and the North Island of New Zealand. Angola in Africa and Uruguay in South America also showed high climate suitability.

  16. Centipede (Chilopoda richness and diversity in the Bug River valley (Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Lesniewska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the survey was to describe the diversity and richness of Chilopoda in the selected area of the Bug River valley. The study sites were located in two regions differing in the shape of the valley, the presence of thermophilous habitats and the size of riparian forests. Pitfall traps were used as a sampling method. As a result, 444 specimens belonging to 12 centipede species of two orders – Geophilomorpha (four species and Lithobiomorpha (eight species were caught. Lithobius (Monotarsobius curtipes C.L.Koch, 1847, Pachymerium ferrugineum (C.L.Koch, 1835, Lamyctes (Lamyctes emarginatus (Newport, 1844 and Lithobius (Monotarsobius dudichi Loksa, 1947 were the most common and the most numerous species. Of particular note is L. dudichi found in Poland for the first time and previously known based on a single specimen. Two to 10 Chilopoda species were found in each habitat under investigation. The greatest species richness was found in thermophilous thickets (10 species, sandy grasslands (eight, xerothermic grasslands (eight and mesic meadows (six. The fewest number of species (two was found in rushes at oxbows and in wet meadows. We found differences in the species composition and the number of Chilopoda between the lower (102 specimens, six species and the middle (324 specimens, 11 species section of the river valley. Our results confirm the need to protect xerothermic habitats, unique almost throughout entire Central Europe, which due to their distribution and their small area covered are fairly easily subject to the process of destruction.

  17. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of G Alpha Proteins from the Western Tarnished Plant Bug, Lygus hesperus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joe Hull

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins play critical roles in the activation of diverse signal transduction cascades. However, the role of these genes in chemosensation remains to be fully elucidated. To initiate a comprehensive survey of signal transduction genes, we used homology-based cloning methods and transcriptome data mining to identity Gα subunits in the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight. Among the nine sequences identified were single variants of the Gαi, Gαo, Gαs, and Gα12 subfamilies and five alternative splice variants of the Gαq subfamily. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses of the putative L. hesperus Gα subunits support initial classifications and are consistent with established evolutionary relationships. End-point PCR-based profiling of the transcripts indicated head specific expression for LhGαq4, and largely ubiquitous expression, albeit at varying levels, for the other LhGα transcripts. All subfamilies were amplified from L. hesperus chemosensory tissues, suggesting potential roles in olfaction and/or gustation. Immunohistochemical staining of cultured insect cells transiently expressing recombinant His-tagged LhGαi, LhGαs, and LhGαq1 revealed plasma membrane targeting, suggesting the respective sequences encode functional G protein subunits.

  18. Rearing the southern green stink bug using an artificial dry diet and an artificial plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panizzi, Antonio Ricardo [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja]. E-mail: Panizzi@cnpso.embrapa.br; Parra, Jose Roberto Postali; Carvalho, Diogo Rodrigues [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: jrpparra@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; E-mail: drcarval@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; Santos, Claudia Hirt [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil)]. E-mail: clauhirt@yahoo.com.br

    2000-09-15

    Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted with an artificial dry diet to rear nymphs, and with an artificial plant as substrate for egg laying by the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). The artificial diet was composed of: soybean protein (15 g); potato starch (7.5 g); dextrose (7.5 g); sucrose (2.5 g); cellulose (12.5 g); vitamin mixture (niacinamide 1 g, calcium pantothenate 1 g, thiamine 0.25 g, riboflavin 0.5 g, pyridoxine 0.25 g, folic acid 0.25 g, biotin 0.02 mL, vitamin B12 1 g - added to 1,000 mL of distilled water) (5.0 mL); soybean oil (20 mL); wheat germ (17.9 g); and water (30 mL). Nymphs showed normal feeding behavior when fed on the artificial diet. Nymphal development time was longer than or similar to that of nymphs fed on soybean pods. Total nymphal mortality was low (ca. 30%), both for nymphs reared on the artificial diet, and for nymphs fed on soybean pods. At adult emergence, fresh body weights were significantly (P<0.01) less on the artificial diet than on soybean pods. Despite the lower adult survivorship and fecundity on artificial plants than on soybean plants, it was demonstrated for the first time that a model simulating a natural plant, can be used as a substrate for egg mass laying, in conjunction with the artificial diet. (author)

  19. The proctolin gene and biological effects of proctolin in the blood-feeding bug, Rhodnius prolixus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eOrchard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We have reinvestigated the possible presence or absence of the pentapeptide proctolin in Rhodnius prolixus and report here the cloning of the proctolin cDNA. The transcript is highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS with some low expression associated with peripheral tissues. The proctolin prepropeptide encodes a single copy of proctolin along with a proctolin-precursor-associated peptide. We have biochemically identified proctolin in CNS extracts and shown its distribution using proctolin-like immunoreactivity. Immunostained processes are found on the salivary glands, female and male reproductive organs, and heart and associated alary muscles. Proctolin-like immunoreactive bipolar neurons are found on the lateral margins of the common oviduct and bursa. Proctolin is biologically active on R. prolixus tissues, stimulating increases in contraction of anterior midgut and hindgut muscles, and increasing heartbeat frequency. Contrary to the previous suggestion that proctolin is absent from R. prolixus, proctolin is indeed present and biologically active in this medically-important bug.

  20. Juvenile hormone regulation of female reproduction in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    To begin studies on reproduction in common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, we identified three genes coding for vitellogenin (Vg, a protein required for the reproductive success of insects) and studied their hormonal regulation. RNA interference studied showed that expression of Vg3 gene in the adult females is a prerequisite for successful completion of embryogenesis in the eggs laid by them. Juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) and GATAa but not ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its partner, ultraspiracle (USP) are required for expression of Vg genes. Feeding and mating working through Vg, Met, SRC, EcR, and GATAa regulate oocyte development. Knockdown of the expression of Met, SRC, EcR, USP, BR-C (Broad-Complex), TOR (target of rapamycin), and GATAa in female adults resulted in a reduction in the number eggs laid by them. Interestingly, Kruppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) knockdown in the adult females did not reduce their fecundity but affected the development of embryos in the eggs laid by females injected with Kr-h1 double-stranded RNA. These data suggest that JH functioning through Met and SRC regulate both vitellogenesis and oogenesis in C. lectularius. However, JH does not work through Kr-h1 but may work through transcription factors not yet identified. PMID:27762340

  1. Life table parameters of three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris species (Hemiptera: Miridae under contrasted relative humidity regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH. Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80% were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm, the net reproductive rate (R0 and the finite rate of increase (λ for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests.

  2. Species Composition and Abundance of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota Field Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Robert L; Pahs, Tiffany

    2015-04-01

    In response to concerns of increasing significance of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in northern states, a survey was conducted over 2 yr in Minnesota to characterize the Pentatomidae associated with field corn, Zea mays L. Halyomorpha halys (Stål), an exotic species, was not detected in this survey, despite continued detection of this species as an invader of human-made structures in Minnesota. Five species of Pentatomidae (four herbivorous; one predatory) were collected from corn. Across years, Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) and Euschistus servus euschistoides (Vollenhoven) had the greatest relative abundances and frequencies of detection. In 2012, the abundance of herbivorous species exceeded 25 nymphs and adults per 100 plants (i.e., an economic threshold) in 0.48% of fields. However, the abundance of herbivorous species did not reach economic levels in any fields sampled in 2013. The frequency of detection of herbivorous species and ratio of nymphs to adults was highest during reproductive growth stages of corn. The predator species, Podisus maculiventris (Say), was detected in 0 to 0.32% of fields. These results provide baseline information on the species composition and abundance of Pentatomidae in Minnesota field corn, which will be necessary for documentation of changes to this fauna as a result of the invasion of H. halys and to determine if some native species continue to increase in abundance in field crops. PMID:26313176

  3. Gammaproteobacteria as essential primary symbionts in the striped shield bug, Graphosoma Lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamipour, Naeime; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2016-01-01

    Many members of suborder Heteroptra harbor heritable symbiotic bacteria. Here we characterize the gut symbiotic bacterium in Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by using molecular phylogeny, real-time PCR analysis as well as light and electron microscopy observations. The microscopy observations revealed the presence of a large number of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the crypts. A very high prevalence (98 to 100%) of the symbiont infection was found in the insect populations that strongly supports an intimate association between these two organisms. Real-time PCR analysis also showed that the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the crypts. The sequences of 16sr RNA and groEL genes of symbiont showed high levels of similarity (93 to 95%) to Pantoea agglomeranse and Erwinia herbicola Gammaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses placed G. lineatum symbiont in a well-defined branch, divergent from other stink bug bacterial symbionts. Co-evolutionary analysis showed lack of host-symbiont phylogenetic congruence. Surface sterilization of eggs resulted in increased pre-adult stage in the offspring (aposymbionts) in comparison to the normal. Also, fecundity, longevity, and adult stage were significantly decreased in the aposymbionts. Therefore, it seems that the symbiont might play a vital function in the host biology, in which host optimal development depends on the symbiont. PMID:27609055

  4. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of G Alpha Proteins from the Western Tarnished Plant Bug, Lygus hesperus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J Joe; Wang, Meixian

    2014-01-01

    The Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins play critical roles in the activation of diverse signal transduction cascades. However, the role of these genes in chemosensation remains to be fully elucidated. To initiate a comprehensive survey of signal transduction genes, we used homology-based cloning methods and transcriptome data mining to identity Gα subunits in the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight). Among the nine sequences identified were single variants of the Gαi, Gαo, Gαs, and Gα12 subfamilies and five alternative splice variants of the Gαq subfamily. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses of the putative L. hesperus Gα subunits support initial classifications and are consistent with established evolutionary relationships. End-point PCR-based profiling of the transcripts indicated head specific expression for LhGαq4, and largely ubiquitous expression, albeit at varying levels, for the other LhGα transcripts. All subfamilies were amplified from L. hesperus chemosensory tissues, suggesting potential roles in olfaction and/or gustation. Immunohistochemical staining of cultured insect cells transiently expressing recombinant His-tagged LhGαi, LhGαs, and LhGαq1 revealed plasma membrane targeting, suggesting the respective sequences encode functional G protein subunits. PMID:26463065

  5. Phylogenetically Diverse Burkholderia Associated with Midgut Crypts of Spurge Bugs, Dicranocephalus spp. (Heteroptera: Stenocephalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuechler, Stefan Martin; Matsuura, Yu; Dettner, Konrad; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2016-06-25

    Diverse phytophagous heteropteran insects, commonly known as stinkbugs, are associated with specific gut symbiotic bacteria, which have been found in midgut cryptic spaces. Recent studies have revealed that members of the stinkbug families Coreidae and Alydidae of the superfamily Coreoidea are consistently associated with a specific group of the betaproteobacterial genus Burkholderia, called the "stinkbug-associated beneficial and environmental (SBE)" group, and horizontally acquire specific symbionts from the environment every generation. However, the symbiotic system of another coreoid family, Stenocephalidae remains undetermined. We herein investigated four species of the stenocephalid genus Dicranocephalus. Examinations via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the typical arrangement and ultrastructures of midgut crypts and gut symbionts. Cloning and molecular phylogenetic analyses of bacterial genes showed that the midgut crypts of all species are colonized by Burkholderia strains, which were further assigned to different subgroups of the genus Burkholderia. In addition to the SBE-group Burkholderia, a number of stenocephalid symbionts belonged to a novel clade containing B. sordidicola and B. udeis, suggesting a specific symbiont clade for the Stenocephalidae. The symbiotic systems of stenocephalid bugs may provide a unique opportunity to study the ongoing evolution of symbiont associations in the stinkbug-Burkholderia interaction. PMID:27265344

  6. New Introductions, Spread of Existing Matrilines, and High Rates of Pyrethroid Resistance Result in Chronic Infestations of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L. in Lower-Income Housing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W Raab

    Full Text Available Infestations of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. have increased substantially in the United States in the past 10-15 years. The housing authority in Harrisonburg, Virginia, conducts heat-treatments after bed bugs are detected in a lower-income housing complex, by treating each infested unit at 60°C for 4-6 hours. However, a high frequency of recurrent infestations called into question the efficacy of this strategy. Genetic analysis using Bayesian clustering of polymorphic microsatellite loci from 123 bed bugs collected from 23 units from May 2012 to April 2013 in one building indicated that (a 16/21 (73% infestations were genetically similar, suggesting ineffective heat-treatments or reintroductions from within the building or from a common external source, followed by local spread of existing populations; and (b up to 5 of the infestations represented new genotypes, indicating that 5 new populations were introduced into this building in one year, assuming they were not missed in earlier screens. There was little to no gene flow among the 8 genetic clusters identified in the building. Bed bugs in the U.S. often possess one or both point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, termed knockdown resistance (kdr, from valine to leucine (V419L and leucine to isoleucine (L925I that confer target-site resistance against pyrethroid insecticides. We found that 48/121 (40% bed bugs were homozygous for both kdr mutations (L419/I925, and a further 59% possessed at least one of the kdr mutations. We conclude that ineffective heat treatments, new introductions, reintroductions and local spread, and an exceptionally high frequency of pyrethroid resistance are responsible for chronic infestations in lower-income housing. Because heat treatments fail to protect from reintroductions, and pesticide use has not decreased the frequency of infestations, preventing new introductions and early detection are the most effective strategies to avoid bed bug

  7. New Introductions, Spread of Existing Matrilines, and High Rates of Pyrethroid Resistance Result in Chronic Infestations of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) in Lower-Income Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Ronald W; Moore, Julia E; Vargo, Edward L; Rose, Lucy; Raab, Julie; Culbreth, Madeline; Burzumato, Gracie; Koyee, Aurvan; McCarthy, Brittany; Raffaele, Jennifer; Schal, Coby; Vaidyanathan, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Infestations of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) have increased substantially in the United States in the past 10-15 years. The housing authority in Harrisonburg, Virginia, conducts heat-treatments after bed bugs are detected in a lower-income housing complex, by treating each infested unit at 60°C for 4-6 hours. However, a high frequency of recurrent infestations called into question the efficacy of this strategy. Genetic analysis using Bayesian clustering of polymorphic microsatellite loci from 123 bed bugs collected from 23 units from May 2012 to April 2013 in one building indicated that (a) 16/21 (73%) infestations were genetically similar, suggesting ineffective heat-treatments or reintroductions from within the building or from a common external source, followed by local spread of existing populations; and (b) up to 5 of the infestations represented new genotypes, indicating that 5 new populations were introduced into this building in one year, assuming they were not missed in earlier screens. There was little to no gene flow among the 8 genetic clusters identified in the building. Bed bugs in the U.S. often possess one or both point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, termed knockdown resistance (kdr), from valine to leucine (V419L) and leucine to isoleucine (L925I) that confer target-site resistance against pyrethroid insecticides. We found that 48/121 (40%) bed bugs were homozygous for both kdr mutations (L419/I925), and a further 59% possessed at least one of the kdr mutations. We conclude that ineffective heat treatments, new introductions, reintroductions and local spread, and an exceptionally high frequency of pyrethroid resistance are responsible for chronic infestations in lower-income housing. Because heat treatments fail to protect from reintroductions, and pesticide use has not decreased the frequency of infestations, preventing new introductions and early detection are the most effective strategies to avoid bed bug

  8. Bug fixes on the IEEE 802.11 DCF module of the network simulator ns-2.28

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Felix; Letamendia-Murua, Jon; Torrent-Moreno, Marc; Hartenstein, Hannes

    2006-01-01

    The Network Simulator 2 (ns-2) is largely the most used simulator in the Ad Hoc research community. However, the 802.11 DCF module implemented in the default distribution of ns-2 presents some bugs, i.e., discordances with the IEEE 802.11 Standard specifications. We present in this Technical Report the result of an extensive analysis of both the IEEE 802.11 DCF specification and the ns-2 module. We first describe the discordances found with respect to the different DCF.s pr...

