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Sample records for bufo paracnemis lutz

  1. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura and an intermediate form in sympatry

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    Azevedo MFC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR. The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also analyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

  2. Anomalías oculares en híbridos Bufo paranecmis ♂ x Bufo arenarum ♀ (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Rengel, Dora

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Los híbridos entre Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum se encuadran en los llamados "híbridos vitales". Los resultados han evidenciado relevantes anomalías oculares que se manifiestan en un 90% de los casos. En algunas larvas falta el cristalino tanto en uno como en ambos ojos (20%; en otras larvas el cristalino se encuentra ubicado en posición opuesta al normal (25% o bien puede ocurrir que se forme un ojo normal y el otro de forma distinta (20%. El análisis histológico mostró anomalías en la zona retiniana, evidenciándose a partir de los estratos pigmentarios, repliegues y movimientos flexuosos (5%. También existen ojos replegados sobre sí mismos (5%. Las alteraciones más severas llevaron a procesos de anoftalmia (10%. En ocasiones (5% en lugar del ojo se evidencian grumos de pigmento. Se obtuvo un 10% con ojos normales. Los otros órganos presentan analogía con los de las larvas de Bufo paracnemis, inclusive la librea dorsal. The hybrids between Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum are counted among tbe so called "vital hybrids". Our results have revealed relevant ocular anomalies in 90% of cases. In some larvae the lens is lacking in either one or both eyes (20%; in others the lens it is found in an opposite position to normal (25% or else one normal and one different eye is formed (20%. Histological analysis reveals anomalies in the retinal area, observing flexuous movements in the pigmentary strata (5%. Eyes folded over themselves were also observed (5%. The most severe alterations produced cases of anophtalmia (10%. On occasions (5%, groupings of pigments were found instead of the eyes. l0% of the larvae were normal. The other organs show analogies to those of the larvae of Bufo paracnemis, including the dorsal pattem.

  3. Conservation genetics of an island toad: Bufo bufo in Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    John W. Wilkinson; Trevor J C Beebee; Griffiths, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    On Jersey (British Channel Islands), common toads often reproduce in small, urban ponds. This atypical breeding strategy has implications for their persistence and they have declined on the island in recent times. We used polymorphic microsatellite markers to compare genetic diversity in Bufo bufo from five different ponds in Jersey with two populations from north-west France. Genetic diversity of Jersey toads was comparable with that of populations elsewhere in Europe. Numbers of breeding fe...

  4. Anfíbios Anuros da coleção Adolpho Lutz: III - Hyla claresignata Lutz & B. Lutz, 1939

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    Bertha Lutz

    1948-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyla claresignata Lutz & Lutz, 1939, is a large species apparently not closely allied to the other known Brazilian hylas. It is characterized by the very small tympanum; the head is short and the snout rounded; the legs are long, the hands and feet unusually large, the latter extensively webbbed. The specific name is derived from the insular, irregular, or roughly triangular, dark spots, with a light halo, found mostly in the dorso-lateral region and on the legs. It belongs to the rain-forest fauna of the Marítime Range. The adult is a bromeliad-dweller and the tadpole rhyacophilous. DESCRIPTION. Vomerine teeth in two separate, oblique, groups, behind the large choanae, parallel to the posterior half of their inner border. Tongue entire, short, very broad and hardly free behind. Snout short, rounded, with distinct canthus rostralis and gradually sloping loreal region. Eye very large and prominent, its horizontal diameter almost equal to the distance between its anterior corner and the tip of the snout. Tympanum very small, less than one third of the diameter of the eye, but distinct, partly covered by a short, heavy ridge. Lateral fingers less than one third webbed; fourth finger slightly longer than the second, just reaching the base of the disk of the third; subarticular tubercles well developed; an angular pollex rudiment, more noticeable in the males. Toes almost completely webbed, the edge of the web inserted at the base of the disk on the third and the fifth; an inner metatarsal tubercle. Skin smooth above, granular beneath, on the throat minutely so. No dermal appendage on the hell. Habit robust, head broader than long, body rather heavy, slightly narrowed in the postaxillary region. Legs long, the tibiotarsal articulation reaching beyond the tip of the snout when adpressed. Type (female: 61 mm. (Fig. 1. DIAGNOSIS of TADPOLE (by G. Orton. "A large specialized, mountain-stream tadpole, with wide head an elongated, flattened snout, greatly

  5. Mechanisms of ion transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of Bufo bufo as revealed by microelectrode recordings in isolated perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad......amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad...

  6. A contribution to the intraspecific systematics of Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de L.

    1973-01-01

    A biometrical analysis of preserved specimens of Bufo bufo, supplemented by a detailed examination of the shape of the skin warts, was performed in order to ascertain the taxonomic status of the form described as B.b.spinosus. Indications of a N.-S. clinal variation in the formation of wart thorns a

  7. Adolpho Lutz and the origins of medical entomology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, J L

    2005-12-01

    Adolpho Lutz (1855-1940) formed a bridge between the Bahian Tropicalist School and post-Mansonian medicine. Before taking over as head of the São Paulo Bacteriological Institute (1893), Lutz traveled through a variety of regions and delved into various disciplines. In the 1880s, he was already arguing that leprosy was transmitted by mosquitoes. Carbuncles, cholera, and typhoid fever were then the accepted models for investigating the etiology of infectious diseases. Following the discovery of how malaria was transmitted, attention turned to hematophagous diptera. Physicians, bacteriologists, zoologists, and veterinarians reshaped the network of actors involved in the 'hunt' for the agents and transmitters of diseases, as they began relying on analogies with malaria and yellow fever. Edwin Ray Lankester, director of the British Museum (Natural History), launched then a worldwide investigation into species that might be linked to human disease. The species described by Lutz and his proposed classification system were vital to Frederick Theobald's fundamental work in medical entomology, published in the early twentieth century. In 1908, Lutz brought with him to the Oswaldo Cruz Institute a remarkable quantity of research and experiments in all branches of the newly created "tropical medicine," devoted especially to entomology.

  8. Agregace jako antipredační strategie u pulců ropuchy obecné (\\kur{Bufo bufo}).

    OpenAIRE

    BODNÁR, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Tadpoles of many anuran species use a huge number of behavioral modifications to avoid predators. Reduced activity in presence of predators is favorite strategy for common toad tadpoles (Bufo bufo). Responses against predator cues by tadpoles of Bufo bufo in the presence of another cue of larger tadpole aggregation were tested in this study. We observed that these tadpoles responded differently to predator chemical cues than tadpoles in a small group.

  9. Embryotoxicity of lead on Bufo arenarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Coll, C.S.; Herkovits, J.; Salibian, A.

    1988-08-01

    Lead, one of the oldest and more widely distributed pollutants, produces serious toxicological effects. From an ecotoxicological point of view, amphibians are useful as indicators of environmental contamination because they are sensitive to a great variety of toxic agents. Considering that Bufo arenarum is one of the most widely distributed toads in South America, in the present work the authors study the LC50 and teratogenical effects of lead on Bufo arenarum embryos obtained from different couples of parents exposing them from the 2-cell stage onwards. A differential susceptibility to this heavy metal in embryos obtained from five different couples of parents is described.

  10. Changes to the generic names of extinct east European species described as Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993 and Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993

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    Ratnikov, V. Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The generic assignment of three fossil forms described as Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993 and Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993 is discussed. The author justifies why their original generic names should not be changed to Pseudepidalea, as recently proposed, but should be maintained until more convincing evidence is discovered.Se discute la atribución genérica de tres formas fósiles descritas como Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993, y Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993. El autor justifica las razones por las cuales las adscripciones genéricas originales no deberían cambiarse a Pseudepidalea, como recientemente se ha propuesto, sino mantenerse hasta que se descubra nueva evidencia más convincente.

  11. Intoxicación aguda en perro por toxinas de sapo (Bufo bufo - Acute intoxication in a dog by toxins of a toad (Bufo bufo

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    Fernández-Palacios, O´Connor, Rocío

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas intoxicaciones por toxinas de sapo no son frecuentes en España y su incidencia es mayor en primavera y verano. En este trabajo describimos un caso de intoxicación aguda de una perra de 4 años de edad tras la aprehensión de un sapo (Bufo bufo en la zona de Huelva. Los signos de una intoxicación comenzaron a los 15 minutos de entrar en contacto con el sapo muriendo a las 3 horas sin responder al tratamiento suministrado (corticoides, atropina, fluidoterapia y acepromazina. Aunque el diagnóstico fue precoz, a pesar del tratamiento se produjo la muerte en 3 horas.SummaryIntoxications by toad toxins are not frequent in Spain, and its incidence is greater in spring and summer. In this work it is described a case of an acute intoxication of a dog of 4 years old by toad toxins (Bufo bufo in the area of Huelva. The animal began to show signs of intoxication 15 minutes after the contact with the toad, dying 3 hours later without any response to the provided treatment (corticoids, atropine, fluidotherapy and acepromazine. Although the diagnosis was precocious and the treatment was administrated, after 3 hours the animal died.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Xingjie; Guo, Rui; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei is carried out in the present research using Illumina Hiseq 2500. The mitogenome is 17 602 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a D-loop region. The overall base composition of the H-strand is 29.15% for A, 26.09% for C, 15.16% for G, and 29.60% for T. The G + C content is 41.25%. Phylogenetic analyses of B. raddei and other 12 amphibian were carried out using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The sequences of B. raddei were clustered in genus Bufo. PMID:26355835

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Xingjie; Guo, Rui; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei is carried out in the present research using Illumina Hiseq 2500. The mitogenome is 17 602 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a D-loop region. The overall base composition of the H-strand is 29.15% for A, 26.09% for C, 15.16% for G, and 29.60% for T. The G + C content is 41.25%. Phylogenetic analyses of B. raddei and other 12 amphibian were carried out using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The sequences of B. raddei were clustered in genus Bufo.

  14. Vocalizações de Scinax perpusillus (A. Lutz & B. Lutz e S. arduous Peixoto (Anura, Hylidae, com comentários taxonômicos

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    Pombal Jr. José P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the advertisement and territorial calls recorded from topotypes of Scinax arduous Peixoto, 2002 and S. perpusillus (A. Lutz & B. Lutz, 1939 are described. These two species belong to the Scinax perpusillus species group and show acoustic parameters of territorial calls similar to the catharinae species group, suggesting that they are phylogenetically related. The acoustic parameters of advertisement calls of S. arduous and S. perpusillus suggest a monophyletic origin for the Scinax perpusillus species group.

  15. Thyroid anatomy and topography of toad (Bufo marinus ictericus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The autoradiographic method is used for the study of the toad's thyroid of Bufo marinus ictericus by 131I. Histolological proceedings are done. Comparative evaluations with bibliographic informations are presented. (M.A.C.)

  16. Final Critical Habitat for the Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis) based on the description provided in the Federal...

  17. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na+/K+-ATPase localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na+/K+-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was greater and we

  18. The efficiency of Lutz, Kato-Katz and Baermann-Moraes (adapted techniques association to the diagnosis of intestinal helmints

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    Henry Percy Willcox

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The association of Lutz/Kato-Katz and Lutz/Bermann-Moraes (adapted techniques was used to improve better results that ranged from 0.4 to 11 times in the search of eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, Trichiuris trichiura, Taenia sp. and larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.

  19. Spontaneous firing in olfactory bulb neurons of Bufo bufo gargarizans in and after hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuancheng Liang; Shaokang Bian; Xia Peng; Liwen Wang

    2011-01-01

    Microelectrode technique was used to record the spontaneous electrical activities of the neurons in olfactory bulb of the Bufo bufo gargarizans, both in hibernation and after hibernation. This study investigated the electrophysiological characteristics of amphibian olfactory bulb in the period of hibernation and after hibernation and its effects on the start of hibernation and spontaneous awakening. The research showed four forms of spontaneous firings: single spontaneous firing, burst spontaneous firing, irregular spontaneous firing and consecutive single spontaneous firing. The single spontaneous firing includes slow depolarized spontaneous firing and fast depolarized spontaneous firing, and the slow depolarized spontaneous firing occurs only during the hibernation period. In hibernation, the low amplitude and low frequency firing with a longer duration may be relevant to maintaining the tonicity of the central nervous system in toads that are in hibernation, and this kind of firing may also provide an excited basis for their arousal from hibernation. After hibernation, the amplitude and frequency of firing increase, but the firing duration gets shorter. This form of short-term firing, which may be a phenomenon of sensory neurons fast adapting, is one of the neuronal mechanisms for the arousal of hibernating animals.

  20. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Tripepi, Manuela [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, 201 Leidy Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brunelli, Elvira, E-mail: brunelli@unical.it [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was

  1. Test Reviews: Euler, B. L. (2007). "Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree". Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree (EDDT) is a teacher-completed norm-referenced rating scale published by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., in Lutz, Florida. The 156-item EDDT was developed for use as part of a broader assessment process to screen and assist in the identification of 5- to 18-year-old children for the special…

  2. Determinants of Instrumental Extinction in Terrestrial Toads ("Bufo arenarum")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Ruben N.; Ruetti, Eliana; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research in a water-reinforced instrumental training situation with toads ("Bufo arenarum") has shown that performance in both acquisition and extinction is poorer after partial, rather than continuous reinforcement training. In Experiment 1, the performance of a group receiving 24 trials on a 50% partial reinforcement schedule was poorer…

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP-DR1) catalogs (Lutz+, 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Altieri, B.; Andreani, P.; Aussel, H.; Berta, S.; Bongiovanni, A.; Brisbin, D.; Cava, A.; Cepa, J.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Dominguez-Sanchez, H.; Elbaz, D.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Grazian, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Harwit, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.; Magnelli, B.; Maiolino, R.; Nordon, R.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Saintonge, A.; Sanchez Portal, M.; Santini, P.; Shao, L.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Wetzstein, M.; Wieprecht, E.

    2013-11-01

    PACS catalogs built by the PEP team, with key contributions by Stefano Berta, Benjamin Magnelli, Paola Popesso, Dieter Lutz, Francesca Pozzi, Bruno Altieri, Herve Aussel, Hoseong Hwang, Emeric Le Floc'h, Georgios Magdis, Raanan Nordon, Albrecht Poglitsch, Laurie Riguccini, Amelie Saintonge, Li Shao. For more details, please refer to Lutz et al. (2011A&A...532A..90L) and to the PDF documentation associated to the release. Data and catalogs can be retrieved from the web page http://www.mpe.mpg.de/ir/Research/PEP/publicdatareleases.php See the PDF documentation associated to the PEP DR1 release, http://www.mpe.mpg.de/resources/PEP/DR1tarballs/readmePEP_global.pdf and http://www.mpe.mpg.de/resources/PEP/DR1tarballs/readmePEP_SPIRE.pdf for more details. (69 data files).

  4. A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura from Bulgaria

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    Petar Boyadzhiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%, followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%, as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

  5. Are we ready for sexual reorientation therapy in the U.S. military? A response to David W. Lutz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierholzer, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In his paper "The Catholic Church, the American Military, and Homosexual Reorientation Therapy," David W. Lutz ultimately concludes that it is "appropriate, and highly ethical" for the American military to offer reorientation therapy to help homosexuals overcome "the vice of sodomy." The major thrust of his paper, however, is to call for abandonment of the "Don't Ask/Don't Tell" policy currently in place in the military. Lutz's paper covers much ground, and this review begins by examining whether such a wide view is necessary for the ultimate conclusions. It goes on to ask whether Lutz has omitted to mention important considerations bearing on this issue, and whether Lutz's call for the introduction of reorientation therapy is a serious call or a symbolic response to homosexual activities. Lutz fails to address essential issues such as the actual experiences of other nations having homosexuals in the military, and issues regarding what constitutes "reorientation therapy," the latter leading to questions about how such a therapy would actually be implemented. PMID:15764097

  6. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound sediments

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    Morgana Camacho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis.

  7. Karyotype of the gall fly Tomoplagia rudolphi (Lutz & Lima) (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antônio A. Carneiro; Luiz Fernando Gomes; Silvia das Graças Pompolo; Lucio Antonio De Oliveira Campos,

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to describe the karyotype of the fruit fly Tomoplagia rudolphi (Lutz & Lima, 1918). This fly induces the formation of galls on the stems of Vernonia polianthes (Asteraceae). The cytogenetic analysis of cerebral ganglia (larva and pupa) and testis (adults) of T. rudolphi showed a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 10 + xx (female) and 2n = 10 + xy (male). The diploid chromosome number 2n = 12 and the XX/XY sex determination system have been found in most of...

  8. Variation in Chemical Defense Among Natural Populations of Common Toad, Bufo bufo, Tadpoles: the Role of Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókony, Veronika; Móricz, Ágnes M; Tóth, Zsófia; Gál, Zoltán; Kurali, Anikó; Mikó, Zsanett; Pásztor, Katalin; Szederkényi, Márk; Tóth, Zoltán; Ujszegi, János; Üveges, Bálint; Krüzselyi, Dániel; Capon, Robert J; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-04-01

    Defensive toxins are widespread in nature, yet we know little about how various environmental factors shape the evolution of chemical defense, especially in vertebrates. In this study we investigated the natural variation in the amount and composition of bufadienolide toxins, and the relative importance of ecological factors in predicting that variation, in larvae of the common toad, Bufo bufo, an amphibian that produces toxins de novo. We found that tadpoles' toxin content varied markedly among populations, and the number of compounds per tadpole also differed between two geographical regions. The most consistent predictor of toxicity was the strength of competition, indicating that tadpoles produced more compounds and larger amounts of toxins when coexisting with more competitors. Additionally, tadpoles tended to contain larger concentrations of bufadienolides in ponds that were less prone to desiccation, suggesting that the costs of toxin production can only be afforded by tadpoles that do not need to drastically speed up their development. Interestingly, this trade-off was not alleviated by higher food abundance, as periphyton biomass had negligible effect on chemical defense. Even more surprisingly, we found no evidence that higher predation risk enhances chemical defenses, suggesting that low predictability of predation risk and high mortality cost of low toxicity might select for constitutive expression of chemical defense irrespective of the actual level of predation risk. Our findings highlight that the variation in chemical defense may be influenced by environmental heterogeneity in both the need for, and constraints on, toxicity as predicted by optimal defense theory. PMID:27059330

  9. Bufo toxin: A new testing prospect for the screening of anti-convulsant agents. A review

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    David Arome

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with diverse aetiology, affecting approximately 1 % of the entire population. Epilepsy present wide range of clinical manifestations, that affect the way a person feels and acts for a short time. Previous scientific investigations have indicated bufo toxin as a potential convulsant candidate that produced similar effects as other known convulsant agents. Bufo toxin has been shown to mimic or exhibit similar action as other known convulsant agent. Its biochemical components are formed as a result of the binding of bufo-fagin and a molecule arginina. There exist wide array of convulsant agents used in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The commonly used one are: bicuculline, picrotoxin, pentylene tetrazole, isonizid etc. However, these agents are expensive, not easily available and affordable. This challenge prompted the search of other alternative convulsant agents that is easily accessible for use in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The principal objective of this review paper is to suggest the possible use of bufo toxin which mimics the action of existing convulsant agents. This new testing convulsant agent (bufo toxin is inexpensive, affordable and easy to use when compared to other known convulsant agents. The experimental procedure is easy and it gives a broad spectrum in comparing the action of bufo toxin to other chemical convulsant agents. It also offers researchers broader view or options in exploring the anti-convulsant activity of test agents and the understanding of their possible mechanism of action.

  10. Ion transport mechanisms in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo: microelectrode recordings from isolated and perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    It is not clear how and whether terrestrial amphibians handle NaCl transport in the distal nephron. Therefore, we studied ion transport in isolated perfused collecting tubules and ducts from toad, Bufo bufo, by means of microelectrodes. No qualitative difference in basolateral cell membrane...... and amiloride application showed a small apical Na+ conductance. Arginine vasotocin depolarized Vbl. The small apical Na+ conductance indicates that the collecting duct system contributes little to NaCl reabsorption when compared to aquatic amphibians. In contrast, Vbl rapidly depolarized upon lowering of [Na...

  11. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  12. Screening breeding sites of the common toad (Bufo bufo) in England and Wales for evidence of endocrine disrupting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, Daniel B; Jones, Alexandra; Velez-Pelez, Alejandra; Orton, Frances; Iguchi, Taisen; Mitsui, Naoko; Tooi, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    Anuran amphibians are often present in agricultural landscapes and may therefore be exposed to chemicals in surface waters used for breeding. We used passive accumulation devices (SPMD and POCIS) to sample contaminants from nine breeding sites of the Common toad (Bufo bufo) across England and Wales, measuring endocrine activity of the extracts in a recombinant yeast androgen screen (YAS) and yeast estrogen screen (YES) and an in vitro vitellogenin induction screen in primary culture of Xenopus laevis hepatocytes. We also assessed hatching, growth, survival, and development in caged larvae in situ, and sampled metamorphs for gonadal histopathology. None of the SPMD extracts exhibited estrogen receptor or androgen receptor agonist activity, while POCIS extracts from two sites in west-central England exhibited concentration-dependent androgenic activity in the YAS. Three sites exhibited significant estrogenic activity in both the YES and the Xenopus hepatocyte. Hatching rates varied widely among sites, but there was no consistent correlation between hatching rate and intensity of agricultural activity, predicted concentrations of agrochemicals, or endocrine activity measured in YES/YAS assays. While a small number of intersex individuals were observed, their incidence could not be associated with predicted pesticide exposure or endocrine activitity measured in the in vitro screens. There were no significant differences in sex ratio, as determined by gonadal histomorphology among the study sites, and no significant correlation was observed between proportion of males and predicted exposure to agrochemicals. However, a negative correlation did become apparent in later sampling periods between proportion of males and estrogenic activity of the POCIS sample, as measured in the YES. Our results suggest that larval and adult amphibians may be exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals in breeding ponds, albeit at low concentrations, and that chemical contaminants other than

  13. Stereological analysis of mitochondria in embryos of Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo during cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krzysztofowicz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Total numbers of mitochondria and their morphology have been quantitatively determined in mature oocytes and in cleaving embryos of two anuran species Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo using stereological methods. Surface densities of inner mitochondrial membranes for both studied species during cleavage ranged from 5.43 m2/cm3 to 7.53 m2/cm3, whereas volume densities of mitochondria did not exceed 1.65%. Since values of these parameters were low, thus embryos during cleavage may be considered as metabolically "silent". Transition of ultrastructural morphology of mitochondria towards that characterising actively respiring organelles occurs at stage 9 for R. temporaria and at stage 8 for B. bufo, correlated with blastula-gastrula and mid-blastula transition, respectively. The total numbers of mitochondria N(c in mature oocytes are as high as 114.8 and 107.2 millions for R. temporaria and B. bufo, respectively, and during cleavage at late blastula stages they increase to 300 millions for both species under study. We suggest that an undefined mechanism might eliminate during cleavage those amphibian embryos which contain small number of mitochondria and low levels of nutrient substances.

  14. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-01: Automation of the Winston-Lutz Test for Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To optimize clinical efficiency and shorten patient wait time by minimizing the time and effort required to perform the Winston-Lutz test before stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) through automation of the delivery, analysis, and documentation of results. Methods: The radiation fields of the Winston-Lutz (WL) test were created in a “machine-QA patient” saved in ARIA for use before SRS cases. Images of the BRW target ball placed at mechanical isocenter are captured with the portal imager for each of four, 2cm×2cm, MLC-shaped beams. When the WL plan is delivered and closed, this event is detected by in-house software called EventNet which automates subsequent processes with the aid of the ARIA web services. Images are automatically retrieved from the ARIA database and analyzed to determine the offset of the target ball from radiation isocenter. The results are posted to a website and a composite summary image of the results is pushed back into ImageBrowser for review and authenticated documentation. Results: The total time to perform the test was reduced from 20-25 minutes to less than 4 minutes. The results were found to be more accurate and consistent than the previous method which used radiochromic film. The images were also analyzed with DoseLab for comparison. The difference between the film and automated WL results in the X and Y direction and the radius were (−0.17 +/− 0.28) mm, (0.21 +/− 0.20) mm and (−0.14 +/− 0.27) mm, respectively. The difference between the DoseLab and automated WL results were (−0.05 +/− 0.06) mm, (−0.01 +/− 0.02) mm and (0.01 +/− 0.07) mm, respectively. Conclusions: This process reduced patient wait times by 15–20 minutes making the treatment machine available to treat another patient. Accuracy and consistency of results were improved over the previous method and were comparable to other commercial solutions. Access to the ARIA web services is made possible through an Eclipse co-development agreement

  15. Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isioma Tongo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE, corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxidative stress. Toads were exposed to 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 g/L for 28 days. Brain AChE activity reduced by 96% in the highest concentration (0.04 g/L compared to the control brain. Similarly, AChE activities in serum, liver, lungs and GIT tissues (88%, 88%, 87, 87% umg-1 protein respectively were also inhibited in the toads. Corticosterone and total protein levels in the tissues decreased compared to the control. The accumulation results obtained showed accumulation in the tissues (liver>serum>brain> lung>GIT, with a direct relationship between tissue concentration and changes in the biochemical indices. The alterations in all the indices were significantly concentration dependent. The biomarkers described in this study could be useful complementary indices in the risk assessment of diazinon pesticide.

  16. Diet of Physalaemus cf. cicada (Leptodactylidae) and Bufo granulosus (Bufonidae) in a semideciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, A S; Juncá, F A

    2007-02-01

    We determined the diet of the two most abundant anuran species which occur in the litter of a semideciduous forest (Lençóis, Bahia, Brazil), Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus in the dry and rainy seasons. Pitfall traps were used to collect anuran and invertebrate fauna, which showed the availability of prey in the environment. Physalaemus cf. cicada was present in both seasons and Bufo granulosus only in the rainy season. Both species fed mainly on Isoptera and Formicidae. However, there is a difference between the rainy and dry seasons concerning the diet of P. cf. cicada. During the rainy season P. cf. cicada consumed less Isoptera and more Formicidae than in the dry season. In the volumetric sense, Orthoptera was the most important alimentary category for P. cf. cicada and B. granulosus. The Jacobs electivity index indicated that Physalaemus cf. cicada and Bufo granulosus were specialists in Isoptera. PMID:17505759

  17. Lewandowsky and Lutz dysplasia: Report of two cases in a family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Bhutoria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lewandowsky and Lutz dysplasia, also known as epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV, is an inherited disorder in which there is widespread and persistent infection with human papilloma virus, defect in cell-mediated immunity and propensity for malignant transformation. Differential clinical and histopathologic evolutions of lesions in two cases of familial EV are compared and discussed in detail. Cases were followed up for 7 years. Detailed history, clinical features and investigations, including skin biopsy from different sites at different times, were examined. Generalized pityriasis versicolor like hypopigmented lesions in both the cases, together with variable pigmented nodular actinic keratosis like lesions on sun-exposed areas, were present. Multiple skin biopsies done from various sites on different occasions revealed features typical of EV along with lesions, i.e., actinic keratosis, Bowen′s disease, basal and squamous cell carcinoma, in the elder sibling. However, skin biopsy of the other sibling showed features of EV and seborrheic keratosis only till date. This study reveals that the disease progression is variable among two individuals of the same family. Malignant lesions were seen only on sun-exposed areas and may be associated with other skin lesions or infections such as angiokeratoma of Fordyce and tinea cruris, as seen in this report.

  18. Development of a new laser alignment device with Winston-Lutz phantom in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Young Kyung; Min, Soonk; Jeong, Eun Hee; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Haksoo; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, DongHo; Lee, Se Byeong [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang Hyoun [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ui-Jung [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jung Won [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Siyong [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The lasers must be aligned precisely to the radiation isocenter. According to the report provided by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 142, the localizing lasers should be aligned to within ±2 mm of radiation isocenter for non intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), ±1 mm for IMRT, and less than ±1 mm for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) on a monthly basis. In this study, we developed and tested a new laser alignment device adopting an accurate, reproducible and straightforward alignment method in radiotherapy. The device consists of two laser alignments parts: the first part is an optical alignment part, and the second is a radiation alignment part. In the radiation alignment, a Winston-Lutz (W-L) phantom which was installed in the device was used. In this study, we developed a new laser alignment device with a W-L phantom for radiotherapy. Its performance was also tested in a conventional medical linac and a simulator. It was revealed that the device could align the patient-setup lasers in the treatment room accurately, precisely, and fast. We expect the device can be used as a quality assurance tool daily and monthly.

  19. The envelopes of amphibian oocytes: physiological modifications in Bufo arenarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Mercedes

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A characterization of the Amphibian Bufo arenarum oocyte envelope is presented. It was made in different functional conditions of the oocyte: 1 when it has been released into the coelomic cavity during ovulation (surrounded by the coelomic envelope, (CE, 2 after it has passed through the oviduct and is deposed (surrounded by the viteline envelope, (VE, and 3 after oocyte activation (surrounded by the fertilization envelope, (FE. The characterization was made by SDS-PAGE followed by staining for protein and glycoproteins. Labeled lectins were used to identify glycosidic residues both in separated components on nitrocellulose membranes or in intact oocytes and embryos. Proteolytic properties of the content of the cortical granules were also analyzed. After SDS-PAGE of CE and VE, a different protein pattern was observed. This is probably due to the activity of a protease present in the pars recta of the oviduct. Comparison of the SDS-PAGE pattern of VE and FE showed a different mobility for one of the glycoproteins, gp75. VE and FE proved to have different sugar residues in their oligosaccharide chains. Mannose residues are only present in gp120 of the three envelopes. N-acetyl-galactosamine residues are present in all of the components, except for gp69 in the FE. Galactose residues are present mainly in gp120 of FE. Lectin-binding assays indicate the presence of glucosamine, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine residues and the absence (or non-availability of N-acetyl-glucosamine or fucose residues on the envelopes surface. The cortical granule product (CGP shows proteolytic activity on gp75 of the VE.

  20. The supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor blocks hepatitis B virus antigen secretion in HepG2.2.15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Wang, Dongliang; Gao, Jianjun; Qi, Fanghua; Gao, Bo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fang, Dingzhi; Tang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor has long been used for the treatment of hepatitis B in China and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO₂) is widely used in extracting active ingredients from natural products. The aim of present study was to assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of the supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (SCE-BC). Cytotoxicity of SCE-BC was analyzed using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay in HepG2.2.15 cells. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. HBV mRNA in cells was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. SCE-BC concentrations below 10(-2) μg/mL had no significant toxicity to HepG2.2.15 cells. SCE-BC at 10(-4) μg/mL effectively inhibited the secretion of HBeAg by 23.36% on day 6. It was more potent than the positive control lamivudine (100 μg/mL) in terms of the inhibition of HBeAg and HBcrAg secretion on day 6. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, HBV mRNA expression was markedly inhibited in comparison to the control when HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with SCE-BC. Moreover, SCE-BC had greater inhibitory activity with respect to HBeAg than to HBsAg. Since HBeAg promotes immune tolerance and persistent infection during HBV infection, the present results suggest that immune tolerance induced by HBeAg might be overcome by SCE-BC. Therefore, SCE-BC warrants further investigation.

  1. Influência de diversos derivados de vegetais na sobrevida das larvas de Aedes fluviatilis(Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidade) em laboratorio Larvicidal properties of plant extracts against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli; Nelymar M. Mendes; José P. Pereira; Bernadete S. Santos; Marlúcia A. Lamounier

    1988-01-01

    As propriedades larvicidas de 34 extratos, provenientes de 29 vegetais, foram testados em larvas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) nas concentrações de 100, 10 e 1 ppm. 26,5% dos exames utilizados, reduziram significamente a sobrevida larvária (alfa = 0,05), quando empregados na concentração de 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata e Vernonia salzmanni). O ácido anacár...

  2. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD (BUFO TERRESTRIS) FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of sto...

  3. Evidence of phenotypic plasticity of larvae of Simulium subpallidum Lutz in different streams from the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Figueiró

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the overall morphological differences between populations of Simulium subpallidum Lutz, 1909 are studied. Several studies found in the literature point to a relationship between the labral fans and body size and the habitat where blackfly larvae occur. However, other characteristics potentially related to the microhabitat, such as abdominal hook circlet morphology, which is used for larvae to fix themselves in the substratum, and thoracic prolegs morphology, which help larvae move in the substratum, were analyzed in three different populations of S. subpallidum, one of which occupied a faster flow. The results suggest phenotypic plasticity in S. subpallidum and a tendency toward larger structures in faster flows.

  4. Comparison between immunomagnetic separation, coupled with immunofluorescence, and the techniques of Faust et al. and of Lutz for the diagnosis of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Doris Sobral Marques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the performance of Immunomagnetic Separation technique, coupled with Immunofluorescence (IMS-IFA, was compared with the FAUST et al. and Lutz parasitological techniques for the detection of Giardia lamblia cysts in human feces. One hundred and twenty-seven samples were evaluated by the three techniques at the same time showing a rate of cyst detection of 27.5% by IMS-IFA and 15.7% by both Faust et al. and Lutz techniques. Data analysis showed a higher sensitivity of IMS-IFA for the detection of G. lamblia cysts in comparison with the techniques of FAUST et al. and Lutz. The use of this methodology as a routine procedure enables the processing of many samples simultaneously, in order to increase recovery rate of G. lamblia cysts and reduce the time of sample storage.

