Martin, Rafaela; Schürenkamp, Jennifer; Gasse, Angela; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Köhler, Helga
A method for the simultaneous extraction of the hallucinogens psilocin, bufotenine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as well as iso-LSD, nor-LSD and O-H-LSD from hair with hydrochloride acid and methanol is presented. Clean-up of the hair extracts is performed with solid phase extraction using a mixed-mode cation exchanger. Extracts are measured with liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The method was successfully validated according to the guidelines of the 'Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry' (GTFCh). To obtain reference material hair was soaked in a solution of the analytes in dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol to allow incorporation into the hair. These fortified hair samples were used for method development and can be employed as quality controls.
Kärkkäinen, J; Forsström, T; Tornaeus, J; Wähälä, K; Kiuru, P; Honkanen, A; Stenman, U H; Turpeinen, U; Hesso, A
Bufotenine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) are hallucinogenic dimethylated indolethylamines (DMIAs) formed from serotonin and tryptamine by the enzyme indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT) ubiquitously present in non-neural tissues. In mammals, endogenous bufotenine and DMT have been identified only in human urine. The DMIAs bind effectively to 5HT receptors and their administration causes a variety of autonomic effects, which may reflect their actual physiological function. Endogenous levels of bufotenine and DMT in blood and a number of animal and human tissues were determined using highly sensitive and specific quantitative mass spectrometric techniques. A new finding was the detection of large amounts of bufotenine in stools, which may be an indication of its role in intestinal function. It is suggested that fecal and urinary bufotenine originate from epithelial cells of the intestine and the kidney, respectively, although the possibility of their synthesis by intestinal bacteria cannot be excluded. Only small amounts of the DMIAs were found in somatic or neural tissues and none in blood. This can be explained by rapid catabolism of the DMIAs by mitochondrial monoamino-oxidase or by the fact that the dimethylated products of serotonin and tryptamine are not formed in significant amounts in most mammalian tissues despite the widespread presence of INMT in tissues.
Moreira, Leandro A; Murta, Maria M; Gatto, Claudia C; Fagg, Christopher W; dos Santos, Maria L
Bufotenine (1, 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) was isolated from seeds of Anadenanthera spp., a tree widespread in the Brazilian cerrado, using an efficient acid-base shakeout protocol. The conversion of bufotenine into N,N-dimethyltryptamine (4) and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5) was accomplished through an innovative and short approach featuring the use of novel bufotenine-aminoborane complex (7). Furthermore, an easy methodology for conversion of bufotenine into 5-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine (6) was well-established. This is the first study that highlights bufotenine as a resource for the production of N,N-dimethyltryptamines for either pharmacological and toxicological investigations or for synthetic purposes.
Chamakura, R P
Bufotenine, an isomer of psilocin, is a controlled Schedule I hallucinogenic substance under the New York state and Federal laws. Bufotenine was identified in 42 case samples received at the New York City Police Laboratory since May 1992. The samples were hard, resinous, dark reddish-brown material, sold on the streets as "hashish". A few other cases were also seized in Orlando and Tampa, FL. Natural sources of bufotenine are: (a) plant material, mostly seeds of the genus Anadenanthera (formerly Piptadenia); (b) plant organs of other genera; (c) toads (Bufo marinus, B. vulgaris, B. viridian, and B. avarice); and (d) mushrooms (Amanita amp, A. Citrina, A. Porphyria, and A. tomentella). The genus Anadenanthera is native to South America and West Indies. Historically, material made from seeds of genus Anadenanthera was, and in isolated areas is still, used by the native Indians of South America and West Indies. Native Indians make intoxicating snuffs from the seeds of Anadenanthera. Recently, bufotenine was identified in 1,200-year-old archaeological samples of an Anadenanthera material found in an excavated tomb in Northern Chile. Historical and published literature on the pharmacology, toxicology, and biological effects of bufotenine and