  9. Use of artificial substrates of different colors for oviposition by the brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to contribute to a rearing methodology for the brown stink bug, Euschistus heros, in the laboratory, we evaluated oviposition on artificial substrates of different colors. During six days, oviposition was evaluated daily, by counting the total number of eggs, number of clutches, and eggs/clutch. Females laid 12,463 eggs, in 1,677 clutches, resulting in an average of 7.28 ± 0.44 eggs/clutch. Black, brown, and green felt had the most eggs and clutches. The results demonstrated that many colors are suitable as oviposition substrate for E. heros, providing information for the mass rearing of this insect.

  10. Optimization an optimal artificial diet for the predatory bug Orius sauteri (hemiptera: anthocoridae.

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    Xiao-Ling Tan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flower bug Orius sauteri is an important polyphagous predator that is widely used for the biological control of mites and aphids. However, the optimal conditions for mass rearing of this insect are still unclear, thus limiting its application. METHODOLOGY: In this study, we investigated the optimal ingredients of an artificial diet for raising O. sauteri using a microencapsulation technique. The ingredients included egg yolk (vitellus, whole-pupa homogenate of the Tussah silk moth (Antheraea paphia, honey, sucrose, rapeseed (Brassica napus pollen and sinkaline. We tested 25 combinations of the above ingredients using an orthogonal experimental design. Using statistical analysis, we confirmed the main effect factors amongst the components, and selected five optimal combinations based on different biological and physiological characters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results showed that, although different artificial diet formats significantly influenced the development and reproductive ability of O. sauteri, the complete development of O. sauteri to sexual maturity could only be achieved by optimizing the artificial diet according to specific biological characters. In general, pupae of A. paphia had more influence on O sauteri development than did artificial components. The results of a follow-up test of locomotory and respiratory capacity indicated that respiratory quotient, metabolic rate and average creeping speed were all influenced by different diets. Furthermore, the field evaluations of mating preference, predatory consumption and population dispersion also demonstrated the benefits that could be provided by optimal artificial diets. CONCLUSIONS: A microencapsulated artificial diet overcame many of the difficulties highlighted by previous studies on the mass rearing of O. sauteri. Optimization of the microencapsulated artificial diet directly increased the biological and physiological characters investigated. Successive

  11. Sequencing and Characterization of the Invasive Sycamore Lace Bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqi; Wang, Ran; Qu, Cheng; Fu, Ningning; Luo, Chen; Xu, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an invasive forestry pest rapidly expanding in many countries. This pest poses a considerable threat to the urban forestry ecosystem, especially to Platanus spp. However, its molecular biology and biochemistry are poorly understood. This study reports the first C. ciliata transcriptome, encompassing three different life stages (Nymphs, adults female (AF) and adults male (AM)). In total, 26.53 GB of clean data and 60,879 unigenes were obtained from three RNA-seq libraries. These unigenes were annotated and classified by Nr (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences), Nt (NCBI non-redundant nucleotide sequences), Pfam (Protein family), KOG/COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins), Swiss-Prot (A manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database), and KO (KEGG Ortholog database). After all pairwise comparisons between these three different samples, a large number of differentially expressed genes were revealed. The dramatic differences in global gene expression profiles were found between distinct life stages (nymphs and AF, nymphs and AM) and sex difference (AF and AM), with some of the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) being related to metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex difference. The different express of unigenes were validated through quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for 16 randomly selected unigenes. In addition, 17,462 potential simple sequence repeat molecular markers were identified in these transcriptome resources. These comprehensive C. ciliata transcriptomic information can be utilized to promote the development of environmentally friendly methodologies to disrupt the processes of metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex differences.

  12. Host plants of the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Mowery, S V

    2007-08-01

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), has taken on added importance as a pest of cotton in the Cotton Belt after successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). Because the Southern Blacklands region of Central Texas is in advanced stages of boll weevil eradication, blooming weeds and selected row crops were sampled during a 3-yr study to determine lygus species composition and associated temporal host plants. L. lineolaris was the sole lygus species in the region. Thirteen previously unreported host plants were identified for L. lineolaris, of which 69% supported reproduction. Rapistrum rugosum L. Allioni and Ratibida columnifera (Nuttall) Wooton and Standley were primary weed hosts during the early season (17 March to 31 May). Conyza canadensis L. Cronquist variety canadensis and Ambrosia trifida L. were primary weed hosts during the midseason (1 June to 14 August) and late-season (15 August to 30 November), respectively. Sisymbrium irio L. and Lamium amplexicaule L. sustained L. lineolaris populations during the overwintering period (1 December to 16 March). The proportion of females and numbers of nymphs found in R. rugosum, C. canadensis, A. trifida, and S. irio suggests these weeds supported reproductive adults during the early, mid-, and late season and overwintering period, respectively. Medicago sativa L. was the leading crop host for L. lineolaris; Glycine max L. Merrill did not yield L. lineolaris. Few L. lineolaris were collected in Gossypium hirsutum L. These results provide a more comprehensive assessment of host plants contributing to L. lineolaris populations in central Texas.

  13. Resistance of Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), to Conventional and Novel Chemistry Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Saif; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2016-02-01

    The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), is polyphagous in nature and has become one of the severe sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. O. hyalinipennis has the potential to develop resistance to a number of insecticides, and as a result, O. hyalinipennis outbreaks occur. There is no previous study from Pakistan regarding O. hyalinipennis resistance to insecticides. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the resistance of different field populations of O. hyalinipennis to conventional (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, profenofos, triazophos) and novel chemistry (emamectin benzoate, spinosad, chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, and nitenpyram) insecticides. Five populations of O. hyalinipennis, collected from Multan, Khanewal, Muzaffargarh, Lodhran, and Bahawalpur, were tested for resistance to selected insecticides by the leaf dip method. For three pyrethroids, the resistance ratios were in the range of 14- to 30-fold for bifenthrin, 2.14- to 8.41-fold for deltamethrin, and 9.12- to 16-fold for lambda-cyhalothrin, compared with the laboratory susceptible strain (Lab-PK). For two organophosphates, the range of resistance ratios was 12- to 14-fold for profenofos and 9.04- to 15-fold for triazophos. For five novel chemistry insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 4.68- to 9.83-fold for emamectin benzoate, 6.38- to 17-fold for spinosad, 16- to 46-fold for chlorfenapyr, 11- to 22-fold for imidacloprid, and 1.32- to 11-fold for nitenpyram. Regular assessment of resistance to insecticides and integrated management plans like judicious use of insecticides and rotation of insecticides along with different modes of action are required to delay resistance development in O. hyalinipennis.

  14. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dur for flowering host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum; in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia. Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest.

  15. Preference of a polyphagous mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) for flowering host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult) A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum); in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia). Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest. PMID:23874835

  16. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Damsel Bug Alloeorhynchus bakeri (Hemiptera: Nabidae

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    Hu Li, Haiyu Liu, Liangming Cao, Aimin Shi, Hailin Yang, Wanzhi Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA of the damsel bug, Alloeorhynchus bakeri, has been completed and annotated in this study. It represents the first sequenced mitochondrial genome of heteropteran family Nabidae. The circular genome is 15, 851 bp in length with an A+T content of 73.5%, contains the typical 37 genes that are arranged in the same order as that of the putative ancestor of hexapods. Nucleotide composition and codon usage are similar to other known heteropteran mitochondrial genomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs use standard initiation codons (methionine and isoleucine, except COI, which started with TTG. Canonical TAA and TAG termination codons are found in eight protein-coding genes, the remaining five (COI, COII, COIII, ND5, ND1 have incomplete termination codons (T or TA. PCGs of two strands present opposite CG skew which is also reflected by the nucleotide composition and codon usage. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, except the dihydrouridine (DHU arm of tRNASer (AGN which forms a simple loop as known in many other metazoa. Secondary structure models of the ribosomal RNA genes of A. bakeri are presented, similar to those proposed for other insect orders. There are six domains and 45 helices and three domains and 27 helices in the secondary structures of rrnL and rrnS, respectively. The major non-coding region (also called control region between the small ribosomal subunit and the tRNAIle gene includes two special regions. The first region includes four 133 bp tandem repeat units plus a partial copy of the repeat (28 bp of the beginning, and the second region at the end of control region contains 4 potential stem-loop structures. Finally, PCGs sequences were used to perform a phylogenetic study. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly support Nabidae as the sister group to Anthocoridae and Miridae.

  17. Population Growth Potential of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L.: A Life Table Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini M. Miller

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental life tables were constructed and analyzed for three strains of the common bed bug: a pyrethroid-susceptible laboratory strain (HS, a highly resistant field strain (RR, and a field strain with a declining level of resistance (KR. Egg to adult survival in the RR strain was 94% compared with 79% and 69% in the HS and KR strains, respectively. The RR strain also developed significantly faster from egg to adult (~35 days than the other two strains (~40 days. Analysis of a survivorship and fecundity life table for the RR strain produced the following results. The average life expectancy for a newly laid egg was ~143 days, and that of a newly molted adult was ~127 days. Females produced an average of 0.64 daughter eggs/day with the highest weekly production during the fifth week of adult life. Analysis of daily reproductive parity showed that females produced 1–3 and 4–6 eggs on 79 and 21% of the days, respectively, when egg laying occurred. The net reproductive rate (R0 of the RR strain was ~35, which represents a 35-fold increase in the population per generation (~92 days. The intrinsic rate of increase, r, was 0.054 indicating that the population multiplies 1.1 times/female/day (λ and doubles in size every 13 days. The stable age distribution (cx was dominated by nymphs (54%, followed by eggs (34% and adults (12%. Reproductive values (vx for the strain increased from egg to the adult stage.

  18. Biochemical and toxicological properties of two acetylcholinesterases from the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chae Eun; Kim, Young Ho; Kwon, Deok Ho; Seong, Keon Mook; Choi, Jae Young; Je, Yeon Ho; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2014-03-01

    We examined the molecular and enzymatic properties of two acetylcholinesterases (AChEs; ClAChE1 and ClAChE2) from the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by activity staining and Western blotting revealed that ClAChE1 is the main catalytic enzyme and is abundantly expressed in various tissues. Both ClAChEs existed in dimeric form connected by a disulfide bridge and were attached to the membrane via a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor. To determine their kinetic and inhibitory properties, both ClAChE1 and ClAChE2 were in vitro expressed in Sf9 cells using a baculovirus expression system. ClAChE1 showed higher catalytic efficiency toward acetylcholine, supporting the hypothesis that ClAChE1 plays a major role in postsynaptic transmission. An inhibition assay revealed that ClAChE1 is generally more sensitive to organophosphates and carbamates examined although ClAChE2 was >4000-fold more sensitive to malaoxon than ClAChE1. The relatively higher correlation between the in vitro ClAChE1 inhibition and the in vivo toxicity suggested that ClAChE1 is the more relevant toxicological target for organophosphates and carbamates. Although the physiological function of ClAChE2 remains to be elucidated, ClAChE2 also appears to have neuronal functions, as judged by its tissue distribution and molecular and kinetic properties. Our findings help expand our knowledge on insect AChEs and their toxicological properties. PMID:24759047

  19. Dusky Cotton Bug Oxycarenus spp. (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Hibernating Sites and Management by using Plant Extracts under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Muneer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus spp., has now attained the status of a major pest of cotton crops that affects lint as well as the seed quality of cotton. Surveys were conducted to explore the hibernating sites in the districts Faisalabad, Multan and Bahawalpur. The efficacies of six different plant extracts, i.e. Neem (Azadirachta indica, Milkweed (Calotropis procera, Moringa (Moringa oleifera, Citrus (Citrus sinensis, Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum and Castor (Ricinus communis were tested by using three different concentrations of each plant extract, i.e. 5, 2.5 and 1.5% under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C and 70±5% RH. The data were recorded 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after treatment application. However, Psidium guajava, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Mangifera indica were graded as host plants heavily infested by Oxycarenus spp. Results (α≤0.05 indicated that increasing the concentration of extracts also increased the mortality. Nicotiana tobacum and Calotropis procera respectively displayed maximum 72 and 71, 84 and 80, 97 and 89% mortality at all concentrations, i.e. 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00%, after 96 hours of application. Two concentrations (2.5 and 5% are the most suitable for obtaining significant control of the dusky cotton bug.

  20. The Sexual Behaviour of Chagas' Disease Vectors: Chemical Signals Mediating Communication between Male and Female Triatomine Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Manrique

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication mechanisms that mediate sexual behaviour in triatomine bugs are reviewed with regard to source, identity, and function of sex pheromones. Males attempt to copulate but may be rejected, depending on female age and nutritional status. Triatomine males locate partners through sex pheromones emitted by the metasternal glands (MGs of females. These activate males, inducing them to leave their refuges and initiate flight. Wandering males display anemotactic orientation modulated by chemical signals emitted from female MGs. Analyses of the MG secretions of several species resulted in the identification of numerous ketones, acetals, and alcohols. Occlusion experiments showed that Brindley’s gland products were not required for mating. Metasternal gland volatiles are emitted by virgin male and female bugs, with detection over females occurring more consistently, especially during the early scotophase, suggesting female calling behaviour. Mating triatomine females have been reported to attract males that tend to copulate successively with them. Mating males prolong mating and postcopulatory mate guarding in the presence of other males. This is indicative of a polyandrous mating system in several triatomine species. Its potential advantages remain unknown, and comparative studies are required to increase our understanding of triatomine reproductive strategies.

