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Sample records for bufo paracnemis lutz

  1. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura and an intermediate form in sympatry

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    Azevedo MFC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR. The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also analyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

  2. Anomalías oculares en híbridos Bufo paranecmis ♂ x Bufo arenarum ♀ (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Rengel, Dora

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Los híbridos entre Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum se encuadran en los llamados "híbridos vitales". Los resultados han evidenciado relevantes anomalías oculares que se manifiestan en un 90% de los casos. En algunas larvas falta el cristalino tanto en uno como en ambos ojos (20%; en otras larvas el cristalino se encuentra ubicado en posición opuesta al normal (25% o bien puede ocurrir que se forme un ojo normal y el otro de forma distinta (20%. El análisis histológico mostró anomalías en la zona retiniana, evidenciándose a partir de los estratos pigmentarios, repliegues y movimientos flexuosos (5%. También existen ojos replegados sobre sí mismos (5%. Las alteraciones más severas llevaron a procesos de anoftalmia (10%. En ocasiones (5% en lugar del ojo se evidencian grumos de pigmento. Se obtuvo un 10% con ojos normales. Los otros órganos presentan analogía con los de las larvas de Bufo paracnemis, inclusive la librea dorsal. The hybrids between Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum are counted among tbe so called "vital hybrids". Our results have revealed relevant ocular anomalies in 90% of cases. In some larvae the lens is lacking in either one or both eyes (20%; in others the lens it is found in an opposite position to normal (25% or else one normal and one different eye is formed (20%. Histological analysis reveals anomalies in the retinal area, observing flexuous movements in the pigmentary strata (5%. Eyes folded over themselves were also observed (5%. The most severe alterations produced cases of anophtalmia (10%. On occasions (5%, groupings of pigments were found instead of the eyes. l0% of the larvae were normal. The other organs show analogies to those of the larvae of Bufo paracnemis, including the dorsal pattem.

  3. [Bufadienolides from venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans].

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    Zhang, Peng-Wei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai; Tian, Hai-Yan

    2014-03-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans. On the basis of their physical and chemical properties and spectral data, their structures were identified as resibufagenin (1), bufotalin (2), desacetylcinobufagin (3), 19-oxodesacetylcinobufotalin (4), cinobufotalin (5), 1beta-hydroxylbufalin (6), 12alpha-hydroxybufalin (7), bufotalinin (8), Hellebrigenin (9), telocinobufagin (10), hellebrigenol (11) and cinobufagin-3-hemisuberate methyl ester (12), respectively. Compounds 7 and 12 are new natural products.

  4. Anfíbios Anuros da coleção Adolpho Lutz: III - Hyla claresignata Lutz & B. Lutz, 1939

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    Bertha Lutz

    1948-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyla claresignata Lutz & Lutz, 1939, is a large species apparently not closely allied to the other known Brazilian hylas. It is characterized by the very small tympanum; the head is short and the snout rounded; the legs are long, the hands and feet unusually large, the latter extensively webbbed. The specific name is derived from the insular, irregular, or roughly triangular, dark spots, with a light halo, found mostly in the dorso-lateral region and on the legs. It belongs to the rain-forest fauna of the Marítime Range. The adult is a bromeliad-dweller and the tadpole rhyacophilous. DESCRIPTION. Vomerine teeth in two separate, oblique, groups, behind the large choanae, parallel to the posterior half of their inner border. Tongue entire, short, very broad and hardly free behind. Snout short, rounded, with distinct canthus rostralis and gradually sloping loreal region. Eye very large and prominent, its horizontal diameter almost equal to the distance between its anterior corner and the tip of the snout. Tympanum very small, less than one third of the diameter of the eye, but distinct, partly covered by a short, heavy ridge. Lateral fingers less than one third webbed; fourth finger slightly longer than the second, just reaching the base of the disk of the third; subarticular tubercles well developed; an angular pollex rudiment, more noticeable in the males. Toes almost completely webbed, the edge of the web inserted at the base of the disk on the third and the fifth; an inner metatarsal tubercle. Skin smooth above, granular beneath, on the throat minutely so. No dermal appendage on the hell. Habit robust, head broader than long, body rather heavy, slightly narrowed in the postaxillary region. Legs long, the tibiotarsal articulation reaching beyond the tip of the snout when adpressed. Type (female: 61 mm. (Fig. 1. DIAGNOSIS of TADPOLE (by G. Orton. "A large specialized, mountain-stream tadpole, with wide head an elongated, flattened snout, greatly

  5. How complex is the Bufo bufo species group?

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    Arntzen, Jan W; Recuero, Ernesto; Canestrelli, Daniele; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo

    2013-12-01

    Species delineation remains one of the most challenging tasks in the study of biodiversity, mostly owing to the application of different species concepts, which results in contrasting taxonomic arrangements. This has important practical consequences, since species are basic units in fields like ecology and conservation biology. We here review molecular genetic evidence relevant to the systematics of toads in the Bufo bufo species group (Anura, Bufonidae). Two studies recently published in this journal (Recuero et al., MPE 62: 71-86 and García-Porta et al., MPE 63: 113-130) addressed this issue but reached opposing conclusions on the taxonomy of the group (four versus two species). In particular, allozyme data in the latter paper were interpreted as evidence for hybridization across species (between B. bufo-B. spinosus and B. bufo-B. verrucosissimus). We tested claims for hybridization through re-analysis of allozyme data for individuals instead of populations, to be able to distinguish between sympatry with and without admixture, and found no evidence of hybridization across taxa. We propose alternative explanations for the observed patterns that García-Porta et al. (2012) failed to consider. In the absence of unequivocal evidence for hybridization and introgression, we reject the proposal to downgrade Bufo spinosus and Bufo verrucosissimus to the subspecies level. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Winston-Lutz Test: A quantitative analysis; Teste de Winston-Lutz: uma analise quantitativa

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    Pereira, Aline Garcia; Nandi, Dorival Menegaz; Saraiva, Crystian Wilian Chagas, E-mail: dnandi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis (Brazil); Hospital do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Objective: Describe a method of quantitative analysis for the Winston-Lutz test. Materials and methods The research is a qualitative exploratory study. The materials used were: portal film; Winston- Lutz test tools and Omni Pro software. Sixteen portal films were used as samples and were analyzed by five different technicians to measure the deviation between the radiation isocenters and mechanic. Results: Among the results were identified two combinations with offset values greater than 1 mm. In addition, when compared the method developed with the previously studied, it was observed that the data obtained are very close, with the maximum percentage deviation of 32.5%, which demonstrates its efficacy in reducing dependence on the performer. Conclusion: The results show that the method is reproducible and practical, which constitutes one of the fundamental factors for its implementation. (author)

  7. Bufadienolides and polyhydroxycholestane derivatives from Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Min; Li, Zong-Yun; Wang, Jing-Jing; Wu, Xi-Yan; Gao, Hui-Min; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2015-01-01

    A new polyhydroxycholestane sulfate ester, 3α,12β,25,26-tetrahydroxy-7-oxo-5β-cholestane 26-O-sulfate (1), was isolated from dried skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor and its structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR as well as HR-ESI-MS analysis. A comparison of steroidal metabolite profiles, based on HPLC and LC-MS analyses, indicates that the chemical compositions of the various parts of toads, such as venom, skin and stratum corneum, are significantly different.

  8. La teoria macroeconomica di vera Lutz. (The macroeconomic theory of Vera C. Lutz

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    A. GRAZIANI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vera Lutz è stata un economista con vasti interessi , tra cui la teoria del credito , la teoria dell'impresa , la teoria dello sviluppo economico e l'analisi del mercato del lavoro . Anche se ci sono molte buone ragioni per esaminare e discutere le sue idee in materia di equilibrio macroeconomico , tuttavia, c' è stato finora poco dibattito su questi aspetti del suo pensiero . In realtà, c'era solo un dibattito di breve durata nel 1962 , quando Ackley e Spaventa hanno scritto un articolo che criticava le sue idee sullo sviluppo del Mezzogiorno d'Italia. Il dibattito sul suo pensiero da allora è rimasto limitato alla sua teoria del dualismo strutturale . L'autore offre una rivalutazione del lavoro di Lutz ' , e in particolare il problema di equilibrio macroeconomico .Vera Lutz was an economist with wide-ranging interests, including credit theory, the theory of the firm, economic development theory and labour market analysis. Although there are several good reasons for examining and discussing her ideas in the field of macroeconomic equilibrium, however, there has thus far been little debate on these aspects of her thinking. In fact, there was only a short-lived debate in 1962, when Ackley and Spaventa wrote article criticising her ideas on the development of Southern Italy, dealing more with facts than theoretical framework. The debate on her thinking has since remained restricted to her theory of structural dualism. The author offers a reevaluation of Lutz’ work, and in particular the problem of macroeconomic equilibrium.JEL: B31

  9. Mechanisms of ion transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of Bufo bufo as revealed by microelectrode recordings in isolated perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad......amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad...

  10. Retinol-induced apoptosis in larval pancreas of Bufo bufo

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    Accordi, F; Chimenti, C

    2003-01-01

    Tadpoles of Bufo bufo at the end of premetamorphosis were exposed to the action of retinol diluted in the rearing water at two concentrations: 20 and 40 µm, for 48 h. Assuming that retinol causes growth suppression by cell death induction, the TUNEL reaction for the detection of apoptotic cells was performed on paraffin sections of pancreas. The results showed that retinol induced a significant dose-dependent increase of number of apoptotic cells with respect to controls, in which apoptosis was scarce. Electron microscopic observations of treated specimens showed that the effects of retinol mostly occurred on exocrine cells: condensed crescent-shaped nuclear chromatin, dark cytoplasm with long projections; conversely, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum appeared unaffected. PMID:12713271

  11. Assessing atrazine-induced toxicities in Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor.

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    Sai, Linlin; Wu, Qingbo; Qu, Binpeng; Bo, Cunxiang; Yu, Gongchang; Jia, Qiang; Xie, Lin; Li, Yuezhong; Guo, Qiming; Ng, Jack C; Peng, Cheng

    2015-02-01

    Atrazine (AZ), a widely used herbicide has drawn attentions for its potential impacts on amphibians. This study aims to investigate the toxicity of AZ in Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (B. bufo gargarizans), a species of toad commonly found in China and countries in East Asia. We treated tadpoles with 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/L AZ for 85 days and examined related parameters. The results showed that the mortality of the toads in the treatment group increased dramatically in a U-shaped dose-response relationship. The hindlimb extension and metamorphosis rate of the toads were significantly inhibited by AZ at 10 and 100 μg/L. Under the same condition, there were significant progressive changes in the testicular structures. Moreover, we found that AZ has no significant effects on growth, sex ratios, gonadal morphology, forelimb emergence and histology in the ovaries. Our results support the idea that environmental contaminants including AZ may be relevant to global amphibian decline.

  12. Cromoblastomicosis Experimental en Bufo marinus

    OpenAIRE

    Trejos, A.

    2016-01-01

    Reviewing the observations of CARINI and the experimental work of ALMEIDA and AREA LEAO, MELLO & CURY on the pathogenicity of the etiologic agents of Chromoblastomycosis inyected intraperitonealy in Salientia species Leptodactylus ocellatus and L. pentadactylus, we decided to determine the pathogenicity of Fonsecaeae pedrosoi on Bufo marinus. Six specimens were innoculated with suspensions of cultures of this fungs obtained from six human cases, using one strain per animal.At autopsy, one obs...

  13. Adolpho Lutz and the origins of medical entomology in Brazil.

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    Benchimol, J L

    2005-12-01

    Adolpho Lutz (1855-1940) formed a bridge between the Bahian Tropicalist School and post-Mansonian medicine. Before taking over as head of the São Paulo Bacteriological Institute (1893), Lutz traveled through a variety of regions and delved into various disciplines. In the 1880s, he was already arguing that leprosy was transmitted by mosquitoes. Carbuncles, cholera, and typhoid fever were then the accepted models for investigating the etiology of infectious diseases. Following the discovery of how malaria was transmitted, attention turned to hematophagous diptera. Physicians, bacteriologists, zoologists, and veterinarians reshaped the network of actors involved in the 'hunt' for the agents and transmitters of diseases, as they began relying on analogies with malaria and yellow fever. Edwin Ray Lankester, director of the British Museum (Natural History), launched then a worldwide investigation into species that might be linked to human disease. The species described by Lutz and his proposed classification system were vital to Frederick Theobald's fundamental work in medical entomology, published in the early twentieth century. In 1908, Lutz brought with him to the Oswaldo Cruz Institute a remarkable quantity of research and experiments in all branches of the newly created "tropical medicine," devoted especially to entomology.

  14. [Isolation and structure identification of chemical constituents from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans].

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    Dai, Li-Ping; Gao, Hui-Min; Wang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Wei-Hao

    2007-08-01

    The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans, originated from Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (Bufonidae), is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of hepatoma, lung cancer and etc. The preparation of the aqueous components has significant therapeutic effect against the digestive tract cancer. The water-soluble chemical constituents in the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans were then investigated to make clear the active compounds. Six compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and column chromatography on silica gel and ODS, their structures were elucidated as 4-amido-3-hydroxymethyl-cyclooctylamidezotetra-alpha-furanone (I), bufogargarizanine C (II), bufothionine (III), dehydrobufotenine hydrobromide (IV), suberic acid (V) and succinic acid (VI) on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data (UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS). Of the above compounds, compounds I and II are new compounds and named bufogargarizanine B and C, respectively.

  15. C23 steroids from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans.

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    Tian, Hai-Yan; Luo, Shi-Lin; Liu, Jun-Shan; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2013-10-25

    Five new C23 steroids (1-5) together with five known bufadienolides (6-10) were isolated from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans (ChanSu in Chinese). The structures of the new steroids were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods in combination with X-ray diffraction analysis. Among these C23 steroids, only compound 3 showed cytotoxicities against HepG2 and A549 cancer cells, with respective IC50 values of 26.8 ± 8.3 and 45.6 ± 2.5 μM. In contrast, the bufadienolides (7-10) displayed potent inhibitory activities against these cancer cells, with respective IC50 values in the ranges 0.5-5.5 and 0.6-6.5 μM, but relatively less cytotoxicity on normal mouse spleen cells. In addition, the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activities of 2, 5, and 7 revealed that the lactone moiety of a bufadienolide was important for the inhibitory activity.

  16. Assessment of age and intersexual size differences in Bufo bufo

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    Cvetković Dragana D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have underlined the complex nature of relationship between age, size, and reproductive traits in anurans. One of the most intriguing problems for evolutionary biologists is intersexual difference in body size (SSD. For testing various hypotheses about SSD, we need reliable estimates of its extent (the important issue being the choice of trait for analysis as well as the accurate determination of individual age. The measures of SSD may be subject to error if estimated from populations with unknown age distribution; amphibians continue to grow throughout their life and SSD is linked to sex differences in traits such as age at maturity and lifespan. In the present paper, we analyze problems involved in accurate determination of age structure and factors that may lead to under- or overestimation of individual age, as well as the problem of appropriate choice of traits, in the light of our experience and results of investigating populations of common toad (Bufo bufo in the vicinity of Belgrade.

  17. Bertha Lutz e a construção da memória de Adolpho Lutz

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    Benchimol Jaime L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a documentação de Bertha e Adolpho Lutz, depositada no Arquivo do Museu Nacional, os autores reconstroem o esforço realizado pela filha para preservar a memória do pai depois de sua morte em 6 de outubro de 1940. Seus projetos incluíam a construção de um museu para abrigar as coleções de Adolpho Lutz, assim como a publicação de toda sua obra e de uma biografia. Pioneira do movimento feminista no Brasil e pesquisadora do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Bertha foi sempre fiel auxiliar do pai, tomando como diretriz de sua própria vida profissional uma das linhas de pesquisa iniciada por ele. Por mais de trinta anos, dedicou-se à missão de imortalizar o nome do pai, acionando com este fim políticos e cientistas brasileiros e estrangeiros. Os resultados ficaram bem aquém do esperado, tendo Bertha Lutz registrado em testamento o desejo de que a obra e biografia de Adolpho Lutz fossem concretizados pelos pósteros.

  18. Chromatographic Fingerprint-Bioactivity Relationships of the Antitumor Properties of Bufo bufo gargarizans Skin Extracts.

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    Sun, Lulu; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Surong; Pan, Qiong; Zhang, Hongmin; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Zhitao

    2016-01-01

    Statistical analyses of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based chemical fingerprints of Bufo bufo gargarizans toad skin extracts were integrated with antitumor evaluations as a means to more effectively identify bioactive constituents. Specifically, chemical fingerprints of Bufo bufo gargarizans skin extract samples obtained from ten different regions in China were generated by HPLC, and then subjected to similarity analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). Concurrently, a MCF-7 breast cancer cell model was adopted to obtain the antitumor activity of different toad skin extracts. The chromatographic fingerprint-bioactivity relationships of the Bufo bufo gargarizans extracts were then evaluated by Pearson correlation analysis. The results demonstrated that all skin extract samples inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells to some extent, and that there was a correlation between the chemical fingerprints and the anti-proliferative activity. Bufotalin, bufalin, and cinobufagin, three known components of Bufo bufo gargarizans that were identified in the chemical fingerprints, were highlighted as constituents responsible for the observed bioactivity. The activity of cinobufagin was confirmed by cell viability and colony formation assays using MCF-7 cells. The approach documented here provides a more effective means to associate chemical information on medicinal extracts with the principle components responsible for their bioactivity, and to therefore expedite drug discovery.

  19. Bufospirostenin A and Bufogargarizin C, Steroids with Rearranged Skeletons from the Toad Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-Yan; Ruan, Li-Jun; Yu, Tong; Zheng, Qing-Fei; Chen, Nan-Hao; Wu, Rui-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2017-04-28

    Bufospirostenin A (1) and bufogargarizin C (2), two novel steroids with rearranged A/B rings, were isolated from the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans. Compound 1 represents the first spirostanol found in animals. Compound 2 is an unusual bufadienolide with a cycloheptatriene B ring. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and computational calculations.

  20. A contribution to the intraspecific systematics of Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de L.

    1973-01-01

    A biometrical analysis of preserved specimens of Bufo bufo, supplemented by a detailed examination of the shape of the skin warts, was performed in order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the form described as B.b.spinosus. Indications of a N.-S. clinal variation in the formation of wart thorns

  1. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of inorganic phosphate handling in the toad Bufo bufo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Werner, Andreas; Hansen, Sofie M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of P(i) handling in toads (Bufo bufo). We introduced toads to experimental solutions of various [P(i)] and high P(i) diets and measured urine and lymph [P(i)]. Both lymph and urine [P(i)] increased with increasing P(i) loads, indicating P...

  2. Full Lutz twist along the binding of an open book

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    Ozbagci, Burak; Pamuk, Mehmetcik

    2009-01-01

    Let $T$ denote a binding component of an open book $(\\Sigma, \\phi)$ compatible with a closed contact 3-manifold $(M, \\xi)$. We describe an explicit open book $(\\Sigma', \\phi')$ compatible with $(M, \\zeta)$, where $\\zeta$ is the contact structure obtained from $\\xi$ by performing a full Lutz twist along $T$. Here, $(\\Sigma', \\phi')$ is obtained from $(\\Sigma, \\phi)$ by a \\emph{local} modification near the binding.

  3. Agregace jako antipredační strategie u pulců ropuchy obecné (\\kur{Bufo bufo}).

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnár, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Tadpoles of many anuran species use a huge number of behavioral modifications to avoid predators. Reduced activity in presence of predators is favorite strategy for common toad tadpoles (Bufo bufo). Responses against predator cues by tadpoles of Bufo bufo in the presence of another cue of larger tadpole aggregation were tested in this study. We observed that these tadpoles responded differently to predator chemical cues than tadpoles in a small group.

  4. New bufadienolides and C(23) steroids from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans.

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    Tian, Hai-Yan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Wang, Ying; Liu, Jun-Shan; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2010-12-01

    Six new bufadienolides (1-6) and two new C(23) steroids (7 and 8), together with three known compounds (9-11) were isolated from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In vitro cytotoxicities of all compounds were evaluated in A549 cancer cell line. Compounds 2, 3 and 10 showed significant cytotoxic activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological activities of skin and parotoid gland secretions of bufonid toads (Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karış, Mert; Yalcin, Husniye Tansel; Göçmen, Bayram

    2016-05-01

    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain numerous natural agents which may provide unique resources for novel drug development. Especially the skin-parotoid gland secretions of toads from genus Bufo contain as many as 86 different types of active compounds, each with the potential of becoming a potent drug. In the present study, crude skin-parotoid gland secretions from Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis from Turkey were screened against various cancer cells together with normal cells using MTT assay. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of skin secretions were tested on selected bacterial and fungal species for assessing the possible medical applications. Antimicrobial activity of skin secretions was studied by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity of each skin-secretion was also estimated for evaluating pharmaceutical potential. Both skin-parotoid gland secretions showed high cytotoxic effect on all cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines with IC50 values varying between <0.1μg/ml and 6.02μg/ml. MIC results of antimicrobial activity tests were found to be between 3.9μg/ml and 250μg/ml. No hemolytic activities on rabbit red blood cells at concentrations between 0.5μg/ml and 50μg/ml were observed. In conclusion, skin-parotoid secretions of bufonid toads might be remarkable candidates for anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents without hemolytic activities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. blood glucose level in Bufo gutturalis (power)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a larger study dealing with glucose homeostasis in the toad Bufo gutturalis. Seven groups of seven toads each were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for one month. During this period the toads were fed daily on live insects and were housed in a large laboratory terrarium in which the natural habitat was simulated as ...

  7. Multilocus species tree analyses resolve the radiation of the widespread Bufo bufo species group (Anura, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero, E; Canestrelli, D; Vörös, J; Szabó, K; Poyarkov, N A; Arntzen, J W; Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J; Kidov, A A; Cogălniceanu, D; Caputo, F P; Nascetti, G; Martínez-Solano, I

    2012-01-01

    New analytical methods are improving our ability to reconstruct robust species trees from multilocus datasets, despite difficulties in phylogenetic reconstruction associated with recent, rapid divergence, incomplete lineage sorting and/or introgression. In this study, we applied these methods to resolve the radiation of toads in the Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae) species group, ranging from the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa to Siberia, based on sequences from two mitochondrial and four nuclear DNA regions (3490 base pairs). We obtained a fully-resolved topology, with the recently described Bufo eichwaldi from the Talysh Mountains in south Azerbaijan and Iran as the sister taxon to a clade including: (1) north African, Iberian, and most French populations, referred herein to Bufo spinosus based on the implied inclusion of populations from its type locality and (2) a second clade, sister to B. spinosus, including two sister subclades: one with all samples of Bufo verrucosissimus from the Caucasus and another one with samples of B. bufo from northern France to Russia, including the Apennine and Balkan peninsulas and most of Anatolia. Coalescent-based estimations of time to most recent common ancestors for each species and selected subclades allowed historical reconstruction of the diversification of the species group in the context of Mediterranean paleogeography and indicated a long evolutionary history in this region. Finally, we used our data to delimit the ranges of the four species, particularly the more widespread and historically confused B. spinosus and B. bufo, and identify potential contact zones, some of which show striking parallels with other co-distributed species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Xingjie; Guo, Rui; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei is carried out in the present research using Illumina Hiseq 2500. The mitogenome is 17 602 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a D-loop region. The overall base composition of the H-strand is 29.15% for A, 26.09% for C, 15.16% for G, and 29.60% for T. The G + C content is 41.25%. Phylogenetic analyses of B. raddei and other 12 amphibian were carried out using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The sequences of B. raddei were clustered in genus Bufo.

  9. A New C23 Steroid from the Venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shi-Lin; Tian, Hai-Yan; Liu, Jun-Shan; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-08-01

    A new C23 steroid, (3β,5β,14β)-methyl (3-hydroxy-14,15-epoxy-20-oxo-21-norcholan-24-oate) (1), together with four known ones (2-5), were isolated from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was also evaluated against human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Compound 3 showed significant cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 16.8 +/- 0.7 μM.

  10. Migrating common toads (Bufo bufo) in rural temperate regions: reservoirs of Salmonella?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian-Fard, Mojdeh; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella infections in amphibians are supposedly highly prevalent. Migrating common amphibian species in cultivated areas such as common toads (Bufo bufo) may thus promote spread and zoonotic transfer of Salmonella to humans, both indirectly by crop and livestock contamination and by direct contact. Between February and April 2011, the intestinal content of 1,740 samples of road-killed migrating common toads in five Flemish provinces of Belgium was examined for the presence of Salmonella using bacterial culture and PCR. All the samples were negative. These results suggest that the role of migrating common toads in maintaining the infection cycle of Salmonella in northern European temperate regions is negligible.

  11. Report of Bufo tihamicus karyotype from Saudi Arabia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdulaziz

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... This study gives a description of the Karyotype of the Tihama toad Bufo tihamicus from Saudi Arabia. Samples of males and females of Bufo tihamicus Parker were collected from Gazan Province of. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The karyotype consists of a diploid number 2n = 22 and the fundamental number ...

  12. Gill alterations as biomarkers of chronic exposure to endosulfan in Bufo bufo tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Elvira; Bernabò, Ilaria; Sperone, Emilio; Tripepi, Sandro

    2010-12-01

    Endosulfan sprayed on agricultural fields accumulates in temporary pools due to surface runoff or sediment transport and may result in high water concentrations in spring and summer, coinciding with breeding and crucial stages of amphibian larval development. In the present study, Bufo bufo tadpoles were exposed to three different concentrations of endosulfan (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L) until they reached complete metamorphosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of endosulfan, at environmentally relevant concentrations on gill morphology and ultrastructure. Modifications in ultrastructure and cell composition were observed at all concentrations after 96 h. The main gill effects recorded in treated animals were: mucous secretion, the appearance of tubular vesicles cells (TVC) and a degeneration phenomenon. Comparing these results with our previous findings in which we used growth, developmental rate and behaviour as endpoints, we also demonstrated that the first effect of endosulfan on Bufo bufo was gill alteration, thus supporting the role of a morphological approach in toxicological studies. This study provides additional information on the role of morphological studies in demonstrating the effects of exposure to environmental pollutants. In this context, the use of amphibian gills, as effective biomarkers, is a valuable approach in evaluating exposure to agrochemicals.

  13. Antitumor activity of extracts and compounds from the skin of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fanghua; Li, Anyuan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Kokudo, Norihiro; Tamura, Sumihito; Nakata, Munehiro; Tang, Wei

    2011-03-01

    The skin of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor is known to be rich in bufadienolides, peptides and alkaloids. It has been found to be a source of some extracts and biologically active compounds with antitumor activity. Cinobufacini (Huachansu), a Chinese medicine prepared from the dried toad skin, has been widely used in clinical therapy for various cancers in China. Bufadienolides, such as bufalin, cinobufagin, resibufogenin, and telocinobufagin, are the major active compounds derived from the toad skin. They are the maker biologically active compounds of cinobufagin while the antitumor activity of cinobufagin may be due to this kind of components. Experimental research has suggested that cinobufacini and its active compounds (e.g. bufalin and cinobufagin) exhibit significant antitumor activity, including inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell differentiation, induction of apoptosis, disruption of the cell cycle, inhibition of cancer angiogenesis, reversal of multi-drug resistance, and regulation of the immune response. Clinical data have indicated that cinobufacini may have effective anticancer activity with low toxicity and few side effects. Data to date suggest it may also enhance quality of life for patients with cancer. Thus, this review briefly summarizes recent studies on the anticancer activity of cinobufacini and some of its active compounds from the skin of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor. This might provide additional evidence for further study of the extracts and active compounds from the toad skin in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Final Critical Habitat for the Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis) based on the description provided in the Federal...

  15. Environmentally relevant concentrations of endosulfan impair development, metamorphosis and behaviour in Bufo bufo tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Elvira; Bernabò, Ilaria; Berg, Cecilia; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Bonacci, Antonella; Tripepi, Sandro

    2009-01-31

    Endosulfan is a widely used organochlorine pesticide with well-documented neurotoxic effects in both humans and laboratory animals (mammals and fish). Neurotoxicity has been implied also in amphibians after short-term exposure to endosulfan. Little is known about effects of chronic exposure of endosulfan in amphibians. Previously, we examined the short-term toxicity of endosulfan in common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles and determined the LC50 value to 0.43 mg/L. In the present study, we investigated the effects of endosulfan on B. bufo tadpoles after chronic exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations. Tadpoles were exposed in a static renewal test, from shortly after hatching (Gosner stage 25) to completed metamorphosis, to 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1mg endosulfan/L (nominal). The exposure period lasted 43-52 days. Mortality, larval growth (mass), development (reached Gosner stage at various times and deformities presence), metamorphosis and behaviour (swimming activity) were monitored regularly over the entire course of larval development. Our results show that 0.05 and 0.1mg endosulfan/L caused impaired behaviour, prolonged time to metamorphosis, increased incidences of mouth and skeletal malformations as well as mortality, and reduced body weight (observed also at 0.01 mg/L) in B. bufo tadpoles. Behavioural effects occurred at exposure day 4, before any other effects occurred, indicating a neurotoxic effect. Endosulfan levels found in groundwater and surface water range from 0.1 to 100 microg/L and after extraordinary runoff events, concentrations exceed 0.5 mg/L in surface water. Our results indicate that endosulfan may negatively affect wild frog populations in agricultural areas.

  16. A novel cathelicidin from Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor showed specific activity to its habitat bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tongyi; Zhan, Bo; Gao, Yuanyuan

    2015-10-25

    Toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor is still used in China as traditional Chinese medicine. However, present investigations on its skin secretions were mainly focused on the bufadienolides, the proteins/peptides contained in the secretions are largely unknown. A cDNA encoding a novel cathelicidin termed BG-CATH was identified by analysis of the toad skin transcriptome. The BG-CATH precursor was predicted to have 2 possible cleavage sites following dibasic cleavage signals at its C-terminal, which will generate two mature peptides, BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that amphibian cathelicidins might evolve from common ancestors. The two predicted mature cathelicidins from B. bufo gargarizans were synthesized and both of them showed weak antimicrobial activities against human pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC ≥ 200 μg/mL). However, BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) had strong antimicrobial activities against aquatic bacteria of Vibrio splendidus, Streptococcus iniae and Aeromorus hydrophila, which were common microorganisms in the habitat of B. bufo gargarizans (MIC 3.125-40 μg/mL). BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) showed no hemolytic activity even at high concentrations (400 μg/mL). CD spectra analysis suggested that structure rigidity of BG-CATH37 and BG-CATH(5-37) might play an important role to regulate their biological activities. Selective antimicrobial activity against habitat microorganisms might reflect the adaptation of amphibians to their living environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of the west-palearctic common toads (Bufo bufo species complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Porta, J; Litvinchuk, S N; Crochet, P A; Romano, A; Geniez, P H; Lo-Valvo, M; Lymberakis, P; Carranza, S

    2012-04-01

    In most pan-Eurasiatic species complexes, two phenomena have been traditionally considered key processes of their cladogenesis and biogeography. First, it is hypothesized that the origin and development of the Central Asian Deserts generated a biogeographic barrier that fragmented past continuous distributions in Eastern and Western domains. Second, Pleistocene glaciations have been proposed as the main process driving the regional diversification within each of these domains. The European common toad and its closest relatives provide an interesting opportunity to examine the relative contributions of these paleogeographic and paleoclimatic events to the phylogeny and biogeography of a widespread Eurasiatic group. We investigate this issue by applying a multiproxy approach combining information from molecular phylogenies, a multiple correspondence analysis of allozyme data and species distribution models. Our study includes 304 specimens from 164 populations, covering most of the distributional range of the Bufo bufo species complex in the Western Palearctic. The phylogenies (ML and Bayesian analyses) were based on a total of 1988 bp of mitochondrial DNA encompassing three genes (tRNAval, 16S and ND1). A dataset with 173 species of the family Bufonidae was assembled to estimate the separation of the two pan-Eurasiatic species complexes of Bufo and to date the main biogeographic events within the Bufo bufo species complex. The allozyme study included sixteen protein systems, corresponding to 21 presumptive loci. Finally, the distribution models were based on maximum entropy. Our distribution models show that Eastern and Western species complexes are greatly isolated by the Central Asian Deserts, and our dating estimates place this divergence during the Middle Miocene, a moment in which different sources of evidence document a major upturn of the aridification rate of Central Asia. This climate-driven process likely separated the Eastern and Western species. At the

  18. Bufo canorus Camp 1916, Yosemite Toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Carlos; Fellers, Gary M.; Lannoo, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Yosemite toads (Bufo canorus) are endemic to the Sierra Nevada, California, from Ebbetts Pass, Alpine County to the Spanish Mountain area, Fresno County (Karlstrom 1962, 1973; Stebbins 1966; unpublished Sierra National Forest survey data, 1995, 2002). Sites occur from 1,950–3,444 m elevation, with the majority of sites between 2,590–3,048 m (Karlstrom, 1962). Jennings and Hayes (1994a) estimate that populations have disappeared from 50% of historically reported sites, although the overall range of the species may have only contracted in the far north and in western Fresno County. Disappearances have been concentrated at lower elevation sites on the western edge of the range, with greater persistence at higher elevation sites (Davidson et al., 2002).

  19. Test Reviews: Euler, B. L. (2007). "Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree". Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree (EDDT) is a teacher-completed norm-referenced rating scale published by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., in Lutz, Florida. The 156-item EDDT was developed for use as part of a broader assessment process to screen and assist in the identification of 5- to 18-year-old children for the special…

  20. Endosulfan acute toxicity in Bufo bufo gills: ultrastructural changes and nitric oxide synthase localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Brunelli, Elvira; Berg, Cecilia; Bonacci, Antonella; Tripepi, Sandro

    2008-02-18

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide used in agriculture for a wide range of crops. Endosulfan concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/L can be found in ponds and streams near sprayed agricultural fields. We investigated the short-term toxicity of endosulfan in common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles after 24, 48, and 96 h of exposure. Acute toxicity was evaluated at nominal concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.6 mg/L: concentrations that could be found after the application of pesticide. Our results show that 0.43 mg/L of endosulfan caused 50% mortality (LC(50)). The effects of a sublethal endosulfan concentration (0.2mg/L) on gill apparatus morphology were evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical methods were also applied to detect the expression pattern of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gills using the confocal laser scanner microscope. Exposure to 0.2mg/L of endosulfan caused an apparent increase in mucus production, the occurrence of secretory vesicles and lamellar bodies, a widening of intercellular spaces and additionally there was evidence of an inflammatory response in the gill apparatus. The morphological alterations occurred after 24h and were more pronounced after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Altered morphology and increased mucus secretion indicate impaired gas exchange and osmoregulation in the gills. In addition, there was an increase of iNOS expression after 24 and 48 h which may reflect hypoxia and inflammation in the gill epithelium. Our results clearly indicate that short-term exposure to a sublethal concentration of endosulfan, near the high end of the environmental range, disrupts gill morphology and function in B. bufo tadpoles.

  1. Hormonal induction of spermatozoa from amphibians with Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo as anuran models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uteshev, V K; Shishova, N V; Kaurova, S A; Browne, R K; Gakhova, E N

    2012-01-01

    The use of hormonally induced spermatozoa expressed in urine (HISu) is a valuable component of reproduction technologies for amphibians. Five protocols for sampling HISu from the European common frog (Rana temporaria) were compared: (1) pituitary extracts, (2) 0.12 µg g⁻¹ luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa), (3) 1.20 µg g⁻¹ LHRHa, (4) 11.7 IU g⁻¹ human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and (5) 23.4 IU g⁻¹ hCG (g⁻¹ = per gram bodyweight). From 1 to 24h after administration we assessed the number and concentration of spermatozoa in spermic urine and in holding water, and in urine the percentage of motile spermatozoa and their progressive motility. The protocol using 1.20 µg g⁻¹ LHRHa gave the highest total sperm numbers (650 × 10⁶) and the highest percentage (40%) of samples with sperm concentrations above 200 × 10⁶ mL⁻¹. The percentage motility and progressive motility was similar from all protocols. Considerable amounts of spermatozoa were expressed by R. temporaria into their holding water. We tested hormonal priming and spermiation in the common toad (Bufo bufo) using 0.13 µg g⁻¹ LHRHa administered 24h before a final spermiating dose of 12.8 IU g⁻¹ hCG. No spermatozoa were expressed in holding water. Priming resulted in 35% more spermatozoa than without; however, there were no differences in sperm concentrations. Primed B. bufo produced spermatozoa with significantly higher percentage motility, but not progressive motility, membrane integrity, or abnormal spermatozoa than unprimed males.

  2. Endosulfan acute toxicity in Bufo bufo gills: Ultrastructural changes and nitric oxide synthase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabo, Ilaria [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Brunelli, Elvira [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)], E-mail: brunelli@unical.it; Berg, Cecilia [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18A, 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Bonacci, Antonella; Tripepi, Sandro [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2008-02-18

    Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide used in agriculture for a wide range of crops. Endosulfan concentrations of up to 0.7 mg/L can be found in ponds and streams near sprayed agricultural fields. We investigated the short-term toxicity of endosulfan in common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles after 24, 48, and 96 h of exposure. Acute toxicity was evaluated at nominal concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.6 mg/L: concentrations that could be found after the application of pesticide. Our results show that 0.43 mg/L of endosulfan caused 50% mortality (LC{sub 50}). The effects of a sublethal endosulfan concentration (0.2 mg/L) on gill apparatus morphology were evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical methods were also applied to detect the expression pattern of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the gills using the confocal laser scanner microscope. Exposure to 0.2 mg/L of endosulfan caused an apparent increase in mucus production, the occurrence of secretory vesicles and lamellar bodies, a widening of intercellular spaces and additionally there was evidence of an inflammatory response in the gill apparatus. The morphological alterations occurred after 24 h and were more pronounced after 48 and 96 h of exposure. Altered morphology and increased mucus secretion indicate impaired gas exchange and osmoregulation in the gills. In addition, there was an increase of iNOS expression after 24 and 48 h which may reflect hypoxia and inflammation in the gill epithelium. Our results clearly indicate that short-term exposure to a sublethal concentration of endosulfan, near the high end of the environmental range, disrupts gill morphology and function in B. bufo tadpoles.

  3. Proliferative events and apoptotic remodelling in retinal development of common toad (Bufo bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Claudia; Sansone, Alfredo; De Maio, Anna; Morgillo, Antonietta; Scandurra, Anna; D'Aniello, Biagio

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation and apoptosis are fundamental processes in the development of the retina, and a proper balance of the two phenomena is crucial to correct development of the organ. Despite intense investigation in different vertebrates, only a few studies have analyzed the cell death and the cell division quantitatively in the same species during development. Here we studied the time course of apoptosis and proliferation in the retina of common toad, Bufo bufo, and discuss the findings in an evolutionary perspective. We found cells that were dividing first scattered throughout the retina, then, in later stages, proliferation was confined to the ciliary marginal zone. This pattern was confirmed by the expression of the proliferative marker PCNA. Both proliferation and apoptosis occurred in successive waves, and two apoptotic peaks were detected: one at premetamorphosis 1 and the second at prometamorphosis. PARP-1, a known molecular marker of apoptosis, was used to confirm the data obtained by counting pyknotic nuclei. In summary, proliferative and apoptotic waves display an inverse time-relationship through development, with apoptotic peaks coinciding with low proliferation phases. In a comparative perspective, amphibians follow a developmental pattern similar to other vertebrates, although with different timing. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Bufadienolides with cytotoxic activity from the skins of Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-Jing; Tian, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Lei, Yu-He; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-09-01

    Twelve new bufadienolides (1-12), along with fourteen known analogues (13-26) were isolated from the skins of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR, HRESIMS and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 was an unusual bufadienolide with 3,19-epoxy moiety and A/B trans ring junction. Compounds 2-4 were rare bufadienolides possessing 10-H or 10-carboxyl units. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxic effects on HepG2, A549 and HeLa cells. Six new compounds (2, 3, 5, 6, 10 and 12) displayed significant anti-proliferative activities with IC50 values ranging from 0.049 to 1.856 μM. Arenobufagin (24) exhibited the most potent cytotoxic activity with IC50 value 0.011 μM. In addition, the present data provided more insight into the structure-activity relationships of bufadienolides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Influence of the Concentration of Dissolved Oxygen on Embryonic Development of the Common Toad (Bufo bufo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, E V

    2015-01-01

    Several series of experiments investigating the influence of dissolved oxygen concentrations on the growth rates and mortality in the embryogenesis of the common toad Bufo bufo were carried out. The experiments showed that, when the eggs develop singly, the lack of oxygen does not lead to an increase in mortality by the time of hatching and results only in a change in the dynamics of mortality: mortality occurs at an earlier stage of development than in the conditions of normal access to oxygen. Taking into account the combined effect of the density of eggs and the dissolved oxygen concentration, we increase the accuracy of analysis of the experimental results and improve the interpretation of the results. In the conditions of different initial density of eggs, the impact of the concentration of dissolved oxygen on mortality and rates of development of the common toad embryos is manifested in different ways. At high density, only a small percentage of embryos survives by the time of hatching, and the embryos are significantly behind in their development compared with the individuals that developed in normal oxygen conditions. The lack of oxygen dissolved in the water slows down the development of embryos of the common toad.

  6. Morphology of Bufo ictericus integument (Amphibia, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito-Gitirana, L; Azevedo, R A

    2005-01-01

    Bufo ictericus integument was investigated by stereoscopic, low vacuum scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and light microscopy. The studies revealed, that the dorsal integument surface is rougher than ventral. Three types of projections are visualized: larger rounded verrucae, smaller conical cornified tubercles, and conical short spines. Prominent verrucae are observed on the dorsal surface, being flatter on the ventral surface. The tubercles are visualized only on the dorsal surface. The verrucae are separated by grooves that may contribute spreading and retention of the glandular secretion upon the integument. The pattern of the epidermal grooves is also important for water distribution, protecting the animal against desiccation. The epidermis is composed of a stratified epithelium with intraepithelial blood vessels, where keratinocytes predominate, but flask cells, and Merkel cells also occur. In the spongious dermis, cutaneous glands are visualized. The compact dermis is a series of alternating layers of bundles of collagenous fibers, and between spongious and compact dermis there are basophilic areas that correspond to Eberth-Katschenko layer. The dorsal and the ventral surfaces of B. ictericus are morphologically distinct. The integument structure is related to the physiology of each surface and represents an adaptation to habitat, reflecting a lifestyle of the animal.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Bufo stejnegeri (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bingjun; Yang, Baotian

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo stejnegeri was determined, which was 17 939 bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one displacement loop (D-loop). The total length of D-loop region is 2533 bp, some tandem repeat units were found in this region. The phylogenetic trees of the 20 species from anura were reconstructed based on complete mtDNA sequences by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses. The result demonstrated that B. stejnegeri is the most closely related species with other Bufo species.

  8. Morphological differentiation of the common toad Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758 in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čađenović Natalija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the degree of morphological differentiation among populations of the common toad Bufo bufo in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. Variations in a number of morphometric and qualitative characters in 14 population samples were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics. We found a high degree of female-biased sexual size dimorphism. Morphological variation among the samples was more expressed in morphometric than in qualitative characters. The significant size differences that exist between northern and southern population groups could be the result of phenotypic plasticity. Our results do not support a clear split between northern and southern populations, contrary to the current taxonomic treatment of these groups as B. b. bufo and B. b. spinosus, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173043

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP-DR1) catalogs (Lutz+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Altieri, B.; Andreani, P.; Aussel, H.; Berta, S.; Bongiovanni, A.; Brisbin, D.; Cava, A.; Cepa, J.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Dominguez-Sanchez, H.; Elbaz, D.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Grazian, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Harwit, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.; Magnelli, B.; Maiolino, R.; Nordon, R.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Saintonge, A.; Sanchez Portal, M.; Santini, P.; Shao, L.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Wetzstein, M.; Wieprecht, E.

    2013-11-01

    PACS catalogs built by the PEP team, with key contributions by Stefano Berta, Benjamin Magnelli, Paola Popesso, Dieter Lutz, Francesca Pozzi, Bruno Altieri, Herve Aussel, Hoseong Hwang, Emeric Le Floc'h, Georgios Magdis, Raanan Nordon, Albrecht Poglitsch, Laurie Riguccini, Amelie Saintonge, Li Shao. For more details, please refer to Lutz et al. (2011A&A...532A..90L) and to the PDF documentation associated to the release. Data and catalogs can be retrieved from the web page http://www.mpe.mpg.de/ir/Research/PEP/publicdatareleases.php See the PDF documentation associated to the PEP DR1 release, http://www.mpe.mpg.de/resources/PEP/DR1tarballs/readmePEP_global.pdf and http://www.mpe.mpg.de/resources/PEP/DR1tarballs/readmePEP_SPIRE.pdf for more details. (69 data files).

  10. Electroantennographic responses of the Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) to 1-octen-3-ol

    OpenAIRE

    SANT'ANA, ADSON L.; Alvaro E. Eiras; Cavalcante, Reginaldo R

    2002-01-01

    Octenol (1-octen-3-ol) is a kairomone used by haematophagous insects to locate their vertebrate hosts. However, effect of 1-octen-3-ol on Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) has never been studied. The present work evaluated the electrophysiological (EAG) responses of female L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Air current, air pulse and solvent (hexane) pulse were used as control stimuli. The logarithmic concentrations of 1-octen-3-ol 10 a 10(6) etag/50µl of solvent were tested. Signific...

  11. N-methyl serotonin analogues from the Bufo bufo toad venom interact efficiently with the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukova, E V; Lebedev, D S; Ivanov, I A; Ivanov, D A; Starkov, V G; Tsetlin, V I; Utkin, Yu N

    2017-01-01

    Two low-molecular-weight compounds were isolated from the parotid gland secret of the toad Bufo bufo, which by absorption spectra and HPLC-MS/MS chromatography data correspond to di- and trimethyl derivatives of serotonin (5-hydorxytryptamine): bufotenine (confirmed by counter synthesis) and bufotenidine (5-HTQ). In experiments on competitive radioligand binding, these compounds showed a higher affinity and selectivity for neuronal α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors compared with the muscular cholinergic receptors. The most efficient compound in terms of binding value was bufotenine, the efficiency of 5-HTQ was an order of magnitude lower, and the minimal activity was exhibited by serotonin.

  12. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca; Tripepi, Manuela; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was greater and we

  13. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Tripepi, Manuela [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, 201 Leidy Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brunelli, Elvira, E-mail: brunelli@unical.it [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was

  14. Breeding frequency of western toads (Bufo boreas) in northeastern Oregeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn L. Bull; Cynthia Carey

    2008-01-01

    Many species of toads (family Bufonidae), including the western toad (Bufo boreas), are declining in-the western United States. The ability of this species to recover from declines depends, in part, on its reproductive success. This study examined the breeding frequency in both sexes of B. borelis in northeastern Oregon compared to...

  15. Determinants of Instrumental Extinction in Terrestrial Toads ("Bufo arenarum")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Ruben N.; Ruetti, Eliana; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research in a water-reinforced instrumental training situation with toads ("Bufo arenarum") has shown that performance in both acquisition and extinction is poorer after partial, rather than continuous reinforcement training. In Experiment 1, the performance of a group receiving 24 trials on a 50% partial reinforcement schedule was poorer…

  16. Evolution of Acoustic Behaviour in African Bufo (Anura: Bufonidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mating calls are known for 29 species of African Bufo belonging to 11 species groups. Twenty-five African species, representing eight species groups (including four groups or complexes having 2N=22) have calls which Martin (1972) termed Type I. This call type is also found in Schismaderma carens, Nectophrynoides ...

  17. (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) from the urinary bladder of Bufo gutturalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-09-07

    Sep 7, 1988 ... described trichodinids from amphibians in southern. Africa, i.e. Trichodina xenopodos Fantham, 1924 from the urinary bladder of the African clawed toad, Xenopus laevis and T. bufonis Fantham, 1924 from Bufo regularis. Although both these descriptions did not make use of silver-impregnation and the ...

  18. Arginine derivatives of dicarboxylic acids from the parotid gland secretions of common toad Bufo bufo-New agonists of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, D S; Ivanov, I A; Kryukova, E V; Starkov, V G; Tsetlin, V I; Utkin, Yu N

    2017-05-01

    Compounds activating γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor were isolated from the toad Bufo bufo venom as a result of chromatographic separation. Analysis of the structure of these compounds by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance showed that they are arginine derivatives of dicarboxylic acids and represent suberylarginine, pimeloylarginine, and adipoylarginine.

  19. The influence of ambient salinity and temperature on lipid metabolism in toad (Bufo bufo) skin. Is phosphatidylethanolamine an endogenous regulator of ion channels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Willumsen, Niels J.

    1994-01-01

    Incorporation of (32P) phosphate and (14C) acetate into frog (Rana temporaria) skin phospholipids in vitro was positively correlated to skin MR cell density. Transport across toad (Bufo bufo) skin and incorporation into skin phospholipids of the radioactive tracers were independent...

  20. Phenotypic divergence of the common toad (Bufo bufo) along an altitudinal gradient: evidence for local adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquet, E; Léna, J-P; Miaud, C; Plénet, S

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the environment can induce different patterns of genetic and phenotypic differentiation among populations. Both neutral processes and selection can influence phenotypic differentiation. Altitudinal phenotypic variation is of particular interest in disentangling the interplay between neutral processes and selection in the dynamics of local adaptation processes but remains little explored. We conducted a common garden experiment to study the phenotypic divergence in larval life-history traits among nine populations of the common toad (Bufo bufo) along an altitudinal gradient in France. We further used correlation among population pairwise estimates of quantitative trait (QST) and neutral genetic divergence (FST from neutral microsatellite markers), as well as altitudinal difference, to estimate the relative role of divergent selection and neutral genetic processes in phenotypic divergence. We provided evidence for a neutral genetic differentiation resulting from both isolation by distance and difference in altitude. We found evidence for phenotypic divergence along the altitudinal gradient (faster development, lower growth rate and smaller metamorphic size). The correlation between pairwise QSTs-FSTs and altitude differences suggested that this phenotypic differentiation was most likely driven by altitude-mediated selection rather than by neutral genetic processes. Moreover, we found different divergence patterns for larval traits, suggesting that different selective agents may act on these traits and/or selection on one trait may constrain the evolution on another through genetic correlation. Our study highlighted the need to design more integrative studies on the common toad to unravel the underlying processes of phenotypic divergence and its selective agents in the context of environmental clines.

  1. DC electrical stimulation of the pretectal thalamus and its effects on the feeding behavior of the toad (Bufo bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, James; Laming, Peter R

    2007-06-01

    The feeding motivation of the common European common toad (Bufo bufo) can be quantified by the feeding sequence of arousal-orientation-approach-fixate-snap. Previous work has found that the optic tectum is an important structure responsible for the mediation of feeding behaviors, and combined electrical and visual stimulation of the optic tectum was found to increase the animals feeding behaviors. However, the pretectal thalamus has an inhibitory influence upon the optic tectum and its lesion results in disinhibited feeding behaviors. This suggests that feeding behavior of anurans is also subject to influence from the pretectal thalamus. Previous studies involving the application of DC stimulation to brain tissue has generated slow potential shifts and these shifts have been implicated in the modulation of the neural mechanisms associated with behavior. The current study investigated the application of DC stimulation to the diencephalon surface dorsal to the lateral posterodorsal pretectal thalamic nucleus in Bufo bufo, in order to assess effects on feeding motivation. The application of DC stimulation increased the incidence of avoidance behaviors to a visual prey stimulus while reducing the prey catching behavior component of approach, suggesting that the DC current applied to the pretectum increased the inhibition upon the feeding elements of the optic tectum. This can be explained by the generation of slow potential shifts.

  2. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Camacho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis.

  3. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound) sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Morgana; Pessanha, Thaíla; Leles, Daniela; Dutra, Juliana MF; Silva, Rosângela; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds) are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis. PMID:23579793

  4. Bufo alvarius: a potent hallucinogen of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, A T; Davis, W

    1994-01-01

    Anthropologists have long speculated that ancient peoples of Mesoameria used a toad, Bufo marinus, as a ritual intoxicant. This hypothesis rests on many iconographic and mythological representations of toads and on a number of speculative ethnographic reports. The authors reject B. marinus as a candidate for such use because of the toxicity of its venom. A more likely candidate is the Sonoran desert toad, Bufo alvarius, which secretes large amounts of the potent known hallucinogen, 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT). The authors demonstrate that the venom of B. alvarius, although known to be toxic when consumed orally, may be safely smoked and is powerfully psychoactive by that route of administration. These experiments are the first documentation of an hallucinogenic agent from the animal kingdom, and they provide clear evidence of a psychoactive toad that could have been employed by Precolumbian peoples of the New World.