  5. Determination of impacts on the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge from ammonium nitrate concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) is found only as a reintroduced population at Mortenson NWR in the Laramie Plains of southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the...

  6. 除草剂丁草胺对蟾蜍肝脏形态学和组织学的毒性作用%Toxicity effect of herbicide butachlor on hepatic morphologic and histology of bufo bufo gargarizans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 边邵康; 梁传成; 王丽文

    2012-01-01

    Objective :To observe influence of the herbicide butachlor on hepatic morphologic and histology of Bufo bufo gargarizans. To study toxicity of herbicide butachlor on liver of Bufo bufo. Method: The Bufo bufo gargarizans were randomly divided into control group, paddy goup, S times paddy group, 10 times paddy group ( n = 15 ), the control groups and experimental groups were placed apart in aerated water and in experimental barrels containing butachlor( 5, 10, 30 ml/L) , 1/2 of the body of Bufo bufo gargarizans was immersed in the sulotion. After 3,6, and 9 days, five Bufo bufo were randomly selected from each group and they were dissected to observe the modality and to measure the coefficient of liver. The paraffin slice and HE dyeing were used to observe the structure of liver. Result: The time and concentration of dyeing poison can affect the hepatic modality and structure of Bufo bufo. As concentration of herbicide butachlor and time of dyeing poison increase, the coefficient of liver becomes augmented, and hepatic structure becomes augmented and autolyzed. Conclusion: Herbicide butachlor can change the hepatic modality and structure of Bufo bufo, suggesting environmental protection should be considered when herbicide is used.%观察除草剂丁草胺对蟾蜍肝脏形态学和组织学的影响,探讨除草剂丁草胺对蟾蜍肝脏的毒性作用.将中华大蟾蜍随机分为对照组、稻田组、稻田5倍组和稻田10倍组,染毒剂量分别为5、10、30 ml/L,每组15只,分别放入盛有经曝气的自来水和试验用液的实验桶内,溶液的量为浸没1/2蟾蜍体积,分别在染毒后3、6、9d,从各组随机取蟾蜍5只,解剖观察其肝脏的形态,测量肝系数;应用石蜡切片,HE染色,观察除草剂丁草胺对蟾蜍肝脏组织结构的影响.结果:除草剂丁草胺的染毒时间和浓度均可影响蟾蜍肝脏的组织结构.随着除草剂丁草胺浓度的增加和染毒时间的递增,肝系

  7. Population and habitat viability assessment for the Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri): Final workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Wyoming toad was discovered by Dr. George Baxter in 1946 and was originally known as Bufo hemiophrys baxteri until 1998 when it was given full species status as Bufo baxteri. The toad is thought to be a glacial relic always found only in the Laramie Basin. It was originally known from many breeding sites in the floodplains of the Big and Little Laramie Rivers. Later, after irrigation practices changed the nature of the floodpains, it was found along margins of ponds and small seepage lakes between 7,000 and 7,500 feet. Baxter and others monitored breeding sites for more than 30 years, with few toads seen or heard from 1975 to 1979. An extensive survey of the Laramie Basin in 1980 found only one population.

  8. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowiong behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva)(Diptera: Psychodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Hamilton, J.G.C.; Ward, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to

  9. Shifts in life history as a response to predation in western toads (Bufo boreas)

    OpenAIRE

    Chivers, Douglas P.; Marco, Adolfo; Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Wildy, Erica L.; Andrew R. Blaustein

    1999-01-01

    Larval western toads (Bufo boreas) are known to exhibit antipreda­ tor behavior in response to both chemical alarm cues released from injured conspecifics and chemical cues of predatory invertebrates. In this study, we tested whether long-term exposure to predator and alarm cues resulted in an adaptive shift in life history characteristics of the toads. We raised groups of tadpoles in the presence of: (1) predatory backswimmers (Notonecta spp.) that were fed toad tadpoles, (2) nonpredatory w...

  10. Revisão do gênero Neotropical Myiotabanus Lutz (Diptera, Tabanidae com descrição de uma espécie nova Revision of the Neotropical genus Myiotabanus Lutz (Diptera, Tabanidae with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albertino Rafael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Myiotabanus Lutz, 1928 é revisado. M. barrettoi Fairchild, 1969 e M. muscoideus (Hine, 1907 são redescritas de lectótipos (presente designação e M. sarcophagoides Lutz, 1928 é redescrita do holótipo. M. amazonicus sp. nov. é descrita da bacia amazônica e do pantanal, Brasil, a partir da exuvia pupal e de quatro fêmeas adultas.Three previously described and one new species are treated. M. amazonicus sp. nov. from the Brazilian Amazon Basin and the Pantanal is described from pupal exuvia and four adult females. M. barrettoi Fairchild, 1969 and M. muscoideus (Hine, 1907 are redescribed from lectotypes, here designated, and M. sarcophagoides Lutz, 1928 is redescribed from holotype. An illustrated key for female adults and for known pupae species are provided.

  11. Natural and experimental infection of the lizard Ameiva ameiva with Hemolivia stellata (Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) of the toad Bufo marinus

    OpenAIRE

    Lainson R.; De Souza M.C.; Franco C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Developmental stages of a haemogregarine in erythrocytes of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae), from Pará State, north Brazil, were shown to be those of Hemolivia by the nature of the parasite’s sporogonic cycle in the tick Amblyomma rotondatum. The type species, Hemolivia stellata Petit et al., 1990 was described in the giant toad Bufo marinus and the tick Amblyomma rotondatum, also from Pará State, and in view of the fact that A. ameiva and Bufo marinus share the same habitat and are both c...

  12. Volunteer Conservation Action Data Reveals Large-Scale and Long-Term Negative Population Trends of a Widespread Amphibian, the Common Toad (Bufo bufo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovan, Silviu O.

    2016-01-01

    Rare and threatened species are the most frequent focus of conservation science and action. With the ongoing shift from single-species conservation towards the preservation of ecosystem services, there is a greater need to understand abundance trends of common species because declines in common species can disproportionately impact ecosystems function. We used volunteer-collected data in two European countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Switzerland, since the 1970s to assess national and regional trends for one of Europe’s most abundant amphibian species, the common toad (Bufo bufo). Millions of toads were moved by volunteers across roads during this period in an effort to protect them from road traffic. For Switzerland, we additionally estimated trends for the common frog (Rana temporaria), a similarly widespread and common amphibian species. We used state-space models to account for variability in detection and effort and included only populations with at least 5 years of data; 153 populations for the UK and 141 for Switzerland. Common toads declined continuously in each decade in both countries since the 1980s. Given the declines, this common species almost qualifies for International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red-listing over this period despite volunteer conservation efforts. Reasons for the declines and wider impacts remain unknown. By contrast, common frog populations were stable or increasing in Switzerland, although there was evidence of declines after 2003. “Toads on Roads” schemes are vital citizen conservation action projects, and the data from such projects can be used for large scale trend estimations of widespread amphibians. We highlight the need for increased research into the status of common amphibian species in addition to conservation efforts focusing on rare and threatened species. PMID:27706154

  13. Exposure and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles: morpho-histological and ultrastructural study on epidermis and iNOS localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Guardia, Antonello; La Russa, Daniele; Madeo, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Sandro; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-10-15

    Endosulfan is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that has lethal and sublethal effects on non-target organisms, including amphibians. In a laboratory study, we investigated direct and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles. For this purpose we exposed the tadpoles to a single short-term contamination event (96 h) at an environmentally-realistic concentration (200 μg endosulfan/L). This was followed by a recovery period of 10 days when the experimental animals were kept in pesticide-free water. The endpoints were assessed in terms of mortality, incidence of deformity, effects on behavior, and the morpho-functional features of the epidermis. We found that a short-term exposure to the tested concentration of endosulfan did not cause mortality but induced severe sublethal effects, such as hyperactivity, convulsions, and axis malformations. Following relocation to a pesticide-free environment, we noted two types of response within the experimental sample, in terms of morphological and behavioral traits. Moreover, by using both ultrastructural and a morpho-functional approach, we found that a short-term exposure to endosulfan negatively affected the amphibian epidermis. We also observed several histo-pathological alterations: increased mucous secretion, an increase in intercellular spaces and extensive cell degeneration, together with the induction of an inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Following the post-exposure period, we found large areas of epidermis in which degeneration phenomena were moderate or absent, as well as a further increase in iNOS immunoreactivity. Thus, after 10 days in a free-pesticide environment, the larval epidermis was able to partially replace elements that had been compromised due to a physiological and/or a pathological response to the pesticide. These results highlight the need for both exposure and post-exposure experiments, when attempting to assess pollutant effects.

  14. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  15. The induction of neoplastic lesions by aflatoxin-B1 in the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Mofty, M M; Sakr, S A

    1988-01-01

    The carcinogenic activity of aflatoxin-B1, the metabolic product of the mold Aspergillus flavus (a commonly occurring contaminant of groundnuts and other foodstuffs), was tested using the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis). Injecting the toads with aflatoxin-B1 at a dose level of 0.01 mg/50 g body wt in 1 ml corn oil once a week for 15 weeks induced hepatocellular carcinomas in 19% of the experimental toads. Four toads developed tumors in the kidney due to metastases from the primary hepatocellular carcinomas.

  16. Inducement of Sechenov inhibition by EtOH and NA in the Bufo toad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI RuXin; JIA ShanShan; LI YingZi; CAO Yin; CHENG XiuZhen; XIE ZuoPing

    2008-01-01

    Central inhibition, discovered by Sechenov in 1862, suggests that electrically stimulating the forebrain or medulla oblongata in frog generally suppresses reflexes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Using ethanol (EtOH), noradrenalin (NA), and other neurotransmitters in thalamic preparations, Sechenov inhibition was stimulated in Bufo toads in this study. The result showed that, similar to Sechenov inhibition, the acute application of EtOH or NA excited the thalamus and prolonged the latency of withdrawal reflex. Our study evidences the involvement of α-adrenoceptors in such central inhibition, and explains the role of acute EtOH application in the in-duction of reflex inhibition.

  17. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  18. Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Lankesterellidae from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Paperna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. is described from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru. Merogony and oogony occur in the capillary endothelium and the macrophages in the liver, spleen and kidneys. Meronts are oval, 25,2–29,4 x 15,7–16,8 μm in size and yield 35–46 merozoites. Oocysts are 26,3–29,4 x 15,1–17,6 μm in size; sporozoites 9,2-9,8 x 4,2–5,0 μm in size, assemble in macrophages. Released 8,7–9,8 x 2,8–3,1 μm sporozoites enter erythrocytes. L. poeppigii is compared with Lankesterella petiti Lainson & Paperna, 1995 infecting Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil. The above mentioned specific characters, added to differences in hosts and geographical location warrant the description of Lankesterella poeppigii from B. poeppigii as a new species.

  19. New Karyological and Morphometric Data on Poorly Known Bufo surdus and Bufo luristanicus in Comparison with Data of Diploid Green Toads of the Bufo viridis Complex from South of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh FAKHARZAEH; Jamshid DARVISH; Haji Gholi KAMI; Fereshteh GHASEMZADEH; Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the Bufo viridis complex, which is distributed broadly across Iran, are incomplete and restricted to a few regions or a few samples. In this paper a new detailed study on the B. viridis complex in southern of Iran (from West to East) is presented. The analysis of 18 morphometric characters with univariate and multivariate methods reveals significant differences between three members of the B. viridis complex namely B. variabilis, B. luristanicus, and B. surdus distributed in southern part of Iran. Our result help to resolve an old taxonomic problem about B. surdus subgroup (taxa closely related to B. surdus) conifrming that B. luristanicus and B. surdus are distinct species. Moreover, for the ifrst time we report and describe karyotype details of B. luristanicus and B. surdus which conifrmed that they are diploid. Karyological studies demonstrate that all toads from three mentioned species have 2n=22 chromosomes. These chromosomes are arranged into two groups. First group has six large chromosomes and the second group is composed of five small chromosomes. These chromosomes are metacentric or submetacentric. The number of submetacentric chromosomes is different in three mentioned species of B. viridis complex. Neither sexual heteromorphism, nor secondary constriction was observed in any pairs of chromosomes.

  20. Monitoramento da autenticidade de amostras de bebidas alcoólicas enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo Evaluation of authenticity of alcoholic beverage samples examined by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Araujo Farah NAGATO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a autenticidade de bebidas alcoólicas (whisky, vodka, conhaque de gengibre, etc. enviadas para análise ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz no período de 1993 a agosto de 1999. Devido à presença no mercado nacional de bebidas alcoólicas clandestinas, principalmente aquelas com alto valor agregado, foi realizado o monitoramento através da análise de composição química destas bebidas. Normalmente estes produtos são elaborados com álcool, água, aroma e corante caramelo e que por falta de controle dessas matérias-primas, podem oferecer risco potencial à saúde humana pela presença de metanol. A técnica empregada na análise dos componentes secundários e metanol das amostras foi realizada através da cromatografia em fase gasosa com detector de ionização de chama. Observou-se que em 608 amostras de bebidas alcoólicas analisadas, 391 eram falsificadas e dentre estas 2 apresentaram teores de metanol acima do limite tolerado (200mg/100mL de álcool anidro pela legislação em vigor. Os resultados obtidos sugerem uma grande persistência em se produzir bebidas alcoólicas falsificadas. Desta forma, é muito importante estar sempre monitorando estes produtos e identificando os diferentes tipos de falsificações existentes no país.This work aimed at verifying the authenticity of alcoholic beverages (whisky, vodka, ginger spirit, etc. sent for analysis by the Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo from 1993 to August 1999. The chemical composition of these drinks was studied because of the presence of illicit alcoholic beverages on the national market, especially those with a high commercial value. These products are usually elaborated with alcohol, water, flavor and caramel coloring. Since there is no control over these raw materials, these drinks could offer a potential risk to human health because of the presence of methanol. The method employed in the analysis of congeners and methanol in alcoholic

  1. Helmintos parásitos de anfibios: Dos Especies de Nemátodos parásitos de Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi)

    OpenAIRE

    Asucena Naupay

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo sobre los helmintos que parasitan a Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi) de la localidad de Huánuco, se presentan dos especies conocidas para la ciencia pero una de ellas nueva para el Perú.

  2. Variación ontogenética en la palatibilidad de los renacuajos de Bufo spinulosus papillosus Philippi, 1902 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara, Fabián Gastón

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la variación ontogenética de la palatabilidad en Bufo spinulosus papillosus expuestos a larvas del odonato Rhionaeshna variegata (Odonata, Aeshnidae. Los renacuajos fueron agrupados en cuatro categorías de desarrollo y fueron expuestos a la depredación directa determinándose el número de renacuajos consumidos al finalizar los experimentos. Bufo spinulosus papillosus no fue palatable en los primeros estadios del desarrollo (categorías I, estadios 24-26 y categoría II, estadios 32-34, mientras que los estadios de las categoría III (estadios 38-40 y categoría IV (estadios 42-45 fueron progresivamente palatables. Se observó un comportamiento de rechazo por parte de los depredadores luego de la captura de renacuajos de las categorías I y II. El patrón de palatabilidad encontrado en Bufo spinulosus papillosus difiere del observado en otras especies relacionadas del género Bufo (Brodie y Formanowicz, 1987; Kehr y Schnack, 1991; Lawler y Hero, 1997. We evaluated the ontogenetic variation in the palatability of Bufo spinulosus papillosus tadpoles exposed to odonate larvae of Rhionaeshna variegata (Odonata, Aeshnidae. We exposed tadpoles to direct predation and determined the number of consumed tadpoles in four developmental categories. Bufo spinulosus papillosus tadpoles of categories I (stages 24-26 and II (stages 32-34 were unpalatable, while categories III (stages 38-40 and IV (stages 42-45 were progressively palatable. We observed a post-capture rejection behavior when they caught unpalatable tadpoles in categories I and II. The palatability pattern observed in Bufo spinulosus papillosus was different from related Bufo species (Brodie and Formanowicz, 1987; Kehr and Schnack, 1991; Lawler and Hero, 1997.

  3. Oswaldocruzia venezuelensis sp. n. (Nematoda:Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea), a parasite of Bufo marinus from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slimane, B; Guerrero, R; Durette-Desset, M C

    1996-01-01

    A new species of Oswaldocruzia Travassos, 1917, a parasite of Bufo marinus L. from Venezuela, is described. Like most Neotropical Oswaldocruzia, Oswaldocruzia venezuelensis sp. n. is characterized by spicules with three principal branches: blade, shoe and fork, and by a division of the fork within the distal third of the spicule length. O. vaucheri Ben Slimane et Durette-Desset, 1993 is the most closely related species due to its caudal bursa of type II and its cervical alae of the same shape but it differs in the following characters: the position of the papillae of rays 4 situated nearer the papillae of rays 3 rather than rays 5, a higher percentage of the ridges in the oesophageal region, the cervical alae three times longer and sharp and the spicular fork divided less deeply.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of cystatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor, from bufo melanostictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wa; Ji, Senlin; Zhang, A-Mei; Han, Qinqin; Feng, Yue; Song, Yuzhu

    2013-01-01

    Cystatins are efficient inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteinases, and they serve various important physiological functions. In this study, a novel cystatin, Cystatin-X, was cloned from a cDNA library of the skin of Bufo melanostictus. The single nonglycosylated polypeptide chain of Cystatin-X consisted of 102 amino acid residues, including seven cysteines. Evolutionary analysis indicated that Cystatin-X can be grouped with family 1 cystatins. It contains cystatin-conserved motifs known to interact with the active site of cysteine proteinases. Recombinant Cystatin-X expressed and purified from Escherichia coli exhibited obvious inhibitory activity against cathepsin B. rCystatin-X at a concentration of 8 µM inhibited nearly 80% of cathepsin B activity within 15 s, and about 90% of cathepsin B activity within 15 min. The Cystatin-X identified in this study can play an important role in host immunity and in the medical effect of B. melanostictus.

  5. Effects of age, weight, hormones, and hibernation on breeding success in boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Szymanski, D C; Keyster, E D

    2010-03-01

    The goals of this study were to test the effects of exogenous hormones and hibernation on breeding behavior and gamete release by boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas). Each year, a subset of 77 toads was hibernated and then paired with hibernated or nonhibernated mates and treated with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or left untreated. Amplexus and egg and sperm production were recorded. At 1 yr of age, only 19% of pairs exhibited amplexus, and no sperm or eggs were produced. At 2 and 3 yr of age, most male toads treated with LHRHa exhibited amplexus (56.9% and 100%, respectively). Among 2-yr-old males, amplexus was more prevalent (Pbreeding success, males should be hibernated and treated with LHRHa. In contrast, female productivity was enhanced by improving their body condition instead of subjecting them to hibernation prior to LHRHa treatment.

  6. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Daniel P

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the posterior region of Bufo marinus was measured under resting conditions and in response to a systemic hypervolemia. Doppler flow probes were positioned on the renal portal and ventral abdominal veins, and flow was recorded as injections of artificial plasma equaling 100% of the animal's plasma volume were administered through the sciatic artery. Resting flow was found to be 5.54 ± 2.03 ml min-1 kg-1 in the paired renal portal veins, and 7.31 ± 0.89 ml min-1 kg-1 in the ventral abdominal vein. While renal portal flow was found to increase by a factor of 2.4 times during the first 10 min of hypervolemia, ventral abdominal flow only increased by a factor of 1.3. Conclusions Our results quantify the contribution to circulation from posterior venous return in the toad Bufo marinus. A preferential movement of excess fluid through the renal portal pathway was also demonstrated, supporting the possibility of water elimination via the renal portal circulation, especially during periods of high water influx into the animals.

  7. Alimentación y fecundidad de Bufo variegatus (Anura: Bufonidae en Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappi, Guillermina E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la alimentación de una población de Bufo variegatus procedente de la región de Lago del Desierto, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. De los 11 ítems presa identificados, los más consumidos por los adultos (tanto machos como hembras fueron los coleópteros. En los machos la segunda categoría presa mas importante en la contribución a la dieta fueron los ácaros, mientras que en las hembras las hormigas y las larvas de insectos siguieron en importancia al consumo de coleópteros. En los especímenes juveniles, los ácaros fueron las presas más consumidas, quedando los coleópteros en segundo lugar en importancia relativa. Se demuestra la existencia de una correlación positiva significativa entre el volumen de las presas y el tamaño del depredador. Se aportan datos referentes a la fecundidad de B. variegatus y se comprueba la ausencia de correlación entre el tamaño de las hembras grávidas y el número de óvulos maduros. The diet of a population of Bufo variegatus from the region of Lago del Desierto, Santa Cruz province, Argentina, is described. Of the 11 prey items identified, Coleoptera was the most consumed prey both for males and females. In males, the second most important prey was Acarii, while in females they were the ants and insect larvae. Acarii was the most consumed prey for juveniles, followed by Coleoptera. A significant positive correlation was found between prey volume and predator body size. Fecundity information for B. variegwus is given, and a lack of correlation between snout-vent length of mature females and ovarian egg complement is demonstrated.

  8. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  9. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Heteren (Netherlands). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D. [University of Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology. Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2010-01-15

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  10. Trophic ecology and microhabitat utilization by the Bufo gargarizans, Rana guentheri, and Rana limnocharis in southwestern China

    OpenAIRE

    Tonglei Yu; Yanshu Guo

    2012-01-01

    We studied the trophic ecology and microhabitat use of the Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842; Guentheri frog, Rana guentheri (Boulenger, 1882); and the Ricefield frog, Rana limnocharis (Boie, 1834). These three species are common around Nanchong City, in southwestern China, where they live in the same habitat before hibernation. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diets and patterns of coexistence relative to the microhabitat of each species. In the Asiatic toad, bas...

  11. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).

    OpenAIRE

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B

    1980-01-01

    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and sm...

  12. Association preference and mechanism of kin recognition in tadpoles of the toad Bufo melanostictus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lilly Margaret Eluvathingal; Bhagyashri A Shanbhag; Srinivas K Saidapur

    2009-09-01

    In experiments with specially designed choice tanks, tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus spend significantly greater amounts of time near kin than near non-kin. However, in the absence of kin members, they prefer to spend more time near non-kin rather than stay away in isolation in the opposite blank zone with no company. This implies that association of toad tadpoles with their kin is due to attraction rather than repulsion from non-kin. Experiments designed to elucidate the sensory basis of kin recognition showed that toad tadpoles recognize their kin based on chemical cues rather than visual cues. They can also discriminate between homospecific non-kin and heterospecific (Sphaerotheca breviceps) tadpoles since the tadpoles spent significantly greater amounts of time near the former than near the latter. These findings suggest that where kin members are unavailable, selection may have favoured living with non-kin so as to derive benefits from group living and that a phenotype-matching mechanism may operate for both kin and species discrimination in B. melanostictus.

  13. Efficacy of fenbendazole and levamisole treatments in captive Houston toads (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Catherine M; Johnson, Cassidy B; Howard, Lauren L; Crump, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Effective disease monitoring and prevention is critical to the success of captive amphibian care. Nematodes, including the genera Rhabdias and Strongyloides, are known to contribute to mortality in captive amphibians and have been identified in the Houston Zoo's endangered Houston toad (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis) captive assurance colony. Five years of fecal data for the toad colony were compiled and analyzed in order to investigate the efficacy of two anthelminthic medications, fenbendazole (FBZ) and levamisole (LMS), which were used to control nematode infections. Both FBZ (dusted onto food items) and topical LMS (6.5 to 13.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of nematode eggs, larvae, and adults observed by fecal parasitologic examination. There were no significant differences between treatments, and egg reappearance periods were difficult to compare as a result of low sample size. No adverse effects from either anthelminthic treatment were observed. Both topical LMS and oral FBZ appear to be safe and efficacious treatments for the reduction of the internal nematode burden in captive Houston toads.

  14. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorchin, A., E-mail: adorchin@campus.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Shanas, U., E-mail: shanas@research.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural sciences, University of Haifa - Oranim, Tiv' on 36006 (Israel)

    2010-12-15

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  15. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sakr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55 and postmetamorphic (66 stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63 displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled.

  16. The osmotic behaviour of toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis). an electron microprobe analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, R; Dörge, A; Katz, U; Bauer, R; Thurau, K

    1980-05-01

    The effect of saline adaptation on the intracellular Na, K, Cl, P concentrations and dry weight content of the toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis) was studied using the technique of electron microprobe analysis. The measurements were performed on isolated abdominal skins either directly after dissection or after additional incubation in Ussing-type chambers. Adaptations of the toads to increasing NaCl concentrations for 7 days resulted in increased blood plasma osmolarity and a parallel increase in the cellular electrolyte, P and dry weight concentrations of the epithelium, the K increase representing the most significant fraction of the intracellular osmolarity increase. No evidence was obtained to show that the nucleus and cytoplasm reacted differently from each other and all living epithelial cell types basically showed the same response. Incubation of the isolated skins under control conditions showed a drastic inhibition of the transepithelial Na transport after adaptation to high salinities. In spite of the large variations in the transport rate almost identical intracellular electrolyte concentrations were observed. In tap water adapted toads the average cellular concentrations were 8.8 mmole/kg wet weight for Na, 109.6 for K, 41.5 for Cl, and 135.3 for P, respectively. Incubation of the skin with Ringer's solution of different osmolarities demonstrated that the epithelial cells are in osmotic equilibrium with the inner bathing solution. The results are consistent with the view that the osmotic adaptation is mainly accomplished by the movement of water. PMID:7191092

  17. Effects of copper on growth, metamorphosis and endocrine disruption of Bufo gargarizans larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Liang, Gang; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles were exposed to copper (1, 6.4, 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper) from the beginning of larval period through completion of metamorphosis. We examined the effects of chronic copper exposure on mortality, growth, time to metamorphosis, tail resorption time, body size at the metamorphic climax (Gs 42) and completion of metamorphosis (Gs 46) and thyroid gland histology. In addition, type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. Our result showed that 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper concentration increased the mortality and inhibited the growth of B. gargarizans tadpoles. In addition, significant reduction in size at Gs 42 and a time delay to Gs 42 were observed at 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper treatments. Moreover, histological examinations have clearly revealed that 64μgL(-1) copper caused follicular cell hyperplasia in thyroid gland. According to real-time PCR results, exposure to 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of Dio3, but down-regulated mRNA expression of TRα and TRβ mRNA level. We concluded that copper delayed amphibian metamorphosis through changing mRNA expression of Dio3, TRα and TRβ, which suggests that copper might have the endocrine-disrupting effect.

  18. Urea transport across urinary bladder and salt acclimation in toad (Bufo viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpun, S; Katz, U

    1990-04-01

    The fluxes of urea across the urinary bladder of the toad Bufo viridis have been studied under conditions of acclimation to tap water or 500 mosM NaCl solution. The [14C]urea fluxes were measured simultaneously with [3H]inulin to test for nonspecific leakage. The fluxes are quite high (Ktrans = 75 x 10(-7) cm/s at 5 mmol/l urea) and are similar in either the mucosal-to-serosal or the opposite direction. "Summer" rates were five to six times higher than the "winter" rates. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), theophylline, and forskolin increased the fluxes to variable degrees (two to five times), similar in the two acclimation conditions. Phloretin inhibited the urea fluxes by nearly 50%. 1,3-Dimethylurea and thiourea, but not acetamide, competed with the urea fluxes effectively. The fluxes of urea were not affected by the osmotic water flow, although both responded to ADH. It is concluded that urea transport across the urinary bladder of B. viridis is by facilitated diffusion through a specific pathway independent of water flux. The inhibitory effect of the structural analogues on the urea flux was affected by salt acclimation, whereas most other characteristics did not differ significantly at 5 mmol/l external urea under the two conditions of acclimation. PMID:2331031

  19. Diagnostic histological findings in Yosemite toads (Bufo canorus) from die-off in the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.E.; Sherman, C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve adult and 25 larval Yosemite toad (Bufo canorus) specimens from the eastern Sierra Nevada of California were examined histologically for evidence of infectious, toxicological, and degenerative diseases. The preserved toads were selected from 21 that had been salvaged or collected during a die-off in 1976-1979 that immediately preceded a population decline. Causes of death of four toads were determined histologically; clinical signs and field observations suggested causes of death of three more. Four toads died of infectious diseases, including chytridiomycosis of the skin (N = 1), bacillary septicemia (N = 2), and combined chytridiomycosis and bacterial septicemia (N = 1). Infections by a funguslike organism (Dermosporidium penneri), renal myxozoa (Leptotheca ohlmacheri), larval Rhabdias, various gastrointestinal nematodes, urinary bladder flukes, and lung flukes were detected in five specimens. No evidence of degenerative diseases, virus infections, or intoxications was found. The variety of lethal diseases and our inability to determine the causes of death of five specimens suggests that one or more histologically undetectable diseases or intoxications may have also contributed to the deaths and population decline.

  20. Genomewide scan for adaptive differentiation along altitudinal gradient in the Andrew's toad Bufo andrewsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baocheng; Lu, Di; Liao, Wen Bo; Merilä, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of humans, dogs and rodents have started to discover the genetic underpinnings of high altitude adaptations, yet amphibians have received little attention in this respect. To identify possible signatures of adaptation to altitude, we performed a genome scan of 15 557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained with restriction site-associated DNA sequencing of pooled samples from 11 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) from the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, spanning an altitudinal gradient from 1690 to 2768 m.a.s.l. We discovered significant geographic differentiation among all sites, with an average FST   = 0.023 across all SNPs. Apart from clear patterns of isolation by distance, we discovered numerous outlier SNPs showing strong associations with variation in altitude (1394 SNPs), average annual temperature (1859 SNPs) or both (1051 SNPs). Levels and patterns of genetic differentiation in these SNPs were consistent with the hypothesis that they have been subject to directional selection and reflect adaptation to altitudinal variation among the study sites. Genes with footprints of selection were significantly enriched in binding and metabolic processes. Several genes potentially related to high altitude adaptation were identified, although the identity and functional significance of most genomic targets of selection remain unknown. In general, the results provide genomic support for results of earlier common garden and low coverage genetic studies that have uncovered substantial adaptive differentiation along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in amphibians. PMID:27289071

  1. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Descripción de dos renacuajos y una clave para las larvas conocidas del grupo Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae de Perú

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    César Aguilar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los renacuajos de Bufo arequipensis y Bufo cophotis. Ningún carácter externo examinado permite distinguir la larva de las especies nominales B. arequipensis, B. flavolineatus y B. trifolium. La larva de Bufo limensis se diferencia de las de B. flavolineatus y B. trifolium por presentar un espacio menor en la segunda fila anterior de dentículos labiales y una fórmula de dentículos labiales (LTRF igual a 2(2/3[1]. B. cophotis difiere de B. limensis, B. flavolineatus y B. trifolium por presentar la altura máxima de la cola en su extremo posterior, una coloración marrón oscura en el cuerpo y cola, y un LTRF igual a 2(2/3(1. Se proporciona una clave de identificación para las larvas conocidas del grupo spinulosus presentes en Perú.

  3. Biology of the first generation of a laboratory colony of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926 (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    José Dilermando Andrade Filho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sand flies Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926 are very close and may be involved in the transmission of Leishmania spp. Ross, 1903 in Brazil. The biology of the first laboratory-reared generations of these species, descended from insects captured in Além Paraíba (N. intermedia and Corinto (N. neivai in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, is described here. The captured females were fed on hamsters and maintained individually in rearing pots. Laboratory temperature and relative humidity were maintained at 25-26ºC and 80% respectively. The productivity of the first generation of N. intermedia was greater than that of N. neivai, and its development time clearly shorter, particularly for the second and third larval instars.

  4. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B

    1980-05-01

    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and smaller in the toad. In contrast, granulated juxtaglomerular arteriolar myoephithelial cells were much more readily found and larger in the toad than in the axolotl. No consistent differences were noted in juxtaglomerular cells or their granules in response to changes in environmental chloride concentration.

  5. Developmental time of immature forms of Sabethes aurescens Lutz (Diptera, Culicidae from artificially perforated bamboo in the rain forest of southern Brazil Tempo de desenvolvimento de formas imaturas de Sabethes aurescens Lutz (Diptera, Culicidae provenientes de bambus artificialmente perfurados em floresta atlântica do sul do Brasil

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    Gerson Azulim Muller

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development time of the immature forms of Sabethes aurescens Lutz, 1905, from perforated bamboo in the southern Brazil rain forest was studied under laboratory conditions. Mean development periods were 5±2.23, 10±5.20, 14±8.26, 36±13.90 and 9±2.43 days, respectively, for the four larval instars and pupae. The 4th instar of females was longer than that of males. Implications of the long development time of the immature forms of Sa. aurescens are discussed.O tempo de desenvolvimento de formas imaturas de Sabethes aurescens Lutz, 1905 de bambus perfurados da floresta atlântica do sul do Brasil foi estudado em condições de laboratório. O período médio de desenvolvimento foi de 5±2,23; 10±5,20; 14±8,26; 36±13,90 e 9±2,43 dias respectivamente, para os quatro instares larvais e pupa. O 4º instar das fêmeas foi mais longo do que o dos machos. Implicações do longo tempo de desenvolvimento das formas imaturas de Sa. aurescens são discutidas.