bufotenine-containing material are reviewed. The case material was probably derived from the seeds of genus Andenanthera. There were no prior reported cases of this material being used outside the native Indian areas of South America and West Indies. Indications are that in New York City this material is smoked in combination with marijuana. Bufotenine in case material can be identified by color test, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Though the mass spectra of bufotenine and psilocin (parent compounds and mono-acetyl and di-acetyl derivatives) are very similar, their GC retention times are different. Case samples also gave multiple GC peaks, probably due to the added ingredients during the
Shen, Hong-Wu; Jiang, Xi-Ling; Yu, Ai-Ming
INTRODUCTION: 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a psychoactive indolealkylamine substance that has been used for recreational purpose and may lead to fatal toxicity. While 5-MeO-DMT is mainly inactivated via deamination, it is O-demethylated to an active metabolite, bufotenine. Quantitation of 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine is essential to understand the exposure to and the effects of drug and metabolite. This study, therefore, aimed to develop and validate a LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous analysis of 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine in mouse serum. METHODS: A simple protein precipitation method coupled with an optimal gradient elution was used for sample preparation and separation. Detection of 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine was accomplished using multiple reaction monitoring of m/z 219.2→174.2 and 205.2→160.2, respectively, in the positive ion mode. 5-Methyl-N,N-dimethyltrypamine (m/z 203.2→158.3) was used as internal standard for quantification. Accuracy and precision were determined after the analyses of quality control samples. Validated assay was then employed to determine drug and metabolite concentrations in serum samples collected from mice at different time points after intraperitoneal administration of 5-MeO-DMT (2 mg/kg). RESULTS: With a total run time of 9 min, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine were eluted at 2.8 and 5.6 min, respectively. The assay was linear over the range 0.90-5,890 ng/mL (1.12-7,360 pg on-column) for 5-MeO-DMT and 2.52-5,510 ng/mL (3.14-6,890 pg) for bufotenine. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within 15% for both analytes. The recovery of each analyte from 20 µL of serum containing 8.08, 72.7 and 655 ng/mL of 5-MeO-DMT and 7.56, 68.1 and 613 ng/mL of bufotenine was more than 75%. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that the systemic exposure (area under the curve) to metabolite bufotenine was about 1/14 of that to 5-MeO-DMT. CONCLUSION: This LC-MS/MS method is a sensitive and reliable assay for quantitation of blood 5-Me
Martin, Rafaela; Schürenkamp, Jennifer; Gasse, Angela; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Köhler, Helga
A validated method for the simultaneous determination of psilocin, bufotenine, lysergic acid diethylamide and its metabolites in serum, plasma and urine using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry was developed. During the solid-phase extraction procedure with polymeric mixed-mode cation exchange columns, the unstable analytes were protected by ascorbic acid, drying with nitrogen and exclusion of light. The limits of detection and quantitation for all analytes were low. Recovery was ≥86 % for all analytes and no significant matrix effects were observed. Interday and intraday imprecisions at different concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 8.2 % relative standard deviation, bias was within ±5.3 %. Processed samples were stable in the autosampler for at least 2 days. Furthermore, freeze/thaw and long-term stability were investigated. The method was successfully applied to authentic serum and urine samples.
... (7405)......... I 4-Methoxyamphetamine (7411) I 5-Methoxy-N-N-dimethyltryptamine (7431) I Alpha-methyltryptamine (7432) I Bufotenine (7433) I Diethyltryptamine (7434) I Dimethyltryptamine (7435) I...
...-dimethyltryptamine (7431)..... I Alpha-methyltryptamine (7432) I Bufotenine (7433) I Diethyltryptamine (7434) I Dimethyltryptamine (7435) I Psilocybin (7437) I Psilocyn (7438) I 5-Methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (7439).. I...
...-Methoxyamphetamine (7411) I 5-Methoxy-N-N-dimethyltryptamine (7431) I Alpha-methyltryptamine (7432) I Bufotenine (7433) I Diethyltryptamine (7434) I Dimethyltryptamine (7435) I Psilocybin (7437) I Psilocyn (7438) I...