  5. Article Syndactyly in Bufo maculatus Hallowell (Amphibia: Anura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syndactyly in five specimens of Bufo maculatus, all from a small area 25 km west of Harare, Zimbabwe, is described. In three cases only one pair of digits was involved (two of the hand, one of the foot); in a fourth, two pairs of digits on one foot were involved; and in the fifth case, all digits of one hand were involved together ...

  6. [Specific features of the melanophore system in different color morphs of larvae of the common toad (Bufo bufo L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, L A; Surova, G S; Timofeev, K N

    2012-01-01

    In a natural pond among usual black larvae of the common toad (Bufo bufo L.), a few unusual individuals of red-olive coloring were found out. In both morphs we investigated the melanophores of skin using different methods. The ESR-spectrometric analysis has shown the absence of distinctions between morphs by the amount of melanin. Analysis of total preparations of skin has shown the presence of various kinds of melanophore cells both in the derma and in the epidermis. Among typical melanophores, essentially differing cells appeared (atypical cells). In black morph tadpoles, the number of all kinds of melanophores is significantly greater than in red-olive morphs. It is shown that dark coloring is connected with a considerable number of atypical cells in the epidermis imposed on a dense layer of typical dermal melanophores with dispersed melanin.

  7. Report of Bufo tihamicus karyotype from Saudi Arabia | Al-Shehri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study gives a description of the Karyotype of the Tihama toad Bufo tihamicus from Saudi Arabia. Samples of males and females of Bufo tihamicus Parker were collected from Gazan Province of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The karyotype consists of a diploid number 2n = 22 and the fundamental number NF = 44 in both of ...

  8. Morphological and genetic differentiation of Bufo toads: two cryptic species in Western Europe (Anura, Bufonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; McAtear, J.; Recuero, E.; Ziermann, J.M.; Ohler, A.; Alphen, van J.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Common toad Bufo bufo sensu lato is a widespread, morphologically conserved taxon. Recent studies have uncovered deep genetic differentiation between population groups, highlighting the need to revise the current taxonomy of the group and recognize additional species. Here we investigate

  9. Response of Lutz, Sitka, and white spruce to attack by Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and blue stain fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Barbara L. Illman

    1994-01-01

    Mechanical wounding and wounding plus inoculation with a blue-stain fungus, Leptographium abietinum (Peck), associated with the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), caused an induced reaction zone or lesion around the wound sites in Lutz spruce, Picea lutzii Little, Sitka spruce, P. sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., and white spruce, P. glauca (Moench) Voss, in...

  10. A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Boyadzhiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%, followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%, as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

  11. Interaction between Pax6 and its novel mutant in Bufo raddei Strauch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Furong; Zhao, Yongqing; Zhao, Yuanlin; Wang, Ying; Wen, Fan; Ye, Lin; Gao, Lan

    2011-01-01

    Exploration of the relationship between a novel paired box 6 (Pax6) mutant and Pax6 in Bufo raddei Strauch. RT-PCR, yeast 2-hybrid system, and co-immunoprecipitation were used to analyze the Pax6 protein and its mutant during embryonic eye development in Bufo raddei Strauch. We have cloned the Pax6 ORF sequence from Bufo raddei Strauch. Here we report the cloning of a novel Pax6 homolog of Bufo raddei Strauch named Pax6 variant. Comparing the 2 genes, the homolog of ORF nucleotide sequence is more than 99% in Bufo raddei Strauch; only the proline-serine-threonine(PST)-rich transaction domain differs. The deduced amino acid sequences of PST region are 53.1% identical. An interaction was found between Pax6 and Pax6 variant via yeast 2-hybrid system; with further study, we found that they interacted in vivo via co-immunopricipitation. A Pax6 mutant was first found in Bufo raddei Strauch. Interaction between Pax6 and Pax6 variant may play a critical role during eye development in Bufo raddei Strauch. This suggests that expression of Pax6 variant may play a role and appears to be a necessity in eye development, but that Pax6 itself is still pivotal in eye development.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Bufo tibetanus (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinbo; Wang, Yan; Yue, Bisong; Zhang, Xiuyue; Liu, Shaolong

    2013-06-01

    The total length of the Bufo tibetanus mitochondrial genome sequence is 17,405 bp. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 displacement loop (D-loop). Except for eight tRNAs and nd6 genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand (H strand). Most of the 22 tRNA genes can fold into a typical cloverleaf secondary structure by tRNAscan-SE, except for tRNA(Ser). Molecular data presented here provide a useful toll for helping set the stage for further studies and the molecular evolution of the mitochondrial genome.

  13. [Studies of oogenesis in Bufo arenarum (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Toledo, C L; Pisanó, A

    1980-01-01

    Based on a series of macroscopic and histological observations, during an annual cycle, the main stages of oogenesis in Bufo arenarum (Hensel) have been recognized, pointing out the most significant features. The analysis has established five characteristic stages which permit the individualization of the maturation stage of the oocyte in the ovary. All the information obtained has provided the possibility of drawing up a synthetic table so that the oogenetic stages of this amphibian species, very much used in Argentine experimentation, could be easily recognized.

  14. Agricultural intensity in ovo affects growth, metamorphic development and sexual differentiation in the common toad (Bufo bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Routledge, Edwin

    2011-06-01

    Pollution was cited by the Global Amphibian Assessment to be the second most important cause of amphibian decline worldwide, however, the effects of the agricultural environment on amphibians are not well understood. In this study, spawn from Bufo bufo was taken from four sites in England and Wales with varying intensities of arable agriculture. Spawn was either placed in tanks containing aged tap water (ex-situ, five replicates) or in cages at the native site (caged, five replicates). Hatching success, abnormal tadpoles, and forelimb emergence were recorded during the larval stage. Individuals were also sampled at five time points (TP) during development (5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 15-weeks post-hatch) and analysed for morphological parameters. The thyroids (TP2) and the gonads (TP3,4,5) were also analysed histologically. With the exception of the thyroid histopathology, all analysed endpoints were significantly different between ex-situ individuals reared under identical conditions from the different sites. In addition, intensity of arable agriculture had a negative effect on growth and development. At one site, despite distinct rearing conditions, a high level of intersex (up to 42%) and similar sex ratios were observed in both ex-situ and caged individuals. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal exposure and/or events in ovo had a much larger effect on growth, metamorphic development, and sexual differentiation in B. bufo than the ambient environment. This could have important implications for traditional exposure scenarios that typically begin at the larval stage. Intersex is reported for the first time in European amphibians in situ, highlighting the potential use of distinct populations of amphibians in fundamental research into the aetiology of specific developmental effects in wild amphibians.

  15. New synonymy to Simulium ( Inaequalium diversibranchium Lutz, with comments on the Inaequale species-group (Diptera, Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo H. Gil-Azevedo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Simulium (Inaequalium Coscarón and Wygodzinsky, 1984 is a homogeneous subgenus widely spread on the Neotropical Region, which the adults can only be reliably identified from linked-reared specimens. Despite many revisionary works only a single character of the pupal gill separates Simulium diversibranchium Lutz, 1910 from S. mariavulcanoae Coscarón and Wygodzinsky, 1984. Specimens of both species show that S. mariavulcanoae is a junior synonym of S. diversibranchium. The relationship between S. diversibranchium and S. subnigrum Lutz, 1910 needs further investigation. Some features of the pupal gill often used as diagnosis in Simulium (Inaequalium species, such as the direction of gill filaments or the height of the bifurcation of the secondary or tertiary branches of the pupal gill are highly polymorphic, making its use as diagnostic character not reliable.

  16. Differing long term trends for two common amphibian species (Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria) in alpine landscapes of Salzburg, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyek, Martin; Kaufmann, Peter H; Lindner, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the population trends of two widespread European anuran species: the common toad (Bufo bufo) and the common frog (Rana temporaria). The basis of this study is data gathered over two decades of amphibian fencing alongside roads in the Austrian state of Salzburg. Different statistical approaches were used to analyse the data. Overall average increase or decrease of each species was estimated by calculating a simple average locality index. In addition the statistical software TRIM was used to verify these trends as well as to categorize the data based on the geographic location of each migration site. The results show differing overall trends for the two species: the common toad being stable and the common frog showing a substantial decline over the last two decades. Further analyses based on geographic categorization reveal the strongest decrease in the alpine range of the species. Drainage and agricultural intensification are still ongoing problems within alpine areas, not only in Salzburg. Particularly in respect to micro-climate and the availability of spawning places these changes appear to have a greater impact on the habitats of the common frog than the common toad. Therefore we consider habitat destruction to be the main potential reason behind this dramatic decline. We also conclude that the substantial loss of biomass of a widespread species such as the common frog must have a severe, and often overlooked, ecological impact.

  17. Variation in Chemical Defense Among Natural Populations of Common Toad, Bufo bufo, Tadpoles: the Role of Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókony, Veronika; Móricz, Ágnes M; Tóth, Zsófia; Gál, Zoltán; Kurali, Anikó; Mikó, Zsanett; Pásztor, Katalin; Szederkényi, Márk; Tóth, Zoltán; Ujszegi, János; Üveges, Bálint; Krüzselyi, Dániel; Capon, Robert J; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-04-01

    Defensive toxins are widespread in nature, yet we know little about how various environmental factors shape the evolution of chemical defense, especially in vertebrates. In this study we investigated the natural variation in the amount and composition of bufadienolide toxins, and the relative importance of ecological factors in predicting that variation, in larvae of the common toad, Bufo bufo, an amphibian that produces toxins de novo. We found that tadpoles' toxin content varied markedly among populations, and the number of compounds per tadpole also differed between two geographical regions. The most consistent predictor of toxicity was the strength of competition, indicating that tadpoles produced more compounds and larger amounts of toxins when coexisting with more competitors. Additionally, tadpoles tended to contain larger concentrations of bufadienolides in ponds that were less prone to desiccation, suggesting that the costs of toxin production can only be afforded by tadpoles that do not need to drastically speed up their development. Interestingly, this trade-off was not alleviated by higher food abundance, as periphyton biomass had negligible effect on chemical defense. Even more surprisingly, we found no evidence that higher predation risk enhances chemical defenses, suggesting that low predictability of predation risk and high mortality cost of low toxicity might select for constitutive expression of chemical defense irrespective of the actual level of predation risk. Our findings highlight that the variation in chemical defense may be influenced by environmental heterogeneity in both the need for, and constraints on, toxicity as predicted by optimal defense theory.

  18. High genetic diversity of common toad (Bufo bufo) populations under strong natural fragmentation on a Northern archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Steffen; Jehle, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The last decades have shown a surge in studies focusing on the interplay between fragmented habitats, genetic variation, and conservation. In the present study, we consider the case of a temperate pond-breeding anuran (the common toad Bufo bufo) inhabiting a naturally strongly fragmented habitat at the Northern fringe of the species' range: islands offshore the Norwegian coast. A total of 475 individuals from 19 populations (three mainland populations and 16 populations on seven adjacent islands) were genetically characterized using nine microsatellite markers. As expected for a highly fragmented habitat, genetic distances between populations were high (pairwise F st values ranging between 0.06 and 0.33), with however little differences between populations separated by ocean and populations separated by terrestrial habitat (mainland and on islands). Despite a distinct cline in genetic variation from mainland populations to peripheral islands, the study populations were characterized by overall high genetic variation, in line with effective population sizes derived from single-sample estimators which were on average about 20 individuals. Taken together, our results reinforce the notion that spatial and temporal scales of fragmentation need to be considered when studying the interplay between landscape fragmentation and genetic erosion.

  19. Evaluating factors affecting amphibian mortality on roads: the case of the Common Toad Bufo bufo, near a breeding place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, X.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Common Toad Bufo bufo is the amphibian with the highest rates of road mortality in many European countries. This elevated incidence of road kills has frequently been associated with migration to breeding sites. In this study, we analysed the mortality of the Common Toad in the road network in Catalonia (NE Spain, and investigated the related causative factors on four roads near a breeding site in the Pyrenees. Results suggest that the high mortality rate is due to a combination of factors: toad abundance, traffic density and quality of water bodies for breeding. On the road with the highest incidence of road kills we investigated whether deaths occurred at specific spots or in a random manner. The road was divided into 500 m sections and each section was classified according to biotic (type of vegetation and abiotic (presence of streams, roadside topography variables. Multiple correspondence analysis showed that sections with streams crossing under the road had the highest mortality rate, suggesting that such water bodies flowing into the breeding pond are the toads’ main migratory pathways for hibernation and breeding. As toads use the same migratory routes each year, it is critical to identify areas with a high potential mortality so that efficient measures can be designed to increase wildlife permeability, and thereby reduce habitat fragmentation. This methodology could be applied in other areas with high amphibian mortality.

  20. Comparison of toad venoms from different Bufo species by HPLC and LC-DAD-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huimin; Zehl, Martin; Leitner, Alexander; Wu, Xiyan; Wang, Zhimin; Kopp, Brigitte

    2010-09-15

    Toad venom, called Chansu in China, has been widely used for the treatment of heart failure, sores, pains, and various cancers for a long time in clinic. The aim of the study is to investigate the chemical differences among a variety of toad venoms from different geographic locations and related Bufo species. Ten batches of commercial toad venom collected from different regions in China, one batch of fresh toad venom obtained from Bufo bufo gargarizans, and six batches of related Bufo species were analyzed by HPLC and LC-DAD-MS/MS. Individual components were identified by comparison of retention times, UV spectra, and mass spectra with authentic compounds, standard addition, as well as summarized MS fragmentation rules. Based on the profile of identified constituents and the content of cinobufagin and resibufogenin, the chemical differences observed among different samples are discussed. Overall, 43 compounds were identified in the methanolic extracts of the different samples of toad venom. Besides of suberoyl arginine, several free bufadienolides, bufadienolide sulfates, and suberoyl esters of bufadienolides were found. The total amounts of cinobufagin and resibufogenin, which are the only two control markers according to the current Chinese Pharmacopoeia, varied widely from 0.7% to 10.9% in the commercial Chansu samples collected in the different locations in China. Low levels of resibufogenin, but no cinobufagin was observed in the samples from Bufo melanosticus and Bufo marinus, and even neither of both compounds was found in the sample from Bufo viridis. The chemical profiles of the different commercial and collected toad venoms from related Bufo species differed significantly, not only in the absolute and relative contents, but also in the number and type of the constituents. The main reason for this variation are species-specific differences, but additional factors, such as the harvest and post-harvest processing, and adaption to environmental factors in

  1. Features of reproduction in laboratory-reared Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut A. G. B. Cônsoli

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made on 100 female Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz maintained individually from the first blood meal onwards and allowed one blood meal during each oviposition cycle, 5% dextrose solution been supplied throughout life. The average length of live was 49.9 ± 17.8 days; the logarithm of the mortality rate increased proportionately to physiological age. The insects took an average of 7.3 ± 3.2 blood meals and produced a mean of 7.9 ± 3.7 clutches of eggs. There was a progressive decrease, proportional to advancing physiological age, in the mean numbers of eggs laid in successive oviposition cycles, in the intervals between blood feeding oviposition, and in the numbers of larvae that hatched. Delayed oviposition, transient sterility and a total loss of fertility were also recorded.De 100 fêmeas de Aedese fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 individualmente observadas foram obtidos 45.475 ovos em um total de 790 posturas. As médias de desovas produzidas e de repastos sangüíneos ingeridos por fêmea, foram respectivamente 7,9 ± 3,7 e 7,3 ± 3,2 e a longevidade média foi de 49,9 ± 17,8 dias. Em análise de regressão linear, foi observado um progressivo decréscimo das médias de ovos por postura, larvas eclodidas e número de dias entre repasto sangüíneo e postura, proporcional ao aumento da idade fisiológica. Foram ainda observadas ocorrências de ingestão de sangue durante o desenvolvimento dos ovos, recusa de alimentação sangüínea entre desovas sucessivas, retenção espontânea de ovos por períodos apreciáveis, esterilidade transitória e esgotamento de fecundidade.

  2. Adolpho Lutz and controversies over the transmission of leprosy by mosquitoes Adolpho Lutz e as controvérsias sobre a transmissão da lepra por mosquitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime L. Benchimol

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During his years of study in Switzerland and Germany, Adolpho Lutz published his first articles on zoology, clinical practice, and therapeutics. In Limeira, São Paulo, he began studies on animal and human diseases caused by germs and parasites. In 1885-86, Lutz traveled to Hamburg to study the morphology of germs related to skin diseases, in conjunction with Paul Gerson Unna, one of Germany's foremost dermatologists. He proposed the inclusion of Hansen's and Koch's bacilli in a new genus. In 1889, Unna nominated his student as physician-in-chief of the Leper Settlement on Molokai Island, Hawaii. From then on, Lutz sustained the theory that the disease was transmitted by mosquitoes. He conducted research to prove this theory when he was head of the Instituto Bacteriológico de São Paulo (1893-1908 and, later, after he moved to the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (1908-1940. Although this research was not successful, on commissions and at congresses in which he participated until his death in October 1940, he still held to his conviction that leprosy was transmitted by mosquitoes.Quando estudava na Suíça e Alemanha, Adolpho Lutz publicou os primeiros trabalhos sobre zoologia, clínica e terapêutica. Em Limeira, São Paulo, iniciou estudos sobre doenças humanas e animais causadas por germes e parasitas. Em 1885-86, viajou para Hamburgo para estudar microrganismos relacionados a doenças de pele sob a orientação de Paul Gerson Unna, um dos mais renomados dermatologistas alemães. Propôs a inclusão dos bacilos de Hansen e Koch num novo gênero. Em 1889, Unna indicou seu discípulo como chefe dos serviços médicos do Leprosário de Molokai, no Havaí. Lutz passou a defender a transmissão da doença por mosquitos. Realizou pesquisas para provar esta teoria depois que assumiu a chefia do Instituto Bacteriológico de São Paulo (1893-1908 e, sobretudo, após a transferência para o Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (1908-1940. Apesar de não terem sido bem

  3. SU-F-T-547: Off-Isocenter Winston-Lutz Test for Stereotactic Radiosurgery/stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, J [Advanced Radiation Physics Service, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Liu, X [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To perform a quantitative study to verify that the mechanical field center coincides with the radiation field center when both are off from the isocenter during the single-isocenter technique in linear accelerator-based SRS/SBRT procedure to treat multiple lesions. Methods: We developed an innovative method to measure this accuracy, called the off-isocenter Winston-Lutz test, and here we provide a practical clinical guideline to implement this technique. We used ImagePro V.6 to analyze images of a Winston-Lutz phantom obtained using a Varian 21EX linear accelerator with an electronic portal imaging device, set up as for single-isocenter SRS/SBRT for multiple lesions. We investigated asymmetry field centers that were 3 cm and 5 cm away from the isocenter, as well as performing the standard Winston-Lutz test. We used a special beam configuration to acquire images while avoiding collision, and we investigated both jaw and multileaf collimation. Results: For the jaw collimator setting, at 3 cm off-isocenter, the mechanical field deviated from the radiation field by about 2.5 mm; at 5 cm, the deviation was above 3 mm, up to 4.27 mm. For the multileaf collimator setting, at 3 cm off-isocenter, the deviation was below 1 mm; at 5 cm, the deviation was above 1 mm, up to 1.72 mm, which is 72% higher than the tolerance threshold. Conclusion: These results indicated that the further the asymmetry field center is from the machine isocenter, the larger the deviation of the mechanical field from the radiation field, and the distance between the center of the asymmetry field and the isocenter should not exceed 3 cm in of our clinic. We recommend that every clinic that uses linear accelerator, multileaf collimator-based SRS/SBRT perform the off-isocenter Winston-Lutz test in addition to the standard Winston-Lutz test and use their own deviation data to design the treatment plan.

  4. Ion transport mechanisms in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo: microelectrode recordings from isolated and perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    It is not clear how and whether terrestrial amphibians handle NaCl transport in the distal nephron. Therefore, we studied ion transport in isolated perfused collecting tubules and ducts from toad, Bufo bufo, by means of microelectrodes. No qualitative difference in basolateral cell membrane...... and amiloride application showed a small apical Na+ conductance. Arginine vasotocin depolarized Vbl. The small apical Na+ conductance indicates that the collecting duct system contributes little to NaCl reabsorption when compared to aquatic amphibians. In contrast, Vbl rapidly depolarized upon lowering of [Na...

  5. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2014-01-01

    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50 % of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The iss...

  6. Development of a new laser alignment device with Winston-Lutz phantom in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Young Kyung; Min, Soonk; Jeong, Eun Hee; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Haksoo; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, DongHo; Lee, Se Byeong [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang Hyoun [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ui-Jung [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jung Won [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Siyong [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The lasers must be aligned precisely to the radiation isocenter. According to the report provided by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 142, the localizing lasers should be aligned to within ±2 mm of radiation isocenter for non intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), ±1 mm for IMRT, and less than ±1 mm for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) on a monthly basis. In this study, we developed and tested a new laser alignment device adopting an accurate, reproducible and straightforward alignment method in radiotherapy. The device consists of two laser alignments parts: the first part is an optical alignment part, and the second is a radiation alignment part. In the radiation alignment, a Winston-Lutz (W-L) phantom which was installed in the device was used. In this study, we developed a new laser alignment device with a W-L phantom for radiotherapy. Its performance was also tested in a conventional medical linac and a simulator. It was revealed that the device could align the patient-setup lasers in the treatment room accurately, precisely, and fast. We expect the device can be used as a quality assurance tool daily and monthly.

  7. Phylogeography and population diversity of Simulium hirtipupa Lutz (Diptera: Simuliidae based on mitochondrial COI sequences.

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    Vanderly Andrade-Souza

    Full Text Available High morphological homogeneity and cryptic speciation may cause the diversity within Simuliidae to be underestimated. Recent molecular studies on population genetics and phylogeography have contributed to reveal which factors influenced the diversity within this group. This study aimed at examining the genetic diversity of Simulium hirtipupa Lutz, 1910 in populations from the biomes Caatinga, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest. In this study, we carried out phylogeographic and population genetic analyses using a fragment of the mitochondrial gene COI. The 19 populations studied were clustered into seven groups, most of which are associated with geography indicating certain genetic structure. The northern region of the state of Minas Gerais is most likely the center of origin of this species. The average intergroup genetic distance was 3.7%, indicating the presence of cryptic species. The species tree as well as the haplotype network recovered all groups forming two major groups: the first comprises groups Gr-Bahia (in which the São Francisco river has not acted as geographical barrier, Gr-Pernambuco, and Gr-Mato Grosso do Sul. The second included groups comprising populations of the states of Goiás, Tocantins, Minas Gerais, Bahia, São Paulo, and Espírito Santo. The mismatch distribution for groups was consistent with the model of demographic expansion, except for the Gr-Central-East_1 group. The diversification in this group occurred about 1.19 Mya during the Pleistocene, influenced by paleoclimatic oscillations during the Quaternary glacial cycles.

  8. Cytotaxonomy of Simulium cauchense Floch & Abonnenc and Simulium quadrifidum Lutz (Diptera: Simuliidae in Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Adriana Alvan-Aguilar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulium cauchense Floch & Abonnenc and Simulium quadrifidum Lutz are widely distributed in the Amazon region and are morphologically similar at the larval and pupal stages. Chromosomally, these species are readily distinguished by the position of the nucleolar organizer, which is in the short arm of chromosome I in S. cauchense and in the long arm of chromosomes III in S. quadrifidum. They also differ by three fixed inversions. Sex chromosomes are undifferentiated in both species. Chromosomal resolution of the two species allowed us to evaluate four structural features previously used as diagnostic aids at the larval stage. Characters that distinguish larvae of the two species are the number of branches and branching patterns of the dorsal abdominal setae and the dark band on each primary fan. Branching patterns of the gill histoblasts were often diagnostic, with S. quadrifidum exhibiting more proximal branching and S. cauchense more distal branching. Sites where both species occurred sometimes had larvae with one petiole branching proximally and the other distally; in these cases examination of the chromosomes permitted assignment of the specimen to species. Pigmentation patterns of larvae, on the other hand, are highly variable. Color typically is sex linked in both species.

  9. Adolpho Lutz: um esboço biográfico

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    Benchimol Jaime Larry

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo retrata as origens familares e a trajetória de Adolpho Lutz (1855-1940 até sua transferência para o Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC, em 1908. Utiliza o cientista como fio condutor para a análise da instituição das medicinas pasteuriana e tropical no Brasil. Examina seus estudos superiores e de aperfeiçoamento na Europa germânica, suas atividades como clínico e como investigador de temas relacionados à helmintologia, parasitologia, veterinária e bacteriologia no interior de São Paulo, sua estada no leprosário de Molokai, no Havaí, e controvérsias médicas de que participou durante o período em que chefiou o Instituto Bacteriológico de São Paulo, especialmente aquelas concernentes ao cólera, às disenterias, à febre tifóide, à malária e à febre amarela.

  10. Lewandowsky and Lutz dysplasia: Report of two cases in a family

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    Bhawna Bhutoria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lewandowsky and Lutz dysplasia, also known as epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV, is an inherited disorder in which there is widespread and persistent infection with human papilloma virus, defect in cell-mediated immunity and propensity for malignant transformation. Differential clinical and histopathologic evolutions of lesions in two cases of familial EV are compared and discussed in detail. Cases were followed up for 7 years. Detailed history, clinical features and investigations, including skin biopsy from different sites at different times, were examined. Generalized pityriasis versicolor like hypopigmented lesions in both the cases, together with variable pigmented nodular actinic keratosis like lesions on sun-exposed areas, were present. Multiple skin biopsies done from various sites on different occasions revealed features typical of EV along with lesions, i.e., actinic keratosis, Bowen′s disease, basal and squamous cell carcinoma, in the elder sibling. However, skin biopsy of the other sibling showed features of EV and seborrheic keratosis only till date. This study reveals that the disease progression is variable among two individuals of the same family. Malignant lesions were seen only on sun-exposed areas and may be associated with other skin lesions or infections such as angiokeratoma of Fordyce and tinea cruris, as seen in this report.

  11. The last scream: the distress call of a probably extinct Brazilian anuran (Holoaden bradei Lutz, 1958).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Amanda; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2016-11-03

    The genus Holoaden Miranda-Ribeiro (Anura, Craugastoridae, Holoadeninae) includes four species endemic to the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest, which occur in cloud forests at high elevations (Lutz 1958, Pombal et al. 2008, Martins & Zaher 2013). Out of these, two species are considered threatened by Ministério do Meio Ambiente (2014): H. bradei is classified as critically endangered (CR) and H. luederwaldti as endangered (EN). Holoaden bradei might be already extinct in the wild, as it has not been recorded in the last 40 years in spite of intense scientific activity within its original distribution range (Rocha & van Sluys 2004). The advertisement call has been described only for Holoaden luederwaldti (Martins 2010). Call descriptions, especially of advertisement calls, are important sources of evidence in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies (Roy 1996, Toledo et al. 2007, Andrade et al. 2016). However, there are other call types (see classification in Toledo et al. 2015) that can be used in absence of advertisement calls (e.g., Grenat & Martino 2013). We recently had access to a recording made in 1960's of the distress call of H. bradei. We hereby describe this call.

  12. Breeding phenology of Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Sicilia

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 is a common species that inhabits a wide variety of habitats. The different climates characterising its broad range lead to a high degree of variability in its seasonal activity and reproductive cycle. This paper reports some observations carried out on the breeding phenology of this species over a two year period in Mediterranean temporary ponds in Sicily. The reproductive period of Sicilian green toads extends into the autumn months, making it longer than that of other Italian populations. This behaviour seems due to the impact of xeric environmental conditions on the seasonal activity of the studied populations. The present study confirms that B. viridis is an opportunistic breeder with a wide margin of variability in annual reproductive cycle patterns, as would be expected of an ecologically variable species. The duration of the reproductive season varied between populations in the same year and between different years for the same population.

  13. Polyspermy in Bufo arenarum oocytes matured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oterino, J; Sánchez Toranzo, G; Zelarayán, L; Bühler, M I

    1997-08-01

    Full-grown ovarian oocytes of the amphibian Bufo arenarum were induced to mature in vitro by removing the follicular layers (spontaneous maturation) or by treatment with progesterone (hormone-induced maturation). These oocytes were then treated with trypsin and inseminated with homologous spermatozoa. Oocytes matured in vivo that had not undergone any influence of the oviducts (coelomic oocytes), inseminated under the same experimental conditions, were used as controls. The results show that oocytes induced to mature in vitro and exhibiting apparently normal signs of activation were polyspermic. In fact, 2 h after insemination numerous functioning pronuclei could be observed in the animal hemisphere. These results suggest that even though the oocytes which matured in vitro were able to undergo activation after insemination, they were unable to establish an effective block to polyspermy.

  14. Cd, Cu, Zn, Se, and metallothioneins in two amphibians, Necturus maculosus (Amphibia, Caudata) and Bufo bufo (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovoljc, Katarina; Falnoga, Ingrid; Žnidarič, Magda Tušek; Mazej, Darja; Ščančar, Janez; Bulog, Boris

    2012-12-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, its affinity for metallothioneins (MTs), and its relation to copper, zinc, and selenium were investigated in the experimental mudpuppy Necturus maculosus and the common toad Bufo bufo captured in nature. Specimens of N. maculosus were exposed to waterborne Cd (85 μg/L) for up to 40 days. Exposure resulted in tissue-dependent accumulation of Cd in the order kidney, gills > intestine, liver, brain > pancreas, skin, spleen, and gonads. During the 40-day exposure, concentrations increased close to 1 μg/g in kidneys and gills (0.64-0.95 and 0.52-0.76; n = 4), whereas the levels stayed below 0.5 in liver (0.14-0.29; n = 4) and other organs. Cd exposure was accompanied by an increase of Zn and Cu in kidneys and Zn in skin, while a decrease of Cu was observed in muscles and skin. Cytosol metallothioneins (MTs) were detected as Cu,Zn-thioneins in liver and Zn,Cu-thioneins in gills and kidney, with the presence of Se in all cases. After exposure, Cd binding to MTs was clearly observed in cytosol of gills as Zn,Cu,Cd-thionein and in pellet extract of kidneys as Zn,Cu,Cd-thioneins. The results indicate low Cd storage in liver with almost undetectable Cd in liver MT fractions. In field trapped Bufo bufo (spring and autumn animals), Cd levels were followed in four organs and found to be in the order kidney > liver (0.56-5.0 μg/g >0.03-0.72 μg/g; n = 11, spring and autumn animals), with no detectable Cd in muscle and skin. At the tissue level, high positive correlations between Cd, Cu, and Se were found in liver (all r > 0.80; α = 0.05, n = 5), and between Cd and Se in kidney (r = 0.76; n = 5) of autumn animals, possibly connected with the storage of excess elements in biologically inert forms. In the liver of spring animals, having higher tissue level of Cd than autumn ones, part of the Cd was identified as Cu,Zn,Cd-thioneins with traces of Se. As both species are special in having liver Cu levels higher than

  15. Age-dependent changes in sensitivity to a pesticide in tadpoles of the common toad (Bufo bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, Zsanett; Ujszegi, János; Hettyey, Attila

    2017-06-01

    The worldwide en masse application of pesticides and the frequently reported malign effects on several non-target organisms underpin the importance of ecotoxicological research on these anthropogenic pollutants. Previous studies showed that sensitivity to herbicides can vary widely depending on additional stress factors, on the species and even on the population investigated. However, there is little information about how sensitivity changes during ontogeny, and how the duration of exposure is linked to the magnitude of malign effects, even though this knowledge would be important for the interpretation of toxicity test results and for formulating recommendations regarding the timing of pesticide application. We exposed tadpoles of the common toad (Bufo bufo) to three concentrations (0, 2 and 4mg a.e./L) of a glyphosate-based herbicide during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, or 5th period of larval development or during the entire experiment, and measured survival, time until metamorphosis and body mass at metamorphosis to estimate fitness-consequences. Younger tadpoles were more sensitive to the herbicide in all measured traits than older ones, and this age-dependence was especially pronounced at the high herbicide concentration. Furthermore, tadpoles exposed to the herbicide during the entire experiment developed slower than tadpoles exposed only early on, but we did not observe a similar effect either on body mass or survival. The observed age-dependence of sensitivity to herbicides draws attention to the fact that results of toxicity tests obtained for one age-class are not necessarily generalizable across ontogeny. Also, the age of test animals has to be considered when planning ecotoxicological studies and interpreting their results. Finally, taking into account the temporal breeding habits of local amphibians when planning pesticide application would be highly favourable: if tadpoles would not get exposed to the herbicide during their most sensitive early development

  16. Effects of spirotetramat on the acute toxicity, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation in Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, XiaoHui; Jiang, ShengJu; Yu, Jun; Zhu, GuoNian; Wu, HuiMing; Mao, ChenLei

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential effects of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation parameters as indicators of exposure to spirotetramat and effects of acute toxicity in the Chinese toad Bufo bufo gargarizans. The results of an acute toxicity test showed that the 72 and 96 h median lethal concentrations (LC(50)) of spirotetramat for tadpoles were 6.98 and 6.45 mg/L, respectively. It indicated that the spirotetramat was moderate toxicity to Chinese toad tadpoles. In a sub-lethal toxicity test, the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were determined after exposure to 0.03, 0.06, 0.13, 0.65, and 3.23 mg/L for 4, 15, and 30 days. SOD activity significantly in all experimental groups except the highest concentration group increased on day 4 but decreased on days 15 compared with that of the acetone control (P < 0.05). The most sensitive parameters was GSH-Px activity, which significantly increased on day 4, but was inhibited and decreased after prolonged exposure for 15 and 30 days except the lowest concentration treatment group (P < 0.05). The MDA content significantly decreased on day 30 (P < 0.05). During the entire experimental period, sub-lethal doses spirotetramat caused oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in B. gargarizans tadpoles. These results indicate that sub-lethal even non-lethal spirotetramat are potentially toxic to amphibians. The information presented in this study will be helpful for understanding oxidative stress induced by spirotetramat in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening breeding sites of the common toad (Bufo bufo) in England and Wales for evidence of endocrine disrupting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, Daniel B; Jones, Alexandra; Velez-Pelez, Alejandra; Orton, Frances; Iguchi, Taisen; Mitsui, Naoko; Tooi, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    Anuran amphibians are often present in agricultural landscapes and may therefore be exposed to chemicals in surface waters used for breeding. We used passive accumulation devices (SPMD and POCIS) to sample contaminants from nine breeding sites of the Common toad (Bufo bufo) across England and Wales, measuring endocrine activity of the extracts in a recombinant yeast androgen screen (YAS) and yeast estrogen screen (YES) and an in vitro vitellogenin induction screen in primary culture of Xenopus laevis hepatocytes. We also assessed hatching, growth, survival, and development in caged larvae in situ, and sampled metamorphs for gonadal histopathology. None of the SPMD extracts exhibited estrogen receptor or androgen receptor agonist activity, while POCIS extracts from two sites in west-central England exhibited concentration-dependent androgenic activity in the YAS. Three sites exhibited significant estrogenic activity in both the YES and the Xenopus hepatocyte. Hatching rates varied widely among sites, but there was no consistent correlation between hatching rate and intensity of agricultural activity, predicted concentrations of agrochemicals, or endocrine activity measured in YES/YAS assays. While a small number of intersex individuals were observed, their incidence could not be associated with predicted pesticide exposure or endocrine activitity measured in the in vitro screens. There were no significant differences in sex ratio, as determined by gonadal histomorphology among the study sites, and no significant correlation was observed between proportion of males and predicted exposure to agrochemicals. However, a negative correlation did become apparent in later sampling periods between proportion of males and estrogenic activity of the POCIS sample, as measured in the YES. Our results suggest that larval and adult amphibians may be exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals in breeding ponds, albeit at low concentrations, and that chemical contaminants other than

  18. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  19. Evaluation of DNA damage in Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) after in vivo exposure to sublethal concentrations of four herbicides using the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao Hui; Li, Shao Nan; Zhang, Le; Zhu, Guo Nian; Zhuang, Hui Sheng

    2008-05-01

    Chinese toad, Bufo bufo gargarizans, is frequently found in rice fields, muddy ponds, wetlands and other aquatic ecosystems in China. Because of its habitat, it has many chances of being exposed to pesticides, such as acetochlor, butachlor, chlorimuron-ethyl, and paraquat, which are extensively used in rice or cereal fields. Amphibians may serve as model organisms for determining the genotoxic effects of pollutants contaminating these areas. In the present study DNA damage was evaluated in the Chinese toad using the comet assay, as a potential tool for the assessment of ecogenotoxicity. The first step was to determine the acute toxicity of the above-mentioned herbicides. In acute tests, tadpoles were exposed to a series of relatively high concentrations of acetochlor, butachlor, chlorimuron-ethyl, and paraquat for 96 h. The LC(50 )(96 h) of acetochlor, butachlor, chlorimuron-ethyl and paraquat were measured as 0.76, 1.32, 20.1 and 164 mg l(-1), respectively. Also, negative effects on the behavior of tadpoles were observed with acetochlor, butachlor, and paraquat. Secondly, the comet assay was used for detecting DNA damage in Chinese toad tadpoles exposed to sublethal concentrations of four herbicides. Significant (P Bufo bufo gargarizans for genotoxicity assessment of herbicides.

  20. Stereological analysis of mitochondria in embryos of Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo during cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krzysztofowicz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Total numbers of mitochondria and their morphology have been quantitatively determined in mature oocytes and in cleaving embryos of two anuran species Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo using stereological methods. Surface densities of inner mitochondrial membranes for both studied species during cleavage ranged from 5.43 m2/cm3 to 7.53 m2/cm3, whereas volume densities of mitochondria did not exceed 1.65%. Since values of these parameters were low, thus embryos during cleavage may be considered as metabolically "silent". Transition of ultrastructural morphology of mitochondria towards that characterising actively respiring organelles occurs at stage 9 for R. temporaria and at stage 8 for B. bufo, correlated with blastula-gastrula and mid-blastula transition, respectively. The total numbers of mitochondria N(c in mature oocytes are as high as 114.8 and 107.2 millions for R. temporaria and B. bufo, respectively, and during cleavage at late blastula stages they increase to 300 millions for both species under study. We suggest that an undefined mechanism might eliminate during cleavage those amphibian embryos which contain small number of mitochondria and low levels of nutrient substances.

  1. Histochemical and structural characterization of egg extra-cellular matrix in bufonid toads, Bufo bufo and Bufotes balearicus: molecular diversity versus morphological uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentino, Donatella; Mastrodonato, Maria; Rossi, Roberta; Scillitani, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    The extra-cellular matrix of fertilized eggs in the bufonid toads Bufo bufo and Bufotes balearicus was studied to clear the relationships between structural and molecular diversity. Histochemical (PAS, AB pH 2.5 and pH 1.0, Beta-elimination PAS) and lectin-histochemical (Con A, WGA, Succinyl-WGA, PNA, RCA-1, DBA, SBA, AAA, UEA-I, LTA) techniques were used and the observations were made under light and electron microscopy. Both species present a fertilization envelope (FE) and two jelly layers (J1 and J2). The fibers of J2 are shared among the eggs of a clutch in a jelly ribbon. The FE of both species presents neutral glycoproteins, mostly N-linked. In B. bufo there are also residuals of mannose and/or glucose and N-acetylglucosamine. In the FE fibers run parallel to egg's surface or are in bundles or looser hanks with no clear orientation. The J1 layer of both species presents sialosulfoglycoproteins, mostly O-linked, with lactosaminylated, galactosaminylated, glycosaminylated, and fucosylated residuals. A lower amount of galactosaminylated residuals is observed in B. balearicus in respect to B. bufo, whereas the opposite is seen in the amount of fucosylated residuals. The J2 layer is similar in composition to J1 but in B. balearicus there are no glucosaminylated residuals. J layers present fibers and granules that reduce towards J2 . Several microorganisms, in particular blue algae, are observed in the J2 layer of both species. In respect to other species, B. bufo and B. balearicus have a lower number of jelly layers, but a comparable number of glycan types. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Bromeliaceae do Herbário do Dr. Adolpho Lutz: Encholirium Lutzii L. B. Smith n. sp

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    Lyman B. Smith

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available Encholirium Lutzii is distinguished from the majority of species by its branched inflorescence. Only E. horridum L. B. Smith and rarely E. spectabile Martius exhibit this character, but have much larger flowers than E. Lutzii and stout floral axes. Also the wing of the seed in E. horridum is very long-caudate. We feel that it is particularly appropriate to dedicate this new species to Dr. Adolpho Lutz because of his great discoveries in the biological relationships of the Bromeliaceae.

  3. Evidence of phenotypic plasticity of larvae of Simulium subpallidum Lutz in different streams from the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Figueiró

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the overall morphological differences between populations of Simulium subpallidum Lutz, 1909 are studied. Several studies found in the literature point to a relationship between the labral fans and body size and the habitat where blackfly larvae occur. However, other characteristics potentially related to the microhabitat, such as abdominal hook circlet morphology, which is used for larvae to fix themselves in the substratum, and thoracic prolegs morphology, which help larvae move in the substratum, were analyzed in three different populations of S. subpallidum, one of which occupied a faster flow. The results suggest phenotypic plasticity in S. subpallidum and a tendency toward larger structures in faster flows.

  4. Evaluation of authenticity of alcoholic beverage samples examined by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    NAGATO Leticia Araujo Farah; Duran,Maria Cristina; CARUSO Miriam Solange Fernandes; BARSOTTI Roberto Carlos Fernandes; BADOLATO, Elza Schwarz Gastaldo

    2001-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a autenticidade de bebidas alcoólicas (whisky, vodka, conhaque de gengibre, etc.) enviadas para análise ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz no período de 1993 a agosto de 1999. Devido à presença no mercado nacional de bebidas alcoólicas clandestinas, principalmente aquelas com alto valor agregado, foi realizado o monitoramento através da análise de composição química destas bebidas. Normalmente estes produtos são elaborados com álcool, água, aroma e corante car...

  5. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Doris Sobral Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  6. Luta pela sobrevivência: a vida de um hanseniano através da correspondência com Adolpho Lutz Fight for survival: the life of a Hansen's disease sufferer through his correspondence with Adolpho Lutz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Larry Benchimol

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta a série completa da correspondência da família de um portador do mal de Hansen residente no Maranhão, Nordeste do Brasil, com o médico e bacteriologista Adolpho Lutz. Fabrício Caldas de Oliveira e Numa Pires de Oliveira, pai e filho, mantiveram durante mais de vinte anos intensa troca de cartas com o cientista na busca da cura da doença que vitimava Numa desde criança. As 24 cartas aqui reunidas retratam, de maneira única, o drama médico-social enfrentado por esta família, os resultados do uso do chalmugra e outros medicamentos, a busca de tratamentos alternativos.This project presents the complete set of letters between the family of a Hansen's disease (leprosy sufferer in the state of Maranhão, in the northeast of Brazil, and the doctor and bacteriologist Adolpho Lutz. For more than twenty years Fabrício Caldas de Oliveira and Numa Pires de Oliveira, father and son, exchanged a steady flow of letters with the scientist in pursuit of a cure for the disease that had assailed Numa since childhood. The 24 letters compiled here paint a unique portrait of the medical and social drama confronted by this family, and the results of the use of chaulmoogra oil and other medications in their search for alternative treatments.

  7. Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis

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    Isioma Tongo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE, corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxidative stress. Toads were exposed to 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 g/L for 28 days. Brain AChE activity reduced by 96% in the highest concentration (0.04 g/L compared to the control brain. Similarly, AChE activities in serum, liver, lungs and GIT tissues (88%, 88%, 87, 87% umg-1 protein respectively were also inhibited in the toads. Corticosterone and total protein levels in the tissues decreased compared to the control. The accumulation results obtained showed accumulation in the tissues (liver>serum>brain> lung>GIT, with a direct relationship between tissue concentration and changes in the biochemical indices. The alterations in all the indices were significantly concentration dependent. The biomarkers described in this study could be useful complementary indices in the risk assessment of diazinon pesticide.

  8. Hermann Lutz v Elke Bäuerle o de la ley aplicable a las acciones revocatorias concursales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA CARBALLO PIÑEIRO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Transactional avoidance is typically an insolvency-related matter and the international jurisdiction and conflict of laws issues arising from it are solved accordingly. However and taking into account third parties’ expectations and the certainty of transactions, the application of the lex fori concursus to transactional avoidance may be avoided by opposing that the challenged transaction is not in accordance with lexcausae. The issue arising from this approach is that the success of a cross-border avoidance proceeding and in general insolvency proceedings’ objectives, are seriously hampered by this exception as evidence by the CJUE Hermann Lutz judgment. Las acciones revocatorias concursales se clasifican como materia concursal de modo que las cuestiones de competencia judicial internacional y ley aplicable se resuelven de acuerdo con esta caracterización. Ahora bien y teniendo en cuenta las expectativas de terceros y la seguridad de las transacciones, se permite oponer a la aplicación de la lex fori concursus a este tipo de acciones, que el acto impugnado no es impugnable en modo alguno de acuerdo con la lex causae. La problemática que esta excepción plantea es que compromete seriamente el éxito de las acciones revocatorias concursales transfronterizas y, en general, el de los objetivos del concurso, tal y como se puede apreciar de las consecuencia de la sentencia del TJUE Hermann Lutz.

  9. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowiong behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva)(Diptera: Psychodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Hamilton, J.G.C.; Ward, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to

  10. The supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor blocks hepatitis B virus antigen secretion in HepG2.2.15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Wang, Dongliang; Gao, Jianjun; Qi, Fanghua; Gao, Bo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fang, Dingzhi; Tang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor has long been used for the treatment of hepatitis B in China and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO₂) is widely used in extracting active ingredients from natural products. The aim of present study was to assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of the supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (SCE-BC). Cytotoxicity of SCE-BC was analyzed using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay in HepG2.2.15 cells. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. HBV mRNA in cells was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. SCE-BC concentrations below 10(-2) μg/mL had no significant toxicity to HepG2.2.15 cells. SCE-BC at 10(-4) μg/mL effectively inhibited the secretion of HBeAg by 23.36% on day 6. It was more potent than the positive control lamivudine (100 μg/mL) in terms of the inhibition of HBeAg and HBcrAg secretion on day 6. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, HBV mRNA expression was markedly inhibited in comparison to the control when HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with SCE-BC. Moreover, SCE-BC had greater inhibitory activity with respect to HBeAg than to HBsAg. Since HBeAg promotes immune tolerance and persistent infection during HBV infection, the present results suggest that immune tolerance induced by HBeAg might be overcome by SCE-BC. Therefore, SCE-BC warrants further investigation.

  11. Cloning the sterol carrier protein 2 genes of Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) and Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) and its tissue expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yu-Cheng; Zhuge, Hui; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Shu-Fang; Yang, Xian-Yu

    2014-09-01

    In this study, to clarify the bioactive polypeptides included in the skins and secretions of Bufo, we screened the Japanese toad (Bufo japonicus formosus) skin cDNA liary by colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and obtained a transcript of 1 075 bp consisting of 1 37 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), 515 bp 3' UTR and a 423 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 140 amino acid residues (GenBank accession number: KF359945). Homolog analysis showed a 70%-96% homology with sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) present in other animals, which is implicated in lipid metabolism of other organisms. The gene SCP-2 of Chinese toad (B. gargarizans) was cloned from a first strand cDNA of Bufo skin (GenBank accession number: KF381341) via PCR, whose encoding polypeptide has only one amino acid difference from that of Japanese toad. Tissue distribution analysis showed that SCP-2 expressed in all organs tested, though in the liver and spleen it manifested lower expression than in other organs. These findings might indicate SCP-2 being one of the active ingredients in toad skin. These findings may in turn have implications for further drug development from traditional Chinese medicine sources.

  12. Selection of diet by metamorphic and juvenile western toads (Bufo boreas) in northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn L Bull; Jane L. Hayes

    2009-01-01

    The decline of Bufo boreas, the Western Toad, in portions of its range has accentuated the need for more complete information on all life stages of this species. Our objectives were to describe the diet of recently metamorphosed and juvenile (one-year old) B. boreas and then compare it to the available arthropods. Metamorphs (n...

  13. Habitat modeling and movements of the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.T. Liang

    2010-01-01

    The Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) canorus) is a high-elevation species endemic to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in California and is part of the world-wide amphibian declines phenomenon. The toad is thought to have disappeared from over 50% of its historic range even in seemingly undisturbed areas, and...

  14. Summer movements of boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in two western Montana basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Schmetterling; Michael K. Young

    2008-01-01

    The Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas) is widely distributed in the western United States but has declined in portions of its range. Research directed at conserving Boreal Toads has indicated that their movements are largely terrestrial and often limited after the breeding season. We used a combination of stream-based netting, PIT tagging, and radio...

  15. POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD, BUFO PUNCTATUS, IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the spatial scale at which genetic structure of Bufo punctatus within the MojaveDesert is organized by sequencing a portion of mitochondrial DNA control region for 831 toadscollected from 43 sites around Las Vegas, Nevada. We grouped these collecti...

  16. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  17. Sexual differences in the ecology and habitat selection of western toads (Bufo boreas) in northeastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn L. Bull

    2006-01-01

    Several species of toads (family Bufonidae), including the Western Toad (bufo boreas) have declined in the Western United States. Information on toad ecology and habitat use is essential to determine potential causes for population declines, as is the potential relationship between this information and disturbance events. Aspects of western toad...

  18. Short notes and reviews Bidder’s organ in the female of Bufo ictericus: morphological characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farias, C.F.; Brito-Gitirana, de L.; Carvalho-e-Silva, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Bidder’s organ has been cited as a structure present only in males of the toad family Bufonidae, and is used as a systematic characteristic. In this study, we examined females of Bufo ictericus in order to ascertain whether this structure also occurs in females. Macroscopic observations and light

  19. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late...

  20. The envelopes of amphibian oocytes: physiological modifications in Bufo arenarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Mercedes

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A characterization of the Amphibian Bufo arenarum oocyte envelope is presented. It was made in different functional conditions of the oocyte: 1 when it has been released into the coelomic cavity during ovulation (surrounded by the coelomic envelope, (CE, 2 after it has passed through the oviduct and is deposed (surrounded by the viteline envelope, (VE, and 3 after oocyte activation (surrounded by the fertilization envelope, (FE. The characterization was made by SDS-PAGE followed by staining for protein and glycoproteins. Labeled lectins were used to identify glycosidic residues both in separated components on nitrocellulose membranes or in intact oocytes and embryos. Proteolytic properties of the content of the cortical granules were also analyzed. After SDS-PAGE of CE and VE, a different protein pattern was observed. This is probably due to the activity of a protease present in the pars recta of the oviduct. Comparison of the SDS-PAGE pattern of VE and FE showed a different mobility for one of the glycoproteins, gp75. VE and FE proved to have different sugar residues in their oligosaccharide chains. Mannose residues are only present in gp120 of the three envelopes. N-acetyl-galactosamine residues are present in all of the components, except for gp69 in the FE. Galactose residues are present mainly in gp120 of FE. Lectin-binding assays indicate the presence of glucosamine, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine residues and the absence (or non-availability of N-acetyl-glucosamine or fucose residues on the envelopes surface. The cortical granule product (CGP shows proteolytic activity on gp75 of the VE.

  1. Electrical responses of rods in the retina of Bufo marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetto, L.; Pasino, E.; Torre, V.