  1. A review of data on laboratory colonies of bed bugs (Cimicidae, an insect of emerging medical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannet Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cimicidae are hematophagous Heteroptera, feeding on human blood, that have been the subject of significant medical investigation. In particular, they have been colonized under laboratory conditions to study their medical relevance. Laboratory colonization of these bugs is a multifactorial phenomenon. Our goal was to conduct a comparative literature review to classify the published data, demonstrating preferred bed bug colony conditions. We show that physical factors including temperature, relative humidity and photoperiod, and physiological factors such as type and frequency of blood meals play important roles in laboratory colonies. Any change in these factors produces changes in life-cycle duration. Temperature and blood meal are the most important factors, with a marked impact on the life-cycle of laboratory populations, depending on the species. A wide range of temperatures (15–34 °C and relative humidity (46–75% with an average of 25 °C and 59% were found for these colonies. Two widely used blood sources for the colonies were rabbits and humans.

  2. Phenology of semiochemical-mediated host foraging by the western boxelder bug, Boisea rubrolineata, an aposematic seed predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Joseph; Gries, Regine; Hillier, Kirk; Vickers, Neil; Gries, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The western boxelder bug (BEB), Boisea rubrolineata (Heteroptera: Rhopalidae), is a specialist herbivore of boxelder trees, Acer negundo. We tested the hypothesis that BEBs use semiochemicals to locate host trees. Headspace volatiles from trees bearing staminate inflorescences ("staminate trees") and from trees bearing pistillate inflorescences ("pistillate trees") were collected throughout the season and bioassayed in Y-tube olfactometer experiments. Headspace extracts of early-season, pollen-bearing staminate trees and midseason pistillate trees with mature samaras (seed pods) attracted female and male BEBs. By using coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified and tested a five-component synthetic blend of candidate semiochemicals (hexanol, pentyl acetate, phenylacetonitrile, 2-phenethyl acetate, and trans-nerolidol). This blend attracted females, males, and fifth-instar nymphs. Phenylacetonitrile by itself was as attractive as the five-component blend to both adults and nymphs. By responding to phenylacetonitrile emitted by pollen-bearing staminate trees and pistillate trees with maturing seeds, BEBs appear to track and exploit the availability of nutrient-rich food sources, suggesting that the bugs' reproductive ecology is synchronized to the phenology of their host boxelder tree. PMID:19123035

  3. A review of data on laboratory colonies of bed bugs (Cimicidae), an insect of emerging medical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannet, Arnaud; Akhoundi, Mohammad; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Michel, Gregory; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Cimicidae are hematophagous Heteroptera, feeding on human blood, that have been the subject of significant medical investigation. In particular, they have been colonized under laboratory conditions to study their medical relevance. Laboratory colonization of these bugs is a multifactorial phenomenon. Our goal was to conduct a comparative literature review to classify the published data, demonstrating preferred bed bug colony conditions. We show that physical factors including temperature, relative humidity and photoperiod, and physiological factors such as type and frequency of blood meals play important roles in laboratory colonies. Any change in these factors produces changes in life-cycle duration. Temperature and blood meal are the most important factors, with a marked impact on the life-cycle of laboratory populations, depending on the species. A wide range of temperatures (15-34 °C) and relative humidity (46-75%) with an average of 25 °C and 59% were found for these colonies. Two widely used blood sources for the colonies were rabbits and humans. PMID:26091944

  4. Toxicity and potential utility of ivermectin and moxidectin as xenointoxicants against the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheele, Johnathan M; Ridge, Gale E

    2016-08-01

    The recent resurgence of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius L. throughout western industrialized nations has been facilitated in part by the insect becoming pesticide-resistant. Novel control strategies, including xenointoxication, should be considered to combat C. lectularius. Ivermectin, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for several human parasites, and the antiparasitic drug moxidectin, currently being explored in human clinical trials, were evaluated for efficacy against C. lectularius. Results showed that C. lectularius fed on ivermectin or moxidectin blood concentrations of >25 ng/mL and had significantly higher mortality (50-100 %) than controls (0-6 %) by day 13. Bed bugs that survived a blood meal containing >2.5 ng/mL of ivermectin suffered long-term sequelae including reduced fecundity, feeding difficulty, and incomplete ecdysis. Some insects that survived a blood meal containing ≤75 ng/mL moxidectin were able to feed and reproduce. PMID:27090120

  5. Traps and trap placement may affect location of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and increase injury to tomato fruits in home gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Chris; Martinson, Holly M; Raupp, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of field crops, fruit orchards, commercial vegetables, ornamental plants, and home vegetable gardens. Pheromone-baited traps designed to attract, trap, and kill H. halys are marketed for use in home gardens to reduce damage to plants. To test this assertion, we conducted the following experiment: One group of 15 gardeners placed stink bug traps at the end of a row of tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum (L.), in their vegetable garden and another group of 14 placed no traps in their garden and served as controls. Gardeners with traps were no more or less likely to have H. halys on tomato plants than those without traps, but the abundance of H. halys on tomato fruits was marginally greater in gardens with traps. However, tomato fruits grown in gardens with traps sustained significantly more injury than tomato fruits grown in gardens without traps. Furthermore, tomato fruits on plants near the trap housed more H. halys than tomato fruits on plants at the end of a row away from the trap. Traps may be useful in identifying gardens where H. halys is likely to be found and ones in which stink bug injury to tomatoes is likely. We found no evidence that stink bug traps protected tomatoes from H. halys, and it appears that the addition of traps to gardens may increase injury to tomato fruits. PMID:24517877

  6. A review of the jumping tree bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Isometopinae) of Argentina and nearby areas of Brazil and Paraguay, with descriptions of nine new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine new species of jumping tree bugs, or Isometopinae, from Argentina, Paraguay, and southern Brazil are described. The genus Aristotelesia is revised and the two new species A. fuscata (Brazil) and A. medialis (Argentina) are described, and the Argentine and Paraguayan species of Myiomma are revie...

  7. 捕食性蝽类昆虫人工饲料研究进展%Advances in Artificial Diet for Rearing of Predatory Bugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丰姣; 曾凡荣

    2013-01-01

      捕食性蝽是一类重要的天敌昆虫,其中有很多种类可以用于生物防治,具有广阔的应用前景。本文就捕食性蝽类的人工饲料研究,从人工饲料主要成分、饲料添加剂、饲料加工剂型和人工饲料评价四个部分进行了综述,并分析了目前捕食性蝽类人工饲料存在的一些问题,提出了相应的改进措施。%The predatory bug is one kind of important natural enemies of insect pests. Many kinds of predatory bugs have the great potential to be used for biological control. This paper reviewed artificial diet of predatory bugs including diet component, feed additives, processing formulation and diet quality assessment. It also analyzed the problems in artificial diet of predatory bugs and proposed suggestions for improvements.

  8. Effects of field plot size on variation in white flower anther injury by tarnished plant bug for host plant resistance evaluations in Arkansas cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field trials conducted in 2008 and 2009 investigated whether field plot size affects incidence of white flower anther injury by tarnished plant bug (TPB) ((Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)) in host plant resistance (HPR) evaluations. The three cotton lines evaluated in the trial included a su...

  9. Sequential testing scheme for the assessment of the side-effects of plant protection products on the predatory bug Orius laevigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veire, Van de M.; Sterk, G.; Staaij, van der M.; Ramakers, P.M.J.; Tirry, L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a number of test methods, to beused in a sequential scheme, for testing the side-effects ofplant protection products on anthocorid bugs. Orius laevigatuswas used as test species. A `worst case' laboratory method wasdeveloped for evaluating the effect on mortality of the nymphsan

  10. Knockdown and lethal effects of eight commercial nonconventional and two pyrethroid insecticides against moderately permethrin-resistant adult bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is undergoing a rapid resurgence in the United States during the last decade which has created a notable pest management challenge largely because the pest has developed resistance against DDT, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyreth...

  11. The complete genome sequence of a single-stranded RNA virus from the tarnished plant bug Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome sequence of a single-stranded RNA virus infecting the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), was identified by sequencing cDNA prepared from insects collected from the Mississippi Delta. The 9655 nucleotide positive sense single-stranded RNA genome of Lygus...

  12. The Mouthparts Enriched Odorant Binding Protein 11 of the Alfalfa Plant Bug Adelphocoris lineolatus Displays a Preferential Binding Behavior to Host Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Wei, Yu; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Xiao, Yong; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Yang, Xian-Ming; Xiao, Qiang; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are proposed to be directly required for odorant discrimination and represent potential interesting targets for pest control. In the notoriously agricultural pest Adelphocoris lineolatus, our previous functional investigation of highly expressed antennal OBPs clearly supported this viewpoint, whereas the findings of the current study by characterizing of AlinOBP11 rather indicated that OBP in hemipterous plant bugs might fulfill a different and tantalizing physiological role. The phylogenetic analysis uncovered that AlinOBP11 together with several homologous bug OBP proteins are potential orthologs, implying they could exhibit a conserved function. Next, the results of expression profiles solidly showed that AlinOBP11 was predominantly expressed at adult mouthparts, the most important gustatory organ of Hemiptera mirid bug. Finally, a rigorously selective binding profile was observed in the fluorescence competitive binding assay, in which recombinant AlinOBP11 displayed much stronger binding abilities to non-volatile secondary metabolite compounds than the volatile odorants. These results reflect that AlinOBP11, even its orthologous proteins across bug species, could be associated with a distinctively conserved physiological role such as a crucial carrier for non-volatiles host secondary metabolites in gustatory system. PMID:27313540

  13. Identification of the western tarnished plant bug (lygus hesperus) olfactory co-receptor orco: expression profile and confirmation of atypical membrane topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygus hesperus (western tarnished plant bug) is an agronomically important pest species of numerous cropping systems. Similar to other insects, a critical component underlying behaviors is the perception and discrimination of olfactory cues. Consequently, the molecular basis of olfaction in this spe...

  14. Field Study of the Comparative Efficacy of Three Pyrethroid/Neonicotinoid Mixture Products for the Control of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Three insecticide mixtures that contain two classes of insecticides (pyrethroid and neonicotinoid were recently developed to control bed bugs. We evaluated three integrated bed bug management strategies in apartments, each using the same non-chemical control methods and one of the three insecticide mixture products: Tandem (lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, Temprid SC (beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid, and Transport Mikron (bifenthrin + acetamiprid. No insecticides were applied in the Control apartments. In all apartments, we installed vinyl mattress encasements (if not already present and applied steam to beds and other infested upholstered furniture. Insecticide sprays were applied in the three treatments. Each treatment and the Control included 8–10 occupied apartments. Re-treatment was conducted during biweekly inspections if necessary. After eight weeks, the mean (± SEM bed bug count reduction in the Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron, and Control was 89 ± 9, 87 ± 6, 98 ± 1, and 23 ± 54%, respectively. Only Tandem and Transport Mikron treatments resulted in significantly higher population reduction than the Control at eight weeks. There were no significant differences in mean percent reduction among the three treatments (Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron at eight weeks. Tandem spray caused significantly faster bed bug reduction than Temprid SC spray and Transport Mikron spray.

  15. Potential of the bean alpha-amylase inhibitor alpha-AI-1 to inhibit alpha-amylase activity in true bugs(Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    True bugs (Hemiptera) are an important pest complex not controlled by Bt crops. An alternative source of resistance includes inhibitors of digestive enzymes. aAI-1, an a-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, has been shown to inhibit a-amylases of bruchid pests of grain legumes. Here we quantify t...

  16. Biological control of sentinel egg masses of the exotic invasive stink bug halyomorpha halys (Stål) in Mid-Atlantic USA ornamental landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological invasions have far reaching effects on native plant and arthropod communities. This study evaluated the effect of natural enemies on eggs of the exotic invasive stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Stål) in experimental plots comprising species pairs of 16 ornamental trees and shrub genera from e...

  17. Predicting Field Control of Tarnished Plant Bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) Populations with Pyrethroid Insecticides by Use of Two Glass-Vial Bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de beauvois), populations from 21 locations in the Mississippi River Delta of Arkansas and Mississippi were tested for resistance to permethrin in 2004 and 2005. Each population was tested using permethrin in a discriminating-dose bioassay to determine...

  18. A 454 survey reveals the community composition and core microbiome of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius across an Urban Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Meriweather

    Full Text Available Elucidating the spatial dynamic and core constituents of the microbial communities found in association with arthropod hosts is of crucial importance for insects that may vector human or agricultural pathogens. The hematophagous Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae, known as the human bed bug, has made a recent resurgence in North America, as well as worldwide, potentially owing to increased travel, climate change and resistance to insecticides. A comprehensive survey of the bed bug microbiome has not been performed to date, nor has an assessment of the spatial dynamics of its microbiome. Here we present a survey of internal and external bed bug microbial communities by amplifying the V4-V6 hypervariable region of the 16S rDNA gene region followed by 454 Titanium sequencing using 31 individuals from eight distinct collection locations obtained from residences in Cincinnati, OH. Across all samples, 97% of the microbial community is made up of two dominant OTUs, previously identified as the α-proteobacterium Wolbachia and an unnamed γ-proteobacterium from the Enterobacteriaceae. Microbial communities varied among host locations for measures of community diversity and exhibited structure according to collection location. This broad survey represents the most in-depth assessment, to date, of the microbes that associate with bed bugs.

  19. Bug-in-Ear Coaching: Impacts on Early Childhood Educators' Practices and Associations with Toddlers' Expressive Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottley, Jennifer Riggie; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    Many early childhood educators struggle to meet the communication needs of children with delays and disabilities. The purpose of this study was to examine the functional relation between bug-in-ear coaching and the frequency of educators' correct use of targeted communication strategies, as well as associations with children's expressive…

  20. Inhibition of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in vitro by the bed bug defensive secretions (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two major aldehydes (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal emitted as defensive secretions by bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), inhibit the in vitro growth of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sokorin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). These chemicals inhibit fungal growth by direct con...

  1. Field Study of the Comparative Efficacy of Three Pyrethroid/Neonicotinoid Mixture Products for the Control of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Cooper, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Three insecticide mixtures that contain two classes of insecticides (pyrethroid and neonicotinoid) were recently developed to control bed bugs. We evaluated three integrated bed bug management strategies in apartments, each using the same non-chemical control methods and one of the three insecticide mixture products: Tandem (lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam), Temprid SC (beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid), and Transport Mikron (bifenthrin + acetamiprid). No insecticides were applied in the Control apartments. In all apartments, we installed vinyl mattress encasements (if not already present) and applied steam to beds and other infested upholstered furniture. Insecticide sprays were applied in the three treatments. Each treatment and the Control included 8-10 occupied apartments. Re-treatment was conducted during biweekly inspections if necessary. After eight weeks, the mean (± SEM) bed bug count reduction in the Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron, and Control was 89 ± 9, 87 ± 6, 98 ± 1, and 23 ± 54%, respectively. Only Tandem and Transport Mikron treatments resulted in significantly higher population reduction than the Control at eight weeks. There were no significant differences in mean percent reduction among the three treatments (Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron) at eight weeks. Tandem spray caused significantly faster bed bug reduction than Temprid SC spray and Transport Mikron spray. PMID:26463075

  2. Undesirable dispersal of eggs and early-stage nymphs of the bed bug Hemiptera: cimicidae) by static electricity and air currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement of whole live insects or other small arthropods attributed to static electricity has been reported only rarely. While viewing bed bugs in plastic or glass Petri dishes using a dissecting microscope, individual eggs and early stage nymphs were occasionally observed to move suddenly and rapid...