...)... I 4-Methoxyamphetamine (7411) I 5-Methoxy-N-N-dimethyltryptamine (7431).... I Alpha-methyltryptamine (7432) I Bufotenine (7433) I Diethyltryptamine (7434) I Dimethyltryptamine (7435) I Psilocybin (7437)...
...)... I 4-Methoxyamphetamine (7411) I 5-Methoxy-N-N-dimethyltryptamine (7431).... I Alpha-methyltryptamine (7432) I Bufotenine (7433) I Diethyltryptamine (7434) I Dimethyltryptamine (7435) I Psilocybin (7437)...
...-Methoxyamphetamine (7411) I 5-Methoxy-N-N-dimethyltryptamine (7431)..... I Alpha-methyltryptamine (7432) I Bufotenine (7433) I Diethyltryptamine (7434) I Dimethyltryptamine (7435) I Psilocybin (7437) I Psilocyn (7438) I...
...-Methoxyamphetamine (7411) I 5-Methoxy-N-N-dimethyltryptamine (7431).... I Alpha-methyltryptamine (7432) I Bufotenine (7433) I Diethyltryptamine (7434) I Dimethyltryptamine (7435) I Psilocybin (7437) I Psilocyn (7438) I...
..., 2010, and published in the Federal Register on March 24, 2010 (75 FR 14188), Sigma Aldrich... Bufotenine (7433) I Diethyltryptamine (7434) I Dimethyltryptamine (7435) I Psilocybin (7437) I Psilocyn...
... dated June 7, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on June 18, 2013, 78 FR 36591, Lipomed, Inc...-dimethyltryptamine (7431)..... I Alpha-methyltryptamine (7432) I Bufotenine (7433) I Psilocybin (7437) I...
Winter, J C; Amorosi, D J; Rice, Kenner C; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Ai-Ming
In previous studies we have observed that, in comparison with wild type mice, Tg-CYP2D6 mice have increased serum levels of bufotenine [5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine] following the administration of 5-MeO-DMT. Furthermore, following the injection of 5-MeO-DMT, harmaline was observed to increase serum levels of bufotenine and 5-MeO-DMT in both wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. In the present investigation, 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus control was established in wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. The two groups did not differ in their rate of acquisition of stimulus control. When tested with bufotenine, no 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding was observed. In contrast, the more lipid soluble analog of bufotenine, acetylbufotenine, was followed by an intermediate level of responding. The combination of harmaline with 5-MeO-DMT yielded a statistically significant increase in 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding in Tg-CYP2D6 mice; a comparable increase occurred in wild-type mice. In addition, it was noted that harmaline alone was followed by a significant degree of 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding in Tg-CYP2D6 mice. It is concluded that wild-type and Tg-CYPD2D6 mice do not differ in terms of acquisition of stimulus control by 5-MeO-DMT or in their response to bufotenine and acetylbufotenine. In both groups of mice, harmaline was found to enhance the stimulus effects of 5-MeO-DMT.
Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Mager, Donald E; Yu, Ai-Ming
5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT or street name "5-MEO") is a newer designer drug belonging to a group of naturally occurring indolealkylamines. Our recent study has demonstrated that coadministration of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) inhibitor harmaline (5 mg/kg) increases systemic exposure to 5-MeO-DMT (2 mg/kg) and active metabolite bufotenine. This study is aimed at delineating harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions at multiple dose levels, as well as the impact of CYP2D6 that affects harmaline PK and determines 5-MeO-DMT O-demethylation to produce bufotenine. Our data revealed that inhibition of MAO-A-mediated metabolic elimination by harmaline (2, 5, and 15 mg/kg) led to a sharp increase in systemic and cerebral exposure to 5-MeO-DMT (2 and 10 mg/kg) at all dose combinations. A more pronounced effect on 5-MeO-DMT PK was associated with greater exposure to harmaline in wild-type mice than CYP2D6-humanized (Tg-CYP2D6) mice. Harmaline (5 mg/kg) also increased blood and brain bufotenine concentrations that were generally higher in Tg-CYP2D6 mice. Surprisingly, greater harmaline dose (15 mg/kg) reduced bufotenine levels. The in vivo inhibitory effect of harmaline on CYP2D6-catalyzed bufotenine formation was confirmed by in vitro study using purified CYP2D6. Given these findings, a unified PK model including the inhibition of MAO-A- and CYP2D6-catalyzed 5-MeO-DMT metabolism by harmaline was developed to describe blood harmaline, 5-MeO-DMT, and bufotenine PK profiles in both wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mouse models. This PK model may be further employed to predict harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT PK interactions at various doses, define the impact of CYP2D6 status, and drive harmaline-5-MeO-DMT pharmacodynamics.