    1977-01-01

    1. Intracellular responses to flashes and steps of light have been recorded from the outer segment and the cell body of rods in the retina of the Bufo marinus. The identification of the origin of recorded responses has been confirmed by intracellular marking. 2. Responses to flashes delivered in darkness or superimposed on a background were analysed. Responses recorded from outer segments conform to the principle of `spectral univariance'. The shape of the response is not affected by enlarging the spot diameter from 150 to 1000 μm. 3. The membrane potential measured in darkness at the outer segments varied from -15 to -25 mV. Injection of steady hyperpolarizing currents increases the size of the response to light; depolarizing currents reduce the response. The mean value of the input resistance is 97 ± 30 MΩ in darkness and increases by 20-30% during illumination. 4. The responses obtained from the cell body of rods have the same shape, time course and spectral sensitivity of those recorded at the outer segment. Injection of steady current at the cell body produces different effects than at the outer segment: hyperpolarizing currents reduce the amplitude of the response to light; depolarizing currents increase the response. 5. The experimental data are fitted according to a model similar to that used to describe the responses of turtle cones (Baylor & Hodgkin, 1974; Baylor, Hodgkin & Lamb, 1974a, b). 6. The model reproduces the electrical responses of the rod outer segment to a variety of stimuli: (a) brief flashes and steps of light in dark adapted conditions; (b) bright flashes superimposed on background illuminations; (c) pairs of flashes delivered at different time intervals. Responses to hyperpolarizing steps of current are also reproduced by the model. ImagesABCD PMID:406383

  2. Determination of impacts on the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge from ammonium nitrate concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) is found only as a reintroduced population at Mortenson NWR in the Laramie Plains of southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the...

  3. Avoidance responses to scents of snakes that pose different risks of predation by adult natterjack toads, Bufo calamita

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalo, Adega; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2008-01-01

    ... ( Bufo calamita Laurenti, 1768) was influenced by the presence in the refuge of chemical cues from conspecifics or from two different snake predators ( Natrix maura (L., 1758) and Natrix natrix (L., 1758...

  4. A microchannel confocal examination of arsenic speciation and distribution in Bufo americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Gordon, Robert A.; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2016-05-01

    We have used confocal methods to examine the distribution and speciation of arsenic within amphibian tissue (Bufo americanus) from a contaminated mine site. The use of new microchannel technology permits a confocal, and energy-independent, examination of a given voxel within the amphibian tissue without the need for sectioning. We observe differences in arsenic concentration and speciation depending on tissue type, with the Eberth- Katschenko layer in particular containing Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in addition to Ca and pentavalent arsenic.

  5. Estereoultraestructura del pulmón de anuros bufónidos. Bufo arenarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermida, Gladys N.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Scanning electron microscopy was used to determined the inner morphology of the Bufo arenarum lung. The observations let conclude that the lung presents three types of folds which divide the organ into alveolar spaces. The inner surface of the lung, as well as the lateral wall of the folds are lined with respiratory epithelium, except in the apex of the primary folds (ciliated surface with goblet cells and in the secondary folds (ciliated surface.

  6. Active urea transport by the skin of Bufo viridis: Amiloride- and phloretin-sensitive transport sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapoport, J.; Abuful, A.; Chaimovitz, C.; Noeh, Z.; Hays, R.M. (Soroka Medical Center, Beersheva (Israel) Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Urea is actively transported inwardly (J{sub i}) across the skin of the green toad Bufo viridis. J{sub i} is markedly enhanced in toads adapted to hypertonic saline. The authors studied urea transport across the skin of Bufo viridis under a variety of experimental conditions, including treatment with amiloride and phloretin, agents that inhibit urea permeability in the bladder of Bufo marinus. Amiloride (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in both adapted and unadapted animals and was unaffected by removal of sodium from the external medium. Phloretin (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in adapted animals by 23-46%; there was also a reduction in J{sub i} in unadapted toads at 10{sup {minus}4} and 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M phloretin. A dose-response study revealed that the concentration of phloretin causing half-maximal inhibition (K{sub {1/2}}) was 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M for adapted animals. J{sub i} was unaffected by the substitution of sucrose for Ringer solution or by ouabain. They conclude (1) the process of adaptation appears to involve an increase in the number of amiloride- and phloretin-inhibitable urea transport sites in the skin, with a possible increase in the affinity of the sites for phloretin; (2) the adapted skin resembles the Bufo marinus urinary bladder with respect to amiloride and phloretin-inhibitable sites; (3) they confirm earlier observations that J{sub i} is independent of sodium transport.

  7. Factors limiting the recovery of boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, C.; Corn, P.S.; Jones, M.S.; Livo, L.J.; Muths, E.; Loeffler, C.W.; Lannoo, M.

    2005-01-01

    Boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas) are widely distributed over much of the mountainous western United States. Populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains suffered extensive declines in the late 1970s through early 1980s (Carey, 1993). At the time, these mass mortalities were thought to be associated with a bacterial infection (Carey, 1993). Although the few populations that survived the mass die-offs were not systematically monitored until at least 1993, no mass mortalities had been observed until 1996 when die-offs were observed. A mycotic skin infection associated with a chytrid fungus is now causing mortality of toads in at least two of the populations (M.S. Jones and D.E. Green, unpublished data; Muths et al., 2003). Boreal toads are now absent throughout large areas of their former distribution in Colorado and southern Wyoming and may be extinct in New Mexico (Corn et al., 1989; Carey, 1993; Stuart and Painter, 1994). These toads are classified as “endangered” by Colorado and New Mexico and are designated as a protected non-game species in Wyoming. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has categorized the Southern Rocky Mountain populations for federal listing and is currently reviewing their designation as a “warranted but precluded” species for possible listing in the next few years. For the management of boreal toads and their habitats, a Boreal Toad Recovery Team was formed by the Colorado Division of Wildlife in 1995 as part of a collaborative effort with federal agencies within the United States’ departments of the Interior and Agriculture and with agencies in two adjoining states. To date, conservation agreements have been signed by eight state and federal agencies and by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. Although boreal toads were considered common throughout their range in Colorado, no comprehensive surveys of the numbers and sizes of their populations were conducted prior to mass die-offs in the 1970s. Surveys completed in the late 1980s to

  8. Concordant morphological and molecular clines in a contact zone of the Common and Spined toad (Bufo bufo and B. spinosus) in the northwest of France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, Jan W; Trujillo, Tania; Butôt, Roland; Vrieling, Klaas; Schaap, Onno; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Jorge; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid zones are regions where individuals of two species meet and produce hybrid progeny, and are often regarded as natural laboratories to understand the process of species formation. Two microevolutionary processes can take place in hybrid zones, with opposing effects on population differentiation. Hybridization tends to produce genetic homogenization, reducing species differences, whereas the presence of mechanisms of reproductive isolation result in barriers to gene flow, maintaining or increasing differences between taxa. Here we study a contact zone between two hybridizing toad species, Bufo bufo and B. spinosus, through a combination of molecular (12 polymorphic microsatellites, four nuclear and two mitochondrial SNP markers) and morphological data in a transect in the northwest of France. The results show largely concordant clines across markers, defining a narrow hybrid zone of ca. 30 km wide. Most hybrids in the centre of the contact zone are classified as F2 or backcrossed individuals, with no individuals assigned to the F1 hybrid class. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of the evolutionary history of these species. We anticipate that the toad contact zone here described will become an important asset in the study of hybrid zone dynamics and evolutionary biology because of its easy access and the abundance of the species involved.

  9. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2015-01-01

    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50% of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The issue of maternal transfer of thallium from females to oocytes is discussed. Due to a significant accumulation of thallium, spawn analysis can be used as a sensitive indicator of the presence of this element in the environment and may replace more invasive methods that involve the killing of adult animals. In those regions that are abundant in Zn-Pb ores, the spawn of amphibians may be a very important source of thallium contamination for predators. From among all tissues of the Bukowno adult toads, the livers have shown the highest accumulation of thallium (mean 3.98 mg/kg d.w. and maximum value--18.63). For as many as 96.5% of livers, concentrations exceeded 1.0 mgTl/kg d.w. which is treated as indicative of poisoning.

  10. How fast do amphibians disperse? Introductions, distribution and dispersal of the common frog Rana temporaria and the common toad Bufo bufo on a coastal island in Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Dolmen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common frog (Rana temporaria and the common toad (Bufo bufo were introduced successfully to the coastal island of Frøya in Central Norway several times during 1960–2012. There is still a very high degree of conformity between sites where they were introduced and the present distribution of the two species. However, in western Frøya, a release of frogs about 1996 was followed by a quick expansion of their distribution area; in 2012 and 2013, breeding was registered close to 7 km westwards and eastwards, respectively, i.e. a population dispersal speed of approximately 0.4 km/yr. On eastern Frøya and some small islands in the archipelago, area expansions at another four frog localities have been prevented by ecological barriers like unfavourable limnetic or terrestrial habitats or salty water. Two local common toad populations on eastern Frøya do not show any expansion either. However, an apparently isolated record of the species on western Frøya in 2011 can possibly be explained by the expansion westwards of a population in northern central Frøya, where toads were introduced around 1995. This stretch is about 9.9 km, i.e. an average population dispersal speed of 0.6 km/yr.

  11. Tissue kinetics, ion transport, and recruitment of mitochondria-rich cells in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo) in response to exposure to distilled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz, Poul Egede; Christoffersen, Betina C.; Johansen, Jesper S.

    1995-01-01

    studied in toads (Bufo bufo) immediately before, and after 2,7, and 14 days exposure to distilled water. General epidermal structure was not affected. However, the numbers of MRCs per mm2 (DMRC) increased throughout the experiment as revealed by staining of epidermal sheets with AgNO3 (Ag) or methylene...... blue (MB). Part of the increased DMRC was accounted for by an increase in MRC subpopulation(s) that stained neither with Ag nor MB. The cell birth rate (Kb) decreased and cell loss by moulting (Kd) increased without any significant change in epidermal cell pool size, indicating a reduced apoptotic rate...

  12. Monitoramento da autenticidade de amostras de bebidas alcoólicas enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo Evaluation of authenticity of alcoholic beverage samples examined by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Araujo Farah NAGATO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a autenticidade de bebidas alcoólicas (whisky, vodka, conhaque de gengibre, etc. enviadas para análise ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz no período de 1993 a agosto de 1999. Devido à presença no mercado nacional de bebidas alcoólicas clandestinas, principalmente aquelas com alto valor agregado, foi realizado o monitoramento através da análise de composição química destas bebidas. Normalmente estes produtos são elaborados com álcool, água, aroma e corante caramelo e que por falta de controle dessas matérias-primas, podem oferecer risco potencial à saúde humana pela presença de metanol. A técnica empregada na análise dos componentes secundários e metanol das amostras foi realizada através da cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de ionização de chama. Observou-se que em 608 amostras de bebidas alcoólicas analisadas, 391 eram falsificadas e dentre estas 2 apresentaram teores de metanol acima do limite tolerado (200mg/100mL de álcool anidro pela legislação em vigor. Os resultados obtidos sugerem uma grande persistência em se produzir bebidas alcoólicas falsificadas. Desta forma, é muito importante estar sempre monitorando estes produtos e identificando os diferentes tipos de falsificações existentes no país.This work aimed at verifying the authenticity of alcoholic beverages (whisky, vodka, ginger spirit, etc. sent for analysis by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo from 1993 to August 1999. The chemical composition of these drinks was studied because of the presence of illicit alcoholic beverages on the national market, especially those with a high commercial value. These products are usually elaborated with alcohol, water, flavor and caramel coloring. Since there is no control over these raw materials, these drinks could offer a potential risk to human health because of the presence of methanol. The method employed in the analysis of congeners and methanol in alcoholic

  13. Volunteer Conservation Action Data Reveals Large-Scale and Long-Term Negative Population Trends of a Widespread Amphibian, the Common Toad (Bufo bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovan, Silviu O; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2016-01-01

    Rare and threatened species are the most frequent focus of conservation science and action. With the ongoing shift from single-species conservation towards the preservation of ecosystem services, there is a greater need to understand abundance trends of common species because declines in common species can disproportionately impact ecosystems function. We used volunteer-collected data in two European countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Switzerland, since the 1970s to assess national and regional trends for one of Europe's most abundant amphibian species, the common toad (Bufo bufo). Millions of toads were moved by volunteers across roads during this period in an effort to protect them from road traffic. For Switzerland, we additionally estimated trends for the common frog (Rana temporaria), a similarly widespread and common amphibian species. We used state-space models to account for variability in detection and effort and included only populations with at least 5 years of data; 153 populations for the UK and 141 for Switzerland. Common toads declined continuously in each decade in both countries since the 1980s. Given the declines, this common species almost qualifies for International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red-listing over this period despite volunteer conservation efforts. Reasons for the declines and wider impacts remain unknown. By contrast, common frog populations were stable or increasing in Switzerland, although there was evidence of declines after 2003. "Toads on Roads" schemes are vital citizen conservation action projects, and the data from such projects can be used for large scale trend estimations of widespread amphibians. We highlight the need for increased research into the status of common amphibian species in addition to conservation efforts focusing on rare and threatened species.

  14. Comparison of toad skins Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor from different regions for their active constituents content and cytotoxic activity on lung carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Congyan; Cao, Wei; Chen, Yan; Qu, Ding; Zhou, Jing

    2014-07-01

    The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor, rich in bufadienolides, peptides, and alkaloids, has approved pharmacological activity for preliminary anti-liver and lung tumor treatment. However, few studies have systematically focused on the influence of the producing regions on the content and antitumor activity of the active constituents in toad skins. This study aims to compare toad skins obtained from six different regions in China (Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan, Hebei, Jiangxi, and Shandong province) for their bufadienolide and alkaloid content, and their cytotoxic activity on two lung carcinoma cell lines (SPC-A-1 cells and A549 cells). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to quantificationally determine four bufadienolides, which included bufotalin, bufalin, cinobufagin, and resibufogenin in toad skins, from six different regions, respectively. In addition, an ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer was also employed to identify the content of the total alkaloids using 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) as the reference substance. An MTT assay was performed to compare the antiproliferative effects of the toad skins' ethanolic extracts from the different regions against SPC-A-1 and A549 cells. In this study, the toad skins from Jiangsu province had the highest amount of bufadienolides (472.6 μg/g crude drug) and alkaloids (1.51 mg/g crude drug). Meanwhile, according to the extract, it exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect against the lung carcinoma cell line (SPC-A-1 cells and A549 cells) with IC50 values of 24.82 ± 0.76 and 23.77 ± 0.63 μg crude drug/mL, respectively. The toad skins that originated from the Jiangsu province, have comparatively greater advantages over samples from other regions as far as active constituent content and potential anti-lung cancer activity is concerned, suggesting that it can be a promising chemotherapeutic agent in lung cancer therapy, in further studies.

  15. Body size, nuptial pad size and hormone levels: potential non-destructive biomarkers of reproductive health in wild toads (Bufo bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Baynes, Alice; Clare, Frances; Duffus, Amanda L J; Larroze, Severine; Scholze, Martin; Garner, Trenton W J

    2014-09-01

    Amphibians are declining and fertility/fecundity are major drivers of population stability. The development of non-destructive methods to assess reproductive health are needed as destructive measures are fundamentally at odds with conservation goals for declining species. We investigated the utility of body size, nuptial pad size and forelimb width as non-destructive biomarkers of internal reproductive physiology, by analysing correlations with commonly used destructive methods in adult male toads (Bufo bufo) from a low human impact and a high human impact site. Principal component analyses revealed that size was the most important variable for explaining inter-individual differences in other measured endpoints, both non-destructive and destructive, except for hormone levels and nuptial pad, which were independent of size. Toads from the LI and the HI site differed in almost all of the measured endpoints; this was largely driven by the significantly smaller size of toads from the HI site. Correlational analyses within sites revealed that size was correlated with several reproductive endpoints in toads from the HI site but not the LI site, indicating a possible limiting effect of size on reproductive physiology. Intersex was observed in 33% of toads from the HI site and incidence was not related to any other measured endpoint. In conclusion, we provide evidence that size is associated with reproductive physiology and that nuptial pad/hormone levels have potential as additional markers due to their independence from size. We also show that human activities can have a negative effect on reproductive physiology of the common toad.

  16. Cinobufacini, an aqueous extract from Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor, induces apoptosis through a mitochondria-mediated pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fanghua; Li, Anyuan; Zhao, Lin; Xu, Huanli; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Wang, Dongliang; Cui, Xiaoyan; Gao, Bo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Nakata, Munehiro; Tang, Wei

    2010-04-21

    Cinobufacini (Huachansu), an aqueous extract from the skin and parotid venom glands of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor, is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used in clinical cancer therapy in China. The present study sought to investigate the possible signaling pathway implicated in cinobufacini-induced apoptosis in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG(2) and Bel-7402. The effects of cinobufacini on cell proliferation of HepG(2) and Bel-7402 cells were evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry analysis. The mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim) and caspase-9 and -3 activity were detected using MitoCapture reagent staining and colorimetric assays, respectively. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins and release of cytochrome c were assessed by Western blot analysis. Cinobufacini significantly inhibited cell proliferation of both cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Marked changes in apoptotic morphology and apoptosis rates were clearly observed after cinobufacini treatment. The protein expression of Bax increased whereas that of Bcl-2 decreased, leading to an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Subsequently, cinobufacini disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsim) and resulted in the release of cytochrome c, activation of both caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). The present study indicated that cinobufacini can induce apoptosis of HepG(2) and Bel-7402 cells through a mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles: morpho-histological and ultrastructural study on epidermis and iNOS localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Guardia, Antonello; La Russa, Daniele; Madeo, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Sandro; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-10-15

    Endosulfan is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that has lethal and sublethal effects on non-target organisms, including amphibians. In a laboratory study, we investigated direct and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles. For this purpose we exposed the tadpoles to a single short-term contamination event (96 h) at an environmentally-realistic concentration (200 μg endosulfan/L). This was followed by a recovery period of 10 days when the experimental animals were kept in pesticide-free water. The endpoints were assessed in terms of mortality, incidence of deformity, effects on behavior, and the morpho-functional features of the epidermis. We found that a short-term exposure to the tested concentration of endosulfan did not cause mortality but induced severe sublethal effects, such as hyperactivity, convulsions, and axis malformations. Following relocation to a pesticide-free environment, we noted two types of response within the experimental sample, in terms of morphological and behavioral traits. Moreover, by using both ultrastructural and a morpho-functional approach, we found that a short-term exposure to endosulfan negatively affected the amphibian epidermis. We also observed several histo-pathological alterations: increased mucous secretion, an increase in intercellular spaces and extensive cell degeneration, together with the induction of an inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Following the post-exposure period, we found large areas of epidermis in which degeneration phenomena were moderate or absent, as well as a further increase in iNOS immunoreactivity. Thus, after 10 days in a free-pesticide environment, the larval epidermis was able to partially replace elements that had been compromised due to a physiological and/or a pathological response to the pesticide. These results highlight the need for both exposure and post-exposure experiments, when attempting to assess pollutant effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  18. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Olivia; Fabbro, Larelle; Makiela, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine are discussed. PMID:24662524

  19. Toxicity of mine drainage to embryonic and larval boreal toads (Bufonidae: Bufo boreas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, K.R.; Hakanson, D.E.

    1976-05-17

    Chemical analyses and bioassays of mine drainage were made to determine if it could be a factor accounting for the absence of amphibians from Clear Creek County, Colorado. The concentrations of hydrogen ion, iron, copper and zinc in the drainage were all individually much greater than the tolerance levels of premetamorphic toads. The lethality of the drainage was found to be of such a magnitude that it required diluting approximately one thousand times before larvae could survive in it. Boreal toad (Bufo boreas) larvae are more resistant to acidity than most fish but are very similar to other anuran larvae and salmonids in their sensitivity to copper and zinc. (auth)

  20. Cell mediated immune response of Bufo arenarum and Leptodactylus ocellatus (Amphibia, Anura) to mycobacterial antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliess, E L; Salibian, A

    1984-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test was applied to the study of cell mediated immune (CMI) response in vitro to mycobacterial antigens in Bufo arenarum and Leptodactylus ocellatus previously inoculated with a suspension of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The stimulated samples of blood both in B. arenarum and L. ocellatus showed a significant increase in the percent of blastic dedifferentiation (almost 100% with respect to controls) suggesting the presence of a positive CMI response to PPD. The differences were observed on the fifth day of incubation and lasted until the seventh day.

  1. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  2. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Heteren (Netherlands). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D. [University of Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology. Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-01-15

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  3. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS: LONG TERM EVOLUTION WITHIN THE WARM DESERTS OF NORTH AMERICA AND LATE QUATERNARY RANGE SHIFTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a widespread anuran of the warm-desert regions of western North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating biotic response to geotectonically and climatically mediated episodes of landscape transformation (e.g., ear...

  4. WHEN A PHYLOGENETIC TRICHOTOMY MAKES SENSES: PHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF BUFO PUNCTATUS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE WARM DESERTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufo punctatus, the red-spotted toad, is a common, desert-adapted anuran with a widespread distribution throughout warm, and regions of North America. This distribution makes this species ideal for evaluating alternative scenarios of biotic response to geotectonically and climat...

  5. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo panctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the la...

  6. Post-breeding habitat use by adult boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas) after wildfire in Glacier National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Gregory Guscio; Blake R. Hossack; Lisa A. Eby; Paul Stephen Corn

    2008-01-01

    Effects of wildfire on amphibians are complex, and some species may benefit from the severe disturbance of stand-replacing fire. Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA increased in occurrence after fires in 2001 and 2003. We used radio telemetry to track adult B. boreas in a mosaic of terrestrial...

  7. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  8. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  9. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OF INFINITE DISPERSAL: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  10. Age-related seasonal variation in captures of stream-borne Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas, Bufonidae) in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Young; David A. Schmetterling

    2009-01-01

    Like many species of amphibians, Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas, Bufonidae) are declining throughout portions of their range. Recent efforts have focused on describing the ecology of this species, yet few studies have evaluated demographic characteristics that may influence the persistence of Boreal Toad populations. Because Boreal Toads often...

  11. METAPOPULATION PROCESSES OR INFINITE DISPERSAL?: HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NAUTRALLY FRAGMENTED DESERT LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late P...

  12. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtis R. Moseley; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; W. Mark Ford

    2004-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo tmrestns) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands...

  13. Movements and habitat use of Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus (formerly Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina T. Liang

    2013-01-01

    The Yosemite Toad (Anaxyrus (Bufo) canorus) is a high-elevation species endemic to the central Sierra Nevada mountain range in California whose populations are in decline. There is limited information on their terrestrial movement and habitat use, which impairs our understanding of the ecology and habitat...

  14. Wildfire effects on water temperature and selection of breeding sites by the boreal toad (Bufo boreas) in seasonal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake R. Hossack; Paul Stephen Corn

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances can significantly affect the thermal regime and community structure of wetlands. We investigated the effect of a wildfire on water temperature of seasonal, montane wetlands after documenting the colonization of recently burned wetlands by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas). We compared the daily mean temperature, daily maximum...

  15. [Identification and bactericidal activity of a novel Cathelicidin family member from skin of Bufu bufo gargarizans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Bo; Gao, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Wei-Ping; Jia, Guang-Tao; Sun, Tong-Yi; Lee, Wen-Hui

    2016-02-01

    The skin transcriptome of Bufu bufo gargarizans was determined by conventional methods. A novel full length cDNA coding for a Cathelicidin precursor was identified by transcriptomic data assembling, annotation and blast search of corresponding data banks. According to the known processing methods of Cathelicidin family members, present reported novel Cathelicidin precursor of B. bufo gargarizans might be cleaved at 2 possible sites of the same precursor and generate both BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 as mature molecules. The deduced BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 were synthesized with purity>95% to evaluate the properties and bactericidal activities. The secondary structural characteristics of both BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 in different solutions were determined by Circular Dichroism (CD) Analysis. CD results indicated that random coil conformation were the main structural elements for both BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 in different buffer systems. Antimicrobial activities against tested bacterial strains were carried out by plating method. Both BG-CATH25 and BG-CATH29 showed strong antibacterial activities against Aeromonas hydrophila, with MIC values of 1.25, 10 mg•L⁻¹, respectively. However, both of them showed weak bactericidal activities against human pathogenic bacteria, like Escherichia coli (ATCC25922),Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923)and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Population Genetic Structure and Species Status of Asiatic Toads (Bufo gargarizans) in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guannan; Yang, Weizhao; Fu, Jinzhong

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the population genetic structure of Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans) from the mountains of western China to determine their species status, using genotypic data of ten microsatellite DNA loci and DNA sequences from one mitochondrial gene. A total of 197 samples from eight sites were examined, which cover a large range of elevations (559-3457 m), as well as all three traditionally defined species (or subspecies). AMOVA did not reveal any particularly large among-groups structure, whether the sites were grouped by drainage, elevation, region, or species (subspecies). Individual assignment tests placed all samples into two genetic clusters, which largely corresponded to their geographic locations. An isolation-by-distance pattern was also detected when an outlier population (site 3) was excluded. Furthermore, a mitochondrial gene tree revealed deep divergence among haplotypes, sometimes within the same site. The clade patterns were partially associated with geographic distribution but had no resemblance to the traditional 2- or 3-species classification. Overall, these toad populations harbor a large amount of genetic diversity and have very high population differentiation, but taken together the evidence suggests that all populations belong to a single species. Our results are consistent with most previous molecular studies, and we recommend using Bufo gargarizans to represent all Asiatic toad populations from western China without subspecies division.

  17. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  18. Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Lankesterellidae from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Paperna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. is described from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru. Merogony and oogony occur in the capillary endothelium and the macrophages in the liver, spleen and kidneys. Meronts are oval, 25,2–29,4 x 15,7–16,8 μm in size and yield 35–46 merozoites. Oocysts are 26,3–29,4 x 15,1–17,6 μm in size; sporozoites 9,2-9,8 x 4,2–5,0 μm in size, assemble in macrophages. Released 8,7–9,8 x 2,8–3,1 μm sporozoites enter erythrocytes. L. poeppigii is compared with Lankesterella petiti Lainson & Paperna, 1995 infecting Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil. The above mentioned specific characters, added to differences in hosts and geographical location warrant the description of Lankesterella poeppigii from B. poeppigii as a new species.

  19. Variación ontogenética en la palatibilidad de los renacuajos de Bufo spinulosus papillosus Philippi, 1902 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara, Fabián Gastón

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la variación ontogenética de la palatabilidad en Bufo spinulosus papillosus expuestos a larvas del odonato Rhionaeshna variegata (Odonata, Aeshnidae. Los renacuajos fueron agrupados en cuatro categorías de desarrollo y fueron expuestos a la depredación directa determinándose el número de renacuajos consumidos al finalizar los experimentos. Bufo spinulosus papillosus no fue palatable en los primeros estadios del desarrollo (categorías I, estadios 24-26 y categoría II, estadios 32-34, mientras que los estadios de las categoría III (estadios 38-40 y categoría IV (estadios 42-45 fueron progresivamente palatables. Se observó un comportamiento de rechazo por parte de los depredadores luego de la captura de renacuajos de las categorías I y II. El patrón de palatabilidad encontrado en Bufo spinulosus papillosus difiere del observado en otras especies relacionadas del género Bufo (Brodie y Formanowicz, 1987; Kehr y Schnack, 1991; Lawler y Hero, 1997. We evaluated the ontogenetic variation in the palatability of Bufo spinulosus papillosus tadpoles exposed to odonate larvae of Rhionaeshna variegata (Odonata, Aeshnidae. We exposed tadpoles to direct predation and determined the number of consumed tadpoles in four developmental categories. Bufo spinulosus papillosus tadpoles of categories I (stages 24-26 and II (stages 32-34 were unpalatable, while categories III (stages 38-40 and IV (stages 42-45 were progressively palatable. We observed a post-capture rejection behavior when they caught unpalatable tadpoles in categories I and II. The palatability pattern observed in Bufo spinulosus papillosus was different from related Bufo species (Brodie and Formanowicz, 1987; Kehr and Schnack, 1991; Lawler and Hero, 1997.

  20. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivanković, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Brühl, Carsten A.; Spangl, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1) on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura) and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C). Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%), induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails) and reduced algae diversity (−6%). Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl) +66%, length-to-width ratio +4%) and decreased algae diversity (−21%). No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological interactions in

  1. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia and associated algae are altered by temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Baier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1 on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C. Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%, induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails and reduced algae diversity (−6%. Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl +66%, length-to-width ratio +4% and decreased algae diversity (−21%. No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological

  2. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Hein, Thomas; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivanković, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Brühl, Carsten A; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L -1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L -1 ) on larval development of Common toads ( Bufo bufo , L.; Amphibia: Anura) and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C). Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (-8%), induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails) and reduced algae diversity (-6%). Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl) +66%, length-to-width ratio +4%) and decreased algae diversity (-21%). No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological interactions in freshwater ecosystems. Although no clear dose

  3. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of Bufo gargarizans minshanicus (Anura: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiandong; Liu, Jiabin; Xue, Rui; Chen, Limin

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome of Bufo gargarizans minshanicus is 17,719 bp in size, and shares a conserved gene arrangement, gene content and base composition with other Bufonidae species. The base composition of the H-strand is biased toward A + T content at 56.97% (T 28.14%, C 27.67%, A 28.83% and G 15.36%). Most protein-coding genes (PCGs) begin with ATG, while COX1 and ND2 initiate with ATA and ND1 starts at ATT. Seven PCGs have the complete stop codons AGA and TAA, whereas the remaining four PCGs end with TA or T. The putative control region possesses two repeat motifs, and four termination-associated sequences and six conserved sequence blocks at the 5' and 3' ends.

  4. The arsenic action during the Bufo arenarum gonad development (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Rengel, Dora

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Bufo arenarum ovulations have been kept in potassium bibasic arsenate from the fertilization until 26mm larva. The gonad in development, in the presence of the toxic, suffers significant alterations in its volume, shape and structure. It does not have the typical naillike morphology; on the other hand, it is presented as a spherical mass of reduced volume, that has, as demostrated by the histological analysis, very few oocytes or gonia submerged in a very scarce quantity of stroma. The hypothesis of this study was that it would be due to a succession of events whose cause would lie on the damage that the arsenic determine at the somatic layers level.

  5. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative......, and apparent leakage conductance was reduced. Application of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to skin of fully salt-adapted toads increased the transepithelial Cl- conductance, and the time courses of voltage clamp currents became more like those of water-adapted toads. Apparent...... leakage conductance was increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  6. Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala infection in Bufo marinus: lung nematodes reduce viability of metamorph cane toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelehear, C; Webb, J K; Shine, R

    2009-07-01

    Cane toads (Bufo marinus) were introduced to Australia in 1935 and have since spread widely over the continent, generating concern regarding ecological impacts on native predators. Most Australian cane toad populations are infected with lung nematodes Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala, a parasite endemic to New World (native-range) cane toad populations; presumably introduced to Australia with its toad host. Considering the high intensities and prevalence reached by this parasite in Australian toad populations, and public ardour for developing a control plan for the invasive host species, the lack of experimental studies on this host-parasite system is surprising. To investigate the extent to which this lungworm influences cane toad viability, we experimentally infected metamorph toads (the smallest and presumably most vulnerable terrestrial phase of the anuran life cycle) with the helminth. Infected toads exhibited reduced survival and growth rates, impaired locomotor performance (both speed and endurance), and reduced prey intake. In summary, R. pseudosphaerocephala can substantially reduce the viability of metamorph cane toads.

  7. Accumulation and depuration of trace metals in Southern Toads, Bufo Terrestris, exposed to coal combustion waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.; Hassan, S.; Mendonca, M. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Dept. of Biological Science

    2009-02-15

    Accumulation and depuration of metals by an organism are underrepresented in the literature. We collected southern toads (Bufo terrestris) from coal by-product (ash)-contaminated and uncontaminated sites to examine metal concentrations over time. Toads were placed in four exposure regimes, then sacrificed periodically over a 5-month period, and whole-body metal levels were measured. Toads exposed to ash accumulated significant concentrations of metals. Metal concentrations changed throughout the experiment, and profiles of accumulation and depuration differed depending on the metal and exposure regime. Ash-exposed toads exhibited elevated levels of 11 of 18 metals measured. Increases ranged from 47.5% for Pb to more than 5000% for As. Eight of 18 metals did not change in control toads, while 10 of 18 metals decreased in toads removed from ash, ranging from -25% for Co to -96% for Tl. Seven metals that decreased in toads removed from ash did not change in control toads.

  8. Metabolic measures of male southern toads (Bufo terrestris) exposed to coal combustion waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.K.; Appel, A.G.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Montgomery, AL (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2006-03-15

    Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) are found in coal fly ash collection basins associated with coal-burning electrical power plants. These basins contain large amounts of trace metals and organisms found in these basins are known to accumulate large quantities of metals. Studies on a variety of organisms exposed to trace metals found that they experience a significant increase in standard metabolic rate. We experimentally exposed southern toads to metal-contaminated sediment and food and measured changes in standard and exercise metabolic rates as well as changes in body, liver and muscle mass, blood glucose, and corticosterone. We found that toads exposed to trace metal contamination gained significantly less mass (18.3%) than control toads (31.3%) when food was limited and experienced significantly decreased RQ after exercise. However, contaminated toads did not experience changes in standard or exercise metabolic rates, plasma glucose levels, and hepatic or muscle percentage indices whether food was limited or not.

  9. Testes asymmetry of Bufo gargarizans in relation to body condition and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Lei Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Testes asymmetry theory predicts that males in good condition or mature age may be able to develop larger degrees of directional asymmetry than males in poor condition or younger age. In this study, we tested the testes asymmetry theory in the Bufo gargarizans. We found that B. gargarizans has a significant directional asymmetry in testes mass, with left testis being significantly larger than right testis. Male body condition was correlated with relative testes mass and absolute testes asymmetry, but not correlated with relative testes asymmetry. Therefore, we suggested that males in good body condition have the higher ability of sperm competition than males in poor body condition. Additionally, male age was correlated with absolute testes asymmetry, but not correlated with relative testes mass and testes asymmetry, thus not supporting the hypothesis that males with a higher degree of directional asymmetry survive better.

  10. Bufo & Spallanzani e a paródia pós-modernista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Brandão

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo investigar as considerações acerca da paródia e sua implicação na linha teórica pós-modernista, partindo das análises de Fredric Jameson e Linda Hutcheon, quando conceituando pastiche. Desse modo, nos propomos a fazer uma análise das paródias no romance Bufo & Spallanzani, de Rubem Fonseca, a partir da leitura de Ana Cristina T. de B. Carvalho (2013 que corrobora para sonegar a proposta de Jameson. Desse modo, procuraremos, no emaranhado de citações do romance, que remetem aos mais diversos campos da cultura, elementos que qualifiquem a característica paródica do romance, tendo por embasamento a contraproposta feita por Linda Hutcheon.

  11. Role of phospholipase A2 pathway in regulating activation of Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmat, M T; Bonilla, F; Hermosilla, P C; Zelarayán, L; Bühler, M I

    2013-08-01

    Transient increases in the concentration of cytosolic Ca(2+) are essential for triggering egg activation events. Increased Ca(2+) results from its rapid release from intracellular stores, mainly mediated by one or both intracellular calcium channels: the inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR). Several regulatory pathways that tailor the response of these channels to the specific cell type have been proposed. Among its many modulatory actions, calcium can serve as an activator of a cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA2), which releases arachidonic acid from phospholipids of the endoplasmic reticulum as well as from the nuclear envelope. Previous studies have suggested that arachidonic acid and/or its metabolites were able to modulate the activity of several ion channels. Based on these findings, we have studied the participation of the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) pathway in the process of Bufo arenarum oocyte activation and the interrelation between any of its metabolites and the ion channels involved in the calcium release from the intracellular reservoirs at fertilization. We found that addition of both melittin, a potent PLA(2) activator, and arachidonic acid, the main PLA(2) reaction metabolite, was able to induce activation events in a bell-shaped manner. Differential regulation of IP3Rs and RyRs by arachidonic acid and its products could explain melittin and arachidonic acid behaviour in Bufo arenarum egg activation. The concerted action of arachidonic acid and/or its metabolites could provide controlled mobilization of calcium from intracellular reservoirs and useful tools for understanding calcium homeostasis in eggs that express both types of receptors.

  12. Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killorn, Erin E; Toews, Daniel P

    2001-01-01

    Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the posterior region of Bufo marinus was measured under resting conditions and in response to a systemic hypervolemia. Doppler flow probes were positioned on the renal portal and ventral abdominal veins, and flow was recorded as injections of artificial plasma equaling 100% of the animal's plasma volume were administered through the sciatic artery. Resting flow was found to be 5.54 ± 2.03 ml min-1 kg-1 in the paired renal portal veins, and 7.31 ± 0.89 ml min-1 kg-1 in the ventral abdominal vein. While renal portal flow was found to increase by a factor of 2.4 times during the first 10 min of hypervolemia, ventral abdominal flow only increased by a factor of 1.3. Conclusions Our results quantify the contribution to circulation from posterior venous return in the toad Bufo marinus. A preferential movement of excess fluid through the renal portal pathway was also demonstrated, supporting the possibility of water elimination via the renal portal circulation, especially during periods of high water influx into the animals. PMID:11696249

  14. Alimentación y fecundidad de Bufo variegatus (Anura: Bufonidae en Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappi, Guillermina E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la alimentación de una población de Bufo variegatus procedente de la región de Lago del Desierto, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. De los 11 ítems presa identificados, los más consumidos por los adultos (tanto machos como hembras fueron los coleópteros. En los machos la segunda categoría presa mas importante en la contribución a la dieta fueron los ácaros, mientras que en las hembras las hormigas y las larvas de insectos siguieron en importancia al consumo de coleópteros. En los especímenes juveniles, los ácaros fueron las presas más consumidas, quedando los coleópteros en segundo lugar en importancia relativa. Se demuestra la existencia de una correlación positiva significativa entre el volumen de las presas y el tamaño del depredador. Se aportan datos referentes a la fecundidad de B. variegatus y se comprueba la ausencia de correlación entre el tamaño de las hembras grávidas y el número de óvulos maduros. The diet of a population of Bufo variegatus from the region of Lago del Desierto, Santa Cruz province, Argentina, is described. Of the 11 prey items identified, Coleoptera was the most consumed prey both for males and females. In males, the second most important prey was Acarii, while in females they were the ants and insect larvae. Acarii was the most consumed prey for juveniles, followed by Coleoptera. A significant positive correlation was found between prey volume and predator body size. Fecundity information for B. variegwus is given, and a lack of correlation between snout-vent length of mature females and ovarian egg complement is demonstrated.

  15. Morphological and genetic differentiation among Chilean populations of Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae) Diferenciación morfológica y genética entre poblaciones chilenas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marco A. Méndez; Eduardo R. Soto; Claudio Correa; Alberto Veloso; Eliseo Vergara; Michel Sallaberry; Patricia Iturra

    2004-01-01

    Bufo spinulosus has a wide and fragmented range distribution in Chile (18° to 33° S) along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. Genetic variation was estimated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers in 10 populations from northern and central Chile. Morphometric and genetic information was analyzed as a function of geographical origin. The correlation between genetic and morphometric differentiation was analyzed by the Mantel test. An increase in body size as a functi...

  16. Infestação de Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae em sapos Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: novo registro de hospedeiro Infestation of Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae ticks on Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: new host record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Woehl Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824 toad population (N = 125 foraging in lighted areas in the Corupá Municipality, Santa Catarina State, was surveyed to evaluate the prevalence (percentage of infestation and the mean infestation intensity of Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 (Acari, Ixodidae ticks. The prevalence was of 19.2% and the mean infestation intensity was 7.4 ticks per infested toad. For the first time B. ictericus as host of A. rotundatum is reported.

  17. EFFECTS OF CHRONIC CADMIUM EXPOSURE ON METAMORPHOSIS, SKELETAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN CHINESE TOAD BUFO GARGARIZANS TADPOLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Nailiang; Wang, Hongyuan; Ju, Zongqi; Zhao, Hongfeng

    2017-08-11

    The study examined the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on metamorphosis, body size, thyroid gland, and skeletal development of Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles. Tadpoles were exposed to cadmium concentrations at 0, 5, 10, 50,100 and 500 μg/L from Gonser stage 26 to Gosner stage 46 of completion of metamorphosis. Our results showed 100 and 500 μg/L cadmium concentrations increased mortality and decelerated metamorphosis rate. In addition, significant body size reduction at Gosner stage 42 was observed at 100 and 500 μg/L cadmium treatments (p Bufo gargarizans larvae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification and characterization of gastrointestinal hormone immunoreactive cells in the skin and parotoids of Chinese toad Bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Sheng-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The skin and skin secretion of Chinese toad Bufo gargarizans have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the exact types and location of bioactive substances in Bufo gargarizans skin still have not been fully elucidated. The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution and density of six types of gastrointestinal (GI) hormone immunoreactive (IR) cells in the skin and parotoids of Bufo gargarizans. Immunohistochemistry was used for qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of GI hormone presence in the dorsal and ventral skin, and parotoids of eight adult Chinese toads. Six types of IR cells were found: serotonin (5-HT), glucagon (GLU), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and neuropeptide Y(NPY) IR cells. They were mainly present in the epidermis and skin glands. 5-HT-IR cells were distributed in all layers of epidermis and glands, with higher density in the glands. Glucagon was prominently expressed in the epidermis and the bottle-shaped glands of parotoids; however, it was not present in the granular glands of skin and parotoids. The distributions of GAS and SS-IR cells were similar since they were present mainly in mucous, granular and bottle-shaped glands, while these cell types were absent in the differentiated glands of parotoids. PP-IR cells were predominant in the granular glands and the bottle-shaped glands. The expression of NPY was high in epidermal stratum granulosum and mucous glands of the dorsal skin, the bottle-shaped glands and differentiated glands of parotoids, while NPY-IR was rarely seen in the granular glands of ventral skin, and not present in the granular glands of dorsal skin and parotoids. The expression of several types of GI hormones in the skin and parotoids of Bufo gargarizans varies depending on tissue and type of glands.

  19. Microsatellite analysis of the natterjack toad ( Bufo calamita ) in Denmark: populations are islands in a fragmented landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allentoft, Morten E.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Briggs, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The European natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) has declined rapidly in recent years, primarily due to loss of habitat, and in Denmark it is estimated that 50% of the isolated populations are lost each decade. To efficiently manage and conserve this species and its genetic diversity, knowledge...... in a highly fragmented gene pool. Future conservation management of this species is discussed in light of these results....

  20. Ocorrência de Taenia sp. na população atendida no laboratório central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, Brasil (1960/1989 Occurrence of Taenia sp. in the population attended in the central laboratory of "Instituto Adolfo Lutz", São Paulo, SP, Brazil (1960/1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Donini Souza Dias

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados retrospectivamente os relatórios mensais e anuais da Seção de Enteroparasitoses do Laboratório Central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, SP, do período de 1960 a 1989, perfazendo uma série histórica de 30 anos, com 1.519.730 exames protoparasitológicos e 355 identificações de proglotes de Taenia. Pelo método da sedimentação espontânea foram diagnosticados 7.663 (0,5% casos de presença de ovos de Taenia sp. nas fezes. Das 355 proglotes enviadas para identificação, 311 (87,60% estavam em condições de serem especificadas, e dessas, 273 (87,80% eram proglotes de Taenia saginata e 38 (12,22% de T. solium.Monthly and yearly reports of the Seção de Enteroparasitoses of the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, SP, Brazil from 1960 to 1989 with 1,519,730 parasitological stool examinations were studied. There were also 355 identifications of Taenia sp. proglottids. Using HOFFMAN, PONS & JANER's method, 7,663 (0.5% cases of taeniasis were diagnosed, and 311 (87.60% of the 355 proglottids were on easy terms to be specified, 273 (87.80% of them were from Taenia saginata.

  1. Interação flebotomíneos, animais domésticos e dominância de Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 em área com alto grau de antropia, no Sul do Brasil Sandflies and domestic animals interaction and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 predominance in an area with a high level of anthropy, in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueslei Teodoro

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se os resultados de coletas de flebotomíneos em área com elevado grau de antropia, no Município de São Jorge do Ivaí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A espécie predominante foi Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912. Verificou-se que o número de flebotomíneos diminuiu sensivelmente em duas residências com o deslocamento de uma pocilga, à distância de 100 metros das residências, e a desobstrução do porão de uma das residências.Information on phlebotomine collections in an area with a high level of human interference, in S. Jorge do Ivaí county, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, is reported. Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 was the dominant species. The number of sandflies in domiciles decreased sharply in the second period of collection. This occurred because a pigsty was moved to a distance of approximately 100 meters from the houses by and because the basement of one the houses was cleaned out.

  2. Vitellogenesis in Bufo arenarum: Identification, characterization and immunolocalization of high molecular mass lipovitellin during oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Emma D.; Salicioni, Ana M.; Cabada, Marcelo O.; Arranz, Silvia E.

    2009-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg), a large lipoglycophosphoprotein, is the most important precursor of the yolk proteins, and the major source of nutrients for the developing embryo in oviparous species. After its uptake by the oocytes, Vtg is converted into lipovitellins (high and light) and phosvitin, which are deposited into crystalline yolk platelets. We describe here the presence of two high molecular mass lipovitellins isoforms in Bufo arenarum mature oocytes with masses of 113 and 100 kDa, respectively. The amino acid sequence analysis of p113 and p100 peptides showed a high sequence homology between both polypeptides and the complete reported sequences of Xenopus laevis vitellogenin. Using specific antibodies, we determined that the Vtg uptake begins early during oogenesis, at the previtellogenic stage, and continues until oocytes have reached their mature status. In addition, we found that large endocytic vesicles mediate Vtg uptake in stage I oocytes, and that the size of the endocytic vesicles declines with oogenesis progression. In terms of the Vtg protein trafficking, we detected the Vtg precursor (190 kDa) in the liver of estradiol-injected females. Finally, we propose a subclassification of B. arenarum stage-II oocytes into three physiologically and morphologically distinct periods (early, mid and late). PMID:19932187

  3. Expression of phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic enzymes during early embryogenesis in the amphibian Bufo arenarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bussy, Rodrigo; Mouguelar, Valeria; Banchio, Claudia; Coux, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    In the principal route of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis the regulatory steps are catalysed by CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) and choline kinase (CK). Knock-out mice in Pcyt1a (CCT gene) and Chka1 (CK gene) resulted in preimplantation embryonic lethality, demonstrating the essential role of this pathway. However, there is still a lack of detailed CCT and CK expression analysis during development. The aim of the current work was to study the expression during early development of both enzymes in the external-fertilization vertebrate Bufo arenarum. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot confirmed their presence in unfertilized eggs. Analysis performed in total extracts from staged embryos showed constant protein levels of both enzymes until the 32-cell stage: then they decreased, reaching a minimum in the gastrula before starting to recover. CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase is an amphitropic enzyme that inter-converts between cytosolic inactive and membrane-bound active forms. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that the cytosolic:total CCT protein ratio does not change throughout embryogenesis, suggesting a progressive decline of CCT activity in early development. However, PC (and phosphatidylethanolamine) content per egg/embryo remained constant throughout the stages analysed. In conclusion, the current data for B. arenarum suggest that net synthesis of PC mediated by CCT and CK is not required in early development and that supplies for membrane biosynthesis are fulfilled by lipids already present in the egg/embryo reservoirs.

  4. Genetic variability in geographic populations of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oromi, N; Richter-Boix, A; Sanuy, D; Fibla, J

    2012-01-01

    Across altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, the proportion of suitable habitats varies, influencing the individual dispersal that ultimately can produce differentiation among populations. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is distributed across a wide geographic range that qualifies the species as interesting for a geographic analysis of its genetic variability. Five populations of B. calamita in the Sierra de Gredos (Spain) were studied in an altitudinal gradient ranging from 750 to 2270 m using microsatellite markers. In addition, we analyzed the latitudinal genetic variation in B. calamita within a global European distribution using genetic diversity parameters (mean number of alleles per locus [Ma] and expected heterozygosity [HE]) obtained from our results and those published in the literature. The low level of genetic differentiation found between populations of B. calamita (Fst ranging from 0.0115 to 0.1018) and the decreases in genetic diversity with altitude (Ma from 13.6 to 8.3, HE from 0.82 to 0.74) can be interpreted by the combined effects of discontinuous habitat, produced mainly by the high slopes barriers and geographic distance. In the latitudinal gradient, genetic diversity decreases from south to north as a consequence of the colonization of the species from the Pleistocene refugium. We conclude that the genetic variability in B. calamita along its wide altitudinal and latitudinal geographic distribution mainly reflects the colonization history of the species after the last glacial period. PMID:22957202

  5. Calcineurin regulates progressive motility activation of Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum sperm through dephosphorylation of PKC substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapf, Dario; O'Brien, Emma; Maidagán, Paula M; Morales, Enrique S; Visconti, Pablo E; Arranz, Silvia E

    2014-10-01

    Animals with external fertilization, as amphibians, store their sperm in a quiescent state in the testis. When spermatozoa are released into natural fertilization media, the hypotonic shock triggers activation of sperm motility. Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum sperm are immotile in artificial seminal plasma (ASP, resembling testicular plasma tonicity) but acquire in situ flagellar beating upon dilution. However, if components from the egg shelly coat are added to this medium, motility shifts to a progressive pattern. Recently, we have shown that the signal transduction pathway required for in situ motility activation involves a rise in intracellular cAMP through a transmembrane adenylyl cyclase and activation of PKA, mostly in the midpiece and in the sperm head. In this report, we demonstrate that activation of calcineurin (aka PP2B and PPP3) is required for the shift from in situ to progressive sperm motility. The effect of calcineurin is manifested by dephosphorylation of PKC substrates, and can be promoted by intracellular calcium rise by Ca(2+) ionophore. Both phosphorylated PKC substrates and calcineurin localized to the flagella, indicating a clear differentiation between compartmentalization of PKA and calcineurin pathways. Moreover, no crosstalk is observed between these signaling events, even though both pathways are required for progressive motility acquisition as discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, S. A.; Badawy, G. M.; El-Borm, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55) and postmetamorphic (66) stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63) displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled. PMID:24715821

  7. Measuring Energetics and Behaviour Using Accelerometry in Cane Toads Bufo marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Lewis G.; White, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration), to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R2 = 0.74). Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species. PMID:20422048

  8. [Effects of different stocking density and diet on development of Bufo gargarizans tadpoles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-de; Zhao, Qun; Kang, Yan; Gao, Bo; Li, Deng-Lin; Yang, Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2016-03-01

    The effects of four different stocking densities and five different diets on the growth of Bufo gargarizans tadpoles were studied to determine the optimum stocking density and diet. For stocking density experiment, the tadpoles were fed respectively at different density of 200, 500, 1 000 and 2 000 tadpoles per square meter. For diet experiment, the tadpoles were divided into five groups fed respectively with five different diets. The body weight, snout-vent length and tail length were measured every seven days, and mortality was recorded. The results showed that: the survival rates of tadpole before metamorphosis and after metamorphosis were from 68.7% to 96.3% and from 5.7% to 36.0%, respectively; the optimum stocking density is 1 000 tadpoles per square meter for the stocking density had no effect on the survival rate of tadpole before metamorphosis, and the tadpoles had the relative large body weight and survival numbers in 1000 tadpoles per square meter; the diet Ⅱ(37.9% crude protein and 5.7% crude fat), Ⅳ (25.1% crude protein and 4.0% crude fat), and Ⅴ (egg yolk) were all the optimum diets for the diet had no effect on the survival rate of tadpole before metamorphosis and the tadpoles fed with three kinds of diet above had relatively large body weight, and one of these three diets based on their availability and cost should be adopted during breeding period. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Effect of Cortisol on Plasma Lactate Levels following Cortisolinduced Hyperglycaemia in Common African Toad, Bufo regularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isehunwa, G O; Oladun, O T; Akpan, J E; Alada, A R A

    2017-06-30

    Previous studies in man have shown that cortisol induces hyperglycemia through gluconeogenesis. However,the metabolic substrates involved in cortisol-induced hyperglycemia and the role of adrenergic receptors in lactate productionin toads have not been well studied. This study investigated the effects of adrenergic receptor blockers in cortisol-inducedhyperglycemia and blood lactate levels in the common African toad (Bufo regularis). Each toad was fasted and anaesthetizedwith sodium thiopentone given intraperitoneally (50mg/kg/i.p). The animals (control) received 0.7% amphibian saline whileanimals (untreated) received cortisol intravenously (50µg/kg/i.v). In pre-treatment groups, animals received propanolol (0.5mg/kg/i.v), prazosin (0.2 mg/kg/i.v) and combination of propanolol (0.5mg/kg/i.v) and prazosin (0.2 mg/kg/i.v) respectivelyfollowed by administration of cortisol 50µg/kg/i.v. Thereafter, blood samples were collected for estimation of glucose andlactate using the modified glucose oxidase method and colorimetric method respectively. Cortisol caused significant increase in blood glucose level ((pbufo regularis. The betaadrenergic receptors are involved in the use of lactate to induce cortisol hyperglycemia in the Common African toad Buforegularis.