  3. Relationship between external stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) boll-feeding symptoms and internal boll damage with respect to cotton lint gin-out and fiber quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinka, Eric L; Herbert, Ames; Malone, Sean; Van Duyn, John W; Roberts, Phillip; Bradley, J R; Bacheler, Jack S

    2010-12-01

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., bolls from 17 field locations in northeastern North Carolina and southeastern Virginia, having 20% or greater internal boll damage, were studied to determine the relationship between external feeding symptoms and internal damage caused by stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) feeding. In 2006 and 2007, two cohorts of 100 bolls each were sampled at all field locations. The first cohort was removed as bolls reached approximately quarter size in diameter (2.4 cm). External and internal symptoms of stink bug feeding were assessed and tabulated. Concurrent to when the first cohort was collected, a second cohort of quarter-size-diameter bolls was identified, tagged, examined in situ for external feeding symptoms (sunken lesions), and harvested at the black seed coat stage. Harvested bolls were assessed for internal damage and locks were categorized (undamaged, minor damage, or major damage), dried, and ginned. Lint samples from each damage category were submitted for high volume instrument and advanced fiber information system quality analyses. Significant, moderately strong Pearson correlation coefficients existed between number of external stink bug feeding lesions and internal damage. Pearson correlation of total external lesions with total internal damage was stronger than any correlation among the other single components compared. Predictability plots indicated a rapid increase in relationship strength when relating external stink bug lesions to internal damage as the number of external lesions increased. Approximately 90% predictability of internal damage was achieved with four (2006) or six (2007) external lesions per boll. Gin-turnout and fiber quality decreased with increasing intensity of internal stink bug damage. PMID:21309249

  4. Effects of temperature on the development and population growth of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Rui-Ting; Wang, Feng; Li, Bo

    2011-01-01

    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say) (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an important invasive exotic pest of Platanus (Proteales: Platanaceae) trees in China. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of temperature on C. ciliata in the laboratory so that forecasting models based on heat accumulation units could be developed for the pest. Development and fecundity of C. ciliata reared on leaves of London plane tree (Platanus × acerifolia) were investigated at seven constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 26, 30, 33, and 36° C) and at a relative humidity of 80% with a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D). The developmental time was found to significantly decrease with increasing temperature. The developmental time from egg hatching to adult emergence was respectively 47.6, 35.0, 24.1, 20.0, and 17.1 days at the temperatures of 19, 22, 26, 30, and 33° C. C. ciliata could not complete full development at 16° and 36° C. The developmental threshold temperature (C) estimated for egg-to-adult was 11.17° C, with a thermal constant of (K) 370.57 degree-days. Longevity of females was found to be the shortest, 17.7 days at 33° C and the longest, 58.9 days at 16° C, and that of males was the shortest, 19.7 days at 33° C and the longest, 59.7 days at 16° C. Fecundity was the highest at 30° C, being 286.8 eggs per female over an oviposition period of 8.9 days. Female lifetime fecundity was reduced at other temperatures, being the lowest (87.7 eggs per female) at 19° C. The population trend index (I) of C. ciliata was the highest (130.1) at 30° C and the lowest (24.9) at 19° C. Therefore, the optimal developmental temperature for C. ciliata was determined to be 30° C.

  5. RNA-Seq and molecular docking reveal multi-level pesticide resistance in the bed bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamidala Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous nocturnal parasites of humans that have attained high impact status due to their worldwide resurgence. The sudden and rampant resurgence of C. lectularius has been attributed to numerous factors including frequent international travel, narrower pest management practices, and insecticide resistance. Results We performed a next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq experiment to find differentially expressed genes between pesticide-resistant (PR and pesticide-susceptible (PS strains of C. lectularius. A reference transcriptome database of 51,492 expressed sequence tags (ESTs was created by combining the databases derived from de novo assembled mRNA-Seq tags (30,404 ESTs and our previous 454 pyrosequenced database (21,088 ESTs. The two-way GLMseq analysis revealed ~15,000 highly significant differentially expressed ESTs between the PR and PS strains. Among the top 5,000 differentially expressed ESTs, 109 putative defense genes (cuticular proteins, cytochrome P450s, antioxidant genes, ABC transporters, glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and acetyl cholinesterase involved in penetration resistance and metabolic resistance were identified. Tissue and development-specific expression of P450 CYP3 clan members showed high mRNA levels in the cuticle, Malpighian tubules, and midgut; and in early instar nymphs, respectively. Lastly, molecular modeling and docking of a candidate cytochrome P450 (CYP397A1V2 revealed the flexibility of the deduced protein to metabolize a broad range of insecticide substrates including DDT, deltamethrin, permethrin, and imidacloprid. Conclusions We developed significant molecular resources for C. lectularius putatively involved in metabolic resistance as well as those participating in other modes of insecticide resistance. RNA-Seq profiles of PR strains combined with tissue-specific profiles and molecular docking revealed multi-level insecticide

  6. Pentatomidae bugs associated with sunflower crops in the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul state and the action of Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae on sunfl ower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Sivori Silva dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were to identify the species of bugs attacking sunflowers in the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul state and to estimate the damage caused during the R6 and R8 stages. The bugs present in ten sunflower crops were collected, and their feeding sites were determined. The species Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794 was used to determine the damage by individualizing the capitula using mesh cages in the R6 and R8 stages. Each caged capitulum was infested with one, two, or four bugs. Besides E. heros (47.67%, Dichelops furcatus (Fabricius, 1775 (44.18%, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood, 1837 (4.65% and Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius, 1794 (3.48% were found. There were no significant differences among the treatments regarding the yield components (weight of 1000 sunflower seeds, germination power, oil and protein content. The tetrazolio test indicated that the bugs fed on the sunflower seeds.

  7. BUTTER:一种基于主题模型和异构网络的缺陷分发方法%BUTTER:An Approach to Bug Triage with Topic Modeling and Heterogeneous Network Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩广乐; 张文; 王青

    2014-01-01

    当软件缺陷被提交到缺陷跟踪系统并经过确认之后,它会被分发给开发人员进行缺陷修复.这个过程就叫做缺陷分发.随着被提交到系统的缺陷报告日益增多,手工分发缺陷报告会变得越来越困难.提出了一种自动分发缺陷的方法BUTTER.与其他方法不同的是, BUTTER不仅利用主题模型分析缺陷报告中的文本信息,而且创新性地建立了一个包含提交者、缺陷和开发者三种节点及其相互关系的异构网络,从该异构网络中抽取了更多的结构信息.实验证明, BUTTER进行自动缺陷分发较其他缺陷自动分发方法要好.%When a bug was reported to the bug tracking system, it should be assigned to a developer who is responsible for its resolution after it is confirmed. This processing is called bug triage. With increasing number of bug reports submitted to the bug tracking system, it is more and more difficult to assign appropriate developers to the reported bugs manually. In this paper, we propose an approach called BUTTER (BUg Triage by topic modeling and heTERogeneous network analysis) to automatically assign bugs to developers. Different from existing work, BUTTER not only uses topic model to analyze the text information from bug reports, but also innovatively takes structural information into consideration by constructing a heterogeneous network which includes relationships among submitters, bugs and developers. Experiment shows that BUTTER outperforms other methods on automated bug triage.

  8. The importance of gut symbionts in the development of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Taylor

    Full Text Available The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål, has become a severe agricultural pest and nuisance problem since its introduction in the U.S. Research is being conducted to understand its biology and to find management solutions. Its symbiotic relationship with gut symbionts is one aspect of its biology that is not understood. In the family Pentatomidae, the reliance on gut symbionts for successful development seems to vary depending on the species of stink bug. This research assessed the role of gut symbionts in the development, survivorship, and fecundity of H. halys. We compared various fitness parameters of nymphs and adults reared from surface sterilized and untreated egg masses during two consecutive generations under laboratory conditions. Results provided direct evidence that H. halys is negatively impacted by the prevention of vertical transmission of its gut symbionts and that this impact is significant in the first generation and manifests dramatically in the subsequent generation. Developmental time and survivorship of treated cohorts in the first generation were significantly affected during third instar development through to the adult stage. Adults from the sterilized treatment group exhibited longer pre-oviposition periods, produced fewer egg masses, had significantly smaller clutch sizes, and the hatch rate and survivorship of those eggs were significantly reduced. Observations following hatch of surface sterilized eggs also revealed significant effects on wandering behavior of the first instars. The second generation progeny from adults of the sterilized cohorts showed significantly lower survival to adulthood, averaging only 0.3% compared to 20.8% for the control cohorts. Taken together, results demonstrate that H. halys is heavily impacted by deprival of its gut symbionts. Given the economic status of this invasive pest, further investigations may lead to management tactics that disrupt this close symbiotic

  9. The importance of gut symbionts in the development of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christopher M; Coffey, Peter L; DeLay, Bridget D; Dively, Galen P

    2014-01-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), has become a severe agricultural pest and nuisance problem since its introduction in the U.S. Research is being conducted to understand its biology and to find management solutions. Its symbiotic relationship with gut symbionts is one aspect of its biology that is not understood. In the family Pentatomidae, the reliance on gut symbionts for successful development seems to vary depending on the species of stink bug. This research assessed the role of gut symbionts in the development, survivorship, and fecundity of H. halys. We compared various fitness parameters of nymphs and adults reared from surface sterilized and untreated egg masses during two consecutive generations under laboratory conditions. Results provided direct evidence that H. halys is negatively impacted by the prevention of vertical transmission of its gut symbionts and that this impact is significant in the first generation and manifests dramatically in the subsequent generation. Developmental time and survivorship of treated cohorts in the first generation were significantly affected during third instar development through to the adult stage. Adults from the sterilized treatment group exhibited longer pre-oviposition periods, produced fewer egg masses, had significantly smaller clutch sizes, and the hatch rate and survivorship of those eggs were significantly reduced. Observations following hatch of surface sterilized eggs also revealed significant effects on wandering behavior of the first instars. The second generation progeny from adults of the sterilized cohorts showed significantly lower survival to adulthood, averaging only 0.3% compared to 20.8% for the control cohorts. Taken together, results demonstrate that H. halys is heavily impacted by deprival of its gut symbionts. Given the economic status of this invasive pest, further investigations may lead to management tactics that disrupt this close symbiotic relationship in

  10. Effect of climate change on annual fluctuations in the population density of the brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Ken

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between the population density of overwintering adults of the brown marmorated stink bug and the temperatures of each month during the preceding November to April was investigated in Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, from 1999 to 2012. The number of adults entering traps for overwintering at the monitored hibernation site differed considerably among years. There was a significant negative correlation between the increase ratio (the ratio of the number collected in the current year to the number collected in the previous year) and the mean daily maximum temperature of the preceding March and April. These results suggest that the proportion of surviving adult brown marmorated stink bug may be higher when temperatures in early spring (March and April) are lower, as the postoverwintering adults may need to survive without food for a shorter period of time.

  11. Bed bug cytogenetics: karyotype, sex chromosome system, FISH mapping of 18S rDNA, and male meiosis in Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera: Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snejana Grozeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera are frequently used as examples of unusual cytogenetic characters, and the family Cimicidae is one of most interest in this respect. We have performed a cytogenetic study of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 using both classical (Schiff-Giemsa and AgNO3-staining and molecular cytogenetic techniques (base-specific DAPI/CMA3 fluorochromes and FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. Males originated from a wild population of C. lectularius were found to have 2n = 26 + X1X2Y, holokinetic chromosomes, 18S rRNA genes located on the X1 and Y chromosomes; achiasmate male meiosis of a collochore type; MI and MII plates nonradial and radial respectively.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Coriobacterium glomerans type strain (PW2T) from the midgut of Pyrrhocoris apterus L. (red soldier bug)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stackebrandt, Erko [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Zeytun, Ahmet [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hammon, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Pukall, Rudiger [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2013-01-01

    Coriobacterium glomerans Haas and Ko nig 1988, is the only species of the genus Coriobacterium, family Coriobacteriaceae, order Coriobacteriales, phylum Actinobacteria. The bacterium thrives as an endosymbiont of pyrrhocorid bugs, i.e. the red fire bug Pyrrhocoris apterus L. The rationale for sequencing the genome of strain PW2T is its endosymbiotic life style which is rare among members of Actinobacteria. Here we describe the features of this symbiont, together with the complete genome sequence and its annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the genus Coriobacterium and the sixth member of the order Coriobacteriales for which complete genome sequences are now available. The 2,115,681 bp long single replicon genome with its 1,804 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  13. Effect of climate change on annual fluctuations in the population density of the brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Ken

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between the population density of overwintering adults of the brown marmorated stink bug and the temperatures of each month during the preceding November to April was investigated in Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, from 1999 to 2012. The number of adults entering traps for overwintering at the monitored hibernation site differed considerably among years. There was a significant negative correlation between the increase ratio (the ratio of the number collected in the current year to the number collected in the previous year) and the mean daily maximum temperature of the preceding March and April. These results suggest that the proportion of surviving adult brown marmorated stink bug may be higher when temperatures in early spring (March and April) are lower, as the postoverwintering adults may need to survive without food for a shorter period of time. PMID:24224257

  14. Stone Lakes Virus (Family Togaviridae, Genus Alphavirus), a Variant of Fort Morgan Virus Isolated From Swallow Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) West of the Continental Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Brault, Aaron C; Armijos, M. Veronica; Wheeler, Sarah; Wright, Stan; Fang, Ying; Langevin, Stanley; Reisen, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple isolates of an alphaviruses within the western equine encephalomyelitis-serocomplex that were related closely to Ft. Morgan and its variant Buggy Creek virus were made from swallow bugs, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), collected from cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) nests at the Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Sacramento County, CA, during the summers of 2005 and 2006. This virus (hereafter Stone Lakes virus, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, STLV)...

  15. Investigating host plant selection of harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), in order to improve a trap cropping system for its management.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallingford, Anna Kate

    2012-01-01

    Harlequin bug (HB), Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is a pest of cole crops. Alternative control strategies were investigated for control of HB, including trap cropping and systemic neonicotinoid insecticide applications. Potential trap crops, mustard (Brassica juncea â Southern Giant Curledâ ), rapeseed (B. napus â Athenaâ ), rapini (B. rapa) and arugula (Eruca sativa) were preferred over collard (B. oleracea â Championâ ), and a non-brassica control, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris â Bron...

  16. The lace bug Cochlochila bullita (Stål) (Heteroptera: Tingidae), a potential pest of Orthosiphon stamineus Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Sajap, Ahmad Said; Peng, Tan Li

    2010-01-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus Bentham, a medicinal plant in the family Lamiaceae, is used to make a well known herbal tea in many countries including Malaysia. Since its establishment as an important cash crop, the herb has been relatively free from any serious insect problems until recently. In Selangor, Malaysia we observed the herb heavily infested by the lace bug Cochlochila bullita Stål (Heteroptera: Tingidae). This is the first record of its occurrence in Malaysia and also the first record on t...