Shen, Hong-Wu; Wu, Chao; Jiang, Xi-Ling; Yu, Ai-Ming
5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a natural psychoactive indolealkylamine drug that has been used for recreational purpose. Our previous study revealed that polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) catalyzed 5-MeO-DMT O-demethylation to produce active metabolite bufotenine, while 5-MeO-DMT is mainly inactivated through deamination pathway mediated by monoamine oxidase (MAO). This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the impact of CYP2D6 genotype/phenotype status and MAO inhibitor (MAOI) on 5-MeO-DMT metabolism and pharmacokinetics. Enzyme kinetic studies using recombinant CYP2D6 allelic isozymes showed that CYP2D6.2 and CYP2D6.10 exhibited 2.6- and 40-fold lower catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)), respectively, in producing bufotenine from 5-MeO-DMT, compared with wild-type CYP2D6.1. When co-incubated with MAOI pargyline, 5-MeO-DMT O-demethylation in 10 human liver microsomes showed significantly strong correlation with bufuralol 1'-hydroxylase activities (R(2)=0.98; P<0.0001) and CYP2D6 contents (R(2)=0.77; P=0.0007), whereas no appreciable correlations with enzymatic activities of other P450 enzymes. Furthermore, concurrent MAOI harmaline sharply reduced 5-MeO-DMT depletion and increased bufotenine formation in human CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer hepatocytes. In vivo studies in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized (Tg-CYP2D6) mouse models showed that Tg-CYP2D6 mice receiving the same dose of 5-MeO-DMT (20mg/kg, i.p.) had 60% higher systemic exposure to metabolite bufotenine. In addition, pretreatment of harmaline (5mg/kg, i.p.) led to 3.6- and 4.4-fold higher systemic exposure to 5-MeO-DMT (2mg/kg, i.p.), and 9.9- and 6.1-fold higher systemic exposure to bufotenine in Tg-CYP2D6 and wild-type mice, respectively. These findings indicate that MAOI largely affects 5-MeO-DMT metabolism and pharmacokinetics, as well as bufotenine formation that is mediated by CYP2D6.
Shen, Hong-Wu; Jiang, Xi-Ling; Winter, Jerrold C; Yu, Ai-Ming
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) belongs to a group of naturally-occurring psychoactive indolealkylamine drugs. It acts as a nonselective serotonin (5-HT) agonist and causes many physiological and behavioral changes. 5-MeO-DMT is O-demethylated by polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) to an active metabolite, bufotenine, while it is mainly inactivated through the deamination pathway mediated by monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A). 5-MeO-DMT is often used with MAO-A inhibitors such as harmaline. Concurrent use of harmaline reduces 5-MeO-DMT deamination metabolism and leads to a prolonged and increased exposure to the parent drug 5-MeO-DMT, as well as the active metabolite bufotenine. Harmaline, 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenine act agonistically on serotonergic systems and may result in hyperserotonergic effects or serotonin toxicity. Interestingly, CYP2D6 also has important contribution to harmaline metabolism, and CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism may cause considerable variability in the metabolism, pharmacokinetics and dynamics of harmaline and its interaction with 5-MeO-DMT. Therefore, this review summarizes recent findings on biotransformation, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacological actions of 5-MeO-DMT. In addition, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug-drug interactions between harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT, potential involvement of CYP2D6 pharmacogenetics, and risks of 5-MeO-DMT intoxication are discussed.