  10. Hematotoxic and biochemical effects of UVA on the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H

    2016-01-01

    To study the adverse impacts of ultraviolet radiation-A (UVA 320-400 nm) on some hematological and biochemical parameters of Bufo regularis was considered. Samples were classified into four groups: (i) Control; (ii) ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-treated group (for 3 days/for 15 min/day); (iii) UVR-treated group (for 3 days/for 30 min/day); and (iv) (for 3 days/for 60 min/day). The destructive effects of UVA radiation was evaluated by red blood cells (RBC) count, hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrite (Ht), erythrocytic indices, white blood cells (WBC) count, total protein, glucose, aspartic amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehyderogenase (LDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehyderogenase (G6PDH) and total bilribuin. No mortality was observed. However, some physiological effects after the exposure to UVA were reported. The UVA-induced malformations recorded in the red blood cells included crenated cells (Cr), Acanthocytes (Ac), tear drop-like cells (Tr) and sickle cells (Sk). The present study revealed the exposure to UVA from 15-60 min/day for three days could promote several biochemical and physiological disturbances as well as some changes in RBC.

  11. Chronic Effects of Fluoride Exposure on Growth, Metamorphosis, and Skeleton Development in Bufo gargarizans Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhao, Hongfeng; Dong, Suiming

    2017-04-01

    Bufo gargarizans tadpoles were chronically exposed to waterborne fluoride at measured concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 61.2 mg F-/L for 70 days from Gosner stage 26 to completion of metamorphosis. The chronic exposure caused a concentration-dependent mortality in all tested fluoride concentrations. Total length, snout-to-vent length (SVL), body mass, and developmental stage of tadpoles were significantly inhibited at 42.6 mg F-/L. In addition, significant metamorphic delay and increase in size at completion of metamorphosis occurred after exposure to 19.8 mg F-/L. Moreover, 19.8 mg F-/L suppressed the bone mineralization of larvae at completion of metamorphosis. However, the bone mineralization could be enhanced by 4.1 mg F-/L. In conclusion, our results suggested that the presence of high concentrations of fluoride could increase mortality risk, delay metamorphosis, and suppress skeletal ossification in B. gargarizans larvae.

  12. Genetic comparison of water molds from embryos of amphibians Rana cascadae, Bufo boreas and Pseudacris regilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Kori K; Johnson, James E; Pinkart, Holly C; Wagner, R Steven

    2012-06-13

    Water molds that cause the disease saprolegniasis have been implicated in widespread mortality of amphibian embryos. However, because of the limitations of traditional identification methods, water mold species involved in die-offs or utilized in ecological studies often remain unidentified or identified only as Saprolegnia ferax. Furthermore, water mold taxonomy requires revision, so very distinct organisms may all be called S. ferax. Recent DNA-based studies indicate that the diversity of water molds infecting amphibian embryos is significantly higher than what was previously known, but these studies rely on culture methods, which may be biased towards taxa that grow best under laboratory conditions. In this study, total embryo-associated DNA was extracted from 3 amphibian species in a pond in central Washington, USA. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of DNA was amplified with primers capable of amplifying a broad array of eukaryotic microorgansisms, and was used to construct clone libraries. Individual clones were sequenced and relationships among newly recovered sequences and previously studied taxa were analyzed using phylogenetics. These methods recovered several new taxa in association with amphibian embryos. Samples grouped into 11 distinct phylotypes with ITS sequence differences ranging from 4 to 28%. The water mold communities recovered differed among Rana cascadae, Bufo boreas, and Pseudacris regilla egg masses. Furthermore, the diversity of water molds increased as egg masses aged, and members comprising this diversity changed over time.

  13. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkovits, J.; D’Eramo, J. L.; Fridman, O.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300–310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

  14. Quantifying Bufo boreas connectivity in Yellowstone National Park with landscape genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Melanie A; Evans, Jeffrey S; Storfer, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A major objective of ecology is to understand how ecological processes limit population connectivity and species' distributions. By spatially quantifying ecological components driving functional connectivity, we can understand why some locally suitable habitats are unoccupied, resulting in observed discontinuities in distribution. However, estimating connectivity may be difficult due to population stochasticity and violations of assumptions of parametric statistics. To address these issues, we present a novel application of Random Forests to landscape genetic data. We address the effects of three key ecological components on Bufo boreas connectivity in Yellowstone National Park: ecological process, scale, and hierarchical organization. Habitat permeability, topographic morphology, and temperature-moisture regime are all significant ecological processes associated with B. boreas connectivity. Connectivity was influenced by growing-season precipitation, 1988 Yellowstone fires, cover, temperature, impervious surfaces (roads and development), and topographic complexity (56% variation explained). We found that habitat permeability generally operates on fine scales, while topographic morphology and temperature-moisture regime operate across multiple scales, thus demonstrating the importance of cross-scale analysis for ecological interpretation. In a hierarchical analysis, we were able to explain more variation within genetic clusters as identified using Structure (a Bayesian algorithm) (74%; dispersal cover, growing-season precipitation, impervious surfaces) as opposed to between genetic clusters (45%; ridgelines, hot, dry slopes, length of hot season, and annual precipitation). Finally, the analytical methods we developed are powerful and can be applied to any species or system with appropriate landscape and genetic data.

  15. Membranes during yolk-platelet development in oocytes of the toad Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, H -P

    1987-09-01

    Oocytes of the toad Bufo marinus have been studied by means of thin section and particularly freeze-fracture electron microscopy to characterize the cytoplasmic membranes around the yolk organelle, and the storage of yolk material in precursors and platelets. This appears to be a previously unknown type of yolk-platelet formation. During yolk-organelle development from the primordial precursor to the bi-partite fully grown yolk platelet, numerous lipoid droplets are attached to the periphery of the platelet, indicating an intense uptake of lipids. As is typical for amphibians, the fully grown yolk platelet has a crystalline internum covered by a dense osmiophilic externum, and the whole organelle is enveloped by a plasma membrane that shows no direct connection or fusion with endocytotic vesicles. The yolk membrane exhibits few intramembraneous particles (IMPs) at the core areas and some more where it borders fields of lipoid droplets. Here the IMPs show a net-like arrangement in the furrows between adjacent droplets.

  16. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorchin, A., E-mail: adorchin@campus.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Shanas, U., E-mail: shanas@research.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural sciences, University of Haifa - Oranim, Tiv' on 36006 (Israel)

    2010-12-15

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  17. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sakr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55 and postmetamorphic (66 stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63 displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled.

  18. Measuring energetics and behaviour using accelerometry in cane toads Bufo marinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis G Halsey

    Full Text Available Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration, to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R(2 = 0.74. Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species.

  19. Effect of gibberellin-A3 on metamorphosis in the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber A. Sakr

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to study the effect of gibberellin-A3 on the metamorphosis of the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis. Samples of B. regularis were collected from Shebin El-Kom, Menoufia Governorate during the breeding season and kept in aquaria with little water till spawning, fertilized eggs are divided into 2 groups of 200 eggs each. The 1st group was treated with 5 ppm of gibberellin-A3 (Berelex 3 days/week for the period of metamorphosis. The second group was left untreated under the same environmental conditions and considered as a control. Hatchability of the eggs in each group was recorded. External lengths of the total body, hind limbs and the tail were measured. As a measure of apoptotic DNA fragmentation, the presence of DNA ladder was determined. The results showed that out of 200 eggs 47.5% were hatched in the control group and 76.5% were hatched in gibberellin-A3 treated group. The average duration of metamorphosis was 60 days and 52 days in the control and treated groups, respectively. There was an increase in the total length of the hind limbs of the treated tadpole as compared with the control throughout the experimental periods. DNA isolated from control and tadpoles treated with gibberellin-A3 showed degradation into oligonucleotide fragments forming a clear laddering pattern of apoptosis, but the treated tadpoles showed an increase of DNA fragmentation.

  20. Comparative study on the tongue of Bufo regularis and Chalcides ocellatus in relation to their habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H. Elsheikh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the structure of the tongue of the toad, Bufo regularis and the lizard, Chalcides ocellatus. They have different feeding habits and live in different habitats. The tongue of the toad contains two types of lingual papillae; fungiform papillae and filiform papillae. The fungiform papillae are usually scattered among the filiform papillae and are believed to function in gustation and in the secretion of salivary fluid. Scanning electron microscopical studies revealed that no ciliated cells were observed on the surface of the filiform papillae or in the surrounding area of the sensory disc. In C. ocellatus the tip of the tongue is bifurcated and keratinized. The dorsal surface of the tongue is covered with several types of papillae; irregular, scale and ridge-shaped. Taste buds were present in the epithelium of the tongue. The lingual glands consist of mucous cells that form crypt-like invaginations between papillae. The present study revealed that there is a marked correlation between the structure of the tongue of both B. regularis and C. ocellatus and habitats and feeding mechanism of the two species.

  1. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. New species of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from Bufo occidentalis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Sierra Madre del Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Salazar, Elizabeth A; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2007-10-01

    Rhabdias kuzmini n. sp., a parasite of the lungs of Bufo occidentalis, is described and illustrated. This Mexican taxon differs from the related species in the genus by the possession of 4 lips (2 subdorsal and 2 subventral) and 2 lateral pseudolabia, corpus not inflated, a larger barrel-shaped buccal capsule, equatorial vulva, and the presence of a slightly swollen cuticle in the anterior and posterior ends of the body. This is the 16th species described in the Neotropical Realm and the first species of Rhabdias described from endemic anurans in México.

  3. CRYPTIC NEOGENE VICARIANCE AND QUATERNARY DISPERSAL OF THE RED-SPOTTED TOAD (BUFO PUNCTATUS) INSIGHTS ON THE EVOLUTION OF NORTH AMERICAN WARM DESERT BIOTAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We define the geographic distributions of embedded evolutionary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages (clades) within a broadly distributed, arid- dwelling toad, Bufo punctatus, and evaluate these patterns as they relate to hypothesized vicariant events leading to the formation of b...

  4. On the presence of Bufo nasicus Werner in Guiana, with a redescription of the species on the basis of recently collected material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    During research on material recently collected in Guyana and in Venezuelan Guiana, several specimens of the rare toad Bufo nasicus Werner, thus far only known from the holotype without known origin, were discovered. On the basis of this material the species is redescribed and some notes on its

  5. Helmintos parásitos de anfibios: Dos Especies de Nemátodos parásitos de Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asucena Naupay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo sobre los helmintos que parasitan a Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi de la localidad de Huánuco, se presentan dos especies conocidas para la ciencia pero una de ellas nueva para el Perú.

  6. Effects of copper on growth, metamorphosis and endocrine disruption of Bufo gargarizans larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Liang, Gang; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles were exposed to copper (1, 6.4, 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper) from the beginning of larval period through completion of metamorphosis. We examined the effects of chronic copper exposure on mortality, growth, time to metamorphosis, tail resorption time, body size at the metamorphic climax (Gs 42) and completion of metamorphosis (Gs 46) and thyroid gland histology. In addition, type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. Our result showed that 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper concentration increased the mortality and inhibited the growth of B. gargarizans tadpoles. In addition, significant reduction in size at Gs 42 and a time delay to Gs 42 were observed at 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper treatments. Moreover, histological examinations have clearly revealed that 64μgL(-1) copper caused follicular cell hyperplasia in thyroid gland. According to real-time PCR results, exposure to 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of Dio3, but down-regulated mRNA expression of TRα and TRβ mRNA level. We concluded that copper delayed amphibian metamorphosis through changing mRNA expression of Dio3, TRα and TRβ, which suggests that copper might have the endocrine-disrupting effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ranking Landscape Development Scenarios Affecting Natterjack Toad (Bufo calamita) Population Dynamics in Central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Kamila W.; Romanowski, Jerzy; Johst, Karin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    When data are limited it is difficult for conservation managers to assess alternative management scenarios and make decisions. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is declining at the edges of its distribution range in Europe and little is known about its current distribution and abundance in Poland. Although different landscape management plans for central Poland exist, it is unclear to what extent they impact this species. Based on these plans, we investigated how four alternative landscape development scenarios would affect the total carrying capacity and population dynamics of the natterjack toad. To facilitate decision-making, we first ranked the scenarios according to their total carrying capacity. We used the software RAMAS GIS to determine the size and location of habitat patches in the landscape. The estimated carrying capacities were very similar for each scenario, and clear ranking was not possible. Only the reforestation scenario showed a marked loss in carrying capacity. We therefore simulated metapopulation dynamics with RAMAS taking into account dynamical processes such as reproduction and dispersal and ranked the scenarios according to the resulting species abundance. In this case, we could clearly rank the development scenarios. We identified road mortality of adults as a key process governing the dynamics and separating the different scenarios. The renaturalisation scenario clearly ranked highest due to its decreased road mortality. Taken together our results suggest that road infrastructure development might be much more important for natterjack toad conservation than changes in the amount of habitat in the semi-natural river valley. We gained these insights by considering both the resulting metapopulation structure and dynamics in the form of a PVA. We conclude that the consideration of dynamic processes in amphibian conservation management may be indispensable for ranking management scenarios. PMID:23734223

  8. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae. PMID:25927361

  9. Effects of fluoride on morphology, growth, development, and thyroid hormone of Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhui; Xie, Lei; Li, Xinyi; Chai, Lihong; Chen, Mengxing; Kong, Xiaojing; Wang, Qingqing; Liu, Jingfei; Zhi, Lijuan; Yang, Chang; Wang, Hongyuan

    2017-10-12

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect amphibians, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in Bufo gargarizans embryos. In the present study, the effects of fluoride exposure on B. gargarizans embryos were investigated. First, fluoride teratogenic experiment showed that the 9 days EC50 of fluoride on B. gargarizans embryos was 177.62 mg/L. Then, we studied the sublethal effects of fluoride on B. gargarizans embryos at control, 0.7, 4.1, 19.6, 41.9, and 62.7 mg/L fluoride concentration. Malformation, growth, and development of embryos were monitored, and type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were measured. Our results showed the morphological malformations, such as tail curvature (lordosis), edema, cuticularized ciliated cells, and hyperplasia were occurred during fluoride exposure. Growth and development were all inhibited at 19.5, 41.9, and 62.7 mg/L fluoride-treated groups after 9 days' exposure. According to real-time PCR results, exposure to fluoride upregulated Dio3 and TRβ mRNA expression and downregulated Dio2 and TRα mRNA level. All above indicated that excessive fluoride could induce morphology malformations, inhibit embryonic growth and development, and disrupt the normal function of maternal thyroid hormone in B. gargarizans embryos. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Chronic effects of triclosan on embryonic development of Chinese toad, Bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhao, Hongfeng; Deng, Hongzhang

    2016-10-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is commonly used worldwide in a range of personal care and sanitizing products. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential effects of TCS exposure on embryonic development of Bufo gargarizans, an endemic frog species in China. Standard Gosner stage 3 B. gargarizans embryos were exposed to 10 ~ 150 μg/L TCS during embryogenesis. Survival, total length, weight, developmental stage, duration of different embryo stages, malformation, and type II and III deiodinase (D2 and D3) expression were measured. Inhibitory effects on embryo developmental stage, total length and weight were found at 30 ~ 150 μg/L TCS. Moreover, the duration of embryonic development was increased at gastrula, neural, circulation, and operculum development stage in TCS-treated groups. In addition, TCS exposure induced morphological malformations in B. gargarizans embryos, which are characterized by hyperplasia, abdominal edema, and axial flexures. Furthermore, our results showed that the expression of D2 in embryos was probably down-regulated at 60 and 150 μg/L TCS, but its spatial expression patterns was not affected by TCS. In summary, our study suggested that TCS exposure not only resulted in delayed growth and development but also caused teratogenic effects in B. gargarizans embryos, and the developmental effects of TCS at high concentrations may be associated with disruption of THs homeostasis. Although further studies are necessary, the present findings could provide a basis for understanding on harmful effects and the potential mechanisms of TCS in amphibian embryos.

  11. Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (bufonidae: bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah A; Savitzky, Alan H

    2004-05-01

    The parotoid glands of toads (Bufonidae) consist of large aggregations of granular glands located between the otic region of the skull and the scapular region. To determine the circulatory pattern of these glands, we perfused the vascular systems of Bufo alvarius, B. marinus, B. terrestris, and B. valliceps with either India ink or Microfil, a fine latex. The perfused glands were studied by gross dissection, microscopic examination, and histology. The vascular patterns of the parotoid glands were compared to the arrangement of vessels in the dorsal skin of Rana sphenocephala (Ranidae), a frog that lacks parotoid glands. The parotoid glands of the four species of toads are supplied with blood by the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries and are drained by one or more branches of the internal jugular vein. The dorsal cutaneous artery supplies most of the blood to the parotoid glands in B. terrestris and B. valliceps. In B. alvarius and B. marinus, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries serve major roles in the blood supply of the glands. These patterns of blood flow have not been described previously for parotoid glands and conflict with earlier accounts for B. alvarius and B. marinus. The arteries and veins associated with the parotoid glands of toads are present in R. sphenocephala, but are arranged differently. In R. sphenocephala, the lateral cutaneous artery supplies the dorsal and lateral skin posterior to the shoulder region, whereas the dorsal cutaneous artery supplies the skin of the shoulder region. In toads, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries supply the skin of the shoulder region and ramify into subcutaneous capillaries that surround the secretory units of the parotoid glands. Extensive vasculature presumably is important for delivering cholesterol and other precursor molecules to the parotoid glands, where those compounds are converted into toxins. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura

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    Ning Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin α-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two α-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

  13. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

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    Karolina Stark

    Full Text Available Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later, to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  14. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

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    O. Fridman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300-310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A, 820(B, 1368(C and 1915(D Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure.

  15. Modelling the extinction risk of isolated populations of natterjack toad Bufo calamita

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    F. Meyer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Many local populations of the natterjack toad Bufo calamita in Germany are endangered. Due to the fragmentation and destruction of natural habitats by man, toads have often been forced to switch to secondary habitats. The permanent existence of these habitats is uncertain. Habitat and area requirements have been investigated in various parts of Germany in recent years. Our study uses field observations from sites in Halle (Saxony-Anhalt and List (Schleswig-Holstein as a basis for analyses of the population dynamics under different environmental conditions. Deterministic trends of these populations are calculated with the help of a Leslie matrix consisting of average parameters for mortality and reproduction. For a more thorough analysis we use a stochastic simulation model in order to assess survival probabilities of local toad populations. This model also takes into account environmental fluctuations affecting mortality and reproduction. Using scenarios from different locations, a sensitivity analysis of the parameters indicates which management options are the most promising to preserve a population. Our results indicate that the mortality rates of juveniles and the availability of spawning ground have the greatest influence on a population’s survival. Consequently, habitat management should focus on these aspects. In addition, we investigate the risk of extinction for different reproductive strategies. Natterjack toad populations observed in the field actually follow a strategy with three breeding periods. We find that this strategy supports the survival of the population better than strategies with less periods, which are more likely to result in a complete breeding failure during one season.

  16. Ranking landscape development scenarios affecting natterjack toad (Bufo calamita population dynamics in Central Poland.

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    Kamila W Franz

    Full Text Available When data are limited it is difficult for conservation managers to assess alternative management scenarios and make decisions. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita is declining at the edges of its distribution range in Europe and little is known about its current distribution and abundance in Poland. Although different landscape management plans for central Poland exist, it is unclear to what extent they impact this species. Based on these plans, we investigated how four alternative landscape development scenarios would affect the total carrying capacity and population dynamics of the natterjack toad. To facilitate decision-making, we first ranked the scenarios according to their total carrying capacity. We used the software RAMAS GIS to determine the size and location of habitat patches in the landscape. The estimated carrying capacities were very similar for each scenario, and clear ranking was not possible. Only the reforestation scenario showed a marked loss in carrying capacity. We therefore simulated metapopulation dynamics with RAMAS taking into account dynamical processes such as reproduction and dispersal and ranked the scenarios according to the resulting species abundance. In this case, we could clearly rank the development scenarios. We identified road mortality of adults as a key process governing the dynamics and separating the different scenarios. The renaturalisation scenario clearly ranked highest due to its decreased road mortality. Taken together our results suggest that road infrastructure development might be much more important for natterjack toad conservation than changes in the amount of habitat in the semi-natural river valley. We gained these insights by considering both the resulting metapopulation structure and dynamics in the form of a PVA. We conclude that the consideration of dynamic processes in amphibian conservation management may be indispensable for ranking management scenarios.

  17. Interação flebotomíneos, animais domésticos e dominância de Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 em área com alto grau de antropia, no Sul do Brasil

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    Ueslei Teodoro

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se os resultados de coletas de flebotomíneos em área com elevado grau de antropia, no Município de São Jorge do Ivaí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A espécie predominante foi Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912. Verificou-se que o número de flebotomíneos diminuiu sensivelmente em duas residências com o deslocamento de uma pocilga, à distância de 100 metros das residências, e a desobstrução do porão de uma das residências.

  18. Interação flebotomíneos, animais domésticos e dominância de Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 em área com alto grau de antropia, no Sul do Brasil

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    Teodoro Ueslei

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se os resultados de coletas de flebotomíneos em área com elevado grau de antropia, no Município de São Jorge do Ivaí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A espécie predominante foi Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912. Verificou-se que o número de flebotomíneos diminuiu sensivelmente em duas residências com o deslocamento de uma pocilga, à distância de 100 metros das residências, e a desobstrução do porão de uma das residências.

  19. Behaviour of the vitelline envelope in Bufo arenarum oocytes matured in vitro in blockade to polyspermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oterino, J; Sánchez Toranzo, G; Zelarayán, L; Ajmat, M T; Bonilla, F; Bühler, M I

    2006-05-01

    During activation of amphibian eggs, cortical granule exocytosis causes elaborate ultrastructural changes in the vitelline envelope. These changes involve modifications in the structure of the vitelline envelope and formation of a fertilization envelope (FE) that can no longer be penetrated by sperm. In Bufo arenarum, as the egg traverses the oviduct, the vitelline envelope is altered by a trypsin-like protease secreted by the oviduct, which induces an increased susceptibility of the vitelline envelope to sperm lysins. Full-grown oocytes of B. arenarum, matured in vitro by progesterone, are polyspermic, although cortical granule exocytosis seems to occur within a normal chronological sequence. These oocytes can be fertilized with or without trypsin treatment, suggesting that the vitelline envelope is totally sperm-permeable. Vitelline envelopes without trypsin treatment cannot retain either gp90 or gp96. This suggests that these glycoproteins are involved in the block to polyspermy and that trypsin treatment of matured in vitro oocytes before insemination is necessary to enable vitelline envelopes to block polyspermy. The loss of the binding capacity in vitelline envelopes isolated from B. arenarum oocytes matured in vitro with trypsin treatment and activated by electric shock suggests that previous trypsin treatment is a necessary step for sperm block to occur. When in vitro matured oocytes were incubated with the product of cortical granules obtained from in vitro matured oocytes (vCGP), vitelline envelopes with trypsin treatment were able to block sperm entry. These oocytes exhibited the characteristic signs of activation. These results support the idea that B. arenarum oocytes can be activated by external stimuli and suggest the presence of unknown oocyte surface receptors linked to the activation machinery in response to fertilization. Electrophoretic profiles obtained by SDS-PAGE of solubilized vitelline envelopes from oocytes matured in vitro revealed the

  20. The ecological impact of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard

    2010-09-01

    Although invasive species are viewed as major threats to ecosystems worldwide, few such species have been studied in enough detail to identify the pathways, magnitudes, and timescales of their impact on native fauna. One of the most intensively studied invasive taxa in this respect is the cane toad (Bufo marinus), which was introduced to Australia in 1935. A review of these studies suggests that a single pathway-lethal toxic ingestion of toads by frog-eating predators-is the major mechanism of impact, but that the magnitude of impact varies dramatically among predator taxa, as well as through space and time. Populations of large predators (e.g., varanid and scincid lizards, elapid snakes, freshwater crocodiles, and dasyurid marsupials) may be imperilled by toad invasion, but impacts vary spatially even within the same predator species. Some of the taxa severely impacted by toad invasion recover within a few decades, via aversion learning and longer-term adaptive changes. No native species have gone extinct as a result of toad invasion, and many native taxa widely imagined to be at risk are not affected, largely as a result of their physiological ability to tolerate toad toxins (e.g., as found in many birds and rodents), as well as the reluctance of many native anuran-eating predators to consume toads, either innately or as a learned response. Indirect effects of cane toads as mediated through trophic webs are likely as important as direct effects, but they are more difficult to study. Overall, some Australian native species (mostly large predators) have declined due to cane toads; others, especially species formerly consumed by those predators, have benefited. For yet others, effects have been minor or have been mediated indirectly rather than through direct interactions with the invasive toads. Factors that increase a predator's vulnerability to toad invasion include habitat overlap with toads, anurophagy, large body size, inability to develop rapid behavioral

  1. Hormonal priming, induction of ovulation and in-vitro fertilization of the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Robert K; Seratt, Jessica; Vance, Carrie; Kouba, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) is the subject of an extensive captive breeding and reintroduction program. Wyoming toads in captivity rarely ovulate spontaneously and hormonal induction is used to ovulate females or to stimulate spermiation in males. With hormonal induction, ovulation is unreliable and egg numbers are low. The sequential administration of anovulatory doses of hormones (priming) has increased egg numbers and quality in both anurans and fish. Consequently, we tested the efficacy of a combination of human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) and Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone analogue (LHRHa) administered as one dose, or two or three sequential doses to Bufo baxteri on egg numbers, fertilization and early embryo development. Spawning toads deposited eggs into Simplified Amphibian Ringers (SAR) solution to enable controlled in-vitro fertilization (IVF) with sperm from hormonally induced male toads. Unprimed females receiving a single mixed normally ovulatory dose of 500 IU hCG plus 4 micrograms of LHRHa produced no eggs. Whereas females primed with this dose and an anovulatory dose (100 IU hCG and 0.8 micrograms of LHRHa) of the same hormones, or primed only with an anovulatory dose, spawned after then receiving an ovulatory dose. Higher total egg numbers were produced with two primings than with one priming. Moreover, two primings produced significantly more eggs from each individual female than one priming. The cleavage rate of eggs was not found to differ between one or two primings. Nevertheless, embryo development with eggs from two primings gave a significantly greater percentage neurulation and swim-up than those from one priming. Of the male toads receiving a single dose of 300 IU hCG, 80% produced spermic urine with the greatest sperm concentration 7 hours post-administration (PA). However, peak sperm motility (95%) was achieved at 5 hours PA and remained relatively constant until declining 20 hours PA. In conclusion, Bufo baxteri

  2. El ciclo evolutivo experimental de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei en Paracyclops fimbriatus, larvas de Bufo arenarum y caninos Experimental life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei in Paracyclops fimbriatus, tadpoles of Bufo arenarum and dogs

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    Lucila Venturini

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue lograr la reproducción experimental del ciclo evolutivo de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea con la intervención de Paracyclops fimbriatus y larvas de Bufo arenarum como hospedadores intermediarios y caninos como hospedadores definitivos. Los huevos del parásito se obtuvieron de heces de caninos infectados naturalmente y se conservaron refrigerados en agua. Se incubaron 7 días a 25°C para que desarrollaran los coracidios y se pusieron en recipientes que contenían a los copépodos mencionados. Al cabo de 12 días a 22,6°C (promedio se hallaron procercoides maduros en ellos y se agregaron 10 renacuajos de Bufo arenarum. Estos se examinaron por disección 22, 23, 61 y 107 días después, hallándose en todos 1 o más plerocercoides (Temperatura promedio: 24,9°C. El día 23, de 6 renacuajos se obtuvieron 49 plerocercoides, de los cuales se administraron 28, por vía oral, a una perra. El día 107, 3 de 11 plerocercoides obtenidos de un renacuajo se le dieron a otra perra por la misma vía. Se hallaron huevos del cestode en las heces del primer canino a partir del día 22 posterior a la infección (p.i. y a los 30 días p.i., segmentos de estróbila. En el segundo canino se hallaron huevos a los 30 días p.i..Experiments were performed in order to develop the life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea in Paracyclops fimbriatus and Bufo arenarum as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The eggs of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei from faeces of naturally infected dogs were kept refrigered, in water. In order to obtain coracidiums they were incubated at 25°C, and then were placed in a flask which contained Paracyclops fimbriatus. The copepods were observed to be infected with procercoids 12 days after, (mean temperature 22.6°C and then, ten tadpoles of Bufo arenarum were put into the same flask. The tadpoles were examined

  3. Retina damage after exposure to UVA radiation on the early developmental stages of the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis Reuss

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    Alaa El-Din H. Sayed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the retina on different developmental stages of Egyptian toad Bufo regularis. Our experiment started when tadpoles begin to feed. The adapted embryos are divided into 3 large tanks of 200 embryos each, collections of samples started from feeding age every three days. Both histological and histochemical results showed that the general architecture of the retina organ is correlated with the state of development. Therefore, it displayed different characteristic features depending on the investigated developmental stage starting from the larval stage (feeding began, stage 44 and ending with the post-metamorphic stage 66. Also, the present work aimed to study the chronic effects of UVA on the retina structure of B. regularis during development and metamorphosis for the first time.

  4. Oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and malformation of Bufo gargarizans embryo exposed to sub-lethal cadmium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Zhang, Yuhui; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical for vertebrate postembryonic development as well as embryonic development. Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) embryos were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (5, 50, 100, 200 and 500μg Cd L-1) for 7days. Malformations were monitored daily, and growth and development of embryos were measured at day 4 and 7, and type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) mRNA expression were examined to evaluate the ability of scavenging ROS. Our results demonstrated a bimodal inhibitory effect of Cd on the embryo growth and development of Bufo gargarizans. Reduced mean stage, total length and weight were observed at 5, 50, 200 and 500, but not at 100μg Cd L-1. Embryos malformation occurred in all cadmium treatments. Morphological abnormalities of embryos are characterized by axial flexures, abdominal edema, stunted growth and fin flexure. Real-time PCR results show that exposure to cadmium down-regulated TRα and Dio3 mRNA expression and up-regulated Dio2 mRNA level. SOD and GPx mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated after cadmium exposure. We concluded that cadmium could change mRNA expression of TRα, Dio2 and Dio3 leading the inhibition of growth and development of B. gargarizans embryo, which suggests that cadmium might have the endocrine-disrupting effect in embryos. Moreover, the reduced ability of scavenging ROS induced by cadmium might be responsible for the teratogenic effects of cadmium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ocorrência de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 e Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Bufo arenalis no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurence of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 and Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae in Bufo arenalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a ocorrência do parasitismo monoespecífico de A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 e A. humerale KOCH, 1844 em sapos (Bufo arenalis no Município de Rosana, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este relato caracteriza um novo hospedeiro e uma nova localização geográfica para estas duas espécies de carrapatos.The objective of this work is to describe the occurence of the monoespecific parasitism of A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 and A. humerale KOCH, 1844 in toads (Bufo arenalis from the County of Rosana, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This is the description of a new host and new geographic site for those two species.

  6. One year in the life of Bufo punctatus: annual patterns of body temperature in a free-ranging desert anuran

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    Rausch, Candice M.; Starkweather, Peter L.; van Breukelen, Frank

    2008-06-01

    The Mojave Desert is characterized by hot dry summers and cold winters. The red-spotted toad ( Bufo ( Anaxyrus) punctatus) is the predominant anuran species; yet little is known of their thermal histories and strategies to avoid temperature extremes. We measured body temperature ( T b) in free-ranging adult toads across all four seasons of a year using implanted data loggers. There is marked individual variation in the temperatures experienced by these toads. As expected, toads generally escape extreme seasonal and diel temperature fluctuations. However, our data demonstrate a much wider estimated T b range than was previously assumed. Though often for short periods, red-spotted toads do experience T b as low as 3.1°C and as high as 39.1°C. All animals showed periods of prolonged thermal stability in cooler months and wider diel oscillations in warmer months. Red-spotted toad thermal history is likely a function of site choice; the exploitation of different refuges results in diverse thermal experiences. These data represent the most complete record of thermal experiences for a desert anuran and reveal greater extremes in body temperature than previously suggested.

  7. Wildfire effects on water temperature and selection of breeding sites by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas) in seasonal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, B.R.; Corn, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances can significantly affect the thermal regime and community structure of wetlands. We investigated the effect of a wildfire on water temperature of seasonal, montane wetlands after documenting the colonization of recently burned wetlands by the Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas). We compared the daily mean temperature, daily maximum temperature, and accumulated growing degree days measured on the north shore of three classes of wetlands: unburned wetlands, burned wetlands that were colonized by breeding toads, and burned wetlands that were not colonized. We hypothesized that toads colonized burned wetlands because they were warmer than unburned wetlands and selected specific burned wetlands because they were warmer than neighboring burned sites. There was weak evidence that toads selected burned wetlands with higher temperature maxima; however, the differences were small (???1??C) and were not supported when accounting for geography and wetland features. We also found no evidence that burning the forest around wetlands increased water temperatures two and three years after the fire. Unburned wetlands had higher daily mean and maximum temperatures and accrued more growing degree days than either class of burned wetlands. Temperature differences among groups of wetlands seemed to be driven by subtle differences in geography. We suspect we did not find warmer temperatures in burned wetlands because all of the wetlands we monitored already had open canopies and the fire likely resulted in only small increases in incident radiation. Copyright ?? 2008. Blake R. Hossack. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression pattern of glycoconjugates in the integument of Bufo ictericus (Anuran, Bufonidae): biochemical and histochemical (lectin) profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Gitirana, Lycia; Azevedo, Rodrigo Alves; Pelli, Adriana Alves

    2007-12-01

    Mucous consists of glycoproteins and proteoglycans produced by specific secretory cells (mucocytes). In anurans the cutaneous mucous is produced by intradermal glands and displays both mechanical and chemical protection functions. Indeed, mucous maintains the integument moist and facilitates gas exchange (cutaneous respiration). In this work, the carbohydrate moiety distribution was investigated in the integument of Bufo ictericus using conventional and lectin histochemistry to describe the pattern of cutaneous glycoconjugate expression, including both secretory and structural proteoglycans. As a preliminary step, the descendent chromatography in Whatmann 1MM paper was undertaken to prepare the histochemical trials involving the lectins. In B. ictericus, the integument exhibits the basic morphological structure found in lower terrestrial vertebrates: the epidermis is a keratinized squamous stratified epithelium supported by spongious and compact layers. The spongy dermis contain secretory portion of both mucous and serous (or poison) glands. The paper chromatography identified galactose, fucose and mannose as characteristic sugar residues. The secretory cells of the mucous gland in the dermis, as well as the interstice between the stratum corneum and the subjacent stratum spinosum in the epidermis exhibit alpha-l-fucose and alpha-galactose residues. The serous glands give no reaction. The alpha-mannose residue was detected in the extracellular matrix of spongious dermis, but not in the dermal glands. The different glycoconjugate location reflects in two glycoconjugates categories: the secretory which participate in the water flow regulation, and the structural which is involved in the dermal maintenance.

  9. Chronic exposure to coal fly ash causes minimal changes in corticosterone and testosterone concentrations in male southern toads Bufo terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C K; Mendonça, M T

    2006-08-01

    More than 50% of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal-burning power plants. The byproduct of coal-burning plants is coal fly ash, which contains increased concentrations of trace metals and is disposed of in collection basins. Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) frequently use these basins for reproduction. Male toads were collected in spring 2001 and 2002 from an ash basin and a reference site and divided into four groups: toads collected at the control site and maintained on (1) control substrate and food or (2) ash and contaminated food and toads collected at the ash site and maintained in (3) control or (4) ash conditions. Blood was collected periodically during 5 months to determine testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reference to ash toads exhibited a significant, transient increase in corticosterone at 4 weeks, but neither corticosterone nor testosterone continued to increase beyond this time. In contrast, toads caught and maintained on ash did not exhibit increased corticosterone. Testosterone in these toads appeared to be unrelated to ash exposure. This unexpected lack of a corticosterone response and no effect on testosterone suggests that toads chronically exposed to trace metals can acclimate to a polluted environment, but they may still experience subtle long-term consequences.

  10. Sexual differences in the post-breeding movements and habitats selected by Western toads (Bufo boreas) in southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Peterson, Charles R.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to study the movements and habitat use of Western toads (Bufo boreas) in the Targhee National Forest in southeastern Idaho. Eighteen toads (10 male and 8 female) that bred in a seasonally flooded pond, were fitted with radio-transmitters, tracked, and their movements mapped and analyzed with global positioning and geographic information systems. We also analyzed their patterns of habitat selection at micro- and macro-scales by comparing sites used by toads with randomly selected sites. After breeding, two male and six female toads left the breeding pond and used terrestrial habitats extensively. Male and female toads showed different patterns of movement and habitat use, although all toads seemed to behave in ways that reduced loss of body water (e.g., such as traveling on nights of high humidity). Male toads traveled shorter distances from the pond than females (581 ± 98 m and 1105 ± 272 m, respectively). Female toads used terrestrial habitats extensively and were selective of cover types (e.g., shrub) that provided greater protection from dehydration. Female toads also preferred certain habitat edges and open forests over forests with closed canopies or clearcuts. Information from this study can assist land managers in establishing protective buffers and managing forests for the protection of toad populations.

  11. Characterization and quantification of corticosteroid-binding globulin in a southern toad, Bufo terrestris, exposed to coal-combustion-waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.K.; Fontes, C.; Breuner, C.W.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (USA). Dept. of Biological Science

    2007-05-15

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a plasma protein that binds corticosterone and may regulate access of hormone to tissues. The role of CBG during a stress response is not clear. In this study, southern toads, Bufo terrestris, were exposed to a chronic pollutant (coal-combustion-waste), to determine changes in CBG and free corticosterone levels. Since toads exposed to chronic pollutants in previous studies did not exhibit the predicted changes in metabolic rate and mass, but did experience a significant elevation in total corticosterone, we hypothesized that CBG would likewise increase and thus, mitigate the effects of a chronic (i.e. 2 months) pollutant stressor. To conduct this study, we first characterized the properties of CBG in southern toads. After characterization, we monitored the changes in CBG, total corticosterone, and free corticosterone in male toads that were exposed to either coal-combustion-waste or control conditions. CBG increased in all groups throughout the experiment. Total corticosterone, on the other hand, was only significantly elevated at four weeks of exposure to coal-combustion-waste. The increase in CBG did not parallel the increase in total corticosterone; as a result, free corticosterone levels were not buffered by CBG, but showed a peak at four weeks similar to total corticosterone. This finding indicates that, in this species, CBG may not provide a protective mechanism during long-term pollution exposure.

  12. Mortality and toxin bioaccumulation in Bufo marinus following exposure to Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii cell extracts and live cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.H. [Freshwater Ecology Group, Centre for Environmental Management, Central Queensland University, Building 6, Bruce Highway, Rockhampton, QLD 4702 (Australia)]. E-mail: s.white@cqu.edu.au; Duivenvoorden, L.J. [Freshwater Ecology Group, Centre for Environmental Management, Central Queensland University, Building 6, Bruce Highway, Rockhampton, QLD 4702 (Australia)]. E-mail: l.duivenvoorden@cqu.edu.au; Fabbro, L.D. [Freshwater Ecology Group, Centre for Environmental Management, Central Queensland University, Building 6, Bruce Highway, Rockhampton, QLD 4702 (Australia)]. E-mail: l.fabbro@cqu.edu.au; Eaglesham, G.K. [Queensland Health Scientific Services, Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, QLD 4109 (Australia)]. E-mail: geoff_eaglesham@health.qld.gov.au

    2007-05-15

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a cyanobacterium responsible for the production of the toxin, cylindrospermopsin (CYN). Tadpoles of the cane toad Bufo marinus were exposed to freeze-thawed whole cell extracts or live cultures of C. raciborskii containing maximum CYN concentrations of 400 {mu}g L{sup -1} or 232 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. Exposure to live culture treatment solutions resulted in up to 66% mortality of B. marinus, whereas tadpoles exposed to whole cell extracts containing similar toxin concentrations survived. Decreases in relative growth rates and time spent for swimming were recorded from tadpoles during both types of exposure regimes. Bioconcentration of CYN was not evident following exposure to whole cell extracts containing extracellular toxin. In contrast exposure to live cultures, which contained cell-bound toxin, resulted in maximum average tissue concentrations of 895 {mu}g free-CYN kg{sup -1} fresh weight. This is the first investigation of C. raciborskii exposure effects and toxin bioaccumulation in the developmental stages of an amphibian. - Cane toad tadpoles experienced adverse effects and bioaccumulation of toxin following exposure to the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii.

  13. Chronic exposure to coal fly ash causes minimal changes in corticosterone and testosterone concentrations in male southern toads Bufo terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.K.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Montgomery, AL (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2006-08-15

    More than 50% of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal-burning power plants. The byproduct of coal-burning plants is coal fly ash, which contains increased concentrations of trace metals and is disposed of in collection basins. Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) frequently use these basins for reproduction. Male toads were collected in spring 2001 and 2002 from an ash basin and a reference site and divided into four groups: toads collected at the control site and maintained on (1) control substrate and food or (2) ash and contaminated food and toads collected at the ash site and maintained in (3) control or (4) ash conditions. Blood was collected periodically during 5 months to determine testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reference to ash toads exhibited a significant, transient increase in corticosterone at 4 weeks, but neither corticosterone nor testosterone continued to increase beyond this time. In contrast, toads caught and maintained on ash did not exhibit increased corticosterone. Testosterone in these toads appeared to be unrelated to ash exposure. This unexpected lack of a corticosterone response and no effect on testosterone suggests that toads chronically exposed to trace metals can acclimate to a polluted environment, but they may still experience subtle long-term consequences.

  14. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  15. Long-term effect of heavy-metal pollution on diversity of gastrointestinal microbial community of Bufo raddei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenya; Guo, Rui; Yang, Ying; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-06

    Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota plays a very important role in maintaining its host's health. However, the effects of environmental contamination on the GI microbiota homeostasis of amphibians have not yet been reported. The present study reveals the long-term effect of natural heavy-metal pollution on the GI microbial community diversity and structural changes of Bufo raddei (B. raddei). Basing on the 16S rRNA sequencing method, the GI microbiota of B. raddei from a heavily heavy-metal-polluted area (Baiyin, (BY)) and a relatively unpolluted area (Liujiaxia, (LJX)) were profiled. The results showed that heavy-metal pollution had caused significant shifts in the composition of the GI microbiota both at the phylum and genus levels. Specifically, Bacteroidetes dominated in the GI tract of B. raddei from BY, while Tenericutes was much more common in those from LJX. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and the proportion of probiotics in the GI microbiota of B. raddei from BY were reduced compared to those from LJX, as well. Heavy-metal pollution also induced in a reduction of species diversity and decreased proportion of unique operational taxonomic units in the GI tract. In short, our results demonstrate that long-term heavy-metal exposure re-shaped the composition and decreased the species diversity of GI microbiota of B. raddei; our results also represent a novel approach to uncover the toxic effects of pollution on amphibians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphological and genetic differentiation among Chilean populations of Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae Diferenciación morfológica y genética entre poblaciones chilenas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Méndez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Bufo spinulosus has a wide and fragmented range distribution in Chile (18° to 33° S along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. Genetic variation was estimated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers in 10 populations from northern and central Chile. Morphometric and genetic information was analyzed as a function of geographical origin. The correlation between genetic and morphometric differentiation was analyzed by the Mantel test. An increase in body size as a function of latitude was observed. Specimens from El Tatio had the smallest body size and the greatest morphometric divergence. The AMOVA applied to genetic data indicated that 57.85 % of the variance is explained by interregional differences and that 30.12 % of the variance is found within populations. Low levels of within-regions genetic differentiation was observed in northern populations while higher levels of genetic differentiation was found in populations from central Chile. Mantel tests revealed a significant, positive correlation between genetic variation and geographic distance. When we excluded El Tatio population, Mantel test analyses showed significant correlations between morphological distance and genetic and geographic distances. We discuss whether water temperature could explain the morphological divergence observed in individuals from El TatioBufo spinulosus presenta una amplia y fragmentada distribución en Chile (18º a 33º S a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales y latitudinales. La variación genética fue estimada utilizando marcadores RAPD ("Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA" en diez poblaciones del norte y centro de Chile. La información morfométrica y genética fue analizada en función de la procedencia geográfica. La correlación entre diferenciación genética y morfométrica fue analizada utilizando la prueba de Mantel. Se observó un incremento en el tamaño corporal en función de la latitud. Los individuos de El Tatio mostraron el tama

  17. Involvement of the dehydroleucodine alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone function in GVBD inhibition in Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Toranzo, G; López, L A; Martínez, J Zapata; Bühler, M C Gramajo; Bühler, M I

    2010-02-01

    Dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpenic lactone, was isolated and purified from aerial parts of Artemisia douglasiana Besser, a medicinal herb used in Argentina. DhL is an alpha-methylene butyro-gamma-lactone ring connected to a seven-membered ring fused to an exocyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclopentenone ring. It has been previously shown that DhL selectively induces a dose-dependent transient arrest in G2 of both meristematic cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Treatment with DhL induces an inhibition of spontaneous and progesterone-induced maturation in a dose-dependent manner in Bufo arenarum fully grown oocytes arrested at G2, at the beginning of meiosis I. However, the nature of the mechanisms involved in the process is still unknown. The aim of this work was to analyse whether DhL's alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone function is responsible for the inhibition effect on meiosis reinitiation of Bufo arenarum oocytes as well as some of the transduction pathways that could be involved in this effect using a derivative of DhL inactivated for alpha-methylenelactone, the 11,13-dihydro-dehydroleucodine (2H-DhL). The use of 2H-DhL in the maturation promoting factor (MPF) amplification experiments by injection of both cytoplasm with active MPF and of germinal vesicle content showed results similar to the ones obtained with DhL, suggesting that the hydrogenated derivative would act in a similar way to DhL. Pretreatment with DhL or 2H-DhL did not affect the percentage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) induced by H89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, which suggests that these lactones would act on another step of the signalling pathway that induces MPF activation. The fact that both DhL and 2H-Dhl inhibit GVBD induced by okadaic acid microinjection suggests that they could act on the activity of the Myt1 kinase. This idea is supported by the experiments of injection of GV contents in which an inhibitory effect of these lactones on GVBD was also observed. Our

  18. Expression pattern of glycoconjugates in the Bidderian and ovarian follicles of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus analyzed by lectin histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Farias

    Full Text Available The Bidder's organ and ovary of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus were studied by light microscopy, using hematoxylin-eosin (HE and periodic acid Schiff (PAS staining. The expression and distribution of carbohydrate moieties was analyzed by lectin histochemistry, using 8 lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: Ulex europaeus (UEA I, Lens culinaris (LCA, Erythrina cristagalli (ECA, Arachis hypogaea (PNA, Ricinus communis (RCA I, Aleuria aurantia (AAA, Triticum vulgaris (WGA, and Glycine maximum (SBA. The results showed that the Bidderian zona pellucida presented alpha-mannose, alpha-L-fucose, beta-D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. The Bidderian follicular cells showed the presence of beta-D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. In the extracellular matrix, alpha-mannose and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues were detected. The ovarian zona pellucida showed alpha-L-fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues, and alpha-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues were detected in the follicular cells. Thus, the zona pellucida in both organs contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. alpha-L-fucose residues were detected in the zona pellucida of both organs, using different lectins. Considering that beta-D-galactose residue was absent from ovary but present in the Bidder's organ, this sugar residue may play an important role in follicle development, blocking the Bidderian follicles and preventing further development of the Bidder's organ into a functional ovary.

  19. Mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis during Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ release in gastric myocytes from Bufo marinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Robert M; Mix, T Christian H; Tuft, Richard A; Walsh, John V; Fay, Fredric S

    2000-01-01

    The Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicator rhod-2 was used to monitor mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]m) in gastric smooth muscle cells from Bufo marinus. In some studies, fura-2 was used in combination with rhod-2, allowing simultaneous measurement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and [Ca2+]m, respectively. During a short train of depolarizations, which causes Ca2+ influx from the extracellular medium, there was an increase in both [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m. The half-time (t½) to peak for the increase in [Ca2+]m was considerably longer than the t½ to peak for the increase in [Ca2+]i. [Ca2+]m remained elevated for tens of seconds after [Ca2+]i had returned to its resting value. Stimulation with caffeine, which causes release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), also produced increases in both [Ca2+]i and [Ca2+]m. The values of t½ to peak for the increase in [Ca2+] in both cytoplasm and mitochondria were similar; however, [Ca2+]i returned to baseline values much faster than [Ca2+]m. Using a wide-field digital imaging microscope, changes in [Ca2+]m were monitored within individual mitochondria in situ, during stimulation of Ca2+ influx or Ca2+ release from the SR. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake during depolarizing stimulation caused depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The mitochondrial membrane potential recovered considerably faster than the recovery of [Ca2+]m. This study shows that Ca2+ influx from the extracellular medium and Ca2+ release from the SR are capable of increasing [Ca2+]m in smooth muscle cells. The efflux of Ca2+ from the mitochondria is a slow process and appears to be dependent upon the amount of Ca2+ in the SR. PMID:10713963

  20. A New Phylogeographic Pattern of Endemic Bufo bankorensis in Taiwan Island Is Attributed to the Genetic Variation of Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Teng-Lang; Lin, Hung-Du; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Aim To comprehend the phylogeographic patterns of genetic variation in anurans at Taiwan Island, this study attempted to examine (1) the existence of various geological barriers (Central Mountain Ranges, CMRs); and (2) the genetic variation of Bufo bankorensis using mtDNA sequences among populations located in different regions of Taiwan, characterized by different climates and existing under extreme conditions when compared available sequences of related species B. gargarizans of mainland China. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic analyses of the dataset with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop gene (348 bp) recovered a close relationship between B. bankorensis and B. gargarizans, identified three distinct lineages. Furthermore, the network of mtDNA D-loop gene (564 bp) amplified (279 individuals, 27 localities) from Taiwan Island indicated three divergent clades within B. bankorensis (Clade W, E and S), corresponding to the geography, thereby verifying the importance of the CMRs and Kaoping River drainage as major biogeographic barriers. Mismatch distribution analysis, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots revealed that a significant population expansion occurred for the total population and Clade W, with horizons dated to approximately 0.08 and 0.07 Mya, respectively. These results suggest that the population expansion of Taiwan Island species B. bankorensis might have resulted from the release of available habitat in post-glacial periods, the genetic variation on mtDNA showing habitat selection, subsequent population dispersal, and co-distribution among clades. Conclusions The multiple origins (different clades) of B. bankorensis mtDNA sequences were first evident in this study. The divergent genetic clades found within B. bankorensis could be independent colonization by previously diverged lineages; inferring B. bankorensis originated from B. gargarizans of mainland China, then dispersal followed by isolation within Taiwan Island. Highly divergent

  1. Gene expression variations in high-altitude adaptation: a case study of the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weizhao; Qi, Yin; Lu, Bin; Qiao, Liang; Wu, Yayong; Fu, Jinzhong

    2017-07-03

    Genome-wide investigation of molecular mechanisms for high-altitude adaptation has attracted great attention in the last few years. In order to understand the contribution of gene expression level variations to high-altitude adaptation in Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans), we implemented a reciprocal transplant experiment between low- and high-altitude sites and sequenced 12 transcriptomes from brain, heart, and liver tissues. A large number of genes with expression differences (DEGs) between high- and low-altitude individuals (193 fixed and 844 plastic) were identified, and the majority of them were tissue specific. Heart displayed the largest number of DEGs, both plastic and fixed. Fixed DEGs were particularly concentrated in functions associated with muscle contraction, and the majority of them were down-regulated in high-altitude individuals. Plastic DEGs were highly concentrated in several energy metabolism related functional categories, and the majority of them were also down-regulated at high-altitude environments. In liver samples, genes associated with nutrient metabolism experienced a broad-scale expression down-regulation in high-altitude toads. These broadly suppressed expression patterns at high altitudes are in strong contrast to those of endothermic homeotherms, suggesting poikilothermic vertebrates may have adopted different strategies at high altitudes. Our results strongly support that both genotypic specialization and phenotypic plasticity play crucial role in adaptation to high altitude for Asiatic toads. Poikilothermic vertebrates are among the most hypoxia-tolerant animals known, and many molecular mechanisms remain elusive. We hope that our results will provide useful directions for future research.