  17. Milkweed (Gentianales: Apocynaceae): a farmscape resource for increasing parasitism of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and providing nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Carpenter, J E

    2014-04-01

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, the stink bugs Nezara viridula (L.) and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and the leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.) (Hemiptera: Coreidae), disperse at crop-to-crop interfaces to feed on bolls in cotton. The main objective of this study was to determine whether insecticide-free tropical milkweed (Asclepias curassavica L.), a nectar-producing plant, can increase parasitism of these bugs by Trichopoda pennipes (F.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) and provide nectar to monarch butterflies and insect pollinators in these farmscapes. Peanut-cotton plots with and without flowering milkweed plants were established in 2009 and 2010. Adult T. pennipes, monarch butterflies, honey bees, and native insect pollinators readily fed on floral nectar of milkweed. Monarch larvae feeding on milkweed vegetation successfully developed into pupae. In 2009, N. viridula was the primary host of T. pennipes in cotton, and parasitism of this pest by the parasitoid was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (61.6%) than in control cotton (13.3%). In 2010, parasitism of N. viridula, C. hilaris, and L. phyllopus by T. pennipes was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (24.0%) than in control cotton (1.1%). For both years of the study, these treatment differences were not owing to a response by the parasitoid to differences in host density, because density of hosts was not significantly different between treatments. In conclusion, incorporation of milkweed in peanut-cotton plots increased stink bug parasitism in cotton and provided nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies. PMID:24763094

  18. Bed bugs reproductive life cycle in the clothes of a patient suffering from Alzheimer’s disease results in iron deficiency anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sabou, Marcela; Gallo Imperiale, Delphine; Andrès, Emmanuel; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Foeglé, Jacinthe; Lavigne, Thierry; Kaltenbach, Georges; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of an 82-year-old patient, hospitalized for malaise. Her clothes were infested by numerous insects and the entomological analysis identified them as being Cimex lectularius (bed bugs). The history of the patient highlighted severe cognitive impairment. The biological assessment initially showed a profound microcytic, aregenerative, iron deficiency anemia. A vitamin B12 deficiency due to pernicious anemia (positive intrinsic factor antibodies) was also highlighted, but this ...

  19. Stone Lakes virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), a variant of Fort Morgan virus isolated from swallow bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) west of the Continental Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Aaron C; Armijos, M Veronica; Wheeler, Sarah; Wright, Stan; Fang, Ying; Langevin, Stanley; Reisen, William K

    2009-09-01

    Multiple isolates of an alphaviruses within the western equine encephalomyelitis-serocomplex that were related closely to Ft. Morgan and its variant Buggy Creek virus were made from swallow bugs, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), collected from cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) nests at the Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Sacramento County, CA, during the summers of 2005 and 2006. This virus (hereafter Stone Lakes virus, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, STLV) was the first record of this viral group west of the Continental Divide. STLV replicated well in Vero and other vertebrate cell cultures but failed to replicate in C6/36 cells or infect Culex tarsalis Coquillett mosquitoes. STLV failed to produce elevated viremias in adult chickens or house sparrows and was weakly immunogenic. In addition, STLV was not isolated from cliff swallow nestlings nor was antibody detected in adults collected at mist nets. We suggest that STL and related swallow bug viruses may be primarily infections of cimicids that are maintained and amplified either by vertical or nonviremic transmission and that cliff swallows may primarily be important as a bloodmeal source for the bugs rather than as an amplification host for the viruses. PMID:19769055

  20. Building-Up of a DNA Barcode Library for True Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Germany Reveals Taxonomic Uncertainties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Hendrich, Lars; Küchler, Stefan M.; Deister, Fabian; Morinière, Jérome; Gossner, Martin M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species) our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae), Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae), Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae)) as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833) (Aradidae) or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811) (Anthocoridae)). PMID:25203616

  1. Krüppel homolog 1 and E93 mediate Juvenile hormone regulation of metamorphosis in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug is an obligate hematophagous parasite of humans. We studied the regulation of molting and metamorphosis in bed bugs with a goal to identify key players involved. qRT-PCR studies on the expression of genes known to be involved in molting and metamorphosis showed high levels of Krüppel homolog 1 [Kr-h1, a transcription factor that plays key roles in juvenile hormone (JH) action] mRNA in the penultimate nymphal stage (N4). However, low levels of Kr-h1 mRNA were detected in the fifth and last nymphal stage (N5). Knockdown of Kr-h1 in N4 resulted in a precocious development of adult structures. Kr-h1 maintains the immature stage by suppressing E93 (early ecdysone response gene) in N4. E93 expression increases during the N5 in the absence of Kr-h1 and promotes the development of adult structures. Knockdown of E93 in N5 results in the formation of supernumerary nymphs. The role of JH in the suppression of adult structures through interaction with Kr-h1 and E93 was also studied by the topical application of JH analog, methoprene, to N5. Methoprene induced Kr-h1 and suppressed E93 and induced formation of the supernumerary nymph. These data show interactions between Kr-h1, E93 and JH in the regulation of metamorphosis in the bed bugs. PMID:27185064

  2. Quantitative Sequencing for the Determination of Kdr-type Resistance Allele (V419L, L925I, I936F) Frequencies in Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Populations Collected from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenchar, Daniel J; Gellatly, Kyle J; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Shalom, Uri; Clark, J Marshall

    2015-09-01

    Human bed bug infestations have dramatically increased worldwide since the mid-1990s. A similar phenomenon was also observed in Israel since 2005, when infestations were reported from all over the country. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (V419L and L925I) in the bed bug voltage-sensitive sodium channel confer kdr-type resistance to pyrethroids. Using quantitative sequencing (QS), the resistance allele frequencies of Israeli bed bug populations from across the country were determined. Genomic DNA was extracted from samples of 12 populations of bed bugs collected from Israel and DNA fragments containing the V419L or L925I and I936F mutations sites were PCR amplified. The PCR products were analyzed by QS and the nucleotide signal ratios calculated and used to predict the resistance allele frequencies of the unknown populations. Results of the genetic analysis show that resistant nucleotide signals are highly correlated to resistance allele frequencies for both mutations. Ten of the 12 tested populations had 100% of the L925I mutation and 0% of the V419L mutation. One population was heterogeneous for the L925I mutation and had 0% of the V419L mutation and another population was heterogeneous for the V419L mutation and had 100% of the L925I mutation. I936F occurred only at low levels. These results indicate that bed bugs in Israel are genetically resistant to pyrethroids. Thus, pyrethroids should only be used for bed bug management with caution using effective application and careful monitoring procedures. Additionally, new and novel-acting insecticides and nonchemical means of controlling bed bugs should be explored. PMID:26336243

  3. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification. PMID:27390089

  4. Male courtship behavior and weapon trait as indicators of indirect benefit in the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yû Suzaki

    Full Text Available Females prefer male traits that are associated with direct and/or indirect benefits to themselves. Male-male competition also drives evolution of male traits that represent competitive ability. Because female choice and male-male competition rarely act independently, exploring how these two mechanisms interact is necessary for integrative understanding of the evolution of sexually selected traits. Here, we focused on direct and indirect benefits to females from male attractiveness, courtship, and weapon characters in the armed bug Riptortus pedestris. The males use their hind legs to fight other males over territory and perform courtship displays for successful copulation. Females of R. pedestris receive no direct benefit from mating with attractive males. On the other hand, we found that male attractiveness, courtship rate, and weapon size were significantly heritable and that male attractiveness had positive genetic covariances with both courtship rate and weapon traits. Thus, females obtain indirect benefits from mating with attractive males by producing sons with high courtship success rates and high competitive ability. Moreover, it is evident that courtship rate and hind leg length act as evaluative cues of female choice. Therefore, female mate choice and male-male competition may facilitate each other in R. pedestris. This is consistent with current basic concepts of sexual selection.

  5. The significance of cytogenetics for the study of karyotype evolution and taxonomy of water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae) native to Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela, Chirino Mónica; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Bressa, María José

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Male meiosis behaviour and heterochromatin characterization of three big water bug species were studied. Belostoma dentatum (Mayr, 1863), Belostoma elongatum Montandon, 1908 and Belostoma gestroi Montandon, 1903 possess 2n = 26 + X1X2Y (male). In these species, male meiosis is similar to that previously observed in Belostoma Latreille, 1807. In general, autosomal bivalents show a single chiasma terminally located and divide reductionally at anaphase I. On the other hand, sex chromosomes are achiasmatic, behave as univalents and segregate their chromatids equationally at anaphase I. The analysis of heterochromatin distribution and composition revealed a C-positive block at the terminal region of all autosomes in Belostoma dentatum, a C-positive block at the terminal region and C-positive interstitial dots on all autosomes in Belostoma elongatum, and a little C-positive band at the terminal region of autosomes in Belostoma gestroi. A C-positive band on one bivalent was DAPI negative/CMA3 positive in the three species. The CMA3-bright band, enriched in GC base pairs, was coincident with a NOR detected by FISH. The results obtained support the hypothesis that all species of Belostoma with multiple sex chromosome systems preserve NORs in autosomal bivalents. The karyotype analyses allow the cytogenetic characterization and identification of these species belonging to a difficult taxonomic group. Besides, the cytogenetic characterization will be useful in discussions about evolutionary trends of the genome organization and karyotype evolution in this genus. PMID:24260694

  6. Biased sex ratio and low population density increase male mating success in the bug Nysius huttoni (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao; He, Xiong Zhao; Yang, Linghuan; Hedderley, Duncan; Davis, Lorraine K.

    2009-01-01

    Demographic factors such as operational sex ratio (OSR) and local population density (LPD) are temporally and spatially dynamic in the natural environment but the influence of these variables on male mating success and the mechanisms behind it are still poorly understood and highly controversial. Here, we manipulated the OSR and LPD of a seed bug, Nysius huttoni, and carried out a series of mating trials to test how these variables affected male mating success. The two demographic factors had no significant interactions, suggesting that they affect male mating success independently in N. huttoni. In this species male mating success was significantly higher in both male- and female-biased OSR than in even OSR. It is suggested that, in male-biased OSR, the increased intensity of competition and interference does not result in lower male mating success; rather, males may make more effort in courting and females may have more chance to encounter better males, resulting in higher male mating success. In female-biased OSR, females may become less choosy and less likely to reject male mating attempt, leading to the higher male mating success. Lower male mating success in N. huttoni in high LPD may be due to increased interference between males and/or delayed female receptiveness for mating. OSR had a stronger effect on male mating success than LPD in N. huttoni, suggesting that OSR and LPD affect mating success in different ways and intensities.

  7. Regulatory roles of biogenic amines and juvenile hormone in the reproductive behavior of the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Colin S; Miyasaki, Katelyn; Vuong, Connor; Miranda, Brittany; Steele, Bronwen; Brent, Kristoffer G; Nath, Rachna

    2016-02-01

    Mating induces behavioral and physiological changes in the plant bug Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae). After receiving seminal products, which include the systemic regulator juvenile hormone (JH), females enter a post-mating period lasting several days during which they enhance their oviposition rate and lose interest in remating. To elucidate the regulation of these behavioral changes in L. hesperus, biogenic amines were quantified in the heads of females at 5 min, 1 h and 24 h after copulation and compared to levels in virgins using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection. Mating significantly increased dopamine (DA) after 1 and 24 h, and decreased octopamine (OA) after 5 min and 1 h. Serotonin did not change with mating, but tyramine was significantly reduced after 5 min. While injection of amines into virgin females did not influence sexual receptivity, OA caused a decrease in oviposition during the 24 h following injection. Topical application of the JH analog methoprene to virgins caused an increase in DA, and a decline in mating propensity, but did not influence other amines or the oviposition rate. The results suggest the decline in OA observed immediately after mating may promote egg laying, and that male-derived JH may induce an increase in DA that could account for the post-mating loss of sexual receptivity. PMID:26686231

  8. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated.

  9. Mode of Action and Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in the Control of Caterpillars and Stink Bugs in Soybean Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schünemann, Rogério; Knaak, Neiva; Fiuza, Lidia Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that possess toxic properties and can be used as biopesticides, as well as a source of genes for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to insects. In Brazil, the introduction of Bt soybean with insecticidal properties to the velvetbean caterpillar, the main insect pest of soybean, has been seen a promising tool in the management of these agroecosystems. However, the increase in stink bug populations in this culture, in various regions of the country, which are not susceptible to the existing genetically modified plants, requires application of chemicals that damage the environment. Little is known about the actual toxicity of Bt to Hemiptera, since these insects present sucking mouthparts, which hamper toxicity assays with artificial diets containing toxins of this bacterium. In recent studies of cytotoxicity with the gut of different hemipterans, susceptibility in the mechanism of action of delta-endotoxins has been demonstrated, which can generate promising subsidies for the control of these insect pests in soybean. This paper aims to review the studies related to the selection, application and mode of action of Bt in the biological control of the major pest of soybean, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and an analysis of advances in research on the use of Bt for control hemipterans.

  10. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated. PMID:27596436

  11. Insecticide susceptibility of the green plant bug, Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür (Homoptera: Miridae and two predatory arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhengqun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The green plant bug (Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür is a key pest of Bt cotton in China. Along with biological control, chemical control is one of the most important strategies in A. lucorum Integrated Pest Management (IPM. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of eight conventional insecticides to A. lucorum and to assess the susceptibility of two generalist predators Chrysopa sinica (Jieder and Propylaea japonica (Thunbery to insecticides that are commonly used in A. lucorum management. Via glass-vial and leaf-dip bioassay, toxicity tests with selected insecticides at two different life-stages of A. lucorum indicated significant differences between the LD50 or LC50 values for these compounds within different insecticidal classes. Phenylpyrazole fipronil had the highest toxicity to 4th-instar nymphs and adults of A. lucorum, whereas neonicotinoid imidacloprid had the lowest toxicity among the insecticides. Females were more tolerant to insecticides than were males, as shown by the higher LD50 values for females. Furthermore, laboratory tests showed that endosulfan had the highest selectivity to C. sinica and P. japonica: the selective toxicity ratios (STRs were superior to other tested insecticides, particularly imidacloprid, and were 5.396 and 4.749-fold higher than baseline STRs, respectively. From this study, we conclude that fipronil can potentially be used to efficiently control A. lucorum. An alternative control agent worth consideration is endosulfan, owing to its relative safety to non-targeted natural enemies.