  6. Interação flebotomíneos, animais domésticos e dominância de Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 em área com alto grau de antropia, no Sul do Brasil Sandflies and domestic animals interaction and Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 predominance in an area with a high level of anthropy, in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueslei Teodoro

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se os resultados de coletas de flebotomíneos em área com elevado grau de antropia, no Município de São Jorge do Ivaí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A espécie predominante foi Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912. Verificou-se que o número de flebotomíneos diminuiu sensivelmente em duas residências com o deslocamento de uma pocilga, à distância de 100 metros das residências, e a desobstrução do porão de uma das residências.Information on phlebotomine collections in an area with a high level of human interference, in S. Jorge do Ivaí county, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, is reported. Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 was the dominant species. The number of sandflies in domiciles decreased sharply in the second period of collection. This occurred because a pigsty was moved to a distance of approximately 100 meters from the houses by and because the basement of one the houses was cleaned out.

  7. Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura

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    Ning Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin α-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two α-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

  8. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

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    O. Fridman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300-310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A, 820(B, 1368(C and 1915(D Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure.

  9. Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (bufonidae: bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah A; Savitzky, Alan H

    2004-05-01

    The parotoid glands of toads (Bufonidae) consist of large aggregations of granular glands located between the otic region of the skull and the scapular region. To determine the circulatory pattern of these glands, we perfused the vascular systems of Bufo alvarius, B. marinus, B. terrestris, and B. valliceps with either India ink or Microfil, a fine latex. The perfused glands were studied by gross dissection, microscopic examination, and histology. The vascular patterns of the parotoid glands were compared to the arrangement of vessels in the dorsal skin of Rana sphenocephala (Ranidae), a frog that lacks parotoid glands. The parotoid glands of the four species of toads are supplied with blood by the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries and are drained by one or more branches of the internal jugular vein. The dorsal cutaneous artery supplies most of the blood to the parotoid glands in B. terrestris and B. valliceps. In B. alvarius and B. marinus, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries serve major roles in the blood supply of the glands. These patterns of blood flow have not been described previously for parotoid glands and conflict with earlier accounts for B. alvarius and B. marinus. The arteries and veins associated with the parotoid glands of toads are present in R. sphenocephala, but are arranged differently. In R. sphenocephala, the lateral cutaneous artery supplies the dorsal and lateral skin posterior to the shoulder region, whereas the dorsal cutaneous artery supplies the skin of the shoulder region. In toads, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries supply the skin of the shoulder region and ramify into subcutaneous capillaries that surround the secretory units of the parotoid glands. Extensive vasculature presumably is important for delivering cholesterol and other precursor molecules to the parotoid glands, where those compounds are converted into toxins.

  10. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

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    Karolina Stark

    Full Text Available Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later, to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  11. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae

  12. Natural and experimental infection of the lizard Ameiva ameiva with Hemolivia stellata (Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) of the toad Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, R; De Souza, M C; Franco, C M

    2007-12-01

    Developmental stages of a haemogregarine in erythrocytes of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae), from Pará State, north Brazil, were shown to be those of Hemolivia by the nature of the parasite's sporogonic cycle in the tick Amblyomma rotondatum. The type species, Hemolivia stellata Petit et al., 1990 was described in the giant toad Bufo marinus and the tick Amblyomma rotondatum, also from Pará State, and in view of the fact that A. ameiva and Bufo marinus share the same habitat and are both commonly infested by A. rotondatum, the possibility that the parasite of A. ameiva is H. stellata had to be considered. Uninfected lizards fed with material from infected ticks taken from B. marinus, and others fed with liver of toads containing tissue-cysts of H. stellata, were shown to subsequently develop typical Hemolivia infections, with all stages of the development similar to those seen in the naturally infected lizards. Conversely, a juvenile, uninfected toad became infected when fed with sporocysts of Hemolivia in a macerated tick that had fed on an infected A. ameiva and pieces of liver containing tissuecysts from the same lizard. The remarkable lack of host specificity shown by H. stellata, in hosts so widely separated as an amphibian and a reptile, is discussed. PMID:18225421

  13. Natural and experimental infection of the lizard Ameiva ameiva with Hemolivia stellata (Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae of the toad Bufo marinus

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    Lainson R.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stages of a haemogregarine in erythrocytes of the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae, from Pará State, north Brazil, were shown to be those of Hemolivia by the nature of the parasite’s sporogonic cycle in the tick Amblyomma rotondatum. The type species, Hemolivia stellata Petit et al., 1990 was described in the giant toad Bufo marinus and the tick Amblyomma rotondatum, also from Pará State, and in view of the fact that A. ameiva and Bufo marinus share the same habitat and are both commonly infested by A. rotondatum, the possibility that the parasite of A. ameiva is H. stellata had to be considered. Uninfected lizards fed with material from infected ticks taken from B. marinus, and others fed with liver of toads containing tissuecysts of H. stellata, were shown to subsequently develop typical Hemolivia infections, with all stages of the development similar to those seen in the naturally infected lizards. Conversely, a juvenile, uninfected toad became infected when fed with sporocysts of Hemolivia in a macerated tick that had fed on an infected A. ameiva and pieces of liver containing tissue-cysts from the same lizard. The remarkable lack of host specificity shown by H. stellata, in hosts so widely separated as an amphibian and a reptile, is discussed.

  14. Helmintos parásitos de anfibios: Dos Especies de Nemátodos parásitos de Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi

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    Asucena Naupay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo sobre los helmintos que parasitan a Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi de la localidad de Huánuco, se presentan dos especies conocidas para la ciencia pero una de ellas nueva para el Perú.

  15. Microsatellite analysis of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) in Denmark: populations are islands in a fragmented landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allentoft, Morten Erik; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Briggs, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    The European natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) has declined rapidly in recent years, primarily due to loss of habitat, and in Denmark it is estimated that 50% of the isolated populations are lost each decade. To efficiently manage and conserve this species and its genetic diversity, knowledge...

  16. Polymorphism, inter-population and inter-specific variation in Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae Polimorfismo, variação interpopulação e interespecífica em Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva e Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

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    José Dilermando Andrade Filho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto are morphologically very close and both present great variation in some structures. The objective of this study is a description of the variation among the females of these species in populations from the States of Minas Gerais and São Paulo. The morphological structures studied were the number of horizontal teeth in the cibarium and the number of rings and the shape of the terminal knob of the spermathecae. The spermatheca rings are significantly more numerous in N. intermedia than in N. neivai and the simple shape of the terminal knob predominated in both species. Regarding the cibarium, eight to eleven teeth have been found in both species, with up to twelve teeth in the latter. The number of horizontal teeth and the shape of the terminal knob of the spermathecae were variable throughout the populations of both species and all structures were polymorphic in the populations studied.Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva e Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto são muito semelhantes morfologicamente e ambas apresentam grande variação em algumas estruturas. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a variação ocorrida em fêmeas destas espécies, provenientes dos Estados de Minas Gerais e São Paulo. As estruturas morfológicas estudadas foram o número de dentes horizontais no cibário e o número de anéis e forma da cabeça da espermateca. O número de anéis nas espermatecas foi significativamente maior em N. intermedia e forma da cabeça da espermateca simples predominou em ambas. Com relação ao cibário, foi encontrada uma variação de oito a onze dentes horizontais nas duas espécies, chegando a doze em N. intermedia. O número de dentes horizontais e a forma da cabeça da espermateca foram variáveis em todas as populações estudadas e todas as estruturas pesquisadas foram consideradas polimórficas.

  17. Post-breeding habitat use by adult Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) after wildfire in Glacier National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guscio, C.G.; Hossack, B.R.; Eby, L.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of wildfire on amphibians are complex, and some species may benefit from the severe disturbance of stand-replacing fire. Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA increased in occurrence after fires in 2001 and 2003. We used radio telemetry to track adult B. boreas in a mosaic of terrestrial habitats with different burn severities to better understand factors related to the post-fire pulse in breeding activity. Toads used severely burned habitats more than expected and partially burned habitats less than expected. No toads were relocated in unburned habitat, but little of the study area was unburned and the expected number of observations in unburned habitat was < 3. High vagility of B. boreas and preference for open habitats may predispose this species to exploit recently disturbed landscapes. The long-term consequences of fire suppression likely have had different effects in different parts of the range of B. boreas. More information is needed, particularly in the northern Rocky Mountains, where toads are more likely to occupy habitats that have diverged from historic fire return intervals. Copyright ?? 2008. C. Gregory Guscio. All rights reserved.

  18. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  19. Ocorrência de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 e Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Bufo arenalis no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurence of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 and Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae in Bufo arenalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a ocorrência do parasitismo monoespecífico de A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 e A. humerale KOCH, 1844 em sapos (Bufo arenalis no Município de Rosana, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este relato caracteriza um novo hospedeiro e uma nova localização geográfica para estas duas espécies de carrapatos.The objective of this work is to describe the occurence of the monoespecific parasitism of A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 and A. humerale KOCH, 1844 in toads (Bufo arenalis from the County of Rosana, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This is the description of a new host and new geographic site for those two species.

  20. Morphological and genetic differentiation among Chilean populations of Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae Diferenciación morfológica y genética entre poblaciones chilenas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Méndez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Bufo spinulosus has a wide and fragmented range distribution in Chile (18° to 33° S along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. Genetic variation was estimated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers in 10 populations from northern and central Chile. Morphometric and genetic information was analyzed as a function of geographical origin. The correlation between genetic and morphometric differentiation was analyzed by the Mantel test. An increase in body size as a function of latitude was observed. Specimens from El Tatio had the smallest body size and the greatest morphometric divergence. The AMOVA applied to genetic data indicated that 57.85 % of the variance is explained by interregional differences and that 30.12 % of the variance is found within populations. Low levels of within-regions genetic differentiation was observed in northern populations while higher levels of genetic differentiation was found in populations from central Chile. Mantel tests revealed a significant, positive correlation between genetic variation and geographic distance. When we excluded El Tatio population, Mantel test analyses showed significant correlations between morphological distance and genetic and geographic distances. We discuss whether water temperature could explain the morphological divergence observed in individuals from El TatioBufo spinulosus presenta una amplia y fragmentada distribución en Chile (18º a 33º S a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales y latitudinales. La variación genética fue estimada utilizando marcadores RAPD ("Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA" en diez poblaciones del norte y centro de Chile. La información morfométrica y genética fue analizada en función de la procedencia geográfica. La correlación entre diferenciación genética y morfométrica fue analizada utilizando la prueba de Mantel. Se observó un incremento en el tamaño corporal en función de la latitud. Los individuos de El Tatio mostraron el tama

  1. The diet of Scinax angrensis (Lutz tadpoles in an area of the Atlantic Forest (Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae Dieta de girinos de Scinax angrensis (Lutz na Floresta Atlântica (Mangaratiba, Rio deJaneiro (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

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    Izidro F. de Sousa Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Scinax angrensis (Lutz, 1973 is an endemic species, which occurs in low altitude hillside forests, distributed from the municipalities of Mangaratiba to Parati in the south of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the morphology of S. angrensis tadpoles in two different stages of development, and verify their feeding spectrum. The mouth morphology of the two stages studied (27 and 37 appeared similar, with a difference in the size of the oral opening as well as an increase in the dimensions of the body. The examined species presented a trophic spectrum comprised of algae, protozoan, rotifers, microcrustaceans, nematodes, vegetation and invertebrate remains, fungus hyphae, and sand grains. Significant differences were found between dimensions of the two stages, but not between diets, although a differentiated preference with regards to planktonic items has been verified. The results suggest that the partitioning of feeding resources is not only related to morphology and occupation of different microhabitats but also to the feeding behaviour of tadpoles. The relevance of important food items to the natural diet of S. angrensis tadpoles, especially the diatoms and filamentous algae, reveal the importance of the periphytic community to the conservation of this species in the Atlantic Forest.Scinax angrensis (Lutz, 1973 é uma espécie endêmica ocorrendo em florestas de encosta de baixa altitude, no sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de comparar a morfologia e verificar o espectro alimentar de girinos de S. angrensis de dois estágios diferenciados de desenvolvimento. A morfologia bucal dos dois estágios (27 e 37 apresentou-se similar, havendo diferença de tamanho da abertura oral, bem como aumento das dimensões do corpo e da cauda. A espécie examinada apresentou um espectro trófico integrado por algas, protozoários, rotíferos, microcrustáceos, nematódeos, restos

  2. Isolation and sequencing of doublesex/male abnormal 3 (DM related transcription factor (Dmrt genes from the Asian toad Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842

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    Wen Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The doublesex/male abnormal 3 (dsx/mab-3 or DM domain gene family involved in sexual development encodes putative transcription factors including a DNA-binding homology motif, the DM domain. We used highly degenerate primers to clone and sequence seven distinct DM related transcription factor (Dmrt genes from the Asian toad (Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842. A database search for the cloned sequences revealed the following percentage identity with the homologous Dmrt genes of the human: BgDmrt1 = 97%, BgDmrt2 = 97%, three isoforms of BgDmrt3 (BgDmrt3a = 93%, BgDmrt3b = 95%, BgDmrt3c = 100% and two isoforms of BgDmrt5 (BgDmrt5 = 97%, BgDmrt5 = 91%. Based on DM domain amino acid sequence similarities we constructed a phylogenetic tree which grouped vertebrate and invertebrate Dmrt genes into seven distinct subfamilies. The DM domains of both human and the newly-discovered Bufo gargarizans genes contained two conserved zinc-chelating sites (CCHC and HCCC, except BgDmrt3b, which contained the CCRC and HCCC sites.

  3. A new linearly-combined bi-exponential model for kinetic analysis of the isometric relaxation process of Bufo gastrocnemius under electric stimulation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There was a slow-relaxing tail of skeletal muscles in vitro upon the inhibition of Ca2+-pump by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Herein, a new linearly-combined bi-exponential model to resolve this slow-relaxing tail from the fast-relaxing phase was investigated for kinetic analysis of the isometric relaxation process of Bufo gastrocnemius in vitro, in comparison to the single exponential model and the classical bi-exponential model. During repetitive stimulations at a 2-s interval by square pulses of a 2-ms duration at 12 V direct currency (DC), the isometric tension of Bufo gastrocnemius was recorded at 100 Hz. The relaxation curve with tensions falling from 90% of the peak to the 15th datum before next stimulation was analyzed by three exponential models using a program in MATLAB 6.5. Both the goodness of fit and the distribution of the residuals for the best fitting supported the comparable validity of this new bi-exponential model for kinetic analysis of the relaxation process of the control muscles. After CPA treatment, however, this new bi-exponential model showed an obvious statistical superiority for kinetic analysis of the muscle relaxation process, and it gave the estimated rest tension consistent to that by experimentation, whereas both the classical bi-exponential model and the single exponential model gave biased rest tensions. Moreover, after the treatment of muscles by CPA, both the single exponential model and the classical bi-exponential model yielded lowered relaxation rates,nevertheless, this new bi-exponential model had relaxation rates of negligible changes except much higher rest tensions. These results suggest that this novel linearly-combined bi-exponential model is desirable for kinetic analysis of the relaxation process of muscles with altered Ca2+-pumping activity.

  4. Estudio morfométrico sobre el desarrollo y evolución de las glándulas tiroides durante la metamorfosis de Bufo arenarum

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    Miranda, Leandro Andrés

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el desarrollo y la evolución de las glándulas tiroideas durante la morfogénesis de Bufo arenarum. Usando diferentes parámetros morfométricos, hemos relacionado el crecimiento y desarrollo larval con el desarrollo de las glándulas tiroideas. Se observó que la longitud total, el peso de las larvas, el volumen glandular tiroideo y el diámetro folicular, aumentan hasta el estadio XV (fin de la prometamorfosis, mientras que el número de folículos y la altura de las células foliculares tiroideas se incrementan hasta el estadio XVII (mitad del clímax metamórfico. Todos estos parámetros disminuyeron considerablemente durante el clímax metamórfico mientras que en animales postmetamórficos se observó un incremento en los valores registrados. En base a los resultados obtenidos concluimos que hay un período de síntesis y almacenamiento de hormonas tiroideas durante el crecimiento larval y un segundo período caracterizado por la liberación de hormonas tiroideas hacia el final de la prometamorfosis y durante el clímax metamórfico. We studied the development and evolution of thyroid glands during Bufo arenarum morphogenesis. Using different morphometric parameters we related larval growth and metamorphosis with thyroid glands development We observed that total length, larval weight, thyroid gland volume and follicle diameter increased until stage XV (end of prometamorphosis, meanwhile the number of follicles and follicle cell height increased until stage XVII (midclimax. All these parameters decreased during metamorphic climax and an increase was observed in postmetamorphic animals. Our results lead us to conclude that during larval growth there is a period of synthesis and store of thyroid hormones. There is a second period characterized by thyroid hormones release during the end of prometamorphosis and metamorphic climax.

  5. Genotoxicity of the Herbicide Butachlor on Bufo gargarizans gargarizans Tadpoles%丁草胺对中华大蟾蜍蝌蚪的遗传毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玲; 姚丹; 钟碧瑾; 房振华; 王楠楠; 耿艳; 耿宝荣

    2009-01-01

    以中华大蟾蜍(Bufo gargarizans gargarizans)蝌蚪为研究对象,采用微核实验和碱性单细胞凝胶电泳法(又称彗星实验,SCGE)检测不同质量浓度(0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4 mg/L)的丁草胺溶液对中华大蟾蜍蝌蚪红细胞的遗传毒性.结果表明:在实验室条件下,丁草胺质量浓度越高,蝌蚪红细胞的微核率和核异常率越显著.经丁草胺溶液处理24 h,蝌蚪红细胞的细胞损伤率及DNA损伤程度(彗星DNA长宽比)出现极显著的提高,并与丁草胺质量浓度呈显著的线性关系.研究表明丁草胺对两栖动物具有遗传毒性作用,同时也说明微核实验和碱性单细胞凝胶电泳法是检测环境污染对两栖动物遗传毒性的合适方法.%Micro-nuclear test and the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE) or comet assay was performed to examine the genotoxicity of butachlor on erythro-cytes of Bufo gargarizans gargarizans tadpoles exposed to increasing concentration of the tested substance (0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4 mg/L). The results showed that both micro-nuclear frequency and nuclear abnormity frequency were significantly increased with the increasing concentration of butachlor in laboratory condition. Tadpoles treated for 24 h had significant, dose-responsive increases in the levels of DNA damage, as measured by the mean DNA length: width ratio. There were strong linear correlations between cells damage frequency, the mean DNA damage (length-to-width ratios) and the concentrations of butachlor. The results of this study indicate that butachlor produce genotoxicity in amphibians, and that using micro-nuclear test and SCGE may be useful for measuring DNA damage in tadpoles exposed in the field.

  6. Drift rather than selection dominates MHC class II allelic diversity patterns at the biogeographical range scale in natterjack toads Bufo calamita.

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    Inga Zeisset

    Full Text Available Study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC loci has gained great popularity in recent years, partly due to their function in protecting vertebrates from infections. This is of particular interest in amphibians on account of major threats many species face from emergent diseases such as chytridiomycosis. In this study we compare levels of diversity in an expressed MHC class II locus with neutral genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in natterjack toad (Bufo (Epidalea calamita populations across the whole of the species' biogeographical range. Variation at both classes of loci was high in the glacial refugium areas (REF and much lower in postglacial expansion areas (PGE, especially in range edge populations. Although there was clear evidence that the MHC locus was influenced by positive selection in the past, congruence with the neutral markers suggested that historical demographic events were the main force shaping MHC variation in the PGE area. Both neutral and adaptive genetic variation declined with distance from glacial refugia. Nevertheless, there were also some indications from differential isolation by distance and allele abundance patterns that weak effects of selection have been superimposed on the main drift effect in the PGE zone.

  7. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus

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    Anup Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.

  8. Effects of temperature on embryonic and larval development and growth in the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita in a semi-arid zone

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    Sanuy, D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects the duration of embryonic and larval periods in amphibians. Plasticity in time to metamorphosis is especially important in amphibian populations of Mediterranean semi-arid zones where temperatures are high and precipitation is low, increasing the rate of pond desiccation. In order to test the influence of water temperature on the larval development and growth of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita, we collected two spawns in a semi¿arid zone at Balaguer (Lleida, NE Iberian peninsula. Approximately 50 (+/-10 eggs (stage 14-16 were raised in the lab at different temperature conditions: 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25ºC with 12:12 photoperiod. The results show a lengthening of development time with decreasing temperatures and a better survival performance of B. calamita to high temperatures. However, mean size at metamorphosis was not different across treatments, thus, suggesting that this population of B. calamita requires a minimum size to complete the metamorphosis. This study is the first approach to examine the effects that climatic factors have on the growth and development of B. calamita in semi-arid zones.

  9. Thubunaea dactyluris Sensu Fabio and Rolas, a synonym of Physalopteroides venancioi (Spirurida, Physalopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Bursey, C R

    2000-10-01

    Specimens of Thubunaea dactyluris Karve, 1938 sensu Fabio and Rolas, 1974 from the lizard Ameiva ameiva of Brazil and types of Physalopteroides venancioi (Lent, Freitas, and Proença, 1946) from the toad Bufo paracnemis of Paraguay were re-examined. The male caudal papillae and the tooth arrangement demonstrated that these specimens were conspecific and are all assigned to P. venancioi. The occurrence of Physalopteroides dactyluris (Karve, 1938), a nematode parasite of lizards of India and Turkmenistan, is invalidated for Brazil. PMID:11128504

  10. Exposure of toad embryos and larvae to pesticides. Use of nuclear technique to determine their effect on the reproduction, survival and potential risk to Bufo arenarum populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of pesticides is currently the most common method used to control agricultural pests. However, undesired effects on non-target organisms and pollution of the soil, air and water are frequent consequences. Amphibians are good bioindicators of the presence of contaminants in the environment, because they are semi-aquatic animals located at the top of the food chain. In many parts of the world, amphibian populations are declining, and many reasons have been suggested for these losses. Although a link between widespread decline and pesticide residues has yet to be established, it is suspected that contamination of their breeding sites with pesticide residues has had a deleterious effect on the reproduction and development of amphibians. Recent experiments with a widely distributed toad, Bufo arenarum Hensel, in South America, particularly in Argentina, indicate that a variety of insecticides affects the fertilization process through the activation of an enzyme that degrades the source of second messengers and is involved in transducing the sperm signal to the oocyte. This harmful effect is not restricted to the fertilization process, since embryonic and larval development are also affected, producing severe morphological and behavioural abnormalities in embryos. Embryonic and larval development influence the timing of metamorphosis, the susceptibility to predation, survival in the terrestrial environment, and even the success of future reproduction, these being the most sensitive period of a toad's life. Evaluation of the pesticides in our region showed their presence in many of the potential breeding sites, confirming that they may influence the survival of toad populations. (author). 18 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Strong reproductive barriers in a narrow hybrid zone of West-Mediterranean green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup with Plio-Pleistocene divergence

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    Perrin Nicolas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One key question in evolutionary biology deals with the mode and rate at which reproductive isolation accumulates during allopatric speciation. Little is known about secondary contacts of recently diverged anuran species. Here we conduct a multi-locus field study to investigate a contact zone between two lineages of green toads with an estimated divergence time of 2.7 My, and report results from preliminary experimental crosses. Results The Sicilian endemic Bufo siculus and the Italian mainland-origin B. balearicus form a narrow hybrid zone east of Mt. Etna. Despite bidirectional mtDNA introgression over a ca. 40 km North-South cline, no F1 hybrids could be found, and nuclear genomes display almost no admixture. Populations from each side of the contact zone showed depressed genetic diversity and very strong differentiation (FST = 0.52. Preliminary experimental crosses point to a slightly reduced fitness in F1 hybrids, a strong hybrid breakdown in backcrossed offspring (F1 x parental, with very few reaching metamorphosis and a complete and early mortality in F2 (F1 x F1. Conclusion Genetic patterns at the contact zone are molded by drift and selection. Local effective sizes are reduced by the geography and history of the contact zone, B. balearicus populations being at the front wave of a recent expansion (late Pleistocene. Selection against hybrids likely results from intrinsic genomic causes (disruption of coadapted sets of genes in backcrosses and F2-hybrids, possibly reinforced by local adaptation (the ranges of the two taxa roughly coincide with the borders of semiarid and arid climates. The absence of F1 in the field might be due to premating isolation mechanisms. Our results, show that these lineages have evolved almost complete reproductive isolation after some 2.7 My of divergence, contrasting sharply with evidence from laboratory experiments that some anuran species may still produce viable F1 offspring after > 20

  12. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis) Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchen, Jörn F; Reichert, Samuel J; Röhr, Johannes T; Dieterich, Christoph; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis) specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%), many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues) provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species. PMID:27232626

  13. The effect of detergents pollution on growth of Bufo melanostictus embryo and tadpoles%生活污水对黑眶蟾蜍胚胎及蝌蚪发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立; 徐剑

    2012-01-01

    两栖类蝌蚪发育对环境污染比较敏感,可用于对环境污染的生物监测.观察了黑眶蟾蜍胚胎及蝌蚪在生活污水中的发育情况,可以看出随着污染浓度增大,表现为胚胎及蝌蚪死亡率增加,发育时期延长,蝌蚪的体重增加延迟,体长发育延迟,尾部萎缩过程延迟.结果表明:黑眶蟾蜍胚胎在生活污水浓度达到10%为致死量,8%为半致死量.蝌蚪在生活污水中浓度达到80%为致死量,60%为半致死量,50%对发育明显影响,甚至致畸,50%对体长和尾长的影响最为明显.%The growth of amphibian tadpoles are sensitive to environmental pollution, which can be used for the biological monitoring of environmental pollution. Observing embryos and Bufo melanostictus tadpoles in a detergent-based domestic wastewater, with the increasing concentration, showing an increase in mortality, there are three aspects of development which is growth of the extension period, tadpole weight, body length and tail length affected. The results showed that the lethal dose of Bufo melanostictus embryos in sewage concentration is 10%, the semi-lethal dose of Bufo melauostictus embryos is 8%. The lethal dose to Tadpoles in the concentration of domestic sewage for up to 80%, the semi-lethal dose is 60%, 50% of sewage affected obviously, and even teratogenic, 50% of sewage is the most obvious of body length and tail length.

  14. Caracterización morfológica de larvas de anuros del Noroeste argentino

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    Fabrezi, Marissa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan caracteres morfológicos en larvas de catorce especies de anuros. Las especies analizadas son Bufo arenarum, B. paracnemis, Leptodadylus chaquensis, L. latinasus, Odontophrynus americanus, O. lavillai, Phrynohyas venulosa, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuqui, Pleurodema borellii, P. tucumana, Scinax fuscovaria y S. nasica. Estas especies se desarrollan en charcas temporarias del Noroeste de Argentina. Se caracterizan las larvas de cada especie por el análisis de la morfología externa e interna, caracteres de la cavidad oral, condrocráneo y arcos viscerales. Algunos de estos aspectos morfológicos se discuten con las hipótesis propuestas acerca de larvas generalizadas. We have analyzed morphological characters in tadpoles of fourteen anuran species. The species considered are Bufo arenaum, B. paracnemis, Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. latinasus, Odontopbynus americanus, O.lavillai, Phrynohyas venulosa, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuqui, Pleurodema borellii, P. tucumana, Scinax fuscovaria and S. nasica. They develop in similar temporary ponds of Northwestern of Argentina. We characterized the larvae of each species by the analyses on external morphology, internal oral features, chondrocranium and visceral archs. Some of these morphological aspects have been discussed with proposal hypotheses about generalized tadpoles.

  15. Behavior of toads, Bufo bufo, in a dynamic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, D V

    2009-01-01

    Susceptibility to motion sickness was tested by exposing free moving toads to rotation of a stimulator modeled after an amusement park Ferris Wheel. The stimulator provided a gentle stimulation of frequency 0.25 Hz and centrifugal acceleration 0.143 g during 120 min or more without external visual cues. No emetic or prodromal behavioral response was elicited during or after rotation. During rotation the amount of motor activity in most toads increased evidently. The most active toads attempted to climb out of the test chamber. It was inferred that experimental rotation was rather a stressful stimulus which initiated an escape response. In addition, during rotation the number of eye retractions and urination incidences increased, but appetite after rotation was inhibited. During rotation the motionless toads performed small regular head movements with period equal to rotation period of stimulator. These oscillations were probably vestibular (otolith) reaction to oscillating acceleration. The proposed resonance hypothesis gives a general idea of why lower vertebrates are immune to motion sickness.

  16. 长波紫外线照射对花背蟾蜍肾脏结构损伤%Impacts of long-wave ultraviolet radiation on kidney structure of Bufo Raddei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈婷婷; 李丕鹏; 聂颖; 陆宇燕

    2012-01-01

    为研究长波紫外线对花背蟾蜍(Bufo raddei)肾脏的损伤,用波长为365 nm的长波紫外线(UVA)以352 μW·cm-2的辐射量对花背蟾蜍亚成体进行150、300和450 min的连续照射,分别在照射后立即、3、6、9、12和15 d取材,常规石蜡切片.结果表明:UVA照射后,3组不同照射时间的花背蟾蜍肾脏整体结构基本完整,但均出现肾小管管壁破裂,管径显著缩小,肾小囊消失,而300 min照射组的损伤则极为明显,其后依次为450 min照射组与150 min照射组,300与450 min照射组的肾小体塌陷程度较150 min照射组更为严重;经15 d的恢复,虽出现明显好转,但大多指标仍与对照组间存在极显著性差异;UVA对花背蟾蜍肾脏有着不可忽视的损伤,虽然具有一定的自我修复的能力,但在野外,紫外辐射的增强和植被的减少可导致两栖类遭受过度的紫外辐射,进而引起两栖类种群的衰减.%In order to study the damage of long-wave ultraviolet (UVA) on Bufo raddei kidney, three groups of Bufo raddeis juveniles were irradiated continuously by 365 nm UVA with a dosage of 352 μW · cm-2 for 150, 300, and 450 min, respectively, and the kidney after the irradiation was dissected immediately and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days later, with its histological changes observed by general histological method. After the UVA radiation, the kidney structure was basically in integrity, except the fracture and visible constriction of renal tubule and the disappearance of renal capsule, which were most obvious in the 300 min group, followed by in 450 min group and in 150 min group. The damage to Malpigkian bodies was more serious in 300 and 450 min groups than in 150 min group. After 15 days recovery, though the damage was somewhat mitigated , most of the histological indices of the three experimental groups were significantly different from the control group. This study showed that the damage of UVA to B. raddei kidney could not be ignored in spite of

  17. 花背蟾蜍皮肤结构及其抗氧化和免疫功能的研究%Microstructure of toad (Bufo raddei) andits antioxidant and immune function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤娟; 李丕鹏; 陆宇燕

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the skin structure and function of the toad (Bufo raddei),the conventional paraffin section technique and ELISA were adopted to observe the microstructural characteristics of its dorsal skin,ventral skin and skin glands;and determine the contents of SOD,CAT,MDA,TLR4 andβD-1 of the dorsal skin and ventral skin, respectively.The results show that the toad skin structures are similar to other amphibians.That is the ventral cuticle thicker than the dorsal,the dorsal epidermis and dermis thicker than the ventral,granular glands mainly in the dorsal skin,and mucous glands in the ventral skin.SOD and TLR4 examined in the ventral skin are higher than in the dorsal skin,CAT containing in the dorsal skin is higher than in the ventral skin,but MDA andβD-1 are similar in these two areas.In conclusion,the structures and related protein levels of the toad skin closely adapt to the living environment,and have the antioxidant capacities and natural immune functions.%为了深入了解花背蟾蜍(Bufo raddei Strauch)皮肤显微结构及其相关功能,利用石蜡切片及酶联免疫吸附反应技术,观察了花背蟾蜍背腹侧皮肤及其皮肤腺的显微结构特点,分别测定了背、腹侧皮肤中 SOD、CAT、MDA、TLR4和βD-1含量。结果:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构与其他两栖类皮肤结构基本相同,其角质层腹侧较背侧厚,表皮和真皮背侧较腹侧厚;颗粒腺主要存在于背侧,而黏液腺主要存在于腹侧。SOD和TLR4含量腹侧皮肤高于背侧皮肤;CAT含量背侧皮肤较腹侧高;MDA和βD-1含量在背腹皮肤中相近。结论:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构和相关蛋白水平能够较好的适应其生境,并具有一定的抗氧化能力和天然免疫功能。

  18. Microstructure of toad (Bufo raddei) andits antioxidant and immune function%花背蟾蜍皮肤结构及其抗氧化和免疫功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤娟; 李丕鹏; 陆宇燕

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the skin structure and function of the toad (Bufo raddei),the conventional paraffin section technique and ELISA were adopted to observe the microstructural characteristics of its dorsal skin,ventral skin and skin glands;and determine the contents of SOD,CAT,MDA,TLR4 andβD-1 of the dorsal skin and ventral skin, respectively.The results show that the toad skin structures are similar to other amphibians.That is the ventral cuticle thicker than the dorsal,the dorsal epidermis and dermis thicker than the ventral,granular glands mainly in the dorsal skin,and mucous glands in the ventral skin.SOD and TLR4 examined in the ventral skin are higher than in the dorsal skin,CAT containing in the dorsal skin is higher than in the ventral skin,but MDA andβD-1 are similar in these two areas.In conclusion,the structures and related protein levels of the toad skin closely adapt to the living environment,and have the antioxidant capacities and natural immune functions.%为了深入了解花背蟾蜍(Bufo raddei Strauch)皮肤显微结构及其相关功能,利用石蜡切片及酶联免疫吸附反应技术,观察了花背蟾蜍背腹侧皮肤及其皮肤腺的显微结构特点,分别测定了背、腹侧皮肤中 SOD、CAT、MDA、TLR4和βD-1含量。结果:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构与其他两栖类皮肤结构基本相同,其角质层腹侧较背侧厚,表皮和真皮背侧较腹侧厚;颗粒腺主要存在于背侧,而黏液腺主要存在于腹侧。SOD和TLR4含量腹侧皮肤高于背侧皮肤;CAT含量背侧皮肤较腹侧高;MDA和βD-1含量在背腹皮肤中相近。结论:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构和相关蛋白水平能够较好的适应其生境,并具有一定的抗氧化能力和天然免疫功能。

  19. The influences of the herbicide glyphosate on nerve impulse generation and conduction of Bufo gargarizans%草甘膦胁迫对中华大蟾蜍(Bufo gargarizans)神经冲动产生和传导的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永红; 龙婉婉; 罗斯成; 尹彩萍; 龙进

    2007-01-01

    应用电生理方法研究了除草剂草甘膦对中华大蟾蜍 (Bufo gargarizans Cantor) 坐骨神经干冲动产生和传导的影响.用不同浓度的草甘膦溶液对中华大蟾蜍进行胁迫处理,草甘膦有效成分经由皮肤进入蟾蜍体内而作用于神经系统,利用生物信号采集处理系统测定草甘膦胁迫下中华大蟾蜍离体坐骨神经干的应激反应时间、动作电位幅度和冲动传导速度,结果表明:随着草甘膦溶液浓度的升高,中华大蟾蜍坐骨神经干接受刺激后产生冲动所需的时间逐渐延长,动作电位峰值降低,神经冲动传导速度亦逐渐减慢.草甘膦施用后,中华大蟾蜍7d内的平均应激反应时间与草甘膦浓度呈正相关,而动作电位幅度及传导速度均与草甘膦浓度呈负相关.草甘膦溶液浓度达到推荐农田使用浓度1.64~2.87ml/L时,各处理组蟾蜍的应激反应时间、动作电位幅度和冲动传导速度均与对照组差异极显著(P<0.01).同时,随着试验处理时间的延长,中华大蟾蜍神经干对刺激的反应变得更为迟钝,神经冲动的传导速度也进一步减慢.回归分析可知,中华大蟾蜍坐骨神经干的应激反应时间与草甘膦施用后天数呈正相关,而神经传导速度与药后天数呈负相关.由此可以说明,草甘膦胁迫条件下,中华大蟾蜍神经细胞对刺激反应的灵敏性降低,动作电位的产生及传导受到一定程度的抑制和阻碍.