  2. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  3. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Grenada, West Indies, and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M; Amadi, V; Zieger, U; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2013-09-01

    Cloacal swabs and caecal contents sampled from 58 cane toads (Bufo marinus) in St George's parish, Grenada, during a 7-month period in 2011 were examined by an enrichment and selective culture method for presence of Salmonella spp. Twenty-four (41%) toads were positive for Salmonella spp. of which eight were Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana, and eight were S. enterica serovar Rubislaw. The other serovars were as follows: Montevideo, 6; Arechavaleta, 1; and serovar: IV:43:-:-, 1. The high frequency of isolation of serovar Javiana, an emerging human pathogen associated with several outbreaks in the recent years in the eastern United States, suggests a possible role for cane toads in transmission of this serovar. Although S. Rubislaw has been isolated from lizards, bats and cases of some human infections, there is no report of its carriage by cane toads, and in such high frequency. The rate of carriage of S. Montevideo, a cause for human foodborne outbreaks around the world was also over 10% in the 58 toads sampled in this study. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal and is of little concern. Antimicrobial resistance was limited to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in one isolate of S. Javiana and one isolate of S. Rubislaw. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars not identified previously in cane toads in Grenada, West Indies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Modeling amphibian energetics, habitat suitability, and movements of western toads, Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas, across present and future landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Klaver, Robert W.; Porter, Warren P.

    2010-01-01

    Effective conservation of amphibian populations requires the prediction of how amphibians use and move through a landscape. Amphibians are closely coupled to their physical environment. Thus an approach that uses the physiological attributes of amphibians, together with knowledge of their natural history, should be helpful. We used Niche Mapper™ to model the known movements and habitat use patterns of a population of Western toads (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas) occupying forested habitats in southeastern Idaho. Niche Mapper uses first principles of environmental biophysics to combine features of topography, climate, land cover, and animal features to model microclimates and animal physiology and behavior across landscapes. Niche Mapper reproduced core body temperatures (Tc) and evaporation rates of live toads with average errors of 1.6 ± 0.4 °C and 0.8 ± 0.2 g/h, respectively. For four different habitat types, it reproduced similar mid-summer daily temperature patterns as those measured in the field and calculated evaporation rates (g/h) with an average error rate of 7.2 ± 5.5%. Sensitivity analyses indicate these errors do not significantly affect estimates of food consumption or activity. Using Niche Mapper we predicted the daily habitats used by free-ranging toads; our accuracy for female toads was greater than for male toads (74.2 ± 6.8% and 53.6 ± 15.8%, respectively), reflecting the stronger patterns of habitat selection among females. Using these changing to construct a cost surface, we also reconstructed movement paths that were consistent with field observations. The effect of climate warming on toads depends on the interaction of temperature and atmospheric moisture. If climate change occurs as predicted, results from Niche Mapper suggests that climate warming will increase the physiological cost of landscapes thereby limiting the activity for toads in different habitats.

  5. Trophic ecology and microhabitat utilization by the Bufo gargarizans, Rana guentheri, and Rana limnocharis in southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonglei Yu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the trophic ecology and microhabitat use of the Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842; Guentheri frog, Rana guentheri (Boulenger, 1882; and the Ricefield frog, Rana limnocharis (Boie, 1834. These three species are common around Nanchong City, in southwestern China, where they live in the same habitat before hibernation. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diets and patterns of coexistence relative to the microhabitat of each species. In the Asiatic toad, based on index of relative importance, the diet was dominated by adult Coleoptera, Isopoda, and Hymenoptera (29.53%, 22.07%, and 15.20%, respectively, while the Guenther's frog and Ricefield frog ingested predominantly Orthoptera (67.44% and 40.94%, respectively. The standardized feeding niche breadth of the Asiatic toad (0.277 was wider than that of the Guentheri frog (0.177 and Ricefield frog (0.269. The overlap in the trophic niche (prey proportion between the toad and two species of frog was low (toad vs. Guentheri frog, C H = 0.526; toad vs. Ricefield frog, C H = 0.521, while this was high for the two species of frogs (C H = 0.942. The three species also differed in microhabitat use. Asiatic toads showed strong preference for small roads close to shrubs or pre-harvest corn, while Guenther's frogs preferred bare surfaces on habitat edges, and Ricefield frogs showed a preference for bare surfaces as feeding sites in the middle of habitat. The difference in diet observed during three species seems to be explained by the difference in microhabitat use and body size of three species.

  6. Phylogeography of a widespread terrestrial vertebrate in a barely-studied Palearctic region: green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) indicate glacial refugia in Eastern Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Jun; Stöck, Matthias; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2008-11-01

    The phylogeography of western Palearctic species is relatively well studied, but data on Eastern Central Asia are scarce. We present one of the first data sets from a widespread terrestrial vertebrate (Bufo pewzowi) inhabiting Eastern Central Asian mountains and deserts to gain knowledge on its phylogeography in this region. We applied combined phylogenetic and demographic analyses to understand the evolutionary history using mitochondrial DNA D-loop variation of toads from 37 locations. Genetic structure of Bufo pewzowi is strongly affected by landscape: we found three haplotype groups in eastern Kazakhstan, Dzungaria and Tarim Basin, divided by the Tian Shan and Dzungarian Alatau ranges. A vicariant hypothesis may explain divergence among groups. The divergence time of the three major clades was estimated about 0.9 million years ago (confidence interval 0.5-1.4), and is discussed with respect to Quaternary uplifting and glaciation in the Tian Shan. Demographic analyses provided evidence for both historical bottlenecks and population expansions and suggested Pleistocene signatures. Glacial refugia were inferred in the Tarim Basin (around the Turpan depression), in southern Dzungaria (Urumqui region), at the northern foot of the Tian Shan (Gongnaisi) and perhaps at the Altai range (Terekti). Regional Post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal patterns are proposed. A taxonomic hypothesis is presented. This study provides a detailed history of how a widespread terrestrial vertebrate responded to geological change and Quaternary glacial events in Eastern Central Asia and may have significance for future phylogeographic research in this understudied region.

  7. Effects of Petrol Exposure on Glucose, Liver and Muscle glycogen levels in the Common African toad Bufo regularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isehunwa, G O; Yusuf, I O; Alada, A Ar

    2017-03-06

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to petrol on blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen levels in the common African toad Bufo regularis. A total of 126 adult toads of either sex weighing between 70-100g were used for this study. The experiment was divided into three phases. The phase 1 experiment the acute toxicity test consisted of animals divided into six groups of 10 toads per group and were exposed to water (H2O), H2O + Tween 80, 2ml/l, 3ml/l, 5ml/l, and 10ml/l of petrol respectively for 96 hours using the static renewal bioassay system. In the Phase 2 experiment, the animals were exposed to H2O, H2O + Tween 80, 0.14ml/l, 0.3ml/l, 0.6ml/l, and 1.13ml/l of petrol respectively for 3 days; while in phase 3 experiment they were exposed to petrol solutions for 14 days. After the various exposures, the blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen contents were determined using standard methods. The results of the study showed that the median lethal concentration of petrol (96 hours LC50) was 4.5ml/l and sub-lethal concentration of petrol caused mortality of animals. Exposure to petrol solutions for 3 days had no significant effect on blood glucose level of the animals but caused significant decrease in the liver and muscle glycogen levels at high concentrations. In the animals exposed to petrol solutions for 14 days, there was a significant increase in glucose levels and significant reduction in liver and muscle glycogen levels at high concentrations when compared with the control. The results show that sub-lethal concentrations of petrol can cause mortality of animals, hyperglycemia and reduction in liver and muscle glycogen levels. The effects of petrol exposure on carbohydrate metabolism depend on the concentration and duration of exposure.

  8. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad's coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis.

  9. Variación estacional en la proporción relativa de los estadios de la oogénesis en Bufo arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Echeverría, Dinorah D.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The Anova repeated measure design was used to compare the percentage of oocytes in female toads (Bufo arenarum at stages 1 to 5 and at different physiological ovary periods (or phases: production, before ovulation, after ovulation. Individual comparisons among stages and between phases have been made with the minimum significant difference method at 0.05 probability level. The statistical analysis at percentage of oocytes showed that: a Stages 1 and 2 have few variation. They are the permanent oocytes group. b Stage 3 (late vitelogenesis oocytes are absent previous to the breeding season. Their rate increases in summer and decreases in autumn. The development of oocytes 3 take place afterwards the ovulation. c Stage 4 increases in autumn and disappears in late winter. d Stage 5 sets up as the 18% of the ovulated oocytes. e. Stages 3, 4 and 5 are renewed every year; they are temporary ovarian oocytes.

  10. Estudio morfométrico sobre el desarrollo y evolución de las glándulas tiroides durante la metamorfosis de Bufo arenarum

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    Miranda, Leandro Andrés

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el desarrollo y la evolución de las glándulas tiroideas durante la morfogénesis de Bufo arenarum. Usando diferentes parámetros morfométricos, hemos relacionado el crecimiento y desarrollo larval con el desarrollo de las glándulas tiroideas. Se observó que la longitud total, el peso de las larvas, el volumen glandular tiroideo y el diámetro folicular, aumentan hasta el estadio XV (fin de la prometamorfosis, mientras que el número de folículos y la altura de las células foliculares tiroideas se incrementan hasta el estadio XVII (mitad del clímax metamórfico. Todos estos parámetros disminuyeron considerablemente durante el clímax metamórfico mientras que en animales postmetamórficos se observó un incremento en los valores registrados. En base a los resultados obtenidos concluimos que hay un período de síntesis y almacenamiento de hormonas tiroideas durante el crecimiento larval y un segundo período caracterizado por la liberación de hormonas tiroideas hacia el final de la prometamorfosis y durante el clímax metamórfico. We studied the development and evolution of thyroid glands during Bufo arenarum morphogenesis. Using different morphometric parameters we related larval growth and metamorphosis with thyroid glands development We observed that total length, larval weight, thyroid gland volume and follicle diameter increased until stage XV (end of prometamorphosis, meanwhile the number of follicles and follicle cell height increased until stage XVII (midclimax. All these parameters decreased during metamorphic climax and an increase was observed in postmetamorphic animals. Our results lead us to conclude that during larval growth there is a period of synthesis and store of thyroid hormones. There is a second period characterized by thyroid hormones release during the end of prometamorphosis and metamorphic climax.

  11. ENVENENAMENTO DE CÃES POR BUFADIENOLÍDEOS (Substâncias encontradas na secreção das glândulas paratóides dos sapos do gênero Bufo POISONING OF DOGS BY BUFADIENOLIDES (SUBSTANCES FOUND IN THE PARATOID GLAND SECRETION OF FROGS OF THE GENUS Bufo

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    Lourival Pereira Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Os autores estudaram o efeito da aplicação na mucosa bucal de cães, do produto secretado pelas glândulas paratóides de sapos do gênero Bufo. Os cães apresentaram sinais de graves intoxicações, imediatamente após a aplicação do referido produto.

    In the present paper, the authors report the effects of toad’s poison in dogs. This is the first case describe in Goiás.

  12. The effect of soil composition and hydration on the bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to hibernating juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus)

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    James, Stacy M.; Little, Edward E.; Semlitsch, Raymond D.

    2004-01-01

    The soil ecotoxicology literature has focused primarily on a few major taxa, to the neglect of other fossorial organisms such as amphibians. We selected cadmium (Cd) and the American toad (Bufo americanus) as a model contaminant and biological species to assess the impact of soil contamination on amphibian hibernation survival and post-hibernation condition. Soil sand composition (50, 70, 90%) and hydration (100, 150% water holding capacity (WHC)) were manipulated in addition to Cd concentration (0, 56, 165, 483 μg/g) to determine whether these soil properties affect toxicity. Soil Cd concentration significantly reduced survival and locomotor performance, and was correlated negatively with percent mass loss and positively with whole body Cd concentration. Higher sand content resulted in less mass loss and greater Cd uptake. Toads that were hibernated in 50% sand hydrated to 100% WHC had higher survival, less mass loss, and better sprint performance than those hibernated in 50% sand, 150% WHC. This study demonstrates that concentrations of Cd found in soil at highly contaminated sites can be bioaccumulated by hibernating amphibians and may reduce fitness. Differences in microhabitat use may cause species to vary in their exposure and susceptibility to soil contamination. The toxicity of Cd to amphibians could be greater in natural systems where there are multiple stressors and fluctuations in environmental variables.

  13. Geographic variation in life-history traits: growth season affects age structure, egg size and clutch size in Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen Bo; Luo, Yi; Lou, Shang Ling; Lu, Di; Jehle, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Environmental variation associated with season length is likely to promote differentiation in life-history traits, but has been little studied in natural populations of ectotherms. We investigated patterns of variation in egg size, clutch size, age at sexual maturity, maximum age, mean age, growth rate and adult body size in relation to growth season length among 17 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) at different latitudes and altitudes in the Hengduan Mountains, western China. We found that egg size, age at sexual maturity, and mean age increased with decreasing length of the growth season, whereas clutch size showed a converse cline. Body size did not increase with decreasing length of the growth season, but was tightly linked to lifetime activity (i.e. the estimated number of active days during lifetime). Males and females differed in their patterns of geographic variation in growth rates, which may be the result of forces shaping the trade-off between growth and reproduction in different environments. Our findings suggest that growth season plays an important role in shaping variation in life-history traits in B. andrewsi across geographical gradients.

  14. Drift Rather than Selection Dominates MHC Class II Allelic Diversity Patterns at the Biogeographical Range Scale in Natterjack Toads Bufo calamita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisset, Inga; Beebee, Trevor J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci has gained great popularity in recent years, partly due to their function in protecting vertebrates from infections. This is of particular interest in amphibians on account of major threats many species face from emergent diseases such as chytridiomycosis. In this study we compare levels of diversity in an expressed MHC class II locus with neutral genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in natterjack toad (Bufo (Epidalea) calamita) populations across the whole of the species’ biogeographical range. Variation at both classes of loci was high in the glacial refugium areas (REF) and much lower in postglacial expansion areas (PGE), especially in range edge populations. Although there was clear evidence that the MHC locus was influenced by positive selection in the past, congruence with the neutral markers suggested that historical demographic events were the main force shaping MHC variation in the PGE area. Both neutral and adaptive genetic variation declined with distance from glacial refugia. Nevertheless, there were also some indications from differential isolation by distance and allele abundance patterns that weak effects of selection have been superimposed on the main drift effect in the PGE zone. PMID:24937211

  15. When new human-modified habitats favour the expansion of an amphibian pioneer species: Evolutionary history of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) in a coal basin.

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    Faucher, Leslie; Hénocq, Laura; Vanappelghem, Cédric; Rondel, Stéphanie; Quevillart, Robin; Gallina, Sophie; Godé, Cécile; Jaquiéry, Julie; Arnaud, Jean-François

    2017-09-01

    Human activities affect microevolutionary dynamics by inducing environmental changes. In particular, land cover conversion and loss of native habitats decrease genetic diversity and jeopardize the adaptive ability of populations. Nonetheless, new anthropogenic habitats can also promote the successful establishment of emblematic pioneer species. We investigated this issue by examining the population genetic features and evolutionary history of the natterjack toad (Bufo [Epidalea] calamita) in northern France, where populations can be found in native coastal habitats and coalfield habitats shaped by European industrial history, along with an additional set of European populations located outside this focal area. We predicted contrasting patterns of genetic structure, with newly settled coalfield populations departing from migration-drift equilibrium. As expected, coalfield populations showed a mosaic of genetically divergent populations with short-range patterns of gene flow, and native coastal populations indicated an equilibrium state with an isolation-by-distance pattern suggestive of postglacial range expansion. However, coalfield populations exhibited (i) high levels of genetic diversity, (ii) no evidence of local inbreeding or reduced effective population size and (iii) multiple maternal mitochondrial lineages, a genetic footprint depicting independent colonization events. Furthermore, approximate Bayesian computations suggested several evolutionary trajectories from ancient isolation in glacial refugia during the Pleistocene, with biogeographical signatures of recent expansion probably confounded by human-mediated mixing of different lineages. From an evolutionary and conservation perspective, this study highlights the ecological value of industrial areas, provided that ongoing regional gene flow is ensured within the existing lineage boundaries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Different morphologic formation patterns of dark patches in the black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangming, Gan; Tao, Zhao; Chao, Li; Moyan, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    The black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans), two relatively distantly related species, live in different habitats with different adaptive dark patches. To explain the formation of dark patches, the distribution patterns of melanin granules were examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Melanin granules were produced and gathered into the "cap" structures on top of the nuclei in most epidermal cells. The "cap" structures may play a role in forming the dorsal dark patches coupled with three-layer melanophores, which can give rise to three layers of interconnected melanin networks in the dorsal dermis in P. nigromaculata. Epidermal melanocytes are rare and do not have a definitive role in forming dorsal dark patches in either P. nigromaculata or B. gargarizans. In B. gargarizans, the dermal melanophores only give rise to a single-layered melanin network, which hardly results in dark patches in the dorsal skin. However, the dermal melanophores migrate twice and form into pseudostratified networks, leading to dark patch formation in the ventral skin in B. gargarizans. The melanin granules precisely coregulate dark patches in the dermis and/or epidermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans. The dark patch formation depends on melanin granules in the epidermis or/and dermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans.

  17. Structural aspects of the Eberth-Katschenko layer of Bufo ictericus integument: histochemical characterization and biochemical analysis of the cutaneous calcium (Amphibian, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Rodrigo Alves; Pelli, Adriana Alves; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio; de Jesus Santana, Andréa Souza; Felsemburgh, Flávia; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia

    2005-01-01

    Anuran, such as Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824, possess a calcified dermal layer called the Eberth-Katschenko (EK) layer located between the stratum spongiosum and the stratum compactum. It has been regarded as a protective barrier against desiccation or involved in storage and mobilization of calcium, or a barrier for the interchange of substances between the animal's internal and external environment. The B. ictericus integument was removed from the ventral and dorsal regions and examined by light microscopy, using histochemical techniques, and also submitted to biochemical calcium analysis. The intermediate layer is strongly basophilic and metachromatic. In the EK layer Alcian blue at different critical electrolytic concentration revealed hyaluronic acid, which coexists with the dermal calcium. We conclude that the EK layer of B. ictericus is a discontinuous layer and is formed of hyaluronic acid and a sulfated GAG different from chondroitin sulfate, heparin and heparan sulfate or keratan sulfate. The amount of cutaneous calcium is independent of region and sex. GAGs may play an important role in dermal hydric balance, protecting the animal against desiccation, and hyaluronic acid is probably able to anchor dermal calcium. Thus, all compounds of the EK layer are essential for integument integrity and functionality.

  18. Chloromyxum aegypticus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Chloromyxidae) infecting the testicular tissue of the Egyptian toad, Bufo regularis (Amphibia: Bufonidae), and its pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Enayat Salem Ahmed

    2010-11-01

    A new myxosporean, Chloromyxum aegypticus n. sp., is described from the testes of the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis, captured from El Mansoura locality. C. aegypticus is identified on the basis of cytology, electron microscopy and histopathology. It is distinguished from all previously reported Chloromyxum spp. by its shape, dimensions of the mature spore (9.1 ± 0.1 (9.0-9.2) μm in length  × 7.9 ± 0.1 (7.8-8.0) μm in width), polar capsules, external ridge, sporoplasm nuclei, undulating suture, locality and host. Accumulation of several hundreds of plasmodia (0.8 ± 0.3 (0.5-1.1) mm in length × 0.5 ± 0.3 (0.2-0.7) mm in width) in the testes causes their enlargement. Parasites cause destruction of the seminiferous tubule cells and complete loss of spermatozoa. Since spermatogenesis stops, this seems to be a form of "parasitic castration". This is the first known record of the genus Chloromyxum in amphibian testes.

  19. Effects of temperature on embryonic and larval development and growth in the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita in a semi-arid zone

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    Sanuy, D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects the duration of embryonic and larval periods in amphibians. Plasticity in time to metamorphosis is especially important in amphibian populations of Mediterranean semi-arid zones where temperatures are high and precipitation is low, increasing the rate of pond desiccation. In order to test the influence of water temperature on the larval development and growth of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita, we collected two spawns in a semi¿arid zone at Balaguer (Lleida, NE Iberian peninsula. Approximately 50 (+/-10 eggs (stage 14-16 were raised in the lab at different temperature conditions: 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25ºC with 12:12 photoperiod. The results show a lengthening of development time with decreasing temperatures and a better survival performance of B. calamita to high temperatures. However, mean size at metamorphosis was not different across treatments, thus, suggesting that this population of B. calamita requires a minimum size to complete the metamorphosis. This study is the first approach to examine the effects that climatic factors have on the growth and development of B. calamita in semi-arid zones.

  20. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus

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    Anup Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.

  1. Drift rather than selection dominates MHC class II allelic diversity patterns at the biogeographical range scale in natterjack toads Bufo calamita.

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    Inga Zeisset

    Full Text Available Study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC loci has gained great popularity in recent years, partly due to their function in protecting vertebrates from infections. This is of particular interest in amphibians on account of major threats many species face from emergent diseases such as chytridiomycosis. In this study we compare levels of diversity in an expressed MHC class II locus with neutral genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in natterjack toad (Bufo (Epidalea calamita populations across the whole of the species' biogeographical range. Variation at both classes of loci was high in the glacial refugium areas (REF and much lower in postglacial expansion areas (PGE, especially in range edge populations. Although there was clear evidence that the MHC locus was influenced by positive selection in the past, congruence with the neutral markers suggested that historical demographic events were the main force shaping MHC variation in the PGE area. Both neutral and adaptive genetic variation declined with distance from glacial refugia. Nevertheless, there were also some indications from differential isolation by distance and allele abundance patterns that weak effects of selection have been superimposed on the main drift effect in the PGE zone.

  2. Amphibian cross-fertilization and polyspermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M I; Cabada, M O

    1994-09-01

    A string of oocytes from Bufo arenarum (Ba) was inseminated with spermatozoa from Ba, Leptodactylus chaquensis (Lch), or Bufo paracnemis (Bp). Homologous insemination resulted in monospermic eggs and normal development, while in the case of heterologous fertilization both polyspermy and abnormal development were the rule. Oocytes from Ba inseminated with homologous spermatozoa, when reinseminated 30 sec after the first insemination with heterologous spermatozoa, exhibit a high rate of polyspermy and abnormal development. A lower rate of abnormalities was observed when reinsemination was carried out 60 sec after the first insemination. Normal development and an absence of polyspermy were observed in the case of eggs reinseminated 300 sec after initial insemination. This result indicated that the electrophysiological blockage of fertilization either was not triggered or was ineffective. The establishment of the permanent blockage of polyspermy, either by artificial activation of oocytes or as a result of their incubation with the products of the cortical granules, inhibited penetration of Ba eggs by heterologous sperm.

  3. Caracterización morfológica de larvas de anuros del Noroeste argentino

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    Fabrezi, Marissa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan caracteres morfológicos en larvas de catorce especies de anuros. Las especies analizadas son Bufo arenarum, B. paracnemis, Leptodadylus chaquensis, L. latinasus, Odontophrynus americanus, O. lavillai, Phrynohyas venulosa, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuqui, Pleurodema borellii, P. tucumana, Scinax fuscovaria y S. nasica. Estas especies se desarrollan en charcas temporarias del Noroeste de Argentina. Se caracterizan las larvas de cada especie por el análisis de la morfología externa e interna, caracteres de la cavidad oral, condrocráneo y arcos viscerales. Algunos de estos aspectos morfológicos se discuten con las hipótesis propuestas acerca de larvas generalizadas. We have analyzed morphological characters in tadpoles of fourteen anuran species. The species considered are Bufo arenaum, B. paracnemis, Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. latinasus, Odontopbynus americanus, O.lavillai, Phrynohyas venulosa, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuqui, Pleurodema borellii, P. tucumana, Scinax fuscovaria and S. nasica. They develop in similar temporary ponds of Northwestern of Argentina. We characterized the larvae of each species by the analyses on external morphology, internal oral features, chondrocranium and visceral archs. Some of these morphological aspects have been discussed with proposal hypotheses about generalized tadpoles.

  4. Responses of growth, malformation, and thyroid hormone-dependent genes expression in Bufo gargarizans embryos following chronic exposure to Pb2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lihong; Li, Yanbin; Chen, Zhihong; Chen, Aixia; Deng, Hongzhang

    2017-10-08

    The aim of this study was to examine the adverse effects of lead (Pb) exposure on Bufo gargarizans embryos. The 96 h-LC50 of Pb2+ for B. gargarizans embryos was determined to be 26.6 mg L-1 after an acute test. In the chronic test, B. gargarizans embryos at Gosner stage 3 were exposed to 10~2000 μg Pb2+ L-1 during embryogenesis. Total length, weight, developmental stage, and malformation were monitored. In addition, the transcript levels of type II and type III iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3) and thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) were determined to assess the thyroid-disrupting effects of Pb2+. Slightly increased growth and development of B. gargarizans embryos were observed at low concentrations of Pb2+ (10, 50, and 100 μg L-1), while retarded growth and development were found at high concentrations of Pb2+ (1000 and 2000 μg L-1). In addition, Pb2+ exposure induced morphological abnormalities, which were characterized by edema at tail, wavy fin, abdominal edema, stunted growth, hyperplasia, and axial flexures in B. gargarizans embryos. Furthermore, our results showed that exposure to 2000 μg Pb2+ L-1 decreased the transcript levels of Dio2, TRα, and TRβ, but it increased Dio3 mRNA level. In contrast, exposure to 50 μg Pb2+ L-1 increased TRα mRNA level and decreased Dio3 mRNA level. These results suggested that Pb2+ might have thyroid-disrupting effects, leading to the disruption of growth and development in B. gargarizans embryos.

  5. Fluctuating asymmetry rather than oxidative stress in Bufo raddei can be an accurate indicator of environmental pollution induced by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Wenya; Ai, Shiwei; Ren, Liang; Zhang, Yingmei

    2017-06-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as risk markers for environmental stress are widely used to predict changes in the health and fitness of many animals exposed to pollutants. However, from the perspective of protecting declining amphibians, it remains to be verified which one would be a reliable indicator for amphibians exposed to long-term heavy metal pollution under natural conditions. In this study, the OS and FA of Bufo raddei exposed to natural heavy metal pollution were analyzed to determine which marker is more accurate for indicating heavy metal-induced stress. Three years of data were collected during the breeding season of B. raddei from Baiyin (BY), which has been mainly contaminated with Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd compounds for a long period, and from Liujiaxia (LJX), which is a relatively unpolluted area. Unexpectedly, although significant accumulation of the four heavy metals was found in the kidney and liver of B. raddei from BY, the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde in these two organs were found to be irregular, with low repeatability in both BY and LJX. However, significant differences in the levels of FA were observed in B. raddei populations from these two areas over the past 3 years (P < 0.01). The degrees of FA in B. raddei populations from BY and LJX were assessed as degree 4 and 1, respectively. In short, this study suggested that FA was a more reliable and effective indicator than OS to monitor and predict long-term environmental stress on anuran amphibians.

  6. Testicular myxosporidiasis and ultrastructural characteristics of Myxobolus bufonis (Myxobolidae) infecting the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis (Bufonidae). A light and electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem; Semmler, Margit; Al-Olayan, Ebtsam; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-11-01

    The phylum Myxozoa comprises more than 2180 species, almost all of which are considered to be obligate parasites of aquatic fishes and amphibians. They are dangerous pathogens responsible for severe economic losses. From March to September 2014, 40 adult male Bufo regularis (Bufonidae) captured from different areas at Giza province, Egypt, were surveyed for myxosporean parasitic infection. Of these, 22 (55%) were infected by histozoic plasmodia, which produced spores after rupture belonging to Myxosporidia. The present investigation introduced a new data for the recorded parasite observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The infection was diagnosed as large clusters of macroscopic plasmodia embedded in the testicular tissue causing distortion at the site of infection. The host reaction was manifested by the encapsulation of the plasmodia with a thick layer of connective tissue. Plasmodia were whitish in color, elliptical to ovoid in shape measuring 0.54 ± 0.2 (0.34-0.63) mm in diameter. The spores were subspherical, reaching 7.1 ± 0.2 (6.2-8.4) μm in length and 6.3 ± 0.2 (5.8-7.0) μm in width with two equal-sized polar capsules regularly arranged at the anterior pole of each spore. They were 3.4 ± 0.2 (3.0-4.2) μm in length and 1.9 ± 0.2 (1.6-2.4) in width with 6-8 turns of polar filaments. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the plasmodia were surrounded by a plasma membrane with numerous projections and pinocytotic channels extended toward the host cell. The generative cells and the different developmental stages were arranged at the periphery of the plasmodia while immature and mature spores were centrally arranged. Sporogenesis, capsulogenesis, valvogenesis, and spore maturation of the present parasite were also described.

  7. Development of Nuclear Microsatellite Loci and Mitochondrial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms for the Natterjack Toad, Bufo (Epidalea) calamita (Bufonidae), Using Next Generation Sequencing and Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Leslie; Godé, Cécile; Arnaud, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are undergoing a major decline worldwide and the steady increase in the number of threatened species in this particular taxa highlights the need for conservation genetics studies using high-quality molecular markers. The natterjack toad, Bufo (Epidalea) calamita, is a vulnerable pioneering species confined to specialized habitats in Western Europe. To provide efficient and cost-effective genetic resources for conservation biologists, we developed and characterized 22 new nuclear microsatellite markers using next-generation sequencing. We also used sequence data acquired from Sanger sequencing to develop the first mitochondrial markers for KASPar assay genotyping. Genetic polymorphism was then analyzed for 95 toads sampled from 5 populations in France. For polymorphic microsatellite loci, number of alleles and expected heterozygosity ranged from 2 to 14 and from 0.035 to 0.720, respectively. No significant departures from panmixia were observed (mean multilocus F IS = -0.015) and population differentiation was substantial (mean multilocus F ST = 0.222, P < 0.001). From a set of 18 mitochondrial SNPs located in the 16S and D-loop region, we further developed a fast and cost-effective SNP genotyping method based on competitive allele-specific PCR amplification (KASPar). The combination of allelic states for these mitochondrial DNA SNP markers yielded 10 different haplotypes, ranging from 2 to 5 within populations. Populations were highly differentiated (G ST = 0.407, P < 0.001). These new genetic resources will facilitate future parentage, population genetics and phylogeographical studies and will be useful for both evolutionary and conservation concerns, especially for the set-up of management strategies and the definition of distinct evolutionary significant units. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Strong reproductive barriers in a narrow hybrid zone of West-Mediterranean green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) with Plio-Pleistocene divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background One key question in evolutionary biology deals with the mode and rate at which reproductive isolation accumulates during allopatric speciation. Little is known about secondary contacts of recently diverged anuran species. Here we conduct a multi-locus field study to investigate a contact zone between two lineages of green toads with an estimated divergence time of 2.7 My, and report results from preliminary experimental crosses. Results The Sicilian endemic Bufo siculus and the Italian mainland-origin B. balearicus form a narrow hybrid zone east of Mt. Etna. Despite bidirectional mtDNA introgression over a ca. 40 km North-South cline, no F1 hybrids could be found, and nuclear genomes display almost no admixture. Populations from each side of the contact zone showed depressed genetic diversity and very strong differentiation (FST = 0.52). Preliminary experimental crosses point to a slightly reduced fitness in F1 hybrids, a strong hybrid breakdown in backcrossed offspring (F1 x parental, with very few reaching metamorphosis) and a complete and early mortality in F2 (F1 x F1). Conclusion Genetic patterns at the contact zone are molded by drift and selection. Local effective sizes are reduced by the geography and history of the contact zone, B. balearicus populations being at the front wave of a recent expansion (late Pleistocene). Selection against hybrids likely results from intrinsic genomic causes (disruption of coadapted sets of genes in backcrosses and F2-hybrids), possibly reinforced by local adaptation (the ranges of the two taxa roughly coincide with the borders of semiarid and arid climates). The absence of F1 in the field might be due to premating isolation mechanisms. Our results, show that these lineages have evolved almost complete reproductive isolation after some 2.7 My of divergence, contrasting sharply with evidence from laboratory experiments that some anuran species may still produce viable F1 offspring after > 20 My of divergence. PMID

  9. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis) Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchen, Jörn F.; Reichert, Samuel J.; Röhr, Johannes T.; Dieterich, Christoph; Kloas, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis) specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%), many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues) provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species. PMID:27232626

  10. Inferring the degree of incipient speciation in secondary contact zones of closely related lineages of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, C; Bonato, L; Novarini, N; Betto-Colliard, C; Perrin, N; Stöck, M

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive isolation between lineages is expected to accumulate with divergence time, but the time taken to speciate may strongly vary between different groups of organisms. In anuran amphibians, laboratory crosses can still produce viable hybrid offspring >20 My after separation, but the speed of speciation in closely related anuran lineages under natural conditions is poorly studied. Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) offer an excellent system to address this question, comprising several lineages that arose at different times and form secondary contact zones. Using mitochondrial and nuclear markers, we previously demonstrated that in Sicily, B. siculus and B. balearicus developed advanced reproductive isolation after Plio-Pleistocene divergence (2.6 My, 3.3–1.9), with limited historic mtDNA introgression, scarce nuclear admixture, but low, if any, current gene flow. Here, we study genetic interactions between younger lineages of early Pleistocene divergence (1.9 My, 2.5–1.3) in northeastern Italy (B. balearicus, B. viridis). We find significantly more, asymmetric nuclear and wider, differential mtDNA introgression. The population structure seems to be molded by geographic distance and barriers (rivers), much more than by intrinsic genomic incompatibilities. These differences of hybridization between zones may be partly explained by differences in the duration of previous isolation. Scattered research on other anurans suggests that wide hybrid zones with strong introgression may develop when secondary contacts occur <2 My after divergence, whereas narrower zones with restricted gene flow form when divergence exceeds 3 My. Our study strengthens support for this rule of thumb by comparing lineages with different divergence times within the same radiation. PMID:24713825

  11. Phylogeographic and population insights of the Asian common toad (Bufo gargarizans in Korea and China: population isolation and expansions as response to the ice ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaël Borzée

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ice ages on speciation have been well documented for many European and North American taxa. In contrast, very few studies have addressed the consequences of such environmental and topographical changes in North East Asian species. More precisely, the Korean Peninsula offers a unique model to assess patterns and processes of speciation as it hosts the northern- and eastern-most distribution limit of some widespread Asian taxa. Despite this, studies addressing phylogeographic patterns and population genetics in the peninsula and surrounding countries are few and studies for most families are lacking. Here we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of the common toad (Bufo gargarizans from South Korea and their North East Asian counterpart populations, based on mitochondrial data. Korean B. gargarizans GenBank BLASTs matched few individuals from nearby China, but the presence of a Korean clade suggests isolation on the Korean Peninsula, previous to the last glacial maximum, linked to sea level resurgence. Molecular clock calibrations within this group were used to date the divergence between clades and their relationship to paleo-climatic events in the area. Lack of genetic structure among South Korean populations and strong homogeneity between the Korean and some Chinese localities suggest weak isolation and recent expansion. Geographical projection of continuous coalescent maximum-clade-credibility trees shows an original Chinese expansion towards the Korean Peninsula through the Yellow Sea circa two million years ago with colonisation events dating circa 800 thousand years ago (K. y. a.. Following this colonisation, the data point to outgoing Korean Peninsula dispersal events throughout different periods, towards the North through land, and West through land bridge formations over the Yellow Sea during sea level falls. In accordance, demographic analyses revealed a population expansion in the Koran Peninsula circa 300 K. y. a

  12. Phylogeographic and population insights of the Asian common toad (Bufo gargarizans) in Korea and China: population isolation and expansions as response to the ice ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzée, Amaël; Santos, Joana L; Sánchez-RamÍrez, Santiago; Bae, Yoonhyuk; Heo, Kyongman; Jang, Yikweon; Jowers, Michael Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ice ages on speciation have been well documented for many European and North American taxa. In contrast, very few studies have addressed the consequences of such environmental and topographical changes in North East Asian species. More precisely, the Korean Peninsula offers a unique model to assess patterns and processes of speciation as it hosts the northern- and eastern-most distribution limit of some widespread Asian taxa. Despite this, studies addressing phylogeographic patterns and population genetics in the peninsula and surrounding countries are few and studies for most families are lacking. Here we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of the common toad ( Bufo gargarizans ) from South Korea and their North East Asian counterpart populations, based on mitochondrial data. Korean B. gargarizans GenBank BLASTs matched few individuals from nearby China, but the presence of a Korean clade suggests isolation on the Korean Peninsula, previous to the last glacial maximum, linked to sea level resurgence. Molecular clock calibrations within this group were used to date the divergence between clades and their relationship to paleo-climatic events in the area. Lack of genetic structure among South Korean populations and strong homogeneity between the Korean and some Chinese localities suggest weak isolation and recent expansion. Geographical projection of continuous coalescent maximum-clade-credibility trees shows an original Chinese expansion towards the Korean Peninsula through the Yellow Sea circa two million years ago with colonisation events dating circa 800 thousand years ago (K. y. a.). Following this colonisation, the data point to outgoing Korean Peninsula dispersal events throughout different periods, towards the North through land, and West through land bridge formations over the Yellow Sea during sea level falls. In accordance, demographic analyses revealed a population expansion in the Koran Peninsula circa 300 K. y. a., likely attributed

  13. Expression of N-CAM-180 and N-Cadherin during development in two southamerican anuran species (Bufo arenarum and Hyla nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VH Casco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadherins and N-CAM are Ca++-dependent and Ca++-independent cell adhesion molecules respectively. These molecules play a key role in morphogenesis and histogenesis. We determined the spatiotemporal pattern of N-cadherin and N-CAM-180 kDa expression by immunohistochemistry during development in two South-American anuran species (Bufo arenarum, toad and Hyla nana, frog. Both N-cadherin and N-CAM were not detectable during early developmental stages. Expression of Ncadherin appeared between the inner and the outer ectoderm layers at stages 19-20. At stages 24 -25, Ncadherin was expressed in the neural tube and the heart. In early tadpoles, N-cadherin expression increased along with the central nervous system (CNS morphogenesis, and reached its maximum level at metamorphic climax stage. N-Cadherin expression was not uniformly distributed. At stage 42, olfactory placodes and retina expressed N-cadherin. Contrary to N-CAM, the strongly myelinated cranial nerves were not labeled. N-Cadherin was present in several mesoderm derivatives such as the notochord, heart and skeletal muscle. The non-neural ectoderm and the endoderm were always negative. Expression of N-CAM appeared first in the neural tube at stages 24-25 and the level of expression became uniform from pre-metamorphic to metamorphic climax tadpoles. At this latter stage, a clear N-CAM immunolabeling appeared in the nerve terminals of pharynx and heart. N-Cadherin and N-CAM were found mainly co-expressed in the CNS from early tadpole to metamorphic climax tadpole. Our results show that the expression of N-CAM and N-cadherin is evolutionary conserved. Their increased expression during late developmental stages suggests that N-CAM and N-cadherin are involved in cell contact stabilization during tissue formation.

  14. Nomenclatural availability of the names applied to “varieties” of the green toad (Bufo viridis subgroup in the Italian territory, with emphasis on the variety lineata of Ninni (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Novarini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular investigations on Eurasian green toads led to the recognition of distinct lineages and to the establishment of new taxa within the former Bufo viridis; as a consequence, significant range-wide nomenclatural changes have been proposed, although some uncertainties remained on the available names applicable within the Italian territory. In order to contribute to clarify the matter, we evaluated, under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the nomenclatural availability of all the names that have been applied to infrasubspecific entities of the Bufo viridis subgroup within the Italian territory. We also provided a historical overview of the usage of all these names, as well as detailed information on the original material upon which the variety lineata of A.P. Ninni was established. Our analysis supports the view that only the names crucigera Eichwald, 1831 and balearica Boettger, 1880 are available, the former being however junior synonym of B. viridis Laurenti, 1768, whereas the names acutirostris and obtusirostris of Lessona, lineata of Ninni, concolor and maculata of Camerano, and nardoi of Paolucci, Fuhn and Bruno are all not available.

  15. Effects of seasonal variation on oxidative stress physiology in natural population of toad Bufo melanostictus; clues for analysis of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Luna; Paital, Biswaranjan

    2016-11-01

    Natural population of Bufo melanostictus in response to environmental cues shows several physiologic changes such as reproductive activity, hibernation, aestivation and metabolic depression in different seasons. We investigated the effects of seasonal fluctuations on oxidative stress (OS) physiology biomarkers, such as endogenous (ELPx) and induced (ILPx) lipid peroxidation, front-line redox regulatory enzymes (superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase) and two non-enzyme antioxidant metabolites (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) in liver, gonad and cerebral hemisphere of toads collected from the Bhubaneswar area of India, where temperature fluctuates considerably rising to the highest in summer (∼46 °C) and being lowest in winter (<10 °C). Soil and air of the sampling site, although varying seasonally, were mostly found to be unpolluted, except for suspended particulate matter and respiratory particulate matter that were above recommended value. The magnitude of both ELPx and ILPx levels in most of the tissues, for example, ELPx in liver, cerebral hemisphere and ovary, and ILPx in liver of males and ovary, were found to be higher in rainy season in comparison to the other seasons. Nevertheless, levels of both ELPx and ILPx were low in testes in rainy season in comparison to the other two seasons. No correlation was observed between temperature and the studied OS parameters except a positive correlation with SOD and negative correlations with non-enzymatic small redox regulatory molecules in some selected tissues. Conversely, discriminant function analysis reveals a clear impact of the changing season on OS physiology of the toad. It implies that season considerably modulates OS physiology which be a reflection of the toads to abiotic pollutants alone and/or as results of metabolic changes under hibernation, aestivation and due to reproductive activities. Therefore, seasonal changes in OS physiological responses in poikilothermic models especially in toads

  16. PIGMENTOS EN LOS TESTÍCULOS DE CINCO ANFIBIOS ENDÉMICOS DE CUBA (Eleutherodactylus turquinensis, E. cuneatus, E. glamyrus, Bufo longinasus longinasus y B. longinasus cajalbanensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Ochotorena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los vertebrados ectotérmicos pueden presentar un sistema pigmentario de función desconocida, aunque en algunos casos se han descrito los centros de melanomacrófagos con evidente función fagocítica; sin embargo, no es frecuente encontrar las gónadas pigmentadas en los anfibios anuros. El objetivo fundamental del presente trabajo es informar y analizar la presencia de pigmentos en los testículos de tres especies de ranas endémicas cubanas y en un sapo cubano, también endémico. Se estudiaron las especies Eleutherodactylus turquinensis, E. cuneatus, E. glamyrus y Bufo longinasus (subespecies B. l. longinasus y B. l. cajalbanensis, las cuales fueron colectadas en las zonas occidental y oriental de la Isla de Cuba. Los ejemplares se anestesiaron con éter una vez que se trasladaron al laboratorio. Se extrajeron las gónadas y se procesaron para microscopía óptica y en el caso de B. longinasus también para microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Los resultados indican una morfología de los testículos similar a otro anuros, se observó una organización cística de las células sexuales en los túbulos seminíferos y todos los ejemplares estaban en espermatogénesis total. Los testículos de todas las especies estudiadas mostraron una pigmentación oscura y abundante en la túnica albugínea y en el tejido intersticial. Se observaron muchos melanosomas. Se analiza en el trabajo que la causa de la fuerte pigmentación testicular pueda ser una respuesta a la contaminación, asimismo, se propone que los pigmentos son producidos por otro tipo celular quizás similar a los melanomacrófagos y no por melanocitos.

  17. Genetic structure and origin of a tetraploid toad species Bufo danatensis Pisanetz, 1978 (Amphibia, Bufonidae) from central Asia: Description of biochemical polymorphism and comparison of heterozygosity levels in diploid and tetraploid species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezhzherin, S.V.; Pisanets, E.M. [Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of individual variation at 24 biochemical loci in members of the species complex of Palearctic green toads showed that the heterozygosity of the tetraploid species Bufo danatensis (H{sub obs} = 0.45) was significantly higher than that of the diploid species B. viridis, B. sp., and B. raddei (H{sub obs} = 0.009 - 0.103). Such difference can be explained only by a hybrid origin of the tetraploid species. Individual electrophoretic variability of the polyploid toad species is associated with an allelic variation that is manifested in constantly heterozygous spectra as the gene dosage effect. At the population level, this phenomenon found in Pamir toads is caused by irregular meiosis in founders of the population or by directional changes in gene regulation. Genotypic distributions in zones of contact of the diploid and tetraploid taxons demonstrate the possibility of restricted introgressive hybridization.

  18. How complex is the Bufo bufo species group?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; Recuero, E.; Canestrelli, D.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2013-01-01

    Species delineation remains one of the most challenging tasks in the study of biodiversity, mostly owing to the application of different species concepts, which results in contrasting taxonomic arrangements. This has important practical consequences, since species are basic units in fields like

  19. (Bufo regularis) ES AJIBOLA*, A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    percentage twitch height depression a finding which suggested that both effects could be mediated through the same receptor. Tetanic fade or Wendesky inhibition is the failure of a muscle to sustain tension during high frequency motor nerve stimulation in the presence of a non depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug.

  20. Pentastomídeos de répteis do Brasil: revisão dos cephalobaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arandas Rêgo

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os Cephalobaenidae (Pentastomida, depositados na coleção helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz e na coleção de parasitologia do Instituto Butantan. São redescritas e discutidas as espécies, Cephalobaena tetrapoda, C. freitasi, C. giglioli, Raillietiella furcocerca e Mahafaliella venteli. Esses parasitas foram coletados dos répteis: Lachesis sp., Drymarchon c. corais, Xenodon merremii, Crotatus terrificus, Amphisbaena sp., Tropidurus torquatus, Bothrops atrox, Mabuya punctata e de Bufo paracnemis (anfíbio.In this work the author studies Cephalobaenidae parasites using specimens from the helminthological collection of the Oswaldo Cruz and Butantan Institutes. This material was collected from Lachesis sp., Drymarchon corais, Xenodon merremii, Crotalus terrificus, Amphisbaena sp., Tropidurus torquatus, Bothrops atrox, Mabuya punctata (Reptilia and Bufo paracnemis (Amphibia. The species studied are Cephalobaena tetrapoda Heymons, 1922, Cephalobaena giglioli (Hett, 1924 comb. n., Cephalobaena freitasi (Motta & Gomes, 1968 comb. n., Raillietiella furcocerca (Diesing, 1836 and Mahafaliella venteli (Motta, 1965. C. recurvocauda becomes a synonym of C. tetrapoda and as do the specimens that Motta called erronously R. furcocerca. Raillietiella giglioli is changed to Cephalobaena giglioli (Hett, 1924 comb. n. The author describes here the male of C. giglioli for the first time. Travassostulida freitasi and T. acutiacanthus enter in synonymy with C. freitasi, and T. acutiacanthus is considered to be a subspecies of C. freitasi. Raillietiella gomesi becomes a synonym of R. furcocerca. The author discusses Mahafaliella venteli, and also questions the validity of the genus Gretillaria proposed by Motta for some species of Raillietiella. The latter is considered a synonym of Raillietiella.

  1. The genetics of amphibian decline: population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, H. Bradley; Fellers, Gary M.; Magee, Allison; Voss, S. Randal

    2000-01-01

    We present a comprehensive survey of genetic variation across the range of the narrowly distributed endemic Yosemite toad Bufo canorus, a declining amphibian restricted to the Sierra Nevada of California. Based on 322 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data, we found limited support for the monophyly of B. canorus and its closely related congener B. exsul to the exclusion of the widespread western toad B. boreas. However, B. exsul was always phylogenetically nested within B. canorus, suggesting that the latter may not be monophyletic. SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) analysis of 372 individual B. canorus from 28 localities in Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks revealed no shared haplotypes among these two regions and lead us to interpret these two parks as distinct management units for B. canorus. Within Yosemite, we found significant genetic substructure both at the level of major drainages and among breeding ponds. Kings Canyon samples show a different pattern, with substantial variation among breeding sites, but no substructure among drainages. Across the range of B. canorus as well as among Yosemite ponds, we found an isolation-by-distance pattern suggestive of a stepping stone model of migration. However, in Kings Canyon we found no hint of such a pattern, suggesting that movement patterns of toads may be quite different in these nearby parklands. Our data imply that management for B. canorus should focus at the individual pond level, and effective management may necessitate reintroductions if local extirpations occur. A brief review of other pond-breeding anurans suggests that highly structured populations are often the case, and thus that our results for B. canorus may be general for other species of frogs and toads.

  2. BUFO PARDALIS (ANURA: BUFONIDAE): MATING CALL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W. Frank Blair. Austin & London: Univ. of. Texas Press. PASSMORE, N. 1.1972. Intergrading between mem- bers of the 'regularis group' of toads in. South Africa. J. Zool., Lond., 167: 143-151. POYNTON, J. c. 1964. The Amphibia 0/ Southern. Africa. Cape Town: Purnell & Sons. TANDY, M. & KI!lTH, R. 1972. 'Bu/o of Africa. In.

  3. A New Indole Alkaloid from the Toad Venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying-Hui; Shen, Bo; Xia, Ming-Yu; Wang, An-Dong; Chen, Yu-Lin; Liu, Dong-Chun; Wang, Dong

    2016-03-16

    A new indole alkaloid named bufobutarginine (1), along with three known bufotenines, namely, serotonin (2), bufotenidine (3), and bufotenine (4), were isolated from the water extract of toad venom. Their structures were elucidated by spectral methods. This is the first time that arginine has been found to be involved in the biosynthesis of bufotenines in parotid of toad. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds have been assayed against A375 and A549 cell lines by the MTT method; however, they showed no cytotoxic activities.

  4. Phalangeal bone anomalies in the European common toad Bufo bufo from polluted environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarski, Mikołaj; Kolenda, Krzysztof; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Sośnicka, Wioletta

    2016-11-01

    Every spring, many of amphibians are killed by motor vehicles on roads. These road-killed animals can be used as valuable material for non-invasive studies showing the effect of environmental pollution on amphibian populations. The aims of our research were to check whether the phalanges of road-killed toads may be useful as material for histological analysis, and whether various degrees of human impact influence the level in bone abnormalities in the common toad. We also examined whether the sex and age structure of toads can differ significantly depending in the different sites. We chose three toad breeding sites where road-killed individuals had been observed: near the centre of a city, the outskirts of a city, and a rural site. We collected dead individuals during spring migration in 2013. The sex of each individual was determined and the toes were used to determine age using the skeletochronology method. While performing age estimates, we looked for abnormalities in relation to normal bone tissue structure. In urban site, females dominate males (sex ratio 2.6:1), but in populations from rural and semi-urban sites, sex ratio was reverse (1:2.2 and 1:1.4, respectively). However, we did not find any significant differences between age structure of all populations (average age of each population: approximately 4 years). We observed abnormalities in more than 80 % of all toads from the city, compared to approximately 20 % from the rural and semi-urban sites. In particular, we found hypertrophic bone cells, misaligned intercellular substance, and irregular outer edges of bones. We suggest that these malformations are caused by different pollution, e.g. with heavy metals.

  5. Immunolocation of mitochondria-rich cells in epidermis of the common toad, Bufo bufo L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Ingrid B.M.

    1997-01-01

    Adult toads, skin, flask-shaped cells, cytoskeleton, keratin expression, immunohistochemistry, differentiation.......Adult toads, skin, flask-shaped cells, cytoskeleton, keratin expression, immunohistochemistry, differentiation....

  6. Properties of a conductive cellular chloride pathway in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, P

    1978-01-01

    Two types of chloride current response to a step-wise hyperpolarization of the toad skin is demonstrated: (1) An "instantaneous" response observed immediately upon voltage change, and (2) a subsequent slow response, the time course of which is sigmoidal. The slow response is due to an increase......-state phenomenon: In skins hyperpolarized for a few minutes, the "instantaneous" I-V curves show that the chloride pathway in the conducting state allows a large inward chloride current (outward chloride flux) to pass in the voltage range 40 mV greater than V greater than 0 mV. Calculations based on a three...