  12. Invasive stink bug favors naïve plants: Testing the role of plant geographic origin in diverse, managed environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Holly M; Bergmann, Erik J; Venugopal, P Dilip; Riley, Christopher B; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction and establishment of exotic species, most ecosystems now contain both native and exotic plants and herbivores. Recent research identifies several factors that govern how specialist herbivores switch host plants upon introduction. Predicting the feeding ecology and impacts of introduced generalist species, however, remains difficult. Here, we examine how plant geographic origin, an indicator of shared co-evolutionary history, influences patterns of host use by a generalist, invasive herbivore, while accounting for variation in plant availability. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous Asian herbivore and an economically important invasive pest in North America and Europe. In visual surveys of 220 plant taxa in commercial nurseries in Maryland, USA, H. halys was more abundant on non-Asian plants and selected these over Asian plants. The relationship between the relative use of plants and their availability was strongly positive but depended also on plant origin at two of our three sites, where the higher relative use of non-Asian plants was greatest for highly abundant taxa. These results highlight the importance of considering both plant origin and relative abundance in understanding the selection of host plants by invasive generalist herbivores in diverse, natural and urban forests. PMID:27581756

  13. Could the Chagas disease elimination programme in Venezuela be compromised by reinvasion of houses by sylvatic Rhodnius prolixus bug populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Martin, Maria J; Feliciangeli, M Dora; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Davies, Clive R

    2006-10-01

    The Andean Pact Initiative (1997) committed Andean countries to eliminate vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by 2010 via widespread residual insecticide spraying. In Venezuela, this aim could be compromised by reinvasion of houses by palm tree populations of the major vector Rhodnius prolixus. To test this hypothesis, a multivariate logistic regression was undertaken of risk factors for triatomine infestation and colonization in 552 houses and 1068 peri-domestic outbuildings in Barinas State. After adjusting for other risk factors, including palm roofs, R. prolixus infestation and colonization of outbuildings (and, to some extent, houses) was significantly associated with proximity to high densities of Attalea butyracea palm trees. House infestation and/or colonization was also positively associated with bug density in peri-domestic outbuildings, the presence of pigsties and nests. Hence, R. prolixus populations in ineffectively sprayed outbuildings could also provide an important source of house re-infestations. The secondary vector Triatoma maculata was mainly found associated with the presence of hens nesting both indoors and outdoors.

  14. Invasive stink bug favors naïve plants: Testing the role of plant geographic origin in diverse, managed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Holly M.; Bergmann, Erik J.; Venugopal, P. Dilip; Riley, Christopher B.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.; Raupp, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction and establishment of exotic species, most ecosystems now contain both native and exotic plants and herbivores. Recent research identifies several factors that govern how specialist herbivores switch host plants upon introduction. Predicting the feeding ecology and impacts of introduced generalist species, however, remains difficult. Here, we examine how plant geographic origin, an indicator of shared co-evolutionary history, influences patterns of host use by a generalist, invasive herbivore, while accounting for variation in plant availability. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous Asian herbivore and an economically important invasive pest in North America and Europe. In visual surveys of 220 plant taxa in commercial nurseries in Maryland, USA, H. halys was more abundant on non-Asian plants and selected these over Asian plants. The relationship between the relative use of plants and their availability was strongly positive but depended also on plant origin at two of our three sites, where the higher relative use of non-Asian plants was greatest for highly abundant taxa. These results highlight the importance of considering both plant origin and relative abundance in understanding the selection of host plants by invasive generalist herbivores in diverse, natural and urban forests. PMID:27581756

  15. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification.

  16. Invasive stink bug favors naïve plants: Testing the role of plant geographic origin in diverse, managed environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Holly M; Bergmann, Erik J; Venugopal, P Dilip; Riley, Christopher B; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction and establishment of exotic species, most ecosystems now contain both native and exotic plants and herbivores. Recent research identifies several factors that govern how specialist herbivores switch host plants upon introduction. Predicting the feeding ecology and impacts of introduced generalist species, however, remains difficult. Here, we examine how plant geographic origin, an indicator of shared co-evolutionary history, influences patterns of host use by a generalist, invasive herbivore, while accounting for variation in plant availability. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous Asian herbivore and an economically important invasive pest in North America and Europe. In visual surveys of 220 plant taxa in commercial nurseries in Maryland, USA, H. halys was more abundant on non-Asian plants and selected these over Asian plants. The relationship between the relative use of plants and their availability was strongly positive but depended also on plant origin at two of our three sites, where the higher relative use of non-Asian plants was greatest for highly abundant taxa. These results highlight the importance of considering both plant origin and relative abundance in understanding the selection of host plants by invasive generalist herbivores in diverse, natural and urban forests.

  17. Compatibility assessment between four ethanolic plant extracts with a bug predator Orius horvathi (Reuter (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae used for controlling the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Nooshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande attacks a large number of crop plants. The current insecticides have caused resistance in insects and have caused outbreaks of thrips. In many instances, alternative methods of insect management and natural products, offer adequate pest control and pose fewer hazards. Several species of minute pirate bugs of the genus Orius play a significant role in the biological control of a large number of thrips species, such as F. occidentalis. In this study, the insecticidal activity of four ethanolic plant extracts (Cercis siliquastrum L., Calendula officinalis L., Peganum harmala L., Melia azedarach L. in integration with Orius horvathi (Reuter were evaluated for controlling F. occidentalis. The present research aimed to find plant extracts with a good impact on F. occidentalis but which have fewer side effects on O. horvathi. The results showed that P. harmala extract can be considered compatible with the natural enemy for controlling thrips. When the predatory bugs O. horvathi, were released three days after P. harmala extract spraying, the integration was more effective. While the P. harmala plant extract plays an important role in thrips control, it is necessary to consider the specified time interval between the application of the P. harmala plant extract and the release of the O. horvathi predatory bugs. The ethanolic extract of M. azedarach caused a balance between the pest population and the natural enemy. This result is very important in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program because this ethanolic extract of M. azedarach had lower side effects on the natural enemy. This means that an integration of plant derived chemicals and the natural enemy, O. horvathi, can effectively control thrips.

  18. An Analysis of the Relationship between Sociodemographic Features and Complaints of Bed Bug Infestations at the Population Ward Level in Toronto.

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    Maruf Morshed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available such as distant and intermediate sociodemographic factors, responsible for the resurgence of this prehistoric pest. In this retrospective descriptive study with ecological association, Social Determinants of Health approach and Descriptive Correlation Research framework were used for predicting and explaining those possible relationships between the selected sociodemographic features (independent variables, and the number of bed bug complaints in 2009 and 2010 by ward-level (dependent variables in Toronto. Independent variables like apartment buildings with <5 storeys (Spearman’s rho=0.555,p=0.006/rho=0.571,p=0.002, rental dwellings (rho=0.590,p<0.001/ rho=0.623,p<0.001, multi-family households (rho=-0.405,p=0.002/rho=-0.421,p=0.002, and work (Pearson correlation: r=0.538,p<0.001/r=0.600,p<0.001 and non-work (r=0.652,p<0.001/r=0.648,p<0.001 trips by transit appeared to have a relationship with the number of complaints received in 2009 and 2010. The aforesaid independent variables were responsible for 16-43% of variation in the number of complaints. This study was able to demonstrate a statistical correlation between some of these sociodemographic features, and bed bug infestations reflected in the complaints received by Toronto Public Health. The results of this particular study are considered to be helpful in increasing community partnerships and leadership from Toronto Public Health in dealing with various bed bug-related issues.

  19. Production of wood vinegars from coconut shells and additional materials for control of termite workers, Odontotermes sp. and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisia virgata

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    Sunan Wititsiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coconut shells and coir are considered as wastes of coconut based products that have not been utilized efficiently.By using these abundant bioresources, which are widely available in Thailand, as raw materials, we were able to producewood vinegars that may be alternatives to termiticides and pesticides. The wood vinegars were obtained from carbonizationprocess using a 200-liter fuel tank as charcoal brazier under temperatures of 300-400°C. In this study, termiticidal and pesticidalactivities of wood vinegars were evaluated against termite workers, Odontotermes sp., and striped mealy bugs, Ferrisiavirgata, using direct contact application. Percent mortalities in the experiments were recorded after 24 hours and correctedfor control mortality with Abbott’s formula. Wood vinegars of 850, 696, and 898 milliliters were produced from coconut shell(wood vinegar A and the mixture of coconut shell and coir (wood vinegar B and the mixture of coconut shell, coir and holybasil (wood vinegar C, respectively. Wood vinegar A exhibited high termiticidal activity against termite workers at a dilutionof 1:50, wood vinegar: sterile water (v/v. By this way, 85% (81.71% corrected mortality of termite workers were killed afterthe 24 hours of test. At a dilution of 1:10, both wood vinegar A and B had exhibited high pesticidal activities against mealybugs, 96% (95.12% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs were killed by those wood vinegars. In the weakest termiticidaland pesticidal activities, wood vinegar C was able to kill 60% (51.22% corrected mortality of termite workers at a dilution of1:50 within 24 hours. Also it killed 93% (91.89% corrected mortality of striped mealy bugs with a dilution of 1:10 (v/v withinthe same amount of time. Post-hoc comparisons (Tukey test revealed that wood vinegar A possessed the most effectivetermiticidal activity against termite workers. However, a similarity in high pesticidal activity was found among three woodvinegars

  20. ECDYSTEROID AND CHITINASE FLUCTUATIONS IN THE WESTERN TARNISHED PLANT BUG (Lygus hesperus) PRIOR TO MOLT INDICATE ROLES IN DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Colin S; Wang, Meixian; Miao, Yun-Gen; Hull, J Joe

    2016-06-01

    Vital physiological processes that drive the insect molt represent areas of interest for the development of alternative control strategies. The western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight) is a pest of numerous agronomic and horticultural crops but the development of novel control approaches is impeded by limited knowledge of the mechanisms regulating its molt. To address this deficiency, we examined the fundamental relationship underlying the hormonal and molecular components of ecdysis. At 27°C L. hesperus exhibits a temporally controlled nymph-adult molt that occurs about 4 days after the final nymph-nymph molt with ecdysteroid levels peaking 2 days prior to the final molt. Application of exogenous ecdysteroids when endogenous levels had decreased disrupted the nymphal-adult molt, with treated animals exhibiting an inability to escape the old exoskeleton and resulting in mortality compared to controls. Using accessible transcriptomic data, we identified 10 chitinase-like sequences (LhCht), eight of which had protein motifs consistent with chitinases. Phylogenetic analyses revealed orthologous relationships to chitinases critical to molting in other insects. RT-PCR based transcript profiling revealed that expression changes to four of the LhChts was coordinated with the molt period and ecdysteroid levels. Collectively, our results support a role for ecdysteroid regulation of the L. hesperus molt and suggest that cuticle clearance is mediated by LhCht orthologs of chitinases that are essential to the molt process. These results provide the initial hormonal and molecular basis for future studies to investigate the specific roles of these components in molting. PMID:27192063

  1. Duplicated female receptacle organs for traumatic insemination in the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus: adaptive variation or malformation?

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    Yoshitaka Kamimura

    Full Text Available During mating, male bed bugs (Cimicidae pierce the female abdomen to inject sperm using their needle-like genitalia. Females evolved specialized paragenital organs (the spermalege and associated structures to receive traumatically injected ejaculates. In Leptocimex duplicatus, the spermalege is duplicated, but the evolutionary significance of this is unclear. In Cimex hemipterus and C. lectularius, in which females normally develop a single spermalege on the right side of the abdomen, similar duplication sometimes occurs. Using these aberrant morphs (D-females of C. hemipterus, we tested the hypothesis that both of the duplicated spermaleges are functionally competent. Scars on female abdominal exoskeletons indicated frequent misdirected piercing by male genitalia. However, the piercing sites showed a highly biased distribution towards the right side of the female body. A mating experiment showed that when the normal insemination site (the right-side spermalege was artificially covered, females remained unfertilized. This was true even when females also had a spermalege on the left side (D-females. This result was attributed to handedness in male mating behavior. Irrespective of the observed disuse of the left-side spermalege by males for insemination, histological examination failed to detect any differences between the right-side and left-side spermaleges. Moreover, an artificial insemination experiment confirmed that spermatozoa injected into the left-side spermalege show apparently normal migration behavior to the female reproductive organs, indicating an evolutionary potential for functionally-competent duplicated spermaleges. We discuss possible mechanisms for the evolutionary maintenance of D-females and propose a plausible route to the functionally-competent duplicated spermaleges observed in L. duplicatus.

  2. Electronically monitored labial dabbing and stylet 'probing' behaviors of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in simulated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G; Walton, Vaughn M; Shearer, Peter W; Rondon, Silvia I

    2014-01-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive polyphagous agricultural and urban nuisance pest of Asian origin that is becoming widespread in North America and Europe. Despite the economic importance of pentatomid pests worldwide, their feeding behavior is poorly understood. Electronically monitored insect feeding (EMIF) technology is a useful tool in studies of feeding behavior of Hemiptera. Here we examined H. halys feeding behavior using an EMIF system designed for high throughput studies in environmental chambers. Our objectives were to quantify feeding activity by monitoring proboscis contacts with green beans, including labial dabbing and stylet penetration of the beans, which we collectively define as 'probes'. We examined frequency and duration of 'probes' in field-collected H. halys over 48 hours and we determined how environmental conditions could affect diel and seasonal periodicity of 'probing' activity. We found differences in 'probing' activity between months when the assays were conducted. These differences in activity may have reflected different environmental conditions, and they also coincide with what is known about the phenology of H. halys. While a substantial number of 'probes' occurred during scotophase, including some of the longest mean 'probe' durations, activity was either lower or similar to 'probing' activity levels during photophase on average. We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity. Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI). We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C. PMID:25474148

  3. Electronically monitored labial dabbing and stylet 'probing' behaviors of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in simulated environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik G Wiman

    Full Text Available Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål, (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae is an invasive polyphagous agricultural and urban nuisance pest of Asian origin that is becoming widespread in North America and Europe. Despite the economic importance of pentatomid pests worldwide, their feeding behavior is poorly understood. Electronically monitored insect feeding (EMIF technology is a useful tool in studies of feeding behavior of Hemiptera. Here we examined H. halys feeding behavior using an EMIF system designed for high throughput studies in environmental chambers. Our objectives were to quantify feeding activity by monitoring proboscis contacts with green beans, including labial dabbing and stylet penetration of the beans, which we collectively define as 'probes'. We examined frequency and duration of 'probes' in field-collected H. halys over 48 hours and we determined how environmental conditions could affect diel and seasonal periodicity of 'probing' activity. We found differences in 'probing' activity between months when the assays were conducted. These differences in activity may have reflected different environmental conditions, and they also coincide with what is known about the phenology of H. halys. While a substantial number of 'probes' occurred during scotophase, including some of the longest mean 'probe' durations, activity was either lower or similar to 'probing' activity levels during photophase on average. We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity. Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI, and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI. We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the stalk-eyed bug Chauliops fallax Scott, and the monophyly of Malcidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera.