  20. Pentastomídeos de répteis do Brasil: revisão dos cephalobaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arandas Rêgo

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os Cephalobaenidae (Pentastomida, depositados na coleção helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz e na coleção de parasitologia do Instituto Butantan. São redescritas e discutidas as espécies, Cephalobaena tetrapoda, C. freitasi, C. giglioli, Raillietiella furcocerca e Mahafaliella venteli. Esses parasitas foram coletados dos répteis: Lachesis sp., Drymarchon c. corais, Xenodon merremii, Crotatus terrificus, Amphisbaena sp., Tropidurus torquatus, Bothrops atrox, Mabuya punctata e de Bufo paracnemis (anfíbio.In this work the author studies Cephalobaenidae parasites using specimens from the helminthological collection of the Oswaldo Cruz and Butantan Institutes. This material was collected from Lachesis sp., Drymarchon corais, Xenodon merremii, Crotalus terrificus, Amphisbaena sp., Tropidurus torquatus, Bothrops atrox, Mabuya punctata (Reptilia and Bufo paracnemis (Amphibia. The species studied are Cephalobaena tetrapoda Heymons, 1922, Cephalobaena giglioli (Hett, 1924 comb. n., Cephalobaena freitasi (Motta & Gomes, 1968 comb. n., Raillietiella furcocerca (Diesing, 1836 and Mahafaliella venteli (Motta, 1965. C. recurvocauda becomes a synonym of C. tetrapoda and as do the specimens that Motta called erronously R. furcocerca. Raillietiella giglioli is changed to Cephalobaena giglioli (Hett, 1924 comb. n. The author describes here the male of C. giglioli for the first time. Travassostulida freitasi and T. acutiacanthus enter in synonymy with C. freitasi, and T. acutiacanthus is considered to be a subspecies of C. freitasi. Raillietiella gomesi becomes a synonym of R. furcocerca. The author discusses Mahafaliella venteli, and also questions the validity of the genus Gretillaria proposed by Motta for some species of Raillietiella. The latter is considered a synonym of Raillietiella.

  1. 中华蟾蜍蝌蚪变态过程中甲状腺的组织学变化%Changes of thyroid gland histological structures during the metamorphosis of Bufo gargarizans tadpole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 柴丽红; 吴民耀; 王宏元

    2012-01-01

    【目的】研究中华蟾蜍(Bufogargarizans)蝌蚪在不同发育阶段甲状腺的组织学变化。【方法】以处于变态高峰前后5期(28,33,38,42,46期)的中华蟾蜍蝌蚪为试验材料,用MoticBA300光学显微镜对各个发育时期蝌蚪的甲状腺进行组织学观察,测定蝌蚪的全长、体质量和肝质量等形态指标,并分析这些形态指标与甲状腺直径、滤泡平均直径及最大直径的线性相关性。【结果】在28期时,中华蟾蜍蝌蚪甲状腺出现但无分泌甲状腺激素的功能;33期时,甲状腺具备了分泌甲状腺激素的能力;此后甲状腺进一步发育,在蝌蚪前肢展开期甲状腺活性达到最强;至尾完全吸收期,甲状腺机能减弱。蝌蚪全长、体质量及肝质量与甲状腺直径及滤泡直径呈正线性相关。【结论】具有分泌机能的甲状腺出现的发育时期,与两栖动物变态类型相关;分泌高峰期出现的发育时期与幼体持续时间密切相关。中华蟾蜍蝌蚪的全长可以直观地反映其甲状腺的机能活性。%[Objective] The research was to study the changes of thyroid gland histological structures in tadpole of Bufo gargarizans during development. [Method] Tadpoles were taken from every five stages before and after metamorphosis(stage 28,stage 33,stage 38,stage 42 and stage 46),and histological struc- tures of thyroid glands in tadpoles were observed by Motic BA300 microscope. In addition, total length, body weight and liver weight of the tadpoles were measured. Then, the relationship was analyzed between total length, body weight, liver weight and thyroid gland, follicle diameter and follicle number. [Result] The thyroid gland was first present at the stage 28, but it lacked function. Thyroid gland possessed the abil- ity of secreting hormone at the stage 33. The activity of thyroid gland reached peak when forelimbs unfol- ded. The activity of thyroid gland declined

  2. Opus corpus: martirilogio bufo en tres cantos

    OpenAIRE

    Schrader París, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    “Opus Corpus” es un experimento que pasa necesariamente por el cuerpo –por mi cuerpo, en este caso- y que termina siendo catártico, psicomágico, sanador. El desamor es la prehistoria, la excusa, el material. La consecuencia son tres estados del cuerpo (uno detrás del otro, causalmente). Esta historia ordinaria está cantada (contada) desde los intestinos. Un primer cuerpo visceral empieza pidiendo a gritos ser volteado para que el desamor acumulado en sus entrañas se asolee u...

  3. Kinematics of Chinese toad Bufo gargarizans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional motion force tester for animal was used to measure the reaction forces of the feet of a Chinese toad (B. gargarizans) against a horizontal solid surface on which it crawled. The motion behavior of the Chinese toad was recorded by a high-speed camera on line. The motor function of every foot was analyzed. It was found that the lateral force represents the control ability of side-to-side locomotion, controls the lateral movement, and maintains a stable state for the sustainable creeping gesture. The forefeet play the assistant role and the hind feet play the main role in driving. The normal force of the forefeet is significantly greater than that of the hind feet, so the forefeet play the main role in supporting the body and the hind feet play the assistant role. The normal force is significantly greater than the lateral force and the driving force as well. There is little change for the friction force and the support angle of the all four feet. The average value of the support angle is 70°–80°. The Chinese toad’s vola friction coefficient of the forefeet is less than that of the hind feet. The above results indicate that the difference in kinematics and the material characteristic of the contact skin of the Chinese toad. The results could be useful to the structure design and gait optimization of some robots.

  4. Properties of a conductive cellular chloride pathway in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, P

    1978-01-01

    of the steady-state conductance and the steady-state chloride current reveal that the chloride pathway has maximum conductance for V approximately -80 mV (outside of the skin being negative) and approaches a non-conducting safe for V greater than 0 mV. This strong outward going rectification is a steady......-compartment model indicate that the strong steady-state chloride current rectification cannot be obtained if only the intracellular chloride concentration and the membrane potentials are allowed to vary ("Goldman-rectification"). It is suggested, therefore, that the premeability of the chloride pathway varies...

  5. 中华蟾蜍中脑视叶白介素1α、干扰素γ和肿瘤坏死因子α阳性细胞的分布%Distribution of IL-1α-, IFN-γ-and TNF-α-like immunoreactive cells in the optic lobe of Bufo gargariizans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乐乐; 刘再群

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution of IL-lα-, IFN-y- and TNF-α-like immunoreactive cells in the optic lobe of Bufo gargariizans, and get much more knowledge of cytokines expressed in the brain in amphibians to aim at providing basic information of the study on cytokines acting on the central nervous system. Methods: The immunohistochemical SABC method and Nissl staining were used to observe the distribution of cells in the optic lobe under a light microscope, and statistic analysis was also used. Results: There were many IL-lcr and IFN-y- like immunoreactive cells in the whole optic lobe. They were large, middle or small sized cells, but most of them were middle and small sized cells. Their bodies were round and cone like in shape. Also, two sub-layers imunoreactive fibres were observed in the stratum zonale. TNF-α-like immunoreactive cells with middle or small size were only distributed in the dorsal tegmentum. Their bodies were round in shape. ' Conclusion: IL-1α and IFN-y-like immunoreactive cells were widely present in the whole optic lobe of Bufo gargariizans, but TNF-crlike immunoreactive cells were only observed in the dorsal tegmentum. do%目的:研究中华蟾蜍中脑视叶白介素1α (IL-1α),干扰素γ(IFN-γ)和肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)免疫阳性细胞的形态和分布特点,以丰富细胞因子在两栖类神经系统表达的情况,为进一步研究细胞因子对中枢神经系统的作用积累材料.方法:采用免疫组织化学SABC法和Nissl法对中华蟾蜍中脑视叶切片进行显色,光镜观察并进行统计分析处理.结果:IL-1α和IFN-γ阳性细胞在中脑视叶顶盖和被盖都有很多分布,为大、中和小型细胞,而且以中、小型细胞为主,胞体为圆形和似锥形,另外顶盖带状层出现2亚层的阳性纤维;TNF-α阳性细胞只分布在中脑视叶被盖背侧区,都为中、小型细胞,胞体圆形. 结论:IL-1α和IFN-γ阳性细胞广泛分布中华蟾蜍中脑视叶各区,

  6. 浙江丽水中华大蟾蜍和黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪对水位变化的表型响应%Phenotypic responses to water level change in Bufo gargarizans and Duttaphrynus melanosticus tadpoles at Lishui, Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小芬; 樊晓丽; 林植华; 姚婷婷; 李香; 金晶; 周存通

    2015-01-01

    全球气候变暖引发栖息地干涸将对生活在水中的无尾类幼体提出了挑战.通过浙江丽水中华大蟾蜍(Bufo gargarizans)和黑眶蟾蜍(Duttaphrynus melanosticus)蝌蚪在实验条件下对不同水位变化的表型响应,检测表型可塑性的遗传性和环境近因性影响.结果表明,水位变化对中华大蟾蜍蝌蚪早期发育历期、头宽和体重影响不显著,对体长影响显著,其中逐减水位最大、恒低水位最小,慢波、恒高与快波、逐增水位依次减少;水位变化对黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪早期发育历期、体长、头宽和体重影响均显著;发育历期以恒高水位最大,恒低水位最小;体长以逐减水位最大,恒低、快波和慢波水位显著偏小,逐增和快波水位居中;头宽以恒低水位最小,逐增水位居中,其余较大;体重以恒低水位最小、恒高水位最大,其余居中.水位变化对中华大蟾蜍蝌蚪的变态时间、体长、头宽和体重影响均不显著;水位变化对黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪的变态时间、体长和体重影响均显著,对头宽影响不显著;恒低水位的变态时间最长,恒高水位的变态时间最短,其他水位变化之间差异不显著;恒高水位的体长最大,恒低和快波水位最小,其他居中;逐增和快波水位的体重最大,恒低水位最小.研究结果表明,繁殖季节不同的中华大蟾蜍和黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪响应水位变化的表型可塑性差异显著,长期在容易发生干旱和水位变化的冬季繁殖的中华大蟾蜍蝌蚪的表型可塑性低,在雨水充沛的春季繁殖的黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪的表型可塑性高,表现出表型可塑性的种间差异和遗传性;在早期发育过程中,两种蝌蚪体长的共同的表型变异与缺乏遗传基础的环境近因性影响有关;黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪对低水位或水位下降作出减速分化的消极响应,响应程度与环境信号的强弱直接相关.

  7. Baroreceptor control of heart rate in the awake toad: peripheral autonomic effectors and arterial baroreceptor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-da-Silva, L M; Menescal-de-Oliveira, L; Hoffmann, A

    2000-04-12

    Systemic injection of sodium nitroprusside (30 microg/kg, i.v.) in the awake Bufo paracnemis toad induced a fall in arterial blood pressure and tachycardia. This tachycardia, but not the hypotension, was significantly reduced in toads with bilateral electrolytic lesion of the caudal and commissural regions of the solitary tract nucleus and in animals with transection of the spinal cord, 2 mm below the obex. This indicates that the tachycardia is reflex, depends on the integrity of the solitary tract nucleus and is due to descending spinal autonomic activation. Pretreatment with propranolol (4 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly reduced the tachycardia but did not block it completely, showing the importance of beta-adrenoceptors in its genesis. The reflex increase in heart rate induced by nitroprusside was not statistically significant in animals with bilateral section of the laryngeal nerve, whose baroreceptor fibers originate from the pulmocutaneous artery or in animals in which the bilateral section of the laryngeal nerve was performed together with section of the glossopharyngeal nerves, which incorporate fibers originating from the carotid labyrinth. The reduction of the reflex tachycardia was significant in toads with aortic arch denervation alone or combined with section of the laryngeal nerves or in animals with complete denervation of the three baroreceptors areas. These results suggest that the region of the aortic arch, when submitted to unloading, is the most important baroreceptor zone for cardiac compensation in toads.

  8. Control of adipose tissue lipolysis in ectotherm vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, R H; Lima-Verde, J S; Machado, C R; Cardona, G M; Garofalo, M A; Kettelhut, I C

    1992-10-01

    Lipolytic activity of fish (Hoplias malabaricus), toad (Bufo paracnemis), and snake (Philodryas patagoniensis) adipose tissue was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Catecholamines or glucagon did not affect the release of free fatty acids (FFA) by incubated fish and toad adipose tissue. Catecholamines also failed to activate snake adipose tissue lipolysis, which even decreased in the presence of epinephrine. However, glucagon stimulated both the lipolytic activity of reptilian tissue in vitro and the mobilization of FFA to plasma when administered to snakes in vivo. The release of FFA from incubated fish, amphibian, and reptilian adipose tissue increased markedly in the presence of cAMP or xanthine derivatives, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase. Forskolin or fluoride, activators of specific components of the adenylate cyclase system, strongly stimulated toad adipose tissue lipolysis. The data suggest that adipocyte triacylglycerol lipase of ectotherm vertebrates is activated by a cAMP-mediated phosphorylation and that the organization of the membrane-bound adenylate cyclase system is similar to that of mammals. PMID:1329567

  9. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...... of inhibitors (thiocyanate, furosemide, phloretin, and acetazolamide) also affects chloride exchange diffusion, hyperpolarization current as well as chloride influx during hyperpolarization. Although in some cases, effects on the short circuit current were also observed none of the effects on chloride transport....... On the basis of these findings, and the results reported in the previous paper (Hviid Larsen and Kristensen 1977) it is considered probable that the membrane molecules responsible to chloride exchange diffusion under short circuit conditions, are rearranged under the influence of a hyperpolarizing clamping...

  10. Baseline susceptibility to alpha-cypermethrin in Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) from Lapinha Cave (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas DÁvila; Lopes, Josiane Valadão; Rocha, Marília Fonseca; Pinheiro, Letícia C.; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the increase in cases of visceral leishmaniasis in recent years, associated with the socio-economic impact of this disease, as well as the wide distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Brazil and the likelihood that this vector may develop resistance to insecticides used for control, the Ministry of Health considers as crucial the creation of a network in order to study and monitor the resistance of this vector to insecticides used for control. In this sense, this study aimed...

  11. Reading National Geographic, Catherine A. Lutz and Jane L. Collins, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Willoughby

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available As I write this, I have just received an advertisement from the National Geographic Society, saying that as a member, I have the opportunity to be one of the fIrst to purchase a volume on the greatest photographs ever published in the National Geographic. Like many others, especially anthropologists (I suspect, I grew up reading National Geographic, had access to,National Geographic publications, and probably got my fIrst images of different cultures and peoples from the magazine. How accurate a picture do we get? What does it attempt to portray and why? The burgeoning field of visual anthropology examines images and films and attempts to under­ stand them within their social context. How do photographs communicate or evoke ideas? What is the social framework in which they are produced-"the historical and cultural context that gives the photograph and its elements their meaning and significance"? What is the role of such images in our society, and do they play a major role in enculturation?

  12. Breeding sites of Culicoides pachymerus Lutz in the Magdalena River basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Carrasquilla

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The breeding sites of Culicoides pachymerus are described for the first time in western Boyacá Province, Colombia, where this species is a public health problem. In addition to being a nuisance due to its enormous density and its high biting rates, C. pachymerus cause dermatological problems in the human population. Analysis of microhabitats by the sugar flotation technique and the use of emergence traps allowed us to recover 155 larvae of Culicoides spp and 65 adults of C. pachymerus from peridomiciliary muddy substrates formed by springs of water and constant rainwater accumulation. These important findings could aid in the design of integrated control meas-ures against this pest.

  13. Sôbre o encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 detected in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis na localidade denominada Bairro do Arado, município de Salto de Pirapora, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Trata-se do primeiro registro concreto da presença dessa espécie em território paulista. Sugere-se a necessidade de investigar o significado epidemiológico dêsse achado.Lutzomyia longipalpis was found at the rural area named "Bairro do Arado", Salto de Pirapora County, São Paulo State, Brazil. This vector of visceral leihmaniasis is by the first time, surely recorded in the São Paulo State. The specimens were found in a chicken house built on rocks for observing the possibility of Triatoma arthurneivai colonization in artificial ecotopes. This suggests that the sandfly breeding places will possibly be found between or under the stones harbouring that triatomid bug. The necessity of epidemiological studies related to this found is emphasized.

  14. Implementation of an automated assessment system of the Winston-Lutz test based on the transformed generalized Hough; Implementacion de un sistema de evaluacion automatizada del test de Winston-Lutz basado en la transformada generalizada de Hough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.; Moreno Saiz, C.; Benitez Villegas, E. M.; Fernandez Canadillas, M. J.; Caballero Lucena, E.; Cantero Carrillo, M.

    2013-07-01

    It has implemented a software tool based on the generalized Hough transform to automate the evaluation of test WL This method provides a quantitative evaluation of the test. It also eliminates the subjectivity of the evaluator which is an uncertainty of 0.3 mm. (Author)

  15. Fonte alimentar sangüínea e a peridomiciliação de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Psychodidae, Phlebotominae Blood feeding sources and peridomiciliation of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Psychodidae, Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Oliveira Passos Dias

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se por meio da reação da precipitina, o conteúdo estomacal de Lutzomyia longipalpis nos ambientes intradomiciliar e peridoméstico, no Município de Raposa, Maranhão, área de transmissão de leishmaniose visceral ou "calazar". De 2.240 fêmeas capturadas, 547 (24,4% estavam alimentadas com sangue de vertebrados nas proporções que seguem: ave (87,9%; roedor (47,2%; humano (42,4%, cão (27,6%; mucura (26,6% e eqüino (22,5%. A investigação levada a efeito em 120 habitações confirmou a galinha como o animal doméstico mais comum no ambiente peridoméstico (28,3%, seguido pelo cão (21,7%, gato (17,5%, jumento (13,3%, pombo (7,5%, coelho (3,3% e pato (3,3%; enquanto o cavalo, marreco e porco representaram, cada um, 1,7%. Entre os animais sinantrópicos, a mucura foi a mais citada naquele ambiente (39,3%, seguida pelo rato (37,9%, morcego (14,3% guaxinim (3,6%, raposa (2,1%, cobra (1,4% e sapo (1,4%. A presença no peridomicílio de animais domésticos e sinantrópicos e o encontro de flebótomos alimentados, ao mesmo tempo, com sangue humano, de mucura e de canídeos, corroboram a hipótese de que a transmissão do calazar esteja ocorrendo realmente no ambiente antrópico, no Município de Raposa.A precipitin test was employed to study the alimentary tract content of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the intra- and peridomiciliary environments in the municipality of Raposa, Maranhão State, a transmission area for visceral leishmaniasis or kala azar. Out of 2,240 female sandflies captured, 547 (24.4% had fed on vertebrate blood, with the following proportions: avian (87.9%; rodent (47.2%; human (42.4%; canine (27.6%; opossum (26.6%; and equine (22.5%. Based on a survey of 120 human dwellings, chickens were found to be the most common domestic animals in the peridomicile (28.3%, followed by dogs (21.7%, cats (17.5%, donkeys (13.3%, pigeons (7.5%, rabbits (3.3%, ducks (3.3%, and horses, mallards, and pigs (1.7% each. Synanthropic animals included opossums (39.3%, followed by rats (37.9%, bats (14.3%, raccoons (3.6%, foxes (2.1%, snakes (1.4%, and frogs (1.4%. The peridomiciliary presence of domestic and synanthropic animals as well as sandflies that had fed on human, opossum, and canid blood supports the hypothesis that kala azar transmission has been taking place in the anthropic environment in the municipality of Raposa.

  16. Tribute to P.L. Lutz: cardiac performance and cardiovascular regulation during anoxia/Hypoxia in freshwwater turtles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, J.; Gesser, Hans; Wang, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    . The pronounced anoxia tolerance of the turtle heart is based on the ability to match energy consumption with the low anaerobic ATP production during anoxia. Together with a well-developed temporal and spatial energy buffering by creatine kinase, this allows for cellular energy charge to remain high...

  17. Sobre a ocorrência da Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 na Ilha Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. de Araújo Filho

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem peta primeira vez a presença de Lutzomyia longipalpis na Praia Vermelha, praia localizada na Ilha Grande, litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro e acentuam a importância epidemiológica do achado.

  18. Sobre a ocorrência da Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 na Ilha Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. de Araújo Filho

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem peta primeira vez a presença de Lutzomyia longipalpis na Praia Vermelha, praia localizada na Ilha Grande, litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro e acentuam a importância epidemiológica do achado.For the first time it has been detected Lutzomyia longipalpis at Praia Vermelha, a beach of an offshore island of the Rio de Janeiro State (Ilha Grande, Brazil and attention must be paid to its possible epidemiological importance.

  19. Biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae em condições experimentais: II. Influência de fatores ambientais no comportamento das formas imaturas e adultas Biology of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera, Psychodidae in experimental conditions: II. Influence of environmental factors in the behavior of immature stages and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth F. Rangel

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de ampliar os conheciemntos sobre a biologia de Lutzomyia intermedia e Lutzomya longipalpis, mantidos em colônias autônomas no laboratório, apresentamos dados referentes a alterações em seu comportamento determinadas por influência de fatores ambientais. L. longipalpis foi mais fácil de criar, mais produtiva e mais resitente ás variações das condições ambientais; suga a qualquer hora do dia, enquanto que L. intermedia prefere fazê-lo ao crepúsculo e à noite, quando também ocorrem masi freqüentemente as desovas e as ecdises dos adultos das duas espécies. As fases imaturas de ambas as espécies resistem à imersão na água por até 1 hora e a baixa temperatura de 5ºC por até 6 horas.Proceeding on our studies on the biology of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis in closed colonies in the laboratory, we here present our observations on changes in their behavior caused by environmental conditions. L. longipaldis was easier to breed, more productive and more resistant to environmental changes; it feeds at any time of the day or night, while L. intermedia prefers to do it at sunset and at night, the preferencial time for oviposition and ecdysis of adults of both species. The immature stages of both species resisted to immersion in water for up to 1 hour and low temperature (5ºC for 1 to 6 hours.

  20. Test Review: Bracken, B. A., & Keith, L. K. (2004). "Clinical Assessment of Behavior." Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Tanya N.

    2006-01-01

    The Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB) is designed to assess both adaptive and problematic behaviors of children and adolescents from age 2 to 18 years. It can be individually or group administered, measures behaviors in different contexts, and includes both parent and teacher forms. The test was developed to be consistent with current…

  1. Test Review: Abidin, R. R. (2012) "Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition" ("PSI-4"). Lutz, Florida: Psychological Assessment Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alyce O.

    2015-01-01

    The "Parenting Stress Index, Fourth Edition" (PSI-4) is a 120-item measure used to explore parental stress levels considering a parent's relationship with one of his or her children between the ages of 1 month and 12 years. The main purpose of the test is to define these stress levels and from where they originate in order to identify…

  2. Many unique characteristics revealed by the complete mitochondrial genome of the scorpion Tityus serrulatus (Lutz e Mello 1922) (Chelicerata; Arachnida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana Paula Vimieiro; Carmo, Anderson Oliveira do; Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Pimenta, Ricardo José Gonzaga; Chagas, Aline Torres de Azevedo; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2016-09-01

    This is the first complete mitochondrial genome of a Tityus species, although it is the most medically important genus in South America. Tityus serrulatus (Brazilian yellow scorpion) mtDNA revealed the same gene arrangement of three out of four other mitogenomes published by now for the same family (Centruroides limpidus, Mesobuthus gibbosus, M. martensii and Buthus occitanus). However, it presented many unique characteristics such as possession of Cox1 gene, different from all other protein-coding genes of scorpion mtDNA, starts with an atypical start codon (CTG). Moreover, no tRNA gene have complete typical secondary structure and the Tytius genome presented three non-coding regions longer than 100bp. Also, it contains the smallest scorpion 16S gene reported by now. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated homologous genes confirmed Buthidae as a monophyletic clade and supports a monophyletic group including T. serrulatus and the other American species, C. limpidus. PMID:26370626

  3. The influence of ambient salinity and temperature on lipid metabolism in toad (Bufo bufo) skin. Is phosphatidylethanolamine an endogenous regulator of ion channels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Willumsen, Niels J.

    1994-01-01

    ) were found in vivo, when toads adapted to Ringer solution were transferred to tap water containing tracer amounts of (32P) phosphate and (14C) acetate. PE could play a role in the formation of a "hydrophilic" environment and thereby, e.g. stabilise the integral membrane proteins that regulate...

  4. ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ ПОЧКИ У АМФИБИЙ В ЛИЧИНОЧНЫЙ ПЕРИОД РАЗВИТИЯ НА ПРИМЕРЕ ЖАБЫ ЗЕЛЕНОЙ (BUFO VIRIDIS LAURENTI, 1768)

    OpenAIRE

    СВЕТАШЕВА Д.Р.; ГРУШКО М.П.

    2014-01-01

    Описываются морфофизиологические особенности формирующегося мезонефроса у личинки зеленой жабы (Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768). Определено, что изученный орган, наряду с функцией выделения, выполняет функцию кроветворения на протяжении личиночного периода развития. В почке образуются элементы крови всех линий. Основную долю формирующихся элементов крови на протяжении всего личиночного периода развития составляли клетки эритропоэтического ряда, далее, по мере убывания – гранулоцитопоэтические и ...

  5. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Killorn, Erin E; Toews, Daniel P

    2001-01-01

    Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the poste...

  6. Determining the effects of cattle grazing treatments on Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus in montane meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K McIlroy

    Full Text Available Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA, managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY. Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010, Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models.

  7. Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT: We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n _ 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May–September. Adult captures during June–August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May–September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10- yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw little evidence of local extinction or ‘‘rescue,’’ but were unable to determine whether juveniles returned to natal ponds or colonized new ponds for breeding as adults. Oak toad conservation can best be ensured by maintaining multiple ponds within a landscape to increase the probability of recruitment within the landscape neighborhood during at least some years and at some ponds, and to increase the likelihood of interpond movement.

  8. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    ). for V = -50 mV the transepithelial Cl- conductance calculated from isotope flux measurements was 2.5 +/- 0.3 mS cm-2, N = 10. When the skin was clamped at + 50 mV the net flux of Cl- was reversed, but Cl- conductance was only 0.3 +/- 0.1 mScm-2. Flux ratio analysis indicated that the potential...

  9. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV inhibitory activity of parotid exudate of Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allenki Venkatesham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes arises as a result of β-cell failure combined with concomitant insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a gastrointestinal hormone that is released postprandially from the L cells of the gut and exerts a glucose- dependent and direct insulinotropic effect on the pancreatic β cell. Which activate adenylate cyclase and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by DPP-IV to GLP-1(9-37 amide following release from gut L cells. GLP-1 directly enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion via an increase in β-cell cAMP. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a plasma membrane glycoprotein ectopeptidase. In mammals, DPP-IV was widely expressed on the surface of endothelial and epithelial cells and highest levels in humans have been reported to occur in the intestine, bone marrow and kidney. Inhibiting DPP-IV reduces its rapid degradation of GLP-1, increasing circulating levels of the active hormone in vivo and prolonging its beneficial effects. The IC 50 value of parotid exudate was found to be 9.4 μg/ml. The maximum % inhibition (61.8 was showed at a concentration of 12μg/ml. Parotid exudate through inhibition of DPP-IV, improves glucose tolerance and enhances insulin secretion. DPP-IV inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents with a potential to improve pancreatic beta cell function and the clinical course of type 2 diabetes.

  10. Soil Organic Matter Content Effects on Dermal Pesticide Bioconcentration in American Toads (Bufo Americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural landscapes serve as active amphibian breeding grounds despite their seemingly poor habitat value. Activity of adults and dispersal of metamorphs to and from agricultural ponds occurs in most species from spring through late summer or early fall, a time that coincides...

  11. Macroinvertebrates as tadpole food: importance and body size relationships Macroinvertebrados como alimento de girinos: importância e relações com tamanho de corpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Dutra

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates as food were recorded for three anurans tadpoles: Hyla saxicola (Bokermann, 1964 (Hylidae, Scinax machadoi (Bokermann & Sazima, 1973 (Hylidae, and Bufo rubescens (Lutz, 1925 (Bufonidae. These species are commonly found in the mountain streams at Serra do Cipó National Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Tadpoles were collected in pools of second-order reach in Mascates stream and third and fourth order reaches of Indaiá stream from March-October, 2003. Biometrical data were recorded before dissecting each individual and a feeding importance index was estimated. Eight taxa of chironomids and three taxa of mayfly exuviae were found in the guts, but no significantly differences were found between tadpole species (ANOVA, p > 0.05. The results support the drift transport hypothesis that predicts that tadpoles commonly ingest suspended matter in lotic ecosystems, are generalist feeders, and macroinvertebrates are probably incidental ingested.A presença de macroinvertebrados como item na dieta de girinos foi estudada para as espécies Hyla saxicola (Bokermann, 1964 (Hylidae, Scinax machadoi (Bokermann & Sazima, 1973 (Hylidae e Bufo rubescens (Lutz, 1925 (Bufonidae. Estas espécies são comumente encontradas nos córregos de altitude no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os girinos foram coletados em poções em um trecho de segunda ordem no córrego Mascates, e em trechos de terceira e quarta ordens no córrego Indaiá, entre março e outubro de 2003. Medidas biométricas foram mensuradas antes da dessecação de cada indivíduo e foi estimado um índice de importância de alimentação para os macroinvertebrados encontrados. Oito taxa de Chironomidae e três taxa de exúvias de Ephemeroptera foram encontrados, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os macroinvertebrados encontrados nas espécies de girinos (ANOVA, p > 0,05. Os resultados obtidos corroboram a hipótese de transporte por

  12. Seasonal variation of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis was studied in two forested and five domiciliary areas of the urban area of Campo Grande; MS, from December 2003 to November 2005. Weekly captures were carried out with CDC light traps positioned on ground and in the canopy inside a residual forest and on the edge (ground) of a woodland and in at least one of the following ecotopes in peridomiciles-a cultivated area, a chicken coop, a pigsty, a kennel, a goat and sheep shelter and an intradomicile. A total of 9519 sand flies were collected, 2666 during the first year and 6853 during the second. L. longipalpis was found throughout the 2-year period, presenting smaller peaks at intervals of 2-3 months and two greater peaks, the first in February and the second in April 2005, soon after periods of heavy rain. Only In one of the woodlands was a significant negative correlation (p<0.05) between the number of insects and temperature during the first year and the climatic factors (temperature, RHA and rain) was observed. In the domiciliary areas in four domiciles some positive correlations (p< or =0.05) occurred in relation to one or more climatic factors; however, the species shows a clear tendency to greater frequency (72%) in the rainy season than in the dry (28%). Thus, we recommend an intensification of the VL control measures applied in Campo Grande, MS, during the rainy season with a view to reducing the risk of the transmission of the disease.