  7. Morphological and molecular data to describe a hybrid population of the Common toad (Bufo bufo) and the Spined toad (Bufo spinosus) in western France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo, T.; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, J.; Arntzen, J.W.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2017-01-01

    The use of hyper-variable markers across species is often hindered by low cross-species amplification success, a reduced level of polymorphism or a high frequency of null alleles. However, optimizing sets of reliable and informative markers that can be consistently amplified and scored across taxa

  8. Redescription of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926 (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Filho José Dilermando

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sand flies Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai are the probable vectors of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. These species form a complex, being difficult to separate between either females or males of the two members based on recognized morphological characteristics. Both N. intermedia and N. neivai are redescribed here in the search for characters that facilitate their correct identification. It was possible to differentiate females by means of spermathecal characteristics. Males could be separated with confidence by the tips of the genital filaments, which have the form of a deep spoon, the angle of the concavity being well accentuated in N. intermedia and much shallower in N. neivai.

  9. Die Politik der EZB an den Grenzen ihres Mandats? / Lutz Lammers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lammers, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Riigi võlakirjade ostmisega seotud rahanduspoliitikast. Saksamaa põhiseaduskohtu seisukohast Euroopa Keskpanga väljakuulutatud OMT-programmi kohta, mis võimaldab keskpangal piiramatult võlakirju osta. Riigi võlakirjade ostmisest järelturgudel

  10. La identidad de Bufo missionum Berg, 1896 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faivovich, Julián

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Habiendo individualizado el ejemplar sobre el que Berg realizó la descripción de B. missionum, ahora es posible discutir su identidad. El ejemplar en cuestión está un poco deshidratado y oscurecido, sin embargo, en el mismo son evidentes varias características propias de B. ictericus Spix, 1824 que lo diferencian de B. rufus, como ser la presencia de cresta supratimpanica y la forma de la cabeza, ancha y triangular. Comparado con un lote de jóvenes de B. ictericus, B. missionum resulta muy similar en tamaño, proporciones y disposición de las manchas dorsales. Todas estas observaciones nos llevan a concluir que B. missionum Berg, 1894 es un sinónimo de B. ictericus Spix, 1824.

  11. Glucose tolerance in Bufo gutturalis (power) after destruction of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on amphibian islet cells, but Nace, Blair & Dass (1965) found that an intracardiac injection of 200 mg alloxan/ kg body mass raised the blood glucose level in Amphiuma and reduced the number of pancreatic fJ-cells. In addi- tion, doses of up to 800 mg alloxan/kg body mass, ad- ministered intra peritoneally , failed to raise ...

  12. Glucose tolerance in the toad Bufo gutturalis (power)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions in blood glucose levels amongst different species of amphibians (Marvin & Frye 1974). The significance of these variations is difficult to evaluate in view of different experimental conditions and methods of analysis employed by investigators. There is a great disparity in the number of investiga- tions on sugar tolerance ...

  13. The distribution of Bufo poweri in southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-03-13

    Mar 13, 1990 ... BROADLEY, D.G. 1983. FitzSimons' Snakes of Southern. I>frica. Delta Books, Johannesburg, 376pp. DE WAAL, S.W.P. 1978. The Squamata (Reptilia) of the Orange. Free State, South Africa. Mem. nas. Mus., Bloemfontein 11: 1-160. DOWUNG, H.G. 1951. A proposed standard system of counting.

  14. Purification of bufadienolides from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor with positively charged C18 column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Guo, Zhimou; Wang, Chaoran; Shen, Aijin; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Xiuli; Zhao, Weijie; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-04-01

    As a kind of promising anticancer compounds, the preparation of bufadienolides is a hot study spot. However, due to the complexity of biological sample, the purification of bufadienolides from a crude sample (toad skin) is a tough work. In this paper, we reported a new way based on positively charged C18 material (XCharge C18) to quickly separate and purify bufadienolides from toad skin. By this method, the different ionic feature of the amino acid conjugated bufadienolides (AACBs) and the free form bufadienolides (AAUBs) was firstly utilized to obtain distinct separation selectivity on the XCharge C18 column. Additionally, the peak tailing problem of AACBs on conventional C18 was resolved and better resolutions were achieved on the XCharge C18, thus, two kinds of bufadienolides on one column were successfully purified respectively. Taking F13 as an example, the method was validated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and then 4 AACBs as well as 4 AAUBs were simultaneously purified by preparative XCharge C18. In addition, the application of this method in other fractions was also validated. The results suggested that the developed method is a practical and promising tool for efficient separation and purification of bufadienolides from toad skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): 2. Diagnostic characters of the axial skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E E; Kruzhkova, Iu I

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of individual variation in diagnostic characters of the axial skeleton has been performed in all offspring (1633 ind.) from the same spawn of one pair of common toads under conditions of laboratory rearing, with natural elimination being reduced to a minimum. More than 50 skeletal anomalies have been recorded. Factual data are presented that characterize deviations from the species norm in the frequency of "background anomalies" (Kovalenko, 2003). Correlations between manifestations of different variants of character states are considered. The problem of norm and anomaly in individual variation is discussed.

  16. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...... of inhibitors (thiocyanate, furosemide, phloretin, and acetazolamide) also affects chloride exchange diffusion, hyperpolarization current as well as chloride influx during hyperpolarization. Although in some cases, effects on the short circuit current were also observed none of the effects on chloride transport....... On the basis of these findings, and the results reported in the previous paper (Hviid Larsen and Kristensen 1977) it is considered probable that the membrane molecules responsible to chloride exchange diffusion under short circuit conditions, are rearranged under the influence of a hyperpolarizing clamping...

  17. Function and cytology of the normal and autotransplanted pars distalis of the hypophysis in the toad Bufo bufo (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, W.J. van; Barker Jørgensen, C.; Olesen Larsen, Lis; Rosenkilde, Per; Lofts, Brian; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    The functional activity of the pars distalis following heterotopic and homoiotopic autotransplantation has been studied in adult toads of both sexes in the spring, about a month after breeding, and in the autumn on toads with mature gonads. Gonadotropic Function. In males, the homoiotopic

  18. Participation of nitric oxide in the nucleus isthmi in CO2-drive to breathing in toads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargaglioni L.H.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus isthmi (NI is a mesencephalic structure of the amphibian brain. It has been reported that NI plays an important role in integration of CO2 chemoreceptor information and glutamate is probably involved in this function. However, very little is known about the mechanisms involved. Recently, it has been shown that nitric oxide synthase (NOS is expressed in the brain of the frog. Thus the gas nitric oxide (NO may be involved in different functions in the brain of amphibians and may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. We tested the hypothesis that NO plays a role in CO2-drive to breathing, specifically in the NI comparing pulmonary ventilation, breathing frequency and tidal volume, after microinjecting 100 nmol/0.5 µl of L-NAME (a nonselective NO synthase inhibitor into the NI of toads (Bufo paracnemis exposed to normocapnia and hypercapnia. Control animals received microinjections of vehicle of the same volume. Under normocapnia no significant changes were observed between control and L-NAME-treated toads. Hypercapnia caused a significant (P<0.01 increase in ventilation only after intracerebral microinjection of L-NAME. Exposure to hypercapnia caused a significant increase in breathing frequency both in control and L-NAME-treated toads (P<0.01 for the control group and P<0.001 for the L-NAME group. The tidal volume of the L-NAME group tended to be higher than in the control group under hypercapnia, but the increase was not statistically significant. The data indicate that NO in the NI has an inhibitory effect only when the respiratory drive is high (hypercapnia, probably acting on tidal volume. The observations reported in the present investigation, together with other studies on the presence of NOS in amphibians, indicate a considerable degree of phylogenetic conservation of the NO pathway amongst vertebrates.

  19. Estudo da competência vetorial de Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 para Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, Vianna, 1911 Study of the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, Vianna, 1911

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos da Silva

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a competência vetorial de Lutzomyia intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae do Vale do Ribeira (SP para estirpes de Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae, mediante pesquisa de infectividade natural; exposições de fêmeas silvestres e colonizadas (F1 às lesões de hamsters experimentalmente infectados e testes de transmissão via picada. A infectividade natural e os testes de transmissão revelaram-se negativos e, nas exposições, foram obtidas positividades de 74% (123+/166 dissecados e 70% (115+/164 dissecados para fêmeas silvestres e colonizadas respectivamente, e o desenvolvimento das formas evolutivas compatíveis com o modelo Peripilaria. A suscetibilidade às estirpes testadas associada aos indicadores epidemiológicos concorrem para a suspeita do papel vetorial de Lutzomyia intermedia na região estudada.This paper investigated the vectorial competence of Lutzomyia intermedia (Diptera: Psychodidae in Vale do Ribeira (SP to strains of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae, by means of a search for natural infection; exposure of wild and colonized females (F1 to the lesions of experimentally infected hamsters and transmission tests by bite. The natural infection and the transmission tests were negative. In the exposures of Lu. intermedia to infected lesions we found rates of 74% (123+/166 dissected and 70% (115+/164 dissected for the wild and colonized females respectively. The development of the parasites was compatible with the development model of Peripilaria. The susceptibility of the tested strains associated with the epidemiological indicators contribute to the vectorial role suspicion of Lutzomyia intermedia in the studied region.

  20. Biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia longypalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Phychodidae, em condições experimentais. I. aspectos da alimentação de larvas e adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando ampliar o conhecimento da biologia de flebótomos em cativeiro, que propicie condições para mantê-los regularmente, estabelecemos colônias autônomas de Lutzomyia intermedia e Lutzomyia longipalpis, apresentando aqui dados referentes às observações sobre a alimentaçãodas larvas e adultos. A ração comercializada para peixes é bem aceita pelas larvas das duas espécies, em todos os estádios; é de fácil aquisição e de baixo custo, não favorecendo a proliferação de fungos. As larvas de L. intermedia e de L. longipalpis, em todos os estádios, aceitam rações alimentares de origem vegetal e de origem mista; porém as de 1º e 2º estádios de L. intermedia têm certa preferência pela ração de base vegetal, enquanto que as de 3º e 4º estádios de L. longipalpis ainda que discretamente, preferem ração de origem mista. A prévia alimentação com solução açucarada não é fator indispensável ao hematofagismo nas duas espécies. Ambas se alimentam bem em homem, cão, pinto ou hamster, mas a fonte de alimento sanguíneo mais adequada é o hamster, analisando-se aceitação da isca, desova, duração do ciclo e produtividade a partir do número de ovos postos. As fêmeas de L. longipalpis mostraram maior resistência ao jejum de sangue que as l. intermedia, embora ambas possam resistir, em mais de 70% até o 7º dia, apenas com alimentação de solução açucarada.To improve our knowledge on the breeding and behaviour of sandflies in captivity, we established closed colonies of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis. Data are here presented on the feeding preferences of larvae and adults and their influence on the development and survival of each species. Fish food is accepted by the larvae of both species; it is easily available, unexpensive and does not encourage the growth of fungi. The larvae of both species, in all stages accepted food of vegetal and mixed origin, but the 1st and 2nd stage larvae of L. intermedia preferred vegetal food, while the 3rd and 4th stage larvae of l. longipalpis showed a discreet preference for mixed food. Previous feeding on sugar was not necessary to induce a blood meal. Both species can feed on man, dog, hamster and bird, but better development was obtained when the females was fed on hamster. The female of L. longipalpis were more resistant to the absence of blood meal than those of L.intermedia, although 70% of both were able to survive on a sugar meal up to seven days.

  1. Implementation of an automated assessment system of the Winston-Lutz test based on the transformed generalized Hough; Implementacion de un sistema de evaluacion automatizada del test de Winston-Lutz basado en la transformada generalizada de Hough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.; Moreno Saiz, C.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Fernandez Canadillas, M. J.; Caballero Lucena, E.; Cantero Carrillo, M.

    2013-07-01

    It has implemented a software tool based on the generalized Hough transform to automate the evaluation of test WL This method provides a quantitative evaluation of the test. It also eliminates the subjectivity of the evaluator which is an uncertainty of 0.3 mm. (Author)

  2. Sôbre o encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 detected in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis na localidade denominada Bairro do Arado, município de Salto de Pirapora, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Trata-se do primeiro registro concreto da presença dessa espécie em território paulista. Sugere-se a necessidade de investigar o significado epidemiológico dêsse achado.Lutzomyia longipalpis was found at the rural area named "Bairro do Arado", Salto de Pirapora County, São Paulo State, Brazil. This vector of visceral leihmaniasis is by the first time, surely recorded in the São Paulo State. The specimens were found in a chicken house built on rocks for observing the possibility of Triatoma arthurneivai colonization in artificial ecotopes. This suggests that the sandfly breeding places will possibly be found between or under the stones harbouring that triatomid bug. The necessity of epidemiological studies related to this found is emphasized.

  3. Fonte alimentar sangüínea e a peridomiciliação de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Psychodidae, Phlebotominae Blood feeding sources and peridomiciliation of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Passos Dias

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se por meio da reação da precipitina, o conteúdo estomacal de Lutzomyia longipalpis nos ambientes intradomiciliar e peridoméstico, no Município de Raposa, Maranhão, área de transmissão de leishmaniose visceral ou "calazar". De 2.240 fêmeas capturadas, 547 (24,4% estavam alimentadas com sangue de vertebrados nas proporções que seguem: ave (87,9%; roedor (47,2%; humano (42,4%, cão (27,6%; mucura (26,6% e eqüino (22,5%. A investigação levada a efeito em 120 habitações confirmou a galinha como o animal doméstico mais comum no ambiente peridoméstico (28,3%, seguido pelo cão (21,7%, gato (17,5%, jumento (13,3%, pombo (7,5%, coelho (3,3% e pato (3,3%; enquanto o cavalo, marreco e porco representaram, cada um, 1,7%. Entre os animais sinantrópicos, a mucura foi a mais citada naquele ambiente (39,3%, seguida pelo rato (37,9%, morcego (14,3% guaxinim (3,6%, raposa (2,1%, cobra (1,4% e sapo (1,4%. A presença no peridomicílio de animais domésticos e sinantrópicos e o encontro de flebótomos alimentados, ao mesmo tempo, com sangue humano, de mucura e de canídeos, corroboram a hipótese de que a transmissão do calazar esteja ocorrendo realmente no ambiente antrópico, no Município de Raposa.A precipitin test was employed to study the alimentary tract content of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the intra- and peridomiciliary environments in the municipality of Raposa, Maranhão State, a transmission area for visceral leishmaniasis or kala azar. Out of 2,240 female sandflies captured, 547 (24.4% had fed on vertebrate blood, with the following proportions: avian (87.9%; rodent (47.2%; human (42.4%; canine (27.6%; opossum (26.6%; and equine (22.5%. Based on a survey of 120 human dwellings, chickens were found to be the most common domestic animals in the peridomicile (28.3%, followed by dogs (21.7%, cats (17.5%, donkeys (13.3%, pigeons (7.5%, rabbits (3.3%, ducks (3.3%, and horses, mallards, and pigs (1.7% each. Synanthropic animals included opossums (39.3%, followed by rats (37.9%, bats (14.3%, raccoons (3.6%, foxes (2.1%, snakes (1.4%, and frogs (1.4%. The peridomiciliary presence of domestic and synanthropic animals as well as sandflies that had fed on human, opossum, and canid blood supports the hypothesis that kala azar transmission has been taking place in the anthropic environment in the municipality of Raposa.

  4. Many unique characteristics revealed by the complete mitochondrial genome of the scorpion Tityus serrulatus (Lutz e Mello 1922) (Chelicerata; Arachnida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana Paula Vimieiro; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira do; Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Pimenta, Ricardo José Gonzaga; Chagas, Aline Torres de Azevedo; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-09-01

    This is the first complete mitochondrial genome of a Tityus species, although it is the most medically important genus in South America. Tityus serrulatus (Brazilian yellow scorpion) mtDNA revealed the same gene arrangement of three out of four other mitogenomes published by now for the same family (Centruroides limpidus, Mesobuthus gibbosus, M. martensii and Buthus occitanus). However, it presented many unique characteristics such as possession of Cox1 gene, different from all other protein-coding genes of scorpion mtDNA, starts with an atypical start codon (CTG). Moreover, no tRNA gene have complete typical secondary structure and the Tytius genome presented three non-coding regions longer than 100bp. Also, it contains the smallest scorpion 16S gene reported by now. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated homologous genes confirmed Buthidae as a monophyletic clade and supports a monophyletic group including T. serrulatus and the other American species, C. limpidus.

  5. Sobre a ocorrência da Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 na Ilha Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. de Araújo Filho

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem peta primeira vez a presença de Lutzomyia longipalpis na Praia Vermelha, praia localizada na Ilha Grande, litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro e acentuam a importância epidemiológica do achado.

  6. The use of Jadammina macrescens (Brady) and Balticammina pseudomacrescens Bronnimann, Lutze and Whittaker (Protozoa: Foraminiferida) as sea-level indicators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehrels, W.R.; van de Plassche, O.

    1999-01-01

    In studies of foraminiferal distributions in saltmarshes in New England and Atlantic Canada, Balticammina pseudomacrescens and Jadammina macrescens have formerly been grouped as Trochammina macrescens. This study recognises them as distinct species and shows that they have significantly different

  7. Sôbre o aparelho genital interno do macho de Phlebotomus longipalpis (Lutz et Neiva, 1912: (Diptera, Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1961-04-01

    Full Text Available O aparelho genital interno do macho de Phlebotomus longipalpis compõe-se de dois testículos simples e dos vasos deferentes que se unem em um hilo e continuam, depois, como canal ímpar, penetrando na pompeta que representa uma bomba de sucção e pressão para o transporte do esperma. Os vasos deferentes, antes de formar um hilo, possuem regiões glandulares. Também uma parede do hilo é glandular. As duas secreções misturam-se na cavidade do hilo onde se realiza a suspensão dos espérmios neste líquido. A pompeta consta de um corpo de compressão e de um pistilo comprido que penetra neste por ação muscular. Os músculos que comprimem o esperma para dentro dos canais ejaculatórios, localizam-se entre oo corpo de compressão e a extremidade do pistilo, de onde partem alguns fascículos de músculos para a antecosta do 5º segmento abdominal onde se inserem: êste músculo representa o retrator do pistilo. A construção da pompeta e dos canais ejaculatórios é explicada nos esquemas das figs. 1, 4 e 5. Nos tergitos dos 7º e 8º segmentos abdominais do macho existe uma grande glândula odorífera de origem hipodermal. Esta foi encontrada em Phlebotomus longipalpis e P. quinquefer, sendo êste órgão ausente em P. renei e nas fêmeas de tôdas as três espécies.

  8. Effect of Boundary Condition Fluctuations on Smoluchowski Reaction Rates: Dedicated to Lutz Schimansky-Geier, half a century wise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Charles R.

    We formulate, solve, and examine an elementary model of gated absorption, where the reactivity of a sphere fluctuates in time, in the context of Smolukowski's diffusion- controlled rate processes. Interest in this problem was stimulated by some experiments on biomolecular rate processes in the 1970s. The model under discussion here was studied by a number of investigators in the 1980s and interest is renewed by the discovery of resonant activation in the 1990s. We find that the si mplest gated reaction process does not exhibit features characteristic of resonant activation, although some interesting nonequilibrium correlations may have a quantitative effect in some situations. We speculate on the possible appearance of resonant activation phenomena in related processes.

  9. Biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae em condições experimentais: II. Influência de fatores ambientais no comportamento das formas imaturas e adultas Biology of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae in experimental conditions: II. Influence of environmental factors in the behavior of immature stages and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de ampliar os conheciemntos sobre a biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia e Lutzomya longipalpis, mantidos em colônias autônomas no laboratório, apresentamos dados referentes a alterações em seu comportamento determinadas por influência de fatores ambientais. L. longipalpis foi mais fácil de criar, mais produtiva e mais resitente ás variações das condições ambientais; suga a qualquer hora do dia, enquanto que L. intermedia prefere fazê-lo ao crepúsculo e à noite, quando também ocorrem masi freqüentemente as desovas e as ecdises dos adultos das duas espécies. As fases imaturas de ambas as espécies resistem à imersão na água por até 1 hora e a baixa temperatura de 5ºC por até 6 horas.Proceeding on our studies on the biology of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis in closed colonies in the laboratory, we here present our observations on changes in their behavior caused by environmental conditions. L. longipaldis was easier to breed, more productive and more resistant to environmental changes; it feeds at any time of the day or night, while L. intermedia prefers to do it at sunset and at night, the preferencial time for oviposition and ecdysis of adults of both species. The immature stages of both species resisted to immersion in water for up to 1 hour and low temperature (5ºC for 1 to 6 hours.

  10. Tribute to P.L. Lutz: cardiac performance and cardiovascular regulation during anoxia/Hypoxia in freshwwater turtles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, J.; Gesser, Hans; Wang, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    . The pronounced anoxia tolerance of the turtle heart is based on the ability to match energy consumption with the low anaerobic ATP production during anoxia. Together with a well-developed temporal and spatial energy buffering by creatine kinase, this allows for cellular energy charge to remain high during anoxia...

  11. [Early stages of development of Trypanosoma rotatorium (Mayer, 1843) from peripheral blood and internal organs of Anurans Bufo bufo (Linnaeus) and Rana sp. (Anura)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysheva, M N

    2014-01-01

    The data on the fauna of trypanosomes of Anura of the Leningrad Province are given. The initial development stages of Trypanosoma rotatorium in peripheral blood and internal organs of the frog are described for the first time.

  12. [Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): I. Timing of development and anomalies of external structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E E; Kruzhkova, Iu I

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of development have been analyzed in all offspring (1633 ind.) from the same spawn of one pair of common toads under conditions of laboratory rearing, with natural elimination being reduced to a minimum. The results show that the range of developmental options for the species is much wider than it follows from the standard tables of development. "Background anomalies" (Kovalenko, 2003) in the external structure of developing larvae are described and their probable frequencies under nearly optimal conditions are indicated.

  13. [Individual variation in the development of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae): 3. Limitations of individual variation and their causes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, E E; Kruzhkova, Iu I

    2013-01-01

    The results of studies on the axial skeleton of the common toad (a model species) have been used to analyze factual limitations of individual variations. The results show that the states of the studied characters do not freely combine with each other but are subject to certain morphogenetic limitations. The causes of most these limitations have been revealed during the study. Classification of the main factors limiting individual variation in the course of development is presented.

  14. OnderhoudsPad : beheer en onderhoud van mitigerende maatregelen voor de gewone pad (Bufo bufo) aan de Horalaan en in het Horapark in de gemeente Ede

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottburg, F.G.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Voor de herontwikkeling van het voormalige bedrijventerrein ENKA tot een nieuwbouwlocatie hebben Grondbank Bennekomseweg Ede CV en de gemeente Ede mitigerende- en compenserende maatregelen genomen voor de aanwezige paddenpopulatie. Zo zijn er paddentunnels, paddenschermen en paddenpoelen aangelegd

  15. K+ transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo : microelectrode recordings from isolated and perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    V, respectively (N=11; 11). This conductance could also be inhibited by Ba(2+), which depolarized a V(bl) of -71+/-5 mV by 9+/-3 mV (N=5). The pump inhibitor ouabain (1 mmol l(-1)) depolarized V(bl), but addition of furosemide to bath solution did not affect V(bl). The [K(+)] in urine varied from 1.3 to 22.8 mmol...

  16. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Hein, Thomas; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivankovi?, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Br?hl, Carsten A.; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae ar...

  17. Ventilatory behaviors of the toad Bufo marinus revealed by coherence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Coelho

    Full Text Available Breathing in amphibians is a remarkably complex behavior consisting of irregular breaths that may be taken singly or in bouts that are used to deflate and inflate the lungs. The valves at the two outlets of the buccal cavity (nares and glottis need to be finely controlled throughout the bout for the expression of these complex respiratory behaviors. In this study, we use a technique based on the calculation of the coherence spectra between respiratory variables (buccal pressure; narial airflow; and lung pressure. Coherence was also used to quantify the effects of chemoreceptor and pulmonary mechanoreceptor input on narial and glottal valve behavior on normoxic, hypoxic, and hypercapnic toads with both intact and bilaterally sectioned pulmonary vagi. We found a significant reduction in narial coherence in hypoxic vagotomized toads indicating that pulmonary mechanoreceptor feedback modulates narial opening duration. An unexpectedly high coherence between Pl and Pb during non-respiratory buccal oscillations in hypercapnic toads indicated more forceful use of the buccal pump. We concluded that the coherence function reveals behaviors that are not apparent through visual inspection of ventilatory time series.

  18. Ventilatory behaviors of the toad Bufo marinus revealed by coherence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho F. C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing in amphibians is a remarkably complex behavior consisting of irregular breaths that may be taken singly or in bouts that are used to deflate and inflate the lungs. The valves at the two outlets of the buccal cavity (nares and glottis need to be finely controlled throughout the bout for the expression of these complex respiratory behaviors. In this study, we use a technique based on the calculation of the coherence spectra between respiratory variables (buccal pressure; narial airflow; and lung pressure. Coherence was also used to quantify the effects of chemoreceptor and pulmonary mechanoreceptor input on narial and glottal valve behavior on normoxic, hypoxic, and hypercapnic toads with both intact and bilaterally sectioned pulmonary vagi. We found a significant reduction in narial coherence in hypoxic vagotomized toads indicating that pulmonary mechanoreceptor feedback modulates narial opening duration. An unexpectedly high coherence between Pl and Pb during non-respiratory buccal oscillations in hypercapnic toads indicated more forceful use of the buccal pump. We concluded that the coherence function reveals behaviors that are not apparent through visual inspection of ventilatory time series.

  19. Ventilatory behaviors of the toad Bufo marinus revealed by coherence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, F C; Baker, T L; Smatresk, N J

    2003-02-01

    Breathing in amphibians is a remarkably complex behavior consisting of irregular breaths that may be taken singly or in bouts that are used to deflate and inflate the lungs. The valves at the two outlets of the buccal cavity (nares and glottis) need to be finely controlled throughout the bout for the expression of these complex respiratory behaviors. In this study, we use a technique based on the calculation of the coherence spectra between respiratory variables (buccal pressure; narial airflow; and lung pressure). Coherence was also used to quantify the effects of chemoreceptor and pulmonary mechanoreceptor input on narial and glottal valve behavior on normoxic, hypoxic, and hypercapnic toads with both intact and bilaterally sectioned pulmonary vagi. We found a significant reduction in narial coherence in hypoxic vagotomized toads indicating that pulmonary mechanoreceptor feedback modulates narial opening duration. An unexpectedly high coherence between Pl and Pb during non-respiratory buccal oscillations in hypercapnic toads indicated more forceful use of the buccal pump. We concluded that the coherence function reveals behaviors that are not apparent through visual inspection of ventilatory time series.

  20. Ventilatory behaviors of the toad Bufo marinus revealed by coherence analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, F. C.; Baker, T. L.; Smatresk, N. J.

    2003-01-01

    Breathing in amphibians is a remarkably complex behavior consisting of irregular breaths that may be taken singly or in bouts that are used to deflate and inflate the lungs. The valves at the two outlets of the buccal cavity (nares and glottis) need to be finely controlled throughout the bout for the expression of these complex respiratory behaviors. In this study, we use a technique based on the calculation of the coherence spectra between respiratory variables (buccal pressure; narial airfl...

  1. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide a...

  2. Evidence of decline for Bufo boreas and Rana luteiventris in and around the northern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wente, W.; Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. PCB components are then determined semi-quantitatively by TLC. No prior separation of PCB from chlorinated pesticides is required. The lower limit of sensitivity is 0.2 ?g.

  3. Morphological re-evaluation of the parotoid glands of Bufo ictericus (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, de P.G.; Felsemburgh, F.A.; Azevedo, R.A.; Brito-Gitirana, de L.

    2007-01-01

    Multicellular glands in the amphibian integument represent a signifi cant evolutionary advance over those of fi shes. Bufonids have parotoid glands, symmetrically disposed in a post-orbital position. Their secretion may contribute to protection against predators and parasites. This study provides a

  4. The ontogeny of kin recognition in tadpoles of the toad Bufo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When tested in tanks with empty end compartments, the test tadpoles showed random distribution and thus no bias for the apparatus or the procedure. In the presence of kin/non-kin in the end compartments a significantly greater number of test tadpoles spent the majority of the time near familiar or unfamiliar kin rather than ...

  5. induced gastric acid secretion in the common african toad – bufo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    generation modulates the inhibition of interleukin-1-Beta of pentagastrin – stimulated gastric acid secretion in the rat. Gut 34: S11. Bilski, J., Konturek, S. J, Cieszkowski, M.,. Czarnobilski, K.. and Pawlik, W. W.. (1994). Endogenous nitric oxide in the regulation of gastric acid secretion, gastrin release and blood flow. Biomed.

  6. ULTRAESTRUCTURA DE LA GÓNADA DEL MACHO DE DOS SUBESPECIES DE Bufo longinasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Ochotorena

    2009-01-01

    organización quística, es decir, forman grupos de células asociadas a las células de Sertoli, que son los cistos espermatogenéticos o espermatocistos dentro de los túbulos seminíferos. Los espermatozoides se caracterizan por una extraordinaria compactación nuclear y se observó la presencia de una membrana ondulante.

  7. Determining the effects of cattle grazing treatments on Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus in montane meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K McIlroy

    Full Text Available Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA, managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY. Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010, Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models.

  8. Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT: We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n _ 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May–September. Adult captures during June–August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May–September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10- yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw little evidence of local extinction or ‘‘rescue,’’ but were unable to determine whether juveniles returned to natal ponds or colonized new ponds for breeding as adults. Oak toad conservation can best be ensured by maintaining multiple ponds within a landscape to increase the probability of recruitment within the landscape neighborhood during at least some years and at some ponds, and to increase the likelihood of interpond movement.

  9. ESTRUCTURA Y ULTRAESTRUCTURA DE LA GÓNADA DE LOS MACHOS DE Bufo fustiger (ANURA: BUFONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Ochotorena

    2008-01-01

    espermátidas en diferenciación y espermatozoides están dispuestas en cistos de forma similar a otros anuros lo cual indica una conservación de esta característica dentro de los anfibios y los anamniotas. Se observan espermátidas al MET en el proceso de espermiogénesis con la presencia de mitocondrias y la formación del acrosoma. El espermatozoide es delgado, con la cabeza cónica. La cola tiene un axonema con el patrón microtubular 9 + 2 y se observaron espermatozoides con dos colas. No se detectó la presencia de membrana ondulante. Esto resultados pudieran contribuir a esclarecer la sistemática del grupo.

  10. The ontogeny of kin recognition in tadpoles of the toad Bufo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Eggs of each clutch were placed separately in plastic containers with. 5 litres aged (dechlorinated) tap water until hatching or until subjecting them to different rearing conditions. The eggs usually hatched ... different parental lines (20/egg mass) and for the late tests ... separated at stage 12 (yolk plug formation) and reared.

  11. Macroinvertebrates as tadpole food: importance and body size relationships Macroinvertebrados como alimento de girinos: importância e relações com tamanho de corpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Dutra

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates as food were recorded for three anurans tadpoles: Hyla saxicola (Bokermann, 1964 (Hylidae, Scinax machadoi (Bokermann & Sazima, 1973 (Hylidae, and Bufo rubescens (Lutz, 1925 (Bufonidae. These species are commonly found in the mountain streams at Serra do Cipó National Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Tadpoles were collected in pools of second-order reach in Mascates stream and third and fourth order reaches of Indaiá stream from March-October, 2003. Biometrical data were recorded before dissecting each individual and a feeding importance index was estimated. Eight taxa of chironomids and three taxa of mayfly exuviae were found in the guts, but no significantly differences were found between tadpole species (ANOVA, p > 0.05. The results support the drift transport hypothesis that predicts that tadpoles commonly ingest suspended matter in lotic ecosystems, are generalist feeders, and macroinvertebrates are probably incidental ingested.A presença de macroinvertebrados como item na dieta de girinos foi estudada para as espécies Hyla saxicola (Bokermann, 1964 (Hylidae, Scinax machadoi (Bokermann & Sazima, 1973 (Hylidae e Bufo rubescens (Lutz, 1925 (Bufonidae. Estas espécies são comumente encontradas nos córregos de altitude no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os girinos foram coletados em poções em um trecho de segunda ordem no córrego Mascates, e em trechos de terceira e quarta ordens no córrego Indaiá, entre março e outubro de 2003. Medidas biométricas foram mensuradas antes da dessecação de cada indivíduo e foi estimado um índice de importância de alimentação para os macroinvertebrados encontrados. Oito taxa de Chironomidae e três taxa de exúvias de Ephemeroptera foram encontrados, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os macroinvertebrados encontrados nas espécies de girinos (ANOVA, p > 0,05. Os resultados obtidos corroboram a hipótese de transporte por

  12. Nota sobre a presença da Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 na Ilha Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. Araújo Filho

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi relatado o encontro pela primeira vez, de Lutzomyia longipalpis na Praia Vermelha, município de Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, e chamada atenção do fato em relação à possível conotação em Leishmania Visceral no futuro, tal qual, ocorreu em Bangu e Jacarepaguá no Rio de Janeiro.

  13. Prevalência da microbiota no trato digestivo de fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae provenientes do campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Sandra Maria Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram dissecados o trato digestivo de 245 fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis originários da Gruta da Lapinha, Município de Lagoa Santa, MG, formando 7 grupos de 35 flebotomíneos. Das 8 espécies de bactérias isoladas houve uma predominância de bactérias Gram negativas (BGN pertencentes ao grupo de não fermentadoras de açúcar das seguintes espécies: Acinetobacter lowffii, Stenotrophomonas maltophhilia, Pseudomonas putida e Flavimonas orizihabitans. No grupo das fermentadoras tivemos: Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella ozaenae. No grupo dos Gram positivos foram identificados Bacillus thuringiensis e Staphylococcus spp.

  14. Test Review: Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2003). "RIAS--Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales." Lutz, FL--Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Mrazik, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors review the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2003), an individually administered test of intelligence for use with individuals between the ages of 3 and 94. The RIAS represents the newest intelligence test on the marketplace and incorporates the most current intelligence test theory…

  15. Dero (Allodero lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH. Oda

    Full Text Available Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A. lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A. lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species.

  16. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Martins dos Santos Afonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L. longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L. i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L. longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL.

  17. Programa de controle de surto de escorpião Tityus serrulatus, Lutz e Mello 1922, no município de Aparecida, SP (Scorpiones, Buthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elieth Floret Spirandeli Cruz

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores propuseram para o município de Aparecida, vale do Rio Paraíba, SP, região endêmica do Tityus serrulatus, um programa de controle do escorpionismo. Foram estudados a presença de focos do escorpião no campo e na cidade, as alterações ambientais periféricas à zona urbana e os novos ambientes de procriação e dispersão destes artrópodes. Além disso, foram avaliados os problemas básicos de infra-estrutura, tais como o acondicionamento e a coleta do lixo urbano público e domiciliar, o saneamento básico (esgotos e galerias pluviais e a situação dos terrenos baldios e as construções da zona urbana. Após estudo epidemiológico, foram propostas medidas educativas, que constaram da confecção e distribuição de folhetos, de mutirões de limpeza, de visitas domiciliares e do engajamento de professores e alunos da rede de ensino pública e privada na campanha. Nos locais onde existiam focos de alto risco, em especial nas pré-escolas, foi proposto o emprego do controle químico. Dentro das normas sanitárias vigentes para a zona urbana, foi proposto ainda, o uso de predadores naturais no combate. Os autores concluem que as ações devem ser integradas e continuadas de forma ininterrupta por vários anos e propõem ação conjunta com a campanha da dengue. A instituição de uma semana por ano dedicada ao estudo do escorpionismo nas escolas dos municípios onde ocorre o problema seria uma medida educativa que viria contribuir sobremaneira para a prevenção dos acidentes e controle do escorpionismo.A scorpion control program was proposed for the town of Aparecida (SP, an endemic region of Tityus serrulatus. Clusters of scorpions in urban and rural areas, environmental degradation of the town's outskirts and new scorpion procreation and dispersal habitats were studied. In addition, infrastructure problems such as the disposal and collection of residential and municipal refuse, sanitation (sewage and storm sewer, condition of vacant lots and constructions in the urban area were evaluated. After an epidemiological study, educational measures such as the distribution of pamphlets, cleaning group work, visits to residences and cooperation from High School teachers and students were also suggested. Chemical control was indicated in high-risk sites, especially those of nearschool buildings. Furthermore, the use of natural predators was also mentioned within the present sanitation regulations for urban areas. The authors assert that these procedures must be integrated and continued aninterrruptedly for several years. They also suggest a collaborative work with those responsible for the dengue erradication program, as well as the institution of the "scorpion study week", which would greatly contribute to the education of the population, to preventive programs and to scorpion control.

  18. Temporada e turno de vocalização de Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930 (Amphibia, Anura na mata atlântica de Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Fabiana Oliveira de Amorim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de vocalização de uma população de Leptodactylus natalensis foi monitorada em uma poça temporária entre novembro/2002 e outubro/2004. A poça está situada em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica conhecido como Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, município de Igarassu, Estado de Pernambuco. Os animais apresentaram-se ativos na maioria dos meses, apresentando picos na estação seca. A atividade de vocalização foi registrada durante o dia e a noite. Houve influência negativa e significativa entre a atividade vocal e a temperatura. O número de indivíduos vocalizando não foi significantemente afetado pela precipitação pluviométrica, mas o foi pelo número de fêmeas no ambiente. Verificou-se uma grande plasticidade na atividade de vocalização de L. natalensis durante a temporada e turno.Vocalizations of a population of Leptodactylus natalensis were monitored in a temporary pond from November 2002 to October 2004. This pond is located in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest belonging to the private Ecologic Refuge Charles Darwin, in the city of Igarassu, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Individuals were active during most of the studied months, with peaks of activity during dry season. Vocal activity was recorded both in day and nighttime. There was a significant negative effect of temperature on vocal activity. The number of individuals vocalizing was not affected significantly by rainfall, but it was by the number of females on the environment. A great plasticity of vocal activities of L. natalensis was verified, both in season and turn.

  19. Relacionamento entre anfíbios anuros e bromélias da restinga de Regência, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil Relationship between anuran amphibians and bromeliads of the sandy coastal plain of Regência, linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto P. Schineider

    Full Text Available Some anuran amphibians use the bromeliads during the entire life cycle and others only as diurnal shelter. At the sandy coastal plain of Linhares, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, 676 bromeliads were examined, of which 303 of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker L. B. Smith., 1955, 287 of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb., 1864, and 86 of Vrisea procera (Mart. Ex Schult. f. Wittm, 1891. The morphometric and physical-chemical analysis of different bromeliads evidenced variations among plants. During the period sampled, six anuran species were found inside the plant axils. The hylid frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied, 1824 was the most abundant species (260 specimens. Its abundance was higher in the epiphyte bromeliad Vrisea procera. Phyllodytes luteolus had higher occurrences in bromeliads located at a transitional area between open and under the shrub vegetation. Specimens of Scinax alterus (Lutz, B., 1973 and Aparasphenodon brunoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, were more frequent mainly in transitional areas; Bufo granulosus Spix, 1824 occurred in open and transitional areas, whereas Gastrotheca fissipis (Boulenger, 1888 and Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 were found only in bromeliads located in open areas.

  20. Novos registros de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912(Diptera: Psychodidae na região Centro-Leste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil New records of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae in the Central East Region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Antonio Cutolo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A incidência das leishmanioses tegumentar (LTA e visceral (LVA americanas, especialmente essa última, em hospedeiros caninos e humanos, encontra-se em expansão no Estado de São Paulo. Na vigilância epidemiológica dessas endemias, torna-se fundamental o conhecimento da distribuição e ecologia das diferentes espécies de flebotomíneos. Assim, a divulgação de novos registros de seus vetores é fundamental para apontar novas áreas de risco para a transmissão dessas doenças. Neste estudo, realizaram-se capturas de flebotomíneos em ambiente de mata, em diferentes localidades dos municípios de Ipeúna, Itirapina e Analândia, entre agosto e setembro de 2007. Foram capturados 248 flebotomíneos de nove espécies diferentes, em Ipeúna, seis e sete espécimes de duas espécies distintas coletados respectivamente em Itirapina e Analândia. A espécie mais abundante em Ipeúna foi Pintomyia pessoai (37,5%, seguida de P. fischeri (33,06% e Migonemyia migonei (16,53%. Essas três espécies são consideradas importantes vetores de LTA no território paulista. O registro de Lutzomyia longipalpis pela primeira vez em Ipeúna e Analândia e a confirmação de sua presença em Itirapina indicam risco de essabelecimento da LVA na área e a necessidade de mais estudos locais sobre sua ecologia, sobretudo em relação à ocupação de ambientes antrópicos.Cutaneous (LTA and Visceral (LVA American Leishmaniasis incidences are increasing in human and canine hosts, especially LVA, which is expanding its range through São Paulo State. Distribution and ecology knowledge of different sand fly species is essential for leishmaniasis epidemiology vigilance. The communication of new findings of its vectors is mandatory for risk determination for transmission of these illnesses. On this study sand flies were trapped in bushed areas, in different localities at rural areas of Ipeúna, Itirapina and Analândia counties, between August and September 2007. A total of 248 specimens of nine different species were sampled in Ipeúna, six and seven specimens of two different species were trapped in Itirapina and Analândia, respectively. The most abundant species in Ipeúna was Pintomyia pessoai (37.5%, followed by Pintomyia fischeri (33.06% and Migonemyia migonei (16.53%, all three species are considered vectors of LTA in São Paulo State. Lutzomyia longipalpis was found in Ipeúna and Analândia for the first time and its presence confirmed in Itirapina, indicating a risk of LVA essablishment in the area and the need for further local studies on its ecology, especially regarding its occupation of the anthropic environment.

  1. Metacercárias de Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomidae em peixes do rio Paraná, Brasil. Prevalência, sazonalidade e intensidade de infecção Metacercariae of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomatidae in fishes of Paraná River, Brazil. Prevalence, seasoning and intensity of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Kazuyuki Takahashi

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomidae no globo ocular de Plagioscion squamosissimus (corvina e Cichla ocellaris (tucunaré, capturados mensalmente, no rio Paraná, Presidente Epitácio, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. De 61 corvinas analisadas, 56 estavam parasitadas (92% com intensidade média de 42,0 parasitos por hospedeiro. De 81 tucunarés, 45 estavam parasitados (55% com intensidade média de 9,3 parasitos. A corvina apresentou prevalências de 71 a 100% e as maiores intensidades médias (103,3 e 106,9 nos meses de fevereiro e março/2001. Comparativamente, o tucunaré apresentou as mais altas prevalências nos meses de novembro/2000 (90% e fevereiro/2001 (80%. As mais altas intensidades médias no tucunaré ocorreram em setembro/2000 (12,7, dezembro/2000 (12,2 e fevereiro/2001 (16,1. As metacercárias apresentam o corpo côncavo ventralmente e na região posterior existe uma sinuosa protuberância cônica. A ventosa oral menor do que o acetábulo. Acetábulo simples situado na região pré-equatorial do helminto. Pré-faringe curta seguida de faringe musculosa. Poro genital situado próximo da altura do acetábulo. As metacercárias da corvina apresentam 1.434,0 µm (880 a 1.840 de comprimento por 611,2±93,4 µm (400 a 792 de largura e as do tucunaré 1.462,4 µm (960 a 2.480 por 710,8 µm (560 a 960. Os autores confirmaram a maior susceptibilidade da corvina ao Diplostomum e a relação do parasitismo com os parâmetros aquáticos e climáticos.This paper aims at evaluating the occurrence of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomatidae in the eyeball of Plagioscion squamosissimus (corvina and Cichla ocellaris (tucunaré, monthly captured in Paraná river, Presidente Epitácio, state of São Paulo, Brazil. From 61 corvinas under analysis, 56 of them contained parasites (92 % with intensity rate of 42.0 host parasites. From an amount of 81 tucunarés, 45 contained parasites (55 % with intensity rate of 9.3 parasites. Corvinas showed prevalence from 71 to 100 % with the highest intensity rates (103.3 and 106.9 from February to March, 2001. Comparatively, the tucunaré showed the highest prevalence from November 2000 (90% to February 2001 (80%. The tucunaré highest intensity rates occurred on September, 2000 (12.7, December, 2000 (12.2 and February, 2001 (16.1. Metacercariae showed a hollow womb body and a posterior region of a sinuous conic protuberance, an oral sucker smaller than the acetabulae, a simple acetabulae located in the pre-equatorial region of helminto. A short pre-pharynx followed by a muscular pharynx, genital pore next to acetubulae. Corvina metacercariae presents 1.434,0 µm (880 to 1.840 long by 611.2 ± 93.4 µm (400 to 792 wide. Tucunaré metacercariae, 1.462.4 µm (960 to 2.480 by 710.8 µm (560 to 960. Authors confirmed corvina great susceptibility to Diplomastum and the relationship between the parasitism and the aquatic and climatic parameters.

  2. Padronização da técnica imunoenzimática do ELISA de captura, no sistema avidina-biotina para a identificação de sangue ingerido por Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay biotin/avidin method standardization, for identification of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis bloodmeals (Lutz & Neiva, 1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Marassá

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A identificação de sangue ingerido pelos insetos é um importante parâmetro para elucidar aspectos ligados à transmissão de zoonoses, dentre elas, as leishmanioses. Dos métodos empregados para esclarecer a atração de vetores por animais que possam atuar como reservatórios dessas parasitoses, destacam-se os imunológicos. O estudo teve como objetivo, padronizar a técnica imunoenzimática de captura e titular amostras de sangue ingerido em fêmeas de flebotomíneos ingurgitadas de Lutzomyia longipalpis criadas em laboratório e alimentadas experimentalmente em rato. Em vista da alta sensibilidade, favorecida pelo sistema avidina-biotina, foi possível a realização de pelo menos noventa testes, de cada uma das amostras em duplicata, e constatar a presença de sangue para todas as amostras com períodos de 12 e 24 horas pós-ingestão, observando-se diferença significativa entre os respectivos títulos.Bloodmeals taken by insects constitute an important parameter for clarifying aspects of the transmission of zoonoses, including leishmaniases. Immunological assays can be used to investigate the attraction of vectors to animals, which may be hosts of these parasitoses. The objective of this study was to standardize a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and titer samples with different time periods of digestion, in laboratory-bred Lutzomyia longipalpis fed on rats. In the light of the high sensitivity that the biotin-avidin method permits, the technique provided at least ninety repeat tests for each sample and identified recent bloodmeals taken by these insects. Bloodmeals were detectable up to 12 and 24h after blood ingestion, and a significant difference between these titers was observed.

  3. AcEST: DK947235 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available finition sp|A4K526|CQ061_BUFBG UPF0451 protein C17orf61 homolog OS=Bufo bufo gargarizans Align length 42 Sco... 29 8.6 >sp|A4K526|CQ061_BUFBG UPF0451 protein C17orf61 homolog OS=Bufo bufo garg

  4. THE EFFECT OF SUBSTRATE TYPE ON AVOIDANCE OF UREA IN JUVENILE WESTERN TOADS (BUFO BOREAS). (U915529)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. ROLE OF THE EGG JELLY COAT IN PROTECTING HYLA REGILLA AND BUFO CANORUS EMBRYOS FROM ULTRAVIOLET B RADIATION DURING DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have suggested that Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may play a role in amphibian population declines. Some of these studies also indicate that egg hatching success is unaltered in some species of anurans as a result of UVB exposure. It has been proposed that the eg...

  6. Wyoming toad, Bufo hemiophrys baxteri, habitat use and hibernaculum research project with the use of telemetry : Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report is on a two year study, started in 1998, to evaluate the daily and seasonal habitat use to determine the location of the hibemaculum of the...

  7. Heritability of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis burden and its genetic correlation with development time in a population of Common toad (Bufo spinosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Gemma; Bosch, Jaime; Cano, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Despite the important threat that emerging pathogens pose for the conservation of biodiversity as well as human health, very little is known about the adaptive potential of host species to withstand infections. We studied the quantitative genetic architecture responsible for the burden of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in a population of common toads in conjunction with other life-history traits (i.e., body size and development rate) that may be affected by common selective pressures. We found a significant heritable component that is associated with fungal burden, which may allow for local adaptation to this pathogen to proceed. In addition, the high genetic correlation found between fungal burden and development time suggests that both traits have to be taken into account in order to assess the adaptive response of host populations to this emerging pathogen. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis in an amphibian (Bufo terrestris) exposed to coal combustion wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, W.A.; Mendonca, M.T. [Department of Zoology and Wildlife, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Congdon, J.D. [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    1999-02-01

    To assess the responsiveness of the interrenal axis to stress, we injected toads exposed to coal combustion wastes and toads from an unpolluted reference site with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), as well as the vehicle alone (saline). Initial circulating levels of corticosterone in toads captured at the polluted area were significantly higher than levels in toads from the reference site. Corticosterone levels in toads from the polluted site remained high even after 2 weeks of laboratory acclimation and injection with saline. The results may suggest disruption of hepatic enzymes responsible for the metabolicclearance of steroid hormones. Injection of toads from the polluted site with ACTH had no effect on plasma corticosterone levels, whereas a similar treatment of toads from the reference site stimulated a marked increase in corticosterone. Our study provides evidence that toads exposed to coal combustion wastes may be less efficient at responding to additional environmental stressors. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. JUVENILE WESTERN TOADS, BUFO BOREAS, AVOID CHEMICAL CUES OF SNAKES FED JUVENILE, BUT NOT LARVAL, CONSPECIFICS. (U915529)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Wyeomyia (Prosopolepis) Confusa (Lutz): Subgeneric Validation, Species Description, and Recognition of Wyeomyia Flui (Bonne-Wepster and Bonne) as the Senior Synonym of Wyeomyia Kerri Del Ponte and Cerqueira

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    S. Bras. (R. C. Shannon collection), 1 c? (USNM); Rio de Janeiro, Guapimirim County, Parque National da Serra dos Orgaos, Sep . 1992, R. Lourenco-de...Oliveira and M. A. Motta toll., lar- vae from Heliconia sp., lOLePe&, 4dG, 1 Ped, lOLePe9, 49 G (IOC); same data except 23 Sep . 1992 and R...Neves, D. I? and J. L. Pedersoli. 1976. OS Culicidae do Museu de Historia Natural de Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte. I. A mata

  11. Descripción y comparación del condrocráneo en larvas de Hyla raniceps (Cope, 1862, Scinax granulatus (Peters, 1871 y Scinax squalirostris (A. Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae

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    Alcalde, Leandro

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el condrocráneo en larvas de 3 especies de hílidos neotropicales, Hyla raniceps, Scinax granulatus y S. squalirostris, las cuales presentan larvas de charca, tipo IV, con desarrollo exotrófico, nectónicas (Scinax spp. o bentónicas (H. raniceps. Los datos obtenidos fueron comparados con la información conocida acerca de Hyla andina, H. arborea, H. cinerea, H. geographica, H. lanciformis, H. microcephala, H. nana, H. pulchella, H. rosenbergi, Scinax acuminatus, S. fuscovarius, S. nasicus y S. ruber. Las especies de Scinax se diferencian de las de Hyla, en forma independiente del tipo ecológico que presentan sus larvas, por la presencia de un proceso lateral al cóndilo articular del ceratohial (ausente en Hyla spp.. No ha sido posible dilucidar si este proceso es una sinapomorfía de Scinax o de las especies que componen el clado rubra. Diecisiete caracteres varían entre especies independientemente del ambiente y la dieta de las larvas: cinco de ellos son del neurocráneo, cinco del arco mandibular y siete del hiobranquium. El grado de desarrollo del proceso anterohial lateral del ceratohial muestra asociación con el mecanismo de alimentación de las larvas. Tres caracteres soportan grupos de especies en el género Hyla. Hyla lanciformis e H. raniceps (grupo albopuntacta presentan la comisura cuadrado craneal con la mitad del ancho que presenta el proceso muscular en su base y la pars reuniens con forma de "V". Hyla geographica (grupo geographica presenta la pars reuniens de forma cuadrada. Hyla nana (grupo microcephala carece de seno hipobranquial posterior y proceso cuadrado etmoidal. El grupo rostrata del género Scinax está soportado por la presencia de una conexión sindesmótica entre cuerpo y ala del cartílago suprarrostral. La existencia de diferencias en las estructuras del condrocráneo relacionadas con la dieta en aquellas larvas que presentan el mismo mecanismo de alimentación micrófago, indican que este tipo de alimentación puede ocurrir mediante una serie de estructuras y no por una única morfología en particular. The larval chondrocranium of 3 species of neotropical hylids, Hyla raniceps, Scinax granulatus and S. squalirostris is described, which present pond type, type IV, with exotrophic development, nektonic (Scinax spp. or benthic (H. raniceps tadpoles. The obtained data were compared with known information about Hyla andina, H. arborea, H. cinerea, H. geographica, H. lanciformis, H. microcephala, H. nana, H. pulchella, H. rosenbergi, Scinax acuminatus, S. fuscovarius, S. nasicus and S. ruber. The species of Scinax are differentiated from those of Hyla independently of the ecological type of their tadpoles by the presence of a process lateral to the ceratohyal?s condilus articularis (which is absent in Hyla spp.. The question about if this process is a sinapomorphy either for Scinax or the species that compound the rubra clade, could not be dilucidated. Seventeen characters vary among species independently of the environment and the diet of tadpoles: five of them are from the neurocranium, five from the mandibular arch and seven from the hiobranquium. The grade of development of the anterolateral process of the ceratohyale shows association with the feeding mechanism of tadpoles. Three characters support species groups on genus Hyla. Hyla lanciformis and H. raniceps (albopuntacta group have the commissura quadrato-cranialis anterior a half of wide compared with the wide of the processus muscularis quadrati at its base, and a V-shaped pars reuniens. Hyla geographica (geographica group presents a square-shaped pars reuniens. In Hyla nana (microcephala group, the sinus posterior hypobranchialis and the processus quadrato-ethmoidale are missing. The rostrata group from genus Scinax appears supported by the presence of a sindesmotic connection between corpus and ala of the cartilago suprarostrale. The existence of differences in the chondrocranial structures related whit diet in tadpoles that present the same microphagous feeding mechanism, indicates that this type of diet occurs by a series of structures and do not with a single particular morphology.