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    Teng Li

    Full Text Available Chauliops fallax Scott, 1874 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Malcidae: Chauliopinae is one of the most destructive insect pests of soybean and rice fields in Asia. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,739 bp long, with an A+T content of 73.7%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and a control region. All genes were arranged in the same order as most of other Heteroptera. A remarkable strand bias was found for all nine protein coding genes (PCGs encoded by the majority strand were positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew, whereas the reverse were found in the remaining four PCGs encoded by the minority strand and two rRNA genes. The models of secondary structures for the two rRNA genes of sequenced true bugs and Lygaeoidea were predicted. 16S rRNA consisted of six domains (domain III is absent as in other known arthropod mitochondrial genomes and 45 helices, while three domains and 27 helices for 12S rRNA. The control region consists of five subregions: a microsatellite-like region, a tandem repeats region and other three motifs. The unusual intergenic spacer between tRNA-H and ND4 only found in the species of Lygaeoidea, not in other heteropteran species, may be the synapomorphy of this superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on all the 13 PCGs showed that Chauliopinae was the sister group of Malcinae and the monophyly of Lygaeoidea.

  5. Tolerance to high temperature extremes in an invasive lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae, in subtropical China.

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    Rui-Ting Ju

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are predicted to be more frequent as climate change is increasing its positive impact on the prevalence of invasive exotic species. Success of insect invaders in different temperature zones is closely related to their tolerance to temperature extremes. In this study, we used an exotic lace bug (Corythucha ciliata as the study organism to address the hypotheses that an insect species invading a subtropical zone from temperate regions has a high capacity to survive and adapt to high temperatures, and that its thermal tolerance plays an important role in determining its seasonal abundance and geographic distribution. To test these hypotheses, the effects of heat shock on the survival and reproduction of C. ciliata adults were assessed in the laboratory. Adults were exposed to 26 (control, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, and 45°C for 2 h, and then were transferred to 26°C. Heat-shock temperatures ranging from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect survival pattern, longevity, and fecundity of adults, but heat shock at 43 and 45°C significantly reduced these traits. Exposing parent females to heat-shock treatments from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect the hatching rate of their eggs, survival of the nymphs, and the proportion of female F(1 progeny, while no progeny were produced with treatments of 43 and 45°C. The results indicate that C. ciliata can tolerate high temperatures less than 41°C, which may contribute to its expansion into the lower latitudes in China where its hosts (Platanus trees are widely planted. Our findings have important implications for predicting seasonal abundance and understanding invasion mechanisms of this important urban invader under climate change.

  6. Duplicated female receptacle organs for traumatic insemination in the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus: adaptive variation or malformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Yoshitaka; Mitsumoto, Hiroyuki; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2014-01-01

    During mating, male bed bugs (Cimicidae) pierce the female abdomen to inject sperm using their needle-like genitalia. Females evolved specialized paragenital organs (the spermalege and associated structures) to receive traumatically injected ejaculates. In Leptocimex duplicatus, the spermalege is duplicated, but the evolutionary significance of this is unclear. In Cimex hemipterus and C. lectularius, in which females normally develop a single spermalege on the right side of the abdomen, similar duplication sometimes occurs. Using these aberrant morphs (D-females) of C. hemipterus, we tested the hypothesis that both of the duplicated spermaleges are functionally competent. Scars on female abdominal exoskeletons indicated frequent misdirected piercing by male genitalia. However, the piercing sites showed a highly biased distribution towards the right side of the female body. A mating experiment showed that when the normal insemination site (the right-side spermalege) was artificially covered, females remained unfertilized. This was true even when females also had a spermalege on the left side (D-females). This result was attributed to handedness in male mating behavior. Irrespective of the observed disuse of the left-side spermalege by males for insemination, histological examination failed to detect any differences between the right-side and left-side spermaleges. Moreover, an artificial insemination experiment confirmed that spermatozoa injected into the left-side spermalege show apparently normal migration behavior to the female reproductive organs, indicating an evolutionary potential for functionally-competent duplicated spermaleges. We discuss possible mechanisms for the evolutionary maintenance of D-females and propose a plausible route to the functionally-competent duplicated spermaleges observed in L. duplicatus. PMID:24586643

  7. 北京发现悬铃木方翅网蝽为害%The first discovery of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata in Beijing,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞国跃; 王合; 朱晓清; 冯术快; 卢绪利

    2014-01-01

    The sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata was first observed with low population at a park in Huairou District,Beijing in August 2012.However,it broken out in Changping District,Beijing,with heavy infestation on Platanus × acerifolia in 2013.Beijing is the northernmost distribution record of C .ciliata in China.The lace bug obviously could overwinter in Beijing and causes damage.The present paper records its occurrence in Beijing, provides with their color pictures.%2012年8月在北京怀柔的二球悬铃木上初次发现了外来入侵物种-悬铃木方翅网蝽(Corythucha ciliata ),但数量较少,未造成明显危害;2013年在北京昌平再度发现悬铃木方翅网蝽为害,且种群数量极大。北京发现的悬铃木方翅网蝽是该入侵物种在我国的最北分布记录。本文记述了悬铃木方翅网蝽在北京的为害现状,并提供了彩色图片。

  8. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma. PMID:25172758

  9. Central Projection of Antennal Sensory Neurons in the Central Nervous System of the Mirid Bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Ma, Bai-Wei; Guo, Pei; Li, Guo-Ping; Feng, Hong-Qiang; Wu, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), a polyphagous pest, is dependent on olfactory cues to locate various host plant species and mates. In this study, we traced the projection pathway of the antennal sensory neurons and visualized their projection patterns in the central nervous system of A. lucorum through confocal microscopy and digital reconstructions. We also examined the glomerular organization of the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe, and created a three-dimensional model of the glomeruli. We found that the axons of the sensory neurons project into the brain via the ipsilateral antennal nerve, and descend further into the gnathal ganglion, prothoracic ganglion, mesothoracic ganglion, and metathoracic ganglion, and reach as far as to the abdominal ganglion. Such a projection pattern indicates that antennal sensory neurons of A. lucorum may be potentially directly connected to motor neurons. The antennal lobe, however, is the major target area of antennal sensory neurons. The antennal lobe is composed of a large number of glomeruli, i.e. 70–80 glomeruli in one AL of A. lucorum. The results of this study which provide information about the basic anatomical arrangement of the brain olfactory center of A. lucorum, are important for further investigations of chemosensory encoding mechanisms of the mirid bug. PMID:27478892

  10. Sublethal effects of diazinon, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos on the functional response of predatory bug, Andrallus spinidens Fabricius (Hem.: Pentatomidae in the laboratory conditions

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    Moloud GholamzadehChitgar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effects of diazinon, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos on the functional response of predatory bug, Andrallus spinidens Fabricius (Hem.: Pentatomidae, a potential biological control agent, were studied on 5th-instar nymphs. The experiment was conducted in varying densities (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 of last instars larvae of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae as prey at 25 ± 2 °C, 60% ± 10% relative humidity (RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L: D. The results of logistic regressions revealed a type II functional response in the control and all insecticide treatments. Comparison of functional response curves revealed that tested insecticides markedly decreased the mean of preys consumed by A. spinidens. Among them, functional response curve of A. spinidens in chlorpyrifos treatment was significantly lower than the other treatments. In this study, application of insecticides caused a decrease in the attack rate and an increase in the handling time of exposed bugs compared with the control. The longest handling time (3.97 ± 0.62 and the lowest attack rate (0.023 ± 0.007 were observed in chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion treatments, respectively. The results suggested that the adverse effect of these insecticides on A. spinidens should be considered in integrated pest management programs (IPM.

  11. Occurrence of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on Wild Hosts in Nonmanaged Woodlands and Soybean Fields in North Carolina and Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, A J; Schoof, S C; Bickerton, M; Kamminga, K L; Jenrette, J C; Malone, S; Abney, M A; Herbert, D A; Reisig, D; Kuhar, T P; Walgenbach, J F

    2015-08-01

    Nonmanaged plants occurring along forest edges and in suburban settings were sampled for brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), in North Carolina (NC) and Virginia (VA) over the course of three growing seasons. Commercial soybeans (Glycine max), an attractive cultivated host, were also sampled in 2014 in NC and in VA from 2010-2014. Very few H. halys were found on nonmanaged plants or soybean fields in the coastal plain region of either state, but substantial populations were recorded in the piedmont and mountain regions. From 2011 to 2013, H. halys comprised from 51 to 97% of all stink bug species observed on nonmanaged plants in the piedmont and mountain regions. In VA, the distribution expanded from detection in 12 counties in 2010 to 53 counties in 2014, with economically damaging levels occurring in the piedmont region. During these studies, H. halys were observed to complete one and a partial second generation per year in western NC and southwestern VA, similar to that previously observed in regions farther north. Several plants were identified as preferred hosts, with tree of heaven, catalpa, yellowwood, paulownia, cherry, walnut, redbud, and grape having consistently high numbers of H. halys. Knowing that these plants are preferred by H. halys during certain stages of the insects' development will aid in the search for H. halys in new areas, as well as serve as one predictor of the likelihood of a certain area to attract and sustain large H. halys populations. PMID:26314046

  12. Early crust of the Podolia Domain of the Ukrainian Shield: Isotopic age of terrigenous zircons from quartzites of the Bug Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikova, E. V.; Fedotova, A. A.; Claesson, S.; Stepanyuk, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Detrital zircons of the ancient metasedimentary rocks bear important information about the early crust of the Earth. In this work, the early crust in the west of the Ukrainian Shield was studied using U-Pb dating of terrigenous zircons from metasedimentary rocks (quartzites) of the lower parts of the Bug Group (Kosharo-Aleksandrovka Formation) of the Podolia Domain and through Sm-Nd isotopic investigation of these rocks. The Nd model age of rocks is 3.4-3.1 Ga. Detrital zircons were studied in two samples of quartzites. The cathodoluminescent images of most zircons support their clastic origin. More than 150 zircon grains were studied on an ion microprobe. The isotope age of zircons is 3775-2000 Ma. These results were compared with previous results of study of terrigenous zircons from garnet schists of the Zaval'e quarry located closely to the studied area. It is concluded that both Paleoarchean and Meso- to Neoarchean rocks were destroyed during formation of terrigenous rocks of the Bug Group. The different amount of ancient zircons in quartzites and garnet schists indicates the different remoteness of the most ancient rocks from sedimentary basins.

  13. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma.

  14. Uso de WinBUGS en los métodos bayesianos. Una aplicación en auditoría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez Polo, Francisco José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lo que se presenta es un breve recorrido por el programa WinBUGS, desarrollado para problemas de inferencia estadística bayesiana haciendo uso de métodos Markov Chain Monte Carlo, MCMC. Una dificultad recurrente en la inferencia bayesiana ha sido la enorme complejidad computacional que presenta en muchos casos el cálculo de cantidades a posteriori de interés. En los últimos años se están utilizando los métodos MCMC, que mediante la simulación Monte Carlo de cadenas de Markov, permiten salvar estas dificultades. El programa WinBUGS, de libre acceso en la red y diseñado por los británicos Spiegelhalter, Thomas y Best, implementa estas técnicas, y posibilita su uso a un amplio número de usuarios de la estadística bayesiana aplicada. En concreto, en este trabajo se presenta un ejemplo de su uso en un modelo de Auditoría Contable, para el cálculo del error total en una contabilidad.

  15. Nymphicidal effect of vegetal extracts of Annona mucosa and Anonna crassiflora (Magnoliales, Annonaceae against rice stalk stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the chloroform-methanol nymphicidal action of extracts of Annona mucosa leaves and seeds and of A. crassiflora seeds on second instar nymphs of rice stalk stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris. For each extract the concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0%, 8.0%, and two control treatments (water and Tween80® were used. The results show that the seed extracts of A. mucosa and A. crassiflora have insecticidal activity against the T. limbativentris nymphs with statistical significance for all concentrations when compared with controls. The seed extract of A. mucosa showed the higher toxicity with greater than 75% mortality at a concentration of 1.0% in the first 24 h after application. The leaf extract of A. mucosa presented the lowest toxicity with no more than 40% mortality. The seed extract of A. crassiflora showed intermediate toxicity among all the tested extracts, and the nymph's mortality exceeded 80% for the highest concentration after 120 h of application. Considering these results, we were able to observe that the seeds extract of A. mucosa may be an alternative for the control of bed bug nymphs T. limbatriventris, especially for small producers.

  16. Cloning and analysis of sequences of Cyt b and its connected tRNA genes of mitochondrial genome from Takifugu fasciatus%暗纹东方鲀线粒体细胞色素b及其侧翼tRNA基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵爱华; 朱江; 陈葵; 史全良

    2005-01-01

    以暗纹东方鲀(Takifugu fasciatus)肝脏的线粒体DNA为模板,按照红鳍东方豚(Takifugu rubripes)线粒体DNA序列设计合成特异引物进行PCR扩增,克隆并测定线粒体细胞色素b(Cyt b)及其侧翼tRNA基因的全序列,结果显示,克隆的暗纹东方鲀Cyt b基因(1 137 bp)及其5′端上游的tRNAGlu基因和3′端下游的tRNAThr基因序列共1 327bp.用DNA分析软件对暗纹东方鲀与GenBank中10个目13种鱼类的Cyt b序列进行比较分析,显示暗纹东方鲀与这些鱼类的Cyt b基因具有较高的同源性,与同属红鳍东方鲀的同源性最高,为96.1%;与同目不同科的矛尾翻车鲀(Masturuslanceolatus)和翻车鲀(Mola mola)的同源性分别为74.1%和74.8%.tRNAGlu因由69个碱基组成,tRNAThr基因由72个碱基组成,与红鳍东方鲀相应tRNA的碱基组成完全相同.推定的这两种tRNA的二级结构都具有典型的三叶草型结构,各臂的碱基配对率高,稳定性好.根据暗纹东方鲀与其他13种鱼的Cyt b基因序列同源性所建立的进化树比较,结果与传统的分类地位基本吻合.

  17. Association between glucosinolate concentration and injuries caused by cabbage stink bugs Eurydema spp. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae on different Brassicas - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i1.15622

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bohinc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, we were determining the contents of glucosinolates in different Brassicas in order to study their influence on feeding of cabbage stink bugs (Eurydema spp. and the consequent extent of damage. We confirmed that glucosinolates content depends on plant species, plant organs and the time of sampling. In the samples aliphatic glucosinolates (glucoiberin, progoitrin, epiprogoitrin, epiprogoitrin, sinigrin, gluconapin, glucoraphenin, sinalbin prevailed. Glucobrassicin, an important indolic glucosinolate compound, was detected in all tested Brassicas. Its concentration in the oil radish samples was highest during the first assessment (30 DAS, 8.84 ± 0.65 µmol g-1 ds, while the oilseed rape samples displayed lowest concentration during the last assessment (134 DAS, 4.30 ± 0.80 µmol g-1 ds. The stimulative activity of individual glucosinolates or their negative influence on feeding of cabbage stink bugs in the Brassicas used in our experiment was not uniformly manifested. Based on a two-year field experiment we concluded that oil rape was the most adequate trap crop used to allure cabbage stink bugs. In future, glucosinolates should be employed to a greater extent in environmentally acceptable ways of food production, one of which is also the use of trap crops in order to reduce harmful effects of cabbage stink bugs.