  13. Climatic factors and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) in an urban endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in midwest Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; dos Santos Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Araújo e Silva, Elaine; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2013-12-01

    The life cycle of vectors and the reservoirs that participate in the chain of infectious diseases have a strong relationship with the environmental dynamics of the ecosystems in which they live. Oscillations in population abundance and seasonality of insects can be explained by factors inherent in each region and time period. Therefore, knowledge of the relationship and influence of environmental factors on the population of Lutzomyia longipalpis is necessary because of the high incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. This study evaluates the influence of abiotic variables on the population density and seasonal behavior of L. longipalpis in an urban endemic area of VL in Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed every two months between November, 2009 and November, 2010 in the peridomicile of 13 randomly selected residences. We captured 1,367 specimens of L. longipalpis, and the ratio of male/female flies was 2.86:1. The comparison of the total male specimens in the two seasons showed a statistical difference in the wet season, but there was no significant difference when considering the total females. With respect to climatic variables, a significant negative association was observed only with wind speed. During periods of high wind speeds, the population density of this vector decreased. The presence of L. longipalpis was found in all months of the study with bimodal behavior and population peaks during the wet season.

  14. Variability and genetic differentiation among Anopheles (Ano. intermedius Chagas, 1908 and Anopheles (Ano. mattogrossensis Lutz & Neiva, 1911 (Diptera: Culicidae from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselita Maria Mendes dos Santos

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Anopheles intermedius and Anopheles (Ano. mattogrossensis are Brazilian anopheline species belonging to the scarcely studied Anopheles subgenus. Few studies have been done on the genetic differentiation of these species. Both species have been found infected by Plasmodium and are sympatric with other anopheline species from the Nyssorhynchus subgenus. Eighteen enzymatic loci were analyzed in larval specimens of An. intermedius and An. mattogrossensis aiming to estimate the variability and genetic differentiation between these species. An. mattogrossensis population showed higher genetic variability (P = 44.4 and Ho = 0.081 ± 0.031 than that of An. intermedius (P = 33.3 and Ho = 0.048 ± 0.021. Most analyzed loci showed genotypic frequencies according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for LAP1 and LAP2 in An. intermedius, and EST1 and PGM loci in An. mattogrossensis. The genetic distance between these species (D = 0.683 was consistent with the inter-specific values reported for Anopheles subgenus. We verified that the polymorphism and heterozygosity percentile values found in both species and compared to those in the literature, showed no relation between the level of isozyme variability and geographical distribution. The low variability found in these two species is probably more related to the niche they occupy than to their geographic distribution.

  15. Programa de controle de surto de escorpião Tityus serrulatus, Lutz e Mello 1922, no município de Aparecida, SP (Scorpiones, Buthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elieth Floret Spirandeli Cruz

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores propuseram para o município de Aparecida, vale do Rio Paraíba, SP, região endêmica do Tityus serrulatus, um programa de controle do escorpionismo. Foram estudados a presença de focos do escorpião no campo e na cidade, as alterações ambientais periféricas à zona urbana e os novos ambientes de procriação e dispersão destes artrópodes. Além disso, foram avaliados os problemas básicos de infra-estrutura, tais como o acondicionamento e a coleta do lixo urbano público e domiciliar, o saneamento básico (esgotos e galerias pluviais e a situação dos terrenos baldios e as construções da zona urbana. Após estudo epidemiológico, foram propostas medidas educativas, que constaram da confecção e distribuição de folhetos, de mutirões de limpeza, de visitas domiciliares e do engajamento de professores e alunos da rede de ensino pública e privada na campanha. Nos locais onde existiam focos de alto risco, em especial nas pré-escolas, foi proposto o emprego do controle químico. Dentro das normas sanitárias vigentes para a zona urbana, foi proposto ainda, o uso de predadores naturais no combate. Os autores concluem que as ações devem ser integradas e continuadas de forma ininterrupta por vários anos e propõem ação conjunta com a campanha da dengue. A instituição de uma semana por ano dedicada ao estudo do escorpionismo nas escolas dos municípios onde ocorre o problema seria uma medida educativa que viria contribuir sobremaneira para a prevenção dos acidentes e controle do escorpionismo.A scorpion control program was proposed for the town of Aparecida (SP, an endemic region of Tityus serrulatus. Clusters of scorpions in urban and rural areas, environmental degradation of the town's outskirts and new scorpion procreation and dispersal habitats were studied. In addition, infrastructure problems such as the disposal and collection of residential and municipal refuse, sanitation (sewage and storm sewer, condition of vacant lots and constructions in the urban area were evaluated. After an epidemiological study, educational measures such as the distribution of pamphlets, cleaning group work, visits to residences and cooperation from High School teachers and students were also suggested. Chemical control was indicated in high-risk sites, especially those of nearschool buildings. Furthermore, the use of natural predators was also mentioned within the present sanitation regulations for urban areas. The authors assert that these procedures must be integrated and continued aninterrruptedly for several years. They also suggest a collaborative work with those responsible for the dengue erradication program, as well as the institution of the "scorpion study week", which would greatly contribute to the education of the population, to preventive programs and to scorpion control.

  16. Prevalência da microbiota no trato digestivo de fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae provenientes do campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Sandra Maria Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foram dissecados o trato digestivo de 245 fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis originários da Gruta da Lapinha, Município de Lagoa Santa, MG, formando 7 grupos de 35 flebotomíneos. Das 8 espécies de bactérias isoladas houve uma predominância de bactérias Gram negativas (BGN pertencentes ao grupo de não fermentadoras de açúcar das seguintes espécies: Acinetobacter lowffii, Stenotrophomonas maltophhilia, Pseudomonas putida e Flavimonas orizihabitans. No grupo das fermentadoras tivemos: Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella ozaenae. No grupo dos Gram positivos foram identificados Bacillus thuringiensis e Staphylococcus spp.

  17. Nota sobre a presença da Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 na Ilha Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. Araújo Filho

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi relatado o encontro pela primeira vez, de Lutzomyia longipalpis na Praia Vermelha, município de Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, e chamada atenção do fato em relação à possível conotação em Leishmania Visceral no futuro, tal qual, ocorreu em Bangu e Jacarepaguá no Rio de Janeiro.

  18. The occurrence of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Digenea: Diplostomidae) metacercariae in the eyes of loricariid fish (Siluriformes: Osteichthyes: Loricariidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zica, E O P; Brandão, H; Zawadzki, C H; Nobile, A B; Carvalho, E D; da Silva, R J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae in the eyes of 98 specimens of loricariid fish (Hypostomus ancistroides, H. hermanni, H. iheringii, H. margaritifer, H. regani, H. strigaticeps, Hypostomus sp. and Megalancistrus parananus) from the Chavantes reservoir (23°07'36″S and 49°37'35″W) located in the rio Paranapanema, upper Paraná river basin, municipality of Ipaussu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fish were collected from October 2007 to February 2009 using nylon monofilament gill nets and transported to the field laboratory where they were euthanized and the eyes were taken and examined under a stereomicroscope. Hypostomus ancistroides and M. parananus were not infected by this diplostomid. Hypostomus hermanni and H. margaritifer were represented by only one specimen but both had a high intensity of A. compactum metacercarie (27 and 35, respectively). Hypostomus strigaticeps (n = 45) and H. iheringii (n = 28) were the most representative specimens and the prevalence, mean intensity of infection and mean abundance were 24.4%, 10.3 and 2.7, and 64.2%, 13.1 and 8.4, respectively. No correlation was observed between the intensity of infection and the standard length (r = - 0.223; P = 0.827) and weight (r = 0.03; P = 0.779) of studied fish. Similarly, linear regression among these variables showed a poor correlation and indicated that the infection by A. compactum metacercariae occurs similarly in small and large fish specimens. A seasonal pattern of infection was not observed. Hypostomus hermanni, H. iheringii, H. margaritifer and H. strigaticeps were new hosts recorded for A. compactum metacercariae. A review of morphometric data of A. compactum metacercariae is presented. PMID:20459879

  19. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

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    Margarete Martins dos Santos Afonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L. longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L. i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L. longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL.

  20. The physiology of the midgut of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva 1912): pH in different physiological conditions and mechanisms involved in its control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vânia C; Araujo, Ricardo N; Machado, Luciane A D; Pereira, Marcos H; Gontijo, Nelder F

    2008-09-01

    Nutrient digestion and absorption after blood feeding are important events for Lutzomyia longipalpis, which uses these nutrients to produce eggs. In this context, the pH inside the digestive tract is an important physiological feature as it can markedly influence the digestive process as well as interfere with Leishmania development in infected phlebotomines. It was described previously that unfed females have an acidic midgut (pH 6). In this study, the pH inside the midgut of blood-fed females was measured. The abdominal midgut (AM) pH varied from 8.15+/-0.31 in the first 10 h post-blood meal to 7.7+/-0.17 after 24 h. While the AM was alkaline during blood digestion, the pH in the thoracic midgut (TM) remained acidic (5.5-6.0). In agreement with these findings, the enzyme alpha-glucosidase, which has an optimum pH of 5.8, is mainly encountered in the acidic TM. The capacity of unfed females to maintain the acidic intestinal pH was also evaluated. Our results showed the presence of an efficient mechanism that maintains the pH almost constant at about 6 in the midgut, but not in the crop. This mechanism is promptly interrupted in the AM by blood ingestion. RT-PCR results indicated the presence of carbonic anhydrase in the midgut cells, which apparently is required to maintain the pH at 6 in the midgut of unfed females. Investigations on the phenomenon of alkalization observed after blood ingestion indicated that two mechanisms are involved: in addition to the alkalization promoted by CO2 volatilization there is a minor contribution from a second mechanism not yet characterized. Some inferences concerning Leishmania development and pH in the digestive tube are presented. PMID:18723537

  1. The occurrence of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Digenea: Diplostomidae) metacercariae in the eyes of loricariid fish (Siluriformes: Osteichthyes: Loricariidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zica, E O P; Brandão, H; Zawadzki, C H; Nobile, A B; Carvalho, E D; da Silva, R J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report the occurrence of Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae in the eyes of 98 specimens of loricariid fish (Hypostomus ancistroides, H. hermanni, H. iheringii, H. margaritifer, H. regani, H. strigaticeps, Hypostomus sp. and Megalancistrus parananus) from the Chavantes reservoir (23°07'36″S and 49°37'35″W) located in the rio Paranapanema, upper Paraná river basin, municipality of Ipaussu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Fish were collected from October 2007 to February 2009 using nylon monofilament gill nets and transported to the field laboratory where they were euthanized and the eyes were taken and examined under a stereomicroscope. Hypostomus ancistroides and M. parananus were not infected by this diplostomid. Hypostomus hermanni and H. margaritifer were represented by only one specimen but both had a high intensity of A. compactum metacercarie (27 and 35, respectively). Hypostomus strigaticeps (n = 45) and H. iheringii (n = 28) were the most representative specimens and the prevalence, mean intensity of infection and mean abundance were 24.4%, 10.3 and 2.7, and 64.2%, 13.1 and 8.4, respectively. No correlation was observed between the intensity of infection and the standard length (r = - 0.223; P = 0.827) and weight (r = 0.03; P = 0.779) of studied fish. Similarly, linear regression among these variables showed a poor correlation and indicated that the infection by A. compactum metacercariae occurs similarly in small and large fish specimens. A seasonal pattern of infection was not observed. Hypostomus hermanni, H. iheringii, H. margaritifer and H. strigaticeps were new hosts recorded for A. compactum metacercariae. A review of morphometric data of A. compactum metacercariae is presented.

  2. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species. PMID:25945624

  3. Tissue kinetics, ion transport, and recruitment of mitochondria-rich cells in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo) in response to exposure to distilled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz, Poul Egede; Christoffersen, Betina C.; Johansen, Jesper S.;

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) of the amphibian epidermis are responsible for active chloride uptake at low external salinity, and new MRCs are recruited in response to exposure to distilled (deionized) water. The time-course of this recruitment, the tissue kinetics and ion transport have been...

  4. Relacionamento entre anfíbios anuros e bromélias da restinga de Regência, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil Relationship between anuran amphibians and bromeliads of the sandy coastal plain of Regência, linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto P. Schineider

    Full Text Available Some anuran amphibians use the bromeliads during the entire life cycle and others only as diurnal shelter. At the sandy coastal plain of Linhares, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, 676 bromeliads were examined, of which 303 of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker L. B. Smith., 1955, 287 of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb., 1864, and 86 of Vrisea procera (Mart. Ex Schult. f. Wittm, 1891. The morphometric and physical-chemical analysis of different bromeliads evidenced variations among plants. During the period sampled, six anuran species were found inside the plant axils. The hylid frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied, 1824 was the most abundant species (260 specimens. Its abundance was higher in the epiphyte bromeliad Vrisea procera. Phyllodytes luteolus had higher occurrences in bromeliads located at a transitional area between open and under the shrub vegetation. Specimens of Scinax alterus (Lutz, B., 1973 and Aparasphenodon brunoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, were more frequent mainly in transitional areas; Bufo granulosus Spix, 1824 occurred in open and transitional areas, whereas Gastrotheca fissipis (Boulenger, 1888 and Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 were found only in bromeliads located in open areas.

  5. JUVENILE WESTERN TOADS, BUFO BOREAS, AVOID CHEMICAL CUES OF SNAKES FED JUVENILE, BUT NOT LARVAL, CONSPECIFICS. (U915529)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Toews Daniel P; Killorn Erin E

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from ...

  7. Wyoming toad, Bufo hemiophrys baxteri, habitat use and hibernaculum research project with the use of telemetry : Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report is on a two year study, started in 1998, to evaluate the daily and seasonal habitat use to determine the location of the hibemaculum of the...

  8. ROLE OF THE EGG JELLY COAT IN PROTECTING HYLA REGILLA AND BUFO CANORUS EMBRYOS FROM ULTRAVIOLET B RADIATION DURING DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have suggested that Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may play a role in amphibian population declines. Some of these studies also indicate that egg hatching success is unaltered in some species of anurans as a result of UVB exposure. It has been proposed that the eg...

  9. THE EFFECT OF SUBSTRATE TYPE ON AVOIDANCE OF UREA IN JUVENILE WESTERN TOADS (BUFO BOREAS). (U915529)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Monitoring of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 in an area of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil Monitoramento de Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Neiva, 1912 em área de transmissão intensa de leishmaniose visceral no Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthenia Santos Albano Amóra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban increase of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Brazil is associated with the adaptation of its vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, to environments modified by humans. The present study reports the results of an entomological monitoring of L. longipalpis and the effect of environmental variables on its population density. Sandflies were captured in the municipality of Mossoró, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil, from January 2005 to December 2006. Two CDC light traps were placed monthly for four consecutive nights in the peridomicile of selected households. Data analysis was based on the chi-square test and linear regression. A total of 2,087 sandflies were captured, 99.86% of which were L. longipalpis. A higher proportion of females were captured (p No Brasil, o crescimento urbano da leishmaniose visceral (LV está associado com a adaptação do seu vetor, Lutzomyia longipalpis, aos ambientes modificados pelo homem. Este estudo relata a vigilância entomológica de L. longipalpis e os efeitos das variáveis ambientais sobre a sua densidade populacional. Os flebotomíneos foram capturados no município de Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, no Nordeste do Brasil, a partir de janeiro de 2005 a dezembro de 2006. Duas armadilhas tipo CDC foram colocadas mensalmente durante quatro noites consecutivas no peridomicílio das casas escolhidas. A análise dos dados foi baseada no teste Qui-quadrado e regressão linear. Um total de 2.087 flebotomíneos foram capturados, dos quais 99,86% foram L. longipalpis. Mais fêmeas do que machos foram capturados (p < 0,05. Na análise mensal das variáveis ambientais a temperatura, umidade relativa e a chuva não tiveram impacto significativo sobre a densidade populacional de L. longipalpis. No entanto, houve diferenças sazonais: aproximadamente 70% dos flebotomíneos foram capturados durante a estação chuvosa (p < 0,05. Assim, L. longipalpis, a espécie predominante, representa um risco à saúde pública. Portanto, devido à maior prevalência no período chuvoso, recomendamos intensificar as medidas de controle da LV antes e durante este período para reduzir o risco de transmissão da doença.

  11. Metacercárias de Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomidae em peixes do rio Paraná, Brasil. Prevalência, sazonalidade e intensidade de infecção Metacercariae of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomatidae in fishes of Paraná River, Brazil. Prevalence, seasoning and intensity of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Kazuyuki Takahashi

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomidae no globo ocular de Plagioscion squamosissimus (corvina e Cichla ocellaris (tucunaré, capturados mensalmente, no rio Paraná, Presidente Epitácio, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. De 61 corvinas analisadas, 56 estavam parasitadas (92% com intensidade média de 42,0 parasitos por hospedeiro. De 81 tucunarés, 45 estavam parasitados (55% com intensidade média de 9,3 parasitos. A corvina apresentou prevalências de 71 a 100% e as maiores intensidades médias (103,3 e 106,9 nos meses de fevereiro e março/2001. Comparativamente, o tucunaré apresentou as mais altas prevalências nos meses de novembro/2000 (90% e fevereiro/2001 (80%. As mais altas intensidades médias no tucunaré ocorreram em setembro/2000 (12,7, dezembro/2000 (12,2 e fevereiro/2001 (16,1. As metacercárias apresentam o corpo côncavo ventralmente e na região posterior existe uma sinuosa protuberância cônica. A ventosa oral menor do que o acetábulo. Acetábulo simples situado na região pré-equatorial do helminto. Pré-faringe curta seguida de faringe musculosa. Poro genital situado próximo da altura do acetábulo. As metacercárias da corvina apresentam 1.434,0 µm (880 a 1.840 de comprimento por 611,2±93,4 µm (400 a 792 de largura e as do tucunaré 1.462,4 µm (960 a 2.480 por 710,8 µm (560 a 960. Os autores confirmaram a maior susceptibilidade da corvina ao Diplostomum e a relação do parasitismo com os parâmetros aquáticos e climáticos.This paper aims at evaluating the occurrence of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomatidae in the eyeball of Plagioscion squamosissimus (corvina and Cichla ocellaris (tucunaré, monthly captured in Paraná river, Presidente Epitácio, state of São Paulo, Brazil. From 61 corvinas under analysis, 56 of them contained parasites (92 % with intensity rate of 42.0 host parasites. From an amount of 81 tucunarés, 45 contained parasites (55 % with intensity rate of 9.3 parasites. Corvinas showed prevalence from 71 to 100 % with the highest intensity rates (103.3 and 106.9 from February to March, 2001. Comparatively, the tucunaré showed the highest prevalence from November 2000 (90% to February 2001 (80%. The tucunaré highest intensity rates occurred on September, 2000 (12.7, December, 2000 (12.2 and February, 2001 (16.1. Metacercariae showed a hollow womb body and a posterior region of a sinuous conic protuberance, an oral sucker smaller than the acetabulae, a simple acetabulae located in the pre-equatorial region of helminto. A short pre-pharynx followed by a muscular pharynx, genital pore next to acetubulae. Corvina metacercariae presents 1.434,0 µm (880 to 1.840 long by 611.2 ± 93.4 µm (400 to 792 wide. Tucunaré metacercariae, 1.462.4 µm (960 to 2.480 by 710.8 µm (560 to 960. Authors confirmed corvina great susceptibility to Diplomastum and the relationship between the parasitism and the aquatic and climatic parameters.

  12. Padronização da técnica imunoenzimática do ELISA de captura, no sistema avidina-biotina para a identificação de sangue ingerido por Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay biotin/avidin method standardization, for identification of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis bloodmeals (Lutz & Neiva, 1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Marassá

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A identificação de sangue ingerido pelos insetos é um importante parâmetro para elucidar aspectos ligados à transmissão de zoonoses, dentre elas, as leishmanioses. Dos métodos empregados para esclarecer a atração de vetores por animais que possam atuar como reservatórios dessas parasitoses, destacam-se os imunológicos. O estudo teve como objetivo, padronizar a técnica imunoenzimática de captura e titular amostras de sangue ingerido em fêmeas de flebotomíneos ingurgitadas de Lutzomyia longipalpis criadas em laboratório e alimentadas experimentalmente em rato. Em vista da alta sensibilidade, favorecida pelo sistema avidina-biotina, foi possível a realização de pelo menos noventa testes, de cada uma das amostras em duplicata, e constatar a presença de sangue para todas as amostras com períodos de 12 e 24 horas pós-ingestão, observando-se diferença significativa entre os respectivos títulos.Bloodmeals taken by insects constitute an important parameter for clarifying aspects of the transmission of zoonoses, including leishmaniases. Immunological assays can be used to investigate the attraction of vectors to animals, which may be hosts of these parasitoses. The objective of this study was to standardize a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and titer samples with different time periods of digestion, in laboratory-bred Lutzomyia longipalpis fed on rats. In the light of the high sensitivity that the biotin-avidin method permits, the technique provided at least ninety repeat tests for each sample and identified recent bloodmeals taken by these insects. Bloodmeals were detectable up to 12 and 24h after blood ingestion, and a significant difference between these titers was observed.

  13. Padronização da técnica imunoenzimática do ELISA de captura, no sistema avidina-biotina para a identificação de sangue ingerido por Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay biotin/avidin method standardization, for identification of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis bloodmeals (Lutz & Neiva, 1912)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Marassá; Cleide Aschenbrenner Consales; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati

    2004-01-01

    A identificação de sangue ingerido pelos insetos é um importante parâmetro para elucidar aspectos ligados à transmissão de zoonoses, dentre elas, as leishmanioses. Dos métodos empregados para esclarecer a atração de vetores por animais que possam atuar como reservatórios dessas parasitoses, destacam-se os imunológicos. O estudo teve como objetivo, padronizar a técnica imunoenzimática de captura e titular amostras de sangue ingerido em fêmeas de flebotomíneos ingurgitadas de Lutzomyia longipal...

  14. Novos registros de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912(Diptera: Psychodidae na região Centro-Leste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil New records of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae in the Central East Region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Antonio Cutolo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A incidência das leishmanioses tegumentar (LTA e visceral (LVA americanas, especialmente essa última, em hospedeiros caninos e humanos, encontra-se em expansão no Estado de São Paulo. Na vigilância epidemiológica dessas endemias, torna-se fundamental o conhecimento da distribuição e ecologia das diferentes espécies de flebotomíneos. Assim, a divulgação de novos registros de seus vetores é fundamental para apontar novas áreas de risco para a transmissão dessas doenças. Neste estudo, realizaram-se capturas de flebotomíneos em ambiente de mata, em diferentes localidades dos municípios de Ipeúna, Itirapina e Analândia, entre agosto e setembro de 2007. Foram capturados 248 flebotomíneos de nove espécies diferentes, em Ipeúna, seis e sete espécimes de duas espécies distintas coletados respectivamente em Itirapina e Analândia. A espécie mais abundante em Ipeúna foi Pintomyia pessoai (37,5%, seguida de P. fischeri (33,06% e Migonemyia migonei (16,53%. Essas três espécies são consideradas importantes vetores de LTA no território paulista. O registro de Lutzomyia longipalpis pela primeira vez em Ipeúna e Analândia e a confirmação de sua presença em Itirapina indicam risco de essabelecimento da LVA na área e a necessidade de mais estudos locais sobre sua ecologia, sobretudo em relação à ocupação de ambientes antrópicos.Cutaneous (LTA and Visceral (LVA American Leishmaniasis incidences are increasing in human and canine hosts, especially LVA, which is expanding its range through São Paulo State. Distribution and ecology knowledge of different sand fly species is essential for leishmaniasis epidemiology vigilance. The communication of new findings of its vectors is mandatory for risk determination for transmission of these illnesses. On this study sand flies were trapped in bushed areas, in different localities at rural areas of Ipeúna, Itirapina and Analândia counties, between August and September 2007. A total of 248 specimens of nine different species were sampled in Ipeúna, six and seven specimens of two different species were trapped in Itirapina and Analândia, respectively. The most abundant species in Ipeúna was Pintomyia pessoai (37.5%, followed by Pintomyia fischeri (33.06% and Migonemyia migonei (16.53%, all three species are considered vectors of LTA in São Paulo State. Lutzomyia longipalpis was found in Ipeúna and Analândia for the first time and its presence confirmed in Itirapina, indicating a risk of LVA essablishment in the area and the need for further local studies on its ecology, especially regarding its occupation of the anthropic environment.

  15. Distribuição espacial de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938 no estado de Mato Grosso Spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938 in the State of Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanci Akemi Missawa

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose visceral é considerada atualmente uma doença emergente e reemergente, em zonas rurais e urbanas, tanto em área domiciliar quanto peridomiciliar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a distribuição espacial de Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia cruzi no Estado de Mato Grosso. Os dados de 1996 a 2004 foram obtidos junto ao Laboratório de Entomologia, cujas capturas foram realizadas com armadilha de luz CDC. Foram pesquisados 68 dos 139 municípios do estado. Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia cruzi ocorreram em 23 e 22 municípios, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstraram a grande ocorrência de Lutzomyia longipalpis nas áreas com bioma de floresta, de transição e de cerrado. Lutzomyia cruzi ocorreu principalmente em municípios com área de pantanal e cerrado. A verificação da distribuição da população de vetores no estado e os biomas preferenciais proporcionam indicar áreas vulneráveis e/ou receptivas para a transmissão da doença.Visceral leishmaniasis is currently considered an emergent and reemergent disease, in agricultural and urban zones, both in domestic and peridomestic areas. The objective of this work was to verify the spatial distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia cruzi in Mato Grosso State. Data from 1996 to 2004 was collected by the Entomology Laboratory, whose captures were carried with a CDC light trap. Sixty-eight of the 139 cities in the state have been studied. Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia cruzi occurred in 23 and 22 cities, respectively. The results demonstrate the extensive occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in areas with different vegetation types: savanna, transition and Amazon forest. Lutzomyia cruzi occurred mainly in cities with areas of marshland and savanna. Verification of the distribution of the vector populations in the state and their preferential vegetation type, provides an indication of vulnerable and/or receptive areas for disease transmission.

  16. Microbiota do trato digestivo de fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) provenientes de colônia alimentadas com sangue e com sangue e sacarose

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Sandra Maria Pereira de; Morais Bianca Aguiar de; Gonçalves Claudia Abrantes; Giordano-Dias Cristina Maria; Vilela Maurício Luiz; Brazil Reginaldo Peçanha; d'Almeida José Mario; Asensi Marise Dutra; Mello Rubens Pinto

    2001-01-01

    Há poucos estudos sobre a microbiota do trato digestivo de flebotomíneos, considerando-se que o sangue não é o único alimento ingerido. Os flebotomíneos, tanto os machos como as fêmeas, alimentam-se de açúcares, provenientes de várias fontes, possibilitando a ingestão de microrganismos. As chances de contaminação aumentam nos insetos criados em laboratório e pode interferir no desenvolvimento da Leishmania spp. Foi separado um total de 300 fêmeas, divididas em dois lotes, das quais extraímos ...

  17. Evaluations of the Antimicrobial Activities and Chemical Compositions of Body Fat from the Amphibians Leptodactylus macrosternum Miranda-Ribeiro (1926 and Leptodactylus vastus Adolf Lutz (1930 in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eduardo Santos Cabral

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptodactylus macrosternum and L. vastus (family: Leptodactylidae are commonly encountered in the “Caatinga” biome in northern Brazil. The body fat of L. vastus is used as a zootherapeutic for treating a number of human maladies. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of the body fats of L. macrosternum and L. vastus and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities as well as the ecological implications of their use in traditional folk medicine. Oils were extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of L. macrosternum (OLM and L. vastus (OLV using hexane as a solvent. The fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activities of the oils, either alone or in combination with antibiotics and antifungal drugs, were tested on standard strains of microorganisms as well as on multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus. OLM contained 40% saturated and 60% unsaturated fatty acids, while OLV contained 58.33% saturated and 41.67% unsaturated fatty acids. Our results indicated that both OLM and OLV demonstrated relevant antimicrobial activities (with MIC 256 μg/mL for both against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida krusei. However, no antimicrobial effects were observed when these oils were combined with antibiotics or antifungal drugs.

  18. Identificação do sangue ingerido por Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia almerioi (Galati & Nunes, 1999 pela técnica imunoenzimática do ELISA de captura, no sistema avidina-biotina Blood meals identification of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 e Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia almerioi (Galati & Nunes, 1999 by enzime-linked immunossorbent assay biotin-avidin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Marassá

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia almerioi, espécies integrantes da fauna flebotomínea da Serra da Bodoquena, no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, têm sido objeto de estudo devido às suas elevadas abundâncias no Assentamento Guaicurus, foco de leishmaniose tegumentar humana e visceral canina. Em pesquisas que vem sendo realizadas neste acampamento para a identificação de vetores destas parasitoses, foram capturados no período de 2002 a 2004, com armadilhas automáticas luminosas, instaladas em ambiente peridoméstico (galinheiro, 83 exemplares ingurgitados de Lutzomyia longipalpis e Lutzomyia almerioi. O presente estudo teve como objetivo a investigação do hábito alimentar para ave das fêmeas de ambas as espécies de flebotomíneos, mediante o emprego da técnica imunoenzimática de captura,comparando-se a reatividade durante os anos de 2002 a 2004. Dentre 57 amostras de Lutzomyia longipalpis e 26 de Lutzomyia almerioi, foram encontradas 72% reagentes para ave em Lutzomyia longipalpis e 96% em Lutzomyia almerioi, o que justifica o estudo do hábito alimentar na região, como medida de prevenção e instituição de vigilância epidemiológica.Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia almerioi, phlebotomine species from the fauna of Serra da Bodoquena, in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, have been studied, particularly due to the fact of their abundance and occurrence, the Guaicurus settlement, focus of human tegumentary and canine visceral leishmaniasis. In researches that are being carried out in this settlement for identifying the vectors of these parasitosis, 83 engorged females belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia almerioi were captured with automatic light traps from 2002 up to 2004 in the peridomiciliary environment of the Guaicurus settlement (hennery.The aim of this study was the investigation on bird feeding habit of females of both the phlebotomine species by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique, comparing the reactivity during the period from 2002 up to 2004. Of the 57 samples of Lutzomyia longipalpis and 26 of Lutzomyia almerioi that have been tested, 72% from Lutzomyia longipalpis and 96% from Lutzomyia almerioi were reactive, which justifies the feeding habit study in the region as a prevention measure and the institution of an epidemiological survey.

  19. Metacercárias de Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum) compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomidae) em peixes do rio Paraná, Brasil. Prevalência, sazonalidade e intensidade de infecção Metacercariae of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum) compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomatidae) in fishes of Paraná River, Brazil. Prevalence, seasoning and intensity of infection

    OpenAIRE

    Haroldo Kazuyuki Takahashi; Maurício Laterça Martins; Franco Dani Akira Pimenta; Rosemeire de Souza Santos; Nilton Garcia Marengoni

    2002-01-01

    Avaliou-se a ocorrência de Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum) compactum (Digenea: Diplostomidae) no globo ocular de Plagioscion squamosissimus (corvina) e Cichla ocellaris (tucunaré), capturados mensalmente, no rio Paraná, Presidente Epitácio, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. De 61 corvinas analisadas, 56 estavam parasitadas (92%) com intensidade média de 42,0 parasitos por hospedeiro. De 81 tucunarés, 45 estavam parasitados (55%) com intensidade média de 9,3 parasitos. A corvina apresentou prevalên...

  20. Prevalência, sazonalidade e intensidade de infecção por Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum) compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomidae), em peixes do reservatório de Volta Grande, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil Prevalence, seasonality and infection intensity by Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum) compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomidae) in fish of the Volta Grande Reservoir, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Yumi Fujimoto; Sérgio Henrique Canello Schalch; Faro Conceição Paiva; Andresa de Mello; Maurício Laterça Martins; Neidson Carneiro Colombano

    2002-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na Estação de Piscicultura da Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais, no reservatório de Volta Grande, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foram capturados bimestralmente, com auxílio de rede e anzol, 70 corvinas de água doce, Plagioscion squamosissimus, e 66 tucunarés, Cichla ocellaris, entre abril de 2000 e abril de 2001. Os maiores valores de prevalência do helminto identificado como Diplostomum (A.) compactum, no globo ocular da corvina, ocorreram nos meses ...