Full Text Available E00121 Toad venom (JP16) Crude drug Hellebrin [CPD:C08868], Resibufogenin [CPD:C170...58], Cinobufagin [CPD:C16931], Bufalin [CPD:C16922], Bufotalin [CPD:C16923], Cinobufotalin [CPD:C16932], Gamabufo...talin [CPD:C16962], Telocinobufagin [CPD:C17072], Hellebrigenin [CPD:C16969], Bufadienolides [CPD:C16921], Cardenolides, Bufo...tenine [CPD:C08299], Bufotenidine [CPD:C13664], Epirenamine...l, Marinobufagin, Resibufagin, Serotonine, Bufothionine, Dehydrobufotenine, Bufotoxin, Cholesterol [CPD:C001
Helsley, S; Fiorella, D; Rabin, R A; Winter, J C
1. A series of N-substituted tryptamines was compared with a series of beta-carbolines in rats trained to discriminate LSD (0.1 mg/kg) from saline. 2. Intermediate levels of substitution were elicited by MDMT (76.4%), DMT (77.9%), and DET (48.7%). 6-F-DET produced 41.3% LSD-appropriate responding at a dose of 6.0 mg/kg but only 4 of 8 subjects completed the test session thus precluding statistical analysis. Bufotenine (25.8%) also failed to substitute. Although none of the tryptamines substituted completely for LSD, the pattern of substitution is consonant with what is known of their activity in humans. MDMT, DMT, and DET are well established in the literature as hallucinogens but the same cannot be said for 6-F-DET and bufotenine. 3. Of the beta-carbolines tested, none substituted for LSD completely and only harmane elicited intermediate substitution (49.5%). No significant generalization of the LSD stimulus to 6-methoxyharmalan, harmaline, or THBC was observed. Thus, in contrast to the tryptamines, scant ability to substitute for LSD was observed in the beta-carbolines tested. 4. Taken together, the present data indicate that the representative tryptamines employed in the present study exhibit greater similarity to the LSD stimulus than do representative beta-carbolines. The receptor interactions responsible for these differences remain to be determined.
Zhi, Kang-Kang; Yang, Zhong-Duo; Shi, Dan-Feng; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Ming-Gang
Desmodeleganine (1), a new potential monoamine oxidase inhibitor, along with three known alkaloids, bufotenin (2), hydroxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine N(12)-oxide (3), 2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)-N, and N-dimethylethylamine (4) were isolated from the leaves of Desmodium elegans. Their structures were elucidated by IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra. 1 showed strong monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 13.92 ± 1.5 μM, when the IC50 value of iproniazid as a standard was 6.5 ± 0.5 μM. The molecular modeling was also performed to explore the binding mode of compounds 1, 2 at the active site of MAO-A and MAO-B.
Full Text Available Natural psychoactive substances have fascinated the curious mind of shamans, artists, scholars and laymen since antiquity. During the twentieth century, the chemical composition of the most important psychoactive drugs, that is opium, cannabis, coca and "magic mushrooms", has been fully elucidated. The mode of action of the principal ingredients has also been deciphered at the molecular level. In the past two decades, the use of herbal drugs, such as kava, kratom and Salvia divinorum, began to spread beyond their traditional geographical and cultural boundaries. The aim of the present paper is to briefly summarize recent findings on the psychopharmacology of the most prominent psychoactive natural products. Current knowledge on a few lesser-known drugs, including bufotenine, glaucine, kava, betel, pituri, lettuce opium and kanna is also reviewed. In addition, selected cases of alleged natural (or semi-natural products are also mentioned.
Distribution of the hallucinogens N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in rat brain following intraperitoneal injection: application of a new solid-phase extraction LC-APcI-MS-MS-isotope dilution method.
Barker, S A; Littlefield-Chabaud, M A; David, C
A method for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatographic-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometric-mass spectrometric-isotope dilution (LC-APcI-MS-MS-ID) analysis of the indole hallucinogens N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and 5-methoxy DMT (or O-methyl bufotenin, OMB) from rat brain tissue is reported. Rats were administered DMT or OMB by the intraperitoneal route at a dose of 5 mg/kg and sacrificed 15 min post treatment. Brains were dissected into discrete areas and analyzed by the methods described as a demonstration of the procedure's applicability. The synthesis and use of two new deuterated internal standards for these purposes are also reported.