  12. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Lutz, 1908 isolado por meio de hemocultura em um paciente portadora de símdrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolated by hemoculture from a patient with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Hadad

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o primeiro caso de isolamento de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis em sangue de paciente HIV positivo, 28 anos, sexo masculino, natural de Nova Londrina que, ao exame físico e ultrassonográfico, apresentava esplenomegalia febril a esclarecer. Para estabelecer o diagnóstico etiológico, hemoculturas em triplicata foram realizadas para pesquisa de bactérias aeróbias, micobactérias e fungos. As hemoculturas para bactérias aeróbias e micobactérias foram negativas e P. brasiliensis foi isolado de duas hemoculturas, na fase leveduriforme em ágar BHI, 20 dias após a semeadura, a partir do meio de Negroni. O paciente classificado, segundo o "Centers for Disease Control (CDC", no grupo IV devido a uma pneumocistose pulmonar, interrompeu o tratamento por problemas particulares na segunda dose de anfotericina B, sendo tratado alternativamente com 800 mg/dia de cetoconazol. O óbito ocorreu um ano após o isolamento do P.brasiliensis em hemocultura.A case of an AIDS-patient with positive blood culture for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is reported. The patient was a 29 years old male born in Nova Londrina (Paraná State, Brazil who presented splenomegaly and fever of unknown origin. Three blood cultures were performed, each one of them for aerobic bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi. Cultures for aerobic bacteria and mycobacteria were negative. However, the yeast phase P. brasiliensis was isolated from two cultures in BHI agar, 20 days after inoculation in Negroni medium. The patient was classified in group V according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC criteria for AIDS, due to a Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Treatment was discontinued due to an individual decision of the patient on the second dose of amphotericin B. This antibiotic was replaced by ketoconazole in the daily dose of 800 mg. The patient died one year after the isolation of P. brasiliensis on blood culture.

  13. Evaluations of the Antimicrobial Activities and Chemical Compositions of Body Fat from the Amphibians Leptodactylus macrosternum Miranda-Ribeiro (1926) and Leptodactylus vastus Adolf Lutz (1930) in Northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Mario Eduardo Santos; Dias, Diógenes de Queiroz; Sales, Débora Lima; Oliveira, Olga Paiva; Teles, Diego Alves; Filho, João Antonio de Araujo; de Sousa, José Guilherme Gonçalves; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Kerntopf, Marta Regina; Alves, Rômulo Romeu da Nóbrega; Almeida, Waltécio de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Leptodactylus macrosternum and L. vastus (family: Leptodactylidae) are commonly encountered in the “Caatinga” biome in northern Brazil. The body fat of L. vastus is used as a zootherapeutic for treating a number of human maladies. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of the body fats of L. macrosternum and L. vastus and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities as well as the ecological implications of their use in traditional folk medicine. Oils were extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of L. macrosternum (OLM) and L. vastus (OLV) using hexane as a solvent. The fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activities of the oils, either alone or in combination with antibiotics and antifungal drugs, were tested on standard strains of microorganisms as well as on multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus. OLM contained 40% saturated and 60% unsaturated fatty acids, while OLV contained 58.33% saturated and 41.67% unsaturated fatty acids. Our results indicated that both OLM and OLV demonstrated relevant antimicrobial activities (with MIC 256 μg/mL for both) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida krusei. However, no antimicrobial effects were observed when these oils were combined with antibiotics or antifungal drugs. PMID:23710241

  14. Evaluations of the Antimicrobial Activities and Chemical Compositions of Body Fat from the Amphibians Leptodactylus macrosternum Miranda-Ribeiro (1926 and Leptodactylus vastus Adolf Lutz (1930 in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eduardo Santos Cabral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptodactylus macrosternum and L. vastus (family: Leptodactylidae are commonly encountered in the “Caatinga” biome in northern Brazil. The body fat of L. vastus is used as a zootherapeutic for treating a number of human maladies. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of the body fats of L. macrosternum and L. vastus and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities as well as the ecological implications of their use in traditional folk medicine. Oils were extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of L. macrosternum (OLM and L. vastus (OLV using hexane as a solvent. The fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activities of the oils, either alone or in combination with antibiotics and antifungal drugs, were tested on standard strains of microorganisms as well as on multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus. OLM contained 40% saturated and 60% unsaturated fatty acids, while OLV contained 58.33% saturated and 41.67% unsaturated fatty acids. Our results indicated that both OLM and OLV demonstrated relevant antimicrobial activities (with MIC 256 μg/mL for both against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida krusei. However, no antimicrobial effects were observed when these oils were combined with antibiotics or antifungal drugs.

  15. Caracterização do mecanismo de controle do pH no tubo digestivo de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz e Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) e sua importância no desenvolvimento de Leishmania Ross, 1903

    OpenAIRE

    Vania Cristina dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    O controle do pH intestinal em Lutzomyia longipalpis é primordial para o inseto lidar com os diferentes itens de sua dieta. Os flebotomíneos necessitam mudar repentinamente de um pH 6,0, adequado a digestão de açúcares, para um pH próximo de pH 8,0, que aumenta a eficiência da digestão do repasto sanguíneo. Antes da ingestão de sangue, o pH no intestino médio de L. longipalpis é rigorosamente mantido em pH 6,0 por um eficiente mecanismo regulador. Aparentemente, a alcalinização observada seri...

  16. Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brum Zorrilla N.

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.

  17. Identificação do sangue ingerido por Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia almerioi (Galati & Nunes, 1999 pela técnica imunoenzimática do ELISA de captura, no sistema avidina-biotina Blood meals identification of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia almerioi (Galati & Nunes, 1999 by enzime-linked immunossorbent assay biotin-avidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Marassá

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia almerioi, espécies integrantes da fauna flebotomínea da Serra da Bodoquena, no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, têm sido objeto de estudo devido às suas elevadas abundâncias no Assentamento Guaicurus, foco de leishmaniose tegumentar humana e visceral canina. Em pesquisas que vem sendo realizadas neste acampamento para a identificação de vetores destas parasitoses, foram capturados no período de 2002 a 2004, com armadilhas automáticas luminosas, instaladas em ambiente peridoméstico (galinheiro, 83 exemplares ingurgitados de Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia almerioi. O presente estudo teve como objetivo a investigação do hábito alimentar para ave das fêmeas de ambas as espécies de flebotomíneos, mediante o emprego da técnica imunoenzimática de captura,comparando-se a reatividade durante os anos de 2002 a 2004. Dentre 57 amostras de Lutzomyia longipalpis e 26 de Lutzomyia almerioi, foram encontradas 72% reagentes para ave em Lutzomyia longipalpis e 96% em Lutzomyia almerioi, o que justifica o estudo do hábito alimentar na região, como medida de prevenção e instituição de vigilância epidemiológica.Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia almerioi, phlebotomine species from the fauna of Serra da Bodoquena, in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, have been studied, particularly due to the fact of their abundance and occurrence, the Guaicurus settlement, focus of human tegumentary and canine visceral leishmaniasis. In researches that are being carried out in this settlement for identifying the vectors of these parasitosis, 83 engorged females belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia almerioi were captured with automatic light traps from 2002 up to 2004 in the peridomiciliary environment of the Guaicurus settlement (hennery.The aim of this study was the investigation on bird feeding habit of females of both the phlebotomine species by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique, comparing the reactivity during the period from 2002 up to 2004. Of the 57 samples of Lutzomyia longipalpis and 26 of Lutzomyia almerioi that have been tested, 72% from Lutzomyia longipalpis and 96% from Lutzomyia almerioi were reactive, which justifies the feeding habit study in the region as a prevention measure and the institution of an epidemiological survey.

  18. PRELIMINARY DATA CONCERNING THE HERPETOFAUNA IN NEAM COUNTY (ROMANIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin ROŞU; Iulian GHERGHEL

    2005-01-01

    In the researched area we identified 14 amphibian species: (Salamandra salamndra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus alpestris, Triturus montandoni, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Pelobates fuscus, Hyla arborea, Rana ridibunda, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria) and 8 reptilian species (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Zootoca vivipara, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Elaphe longissima, Coronella austriaca, Vipera berus). Within the region we identi...

  19. Comparative analysis of the integument of different tree frog species from Ololygon and Scinax genera (Anura: Hylidae

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    Henrique Alencar Meira da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The integuments of ten treefrog species of two genera from Scinaxnae - O. angrensis (Lutz, 1973, O. flavoguttata (Lutz & Lutz, 1939, O. humilis (Lutz & Lutz, 1954, O. perpusilla (Lutz & Lutz, 1939, O. v-signata (Lutz, 1968, Scinax hayii (Barbour, 1909, S. similis (Cochran, 1952, O. trapicheroi (Lutz & Lutz, 1954 and S. x-signatus (Spix, 1824 - were investigated using conventional and histochemical techniques of light microscopy, and polarized light microscopy. All integuments showed the basic structure of the anuran integument. Moreover, the secretory portions of exocrine glands, such as serous merocrine and apocrine glands, were found to be restricted to the spongious dermis. Lipid content occurred together with the heterogeneous secretory material of the glands with an apocrine secretion mechanism. In addition, clusters of these apocrine glands were present in the ventrolateral integument of some species. Melanophores were also visualized in all examined hylids. However, the occurrence of iridophores, detected through polarized light microscopy, varied according to the species. The Eberth-Katschenko layer occurred in the dorsal integument from both genera, but it was only present in the ventral integument of O. albicans, O. angrensis, O. flavoguttata, O. perpusilla and O. v-signata. Although the integument of all treefrogs showed the same basic structure, some characteristics were genus-specific; however, these features alone may not be used to distinguish both genera.

  20. Determination of pesticide aerial drift and associated effects to the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson and Hutton National Wildlife Refuges and potential reintroduction sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad is confined to Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the decline of the toad are unknown, but it is...

  1. On The Identity Of Some Toads Of The Genus Bufo From Ecuador, With Additional Remarks On Andinophryne Colomai Hoogmoed, 1985 (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Study of the type specimens of B. caeruleostictus Günther, 1859 and B. chanchanensis Fowler, 1913, and of fresh material showed that B. chanchanensis is a junior subjective synonym of B. caeruleostictus. Probably it is a member of the B. guttatus group. B. caeruleocellatus Fowler, 1913 is a junior

  2. The effects of fasting and cold exposure on metabolic rate and mitochondrial proton leak in liver and skeletal muscle of an amphibian, the cane toad Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcionka, M; Withers, K W; Klingenspor, M; Jastroch, M

    2008-06-01

    Futile cycling of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane contributes significantly to standard metabolic rate in a variety of ectothermic and endothermic animals, but adaptations of the mitochondrial bioenergetics to different environmental conditions have rarely been studied in ectotherms. Changes in ambient temperature and nutritional status have a great effect on the physiological demands of ectothermic amphibians and may require the adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency. In order to investigate the effect of temperature and nutritional status on the mitochondrial level, we exposed male cane toads to either 10 degrees C or 30 degrees C and fasted half of the animals in each group. Cold exposure resulted in a fourfold reduction of the resting metabolic rate whereas nutritional status had only minor effects. The mitochondrial adjustments to each condition were observed by comparing the proton leak kinetics of isolated liver and skeletal muscle mitochondria at 25 degrees C. In response to cold exposure, liver mitochondria showed a decrease in proton conductance while skeletal muscle mitochondria were unchanged. Additional food deprivation had minor effects in skeletal muscle, but in liver we uncovered surprising differences in energy saving mechanisms between the acclimation temperatures: in warm-acclimated toads, fasting resulted in a decrease of the proton conductance whereas in cold-acclimated toads, the activity of the respiratory chain was reduced. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial proton leakage, we determined the adenine-nucleotide transporter (ANT) content, which explained tissue-specific differences in the basal proton leak, but neither the ANT nor uncoupling protein (UCP) gene expression correlated with alterations of the proton leak in response to physiological stimuli.

  3. The 'habitat backbone' as strategy to conserve pioneer species in dynamic port habitats: lessons from the natterjack toad ( Bufo calamita ) in the Port of Antwerp (Belgium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snep, R.P.H.; Ottburg, F.G.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation in economic areas like ports has recently become more important in the European Union due to a stricter interpretation of nature protection laws. In this study we develop a planning and design strategy¿the `habitat backbone¿¿ with which to support the long-term survival of

  4. Материалы к гельминтофауне серой жабы - bufo bufo (Amphibia: Anura) в Мордовии

    OpenAIRE

    ЧИХЛЯЕВ И.В.; РУЧИН А.Б.; ЛУКИЯНОВ С.В.

    2009-01-01

    Изучена гельминтофауна серой жабы в трех популяциях из Мордовии. Ее основу составляют нематоды Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) и Rhabdias bufonis (Schrank, 1788), часто встречающиеся во всех популяциях с высокой численностью. Трематоды являются редкими паразитами данного хозяина. Состав и структура гельминтофауны этого вида амфибий, характер инвазии тесно связаны с образом жизни хозяина и в каждой популяции имеют свои биотопические особенности. Гельминтофауна серой жабы из популяций Мо...

  5. Amphibienreste aus dem Oberpliozän von Kaltensundheim (Rhön, Thüringen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Böhme

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aus den oberpliozänen Füllsedimenten eines fossilen Erdfalles bei Kaltensundheim in der Rhön (Thüringen werden Skelettreste von anuren Amphibien beschrieben. Es liegen Reste von Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758, Bufo sp., Rana temporaria Linus, 1758 sowie vermutliche Parietale nicht bestimmbarer Salientia vor. Die bisher mehrfach genannte Latonia lässt sich nicht nachweisen. Sie muss aus der Faunenliste von Kaltensundheim gestrichen werden. Skeletal remains of anuran amphibians are described from sediment filled earthfall depression of upper Pliocene age near Kaltensundheim/Rhön (Thuringia. Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758, Bufo sp., Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, as well as a probable parietal of an indeterminate salientian could be distinguished. There is no evidence of the often mentioned Latonia. This genus should be eliminated from the faunal list of Kaltensundheim. doi:10.1002/mmng.20020050113

  6. Environmental DNA as a Tool for Inventory and Monitoring of Aquatic Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Lithobates [Rana] tarahumarae)3 Western narrow-mouthed toad (Gastrophryne olivacea )4 Woodhouse’s toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] woodhousii) 1Collected by Meryl...Gastrophryne olivacea )4 Woodhouse’s toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] woodhousii) 1Collected by Meryl Mims, 2Collected by Lauren Chan, 3Collected by Mike...Lithobates [Rana] tarahumarae)4 Western narrow-mouthed toad (Gastrophryne olivacea )5 Woodhouse’s toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] woodhousii) 1Collected by Meryl

  7. Proton pump activity is required for active uptake of chloride in isolated amphibian skin exposed to freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Willumsen, Niels J.; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2002-01-01

    Net proton secretion and unidirectional chloride fluxes were measured in isolated skin of toads (Bufo bufo) and frogs (Rana esculenta) mounted in an Ussing chamber and exposed to a Ringer's solution on the serosal side and a freshwater-like solution (1-3 mM Cl-) on the external side. Active proto...

  8. Study on anti-osteosarcoma activity of ethanol extract of Venenum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Venenum bufonis is the dried white secretion of the auricular and skin glands of Bufo gargarizans Cantor, or Bufo melanostictus Schneider, Bufonidae. It is used in the treatment of deep-rooted carbuncle, boils and swelling; pain in the throat, heart stroke, coma, abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea.

  9. Amfibieen rond Ambleteuse 1977

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Jeroen; Leeuwen, van Frits

    1979-01-01

    In 1977 hebban we in het gebied rond Ambleteuse amfibieën bestudeerd. Bij inventarisatie troffen we Triturus vulgaris, T. helveticus, T.alpestris, T.cristatus. Rana temporaria, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, B. calamita, Alytes obstetricans, Pelodytes punctatus en Salamandra salamandra aan. Verschillend

  10. Concentration dependence of halide fluxes and selectivity of the anion pathway in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harck, A F; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1986-01-01

    The isolated toad (Bufo bufo) skin was mounted under voltage-clamp conditions in a chamber shown to cause no significant edge damage. The serosal side of the skin was bathed with NaCl-Ringer's, and the passive voltage-sensitive anion conductance studied in its fully voltage activated state, V = -...

  11. Effects of amphibian chytrid fungus on individual survival probability in wild boreal toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. Pilliod; Erin Muths; Rick D. Scherer; Paul E. Bartelt; Paul Stephen Corn; Blake R. Hossack; Brad A. Lambert; Rebecca McCaffery; Christopher Gaughan

    2010-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis is linked to the worldwide decline of amphibians, yet little is known about the demographic effects of the disease. We collected capture-recapture data on three populations of boreal toads (Bufo boreas [Bufo = Anaxyrus]) in the Rocky Mountains (U.S.A.). Two of the populations were infected with chytridiomycosis and one was not. We examined the effect...

  12. Design and intensification of industrial DADPM process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneker, Anne Maria; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; de Waele, B.; de Zeeuw, A.J.; van den Berg, Henderikus

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification is an essential method for the improvement of energy and material efficiency, waste reduction and simplification of industrial processes. In this research a Process Intensification methodology developed by Lutze, Gani and Woodley at the Computer Aided Process Engineering

  13. ALICE industrial award ceremony in Bologna at Santa Cristina

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    from left to right:Pierluigi Bellutti (ITC); Andrea Zanotti President of ITC; Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University); Mario Zen,Director of ITC ; Maurizio Boscardin (ITC); Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  14. ALICE A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN LHC : global layout

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephane Maridor

    2006-01-01

    from left to right: Pierluigi Bellutti (ITC); Andrea Zanotti President of ITC; Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University); Mario Zen,Director of ITC ; Maurizio Boscardin (ITC); Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  15. Samaja bolshaja stroiploshtshadka v Estonii / Konstantin Morenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morenko, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna linnavalitsus korraldas ümarlaua linna rannaalade hetkeseisu ja arenguvõimaluste hindamiseks, mille töös osalesid ka Euroopa tuntud linnaplaneerimise konsultandid. Arvamust avaldavad Peep Aaviksoo, Lutz Schleich, Giorgio Risicaris ja Stefan Boltz

  16. 77 FR 19694 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... NORTH CAROLINA Catawba County George, Lee & Helen, House, 16 9th Ave., NE., Hickory, 12000234 Davidson... District, Bounded by Wilson, Cauldwell, Kennette, Lutz, Messeck, & Catawba Aves., Smith & Bruce, Sts...

  17. "Keset filmi" Kiasmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Soome kunstniku Tellervo Kalleineni filmiprojektist "In the middle of a movie'". Eestist esinesid projektis Taavi Eelmaa, Tarrvi Laamann, Silva Lutz, Anders Melts, Anneli Remme, Siiri Salem, Martin Palm, Kaja Prikk, Peeter Ristsoo, filmisid Peeter Maimik ja Marianne Kõrver

  18. 1 RESULTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essa

    2011-11-07

    tests were used ..... Research No. 33.AIT. Urrea OS (1995). Economic and institutional analysis of Agroforesry. Project in Guatemala: In: Current D, Lutz E and Scherr S (eds.). Costs, Benefits and Farmers Adoption of Agroforestry.

  19. Digoxin overdose: clinical features and managementVanessa Bara discusses the risk factors, antidotal therapy, and management of digoxin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Vanessa

    2001-06-01

    Digoxin is a digitalis glycoside extracted front the leaves of the plant Digitalis Lanata. more commonly known as Grecian foxglove. The digitalis glycosides are present in many plants including Digitalis purpura (foxglove), Nerium oleander (oleander) and Convallaria majalis (lily-of-the-valley). They are also found in some toads, such as Bufo bufo-bufo (European toad). Digitalis glycosides are believed to have been used for therapeutic benefit in the first century AD. More recently, detailed descriptions of the therapeutic use of foxglove from 200 years ago include recognition of the toxicity associated with its use.

  20. Drug: D06750 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06750 Crude ... Drug Toad venom (JP17) Hellebrin [CPD:C08868], Resibufogenin [CPD...:C17058], Cinobufagin [CPD:C16931], Bufalin [CPD:C16922], Bufotalin [CPD:C16923], Cinobufotalin [CPD:C16932], Gamabufo...C16921], Cardenolides, Bufotenine [CPD:C08299], Bufotenidine [CPD:C13664], Epiren...aginol, Marinobufagin, Resibufagin, Serotonine, Bufothionine, Dehydrobufotenine, Bufotoxin, Cholesterol [CPD...terol [CPD:C01694], Campesterol [CPD:C01789], Sitosterol [CPD:C01753] ... Bufo bufo gargagrizans [TAX:30331], Bufo

  1. Preliminary data concerning the distribution of amphibian fauna in Suceava county (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STRUGARIU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused upon an area in which the herpetofauna had previously been very poorly studied and aimed to identify the species of amphibians from the research area and to establish distribution areas. In the 54 investigated localities 16 species of amphibians (Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus alpestris, Triturus montandoni, Pelobates fuscus, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria, Rana arvalis, Rana ridibunda & Rana lessonae and 2 hybrids (Bombina bombina X Bombina variegata & Rana kl. esculanta have been identified. Of these, the Bombina hybrids have been identified for the first time in the studied region.

  2. Chloride channels in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E

    1982-01-01

    A study of the voltage and time dependence of a transepithelial Cl- current in toad skin (Bufo bufo) by the voltage-clamp method leads to the conclusion that potential has a dual role for Cl- transport. One is to control the permeability of an apical membrane Cl-pathway, the other is to drive Cl-......- transport through open channels does not obey the constant-field equation....

  3. Combined exposure to ambient UVB radiation and nitrite negatively affects survival of amphibian early life stages

    OpenAIRE

    Macías, Guadalupe; Marco, Adolfo; Blaustein, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    Many aquatic species are sensitive to ambient levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) and chemical fertilizers. However, recent studies indicate that the interaction among multiple stressors acting simultaneously could be contributing to the population declines of some animal species. Therefore, we tested the potential synergistic effects between ambient levels of UVB and a contaminant, sodium nitrite in the larvae of two amphibian species, the common European toad Bufo bufo and the Iberian g...

  4. Amphibian optokinetic after nystagmus: properties and comparative analysis in various species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteuffel, G; Kopp, J; Himstedt, W

    1986-01-01

    Optokinetic nystagmus and after nystagmus were studied in six amphibian species, three urodeles and three anurans. It was demonstrated that two of the urodeles, Hydromantes italicus and Salamandra salamandra, display a relatively well-developed optokinetic after nystagmus, which is less pronounced in Bombina variegata and nearly absent in Bufo bufo, Rana temporaria, and Tylototriton verrucosus. These results indicate a certain degree of velocity storage in the optokinetic reflex of some amphibians.

  5. The advertisement call, breeding biology, description of the tadpole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-07-27

    Jul 27, 1998 ... The Amphibia of Southern Africa: a faunal study. Ann. Natal Mus. 17: 1-334. POYNTON, J.e. & BROADLEY, D.G. 1988. AmphibiaZambesi- aca 4. Bufonidae. Ann. Natal Mus. 29(2): 447-490. TANDY, M. & KEITH, R. 1972. Chapter 9. Bufo of Africa. In: Evo- lution in the genus Bufo. Blair, W.F. (ed). University of ...

  6. Amphibians of the Ausoni Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corsetti

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we searched for amphibians in 89 potential breeding sites within the Ausoni Mounts, which are among the less investigated areas of Latium. Sixtynine spawning sites, and eight amphibian species (57.1% of the 14 amphibian species living in Latium region were found. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandrina perspicillata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton vulgaris, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica and Pelophylax synklepton hispanica.

  7. New records of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae from Misiones Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. ROSSI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las siguientes especies representan el primer registro de la Argentina: Culex (Anoedioporpa canaanensis Lane & Withman, Culex (Anoedioporpa originator Gordon & Evans, Culex (Culex declarator Dyar & Knab, Culex (Melanoconion ribeirensis Forattini & Sallum, Culex (Microculex neglectus Lutz, Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus Lutz, Orthopodomyia fascipes Coquillett y Wyeomyia (Wyeomyia medioalbipes Lutz. Las especies Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus guarani Shannon y Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus rhyacophilus (Da Costa Lima fueron recientemente rescatadas de la sinonimia de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus lutzii Cruz y Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus scapularis (Rondani. Las siguientes especies corresponden a nuevos registros de la provincia de Misiones: Anopheles (Anopheles neomaculipalpus Curry, Coquillettidia (Rhynchotaenia fasciolata (Lynch Arribalzaga, Culex (Culex acharistus Root, Culex (Culex tatoi Casal & García, Culex (Culex usquatus Dyar y Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella guadeloupensis (Dyar & Knab. Con estos nuevos registros el número de especies citadas se eleva a 189 de la provincia de Misiones y 242 de Argentina.

  8. Nomenclatural notes on living and fossil amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of extinct and living amphibians known from fossils (Allocaudata, Anura and Caudata has revealed several cases that require nomenclatural changes in order to stabilize the taxonomy of the group. Nomenclatural changes include homonym replacements, corrections of spelling variants and authorships, name availabilities, and in particular, the proposal of new combinations. These changes will allow the incorporation of some palaeontological taxa to the current evolutionary models of relationship of modern forms based on molecular phylogenies. Rana cadurcorum for Rana plicata Filhol, 1877, Rana auscitana for Rana pygmaea Lartet, 1851, and Rana sendoa for Rana robusta Brunner, 1956. Anchylorana Taylor, 1942 is considered a new synonym of Lithobates Fitzinger, 1843. New combinations proposed are: Anaxyrus defensor for Bufo defensor Meylan, 2005; Anaxyrus hibbardi for Bufo hibbardi Taylor, 1937; Anaxyrus pliocompactilis for Bufo pliocompactilis Wilson, 1968; Anaxyrus repentinus for Bufo repentinus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus rexroadensis for Bufo rexroadensis Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus spongifrons for Bufo spongifrons Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus suspectus for Bufo suspectus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus tiheni for Bufo tiheni Auffenberg, 1957; Anaxyrus valentinensis for Bufo valentinensis Estes et Tihen, 1964; Ichthyosaura wintershofi for Triturus wintershofi Lunau, 1950; Incilius praevius for Bufo praevius Tihen, 1951; Lithobates bucella for Rana bucella Holman, 1965; Lithobates dubitus for Anchylorana dubita Taylor, 1942; Lithobates fayeae for Rana fayeae Taylor, 1942; Lithobates miocenicus for Rana miocenica Holman, 1965; Lithobates moorei for Anchylorana moorei Taylor, 1942; Lithobates parvissimus for Rana parvissima

  9. Lista anotada y clave de los sapos marsupiales (Anura: Hylidae: Gastrotheca) de Colombia Lista anotada y clave de los sapos marsupiales (Anura: Hylidae: Gastrotheca) de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Duellman William E.

    1989-01-01

    Los anuros marsupiales se hallan representados en Colombia por diez y seis especies pertenecientes al género Gastrotheca. G. humbertoi  Lutz, 1977, pasa a la sinonimia de G. andaquiensis Ruiz y Hernández, 1976. G. medemi Cochran y Goin, 1970, G. nicefori descampsi Lutz y Ruiz, 1977, y G. yacambuensis Yustiz, 1978, son incluidas en la sinonimia de G. nicefori Gaige, 1933. Se presenta un breve diagnóstico y comentario sobre la distribución para cada una de las especies colombianas junto con una...

  10. Lista anotada y clave de los sapos marsupiales (anura: hylidae: gastrotheca) de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    William E. Duellman

    2012-01-01

    Los anuros marsupiales se hallan representados en Colombia por diez y seis especies pertenecientes al género Gastrotheca. G. humbertoi  Lutz, 1977, pasa a la sinonimia de G. andaquiensis Ruiz y Hernández, 1976. G. medemi Cochran y Goin, 1970, G. nicefori descampsi Lutz y Ruiz, 1977, y G. yacambuensis Yustiz, 1978, son incluidas en la sinonimia de G. nicefori Gaige, 1933. Se presenta un breve diagnóstico y comentario sobre la distribución para cada una de las especies colombianas junto con una...

  11. Blastocystis hominis: occurrence in children and staff members of municipal day-care centers from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semíramis Guimarães

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the frequency of Blastocystis hominis among healthy individuals, feces were collected from 153 children and 20 staff members of some municipal day-care centers. Three separate stool specimens of each individual were processed by Lutz and Faust methods. From 173 studied individuals, 60 (34.7% showed B. hominis, frequently in association with other intestinal parasites and/or commensals. B. hominis was found mainly in adults and children between 36 and 72 months old. All positive cases were detected only by Lutz method and the use of three stool specimens increased the positivity of the parasitological diagnostic.

  12. Making the Port of Antwerp more natural; ecological infrastructure network for the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) on the left bank of the Scheldt, Application of the LARCH model to the natterjack toad in the Port of Antwerp on the left bank of the Scheldt as basis for the sustainable conservation of the species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottburg, F.G.W.A.; Pouwels, R.; Slim, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    On the grounds of the Antwerp Port Authority, economic activities and nature co-exist in close proximity. To give nature a chance of survival, also into the future, the Port Authority, in collaboration with Natuurpunt, set itself the goal of establishing a network of ecological infrastructure. With

  13. De Antwerpse haven natuurlijker; netwerk van ecologische infrastructuur voor de rugstreeppad (Bufo calamita) op de linker Scheldeoever, Toepassing van het model LARCH op de rugstreeppad in de Antwerpse haven op de linker Scheldeoever als onderbouwing voor een duurzame instandhouding van deze soort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottburg, F.G.W.A.; Pouwels, R.; Slim, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Op de terreinen van het Gemeentelijk Havenbedrijf Antwerpen komen economische activiteiten en natuur nauw naast elkaar voor. Om deze facetten ook in de toekomst kans van voortbestaan te geven heeft het havenbedrijf in samenwerking met Natuurpunt zich ten doel gesteld om een netwerk van ecologische

  14. Comparison of five parasitological techniques for laboratory diagnosis of Balantidium coli cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alynne da Silva Barbosa

    Full Text Available Abstract Balantidium coli is a protozoon that can cause dysentery in humans, pigs and nonhuman primates, with zoonotic potential. In the literature, there is still little information on the effectiveness of different laboratory techniques for diagnosing this disease. This study compared and evaluated the performance of the Lutz, modified Ritchie, Faust, modified Sheather and direct examination techniques for detecting cysts of this protozoon. Between 2012 and 2014, 1905 fecal samples were collected from captive animals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Of these, 790 were obtained from the rectum of pigs and 1115 from enclosures occupied by nonhuman primates. B. coli cysts were most evident through direct examination (22.4% of the samples and the Lutz technique (21%. Fair agreement (Kappa = 0.41; p < 0.05 was observed only between direct examination and Lutz. The flotation techniques (Faust and modified Sheather did not show good recovery of cysts. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 in the frequency of cysts between pigs and nonhuman primates could only be observed through direct examination and the Lutz technique. The most efficient method for diagnosing this parasitosis was seen to an association between direct examination and the spontaneous sedimentation technique.

  15. Comparison of five parasitological techniques for laboratory diagnosis of Balantidium coli cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira; Uchôa, Claudia Maria Antunes; Pissinatti, Alcides; Bastos, Augusto César Machado Pereira; Souza, Igo Vieira de; Dib, Laís Verdan; Azevedo, Eduarda Peixoto; Siqueira, Mayara Perlingeiro de; Cardozo, Matheus Lessa; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2016-01-01

    Balantidium coli is a protozoon that can cause dysentery in humans, pigs and nonhuman primates, with zoonotic potential. In the literature, there is still little information on the effectiveness of different laboratory techniques for diagnosing this disease. This study compared and evaluated the performance of the Lutz, modified Ritchie, Faust, modified Sheather and direct examination techniques for detecting cysts of this protozoon. Between 2012 and 2014, 1905 fecal samples were collected from captive animals in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Of these, 790 were obtained from the rectum of pigs and 1115 from enclosures occupied by nonhuman primates. B. coli cysts were most evident through direct examination (22.4% of the samples) and the Lutz technique (21%). Fair agreement (Kappa = 0.41; p < 0.05) was observed only between direct examination and Lutz. The flotation techniques (Faust and modified Sheather) did not show good recovery of cysts. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the frequency of cysts between pigs and nonhuman primates could only be observed through direct examination and the Lutz technique. The most efficient method for diagnosing this parasitosis was seen to an association between direct examination and the spontaneous sedimentation technique.

  16. Koorekommikatla kohale kuhjuvad tõrvapilved / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Rakvere teatri uuslavastustest: Joel Chandler Harrise "Onu Remuse lood" - lavastaja Jaanika Juhanson (esietendus 5. septembril), Urs Widmeri "Top Dogs" - lavastaja Kati Kivitar (esietendus 20. septembril) ja Lutz Hübneri noortenäidend "Creeps" - lavastaja Üllar Saaremäe (esietendus 4. oktoobril)

  17. Damage by the Sitka spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) and growth patterns for 10 spruce species and hybrids over 26 years in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel G. Mitchell; Kenneth H. Wright; Norman E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Ten species and hybrids of spruce (Picea spp.) were planted and observed annually for 26 years at three coastal locations in Oregon and Washington to evaluate growth rates and susceptibility to the Sitka spruce weevil (= white pine weevil), Pissodes strobi The 10 spruce were: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Lutz spruce, black...

  18. An Industry-Perspective on BML

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    Eurocopter Lutz Bertling (CEO) Defence & Security Stefan Zoller (CEO) EADS Astrium François Auque (CEO) Coordination EADS Defence & Security EADS Astrium...ATCCIS, MIP • MAJIIC • … • National standards tend to align on multinational standards – e.g. MPIA vs JC3IEDM in France • MIP is the

  19. Survival and Growth of Tilapia zillii and Oreochromis urolepis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were fed twice daily using commercial fish feeds (White Rose floating pellets), initially at a rate of 5% of their total body weight (TBW) ... little energy to maintain its osmotic balance. (Febry & Lutz, 1987). As a result, there is a lower ... body weight using a digital balance (Cen-Tech model no: 95364) reading to 0.01 g. Survival.

  20. Old lower stem bark lesions apparently caused by unsuccessful spruce beetle attacks still evident on live spruce trees years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Hard; Ken P. Zogas

    2010-01-01

    We examined old bark lesions on Lutz spruce in young stands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to determine their cause. Distribution of these lesions along lower stems was similar to the distribution of spruce beetle attacks during epidemics. These lesions apparently resulted from unsuccessful attacks by spruce beetles during the late 1980s and early 1990s and appear to...

  1. The Measurement of Principal Rule Administration Behavior and Its Relationship to Educational Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Frank W.; Caldwell, William E.

    The theoretical and operational relevance of the school principal's rule administrative behavior is described. Lutz and Evans (1968) conducted field studies in six schools to determine if the types of rule administration identified by Gouldner (1954) had similar effects in education. Buttman-type scales were developed and utilized to determine the…

  2. Structural, vibrational, NMR, quantum chemical, DNA binding and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Smith B C 1996 In Infrared Spectral Interpretation. (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press). 31. Green J H S, Harrison D J and Kynaston W 1971. Spectrochim. Acta A 27 2199. 32. Varsanyi G 1974 In Assignments for Vibrational Spectra of Seven Hundred Benzene Derivatives. Vols. 1 and 2. (Budapest: Adam Hilger). 33. Lutz E T G ...

  3. A Developmental Approach to Characterizing the Tissue-Invasion Gene Program in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    well as novel targets for therapeutic intervention can be rapidly identified. II. BODY In the original proposal, we intended to generate cDNA libraries...induced host response. Am J. Pathol. 149:273-282, 1996. 4. Wolf, c., Rouyer, N., Lutz, Y., Adida , C., Loriot, M., Bellocq, J.P., Chambon, P., and Basset

  4. Attitude change as a function of the observation of vicarious reinforcement and friendliness

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker-Kreichgauer, Gisela

    1982-01-01

    Attitude change as a function of the observation of vicarious reinforcement and friendliness : hostility in a debate / Lutz von Rosenstiel ; Gisela Stocker- Kreichgauer. - In: Group decision making / ed. by Gisela Stocker-Kreichgauer ... - London u.a. : Acad. Press, 1982. - S. 241-255. - (European monographs in social psychology ; 25)

  5. Back-breeding the aurochs: the Heck brothers, National Socialism and imagined geographies for nonhuman Lebensraum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.; Lorimer, J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter investigates the bio-geographical imaginations behind the animal 'back-breeding' programs carried out by Lutz and Heinz Heck - two influential German zoologists who ran Berlin and Munich zoos. Partly with close connections to and patronage from the National Socialist elite, the Heck

  6. Signaling warmth: how brand warmth and symbolism affect consumers’ online brand endorsements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.F.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    In their efforts to promote their brands, products and services, advertisers often enlist endorsement by other parties, such as celebrities or experts (e.g., Biswas, Biswas, and Das, 2006; Rice, Kelting, and Lutz, 2012). Increasingly, brands and organizations are also seeking endorsement by their

  7. Lista anotada y clave de los sapos marsupiales (Anura: Hylidae: Gastrotheca de Colombia Lista anotada y clave de los sapos marsupiales (Anura: Hylidae: Gastrotheca de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duellman William E.

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Los anuros marsupiales se hallan representados en Colombia por diez y seis especies pertenecientes al género Gastrotheca. G. humbertoi  Lutz, 1977, pasa a la sinonimia de G. andaquiensis Ruiz y Hernández, 1976. G. medemi Cochran y Goin, 1970, G. nicefori descampsi Lutz y Ruiz, 1977, y G. yacambuensis Yustiz, 1978, son incluidas en la sinonimia de G. nicefori Gaige, 1933. Se presenta un breve diagnóstico y comentario sobre la distribución para cada una de las especies colombianas junto con una clave para su identificación. Marsupial frogs are represented in Colombia by sixteen species of Gastrotheca. Gastrotheca humbertoi Lutz, 1977 is placed in the synonymy of G. andaquiensis Ruiz y Hernández, 1976. G. medemi Cochran and Goin, 1970, G. nicefori descampsi Lutz and Ruiz, 1977, and G.Yacambuensis Yustiz, 1978 are placed inthesynonymy of G. nicefori Gaige, 1933. A brief diagnosis and statement of distribution are presented for each Colombian species, and a key for identification of the species is provided.

  8. A New Look at Distances and Velocities of Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Frank Verbunt

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... and more recently by Bailer-Jones (2015). Brown et al. (1997) also point out that the. Lutz–Kelker effect (Lutz & Kelker 1973) must be applied with care. In its original form, this effect is computed with the assumption that the sources are distributed homogeneously throughout space, leading to an a priori ...

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Overt hypoadrenalism is uncommon in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-05-23

    May 23, 2003 ... 15. Grinspoon S, Biller BMK. Laboratory assessment of adrenal insufficiency. J Clin Endocrinol. Metab 1994; 79:923-931. 16. Lutz A, Stojkovich M, Schmidt M, et al. Adrenocortical function in patients with macrometastases of the adrenal gland. Eur J Endocrino/2000; 143: 91-97. 17. Clifton F, Mountain MD.

  10. Vulnerability Science: A Response to a Criticism of the Ballistic Research Laboratory’s Vulnerability Modeling Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    WRDC/ AARA ATTN: Michael L. Bryant Commander Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 USAF HQ ESD/PLEA Chief, Engineering and Test Division 1 Commander ATTN...ATTN: Joe Sugrue 5 Commander Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 US Army FSTC ATTN: Greg Crawford Commander Chip Grobmeyer AFWAL/ AARA David P. Lutz ATTN

  11. Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Armstrong HG. Principles and practice of aviation medicine. Baltimore (MD): Williams & Wilkins Co.; 1939. 3. Rhoades GC. Examination of candidates for...PI-3, NEO-FFI-3, NEO PI-R. Lutz (FL): Psychological Assessment Resources; 2010. 8. King RE, Barto E, Ree MJ, Teachout MS, Retzlaff P. Compilation of

  12. Using the Fish Larvae and Egg Exposure System (FLEES) to Generate Effects Data for Informing Environmental Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Generate Effects Data for Informing Environmental Windows by Justin L. Wilkens and Burton C. Suedel PURPOSE: The Fish Larvae and Egg Exposure...response data for dredging projects where environmental windows (EW) severely restrict dredging operations (Lutz et al. 2012). This technical note...sediments from dredging activities on aquatic resources (Suedel et al. 2008). Environmental windows are most commonly established to protect

  13. Influence of Hydrodynamics on the Larval Supply to Hydrothermal Vents on the East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Distinct patterns of genetic differentiation among annelids of eastern Pacific hydrothermnal vents. Molecular Ecology, 13(9):2603-2615. [17] Jannasch, H...A. Hurtado, R. A. Lutz, and R. C. Vrijenhoek. Distinct patterns of genetic differentiation among annelids of eastern Pacific hydrotherma l vents

  14. Detection of the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Andrey N.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Charles, Kaylene M.; Nebergall, Emily E.; Olson, Deanna H.

    2014-01-01

    In a population of the European common toad Bufo bufo from a rural pond in the region of Lake Glubokoe Regional Reserve in Moscow province, Russia, unexplained mass mortality events involving larvae and metamorphs have been observed over a monitoring period of >20 yr. We tested toads from this and a nearby site for the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranavirus (Rv). Both pathogens were detected, and at the rural pond site, with the above-noted losses and decline in toad breeding success, 40% of B. bufo metamorphs were Bd positive, 46% were Rv positive and 20% were co-infected with both pathogens. Toad metamorphs from a neighbouring water body were also Bd and Rv positive (25 and 55%, respectively). This is the first confirmation of these pathogens in Russia. Questions remain as to the origins of these pathogens in Russia and their roles in documented mass mortality events.

  15. Amphibians of the Simbruini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the herpetological fauna of the Simbruini Mountains Regional Park, Latium (Central Italy. In this study, we surveyed 50 sites in the course of about ten years of field research, especially during the period 2005-2008. Nine amphibian species, four Caudata and five Anura, 60.0% out of the 15 amphibian species so far observed in Latium, were discovered in the protected area: Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus carnifex, Bombina pachypus, Bufo balearicus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina, Rana italica. Physiography of sites has been detailed together with potential threatening patterns. For each species the following topics have been discussed; ecology of sites, altitudinal distribution, phenology, sintopy. Salamandra salamandra and Bombina pachypus are at higher risk. The importance of the maintenance of artificial/natural water bodies for the conservation management of amphibian population of this territory is discussed.

  16. Haplometra cylindracea (Zeder, 1800) (Trematoda: Plagiorchiidae): variation in the dates of cercarial shedding for overwintering Galba truncatula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoles, P.; Dreyfuss, G.; Rondelaud, D.

    2011-01-01

    Natural infections of Galba truncatula with Haplometra cylindracea were followed from 2001 to 2009 to determine if their characteristics were similar when snails came from water collections frequented by Bufo bufo or by frogs and newts for their egg-laying. Snail samples were collected from both types of sites to count shed cercariae for three days and also free cercariae when snails were dissected. In sites only frequented by B. bufo, cercarial shedding occurred earlier than in those colonized by frogs and newts (March instead of April-May). In contrast, the number of cercariae shed during three successive days was significantly higher in May. This variation in the dates of cercarial shedding might be due, either to a synchronism between cercaria-releasing snails and the presence of the definitive host (tadpoles) in water collections, or to an earlier infection of overwintering snails in autumn by H. cylindracea miracidia in the case of toad-frequented sites. PMID:21678794

  17. Rediscovery of Pelobates fuscus insubricus in the Asti Province, north-western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Mercurio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The amphibians of the pond complex “Stagni di Belangero” in the Po Plain, Asti Province, have been studied. The species living in the pond are Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla intermedia, Pelobates fuscus, Rana dalmatina, Rana synklepton esculenta, Rana cf. kurtmuelleri, Triturus carnifex and Triturus vulgaris. Species composition, migration period of P. fuscus, and biometric data are provided. Relevant importance has been given to P. fuscus, since we reconfirm its presence in one of the ponds 13 years after its first finding in the area. This toad is also one of the most threatened species of amphibians in Europe and needs particular attention in order to be protected adequately.

  18. PRELIMINARY DATA CONCERNING THE HERPETOFAUNA IN NEAM COUNTY (ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin ROŞU

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In the researched area we identified 14 amphibian species: (Salamandra salamndra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus alpestris, Triturus montandoni, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Pelobates fuscus, Hyla arborea, Rana ridibunda, Rana dalmatina, Rana temporaria and 8 reptilian species (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Zootoca vivipara, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Elaphe longissima, Coronella austriaca, Vipera berus. Within the region we identified species quoted (Coglniceanu et al. 2000 to have the lowest altitudinal limit of their spreading area at much higher altitudes. The species Triturus montandoni was identified at 320 m altitude at Agârcia and Doamna. Most of the amphibian and reptilian species are not endangered in the researched area.

  19. Disproportionate distribution of field potentials across the toad's tectal visual map in response to diffuse light ON and OFF stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwippert, W W; Beneke, T W; Ewert, J P

    1996-01-01

    In toads Bufo marinus and Bufo bufo spinosus, field potentials (FPs) were recorded from the surface of the optic tectum at different sites of the visual map in response to a sudden diffuse darkening (OFF) and lightening (ON) of the visual field of the contralateral eye. The OFF and ON responses were differently pronounced or even failed to occur. The latency of the former was significantly less than the one of the latter. FP amplitudes of the OFF and ON responses were strongest in the representation of a horizonto-superior anterio-lateral portion of the visual field and weakest toward the posterior field of vision. This phenomenon suggests various interpretations for subsequent experiments.

  20. Nematodes of amphibians from Java, Indonesia, with a description of new species, Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. (Nematoda : Heterakoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2015-06-24

    During a survey on the parasites of amphibians of Indonesia, toads (30 Bufo melanostictus) and 246 frogs (213 Fejervarya cancrivora, 11 F. limnocharis, 22 Rana macrodon from West Java and 68 F. cancrivora from Central Java) were examined for parasitic nematodes. Three species of nematodes were found and described, i.e. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. from Fejervaria cancrivora; Meteterakis japonica from Bufo melanostictus, F. cancrivora and F. limnocharis; and Chabaudus sp. from F. cancrivora, F. limnocharis and Rana macrodon. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. is distinguished from other species of the genus by the length and shape of spicules, the number of caudal papillae, the presence of gubernaculum in male and the presence of vulval flap in female. Bufo melanostictus and Java are recorded as new host and locality for M. japonica, respectively.

  1. Observation of the morphological characters in slide-mounted simuliids (Diptera, Simuliidae deteriorated by age or fungus contamination Observação morfológica de caracteres de simulídeos (Diptera, Simuliidae em lâminas deterioradas pelo tempo ou pela contaminação de fungos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M.R. do Amaral

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneity of the Simuliidae family has produced several taxonomic problems along the years. The studies of Brazilian Simulium Latreille, 1802 date from the beginning of the 20th century, with species described by Kollar, Macquart, Goeldi and Lutz. Lutz's scientific collection is a historical relic of scientific relevance, since it congregates types described from Brazil. Besides its taxonomic importance, this collection can now be used as a bio indicator. However, a lot of these slide-mounted specimens could not support the effects of time, constant handling, fungus and climatic conditions that occurred over the years. The development of a slide-mounted restoration technique had therefore become necessary for specimen preservation and observation.A homogeneidade da família Simuliidae tem resultado problemas taxonômicos ao longo dos anos. Os estudos sobre Simulium Latreille, 1802 no Brasil datam do início do século XX, com espécies descritas por Kollar, Macquart, Goeldi e Lutz. A coleção de Lutz possui relevância científica e histórica, possuindo exemplares tipo descritos do Brasil. Além da importância taxonômica, a coleção de simulídeos de Lutz pode ser usada como bioindicadora. No entanto, muitas lâminas não suportaram os efeitos do tempo, constante manuseio, presença de fungos e ação das condições climáticas ao longo dos anos. O desenvolvimento de uma técnica de restauração do material preservado em lâminas fez-se necessário para melhor preservação e observação do material.

  2. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durette-Desset M.C.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region.

  3. Stool examination and rectal biopsy in the diagnosis and evaluation of therapy of schistosomiasis mansoni Exame de fezes e biópsia retal no diagnóstico e controle de cura da esquistossomose mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Teles Rabello

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available From each of a group of 217 adult males selected through enzyme-immunoassay or skin-test (Group A, six stool samples were examined by both the Lutz/Hoffman, Pons & Janer (Lutz/HPJ and Kato/Katz methods. In addition, one oogram of the rectal mucosa was performed. By these methods, schistosomiasis was detected in 44.7%, 47.5% and 40.1% of the individuals respectively. To evaluate the methods in the assessment of cure, the last 40 patients from group A, treated with a single oral dose of oxamniquine at 15 mg/kg were followed up for six months (Group B. The criteria for parasitological cure included three stool examinations by Kato/Katz and Lutz/HPJ methods, one, three and six months post-treatment and a rectal biopsy between the fourth and sixth months post-treatment. The examinations were negative in 87.5%, 90% and 95% of the patients, respectively. The efficacy of oxamniquine was 82.5% when the three methods were considered together and there was no statistically significant difference between the sensitivity of the individual methods.Em um grupo de 217 adultos do sexo masculino selecionados através de ELISA ou intradermoreação, realizaram-se seis exames de fezes pelos métodos de Lutz/Hoffman, Pons e Janer (Lutz/HPJ e Kato/Katz e um oograma da mucosa retal, observando-se positividade em 44,7%, 47,5% e 40,1%, respectivamente. A análise comparativa dos resultados mostrou: 1 aumento da sensibilidade de ambos os métodos de exames de fezes até a terceira amostra examinada; 2 maior sensibilidade da biópsia retal quando comparada ao exame de uma única amostra fecal pelos métodos de Lutz/HPJ ou Kato/Katz; 3 igual sensibilidade pelo exame de duas a cinco amostras fecais pelo método de Kato/Katz ou duas a seis amostras pelo método de Lutz/HPJ e a biópsia retal; 4 sensibilidade superior de seis amostras fecais pelo método de Kato/Katz, quando comparado à biópsia retal; 5 igual sensibilidade entre o mesmo número de amostras examinadas pelos

  4. Homeotic regeneration of eye in amphibian tadpoles and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    After removal of both the lateral eyes of external gill stage tadpoles of the toad Bufo melanostictus, the pineal organ gets transformed into a median eye. This type of transformation occurrs in ... K K Swami1 Pawan Suthar1. Developmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Dungar College, Bikaner 334 001, India ...

  5. Hexamethonium produces both twitch and tetanic depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hexamethonium, however does not produce tetanic fade at the same concentration. We hypothesized that the cholinoceptors of the neuromuscular junction of the common African toad (Bufo regularis) resemble the developing synapse of African clawed toad (Xenopus laevis) and may contain muscarinic M1 autoreceptors ...