  1. Determination of pesticide aerial drift and associated effects to the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson and Hutton National Wildlife Refuges and potential reintroduction sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad is confined to Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the decline of the toad are unknown, but it is...

  2. On The Identity Of Some Toads Of The Genus Bufo From Ecuador, With Additional Remarks On Andinophryne Colomai Hoogmoed, 1985 (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Study of the type specimens of B. caeruleostictus Günther, 1859 and B. chanchanensis Fowler, 1913, and of fresh material showed that B. chanchanensis is a junior subjective synonym of B. caeruleostictus. Probably it is a member of the B. guttatus group. B. caeruleocellatus Fowler, 1913 is a junior s

  3. The effects of dexamethasone (DXM) and vitamin A on the growth and metamorphosis of gamma irradiated, thyroxine induced Bufo melanostictus tadpoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the effects of vitamin A and dexamethasone (DXM) on the metamorphosis of irradiated tadpoles. Results indicate that hypervitaminosis A depresses the metamorphosing action of thyroxine for several days. On the contrary, dexamethasone accelerates the action of exogenous thyroxine on tadpoles. Thus present data suggest that DXM supresses STH synthesis and promotes TSH secretion. Moreover, muscle appears to be its target tissue and DXM seems to promote the proteolytic digestion of the larval tail. (author)

  4. Bibliographic Studies on the Bufonis Venenum

    OpenAIRE

    Kye-Sung Kang; Gi-Rok Kwon

    2001-01-01

    Objectives : Through the literatures on the effets of Bufonis Venenum, we are finding out the clinical possibility and revealing the more effective to intractable diseases. Methods : We investigated the literatures of Oriental Medicine and experimental reports about Bufonis Venenum. Results : 1. Bufonis Venenum is made of bufonidae bufo bufo gargarizans cantor or bufo melanostictus schneider of white serum which secreted from parotid gland or dermato gland, and it is dried for using. ...

  5. Rediscovery of Pelobates fuscus insubricus in the Asti Province, north-western Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Mercurio; Fabrizio Li Vigni

    2007-01-01

    The amphibians of the pond complex “Stagni di Belangero” in the Po Plain, Asti Province, have been studied. The species living in the pond are Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla intermedia, Pelobates fuscus, Rana dalmatina, Rana synklepton esculenta, Rana cf. kurtmuelleri, Triturus carnifex and Triturus vulgaris. Species composition, migration period of P. fuscus, and biometric data are provided. Relevant importance has been given to P. fuscus, since we reconfirm its presence in one...

  6. 敌百虫和吡虫啉对中华蟾蜍蝌蚪的复合毒性%Co-toxicity Research of Dipterex and Imidacloprid to Bufo gargarizans Tadpole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧君; 郭聪; 刘鉴樟; 乔巧

    2008-01-01

    [目的] 为了评价吡虫啉和敌百虫对水生生物的复合毒性.[方法] 以中华蟾蜍蝌蚪为指示生物,研究吡虫啉、敌百虫以及这2种农药混合作用下的急性毒性.[结果] 在吡虫啉安全浓度下,敌百虫对中华蟾蜍蝌蚪的LC50值约为单剂的0.6;在敌百虫安全浓度下,吡虫啉对蝌蚪的LC50值约为单剂的0.4.[结论] 环境中低浓度的吡虫啉、敌百虫虽然不会对中华蟾蜍蝌蚪产生毒害作用,但会大大增强敌百虫、吡虫啉对蝌蚪的毒性.

  7. Proton pump activity is required for active uptake of chloride in isolated amphibian skin exposed to freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Willumsen, Niels J.; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2002-01-01

    Net proton secretion and unidirectional chloride fluxes were measured in isolated skin of toads (Bufo bufo) and frogs (Rana esculenta) mounted in an Ussing chamber and exposed to a Ringer's solution on the serosal side and a freshwater-like solution (1-3 mM Cl-) on the external side. Active proto...

  8. Large-scale habitat associations of four desert anurans in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, G.H.; Jung, R.E.; Droege, S.

    2004-01-01

    We used night driving to examine large scale habitat associations of four common desert anurans in Big Bend National Park, Texas. We examined association of soil types and vegetation communities with abundance of Couch's Spadefoots (Scaphiopus couchii), Red-spotted Toads (Bufo punctatus), Texas Toads (Bufo speciosus), and Western Green Toads (Bufo debilis). All four species were disproportionately associated with frequently inundated soils that are relatively high in clay content. Bufo punctatus was associated with rocky soil types more frequently than the other three species. Association between all four species and vegetation types was disproportionate in relation to availability. Bufo debilis and Bufo punctatus were associated with creosote and mixed scrub vegetation. Bufo speciosus and Scaphiopus couchii were associated with mesquite scrub vegetation. Bufo debilis, Scaphiopus couchii, and B. speciosus were more tightly associated with specific habitat types, whereas B. punctatus exhibited a broader distribution across the habitat categories. Examining associations between large-scale habitat categories and species abundance is an important first step in understanding factors that influence species distributions and presence-absence across the landscape.

  9. EFFECTS OF AMINO ACIDS ON THE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL OF TOAD OOCYTES AND THE MECHANISMS INVOLVED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYu-Feng; CHENGJiun; CHENGZhi-Ping

    1989-01-01

    The etTects of 23 amino acids on the membrane potential of toad ( Bufo bufo gargarizans ) oocytes and the mechanisms involved were investigated in vitro by means of microelectrode. At a concentration of I mmol/L-alanine, leucine and lyaine induced signfiant depolarization, and tryptophan provoked a marked hyperpolarization during

  10. "Keset filmi" Kiasmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Soome kunstniku Tellervo Kalleineni filmiprojektist "In the middle of a movie'". Eestist esinesid projektis Taavi Eelmaa, Tarrvi Laamann, Silva Lutz, Anders Melts, Anneli Remme, Siiri Salem, Martin Palm, Kaja Prikk, Peeter Ristsoo, filmisid Peeter Maimik ja Marianne Kõrver

  11. Samaja bolshaja stroiploshtshadka v Estonii / Konstantin Morenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Morenko, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna linnavalitsus korraldas ümarlaua linna rannaalade hetkeseisu ja arenguvõimaluste hindamiseks, mille töös osalesid ka Euroopa tuntud linnaplaneerimise konsultandid. Arvamust avaldavad Peep Aaviksoo, Lutz Schleich, Giorgio Risicaris ja Stefan Boltz

  12. ALICE A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN LHC : global layout

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephane Maridor

    2006-01-01

    from left to right: Pierluigi Bellutti (ITC); Andrea Zanotti President of ITC; Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University); Mario Zen,Director of ITC ; Maurizio Boscardin (ITC); Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  13. ALICE industrial award ceremony in Bologna at Santa Cristina

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    from left to right:Pierluigi Bellutti (ITC); Andrea Zanotti President of ITC; Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University); Mario Zen,Director of ITC ; Maurizio Boscardin (ITC); Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  14. Salida de campo a Traspinedo (Valladolid) el 4 de septiembre de 1952

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Traspinedo (Valladolid) el 4 de septiembre de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre Pseudochondrostoma sp. (Boga), sapos (posiblemente, el Sapo común, Bufo bufo), los siguientes reptiles: Blanus cinereus (Culebrilla ciega, también llamado Eslabon), Lagartija (sin identificar la especie), Natrix maura (Culebra viperina, llamada Tropidonotus viperinus por el autor) y Vipera sp. (Víbora)los siguientes mamíferos: Ardilla (pudiendo ser Sciurus vulgaris o Atlantoxerus ge...

  15. The effect of road kills on amphibian populations

    OpenAIRE

    Hels, Tove; Buchwald,, Erik

    2001-01-01

    The diurnal movement patterns of Triturus vulgaris, T. cristatus, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, Rana temporaria, and R. arvalis were investigated during five breeding seasons (1994-1998). Two main questions were addressed: 1) What is the probability of an individual amphibian getting killed when crossing the road? and 2) What fraction of the amphibian populations gets killed by traffic? The rate of movement of 203 adult amphibians was recorded. Information on traffic loads was provided, and mo...

  16. Amfibieundersøkelser i Mykland, Aust-Agder Hvor finnes de og hvorfor?

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Eivind Ekholt

    2013-01-01

    In many parts of the world there are reports of significant declines in amphibian populations. A number of reasons for the declines exist. Water acidification caused by acid rain, is a likely cause of decline of amphibians in acid sensitive areas, as in parts of southern Norway. Field surveys of toad (Bufo bufo) and smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris), was combined with water chemistry surveys and registration of fish species in 15 sites, mainly in Mykland, Aust- Agder, in the peri...

  17. Concentration dependence of halide fluxes and selectivity of the anion pathway in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harck, A F; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1986-01-01

    The isolated toad (Bufo bufo) skin was mounted under voltage-clamp conditions in a chamber shown to cause no significant edge damage. The serosal side of the skin was bathed with NaCl-Ringer's, and the passive voltage-sensitive anion conductance studied in its fully voltage activated state, V = -...... of the red cell membrane accounts for our findings, and for an inwardly directed active Cl- flux in terms of Cl-/HCO3- exchange....

  18. Cytological study on nuclear transplanted eggs by transplanting Xenopus laevis blastomere nuclei to Bufo raddei%非洲爪蟾胚胎细胞核移入花背蟾蜍成熟卵后的细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司克媛; 梁桂霞; 俞诗源; 陈永龙

    2005-01-01

    @@ 在有关两栖类细胞核移植工作中,大部分工作是对移核胚胎的形态学分析(Briggs and King, 1960; DiBeradino and King, 1967; Smith,1965; Gurdon, 1974; DiBeradino et al., 1967,1971.此外是对移核胚胎染色体组型的分析(Hennen, 1963; 梁桂霞、毛铭廷,1991).

  19. Nomenclatural notes on living and fossil amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of extinct and living amphibians known from fossils (Allocaudata, Anura and Caudata has revealed several cases that require nomenclatural changes in order to stabilize the taxonomy of the group. Nomenclatural changes include homonym replacements, corrections of spelling variants and authorships, name availabilities, and in particular, the proposal of new combinations. These changes will allow the incorporation of some palaeontological taxa to the current evolutionary models of relationship of modern forms based on molecular phylogenies. Rana cadurcorum for Rana plicata Filhol, 1877, Rana auscitana for Rana pygmaea Lartet, 1851, and Rana sendoa for Rana robusta Brunner, 1956. Anchylorana Taylor, 1942 is considered a new synonym of Lithobates Fitzinger, 1843. New combinations proposed are: Anaxyrus defensor for Bufo defensor Meylan, 2005; Anaxyrus hibbardi for Bufo hibbardi Taylor, 1937; Anaxyrus pliocompactilis for Bufo pliocompactilis Wilson, 1968; Anaxyrus repentinus for Bufo repentinus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus rexroadensis for Bufo rexroadensis Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus spongifrons for Bufo spongifrons Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus suspectus for Bufo suspectus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus tiheni for Bufo tiheni Auffenberg, 1957; Anaxyrus valentinensis for Bufo valentinensis Estes et Tihen, 1964; Ichthyosaura wintershofi for Triturus wintershofi Lunau, 1950; Incilius praevius for Bufo praevius Tihen, 1951; Lithobates bucella for Rana bucella Holman, 1965; Lithobates dubitus for Anchylorana dubita Taylor, 1942; Lithobates fayeae for Rana fayeae Taylor, 1942; Lithobates miocenicus for Rana miocenica Holman, 1965; Lithobates moorei for Anchylorana moorei Taylor, 1942; Lithobates parvissimus for Rana parvissima

  20. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of Alagoas state, northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Filho, José D; Brazil, Reginaldo P

    2009-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandflies of the state of Alagoas are poorly known, with more than 40 years since the last report on sandflies in the state. In here, Psathyromyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima), Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar,) and Evandromyia termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva) are registered for the first time in Alagoas. This report increases to nine the number of species collected in the state, including Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), Migonemyia migonei (França), Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) and Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva), all vectors of Leishmania in Brazil.

  1. Blastocystis hominis: occurrence in children and staff members of municipal day-care centers from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semíramis Guimarães

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available To study the frequency of Blastocystis hominis among healthy individuals, feces were collected from 153 children and 20 staff members of some municipal day-care centers. Three separate stool specimens of each individual were processed by Lutz and Faust methods. From 173 studied individuals, 60 (34.7% showed B. hominis, frequently in association with other intestinal parasites and/or commensals. B. hominis was found mainly in adults and children between 36 and 72 months old. All positive cases were detected only by Lutz method and the use of three stool specimens increased the positivity of the parasitological diagnostic.

  2. New records and descriptions of digeneans from the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) (Aves: Sphenisciformes) on the coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha; Luque, José L; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2013-05-01

    Five species of digeneans parasitic in the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) from off the Brazilian coast of the western Atlantic are reported for the first time from this host and described. These are Mesostephanus odhneri (Travassos, 1924) Lutz, 1935, Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle Dubois, 1937, Stephanoprora uruguayensis Holcman-Spector & Olagüe, 1989, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa Ransom, 1920 and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) sp. One other digenean, Cardiocephaloides physalis (Lutz, 1926) Sudarikov, 1959, was also recorded. The taxonomy of the species and available data on their life-cycles are commented upon in relation to the possible origins of digenean infections of the Magellanic penguin. PMID:23595494

  3. New records and descriptions of digeneans from the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) (Aves: Sphenisciformes) on the coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha; Luque, José L; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2013-05-01

    Five species of digeneans parasitic in the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) from off the Brazilian coast of the western Atlantic are reported for the first time from this host and described. These are Mesostephanus odhneri (Travassos, 1924) Lutz, 1935, Posthodiplostomum macrocotyle Dubois, 1937, Stephanoprora uruguayensis Holcman-Spector & Olagüe, 1989, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa Ransom, 1920 and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) sp. One other digenean, Cardiocephaloides physalis (Lutz, 1926) Sudarikov, 1959, was also recorded. The taxonomy of the species and available data on their life-cycles are commented upon in relation to the possible origins of digenean infections of the Magellanic penguin.

  4. Detection of the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Andrey N.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Charles, Kaylene M.; Nebergall, Emily E.; Olson, Deanna H.

    2014-01-01

    In a population of the European common toad Bufo bufo from a rural pond in the region of Lake Glubokoe Regional Reserve in Moscow province, Russia, unexplained mass mortality events involving larvae and metamorphs have been observed over a monitoring period of >20 yr. We tested toads from this and a nearby site for the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranavirus (Rv). Both pathogens were detected, and at the rural pond site, with the above-noted losses and decline in toad breeding success, 40% of B. bufo metamorphs were Bd positive, 46% were Rv positive and 20% were co-infected with both pathogens. Toad metamorphs from a neighbouring water body were also Bd and Rv positive (25 and 55%, respectively). This is the first confirmation of these pathogens in Russia. Questions remain as to the origins of these pathogens in Russia and their roles in documented mass mortality events.

  5. Nematodes of amphibians from Java, Indonesia, with a description of new species, Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. (Nematoda : Heterakoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2015-06-24

    During a survey on the parasites of amphibians of Indonesia, toads (30 Bufo melanostictus) and 246 frogs (213 Fejervarya cancrivora, 11 F. limnocharis, 22 Rana macrodon from West Java and 68 F. cancrivora from Central Java) were examined for parasitic nematodes. Three species of nematodes were found and described, i.e. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. from Fejervaria cancrivora; Meteterakis japonica from Bufo melanostictus, F. cancrivora and F. limnocharis; and Chabaudus sp. from F. cancrivora, F. limnocharis and Rana macrodon. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. is distinguished from other species of the genus by the length and shape of spicules, the number of caudal papillae, the presence of gubernaculum in male and the presence of vulval flap in female. Bufo melanostictus and Java are recorded as new host and locality for M. japonica, respectively.

  6. Amphibians of the Simbruini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the herpetological fauna of the Simbruini Mountains Regional Park, Latium (Central Italy. In this study, we surveyed 50 sites in the course of about ten years of field research, especially during the period 2005-2008. Nine amphibian species, four Caudata and five Anura, 60.0% out of the 15 amphibian species so far observed in Latium, were discovered in the protected area: Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus carnifex, Bombina pachypus, Bufo balearicus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina, Rana italica. Physiography of sites has been detailed together with potential threatening patterns. For each species the following topics have been discussed; ecology of sites, altitudinal distribution, phenology, sintopy. Salamandra salamandra and Bombina pachypus are at higher risk. The importance of the maintenance of artificial/natural water bodies for the conservation management of amphibian population of this territory is discussed.

  7. Haplometra cylindracea (Zeder, 1800 (Trematoda: Plagiorchiidae: variation in the dates of cercarial shedding for overwintering Galba truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignoles P.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural infections of Galba truncatula with Haplometra cylindracea were followed from 2001 to 2009 to determine if their characteristics were similar when snails came from water collections frequented by Bufo bufo or by frogs and newts for their egg-laying. Snail samples were collected from both types of sites to count shed cercariae for three days and also free cercariae when snails were dissected. In sites only frequented by B. bufo, cercarial shedding occurred earlier than in those colonized by frogs and newts (March instead of April-May. In contrast, the number of cercariae shed during three successive days was significantly higher in May. This variation in the dates of cercarial shedding might be due, either to a synchronism between cercaria-releasing snails and the presence of the definitive host (tadpoles in water collections, or to an earlier infection of overwintering snails in autumn by H. cylindracea miracidia in the case of toad-frequented sites.

  8. Rediscovery of Pelobates fuscus insubricus in the Asti Province, north-western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Mercurio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The amphibians of the pond complex “Stagni di Belangero” in the Po Plain, Asti Province, have been studied. The species living in the pond are Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla intermedia, Pelobates fuscus, Rana dalmatina, Rana synklepton esculenta, Rana cf. kurtmuelleri, Triturus carnifex and Triturus vulgaris. Species composition, migration period of P. fuscus, and biometric data are provided. Relevant importance has been given to P. fuscus, since we reconfirm its presence in one of the ponds 13 years after its first finding in the area. This toad is also one of the most threatened species of amphibians in Europe and needs particular attention in order to be protected adequately.

  9. Phylogenetic Relationship of Duttaphrynus melanostictus From India and China as Revealed from the Study of 12S and 16S mtDNA Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Kr. Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the phylogenetic relationship of Duttaphrynus melanostictus from West Bengal, India with other members of the Bufonidiae group was undertaken using partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genes. Mitochondria were isolated from the liver of Duttaphrynus melanostictus by a non-conventional method of membrane filtration. The technique allows trapping of mitochondria on cellulose acetate membrane followed by mtDNA isolation. 12S ribosomal RNA and 16S ribosomal RNA was sequenced with primers designed in our laboratory. mtDNA sequence from 18 different Bufo sp. found across the world were used for the phylogenetic analysis. Results were interpreted from the transition/transversion of nucleotides, genetic distance and maximum parsimony analysis. The findings indicates that D. melanostictus is very closely related to the Bufo melanostictus of China. The possible reasons of such close similarity between two distantly residing species (D. melanostictus of India and Bufo melanostictus of China have been discussed.

  10. Description of the male of Culicoides pampaensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra el macho de Culicoides pampaensis, y se brinda una diagnosis de la hembra. El ejemplar descripto fue capturado a la luz junto a una hembra, en la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina. La genitalia se compara con la de Culicoides bambusicola Lutz.

  11. Priming the pancreatic cancer tumor microenvironment for checkpoint-inhibitor immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Eric R.; Kinkead, Heather; Jaffee, Elizabeth M.; Zheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Single agent immunotherapy is effective against several cancers, but has failed against poorly immunogenic cancers, including pancreatic cancer. Evaluation of pancreatic tumors following treatment with an experimental vaccine (Lutz et al. Cancer Immunology Research 2014) suggests that vaccination primes the tumor microenvironment (TME) for checkpoint-inhibitor immunotherapy, and supports a new platform for evaluating checkpoint-inhibitors in poorly immunogenic cancers.

  12. Review and phylogeny of Lutzsimulium (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo H. Gil-Azevedo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Lutzsimulium d'Andretta Jr & Vulcano, 1947 is an enigmatic South American genus with four species: L. flavopubescens Lutz, 1910, L. hirticosta Lutz, 1909, L. pernigrum Lutz, 1910 and L. simplicicolor Lutz, 1910. It can be diagnosed by median arms of furcasternum with projections; subbasal tooth of the claw reduced; wing basal cell absent; spermatheca with net-like structure; apex of trichomes coiled (pupa; gill with two main trunks (pupa; antennomere 3 equal to or longer than 1+2 (larva; hypostomal teeth reduced (larva; postgenal cleft deep (larva. A morphological cladistic analysis under equal weights, with the four Lutzsimulium species and six outgroups, resulted in two most parsimonious trees, with 81 steps, CI = 0.61 and RI = 0.68. The monophyly of the genus is corroborated, supported by 15 synapomorphies, therefore it is proposed that Kempfsimulium Py-Daniel & Nunes de Mello, 1982 is synonymous of Lutzsimulium. Also the status of Araucnephia Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1973 and Araucnephioides Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1973 are revalidated, because they do not form a monophyletic group with Lutzsimulium. All the species of Lutzsimulium are revised, with redescriptions, illustrations and identification keys for adults, pupa and larva. The male and larva of L. flavopubescens are described for the first time.

  13. Koorekommikatla kohale kuhjuvad tõrvapilved / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Rakvere teatri uuslavastustest: Joel Chandler Harrise "Onu Remuse lood" - lavastaja Jaanika Juhanson (esietendus 5. septembril), Urs Widmeri "Top Dogs" - lavastaja Kati Kivitar (esietendus 20. septembril) ja Lutz Hübneri noortenäidend "Creeps" - lavastaja Üllar Saaremäe (esietendus 4. oktoobril)

  14. Parginäitused Kadriorus / Tiina Tammet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammet, Tiina, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    "Looduse ja kunsti austajatele. Wörlitzi park" 9. V-14. IX Väliskunsti Muuseumis. Tänapäevased pargivaated fotograaf Lutz Winklerilt. Wörlitzi, Luisiumi ja Georgiumi mõisa eluhooned kavandas arhitekt Wilhelm von Erdmansdorff. "Inglise park Eestis" 9. V-21. IX Mikkeli Muuseumis. Näituse koostajad Mari Kurismaa, Mari Kaljuste ja Ruth Huimerind

  15. Signaling warmth: how brand warmth and symbolism affect consumers’ online brand endorsements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Bernritter

    2016-01-01

    In their efforts to promote their brands, products and services, advertisers often enlist endorsement by other parties, such as celebrities or experts (e.g., Biswas, Biswas, and Das, 2006; Rice, Kelting, and Lutz, 2012). Increasingly, brands and organizations are also seeking endorsement by their co

  16. Salida de campo a Santo Domingo de Silos, en Burgos, el 13 de septiembre de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Santo Domingo de Silos, en Burgos, el 13 de septiembre de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre los siguientes anfibios: Alytes sp. (Sapo partero), Bufo bufo (Sapo común, llamado B.vulgaris por el autor), Hyla sp. (Ranita), Lissotriton vulgaris, Rana sp. (Rana), Salamandra salamandra (Salamandra común, también llamada S.maculosa por el autor) y Triturus cristatus (Tritón crestado), los siguientes reptiles: Acanthodactylus erythrurus (Lagartija colirroja, llamada A....

  17. Salida de campo a Montejo de la Sierra (Madrid) a mediados de septiembre de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Montejo de la Sierra, en Madrid, a mediados de septiembre de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre los siguientes anfibios: Bufo bufo (Sapo común, llamado B.vulgaris por el autor) y Rana sp. (Rana), los siguientes reptiles: Natrix maura (Culebra viperina, llamada Tropidonotus viperinus por el autor) y Psammodromus sp. (Lagartija), los siguientes mamíferos: Arvicola sapidus (Rata de agua, también llamado Ratón aguadero), Martes foina (Garduña), Plecotus sp. (Orejudo...

  18. Helminthen einheimischer Froschlurche

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    176 frogs of the species Rana kl. esculenta (n = 137), Rana ridibunda (n = 7), Rana temporaria (n = 19), Rana arvalis (n = 18) and Bufo bufo (n = 1) taken from 11 different habitats in the Brandenburg state and the state of Saxonia-Anhalt were dissected and helminthologically examined. One aim of this study was to show the role of indigenous frogs in the epidemiology of trematode infections of carnivorous mammals and birds more closely, and also to attain details the incidence of frogs wi...

  19. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea) parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M C; Florindez, D T; Morales, E

    2000-03-01

    A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae) originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region. PMID:10743644

  20. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durette-Desset M.C.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region.

  1. Stool examination and rectal biopsy in the diagnosis and evaluation of therapy of schistosomiasis mansoni Exame de fezes e biópsia retal no diagnóstico e controle de cura da esquistossomose mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Teles Rabello

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available From each of a group of 217 adult males selected through enzyme-immunoassay or skin-test (Group A, six stool samples were examined by both the Lutz/Hoffman, Pons & Janer (Lutz/HPJ and Kato/Katz methods. In addition, one oogram of the rectal mucosa was performed. By these methods, schistosomiasis was detected in 44.7%, 47.5% and 40.1% of the individuals respectively. To evaluate the methods in the assessment of cure, the last 40 patients from group A, treated with a single oral dose of oxamniquine at 15 mg/kg were followed up for six months (Group B. The criteria for parasitological cure included three stool examinations by Kato/Katz and Lutz/HPJ methods, one, three and six months post-treatment and a rectal biopsy between the fourth and sixth months post-treatment. The examinations were negative in 87.5%, 90% and 95% of the patients, respectively. The efficacy of oxamniquine was 82.5% when the three methods were considered together and there was no statistically significant difference between the sensitivity of the individual methods.Em um grupo de 217 adultos do sexo masculino selecionados através de ELISA ou intradermoreação, realizaram-se seis exames de fezes pelos métodos de Lutz/Hoffman, Pons e Janer (Lutz/HPJ e Kato/Katz e um oograma da mucosa retal, observando-se positividade em 44,7%, 47,5% e 40,1%, respectivamente. A análise comparativa dos resultados mostrou: 1 aumento da sensibilidade de ambos os métodos de exames de fezes até a terceira amostra examinada; 2 maior sensibilidade da biópsia retal quando comparada ao exame de uma única amostra fecal pelos métodos de Lutz/HPJ ou Kato/Katz; 3 igual sensibilidade pelo exame de duas a cinco amostras fecais pelo método de Kato/Katz ou duas a seis amostras pelo método de Lutz/HPJ e a biópsia retal; 4 sensibilidade superior de seis amostras fecais pelo método de Kato/Katz, quando comparado à biópsia retal; 5 igual sensibilidade entre o mesmo número de amostras examinadas pelos

  2. On the parasitic fauna of two species of anurans collected from Sungai Pinang, Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, A R; Andy Tan, W A; Intan, S

    2008-08-01

    A total of fifty anurans, comprising of Rana limnocharis and Bufo melanostictus were collected from Sungai Pinang, Balik Pulau, Penang. The prevalence, mean intensity and distribution of parasite species along the digestive tract were reported. Seven species of parasites were recorded. Blood parasites recovered were trypansomes and microfilariae.

  3. Drug: D00595 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available diabetics Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] A ALIMENTARY TRACT AND METABOLISM A10 DRUGS USED IN DIABE...TES A10B BLOOD GLUCOSE LOWERING DRUGS, EXCL. INSULINS A10BA Biguanides A10BA03 Bufo

  4. Revisão do gênero Satipoella (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae Revision of the genus Satipoella (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Alvarenga Julio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Satipoella Lane, 1964 is revised and a new synonym is proposed, Icarai Galileo & Martins, 1998, with Satipoella. A new species, S. ochroma, is described from Amazonas, Brazil. New combination: Satipoella bufo (Thomson, 1864 from Icarai. The three species of Satipoella are illustrated and keyed.

  5. Revisão do gênero Satipoella (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Carlos Eduardo de Alvarenga

    2003-01-01

    The genus Satipoella Lane, 1964 is revised and a new synonym is proposed, Icarai Galileo & Martins, 1998, with Satipoella. A new species, S. ochroma, is described from Amazonas, Brazil. New combination: Satipoella bufo (Thomson, 1864) from Icarai. The three species of Satipoella are illustrated and keyed.

  6. Revisão do gênero Satipoella (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) Revision of the genus Satipoella (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo de Alvarenga Julio

    2003-01-01

    The genus Satipoella Lane, 1964 is revised and a new synonym is proposed, Icarai Galileo & Martins, 1998, with Satipoella. A new species, S. ochroma, is described from Amazonas, Brazil. New combination: Satipoella bufo (Thomson, 1864) from Icarai. The three species of Satipoella are illustrated and keyed.

  7. DIET OF THE SOUTHERN TOAD FROM THE SOUTHERN EVERGLADES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  8. Low temperature induces oocytes p34cdc2 synthesis and accumulation—the acquisition of competence to resume meiosis in toad oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUJINING; ZHENGGU; 等

    1996-01-01

    Full grown oocytes derived from Bufo Bufo gargarizans rearing at high temperature environment (24℃), never underwent GVBD after progesterone treatment.No p34cdc2 Hl kinase activity was detected in the oocytes after progesterone stimulation or OA microinjection;Western blotting analysis showed that the level of p34cdc2 and p33 in the oocytes are significantly lower than those in the oocytes derived from the hibernating toads (below 10℃).35S-Met incorporation analysis showed that when the oocytes were incubated at 6℃,synthesis of about thirty defferent polypeptides was promoted or induced,including p34cdc2 and some other p13suc1-binding proteins.All these results indicated that a low temperature environment is essential for the oocytes of Bufo Bufo gargarizans to express and stord some cell cycle drivers and its regulators,and to gain the maturation competence.These results will also provide a nwe clue for explaining the molecular mechanisms why gametogenesis of some organisms depends on a relative low temperature and how to maintain the geographical distribution of some animals.

  9. Persistence of the emerging pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis outside the amphibian host greatly increases the probability of host extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kate M; Churcher, Thomas S; Garner, Trenton W J; Fisher, Matthew C

    2008-02-01

    Pathogens do not normally drive their hosts to extinction; however, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes amphibian chytridiomycosis, has been able to do so. Theory predicts that extinction can be caused by long-lived or saprobic free-living stages. The hypothesis that such a stage occurs in B. dendrobatidis is supported by the recent discovery of an apparently encysted form of the pathogen. To investigate the effect of a free-living stage of B. dendrobatidis on host population dynamics, a mathematical model was developed to describe the introduction of chytridiomycosis into a breeding population of Bufo bufo, parametrized from laboratory infection and transmission experiments. The model predicted that the longer that B. dendrobatidis was able to persist in water, either due to an increased zoospore lifespan or saprobic reproduction, the more likely it was that it could cause local B. bufo extinction (defined as decrease below a threshold level). Establishment of endemic B. dendrobatidis infection in B. bufo, with severe host population depression, was also possible, in agreement with field observations. Although this model is able to predict clear trends, more precise predictions will only be possible when the life history of B. dendrobatidis, including free-living stages of the life cycle, is better understood. PMID:18048287

  10. Records of Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae feeding on Amphibia, with A new record from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H Braack

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available An early record of a sandfly feeding on an amphibian is that of Hewlett (1913, Indian J. med. Res. 1: 34-38 who wrote "I have twice seen a sandfly apparently biting the head of the common toad Bufo melanostictus".

  11. A new Culicoides of the stigmalis group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Um novo Culicoides do grupo stigmalis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Felippe-Bauer

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Notes are presented on the three known Neotropical species of the Culicoides stigmalis group of boodsucking midges: alvarezi Ortiz, fluviatilis (Lutz, stigmalis Wirth, and on deanei n.sp., which is described from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A diagnosis is given for the group, as well as a key for identification and comparative phtographs of the female wings.São apresentadas notas sobre as três espécies conhecidas de Culicoides neotropicais do grupo stigmalis: alvarezi Ortiz, fluviatilis (Lutz, stigmalis Wirth e sobre deanei sp.n., a qual é descrita para o Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. São apresentadas diagnose do grupo, chave sistemática para a identificação e fotografias das asas das fêmeas das espécies do grupo.

  12. Metagenomic and satellite analyses of red snow in the Russian Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    HISAKAWA, N.; Quistad, S.D.; Hester, E.R.; Martynova, D.; Maughan, H.; E. Sala; Gavrilo, M.V.; Rohwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Cryophilic algae thrive in liquid water within snow and ice in alpine and polar regions worldwide. Blooms of these algae lower albedo (reflection of sunlight), thereby altering melting patterns (Kohshima, Seko & Yoshimura, 1993; Lutz et al., 2014; Thomas & Duval, 1995). Here metagenomic DNA analysis and satellite imaging were used to investigate red snow in Franz Josef Land in the Russian Arctic. Franz Josef Land red snow metagenomes confirmed that the communities are composed of the autotrop...