Natural psychoactive substances have fascinated the curious mind of shamans, artists, scholars and laymen since antiquity. During the twentieth century, the chemical composition of the most important psychoactive drugs, that is opium, cannabis, coca and "magic mushrooms", has been fully elucidated. The mode of action of the principal ingredients has also been deciphered at the molecular level. In the past two decades, the use of herbal drugs, such as kava, kratom and Salvia divinorum, began to spread beyond their traditional geographical and cultural boundaries. The aim of the present paper is to briefly summarize recent findings on the psychopharmacology of the most prominent psychoactive natural products. Current knowledge on a few lesser-known drugs, including bufotenine, glaucine, kava, betel, pituri, lettuce opium and kanna is also reviewed. In addition, selected cases of alleged natural (or semi-natural) products are also mentioned.
Halberstadt, Adam L
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are often ingested together with tryptamine hallucinogens, but relatively little is known about the consequences of their combined use. We have shown previously that monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) inhibitors alter the locomotor profile of the hallucinogen 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) in rats, and enhance its interaction with 5-HT2A receptors. The goal of the present studies was to investigate the mechanism for the interaction between 5-MeO-DMT and MAOIs, and to determine whether other behavioral responses to 5-MeO-DMT are similarly affected. Hallucinogens disrupt prepulse inhibition (PPI) in rats, an effect typically mediated by 5-HT2A activation. 5-MeO-DMT also disrupts PPI but the effect is primarily attributable to 5-HT1A activation. The present studies examined whether an MAOI can alter the respective contributions of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors to the effects of 5-MeO-DMT on PPI. A series of interaction studies using the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100,635 and the 5-HT2A antagonist MDL 11,939 were performed to assess the respective contributions of these receptors to the behavioral effects of 5-MeO-DMT in rats pretreated with an MAOI. The effects of MAO-A inhibition on the pharmacokinetics of 5-MeO-DMT and its metabolism to bufotenine were assessed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-selective reaction monitoring-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-SRM-MS/MS). 5-MeO-DMT (1mg/kg) had no effect on PPI when tested 45-min post-injection but disrupted PPI in animals pretreated with the MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline or the MAO-A/B inhibitor pargyline. The combined effect of 5-MeO-DMT and pargyline on PPI was antagonized by pretreatment with either WAY-100,635 or MDL 11,939. Inhibition of MAO-A increased the level of 5-MeO-DMT in plasma and whole brain, but had no effect on the conversion of 5-MeO-DMT to bufotenine, which was found to be negligible. The present results confirm that 5-MeO-DMT can disrupt PPI by
Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Ferrari, Giovanna; Cautela, Domenico; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Castaldo, Domenico
Citrus genus is characterized by a specific presence of indole metabolites deriving from the N-methylation of tryptamine and its hydroxylated form, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), which are likely involved in plant defense mechanisms. In this study, we identified for the first time the occurrence in Citrus plants of serotonin 5-O-β-glucoside and all its N-methylated derivatives, that is, N-methylserotonin 5-O-β-glucoside, N,N-dimethylserotonin (bufotenine) 5-O-β-glucoside, and N,N,N-trimethylserotonin (bufotenidine) 5-O-β-glucoside. The identification of the glucosylated compounds was based on mass spectrometric studies, hydrolysis by glucosidase, and in some cases, comparison to authentic compounds. Beside leaves, the distribution of the glucosylated forms and their aglycones in some Citrus species was evaluated in flavedo, albedo, juice, and seeds. The simultaneous presence of serotonin and its N-methylated derivatives, together with the corresponding glucosylated forms, is consistent with the occurrence of a metabolic pathway, specific for Citrus, aimed at potentiating the defensive response to biotic stress through the optimization of the production and use of the most toxic of such metabolites.