  6. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  7. On new and little-known Frogs from the Malayan Archipelago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1883-01-01

    Being occupied with an examination of the frogs from the Malayan Archipelago in our Collections, the type-specimens of Bufo cruentatus (Schleg.) Tschudi and Hylaplesia borbonica Kuhl & v. Hass. came under my hand, and I was not a little surprised to see that the later authors believe those two

  8. The advertisement call, breeding biology, description of the tadpole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Males of Bufo dombensis were observed calling late at night at Ongongo Waterfall in north-western Namibia. The analyzed advertisement calls differ distinctly from those of B. vertebralis, B. hoeschi and B. fenoulheti, indicating that all these taxa are separate valid species. Tadpoles raised from a breeding pair found at ...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 260 ... Vol 40 (2000), Amblyomma variegatum resistance to acaricides in the Accra Plains of Ghana, Abstract. EMB Koney, G Nipah. Vol 39 (1999), Bufo regularis .... Vol 46 (2006), Day and Night noise pollution study in some major town in Delta State, Nigeria, Abstract. D Anomohanran, J E Osemeikhian.

  10. Ife, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-09

    Aug 9, 2004 ... amphibians by helminth parasites deal with their occurrence in frogs, especially Rana spp. It is no surprise therefore that relatively meager information is available on helminth fauna of Bufo regularis. However, several records of helminths have been reported in Rana spp. in several countries (Yamaguti,.

  11. The role of adrenergic receptors in nicotine-induced hyperglycemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of adrenergic receptors in nicotine-induced hyperglycaemia has not been well studied in amphibians. Thus, this study investigates the effects of alpha and beta adrenergic receptor blockers in nicotine-induced hyperglycaemia in the common African toad Bufo regularis. Toads fasted for 24 h were anaesthetized with ...

  12. Environmental Assessment for Kirtland Air Force Base Arsenic Compliance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Texas horned lizard Phrynosoma FSC cornu tum BIRDS Neotrophic Phalacrocorax ST cormorant brasilianus white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi FSC bald eagle...Bufo woodhousii), New Mexico spadefoot (Spea multiplicata), coachwhip snake (Masticophis flagellum), whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus spp.), lesser...earless lizard (Holbrookia maculata), and the western rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis). Several of these species have extensive periods of dormancy during

  13. Effects of Petrol Exposure on Glucose, Liver and Muscle glycogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to petrol on blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen levels in the common African toad Bufo regularis. A total of 126 adult toads of either sex weighing between 70-100g were used for this study. The experiment was divided into three phases. The phase 1 experiment the acute ...

  14. The status and relationships of some East African Earless Toads (Anura, Bufonidae) with a description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grandison, A.G.C.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In comparing some small Ethiopian Bufo with the descriptions, types and other examples of numerous forms from East and Central African countries I became very much aware of the confusion that exists in the taxonomy and of the need for a revision of this group of dwarf toads. Most of the

  15. Herpetological Notes X - XII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brongersma, L.D.

    1935-01-01

    X. NOTES ON THE NEWLY DESCRIBED GENUS CACOPHRYNE DAVIS Recently Davis (1935) pointed out that the toad known in literature as Bufo borbonicus (Tschudi) or Nectophryne borbonica (Tschudi) does not belong to either of these genera, and that it even does not belong to the Bufonidae, for the species

  16. On the distribution of Bidder's organ in Bufonids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, R.

    1947-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that Bidder's organ is an undeveloped ovary. It is found in all adult male and in many adult female as well as in all juvenile male and female specimens of Bufo-species, and it is situated between the fatbody and the gonad. The fact that Bidder's organ is a potential ovary is

  17. Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol – induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to determine the influence of nitric oxide (NO) on the action of histamine and carbachol on acid secretion in the common African toad – Bufo regularis. Gastric acidity was determined by titration method. The acid secretion was determined when nitric oxide was absent following administration of NO synthase ...

  18. Life Histories of Frogs in the Namib Desert | Channing | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large runoff surfaces collect the low rainfall (25 mm per year) in depressions in which the frogs breed. Phrynomerus is only active at night; males are aggressive towards one another; oviposition takes place in deep pools and development takes at least eight weeks. Bufo is active during the heat of the day; oviposition takes ...

  19. Habitat suitability of patch types: A case study of the Yosemite toad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina T. Liang; Thomas J. Stohlgren

    2011-01-01

    Understanding patch variability is crucial in understanding the spatial population structure of wildlife species, especially for rare or threatened species.We used a well-tested maximum entropy species distribution model (Maxent) to map the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (= Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra Nevada...

  20. Drug: D00595 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available diabetics Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] A ALIMENTARY TRACT AND METABOLISM A10 DRUGS USED IN DIABE...TES A10B BLOOD GLUCOSE LOWERING DRUGS, EXCL. INSULINS A10BA Biguanides A10BA03 Bufo

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alada, ARA. Vol 20, No 1 (2005) - Articles Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol – induced gastric acid secretion in the common African toad – Bufo regularis. Abstract PDF · Vol 24, No 1 (2009) - Articles Effects Of Caffeine And Ethanolic Extract Of Kolanut On Glucose Uptake In The Canine Hindlimb At Rest ...

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salahdeen, HM. Vol 20, No 1 (2005) - Articles Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol – induced gastric acid secretion in the common African toad – Bufo regularis. Abstract PDF · Vol 24, No 1 (2009) - Articles Effects Of Caffeine And Ethanolic Extract Of Kolanut On Glucose Uptake In The Canine Hindlimb At ...

  3. On a new species of toad from southern Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1972-01-01

    A new species of toad, related with Bufo calamita Laurenti and B. viridis Laurenti, is described from the southern part of Morocco. Combining the data of the available specimens with literature records it was established that the new species probably ranges from the Sous valley southwards to Cape

  4. Department oJZoology. University oJTexas bufonids Schismaderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perhaps the acoustical similarity is a result of convergence. The. Type I call is known in only four species of Bufo that occur outside Mrica - B. hufo and B. calamita of Eurasia, and B. crucifer and B. blombergi of South America. The South American leptodactylid species Odontophrynus americanus also has this call type.

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 275 of 1840 ... Vol 17, No 3 (1982), Article Syndactyly in Bufo maculatus Hallowell (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae), Abstract PDF. A.J.L. Lambiris. Vol 39, No 1 (2004), Aseasonal reproduction in the Hottentot golden mole, Amblysomus hottentotus (Afrosoricida: Chrysochloridae) from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa ...

  6. Anura: Bufonidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syndactyly in Bufo maculatus Hallowell (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae). A.J.L. Lambiris. Harare, Zimbabwe. Syndactyly in five specimens of Buto maculatus, all from a small area 25 km west of Harare, Zimbabwe, is described. In three cases only one pair of digits was involved (two of the hand, one of the foot); in a fourth, two ...

  7. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pp 577-581 Brief communication. Homeotic regeneration of eye in amphibian tadpoles and its enhancement by vitamin A · O P Jangir D V S Shekhawat Acharya Prakash K K Swami Pawan Suthar · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. After removal of both the lateral eyes of external gill stage tadpoles of the toad Bufo ...

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Idolor, GO. Vol 20, No 1 (2005) - Articles Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol – induced gastric acid secretion in the common African toad – Bufo regularis. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0794-859X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  9. Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    subsystems/activities and the corresponding information ex- change and dependency patterns. Domain mapping matrices (DMMs) augment DSM analyses and can...Diaz-Pace, Charles Weinstock, and Lutz Wrage 4.1 Purpose Cyber-physical systems are characterized by the tight conjoint of and coordination between...allowing component-level analyses to be conducted, the analyzed components to be assembled together according to specific rules, and the analyses

  10. Discovery of an Exotic Population of Thereuonema tuberculata (Chilopoda:Scutigeromorpha), the Japanese House Centipede, in Ohio, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    ethanol precipitation. Sequences were determined using an ABI 3100 capillary sequencer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, California), by DNA Analysis, LLC...means that identifications of S. coleoptera without careful examination are suspect . The only reason this population was detected was an accident while...centipedes (Myriapoda : Chilopoda). Invert. Syst., 20:503–525. FOLMER O., M. BLACK, W. HOEH, R. LUTZ, AND R. VRIJENHOEK. 1994. DNA primers for amplification of

  11. Effects of Children on Divorce Probabilities and of Divorce on Fertility: The Case of Finland 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Lutz

    1991-01-01

    As a follow-up to a recent paper (The Demographic Dimensions of Divorce: The Case of Finland, by W. Lutz, A.B. Wils, and M. Nieminen, in "Population Studies" 1991), this study looks explicitly at the interactions between childbearing and divorce. Specifically, the study looks at the effects of parity and age of the youngest child on divorce probabilities controlling duration of marriage, and the effect of marital status and the duration since divorce on parity-specific birth probabilities. Ge...

  12. New records of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) for Santa Catarina and Paraná (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Müller,Gerson Azulim; Kuwabara,Eduardo Fumio; Duque, Jonny Edward; Navarro-Silva,Mario Antônio; Marcondes,Carlos Brisola

    2008-01-01

    We provide eight new mosquito species records for Santa Catarina (Limatus flavisetosus Oliveira Castro 1935, Mansonia flaveola (Coquillett 1906), Ma. titillans (Walker 1848), Psorophora forceps Cerqueira 1939, Sabethes xyphydes Harbach 1994, Toxorhynchites bambusicolus (Lutz & Neiva 1913), Tx. theobaldi (Dyar & Knab 1906) and Wyeomyia lassalli Bonne-Wepster & Bonne 1921) and three for Paraná (Ochlerotatus argyrothorax Bonne-Wepster & Bonne 1920, Uranotaenia pallidoventer Theobald 1903 and Wye...

  13. Extracellular Matrix Induced Integrin Signal Transduction and Breast Cancer Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    were shown to express matrilysin; a MMP that is primarily expressed in normal and neoplastic cells of epithelial origin . Stromelysin-1 was induced in...phenotypes. This area of research was not proposed in the original fellowship but it complements the information obtained from the in vitro tissue culture...metalloproteinase with potentially novel functions. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology In Press: Wolf C, Rouyer N, Lutz Y, Adida C, Loriot M

  14. Digenean parasites of Ciconiiform birds from Argentina Digéneos parásitos de aves Ciconiiformes de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana B. Drago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The helminthological survey of 13 specimens of 5 ciconiiform species revealed the presence of 10 species of intestinal digeneans: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 in Tigrisoma lineatum and Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 in T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 and Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi and Drago, 2006 in Ardea cocoi and Ardea alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 in A. alba and T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard and Haviland, 1924 in A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 in A. cocoi and Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 and Petasiger sp. 2 in Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix was free of digeneans. The reports of A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum and D. lacombeensis represent new host records; the other reports are new geographical records. Moreover, the specimens described as Apharyngostrigea brasiliana Szidat, 1929 by Labriola and Suriano (1998 were analyzed and transferred to A. ardearum.El estudio parasitológico de 13 ejemplares pertenecientes a 5 especies de aves Ciconiiformes reveló la presencia de 10 especies de digéneos intestinales: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 en Tigrisoma lineatum y Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 en T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 y Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi y Drago, 2006 en Ardea cocoi y A. alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 en A. alba y T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard y Haviland, 1924 en A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 en A. cocoi y Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 y Petasiger sp. 2 en Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix no se encontró parasitada por digéneos. El presente estudio aporta nuevos registros de hospedadores para A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum y D. lacombeensis y nuevos registros geográficos para las restantes especies. Además, los organismos descritos como Apharyngostrigea brasiliana

  15. Uncertainty analysis of complex hydro-biogeochemical models

    OpenAIRE

    Houska, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is about complex hydro-biogeochemical models and their practical applications. Several modelling practices and their associated uncertainty are investigated in this joined project of the working groups of Prof. Dr. Lutz Breuer, Justus Liebig University Giessen, and Prof. Dr. Klaus Butterbach-Bahl at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The aim of the project is to develop strategies for reducing the climate footprint of agricultural production and to quantify uncertainties of model-...

  16. Pacific Pediatric Advanced Care Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    granted privileges to provide routine and emergency clinical care for infant patients on ECLS. This includes 12 Neonatal physicians and 6 Pediatric...Education trainees, and to develop research interests of residents and staff of Tripler Army Medical Center’s Department of Surgery. Results were...septic shock in military clinical practice. References DeVita MA, Schaefer J, Lutz J, et al. Improving medical emergency team (MET) performance

  17. CRAYFISH PREDATION ON TADPOLES : A COMPARISON BETWEEN A NATIVE (AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES AND AN ALIEN SPECIES (PROCAMBARUS CLARKII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHERARDI F.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In the laboratory, the motivation and/or ability to prey on anuran larvae (Bufo bufo, Rana kl. esculenta and R. italica were compared between a native European (Austropotamobius pallipes and an alien North American crayfish species (Procambarus clarkii. Both were skilled predators of tadpoles, adopting a sit-and-wait strategy. However, because P. clarkii displayed lower latency times in the presence of one of the three amphibians (Rana kl. esculenta here tested, the hypothesis is raised that invasive crayfish are more opportunistic predators and possibly faster in switching to different prey than those species they are displacing. From a conservation perspective, these preliminary results further emphasise the importance of studies centred on the invasion-displacement dichotomy.

  18. Resting respiratory behavior in minimally instrumented toads - effects of very long apneas on blood gases and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Coelho

    Full Text Available Resting respiratory behavior of Bufo marinus in minimally instrumented toads is described for a period of 24 hours in which the animals are left undisturbed. Torpor-related long apneas are described and their implications for blood gas levels are investigated. Results show that the resting ventilation rate of Bufo marinus is much lower than that reported so far. Levels of arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH are monitored during artificial long apneas induced by anesthesia. The toads showed an unexpected ability to unload carbon dioxide by non-respiratory means, even while being kept on dry plastic box with no access to water. Oxygen arterial partial pressure dropped to very low levels after one hour of apnea. This suggests that these animals may endure very well severe hypoxia for long periods of time while in torpor.

  19. Resting respiratory behavior in minimally instrumented toads - effects of very long apneas on blood gases and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho F. C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting respiratory behavior of Bufo marinus in minimally instrumented toads is described for a period of 24 hours in which the animals are left undisturbed. Torpor-related long apneas are described and their implications for blood gas levels are investigated. Results show that the resting ventilation rate of Bufo marinus is much lower than that reported so far. Levels of arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH are monitored during artificial long apneas induced by anesthesia. The toads showed an unexpected ability to unload carbon dioxide by non-respiratory means, even while being kept on dry plastic box with no access to water. Oxygen arterial partial pressure dropped to very low levels after one hour of apnea. This suggests that these animals may endure very well severe hypoxia for long periods of time while in torpor.

  20. The role of common toads in the winter diet of recolonising Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García-Díaz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Importanza del rospo comune nella dieta invernale di una popolazione di lontra (Lutra lutra in espansione.
    Tramite analisi dei resti fecali, abbiamo evidenziato il ruolo fondamentale degli anfibi nella dieta invernale della lontra Lutra lutra in stagni artificiali della Spagna nord-occidentale. I numerosi “laghi di cava” presenti nell’area umida di Ribeiras do Louro e Gandaras de Budiño sono stati monitorati nel 2007-2009. Il rospo comune (Bufo bufo era la principale preda della lontra, costituendo l’88% della biomassa consumata, mentre il gambero americano Procambarus clarkii e i pesci erano prede secondarie. I nostri risultati contrastano con la ben nota preferenza della lontra per le rane rispetto al rospo. Il mantenimento della popolazione di lontra nel bacino del fiume Louro dipende strettamente dalla corretta gestione degli stagni artificiali.

  1. Amphibians of the Aurunci Mountains (Latium, Central Italy. Checklist and conservation guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aurunci Mounts are among the less investigated areas of Latium for herpetological researches. In this study we surveyed 72 potential breeding sites of amphibians within the Monti Aurunci Regional Park. Fifty-eight spawning sites, and nine amphibian species (64.3% out the 14 amphibian species living in Latium region have been found. Green toad and European tree frog were recorded for the first time for the Aurunci Mounts. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandrina perspicillata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton vulgaris, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Pseudopidalea viridis, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica and Rana synklepton hispanica. Unexpectedly, no amphibian species has been recorded within the Monte Redentore (pSIC IT6040027, despite this site was included within the Natura 2000 network also basing on the presence of Triturus carnifex.

  2. Amphibians of the “Cilento e Vallo di Diano” National Park (Campania, Southern Italy: updated check list, distribution and conservation notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the results of our field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park (Southern Italy. Two hundred and thirty three spawning sites (167 original and 66 derived from literature, and 11 amphibian species were found. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina terdigitata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica, Rana dalmatina and Pelophylax synkl. hispanica. The distribution record of many species is widely improved with respect to bibliographic data. Our results also suggested that preservation and restoration of small aquatic sites, in particular of the artificial ones, such as stony wells and drinking-troughs, are fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibians in the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park.

  3. Lack of significant changes in the herpetofauna of Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, since the 1920s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, B.R.; Corn, P.S.; Pilliod, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    We surveyed 88 upland wetlands and 12 1-km river sections for amphibians in Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, during 2001–2002 to gather baseline data for future monitoring efforts and to evaluate changes in the distribution of species. We compared our results to collections of herpetofauna made during 1920–1922, 1954 and 1978–1979. The boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata) was the most common amphibian in upland wetlands, followed by the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), Woodhouse's toad (Bufo woodhousii), northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens), plains spadefoot (Spea bombifrons) and the Great Plains toad (B. cognatus). Bufo woodhousii was the only species that bred in the river. Our records for reptiles are less complete than for amphibians but no losses from the community are evident. The herpetofauna in Theodore Roosevelt National Park seems unchanged during at least the last half-century and likely since 1920–1922.

  4. The effects of low-dose irradiation on the development of amphibia. Auswirkungen schwacher Strahlendosen auf die Entwicklung von Amphibien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloft, W.J.; Giannetti, M.; Gruschwitz, M.; Strick, H.; Urmetz, S.

    1990-01-01

    During the first phase of the study, which lasted from 1983 until 1985, attention was focused on changes in the the general development of Bufo bufo and, to permit more detailed appraisal, those in the formation of the visual and nervous systems that occurred as a result of exposure to cobalt-60. Starting out from the observations and experiences made during the initial study period further research work was carried out between 1986 and 1989 to develop a bioindicator model in Xenopus laevis that leads to reliable, rapid and specific results in the detection of harmful radioactive substances. These are obtained on the basis of biochemical, haematologic and serologic methods of investigation. (orig./MG).

  5. Miniaturized Bioaffinity Assessment Coupled to Mass Spectrometry for Guided Purification of Bioactives from Toad and Cone Snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Heus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A nano-flow high-resolution screening platform, featuring a parallel chip-based microfluidic bioassay and mass spectrometry coupled to nano-liquid chromatography, was applied to screen animal venoms for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor like (nAChR affinity by using the acetylcholine binding protein, a mimic of the nAChR. The potential of this microfluidic platform is demonstrated by profiling the Conus textile venom proteome, consisting of over 1,000 peptides. Within one analysis (<90 min, 500 ng venom injected, ligands are detected and identified. To show applicability for non-peptides, small molecular ligands such as steroidal ligands were identified in skin secretions from two toad species (Bufo alvarius and Bufo marinus. Bioactives from the toad samples were subsequently isolated by MS-guided fractionation. The fractions analyzed by NMR and a radioligand binding assay with α7-nAChR confirmed the identity and bioactivity of several new ligands.

  6. Farmed areas predict the distribution of amphibian ponds in a traditional rural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Tibor; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i) to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii) to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo). Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking) and Bufo bufo in fishponds. Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes.

  7. Preliminary Survey on Parasites Infecting Some Amphibian and Reptilian Species from United Arab Emirates and Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Kardousha, Mahmoud M. [محمود محمود محمد كردوشة

    2002-01-01

    The common amphibian toad Bufo orientalis and four species of reptiles (Scincus muscatensis, Mabuya brevicolis, Uromastyx microlepis and Diplometopon zarudnyi) were collected from five localities in the United Arab Emirates and Qatar (The north eastern of Arabian Peninsula) and examined for parasites. Two protozoans, Haemogregarina sp. and Trypanosoma sp.; one digenean species, Paradistomoides magnum, two cestode species, Nematotaenia dispar and Oochoristica najdei; and three nematode species...

  8. Farmed areas predict the distribution of amphibian ponds in a traditional rural landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Hartel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo. Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking and Bufo bufo in fishponds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes.

  9. Interleukin 1 in oviductal tissues of viviparous, oviparous, and ovuliparous species of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantra, Silke; Bigliardi, Elisa; Brizzi, Rossana; Ietta, Francesca; Bechi, Nicoletta; Paulesu, Luana

    2007-06-01

    In previous reports, we have shown that interleukin 1 (IL1), a cytokine associated with implantation in mice, is also expressed in reproductive tissues of viviparous squamate reptiles and cartilaginous fishes. In the present study, we investigated the expression of IL1B and its functional membrane receptor type I (IL1R1) in amphibians, a class of vertebrates that is characterized by different reproductive modes, including internal and external fertilization. In particular, we investigated the oviductal tissues of the aplacental viviparous Salamandra lanzai, the oviparous Triturus carnifex, and the ovuliparous Bufo bufo. In immunohistochemistry with anti-human IL1B and IL1R1 polyclonal antibodies we found that in S. lanzai, most cells in the uterine mucosa were immunoreactive for IL1B and IL1R1. In T. carnifex, IL1B and IL1R1 were present in ciliated luminal cells, and there was evidence of IL1B in glandular cells. In B. bufo, the expression of IL1B and IL1R1 was limited to the apical cytoplasm of the ciliated oviductal cells. Western blot analysis showed that a putative mature form of IL1B, similar to that seen in mammals, was present in the oviductal tissues of S. lanzai, whereas different forms, which probably correspond to an inactive pro-IL1B protein, were found in T. carnifex and B. bufo. A band that corresponded to the predicted 80-kDa human IL1R1 was found in S. lanzai and T. carnifex. Although the present study shows that IL1B and IL1R1 expression occurs in all reproductive modes, the differential expression patterns noted between ovuliparity and oviparity and viviparity may reflect the different roles of IL1 in the various reproductive modes.

  10. Final Environmental Assessment for High Altitude Mobile Pointing Platform Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-22

    undersides from the gray sides. Ears are slightly tufted in the winter and :he tail is bush~·- Diet prim;;.rily conifer seeds. Navajo sedge Garex... salamander tigrinum stebbfnsi with light-co lored bands on a Cruz impounded cienegas in slope of the Patagonia and Huachuca dar11; background. Aquatic San...toad Bufo boreas boreas Amphibian Species of Concern Rio Arriba. Jemez Mountains salamander Plethodon neomexicanus Amphibian Species of Concern

  11. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    de Importancia Veterinaria . São Paulo, Brazil: Pleiade–FAPESP. Hoogstraal, H. (1985). Argasid and nuttalliellid ticks as parasites and vectors...Parasitologı́a Veterinaria . Jakowska, S. (1972). Lesions produced by ticks, Amblyomma dissimile, in Bufo marinus toads from the Dominican Republic. American...A. A. (1990). La distribución geográfica de Amblyomma cajennense Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) en Argentina. Veterinaria Argentina, 7

  12. Archaeological Testing and Survey: Testing of Three Sites and Survey of a Road Detour within Proposed Project Construction Zones, Burlington Dam Flood Control Project Area, Upper Souris River, North Dakota,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Reptilia common to Ward and Renville Counties. Selected species include toads (Bufo pE.), the plains garter snake (Thamnophis radix) and the tiger...jWaste Flake Terminology Flake class is concerned with the identification and association of lithic debitage with various stages of modification of the...levels of the unit are indi- cative of the extreme compaction of the soil. The soils are classed in the Ludden series, characterized as deep, poorly

  13. Lack of bufadienolides in the skin secretion of red bellied toads, Melanophryniscus spp. (Anura, Bufonidae), from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, Dietrich; Wagner, Moritz G; Pogoda, Werner; Maneyro, Raul; Kwet, Axel; Kauert, Gerold

    2007-01-01

    The South-American red bellied toads (Melanophryniscus spp.) belonging to the Bufonidae family contain toxic alkaloids in their skin, predominantly of the pumiliotoxin group. Whole animal methanolic extracts of individual specimens of three species (Melanophryniscus atroluteus, M. devincenzii, and M. montevidensis) were analyzed for the presence of toad specific bufadienolides and indolalkylamines (serotonin derivatives) by HPLC-electrospray (ESI)-MS-TOF. No bufadienolides, but few bufotenines, mainly dehydrobufotenine, were detected in the extracts in variable amounts. The concentration of the dehydrobufotenine in the extracts seems to be species specific. Whereas M. atroluteus and M. montevidensis contain very low or trace amounts, M. devincenzii specimens exhibit high concentrations of this indolalkylamine. In comparison, analysis of extracts from Bufo arenarum (Uruguay) and from B. bufo (Germany) confirmed the presence of bufadienolides as well as of bufotenine derivatives. Tadpoles of both species exhibited a different pattern: extracts from B. arenarum tadpoles contained only dehydrobufotenine, but those from B. bufo tadpoles bufotoxin and two alkylamines. Melanophryniscus toads appear not to be able to compensate the high variability of toxic skin alkaloids by producing defensive bufadienolides.

  14. Quantitative recommendations for amphibian terrestrial habitat conservation derived from habitat selection behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indermaur, Lukas; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2011-10-01

    Conservation scientists have noted that conservation managers rarely use scientific information when making decisions. One of the reasons why managers rarely use scientific information may be that conservation scientists rarely provide their knowledge in a way that can directly be used by conservation practitioners. Here we show how quantitative recommendations for conservation can be derived. Previous research on terrestrial habitat selection behavior of toads (Bufo bufo and Bufo viridis) showed that wood deposits are a key resource in the terrestrial habitat. We used habitat-dependence analysis to estimate the amount of this key resource, wood deposits, that individual toads require. Based on these estimates we then quantify the requirements for wood deposits for a population. Additionally, we quantified the area that a population requires. Although wood deposits vary strongly in size, we found little evidence for size preferences: only one species preferred smallest sizes of wood deposits. We report all the estimates in a way that can be directly used by conservation managers. Habitat-dependence analysis is a simple and useful tool to quantify habitat requirements. Provisioning of wood deposits may improve the quality of terrestrial habitat for amphibians. Thereby, managers may increase the carrying capacity of terrestrial habitats and support elevated population densities.

  15. Standardize or Diversify Experimental Conditions in Ecotoxicology? A Case Study on Herbicide Toxicity to Larvae of Two Anuran Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, Zsanett; Ujszegi, János; Gál, Zoltán; Hettyey, Attila

    2017-11-01

    Despite a steeply increasing number of ecotoxicological studies on the effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms, studies assessing the adequacy and reliability of different experimental approaches have remained scarce. We scrutinized effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on larvae of two European anuran amphibians by estimating species-specific LC50 values, assessing how an additional stress factor may influence outcomes, and investigating whether replicate experiments yielded qualitatively the same results. We exposed Rana dalmatina and Bufo bufo tadpoles to two predator treatments (no predator vs. predator chemical cues) combined with varying herbicide concentrations, repeated the experiment with a subset of the experimental treatments and partly with slight modifications 1 week later and assessed survival. Our results indicated that the herbicide was moderately toxic to tadpoles. The presence of predator chemical cues did not affect the lethality of the herbicide in either species. The estimated sensitivity of R. dalmatina tadpoles varied considerably across experiments, whereas in case of B. bufo LC50 values remained very similar. Our results suggest that differences in the experimental setup may often have no influence on the measured effects of pesticides, whereas replicated experiments can deliver widely differing results in other cases, perhaps depending on the studied species, the population origin of the tested individuals, or the test conditions. This draws attention to the suggestion that strict standardization may not deliver widely applicable insights into the toxicity of contaminants and, instead, intentionally introducing variation into the design of ecotoxicological experiments and replicating entire experiments may prove highly beneficial.

  16. Assessing the Influence of the Automobile Traffic on the Amphibians and Reptiles in the Buffer Zone of Biosphere Reserve “Srebarna” (NE Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelin A. Mollov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently the problem of the effects of the road network and traffic on the amphibians and reptiles in Bulgaria is poorly studied. During the period March 2002 - March 2004 in the Buffer Zone of Biosphere Reserve "Srebarna" (NE Bulgaria were built two anti-fire roads from the eastern and western side of the lake in area of grasslands of semi-steppe type, typical for north-eastern Bulgaria. The aim of the constructed roads is to provide access for fire vehicles to areas in and around the reserve. The current study aims to provide data on the impact of road traffic and the newly constructed road network and another previously existing road on the amphibians and reptiles inhabiting the buffer zone of the biosphere reserve "Srebarna". For the entire period of study in the three studied road sections a total of 15 dead specimens of amphibians belonging to 4 species (Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis and 70 dead specimens of reptiles belonging to 8 species (Emys orbicularis, Ablepharus kitaibelii, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis tauricus, Podarcis muralis, Natrix natrix, Coronella austriaca and Dolichophis caspius were recorded. Several “hot spots”, where most cadavers were recorded are well described and possible conservation measures are discussed.

  17. Incidencia de los atropellos sobre la fauna vertebrada en el Valle de El Paular. LIC "Cuenca del río Lozoya y Sierra Norte"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESPINOSA, A., SERRANO, J.A., MONTORI, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las carreteras son uno de los agentes antrópicos de cambio más importantes. Son uno de los más relevantes agentes de fragmentación de hábitat, transformación de los sistemas naturales y actúan como un depredador inespecífico sobre la fauna. Varios estudios han demostrado que son la principal causa de mortalidad de anfibios, como es el caso del sapo común Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758 en España. En un estudio previo realizado en la zona se puso de manifiesto que la mayor incidencia de los atropellos se producía sobre dos especies: Bufo calamita Laurenti, 1768 y Bufo bufo. Para analizar la situación actual y ampliar el área de estudio se seleccionaron 13 tramos de 1 km en las carreteras M-604 y M-611 localizadas en el LIC del Alto Lozoya (Sistema Central, Península Ibérica. Cada segmento prospectado se recorrió a pie en ambos sentidos tres veces al mes, durante dos años, desde marzo de 2009 (934 muestreos. Los transectos se caracterizaron considerando las variables: altitud de inicio y final, cobertura arbórea (para una franja de 20 m a ambos lados de la carretera, grado de humanización (muy bajo, bajo, medio y vegetación dominante. Las visitas a los tramos se realizaron con un intervalo promedio de 9 días, tiempo suficiente para que no existieran observaciones repetidas. Además, los ejemplares atropellados detectados eran retirados de la calzada cuando esto era posible. Se han registrado un total de 632 vertebrados muertos en la calzada que se distribuyen por grupos en 123 anfibios, 160 reptiles, 191 aves y 80 mamíferos de 4, 14, 26 y 12 especies distintas, respectivamente. No se han encontrado diferencias en el número de atropellos según el día de la semana, pero sí existen claras diferencias en la distribución de los atropellos a lo largo del año. Sólo dos variables ambientales muestran diferencias significativas según el grupo: el grado de humanización y el hábitat. Sin embargo, el test PostHoc de Bonferroni indica

  18. Emoções e guerras: da Micronésia às bases militares americanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Saraiva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Lutz tem um PhD em antropologia cultural da Universidade de Harvard, é professora do Departamento de Antropologia da Brown University, e investigadora do Watson Institute for International Studies da mesma universidade. Os seus temas de pesquisa debruçam-se sobre a antropologia das emoções, construção do género e da noção de raça, teoria crítica, mudanças na democracia e, mais recentemente, guerra, grupos militares e sociedade, nomeadamente através do estudo de bases militares americanas e do retorno de militares americanos dissidentes da guerra do Iraque. Lutz conduziu igualmente pesquisa para organizações activistas e todas estas temáticas se relacionam com a vontade de compreender as articulações socais e culturais das construções de poder e de desigualdade. Algumas das suas obras, influentes no campo da antropologia das emoções, da antropologia cognitiva e da história política são Unnatural Emotions: Everyday Sentiments on a Micronesian Atoll and their Challenge to Western Theory; Language and the Politics of Emotion(com Abu-Lughod; Reading National Geographic; Homefront: a Military City and the American 20th Century; Local Democracy under Siege: Activism, Public Interests, and Private Politics; The Bases of the Empire. The Struggle against US Military Posts, além de vários artigos como "Empire is in the details" e "Making war at home in the United States: militarization and the current crisis". Nesta entrevista Lutz fala sobre o que tem sido o seu trabalho e as suas preocupações académicas mas também sociais e interventivas.

  19. SU-E-T-48: Automated Quality Assurance for XML Controlled Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, G; Morin, O; Pouliot, J; Chuang, C [UC San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To automate routine imaging QA procedures so that complying with TG 142 and TG 179 can be efficient and reliable. Methods: Two QA tests for a True Beam Linac were automatized. A Winston Lutz test as described by Lutz et al{sup 1} using the Winston Lutz test kit from BrainLab, Germany and a CBCT Image Quality test as described in TG 179 using the EMMA phantom, Siemens Medical Physics, Germany were performed in our True Beam. For each QA procedure tested, a 3 step paradigm was used. First, the data was automatically acquired using True Beam Developer Mode and XML scripting. Second, the data acquired in the first step was automatically processed using in-home grown Matlab GUIs. Third, Machine Learning algorithms were used to automatically classify the processed data and reports generated. Results: The Winston Luzt test could be performed by an experienced medical physicist in 29.0 ± 8.0 min. The same test, if automated using our paradigm, could be performed in 3.0 ± 0.1 min. In the same lieu, time could be substantially saved for image quality tests. In this case, the amount of time saved will depend on the phantoms used and the initial localization method. Additionally, machine learning algorithms could automatically identify the roots of the problems if any and possibly help reduce machine down time. Conclusion: Modern linear accelerators are equipped with advanced 2D and 3D imaging that are used for patient alignment substantially improving IGRT protocols. However, this extra complexity exponentially increases the number of QA tests needed. Using the new paradigm described above, not only bare minimum but best practice QA programs could be implemented with the same manpower. This work is supported by Varian, Palo Alto, CA.

  20. Internationale Arbeitsbeziehungen in deutschen Privathaushalten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Reißmann

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Helma Lutz stellt in ihrem Buch die Ergebnisse einer qualitativen Studie über Haushaltsarbeit von Migrant/-innen dar. Sie bietet einen guten Überblick über geschlechter- und migrationspolitische Diskussionen, die im Zusammenhang mit unregulierter, von Migrant/-innen ausgeübter Erwerbsarbeit in deutschen Privathaushalten relevant sind. Außerdem gewährt sie interessante Einblicke in die komplexen Aushandlungsprozesse, die bezüglich Arbeitsinhalten und -beziehungen in diesem Bereich zwischen Arbeitgeber/-innen und Arbeitnehmer/-innen stattfinden. Leider werden dabei die strukturelle Ungleichheit und das Machtgefälle zwischen den beiden Parteien stark unterbewertet und arbeitsrechtliche Belange ausgeblendet.

  1. Learning Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Google and YouTube use Python because it's highly adaptable, easy to maintain, and allows for rapid development. If you want to write high-quality, efficient code that's easily integrated with other languages and tools, this hands-on book will help you be productive with Python quickly -- whether you're new to programming or just new to Python. It's an easy-to-follow self-paced tutorial, based on author and Python expert Mark Lutz's popular training course. Each chapter contains a stand-alone lesson on a key component of the language, and includes a unique Test Your Knowledge section with p

  2. Das politische Gewicht der Bilder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahra Dornick

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Lutz Hieber und Paula-Irene Villa setzen sich sowohl aus soziologischer als auch aus kulturwissenschaftlicher und politischer Perspektive mit der Historie und Aktualität von Queer Theory auseinander. Grundlegende theoretische Debatten und Denkfiguren wie Postmodernismus, Feminismus in der Postmoderne oder auch Kritik von Identität und Normalisierung werden anschaulich dargestellt. Gleichzeitig werden gewinnbringende Akzente in Form von Analysen verschiedener Praxen von Politik, wie etwa der Politisierung von Kunst, gesetzt. Insgesamt werden auf gelungene Weise erstens spezifische Begriffe der Queer Theory in ihre jeweiligen Kontexte eingeordnet und erläutert und zweitens spezifische Formen und Möglichkeiten politischer Praxis dargelegt.

  3. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste) Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  4. Design Evolution of a Fighter Training Scheduling Decision Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Minear Miller Minear 0845 Prederick/ Heart 0815 Homer Adams 1215 Lutz Charpy 1145 Paix/ Valusek * Briand Schoek Conors Evert 1345 Shiramago/ Fella...BK-C 408 0 555 855 1 585 605 B E-i BK-C 407 0 570 870 1 580 810 SA B-i OSC 408 0 570 870 1 580 810 SA B-I OSC 409 0 570 870 1 580 810 SA B-i OSC 410 0...are necessary to interpret the problem fully and understand it’s impact on both the decision and the environment. Through successive interviews and

  5. Anfíbios Anuros do Distrito Federal The Frogs of the Federal District of Brazil

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    Bertha Lutz

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available The frogs of the Federal District of Brazil are listed and discussed as to habit, biology and ecology. The F. D is situated 22° 54' 24" S. & 43° 10' 21" W Gr. and comprises 1.356 km². Its topography includes sea-shore, maritime scrub, lagoons, plains and marsh, open slopes, forested mountains and great heads of rock. Three thousand feet of altitude are attained at two points. Fifty two different frogs occur in the F.D. Three fifths of them live in open country. Two fifths of these have never been found above the plains; the others range higher but mostly in open country. Their environment offers conditions suitable for average tadpoles and adults. these frogs are more or less unspecialized. There are six genera and thirty species. Two thirds of the latter belong to the type genera of the large neotropical families Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae and Hylidae. Only in the maritime scrub formation are conditions somewhat different. Water for average tadpoles is provided by the lagoons. The xerophytism of the vegetation is, however, so marked that bromeliads growing on the ground provide almost the only appropriate shelter for adult tree-frogs used to sleeping upright on the vegetation. One large Hylid genus lives entirely in them. It is casque-headed and phragmotic, shutting the lumen of the leaf-cup with head used as a plug. Another large Hylid genus shows a lesser degree of the same specialization. (Lutz A & Lutz B, 1939 II. One genus with two species is entirely saxicolous; it lives on wet ledges of rock at all phases of its life history. (B. Lutz 1948. The other two fifths of the frogs from F. D. are montane forest forms. Their environment offers numerous and varied biotopes and is near optimum for adults. There is,however, hardly any standing water available for larvae. These frogs are ecologically diversified. They also show a general trend towards spawning in the adult biotipe, which leads to delayed hatching, semi-aquatic and terrestrial

  6. Open book decompositions of fibre sums in contact topology

    OpenAIRE

    Klukas, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper we describe compatible open books for the fibre connected sum along binding components of open books, as well as for the fibre connected sum along multi-sections of open books. As an application the first description provides simple ways of constructing open books supporting all tight contact structures on $T^3$, recovering a result by van Horn-Morris, as well as an open book supporting the result of a Lutz twist along a binding component of an open book, recovering a res...

  7. Germline transformation of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae with the piggyBac transposable element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Guimarães Rodrigues

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The technique to generate transgenic mosquitoes requires adaptation for each target species because of aspects related to species biology, sensitivity to manipulation and rearing conditions. Here we tested different parameters on the microinjection procedure in order to obtain a transgenic Neotropical mosquito species. By using a transposon-based strategy we were able to successfully transform Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, which can be used as an avian malaria model. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the piggyBac transposable element as a transformation vector for Neotropical mosquito species and opens up new research frontiers for South American mosquito vectors.

  8. Equipment based on high power UV and white light LEDs to collect and observe scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones and other fluorescent organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo N. Ramires

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new, high quality, low cost and versatile LEDs-based handset device that emits high power UV and white light, which can be used interchangeably. It offers power control and has long battery life. Even though it is optimized to detect and collect scorpions under low light conditions, it can also be used with other groups of fluorescent organisms. The device achieved superior performance in field and laboratory trials when compared with a 12 LEDs low power UV flashlight, and a 46 W black fluorescent light lamp, to locate Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922.

  9. International Jupiter Watch - A program to study the time variability of the Jovian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Caldwell, J. J.; De Pater, I.; Goguen, J.; Klein, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Jupiter Watch is a program for the encouragement and coordination of the study of temporal variations in the Jovian system. It consists of six discipline working groups concerned with: the Io torus under N. Schneider; the Jovian atmosphere under R. West; the magnetosphere and radio emissions under I. de Peter and M. Klein; aurora under J. Caldwell; the Galilean satellites under W. Sinton and J. Goguen; and laboratory measurement and theory under B. Lutz. To date the IJW has held two workshops and selected several Jupiter Watch periods for coordinated observations. The next Jupiter Watch workshop is tentatively scheduled for 1990 in association with the next COSPAR meeting.

  10. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  11. Proceedings of the National Workshop on Methods to Minimize Dredging Impacts on Sea Turtles Held at Jacksonville, Florida on 11-12 May 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Great Lakes Dredging, P.O. Drawer K, Staten Island, NY 10303 (718-981-2700) Peter Lutz, Rosensteil School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Univ. of...Rudy Nyc , US Army Corps of Engineers, CESAD-PR-R, 510 Title Bldg., S.W., Atlanta, GA 30335-6801 (404-331-4619) * Registered but unable to attend. 6...J. Ross Wilcox (Florida Power & Light Company, Juno Beach, FL) 1150 Question and Answer Period 1200 Lunch 9 Technical Session II: James D. Hilton

  12. Estudo piloto sobre esquistossomose mansoni em área rural do Município de Itanhomi, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Conceição

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho os autores apresentam dados relativos à prevalência e formas clinicas da esquistossomose mansoni, hospedeiro intermediário e determinação do seu índice de infecção em Santa Luzia do Carneiro, área rural do Município de Itanhomi, Vale do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais. O estudo seccional da população revelou 42,1% de positividade para ovos de S.mansoni em um exame de fezes peto método de Lutz (Hoffmann, Ponz, Janer e um percentual de 6,8% de pacientes com hepato-esplenomegalia. O hospedeiro intermediário encontrado foi a B.glabrata com um índice de infecção de 3,2%.Data on prevalence and morbidity of Schistosomiasis mansoni, local intermediate host and its rate of infection, in the county of Santa Luzia do Carneiro, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are presented. A cross-seccionai study demonstrated a figure of 42.1 per cent of positivity for S.mansoni eggs in one faeces parasitoiogic examination by Lutz method (Hoffman, Pons, Janer metod. Liver and spleen eniagement were observed in 6.8 per cent of the patients. The intermediate host B.glabrata showed an infection rate of 3.2per cent.

  13. Das politische Gewicht der Bilder The Political Weight of Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahra Dornick

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Lutz Hieber und Paula-Irene Villa setzen sich sowohl aus soziologischer als auch aus kulturwissenschaftlicher und politischer Perspektive mit der Historie und Aktualität von Queer Theory auseinander. Grundlegende theoretische Debatten und Denkfiguren wie Postmodernismus, Feminismus in der Postmoderne oder auch Kritik von Identität und Normalisierung werden anschaulich dargestellt. Gleichzeitig werden gewinnbringende Akzente in Form von Analysen verschiedener Praxen von Politik, wie etwa der Politisierung von Kunst, gesetzt. Insgesamt werden auf gelungene Weise erstens spezifische Begriffe der Queer Theory in ihre jeweiligen Kontexte eingeordnet und erläutert und zweitens spezifische Formen und Möglichkeiten politischer Praxis dargelegt.Lutz Hieber and Paula-Irene Villa examine the history and topicality of Queer Theory from the perspective of sociology, cultural studies, and politics. They depict essential theoretical debates and thinkers such as postmodernism, feminism in postmodernism, or the critique of identity and normalization. At the same time they place lucrative accents in the form of analyses of differing political practices, such as of the politicization of art. Overall the study successfully presents firstly, the terminology of Queer Theory ordered into their respective contexts and explained and secondly, specific forms and possibilities of political practice.

  14. Evaluation of techniques for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive and HIV negative individuals in the city of Itajaí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelene Marchi Blatt

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and intestinal parasites are common in Brazil. Previous studies have shown that infection with Strongyloides stercoralis is frequently associated with HIV infection. Strongyloidiasis is difficult to diagnosis and stool examination with conventional techniques fails to detect the helminth larvae. We made a prospective study, to test the efficacy of the agar plate technique to detect S. stercoralis in 211 HIV-positive patients and 213 HIV-negative patients in the city of Itajaí, Brazil, between September 2001 and June 2002. The feces samples of these patients were processed and analyzed according to the following methods: Lutz, formalin ethyl acetate, Baermann, Harada-Mori and agar plate culture. HIV-positive patients were more frequently infected by S. stercoralis (odds ratio= 5,.687. Among the methods used on fecal specimens, the larvae of S. stercoralis were most efficiently detected by the agar plate (69.7% method, followed by the Baermann and the formalin ethyl acetate methods (48.5% (P=0.01, Lutz (42.4% (P=0.01, and Harada-Mori culture (24% (P=0.001. Therefore agar plate culture is the most efficient method for the detection of S. stercoralis larvae and this technique should be the test of choice, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  15. Noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in a children's day care facility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallimore C.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (Norwalk-like viruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They are the most common cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the adult population and occur in nursing homes for the elderly, geriatric wards, medical wards, and in hotel and restaurant settings. Food-borne outbreaks have also occurred following consumption of contaminated oysters. This study describes the application of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay using random primers (PdN6 and specific Ni and E3 primers, directed at a small region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-coding region of the norovirus genome, and DNA sequencing for the detection and preliminary characterisation of noroviruses in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in children in Brazil. The outbreak samples were collected from children <5 years of age at the Bertha Lutz children's day care facility at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, that occurred between 1996 and 1998, where no pathogen had been identified. At the Bertha Lutz day care center facility, only Fiocruz's employee children are provided for, and they come from different social, economic and cultural backgrounds. Three distinct genogroup II strains were detected in three outbreaks in 1997/98 and were most closely related to genotypes GII-3 (Mexico virus and GII-4 (Grimsby virus, both of which have been detected in paediatric and adult outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide.

  16. Anagramme und andere Sprachspiele – zum Werk von Unica Zürn Anagrams and Other Language Games—On the Work of Unica Zürn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Vojta

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Unica Zürn (geb. 1916, 1970 Selbstmord in Paris wurde in der Forschung kaum als eigenständige Künstlerin rezipiert. Sie wird als die Lebensgefährtin von Hans Bellmer angesehen. In diesem Kontext fungiert sie als seine Muse, als die lebendige Verkörperung seiner Puppenmodelle. Helga Lutz plädiert in ihrer Dissertation für eine Auseinandersetzung mit den Arbeiten von Unica Zürn, „losgelöst aus dem Koordinatensystem des Biographischen und der Prämisse des Wahnsinns“. (S. 169Unica Zürn (born in 1916; suicide in Paris in 1970 has rarely been received in scholarship as an independent artist. She is seen as Hans Bellmer’s companion. She functions as a muse in this context, as a living embodiment of his dolls. In her dissertation, Helga Lutz pleads for an examination of Utica Zorn’s work, “removed from the coordinate plane of the biography and the premises of insanity” (169.

  17. Universalismo versus relativismo no julgamento moral Universalism versus relativism in moral judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. B. Biaggio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a posição de diversos autores que têm-se destacado no estudo do julgamento moral, quanto à questão do universalismo versus relativismo. Há valores universais? Há uma seqüência evolutiva de estágios de maturidade moral que se encontre em todas as culturas? Com base em análises e críticas de James Rest, Orlando Lourenço, Lutz Eckensberger e John Snarey, são analisadas posições universalistas, como as de Piaget e Kohlberg (com seus fundamentos em Kant e as posições relativistas, tendo como ponto extremo a de Shweder. Entre os dois campos extremos são comentadas as posições de Turiel, Gilligan, e outros autores.This article analyses positions of distinguished authors in the field of moral development, regarding the issue of universalism versus relativism. Based on analyses and critiques by James Rest, Orlando Lourenço, Lutz Eckensberger, and John Snarey, the author reviews unversalistic positions such as those of Piaget and Kohlberg (with their roots in Kant, and relativistic positions, having as their extreme the position of Shweder. Between the two extremes,the stands of Turiel, Gilligan and other authors are discussed.

  18. It's getting hot in here…and dry: Intercomparison of cumulative rain collectors used in stable isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, Nils; Roßmann, Yasmin; Bauer, Ingo; Schulz, Stephan; Schüth, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Many isotope studies require data on the stable isotope signature (δ2H, δ18O) of precipitation. Although isotope analyzers recently became field-deployable, allowing near-real time measurements, it is still common to collect cumulative rain samples on a monthly basis. For this purpose, various rain collectors are available (IAEA 2014), but a comprehensive intercomparison of these samplers and their capacity to reduce evaporation is missing in the published literature. In this study, we tested selected established (IAEA 2014) and new samplers (floating ball-based, float-based). They were partially filled with water of known isotopic composition and placed in a modified laboratory oven featuring dry conditions and a diurnal temperature regime (design represents a good compromise. It provides an adequate evaporation reduction, resulting in negligible isotopic shifts, and the obtained samples are not prone to contamination with oil. References: Gröning, M., Lutz, H.O., Roller-Lutz, Z., Kralik, M., Gourcy, L., & Pöltenstein, L. (2012): A simple rain collector preventing water re-evaporation dedicated for δ18O and δ2H analysis of cumulative precipitation samples. Journal of Hydrology, 448-449, 195-200. IAEA (2014): IAEA/GNIP precipitation sampling guide.

  19. Atlas de distribución y estado de conservación de los Anfibios de la Comunidad de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Solano, I.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful management and conservation planning depend upon the availability, integration and updating of information provided by different disciplines. This paper compiles relevant information for the conservation of amphibians in Comunidad de Madrid (Spain. We obtained chorological information from 1384 sampling localities throughout the region of Madrid, and reviewed relevant scientific literature for the management of amphibian populations in this area. We found at least one amphibian species in 70,3% of sampled localities. Results are illustrated in distribution maps of all 18 species found: Salamandra salamandra, Pleurodeles waltl, Mesotriton alpestris, Lissotriton boscai, Triturus marmoratus, Triturus pygmaeus, Alytes obstetricans, Alytes cisternasii, Discoglossus galganoi, Discoglossus jeanneae, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Hyla arborea, Hyla meridionalis, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Rana iberica and Rana perezi. Distribution maps are presented in five-kilometer side UTM grids cells. We compare and integrate our results with previous studies and outline groups of populations representing independent management units, for which we propose risk categories according to the criteria established by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN at the regional level. Finally, we point out the main threats for the survival of amphibian populations and discuss possible actions to improve their conservation status.

    La planificación de estrategias de gestión y conservación eficaces depende de la disponibilidad, integración y actualización de información procedente de diversas disciplinas. En este trabajo se recopila información relevante para la conservación de los anfibios de la Comunidad de Madrid. Hemos obtenido información corológica de un total de 1384 puntos de muestreo repartidos por toda la geografía madrileña y revisado la literatura científica de interés para la gestión de las

  20. Intramuscular Single-dose Toxicity Test of Bufonis venonum Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Ho Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bufonis venonum (BV is the dried white secretions of the auricular and skin glands of the toads Bufo bufo gargarizans or Bufo melanosticus Schneider. This study was performed to evaluate the toxicity of intramuscularly- administered Bufonis venonum pharmacopuncture (BVP and to calculate its approximate lethality through a single-dose test with Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods: Twenty male and 20 female 6-week-old SD rats were injected intramuscularly with BVP or normal saline. The animals were divided into four groups with five female and five male rats per group: the control group injected with normal saline at 0.5 mL/animal, the low-dosage group injected with 0.125 mL/animal of BVP, the medium-dosage group injected with 0.25 mL/animal of BVP and the high-dosage group injected with 0.5 mL/animal of BVP. All injections were in the left thighs of the rats. After administration, we conducted clinical observations everyday and body weight measurements on days 3, 7 and 14 after the injection. We also carried out hematology, serum biochemistry, and histological observations on day 15 after treatment. Results: No mortalities were observed in any experimental group. No significant changes in weight, hematology, serum biochemistry, and histological observations that could be attributed to the intramuscular injection of BVP were observed in any experimental group. Conclusion: Lethal dose of BVP administered via intramuscular injection in SD rats is over 0.5 mL/animal.