  13. Brumptomyia angelae, a new species of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) of the Atlantic forest of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eunice A Bianchi Galati; Demilson Rodrigues dos Santos; Allan Martins da Silva

    2007-01-01

    The male of Brumptomyia angelae, sp. nov., a new species of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) of the Atlantic forest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, is described and illustrated. This new taxon is closely related to Brumptomyia ortizi Martins, Silva & Falcão 1971, Brumptomyia nitzulescui (Costa Lima, 1932), and Brumptomyia troglodytes (Lutz, 1922). The male genitalia of these three latter species have also been drawn.

  14. FAMILY CERATOPOGONIDAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Gustavo A; Wolff, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty five species of Ceratopogonids arranged in 28 genera are listed for Colombia, mostly Culicoides (112 species) and Forcipomyia (50 species). For each listed species, information on type locality, type category and sex, location of type material, species distribution, localities for Colombia and main references, is provided. Localities are not specified for 17 species in which the literature searching was negative. Forcipomyia squamitibia Lutz and Bezzia clavipennis are excluded from the list. PMID:27395263

  15. Descripción del macho de Culicoides pampaensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Description of the male of Culicoides pampaensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo R. Spinelli; Ronderos, María M.

    2005-01-01

    RESUMEN. Se describe e ilustra el macho de Culicoides pampaensis, y se brinda una diagnosis de la hembra. El ejemplar descripto fue capturado a la luz junto a una hembra, en la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina. La genitalia se compara con la de Culicoides bambusicola Lutz.ABSTRACT. The male of Culicoides pampaensis Spinelli & Wirth is described and illustrated and female diagnosis is also provided. The described male specimen was captured at light, associated with a female, in Catamarca prov...

  16. Solar heating system installed at Stamford, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut is described. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size with 25,000 sq ft of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The system components are described. Appended data includes: the system design acceptance test, the operation and maintenance manual, and as-built drawings and photographs.

  17. Strategy implementation in the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Gabriel; Nilsson, Pontus

    2007-01-01

    Background: After immense criticism, the Swedish government requested an investigation concerning the construction industry. The report concludes that the inactive competition within the construction industry entail that the industry continuously delivers the same products, in the same way. Gabrielsson & Lutz (2002), states that the market condition and the long history of static competition within the construction industry has led to low productivity, high consumption of resources, large...

  18. 《双层幕墙》一书已出版

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008年2月,由坚朗公司翻译的《Double-Skin Facades》中文译本《双层幕墙》出版发行了,此书是由德国的厄斯特勒Oesterle,利布Lieb,卢茨Lutz,霍伊斯勒Heusler著作,大连理工大学出版社出版的。

  19. Erster Deutscher IPv6 Gipfel

    OpenAIRE

    Meinel, Christoph; Sack, Harald; Bross, Justus

    2009-01-01

    Inhalt: KOMMUNIQUÉ GRUßWORT PROGRAMM HINTERGRÜNDE UND FAKTEN REFERENTEN: BIOGRAFIE & VOTRAGSZUSAMMENFASSUNG 1.) DER ERSTE DEUTSCHE IPV6 GIPFEL AM HASSO PLATTNER INSTITUT IN POTSDAM - PROF. DR. CHRISTOPH MEINEL - VIVIANE REDING 2.) IPV6, ITS TIME HAS COME - VINTON CERF 3.) DIE BEDEUTUNG VON IPV6 FÜR DIE ÖFFENTLICHE VERWALTUNG IN DEUTSCHLAND - MARTIN SCHALLBRUCH 4.) TOWARDS THE FUTURE OF THE INTERNET - PROF. DR. LUTZ HEUSER 5.) IPV6 STRATEGY & DEPLOYMENT STATUS IN JAPAN - HIROSHI MIYATA 6.) IPV...

  20. Whole-procedural Radiological Accuracy for Delivering Multi-session Gamma Knife Radiosurgery With a Relocatable Frame System

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lijun; Pinnaduwage, Dilini; McDermott, Michael; Sneed, Penny K.

    2014-01-01

    A newly developed Gamma Knife relocatable eXtend frame system has enabled the delivery of multi-session Gamma Knife radiosurgery without the use of skull pin fixation frame system. In this study, we investigate and report for the first time the whole procedural radiological accuracy for administering such treatments. To quantify the radiological alignment, the commonly used Winston-Lutz test was modified and used to determine the device accuracy of the eXtend frame system. Patient setup uncer...

  1. Automated substance testing for lab-on-chip devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kloke, Lutz; Schimek, Katharina; Brincker, Sven; Lorenz, Alexandra; Jänicke, Annika; Drewell, Christopher; Hoffmann, Silke; Busek, Mathias; Sonntag, Frank; Danz, Norbert; Polk, Christoph; Schmieder, Florian; Borchanikov, Alexey; Artyushenko, Viacheslav; Baudisch, Frank

    2013-01-01

    First published by BioMed Central: Kloke, Lutz ; Schimek, Katharina ; Brincker, Sven ; Lorenz, Alexandra ; Jänicke, Annika ; Drewell, Christopher ; Hoffmann, Silke ; Busek, Mathias ; Sonntag, Frank ; Danz, Norbert ; Polk, Christoph ; Schmieder, Florian ; Borchanikov, Alexey ; Artyushenko, Viacheslav ; Baudisch, Frank ; Bürger, Mario ; Horland, Reyk ; Lauster, Roland ; Marx, Uwe : Automated substance testing for lab-on-chip devices : From 23rd European Society for Animal Cell Technology (E...

  2. Digenean parasites of Ciconiiform birds from Argentina Digéneos parásitos de aves Ciconiiformes de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana B. Drago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The helminthological survey of 13 specimens of 5 ciconiiform species revealed the presence of 10 species of intestinal digeneans: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 in Tigrisoma lineatum and Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 in T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 and Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi and Drago, 2006 in Ardea cocoi and Ardea alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 in A. alba and T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard and Haviland, 1924 in A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 in A. cocoi and Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 and Petasiger sp. 2 in Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix was free of digeneans. The reports of A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum and D. lacombeensis represent new host records; the other reports are new geographical records. Moreover, the specimens described as Apharyngostrigea brasiliana Szidat, 1929 by Labriola and Suriano (1998 were analyzed and transferred to A. ardearum.El estudio parasitológico de 13 ejemplares pertenecientes a 5 especies de aves Ciconiiformes reveló la presencia de 10 especies de digéneos intestinales: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 en Tigrisoma lineatum y Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 en T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 y Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi y Drago, 2006 en Ardea cocoi y A. alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 en A. alba y T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard y Haviland, 1924 en A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 en A. cocoi y Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 y Petasiger sp. 2 en Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix no se encontró parasitada por digéneos. El presente estudio aporta nuevos registros de hospedadores para A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum y D. lacombeensis y nuevos registros geográficos para las restantes especies. Además, los organismos descritos como Apharyngostrigea brasiliana

  3. Effects of Children on Divorce Probabilities and of Divorce on Fertility: The Case of Finland 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, W.

    1991-01-01

    As a follow-up to a recent paper (The Demographic Dimensions of Divorce: The Case of Finland, by W. Lutz, A.B. Wils, and M. Nieminen, in "Population Studies" 1991), this study looks explicitly at the interactions between childbearing and divorce. Specifically, the study looks at the effects of parity and age of the youngest child on divorce probabilities controlling duration of marriage, and the effect of marital status and the duration since divorce on parity-specific birth probabilities. Ge...

  4. 经济危机将不会减缓制造大型集装箱船的步伐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.J.C

    1998-01-01

    The race towards the creation of ever-larger containerships will not be slowed by the world' s current economic turbulence, according to Lutz Wittenberg, director of projects and marketing at Classification Society Germanischer Lloyd(GL) . Wittenberg told delegates at the port design and operation technology conference in Singapore this week that GL has taken an active part in the development of an 8000 TEU containership by a German consortium ledby German builder HDW.

  5. Driving Scenes test of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) and on-road driving performance in aging and very mild dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Laura B.; Stern, Robert A.; Cahn-Weiner, Deborah A.; Rogers, Brooke; Messer, Melissa A.; Lannon, Margaret C.; Maxwell, Charleen; Souza, Timothy; White, Travis; Ott, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    The Driving Scenes test of the new Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB; [Stern, R.A., & White, T. (2003a). Neuropsychological Assessment Battery. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.]) measures several aspects of visual attention thought to be important for driving ability. The current study examined the relationship between scores on the Driving Scenes test and on-road driving performance on a standardized driving test. Healthy participants performed significantly better...

  6. Computability and Fractal Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This thesis combines computability theory and various notions of fractal dimension, mainly Hausdorff dimension. An algorithmic approach to Hausdorff measures makes it possible to define the Hausdorff dimension of individual points instead of sets in a metric space. This idea was first realized by Lutz (2000). Working in the Cantor space of all infinite binary sequences, we study the theory of Hausdorff and other dimensions for individual sequences. After giving an overview over the classical...

  7. Flow cytometry for intracellular SPION quantification: specificity and sensitivity in comparison with spectroscopic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf P. Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Ralf P Friedrich,1 Christina Janko,1 Marina Poettler,1 Philipp Tripal,1 Jan Zaloga,1 Iwona Cicha,1 Stephan Dürr,1,2 Johannes Nowak,3 Stefan Odenbach,3 Ioana Slabu,4 Maik Liebl,4 Lutz Trahms,4 Marcus Stapf,5 Ingrid Hilger,5 Stefan Lyer,1 Christoph Alexiou1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine, University hospital Erlangen, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section of Phoniatrics ...

  8. Study on the population structure of the paradoxical frog, Pseudis bolbodactyla (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae), using natural markings for individual identification

    OpenAIRE

    Werther P. Ramalho; Rafael F. Jorge; Leandro B. Baiocchi; Alfredo P. Peña; Ricardo A. P. Pires

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the population structure of Pseudis bolbodactyla Lutz, 1925 using natural markings to identify individuals. Recruitment, survival, and population size estimations were obtained using the Jolly-Seber stochastic method. A total of 166 individuals were captured, and the striped, spotted, and dotted patterns that make their recognition possible were recorded. Of the specimens captured, 27 were recaptured, including some at pre and post-metamorphic stages. The ...

  9. The role of common toads in the winter diet of recolonising Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García-Díaz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Importanza del rospo comune nella dieta invernale di una popolazione di lontra (Lutra lutra in espansione.
    Tramite analisi dei resti fecali, abbiamo evidenziato il ruolo fondamentale degli anfibi nella dieta invernale della lontra Lutra lutra in stagni artificiali della Spagna nord-occidentale. I numerosi “laghi di cava” presenti nell’area umida di Ribeiras do Louro e Gandaras de Budiño sono stati monitorati nel 2007-2009. Il rospo comune (Bufo bufo era la principale preda della lontra, costituendo l’88% della biomassa consumata, mentre il gambero americano Procambarus clarkii e i pesci erano prede secondarie. I nostri risultati contrastano con la ben nota preferenza della lontra per le rane rispetto al rospo. Il mantenimento della popolazione di lontra nel bacino del fiume Louro dipende strettamente dalla corretta gestione degli stagni artificiali.

  10. Amphibians of the “Cilento e Vallo di Diano” National Park (Campania, Southern Italy: updated check list, distribution and conservation notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the results of our field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park (Southern Italy. Two hundred and thirty three spawning sites (167 original and 66 derived from literature, and 11 amphibian species were found. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina terdigitata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica, Rana dalmatina and Pelophylax synkl. hispanica. The distribution record of many species is widely improved with respect to bibliographic data. Our results also suggested that preservation and restoration of small aquatic sites, in particular of the artificial ones, such as stony wells and drinking-troughs, are fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibians in the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park.

  11. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography for preparative isolation of toad venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Fu; Fang, Hua; Yan, Xia; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Zhen; Wu, Yun-Long; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2016-07-22

    An on-line comprehensive preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC×RPLC) system was constructed with a newly developed vacuum evaporation assisted adsorption (VEAA) interface, allowing fast removal of NPLC solvent in the vacuum condition and successfully solving the solvent incompatibility problem between NPLC and RPLC. The system achieved on-line solvent exchange within the two dimensions and its performance was illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude extract from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans. Within separation time of ∼20h, 19 compounds were obtained with high purity in a single run. With the VEAA interface, the 2D system exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and automation compared with conventional methods, indicating its promising application in the routine separation process for complicated natural products. PMID:27328884

  12. 华蟾素注射液多肽成分体外抗肿瘤活性研究%In vitro anti-proliferation effect of peptides from cinobufacini injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旭; 高波; 杨健; 边宝林; 王宏洁

    2012-01-01

    Cinobufacini is an aqueous extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor dried skin, which has been widely used for cancer therapy in China. So far, its active components are still not very clear. In previous reports, bufadienolides with low-concentration were usually studied because of their anticancer effects. However, the high polarity constituents in cinobufacini are less investigated. The present study found that more than 50% contents of cinobufacini were water-soluble peptides. Then, in vitro anticancer experiments were carried out, including human stomach cancer cell lines BGC823 and MCG803, human colon cancer cell lines DLD-1 and HT-29, and human pancreatic cancer cell line MIAPACA-2. The IC50 for these cell lines model were ranged from 25-123 μg·mL-1. The results indicated that these peptides showed similar activity with cinobufacini injection. As a conclusion, this study provides a new and further understanding of anticancer components in cinobufacini injection.

  13. Decline of electrogenic Na+/K+ pump activity in rod photoreceptors during maintained illumination

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Light-evoked changes in membrane voltage were recorded intracellularly from rod photoreceptors in the isolated retina preparation of the toad, Bufo marinus, during superfusion with a solution containing pharmacological agents that blocked voltage-dependent conductances. Under these conditions, the amplitude of the hyperpolarizing photoresponse became much greater than under control conditions. The results of several experiments support the conclusion that this increase in photoresponse amplit...

  14. Toad envenoming in dogs: effects and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    M. SAKATE; P. C. Lucas de Oliveira

    2000-01-01

    Toads (order: Anura; family: Bufonidae; genus: Bufo) are distributed throughout the world, but more species are found in areas of tropical and humid temperate climates. Although toads do not have a venom inoculation system, they are venomous animals because the glands covering the whole surface of their bodies secrete a milk-like venom of which composition is not yet completely known. Some of these glands are the bilateral glands located in post-orbital position. These glands, which are somew...

  15. Studies on the Effects of Deltamethrin on Sodium Net Transport Through the in vivo Amphibian Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALFREDOSALIBIAN; JOSEL.MARAZZO

    1995-01-01

    The action of micromolar concentrations of Deltamethrin on sodium net transport through the in vivo skin of the South American toad Bufo arenarum was studied.The effect or pure ethanolic insecticide solutions and commercial formulations when applied on the mucosal surface was assayed.Deltamethrin provoked a concentration-independent inhibition;the highest inhibition was found at the lowest concentrations.At highest concentrations of the insecticide the Jn Na was not altered.

  16. Differences and Similarities among Parotoid Macrogland Secretions in South American Toads: A Preliminary Biochemical Delineation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Mozer Sciani; Cláudia Blanes Angeli; Antoniazzi, Marta M.; Carlos Jared; Daniel Carvalho Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians are known by cutaneous glands, spread over the skin, containing toxins (proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, steroidal bufadienolides, and alkaloids) used as chemical defense against predators and microbial infection. Toads are characterized by the presence of parotoid macroglands. The common toads have lately been divided into two genera: Bufo (Europe, Asia, and Africa) and Rhinella (South America). Basal Rhaebo genus is exclusively of Central America and Amazon region. Although R...

  17. Farmed areas predict the distribution of amphibian ponds in a traditional rural landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Hartel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traditional rural landscapes of Eastern Europe are undergoing major changes due to agricultural intensification, land abandonment, change in agricultural practices and infrastructural development. Small man-made ponds are important yet vulnerable components of rural landscapes. Despite their important role for biodiversity, these ponds tend to be excluded from conservation strategies. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Our study was conducted in a traditional rural landscape in Eastern Europe. The aim of this study is twofold: (i to model the distribution of four major man-made pond types and (ii to present the importance of man-made ponds for the endangered Yellow Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata and the Common Toad (Bufo bufo. Six environmental variables were used to model pond distribution: Corine landcover, the heterogeneity of the landcover, slope, road distance, distance to closest village and the human population density. Land cover heterogeneity was the most important driver for the distribution of fishponds. Areas used for agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation were the most important predictors for the distribution of temporary ponds. In addition, areas covered by transitional woodland and scrub were important for the open cattle ponds. Bombina variegata was found predominantly in the temporary ponds (e.g. ponds created by cattle and buffalo, dirt road ponds and concrete ponds created for livestock drinking and Bufo bufo in fishponds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our Maxent models revealed that the highest probability of occurrence for amphibian ponds was in areas used as farmland. The traditional farming practices combined with a low level of infrastructure development produces a large number of amphibian ponds. The challenge is to harmonize economic development and the maintenance of high densities of ponds in these traditional rural landscapes.

  18. Local adaptation of an anuran amphibian to osmotically stressful environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Mestre, Iván; Tejedo, Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Water salinity is an intense physiological stress for amphibians. However, some species, such as Bufo calamita, breed in both brackish and freshwater environments. Because selection under environmentally stressful conditions can promote local adaptation of populations, we examined the existence of geographic variation in water salinity tolerance among B. calamita populations from either fresh or brackish water ponds in Southern Spain. Comparisons were made throughout various ontogenetic stage...

  19. Male size does not correlate with fertilization success in two bufonid toads that show size-assortative mating

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Li FAN, Zhi-Hua LIN, Xiang JI

    2013-01-01

    We examined sexual size dimorphism (SSD), mating pattern, fertilization efficiency and female reproductive traits in two bufonid toads (Bufo gargarizans and Duttaphrynus melanostictus) to test the idea that importance of male body size for egg fertilization success depends on the mating pattern. Female-biased SSD was evident only in D. melanostictus. Female B. gargarizans laid fewer larger eggs nearly three months earlier than did female D. melanostictus. Fertilization efficiencies on average...

  20. Evolution of erythrocyte morphology in amphibians (Amphibia: Anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Wei; Yan-Yan Li; Li Wei; Guo-Hua Ding; Xiao-Li Fan; Zhi-Hua Lin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We compared the morphology of the erythrocytes of five anurans, two toad species - Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842) and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799) and three frog species - Fejervarya limnocharis (Gravenhorst, 1829), Microhyla ornata (Duméril & Bibron, 1841), and Rana zhenhaiensis (Ye, Fei & Matsui, 1995). We then reconstructed the ancestral state of erythrocyte size (ES) and nuclear size (NS) in amphibians based on a molecular tree. Nine morphological traits of eryth...

  1. Developmental alterations and osmoregulatory physiology of a larval anuran under osmotic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Mestre, Iván; Tejedo, Miguel; Ramayo E.; Estepa, J.

    2004-01-01

    Water salinity represents an environmental stress for many species. Amphibians are particularly sensitive because they are generally poor osmoregulators, and most species are completely absent from brackish and saline environments. We experimentally examined the effect of different salinity levels on larvae of the toad Bufo calamita L., a species that occupies freshwater ponds but can also breed in brackish ponds. Two independent experiments are reported here. In both experiments, tadpoles un...

  2. Final report on effects of environmental radiation of Kori nuclear power plant on human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify and protect the effects of environmental radiation according to the operation of Kori nuclear power plant on the human population, the base line survey for the human monitoring, human life habits, expected individual exposure dose, frequencies of chromosomal aberration, gene frequencies and karyotypes in amphibia, fauna, and radiation sensitivities in microorganisms which have been living around the power plant site were carried out. Kilchonri population which took for the human monitoring lie within a 2 km distance from the power plant site. Human monitoring, house and food characteristics, individual experience of x-ray exposures, human chromosome analysis and fauna were surveyed and expressed in numerical tables. Chromosome number obtained from the amphibia which were collected around the power plant area was as follows: Kaloula borealis 2N=30, Rana amurensis 2N=26, Rana dybouskii 2N=24, Rana rugosa 2N=26, Rana nigromaculata 2N=26, Rana plancyi 2N=26, Bombina orientalis 2N=24, Hyla arborea 2N=24, Bufo stejnegeri 2N=22, Bufo bufo 2N=22. (author)

  3. Incidencia de los atropellos sobre la fauna vertebrada en el Valle de El Paular. LIC "Cuenca del río Lozoya y Sierra Norte"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESPINOSA, A., SERRANO, J.A., MONTORI, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las carreteras son uno de los agentes antrópicos de cambio más importantes. Son uno de los más relevantes agentes de fragmentación de hábitat, transformación de los sistemas naturales y actúan como un depredador inespecífico sobre la fauna. Varios estudios han demostrado que son la principal causa de mortalidad de anfibios, como es el caso del sapo común Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758 en España. En un estudio previo realizado en la zona se puso de manifiesto que la mayor incidencia de los atropellos se producía sobre dos especies: Bufo calamita Laurenti, 1768 y Bufo bufo. Para analizar la situación actual y ampliar el área de estudio se seleccionaron 13 tramos de 1 km en las carreteras M-604 y M-611 localizadas en el LIC del Alto Lozoya (Sistema Central, Península Ibérica. Cada segmento prospectado se recorrió a pie en ambos sentidos tres veces al mes, durante dos años, desde marzo de 2009 (934 muestreos. Los transectos se caracterizaron considerando las variables: altitud de inicio y final, cobertura arbórea (para una franja de 20 m a ambos lados de la carretera, grado de humanización (muy bajo, bajo, medio y vegetación dominante. Las visitas a los tramos se realizaron con un intervalo promedio de 9 días, tiempo suficiente para que no existieran observaciones repetidas. Además, los ejemplares atropellados detectados eran retirados de la calzada cuando esto era posible. Se han registrado un total de 632 vertebrados muertos en la calzada que se distribuyen por grupos en 123 anfibios, 160 reptiles, 191 aves y 80 mamíferos de 4, 14, 26 y 12 especies distintas, respectivamente. No se han encontrado diferencias en el número de atropellos según el día de la semana, pero sí existen claras diferencias en la distribución de los atropellos a lo largo del año. Sólo dos variables ambientales muestran diferencias significativas según el grupo: el grado de humanización y el hábitat. Sin embargo, el test PostHoc de Bonferroni indica

  4. Courtship song genes and speciation in sand flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira SG

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae is a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas and it might represent a complex of sibling species. Reproductive isolation between closely related species often involves differences in courtship behaviour. cacophony (cac and period (per are two Drosophila genes that control features of the "lovesong" males produce during courtship that has been implicated in the sexual isolation between closely related species. We are using gene fragments from L. longipalpis' homologues of these two genes to study the speciation process in this putative species complex.

  5. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste) Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg).

  6. Modern Arylation Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Today, arylation methods are belonging to the most important reaction types in organic synthesis. Lutz Ackermann, a young and ambitious professor has gathered a number of top international authors to present the first comprehensive book on the topic. Starting from a historical review, the book covers hot topics like Palladium-catalyzed arylation of N-H and alpha-C-H-acidic Bonds, Copper-catalyzed arylation of N-H and O-H Bonds, direct arylation reactions, carbanion aromatic synthesis, arylation reactions of alkenes, alkynes and much more. This compact source of high quality information is indi

  7. Equipment based on high power UV and white light LEDs to collect and observe scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones and other fluorescent organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo N. Ramires

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new, high quality, low cost and versatile LEDs-based handset device that emits high power UV and white light, which can be used interchangeably. It offers power control and has long battery life. Even though it is optimized to detect and collect scorpions under low light conditions, it can also be used with other groups of fluorescent organisms. The device achieved superior performance in field and laboratory trials when compared with a 12 LEDs low power UV flashlight, and a 46 W black fluorescent light lamp, to locate Tityus serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922.

  8. INIBIÇÃO DE SALMONELLA POR EXTRATO DE ALECRIM (Rosmarinus officinalis): OBTENÇÃO DE EXTRATOS DE ALECRIM EM SOLVENTES ORGÂNICOS INHIBITION OF Salmonella BY ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus officinalis) EXTRACTS: ORGANIC SOLVENTS ROSEMARY EXTRACT OBTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Célia Lopes Torres; Alonso Salustiano Pereira; Magdala Alencar Teixeiras; Paulo César Stringheta

    2007-01-01

    Com o objetivo de se obter um extrato de alecrim em solvente orgânico, a ser utilizado na inibição de Salmonella, em alimentos, foram testados quatro tipos de solventes, a saber: metanol, etanol, acetona e hexano. Na obtenção dos extratos foi adotada a técnica recomendada para determinação de lipídeos, conforme as NORMAS ANALÍTICAS DO INSTITUTO ADOLFO LUTZ (1976). A análise dos resultados evidenciou um excelente des...

  9. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  10. Anfíbios Anuros do Distrito Federal The Frogs of the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Lutz

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available The frogs of the Federal District of Brazil are listed and discussed as to habit, biology and ecology. The F. D is situated 22° 54' 24" S. & 43° 10' 21" W Gr. and comprises 1.356 km². Its topography includes sea-shore, maritime scrub, lagoons, plains and marsh, open slopes, forested mountains and great heads of rock. Three thousand feet of altitude are attained at two points. Fifty two different frogs occur in the F.D. Three fifths of them live in open country. Two fifths of these have never been found above the plains; the others range higher but mostly in open country. Their environment offers conditions suitable for average tadpoles and adults. these frogs are more or less unspecialized. There are six genera and thirty species. Two thirds of the latter belong to the type genera of the large neotropical families Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae and Hylidae. Only in the maritime scrub formation are conditions somewhat different. Water for average tadpoles is provided by the lagoons. The xerophytism of the vegetation is, however, so marked that bromeliads growing on the ground provide almost the only appropriate shelter for adult tree-frogs used to sleeping upright on the vegetation. One large Hylid genus lives entirely in them. It is casque-headed and phragmotic, shutting the lumen of the leaf-cup with head used as a plug. Another large Hylid genus shows a lesser degree of the same specialization. (Lutz A & Lutz B, 1939 II. One genus with two species is entirely saxicolous; it lives on wet ledges of rock at all phases of its life history. (B. Lutz 1948. The other two fifths of the frogs from F. D. are montane forest forms. Their environment offers numerous and varied biotopes and is near optimum for adults. There is,however, hardly any standing water available for larvae. These frogs are ecologically diversified. They also show a general trend towards spawning in the adult biotipe, which leads to delayed hatching, semi-aquatic and terrestrial

  11. [Culicidae (Diptera) in the dam area bordering the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Almério C; Paula, Marcia B; Vitor Neto, João B; Borsari, Rodrigo; Ferraudo, Antonio S

    2009-01-01

    The Culicidae composition of the Barra Grande Lake situated between the municipalities of Esmeralda (Rio Grande do Sul State) and Anita Garibaldi (Santa Catarina State) was assessed by monthly samplings. Twenty-four species were identified from a total of 1,185 specimens (74.7% as adults and 25.3% as immatures), with Aedes fluviatilis Lutz as the most frequent species. Several species are new records, and some of them are of public health interest. It is suggested that local environmental changes may alter the relationship between humans and vector mosquitoes.

  12. Germline transformation of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae) with the piggyBac transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Flávia Guimarães; Oliveira, Sabrina Barbosa; Rocha, Bruno Coelho; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2006-11-01

    The technique to generate transgenic mosquitoes requires adaptation for each target species because of aspects related to species biology, sensitivity to manipulation and rearing conditions. Here we tested different parameters on the microinjection procedure in order to obtain a transgenic Neotropical mosquito species. By using a transposon-based strategy we were able to successfully transform Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz), which can be used as an avian malaria model. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the piggyBac transposable element as a transformation vector for Neotropical mosquito species and opens up new research frontiers for South American mosquito vectors. PMID:17160283

  13. Germline transformation of Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae with the piggyBac transposable element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Guimarães Rodrigues

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The technique to generate transgenic mosquitoes requires adaptation for each target species because of aspects related to species biology, sensitivity to manipulation and rearing conditions. Here we tested different parameters on the microinjection procedure in order to obtain a transgenic Neotropical mosquito species. By using a transposon-based strategy we were able to successfully transform Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, which can be used as an avian malaria model. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the piggyBac transposable element as a transformation vector for Neotropical mosquito species and opens up new research frontiers for South American mosquito vectors.

  14. Prevalência da infecção pelo Schistosoma mansoni em dois municípios do Estado de Alagoas Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two municipalities of the State of Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylo César Correia Palmeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos preliminares indicam uma provável expansão da esquistossomose em Alagoas. Este trabalho analisa a ocorrência do Schistosoma mansoni em escolares de dois municípios, localizados nas bacias hidrográficas dos rios Mundaú e Paraíba. MÉTODOS: O grupo de estudo foi constituído por 690 escolares da zona urbana, com idade entre sete e 15 anos. Foram aplicados interrogatórios socioeconômicos e foram usados exames parasitológicos para diagnostico da esquistossomose (métodos de Kato e de Lutz. Foram tratados os casos positivos e foram ministradas palestras para alunos e familiares sobre educação sanitária. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de Schistosoma mansoni foi de 24,9%. A associação entre esquistossomose e outras parasitoses foi significativa em relação à tricuríase (pINTRODUCTION: Preliminary studies indicate a probable schistosomiasis expansion in Alagoas. This work analyzes the occurrence of Schistosoma mansoni in students from two municipalities, located in the Mundaú and Paraíba rivers basins. METHODS: The study group consisted of 690 students in the urban area, aged between seven and 15 years. A standardized socio-economic questionnaire was filled out and parasitological tests were used to diagnosis schistosomiasis (Lutz and Kato methods. Positive cases were treated and students and their families were lectured about health education. RESULTS: The Schistosoma mansoni prevalence was 24.9%. The association between schistosomiasis and other parasitic diseases was significant in relation to trichuriasis (p <0.05. Only 50% of infected children lived in brick homes with sanitation and public water supply. Among them, 48.1% used to go usually to the water collections and 55.8% of them knew rivers snails. The concordance analysis between the Lutz and Kato methods showed disagreement in 54.2%, with greater sensitivity for the Lutz technique (76.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The indices obtained characterize the municipalities

  15. Learning Python

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Google and YouTube use Python because it's highly adaptable, easy to maintain, and allows for rapid development. If you want to write high-quality, efficient code that's easily integrated with other languages and tools, this hands-on book will help you be productive with Python quickly -- whether you're new to programming or just new to Python. It's an easy-to-follow self-paced tutorial, based on author and Python expert Mark Lutz's popular training course. Each chapter contains a stand-alone lesson on a key component of the language, and includes a unique Test Your Knowledge section with p

  16. Flow cytometry for intracellular SPION quantification: specificity and sensitivity in comparison with spectroscopic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich RP; Janko C; Poettler M; Tripal P; Zaloga J; Cicha I; Dürr S.; Nowak J; Odenbach S; Slabu I; Liebl M; Trahms L; Stapf M; Hilger I; Lyer S

    2015-01-01

    Ralf P Friedrich,1 Christina Janko,1 Marina Poettler,1 Philipp Tripal,1 Jan Zaloga,1 Iwona Cicha,1 Stephan Dürr,1,2 Johannes Nowak,3 Stefan Odenbach,3 Ioana Slabu,4 Maik Liebl,4 Lutz Trahms,4 Marcus Stapf,5 Ingrid Hilger,5 Stefan Lyer,1 Christoph Alexiou1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section of Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine, University hospital Erlangen, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Section of Phoniatrics and Pedi...

  17. The Social Construction of School Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merylann J. Schuttloffel

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A case study highlights barriers encountered by an urban school principal in implementing reforms within the context of the Kentucky Educational Reform Act. By comparing the competing expectations of Miller's (1995 five capitals and Ianneconne and Lutz's (1970 dissatisfaction theory, the case study dramatizes that Site-Based Decision-Making councils exemplify a policy decision that ignores the practical realities of distressed schools. The lack of congruence between policies and the school reality makes implementation of school reform predictably unsuccessful.

  18. Atlas de distribución y estado de conservación de los Anfibios de la Comunidad de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Solano, I.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Successful management and conservation planning depend upon the availability, integration and updating of information provided by different disciplines. This paper compiles relevant information for the conservation of amphibians in Comunidad de Madrid (Spain. We obtained chorological information from 1384 sampling localities throughout the region of Madrid, and reviewed relevant scientific literature for the management of amphibian populations in this area. We found at least one amphibian species in 70,3% of sampled localities. Results are illustrated in distribution maps of all 18 species found: Salamandra salamandra, Pleurodeles waltl, Mesotriton alpestris, Lissotriton boscai, Triturus marmoratus, Triturus pygmaeus, Alytes obstetricans, Alytes cisternasii, Discoglossus galganoi, Discoglossus jeanneae, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Hyla arborea, Hyla meridionalis, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Rana iberica and Rana perezi. Distribution maps are presented in five-kilometer side UTM grids cells. We compare and integrate our results with previous studies and outline groups of populations representing independent management units, for which we propose risk categories according to the criteria established by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN at the regional level. Finally, we point out the main threats for the survival of amphibian populations and discuss possible actions to improve their conservation status.