Barker, Steven A; McIlhenny, Ethan H; Strassman, Rick
Three indole alkaloids that possess differing degrees of psychotropic/psychedelic activity have been reported as endogenous substances in humans; N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 5-hydroxy-DMT (bufotenine, HDMT), and 5-methoxy-DMT (MDMT). We have undertaken a critical review of 69 published studies reporting the detection or detection and quantitation of these compounds in human body fluids. In reviewing this literature, we address the methods applied and the criteria used in the determination of the presence of DMT, MDMT, and HDMT. The review provides a historical perspective of the research conducted from 1955 to 2010, summarizing the findings for the individual compounds in blood, urine, and/or cerebrospinal fluid. A critique of the data is offered that addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the methods and approaches to date. The review also discusses the shortcomings of the existing data in light of more recent findings and how these may be overcome. Suggestions for the future directions of endogenous psychedelics research are offered.
The drug Viagra (sildenafil) has drawn public attention to aphrodisiacs. The search for such substances dates back millennia. Aphrodisiacs can be classified by their mode of action into 3 types: those that increase (1) libido, (2) potency, or (3) sexual pleasure. Various substances of animal and plant origin have been used in folk medicines of different cultures; some have been identified pharmacologically, allowing for understanding of their mechanisms of action. For increasing libido, ambrein, a major constituent of Ambra grisea, is used in Arab countries. This tricyclic triterpene alcohol increases the concentration of several anterior pituitary hormones and serum testosterone. Bufo toad skin and glands contain bufotenine (and other bufadienolides), a putative hallucinogenic congener of serotonin. It is the active ingredient in West Indian "love stone" and the Chinese medication chan su. The aphrodisiac properties are likely of central origin, as are the other effects of the drug. For increasing potency, Panax ginseng used in traditional Chinese medicine, works as an antioxidant by enhancing nitric oxide synthesis in the endothelium of many organs, including the corpora cavernosa; ginsenosides also enhance acetylcholine-induced and transmural nerve stimulation-activated relaxation associated with increased tissue cyclic guanosine monophosphate, hence the aphrodisiac properties. For increasing sexual pleasure, cantharidin ("Spanish fly") is a chemical with vesicant properties derived from blister beetles, which have been used for millennia as a sexual stimulant. Its mode of action is by inhibition of phosphodiesterase and protein phosphatase activity and stimulation of beta-receptors, inducing vascular congestion and inflammation. Morbidity from its abuse is significant. The ingestion of live beetles (Palembus dermestoides) in Southeast Asia and triatomids in Mexico may have a basis similar to cantharidin. It is of paramount importance for the physician to be
Andres-Costa, M. Jesus; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda
The presence of drugs of abuse in the aquatic environment has been recognized as an important issue for the ecosystem due their possible negative effect on it (Richardson, 2011). Incomplete removal of these substances during wastewater treatment could be one of the causes of their release in the environment (Zuccato and Castiglioni, 2009). Pollution by illicit drug residues at very low concentrations is generalized in populated areas, with potential risks for human health and the environment (Zuccato, 2008; Castiglioni et al 2007).The aim of this study was to screen and quantify 44 drugs of abuse and metabolites of wastewater samples using a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and furthermore carry out a post-target screening to identify additional compounds present in the water samples. Wastewater samples were collected from the influent and effluent of three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Valencia and river water samples form Turia River Basin. Illicit drugs were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The chromatography was performed with an Agilent 1260 Infinity ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The UHPLC system was coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight ABSciex Triple TOFTM 5600. All analytes were analyzed in positive mode. Acquiring full scan MS data was employed for quantification of drugs of abuse, and automatic data dependent information product ion spectra (IDA-MS/MS) was checked for identifying emerging illicit drugs and other compounds in water samples. The use of a database containing 1212 compounds achieved high confidence results for a wide number of contaminants. In the present study, the presence of compounds that belong to amphetamines group (amphetamine, methamphetamine, ephedrine, MDMA, MDA and MDEA), tryptamines (bufotenine), pirrolidinophenone group (α-PVP and 4'-MePHP), arylcyclohexylamines (ketamine), cocainics (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene and ecgonine methyl ester) and