  18. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) detection directly from urine samples with the rapid isothermal amplification-based eazyplex® SuperBug CRE assay: Proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinić, V; Ziegler, J; Straub, C; Goldenberger, D; Frei, R

    2015-12-01

    A commercially available assay (eazyplex® SuperBug CRE) detecting the most common carbapenemase and ESBL types was evaluated directly on 50 urine samples. Eazyplex® correctly detected ESBL-encoding genes in all 30 urine samples with confirmed ESBL production (sensitivity 100%). Two specimens showed invalid and one specimen false-positive results (specificity 97.9%). PMID:26506282

  19. Identification of genes potentially responsible for extra-oral digestion and overcoming plant defense from salivary glands of the tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris) using cDNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in tarnished plant bug (TPB, Lygus lineolaris) feeding. TPBs secrete saliva during feeding to facilitate the piercing into plant tissues. More importantly, the enzyme-rich saliva may be used for extra-oral digestion and for overcoming plant defense before the p...

  20. Parasitism and predation on sentinel egg masses of the brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in three vegetable crops: Importance of dissections for evaluating the impact of native parasitoids on an exotic pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a survey to examine parasitism, predation and the species composition of native parasitoids attacking sentinel egg masses of the invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), in bell pepper, squash, and tomato. A two-year survey was conducted for each c...

  1. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: a survey across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sadílek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4 and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57. The karyotype of all the specimens of C. lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3% from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the

  2. 饥饿与再投喂对条石鲷幼鱼组织和血清中主要代谢酶活性及糖元含量的影响%The effects of starvation and refeeding on tissue and serum metabolic enzyme activities and glycogen contents of barred knifejaw( Oplegnathus fasciatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施兆鸿; 彭士明; 宋国; 孙鹏; 尹飞; 王建钢

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of starvation and refeeding on tissue and serum metabolic enzyme activities and glycogen contents of Oplegnathus fasciatus with an average weight of (10.0 ± 1.0) g. Five experimental groups were designed,i. e. fed twice daily for 30 d(S0,control group) , starved for 3d and refed for 27 d( S3) , starved for 6d and refed for 24 d( S6) , starved for 9d and refed for 21 d(S9) .starved for 12 d and refed for 18 d(S12). The samples (serum, liver and muscle) were collected at the initial experiment, after starvation and refeeding, and the alkaline phosphatase( AKP) , acid phosphatase (ACP) , glutamic-pyruvic transaminase ( GPT) , glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase ( GOT) activities and glycogen contents of tissues were analyzed. The results showed that,serum and liver glycogen contents were significantly affected hy the starvation and refeeding, and serum glycogen ( except S12 group) and liver glycogen contents were reduced significantly as a result of starvation, while the liver glycogen contents returned to the level of control group after refeeding. However, only a little effect on the muscle glycogen contents was found during the starvation and refeeding. During the period of experiment, the AKP and GPT activities of serum and liver were significantly affected by starvation, and after refeeding, both enzymes activities returned to the levels of control group. However,during the whole experimental period,the effects of starvation and refeeding on muscle AKP,ACP,GPT and GOT activities were very little. In conclusion,the serum glycogen content with a level of (2.65 ±0.33) - (3.70 ±0.36) mmol/L was essential to maintain the stabilization of body metabolism. The main metabolic enzymes in serum and liver were very important in maintaining the basic metabolism of O.fasciatus under the condition of starvation.%为研究条石鲷幼鱼在饥饿与再投喂条件下机体各组织和血清中主要代谢酶活性和糖元

  3. Analysis of frequency and duration of the functional periods on the basis of long-term variability of limnetic processes within the Bug River valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidek, J.; Ferencz, B.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain lakes (FPLs) constitute a very important element of river valleys, both in terms of ecology and hydrology. Dynamic physicochemical, morphometric and biological changes of lake waters are determined by the variability of the functional periods of lakes: limnophases, potamophases and inundations. This paper presents factors that shape long-term dynamics of the frequencies and durations of potamophases and limnophases in 20 selected FPLs. The study area included the left fraction of the Bug River valley located at the European Union's eastern border stretched along countries like Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus. The analysis covered the water years 1952 to 2013. Assigning the value of Limnological Effective Rise (LER) was essential for determining the functional periods for each of the study lakes. The dynamics of the phenomenon was analysed using volatility indicators, while factors determining functional periods were distinguished using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results showed that short (0-8 days) and medium-length limnophases were observed most frequently during the study period. In the case of potamophases they most often lasted from 8 to 30 days, continuously. Double-mass curves showed four periods of increasing significance of one of the functional phases: 1952-1962 (limnophases), 1963-1982 (potamophases), 1983-1997 (limnophases) and 1998-2013 (potamophases). A variability that was observed in each floodplain lake under study resulted from two main factors: water input and lake basin morphometry. The major role in FPLs' input was played by potamic supply (inflow of water from the parent river), which was a derivative of Bug River water stages and discharge. Atmospheric precipitation played a smaller role. However, the role of local precipitation was marginal in relation to precipitation in the upper part of the Bug River catchment. Spatial variability of the frequencies and durations of potamophases and limnophases was also associated with the

  4. Geraniol, E-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, as the alarm pheromone of the sycamore lace bug Corythucha ciliata (Say).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Kawai, Akihiro; Shimizu, Nobuhiro; Tokumaru, Susumu; Ueyama, Hiroshi

    2011-11-01

    Although adult sycamore lace bugs Corythucha ciliata (Say) show no sign of aggregation, nymphs at all developing stages are gregarious. When an individual nymph in the center of a colony was squashed with a needlepoint, proximate nymphs showed evasive behavior. The same evasive reaction was produced by exposing aggregated nymphs to nymph hexane extract. The active component, E-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, geraniol, was responsible for the evasive behavior, and identified as the alarm pheromone. One nanogram of the alarm pheromone elicited activity similar to that in a third instar nymph. Presence of 2-acylcyclohexane-1,3-diones and their 4-hydroxy analogues are reconfirmed as nymph-specific components, though their biological significance remains unknown.

  5. Virulence of BotaniGard® to Second Instar Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce L. Parker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (BMSB is an exotic invasive insect originating in East Asia, currently causing significant damage to fruits, vegetables and other crops throughout most of the Mid-Atlantic states of the U.S. It also is a nuisance pest, entering homes in the fall in search of suitable overwintering sites. Two formulations of BotaniGard® with a strain of Beauveria bassiana (GHA as the active ingredient were tested against second instar BMSB. Both the wettable powder and the emulsifiable suspension formulations were efficacious at 1 × 107 conidia mL−1, causing 67%–80% mortality 9 days post treatment and 95%–100% after 12 days. The wettable powder formulation was slightly more efficacious.

  6. Apocalypse Soon? The Bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the Year 2000 (Y2K) problem, the computer-code problem that affects computer programs or computer chips, focuses on the impact on teacher-librarians. Topics include automated library systems, access to online information services, library computers and software, and other electronic equipment such as photocopiers and fax machines.…

  7. Bug spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... was swallowed or inhaled Amount swallowed or inhaled Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly by calling the national toll-free Poison Help hotline (1-800-222-1222) from anywhere ...

  8. Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to save the tick in a sealed container or zip-locked bag for identification later. Use ... and stings: Prevent flea infestations by treating your house (including all carpets, furniture, and pets) regularly during ...

  9. Bedbugs and Bug Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I help my teen age son cope with acne 6 comment(s) View top rated View top commented | View forums Recent Blog Posts Get your fats right for psoriasis 6/22/16 Sprinkling seeds on your breakfast,... 10 Simple Diet Swaps to Improve Your P... 5/27/16 ...

  10. When bugs reveal biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohmann, Kristine; Dresen, Ida Bærholm Schnell; Gilbert, M.T.P.

    2013-01-01

    ' trophies pinned to the walls in local villages. While recent technological developments have considerably improved the efficacy of such approaches, for example, using remote-sensing devices such as audio- or camera-traps or even remote drones (Koh & Wich 2012), there has been a growing realization...

  11. Insects and Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  12. Sunshine, Bugs and Trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a "template" for how a stream ecosystem functions. Discusses the physical and chemical factors of geology, light, current velocity, temperature, and energy sources. Describes functional groups of aquatic insects and the River Continuum Concept, a model of interaction that explains the spatial occurrence of aquatic insects. (LZ)

  13. Bugs that debugs: Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity harbors a diverse array of bacterial species. There are more than 600 species that colonize in the oral cavity. These include a lot of organisms that are not commonly known to reside in the gastrointestinal (GI tract and also are more familiar: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus salivarius. The balance of all these microorganisms can easily be disturbed and a prevalence of pathogenic organisms can lead to various oral health problems including dental caries, periodontitis, and halitosis.

  14. When bugs reveal biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmann, Kristine; Schnell, Ida B; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2013-02-01

    One of the fundamental challenges of conservation biology is gathering data on species distribution and abundance. And unless conservationists know where a species is found and in which numbers, it is very difficult to apply effective conservation efforts. In today's age of increasingly powerful monitoring tools, instant communication and online databases, one might be forgiven for thinking that such knowledge is easy to come by. However, of the approximately 5,400 terrestrial mammals on the IUCN Red List, no fewer than 789 (ca. 14%) are listed as 'Data Deficient' (IUCN 2012) – IUCN’s term for 'haven't got a clue'. Until recently, the only way to gather information of numbers and distribution of terrestrial mammals (and many other vertebrates) was through observational-based approaches such as visual records, the presence of tracks or spoor or even identification from bushmeat or hunters' trophies pinned to the walls in local villages. While recent technological developments have considerably improved the efficacy of such approaches, for example, using remote-sensing devices such as audio- or camera-traps or even remote drones (Koh & Wich 2012), there has been a growing realization of the power of molecular methods that identify mammals based on trace evidence. Suitable substrates include the obvious, such as faecal and hair samples (e.g. Vigilant et al. 2009), to the less obvious, including environmental DNA extracted from sediments, soil or water samples (e.g. Taberlet et al. 2012), and as recently demonstrated, the dietary content of blood-sucking invertebrates (Gariepy et al. 2012; Schnell et al. 2012). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Calvignac-Spencer et al. (2013) present a potentially powerful development in this regard; diet analysis of carrion flies. With their near global distribution, and as most field biologists know, irritatingly high frequency in most terrestrial areas of conservation concern (which directly translates into ease of sampling them), the authors present extremely encouraging results that indicate how carnivorous flies may soon represent a strong weapon in the conservation arsenal. PMID:23476936

  15. Glass, Bug, Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Kimberly J.; Stevens, Dannelle D.

    2009-01-01

    Motivating elementary students in math can be a challenge. The authors describe an action research designed to determine the effects of differentiated instruction on 4th graders' academic achievement and motivation. Using a student self-assessment technique, the teacher had positive gains in both mathematics and motivation. The authors provide…

  16. Drug the Bug!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Annika Lindskog; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Microbial metabolism of dietary components has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Now, Wang et al. demonstrate that inhibition of microbial TMA lyases, essential for production of pro-atherogenic trimethylamines, prevents atherosclerosis in vivo....

  17. 'Super bugs' for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Kensuke

    2003-05-01

    Chlorinated organic compounds are among the most significant pollutants in the world. Sequential use of anaerobic halorespiring bacteria, which are the key players in biological dehalogenation processes, and aerobic bacteria whose oxygenases are modified by directed evolution could lead to efficient and total degradation of highly chlorinated organic pollutants. Recently three interesting papers on halorespiration and polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation were published.

  18. Teste de susceptibilidade do percevejo, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera, Cimicidae ao DDT em Belo Horizonte, MG (Brasil Susceptibility tests of the bed-bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera, Cimicidae to DDT in Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo L. Nagem

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available O nível de susceptibilidade de percevejos adultos, Cimex lectularius, ao DDT, em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brasil, foi determinado durante o período de 1985 a 1986. Os resultados indicaram, para os insetos testados, que uma dose de 4,0% do inseticida não foi suficiente para matar 55% dos insetos. Os dados permitem concluir que existem colonias de percevejos resistentes ao DDT em Belo Horizonte.Susceptibility levels for the adult bed-bug, Cimex lectularius, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais - Brazil, to DDT, were determined during the period 1985 to 1986. The test results showed that a 4% dosage of DDT is not enough to kill 55% of the insects. The data are sufficient to show that there exists bed-bug resistance to DDT in Belo Horizonte.

  19. Condition of large brood in Bonelli's Eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Balbontín, Javier; Ferrer, Miguel, ed.imp.lib

    2005-01-01

    Capsule: Young body condition is affected by the interaction of environment (rainfall) and brood size. Aims: To investigate factors affecting offspring condition using levels of urea in plasma. Methods: We used generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) with the levels of urea in plasma as the dependent variable and laying date, brood size, sex and year as the explanatory ones. Results: Brood size had a significant effect on offspring condition only during a year of adverse weather (heavy rainfa...

  20. Evaluation of insect CAP2b analogs with either an (E)-alkene, trans- or a (Z)-alkene, cis-Pro isostere identifies the Pro orientation for antidiuretic activity in the stink bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Ronald J; Wang, Xiaodong J; Etzkorn, Felicia A; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Zabrocki, Janusz; Lopez, Juan; Coast, Geoffrey M

    2013-03-01

    The CAP2b neuropeptide family plays an important role in the regulation of the processes of diuresis and/or antidiuresis in a variety of insects. While Manse-CAP2b (pELYAFPRV-NH2) and native CAP2bs elicit diuretic activity in a number of species of flies, native CAP2b sequences have been shown to elicit antidiuretic activity in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus and the green stink bug Acrosternum hilare, the latter being an important pest of cotton and soybean in the southern United States. Analogs of CAP2b containing either a (Z)-alkene, cis-Pro or an (E)-alkene, trans-Pro isosteric component were synthesized and evaluated in an in vitro stink bug diuretic assay, which involved measurement of fluid secretion by Malpighian tubules isolated from A. hilare. The conformationally constrained trans-Pro analog demonstrated statistically significant antidiuretic activity, whereas the cis-Pro analog failed to elicit activity. The results are consistent with the adoption of a trans orientation for the Pro in CAP2b neuropeptides during interaction with receptors associated with the antidiuretic process in the stink bug. In addition, the results are further consistent with a theory of ligand-receptor coevolution between the CAP2b and pyrokinin/PBAN neuropeptide classes, both members of the '-PRXamide' superfamily. This work further identifies a scaffold with which to design mimetic CAP2b analogs as potential leads in the development of environmentally favorable pest management agents capable of disrupting CAP2b-regulated diuretic/antidiuretic functions.