    La planificación de estrategias de gestión y conservación eficaces depende de la disponibilidad, integración y actualización de información procedente de diversas disciplinas. En este trabajo se recopila información relevante para la conservación de los anfibios de la Comunidad de Madrid. Hemos obtenido información corológica de un total de 1384 puntos de muestreo repartidos por toda la geografía madrileña y revisado la literatura científica de interés para la gestión de las

  19. Anagramme und andere Sprachspiele – zum Werk von Unica Zürn Anagrams and Other Language Games—On the Work of Unica Zürn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Vojta

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Unica Zürn (geb. 1916, 1970 Selbstmord in Paris wurde in der Forschung kaum als eigenständige Künstlerin rezipiert. Sie wird als die Lebensgefährtin von Hans Bellmer angesehen. In diesem Kontext fungiert sie als seine Muse, als die lebendige Verkörperung seiner Puppenmodelle. Helga Lutz plädiert in ihrer Dissertation für eine Auseinandersetzung mit den Arbeiten von Unica Zürn, „losgelöst aus dem Koordinatensystem des Biographischen und der Prämisse des Wahnsinns“. (S. 169Unica Zürn (born in 1916; suicide in Paris in 1970 has rarely been received in scholarship as an independent artist. She is seen as Hans Bellmer’s companion. She functions as a muse in this context, as a living embodiment of his dolls. In her dissertation, Helga Lutz pleads for an examination of Utica Zorn’s work, “removed from the coordinate plane of the biography and the premises of insanity” (169.

  20. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores iniciam com êste, uma série de trabalhos sôbre a Dermatozoonose provocada pela picada de Culicoides, em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. No presente, tratam das espécies de Culicoides encontradas em Salvador, baseados na coleta de 2.947 exemplares, durante os anos de 1959 a 1963. Encontraram as 4 espécies seguintes; C. (O. paraensis (Goeldi, 1905 C. (O. limonensis Ortiz & Leon, 1955 C. (C. insignis Lutz, 1913 C. (C. flavivenula Costa Lima, 1937. Não reencontraram o C. (C. maruim, Lutz, 1913 assinalado por fox (1948 e WIRTH & BLANTON (1956 para Salvador. Dessas espécies o C. (C. paraensis se mostrou a predominante, abrangendo 98% de exemplares coletados. Apresentam a distribuição das espécies por bairros e respectivas quantidades coletadas. Finalizando, dão as principais características morfológicas das espécies, ilustrando essas com desenhos do material por êles estudado.

  1. Universalismo versus relativismo no julgamento moral Universalism versus relativism in moral judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. B. Biaggio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a posição de diversos autores que têm-se destacado no estudo do julgamento moral, quanto à questão do universalismo versus relativismo. Há valores universais? Há uma seqüência evolutiva de estágios de maturidade moral que se encontre em todas as culturas? Com base em análises e críticas de James Rest, Orlando Lourenço, Lutz Eckensberger e John Snarey, são analisadas posições universalistas, como as de Piaget e Kohlberg (com seus fundamentos em Kant e as posições relativistas, tendo como ponto extremo a de Shweder. Entre os dois campos extremos são comentadas as posições de Turiel, Gilligan, e outros autores.This article analyses positions of distinguished authors in the field of moral development, regarding the issue of universalism versus relativism. Based on analyses and critiques by James Rest, Orlando Lourenço, Lutz Eckensberger, and John Snarey, the author reviews unversalistic positions such as those of Piaget and Kohlberg (with their roots in Kant, and relativistic positions, having as their extreme the position of Shweder. Between the two extremes,the stands of Turiel, Gilligan and other authors are discussed.

  2. Emerging magnetic stability in atomically assembled spin arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Sebastian; Baumann, Susanne; Lutz, Christopher P.; Eigler, D. M.; Heinrich, Andreas J.

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic stability is usually created by the interaction of a large ensemble of atomically small magnetic moments that are themselves unstable. We make use of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope's ability to move individual atoms and construct arrays of interacting spins. Owed to their smallness, the magnetic states of these spin arrays are quantized and we probe their energies by inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy [1]. To gain access to the equally important dynamical properties we employ an all-electronic pump-probe measurement scheme with which we follow the evolution between the spin states at nanosecond speed [2]. The combination of energetic and dynamical information allows identification of the relevant spin interaction and spin relaxation mechanisms at the atomic level. We design arrangements of atoms that suppress quantum tunneling of magnetization and drastically stabilize different spin configurations. Tracing the emergence of magnetic stability in the progression from individual atoms to arrays of spins points to new avenues for spintronic applications at atomic dimensions. [4pt] [1] A. J. Heinrich, J. A. Gupta, C. P. Lutz, D. M. Eigler, Science 306 466 (2004).[0pt] [2] S. Loth, M. Etzkorn, C. P. Lutz, D. M. Eigler, A. J. Heinrich, Science 329 1628 (2010).

  3. Space Science Network Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, J.

    2002-12-01

    Space Science Network Northwest (S2N2) is a new NASA Office of Space Science Education Broker/Facilitator that serves the states of Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming. The headquarters of S2N2 is at the University of Washington in Seattle and the Director is Julie Lutz (206-543-0214; nasaerc@u.washington.edu). Each state has an S2N2 representative. Their contact information can be found on the Web site (www.s2n2.org) or by contacting Julie Lutz. The purpose of S2N2 is to form and nurture partnerships between space scientists and others (K-12 teachers, schools and districts, museums, planetariums, libraries, organizations such as Girl Scouts, amateur astronomy clubs, etc.). S2N2 can help space scientists come up with appropriate activities and partners for education and public outreach proposals and projects. S2N2 also provides information and advice about education materials and programs that are available from all of the Office of Space Science missions and scientific forums (Solar System Exploration, Structure and Evolution of the Universe, Sun-Earth Connection, Astronomical Search for Origins).

  4. Das politische Gewicht der Bilder The Political Weight of Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahra Dornick

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Lutz Hieber und Paula-Irene Villa setzen sich sowohl aus soziologischer als auch aus kulturwissenschaftlicher und politischer Perspektive mit der Historie und Aktualität von Queer Theory auseinander. Grundlegende theoretische Debatten und Denkfiguren wie Postmodernismus, Feminismus in der Postmoderne oder auch Kritik von Identität und Normalisierung werden anschaulich dargestellt. Gleichzeitig werden gewinnbringende Akzente in Form von Analysen verschiedener Praxen von Politik, wie etwa der Politisierung von Kunst, gesetzt. Insgesamt werden auf gelungene Weise erstens spezifische Begriffe der Queer Theory in ihre jeweiligen Kontexte eingeordnet und erläutert und zweitens spezifische Formen und Möglichkeiten politischer Praxis dargelegt.Lutz Hieber and Paula-Irene Villa examine the history and topicality of Queer Theory from the perspective of sociology, cultural studies, and politics. They depict essential theoretical debates and thinkers such as postmodernism, feminism in postmodernism, or the critique of identity and normalization. At the same time they place lucrative accents in the form of analyses of differing political practices, such as of the politicization of art. Overall the study successfully presents firstly, the terminology of Queer Theory ordered into their respective contexts and explained and secondly, specific forms and possibilities of political practice.

  5. Evaluation of techniques for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive and HIV negative individuals in the city of Itajaí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelene Marchi Blatt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and intestinal parasites are common in Brazil. Previous studies have shown that infection with Strongyloides stercoralis is frequently associated with HIV infection. Strongyloidiasis is difficult to diagnosis and stool examination with conventional techniques fails to detect the helminth larvae. We made a prospective study, to test the efficacy of the agar plate technique to detect S. stercoralis in 211 HIV-positive patients and 213 HIV-negative patients in the city of Itajaí, Brazil, between September 2001 and June 2002. The feces samples of these patients were processed and analyzed according to the following methods: Lutz, formalin ethyl acetate, Baermann, Harada-Mori and agar plate culture. HIV-positive patients were more frequently infected by S. stercoralis (odds ratio= 5,.687. Among the methods used on fecal specimens, the larvae of S. stercoralis were most efficiently detected by the agar plate (69.7% method, followed by the Baermann and the formalin ethyl acetate methods (48.5% (P=0.01, Lutz (42.4% (P=0.01, and Harada-Mori culture (24% (P=0.001. Therefore agar plate culture is the most efficient method for the detection of S. stercoralis larvae and this technique should be the test of choice, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  6. [Spatial distribution and temporal variation in composition of black fly species (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a small watershed located in the Northern of Paraná State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rachel B Dos; Lopes, José; Santos, Karen B Dos

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the survey of simuliid species and the study of their spatial distribution in four streams of a small watershed situated in Londrina, Paraná State, were carried out from January to October 2007. Changes in the species composition of the breeding sites were also checked along the sampling months. Seventeen black fly species were found, being Simulium botulibranchium Lutz, Simulium travassosi d'Andretta & d'Andretta, Simulium anamariae Vulcano, Simulium brachycladum Lutz & Pinto and Simulium metallicum s. l. Bellardi new records for Paraná State. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that the environmental variables most correlated to the species distribution among sample sites were water conductivity and those linked to physical dimensions of the breeding sites, like width, depth and water velocity. The matrix of faunistic similarity among collecting dates was negatively correlated to the time interval of sampling matrix for three of the water bodies studied, showing the existence of temporal changes in the species composition. According to Multiple Regression Analysis, temporal abundance variation of Simulium perflavum Roubaud, Simulium inaequale Paterson & Shannon and Simulium lutzianum s. l. Pinto was not linked to air temperature, photoperiod and rainfall, suggesting the influence of other factors, probably those directly associated to specific breeding site conditions. The results indicate that differences in physical and chemical characteristics among water bodies may affect the taxonomic composition of simuliids in this watershed. PMID:20498969

  7. Vocal repertory of Scinax littoreus (Anura: Hylidae with comments on the advertisement call of the Scinax perpusillus species group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pontes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Scinax perpusillus species group consists of thirteen bromeligenous treefrogs, of which only six have had their acoustic parameters appropriately described. In this work, we present the vocal repertory of Scinax littoreus (Peixoto, 1988 based on recordings obtained from three different populations in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Based on our observations we suggest that the vocal repertory of S. littoreus is composed of two distinct types of calls. The call named type A, which corresponds to a long series of multipulsed notes, is likely to have a mating function. This type of call is similar to that reported for Scinax arduous Peixoto, 2002, Scinax peixotoi Brasileiro, Haddad, Sawaya & Martins, 2007, and Scinax perpusillus (Lutz & Lutz, 1939. However, the type A call of S. littoreus is nonetheless readily distinguishable from the comparable call observed in other congeneric species. The call named type B, which exhibits a multipulsed structure, presumably has an aggressive function. We observed that different types of calls could be emitted alone or combined according to the social context. Additionally, we discuss problems involving comparisons of call parameters among species belonging to the S. perpusillus species group, provide an updated geographic distribution map, discuss the conservation status of the included species, and emphasize the importance of acoustic data for the recognition of species groups within Scinax.

  8. Bibliographic Studies on the Bufonis Venenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kye-Sung Kang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Through the literatures on the effets of Bufonis Venenum, we are finding out the clinical possibility and revealing the more effective to intractable diseases. Methods : We investigated the literatures of Oriental Medicine and experimental reports about Bufonis Venenum. Results : 1. Bufonis Venenum is made of bufonidae bufo bufo gargarizans cantor or bufo melanostictus schneider of white serum which secreted from parotid gland or dermato gland, and it is dried for using. 2. In oriental medicine, Bufonis Venenum has been mainly used on the tumors, cacanthrax and dermatic disease, and then it has been clinically used on infantile athrepsia, tetanus, sore throat, toothache, and so on. 3. The pharmacological effects of Bufonis Venenum are cardiotonic, respiration stimulation, depressor or vasopressor, topical anesthcsia, hallucination, striped muscle stimulation, antiasthmatic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, anticancer, diuretic, immuno effects, etc. 4. Bufonis Venenum is largely divided in ether binding steroid compound, hydroxyl steroid compound, carboxyl or aldehyde steroid compound, indole compound, and adrenaline, cholesterole, etc. 5. Symptoms of Bufonis Venenum poisoning in digestive system are vommitig, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dehydration, in circulatory system are palpitation, shock, bradycardia, in nervous system are vertigo, somnolentia, muscle-tendon reflex weakness, and critical conditions to tissue necrosis and heart attack. 6. Ways to treat Bufonis Venenum poisoning include gastric irrigation with 0.20.5% potassium permanganate fluid and atropine 0.5~1.0mg subcutaneous injection. From the chinese book of Bon Cho Gang Moke(本草綱目, if white serum of Bufonis Venenum enter the eyes, it happens the edema and pain. And then washed the eyes by juice of Lithospermi Radix(紫草 that the edema is removed. Conclusions and Discussion : The results from above literary studies show that prescriptions and Aqua-acupuncture of

  9. Combined exposure to ambient UVB radiation and nitrite negatively affects survival of amphibian early life stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, Guadalupe [Donana Biological Station, CSIC, Spanish Council for Scientific Research. P.O. Box 1056, Sevilla 41013 (Spain); Marco, Adolfo [Donana Biological Station, CSIC, Spanish Council for Scientific Research. P.O. Box 1056, Sevilla 41013 (Spain)], E-mail: amarco@ebd.csic.es; Blaustein, Andrew R. [Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Many aquatic species are sensitive to ambient levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) and chemical fertilizers. However, recent studies indicate that the interaction among multiple stressors acting simultaneously could be contributing to the population declines of some animal species. Therefore, we tested the potential synergistic effects between ambient levels of UVB and a contaminant, sodium nitrite in the larvae of two amphibian species, the common European toad Bufo bufo and the Iberian green frog Rana perezi. We studied R. perezi from both mountain and coastal populations to examine if populations of the same species varied in their response to stressors in different habitats. Both species were sensitive to the two stressors acting alone, but the interaction between the two stressors caused a multiplicative impact on tadpole survival. For B. bufo, the combination of UVB and nitrite was up to seven times more lethal than mortality for each stressor alone. In a coastal wetland, the combination of UVB and nitrite was four times more toxic for R. perezi than the sum of the effect on mortality for each stressor alone. One mg/L of nitrite killed half the population of R. perezi at Gredos Mountains at day 10 in the absence of UVB. In the presence of UVB, 50% of the tadpoles from the same experiment died at day 7. Similar toxic response were found for R. perezi in two highly contrasted environments suggesting this synergistic interaction can be a widespread phenomenon. The interaction of excess chemical fertilizers and manure with ambient UVB radiation could be contributing to the global decline of some amphibian species. We suggest that potential exposure to UVB radiation be accounted for when assessing water quality criteria regarding nitrite pollution.

  10. Información proporcionada por cazadores sobre la fauna de Vadocondes (Burgos) el 13 de noviembre de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Información proporcionada al autor por cazadores, sobre la fauna de Vadocondes (Burgos), a 13 de noviembre de 1953, que incluye a los siguientes anfibios: Alytes sp. (Sapo partero), Bufo sp. (Sapo) y "Molge sp." (puede referirse a Triturus marmoratus o a Pleurodeles waltl), los siguientes mamíferos: Ardilla (pudiendo ser, Sciurus vulgaris o Atlantoxerus getulus), Canis lupus (Lobo), Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), Felis silvestris (Gato montés), Lirón (pudiendo se...

  11. Salida de campo a Villarmentero de Esgueva (Valladolid) el 18 de julio de 1956

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Villarmentero de Esgueva (Valladolid) el 18 de julio de 1956, de la que se anotaron observaciones, agrupando las especies por hábitats, sobre el anfibio Epidalea calamita (Sapo corredor, llamado Bufo calamita por el autor), el reptil Natrix maura (Culebra viperina, llamada Tropidonotus viperinus por el autor), los siguientes mamíferos: Martes foina (Garduña), Mustela nivalis (Comadreja) y Mustela putorius (Turón), y las siguientes aves: Alectoris sp. (Perdiz), Calandrella sp...

  12. Environ: E00121 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00121 Toad venom (JP16) Crude drug Hellebrin [CPD:C08868], Resibufogenin [CPD:C170...58], Cinobufagin [CPD:C16931], Bufalin [CPD:C16922], Bufotalin [CPD:C16923], Cinobufotalin [CPD:C16932], Gamabufo...talin [CPD:C16962], Telocinobufagin [CPD:C17072], Hellebrigenin [CPD:C16969], Bufadienolides [CPD:C16921], Cardenolides, Bufo...tenine [CPD:C08299], Bufotenidine [CPD:C13664], Epirenamine...l, Marinobufagin, Resibufagin, Serotonine, Bufothionine, Dehydrobufotenine, Bufotoxin, Cholesterol [CPD:C001

  13. Electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the vertebrates of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the common fishes e.g. Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Wallago attu, Heterop-neustes fossilis; amphibia e.g., Rana tigrina, Rana cyanophlyctis, Bufo melanostictus; reptiles e.g. Varanus bengalensis, Uromastix hardwickii; birds e.g. Columba livia, Gallus domesticus, Passer domestica, Anas platyrhynchos; and mammals e.g. Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Lepus cuniculus have been described. The mobility of proteins of blood sera has been studied over cellulose acetate paper and then a comparative pattern analysed

  14. Homeotic regeneration of eye in amphibian tadpoles and its enhancement by vitamin A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O P Jangir; D V S Shekhawat; Acharya Prakash; K K Swami; Pawan Suthar

    2001-12-01

    After removal of both the lateral eyes of external gill stage tadpoles of the toad Bufo melanostictus, the pineal organ gets transformed into a median eye. This type of transformation occurrs in tadpoles of both control and vitamin A treated groups. However, vitamin A increases the likelihood of homeotic regeneration (57% in the control group and 71% in the vitamin A treated group). Histological studies showed that the newly transformed median eye developed from the pineal organ. The pineal eye so developed possessed all components of a normal eye such as a retina, sensory cells and lens.

  15. Amphibians and disease: Implications for conservation in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    The decline of amphibian populations is a world-wide phenomenon that has received increasing attention since about 1990. In 2004, the World Conservation Union’s global amphibian assessment concluded that 48% of the world’s 5,743 described amphibian species were in decline, with 32% considered threatened (Stuart et al. 2004). Amphibian declines are a significant issue in the western United States, where all native species of frogs in the genus Rana and many toads in the genus Bufo are at risk, particularly those that inhabit mountainous areas (Corn 2003a,b; Bradford 2005).

  16. Dynamic stability of communities of amphibians in short-term-flooded forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zhukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of stability of amphibian populations on the basis of data of population dynamics is given. The paper shows an attempt to estimate the direction of dynamic changes of amphibian populations, and defines the rate of the system deviation from the stationary state due to possible influence of the environmental factors by using concepts such as reactivity, degree of reactivity and flexibility of the system when using their indexes. It is found that populations of amphibians are quite stable with regard to quantifying these species. Characteristic feature is the elasticity of the system. It is confirmed by the elasticity of the system species Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758. TypePelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768 is defined as a factor of stability of the system in quantitative terms. Dependenceof dynamics of the population on its size is established using the regression equation. Dynamics of groups depends on the action of possible predictors in response to which the population of B. bufo is not changed. The ecosystem is characterized as a place of interaction between biotic factors and factors of abiotic origin, which are due to the external action. Internal factor of the ecosystem stability is the influence of some amphibian populations on the other ones. The system features sustainable and relatively stable number of B. bufo, which does not affect the level of its stability. Stationary state of the grouping is unstable due to dynamic matrix, which describes the behavior of the group in the vicinity of the first stationary state. The second steady state is stableone, and the system returns to the stationary state with the help of wave-like dynamics. On the basis of our study it is established that the number of groups of amphibians remains stable, the systems behave differently, and dynamics of their return to the stationary state is elastic or reactive one. Еcosystems within lime-ash oak forests in the Central floodplain of the Samarariver

  17. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Brutto Sabrina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My; however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp. and African green toads (B. boulengeri on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My to Pleistocene (0.16 My with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My. We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus. Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti, whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus

  18. Side-effects of weeding carbamide on non-target organisms in paddy fields%高效除草尿素(药肥)对稻区非目标生物影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少南; 顾晓军; 吴加伦; 樊德方; 李增增; 蒋建华

    2000-01-01

    研究了高效除草尿素(药肥)对稻区水生生物的影响.结果表明,药肥对蟾蜍Bufo bufo gargarizans蝌蚪、棘胸蛙Rana spinosa蝌蚪、食蚊鱼Gambusia affinis、虹鳟Salmo gairdneri、湖螺Ballamya sp和蚤状CF6DDaphnia pulex的96 h LC50分别为5436、1579、4073、568、4139和9781 mg/L.按照用量和目前国内外普遍采用的评价标准,药肥对蟾蜍、食蚊鱼、湖螺和蚤状CF6D低毒,对棘胸蛙和虹鳟具有中等毒性.生长潜力试验表明,小球藻Chlorella sp.和删藻Scenedesmus sp.对药肥敏感性不同,但是在mg/L的药肥模拟田间浓度下两种藻的生物量均有所增加.

  19. [Effect of the heart electric stimulation on repolarization of fish and amphibian ventricular myocardium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Ia É; Kibler, N A; Vaĭshnoraĭte, M A; Tsvetkova, A S; Kharin, S N; Vitiazev, V A; Shmakov, D N

    2013-01-01

    By the method of synchronous multielectrode cartography (24-unipolar leads), distribution of durations and time of end of repolarization were studied on ventricular epicardium of pikes (Esox lucius) and frogs (Rana esculenta) and in ventricular intramural layers of toads (Bufo bufo) at the ectopic heart excitation. The time of arrival of the excitation wave and of the end of repolarization in each lead was determined from the minimum of time derivative of potential at the period of the QRS complex and by minimum of the T wave, respectively. It has been established that at the ventricle electrostimulation, alongside with deceleration and a change of sequence of the myocardium activation, there occurs redistribution of local repolarization durations: in areas of late activation the repolarization being longer than in zones of early activation (p < 0.05). At stimulation, the apicobasal gradient of repolarization is predominantly changed due to electrophysiological processes in the apical areas. In all studied species. at ectopical excitation of the heart ventricle the sequence of its repolarization repeats the depolarization sequence due to delay of activation (in fish) and redistribution of repolarization durations (in amphibians).

  20. A preliminary report of amphibian mortality patterns on railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina A. Budzik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to road mortality, little is known about amphibian railroad mortality. The aim of this study was to quantify amphibian mortality along a railway line as well as to investigate the relationship between the availability of breeding sites in the surrounding habitats and the monthly variation of amphibian railway mortality. The study was conducted from April to July 2011 along 45 km of the railway line Kraków - Tarnów (Poland, Małopolska province. Three species were affected by railway mortality: Bufo bufo, Rana temporaria and Pelophylax kl. esculentus. Most dead individuals (77% were adult common toads. The largest number (14 of amphibian breeding sites was located in the most heterogeneous habitats (woodland and rural areas, which coincides with the sectors of highest amphibian mortality (42% of all accidents. As in the case of roads, spring migration is the period of highest amphibian mortality (87% of all accidents on railroads. Our findings suggest that railroad mortality depends on the agility of the species, associated primarily with the ability to overcome the rails.

  1. A novel ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase is involved in toad oocyte maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    p28, a 28kD protein from toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) oocytes, was identified by using p13suc1-agaroseaffinity chromatography. Sequence homology analysis of the full-length cDNA of p28 (Gene Bank accessionnumber: AF 314091) indicated that it encodes a protein containing 224 amino-acids with about 55% iden-tities and more than 70% positives to human, rat or mouse UCH-L1, and contains homological functionaldomains of UCH family. Anti-p28 monoclonal antibody, on injecting into the oocytes, could inhibit theprogesterone-induced resumption of meiotic division in a dose-dependent manner. The recombinant proteinp28 showed similar SDS/PAGE behaviors to the native one, and promoted ubiquitin ethyl ester hydrolysis,a classical catalytic reaction for ubiquitin carboxyl terminai hydrolases (UCHs). The results in this paperreveal that a novel protein, p28, exists in the toad oocytes, is a UCH L1 homolog, was engaged in theprocess of progesterone-induced oocyte maturation possibly through an involvement in protein turnover anddegradation.

  2. Toad Glandular Secretions and Skin Extractions as Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain many natural agents which may provide a unique resource for novel drug development. The dried secretion from the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans is named Chansu, which has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM for treating infection and inflammation for hundreds of years. The sterilized hot water extraction of dried toad skin is named Huachansu (Cinobufacini which was developed for treating hepatitis B virus (HBV and several types of cancers. However, the mechanisms of action of Chansu, Huachansu, and their constituents within are not well reported. Existing studies have suggested that their anti-inflammation and anticancer potential were via targeting Nuclear Factor (NF-κB and its signalling pathways which are crucial hallmarks of inflammation and cancer in various experimental models. Here, we review some current studies of Chansu, Huachansu, and their compounds in terms of their use as both anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. We also explored the potential use of toad glandular secretions and skin extractions as alternate resources for treating human cancers in combinational therapies.

  3. Casein kinase G may be the target of spermine during progesterone-induced oocyte maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIRUNSHENG; JIAKETSO

    1993-01-01

    Casein kinase G (CKG) with more than 2500-fold enrichraent was purified from Bufo bufo gargarizans ovaries. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was found to be associated with its 42 kD subunit, and its 26 kD subunit was found to be the major tsrget for the enzyme autophos phorylation. Each fuU-grown oocyte contained 1.9 units of CKG corresponding to an intracellular concentration of 93 nM. After injecting an amount of 0,38 units of the enzyme into the oocyte, approximately 50% of the progesterone-induoed maturation was inhibited. The inhibitory effect was enhanced in oocytes pretreated with spermine, which was consistent with the results that the enzyme was activated in vitro in the presence of spermine, The MPF-induced oocyte maturation was delayed and even prohibited in the kinase-microinjected oocytes. A 55 kD oocyte protein was identified as an suhstrate of CKG both in vivo and in vitro, and the enhancement of the 55 kD protein phosphory[ation was associated with kinase inhibition on maturation and on protein synthesis in kinase-microinjected oocytes. As the endogenous spermine level decreased in the course of progesteroneinduced oocyte maturation. 55 kD protein was dephosphorylated, Heparin, a specific inhibitor of CKG, potentiated the progesterone-induced oocyte maturation. Altogether the experimental reSults indicated Strongly that CKG may be the physiological target of spermine.

  4. Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üveges, Bálint; Mahr, Katharina; Szederkényi, Márk; Bókony, Veronika; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates today, experiencing worldwide declines. In recent years considerable effort was invested in exposing the causes of these declines. Climate change has been identified as such a cause; however, the expectable effects of predicted milder, shorter winters on hibernation success of temperate-zone Amphibians have remained controversial, mainly due to a lack of controlled experimental studies. Here we present a laboratory experiment, testing the effects of simulated climate change on hibernating juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo). We simulated hibernation conditions by exposing toadlets to current (1.5 °C) or elevated (4.5 °C) hibernation temperatures in combination with current (91 days) or shortened (61 days) hibernation length. We found that a shorter winter and milder hibernation temperature increased survival of toads during hibernation. Furthermore, the increase in temperature and shortening of the cold period had a synergistic positive effect on body mass change during hibernation. Consequently, while climate change may pose severe challenges for amphibians of the temperate zone during their activity period, the negative effects may be dampened by shorter and milder winters experienced during hibernation. PMID:27229882

  5. Linking global warming to amphibian declines through its effects on female body condition and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, C J

    2007-02-01

    There is general consensus that climate change has contributed to the observed decline, and extinction, of many amphibian species throughout the world. However, the mechanisms of its effects remain unclear. A laboratory study in 1980-1981 in which temperate zone amphibians that were prevented from hibernating had decreased growth rates, matured at a smaller size and had increased mortality compared with those that hibernated suggested one possible mechanism. I used data from a field study of common toads (Bufo bufo) in the UK, between 1983 and 2005, to determine whether this also occurs in the field. The results demonstrated two pathways by which global warming may cause amphibian declines. First, there was a clear relationship between a decline in the body condition of female common toads and the occurrence of warmer than average years since 1983. This was paralleled by a decline in their annual survival rates with the relationship between these two declines being highly correlated. Second, there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of mild winters and a reduction in female body size, resulting in fewer eggs being laid annually. Climate warming can, therefore, act on wild temperate zone amphibians by deleteriously affecting their physiology, during and after hibernation, causing increased female mortality rates and decreased fecundity in survivors.

  6. Applying fuzzy logic to comparative distribution modelling: a case study with two sympatric amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, A Márcia; Real, Raimundo

    2012-01-01

    We modelled the distributions of two toads (Bufo bufo and Epidalea calamita) in the Iberian Peninsula using the favourability function, which makes predictions directly comparable for different species and allows fuzzy logic operations to relate different models. The fuzzy intersection between individual models, representing favourability for the presence of both species simultaneously, was compared with another favourability model built on the presences shared by both species. The fuzzy union between individual models, representing favourability for the presence of any of the two species, was compared with another favourability model based on the presences of either or both of them. The fuzzy intersections between favourability for each species and the complementary of favourability for the other (corresponding to the logical operation "A and not B") were compared with models of exclusive presence of one species versus the exclusive presence of the other. The results of modelling combined species data were highly similar to those of fuzzy logic operations between individual models, proving fuzzy logic and the favourability function valuable for comparative distribution modelling. We highlight several advantages of fuzzy logic over other forms of combining distribution models, including the possibility to combine multiple species models for management and conservation planning.

  7. Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üveges, Bálint; Mahr, Katharina; Szederkényi, Márk; Bókony, Veronika; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-05-27

    Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates today, experiencing worldwide declines. In recent years considerable effort was invested in exposing the causes of these declines. Climate change has been identified as such a cause; however, the expectable effects of predicted milder, shorter winters on hibernation success of temperate-zone Amphibians have remained controversial, mainly due to a lack of controlled experimental studies. Here we present a laboratory experiment, testing the effects of simulated climate change on hibernating juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo). We simulated hibernation conditions by exposing toadlets to current (1.5 °C) or elevated (4.5 °C) hibernation temperatures in combination with current (91 days) or shortened (61 days) hibernation length. We found that a shorter winter and milder hibernation temperature increased survival of toads during hibernation. Furthermore, the increase in temperature and shortening of the cold period had a synergistic positive effect on body mass change during hibernation. Consequently, while climate change may pose severe challenges for amphibians of the temperate zone during their activity period, the negative effects may be dampened by shorter and milder winters experienced during hibernation.

  8. Tadpoles of Early Breeding Amphibians are Negatively Affected by Leaf Litter From Invasive Chinese Tallow Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, N. E.

    2005-05-01

    As wetlands are invaded by Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera), native trees are displaced and detrital inputs to amphibian breeding ponds are altered. I used a mesocosm experiment to examine the effect of Chinese tallow leaf litter on the survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis of amphibian larvae. Fifty 1000-L cattle watering tanks were treated with 1500 g dry weight of one of five leaf litter treatments: Chinese tallow, laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), or a 3:1:1:1 mixture. Each tank received 45 tadpoles of Pseudacris feriarum, Bufo terrestris, and Hyla cinerea in sequence according to their natural breeding phonologies. Every Pseudacris feriarum and Bufo terrestris tadpole exposed to Chinese tallow died prior to metamorphosis. Hyla cinerea survival in tanks with tallow-only was significantly lower than that observed for all other leaf treatments. Hyla cinerea tadpoles from tallow-only and mixed-leaf treatments were larger at metamorphosis and transformed faster than those in tanks with native leaves only. These results suggest that Chinese tallow leaf litter may negatively affect tadpoles of early breeding frogs and that Chinese tallow invasion may change the structure of amphibian communities in temporary ponds.

  9. Is Huachansu Beneficial in Treating Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of Its Efficacy Combined with Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingduo Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Huachansu, the sterilized water extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans toad skin, is used in China to alleviate the side-effects and enhance the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess Huachansu’s efficacy. Methods. We extensively searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CBM, Cochrane Library, CNKI, CEBM, WFDP, CSCD, CSTD, and IPA for randomized controlled trials containing Huachansu plus chemotherapy as the test group and chemotherapy as the control group. Seventeen trials were selected based on the selection criteria. The pooled relative ratio (RR of indicators with 95% confidence interval (95% CI was calculated for efficacy evaluation. Results. The meta-analysis demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in objective tumor response, one-year survival, Karnofsky performance status, pain relief, and alleviation of severe side-effects (nausea and vomiting, leukocytopenia in the test group as compared to the control group, but no significant difference in thrombocytopenia. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the efficacy of Huachansu combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. However, limitations exist and high-quality trials are needed for further verification.

  10. Juvenile frogs compensate for small metamorph size with terrestrial growth: Overcoming the effects of larval density and insecticide exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    I reared four species of anurans (Rana sphenocephala [Southern Leopard Frog], Rana blairi [Plains Leopard Frog], Rana clamitans [Green Frog], and Bufo woodhousii [Woodhouse's Toad]) for seven to 12 months in small, outdoor terrestrial enclosures (1 x 2 m) to examine the consequences of larval competition (via density) and contaminant exposure (via the insecticide carbaryl). I added six Rana clamitans, eight Rana sphenocephala, eight Rana blairi, and 10 Bufo woodhousii to terrestrial enclosures shortly after metamorphosis and recaptured them during the following spring. All anurans from low-density ponds were significantly larger than those from high-density ponds, but these size differences did not significantly affect survival to or size at spring emergence. However, R. sphenocephala, R. blairi, and R. clamitans that survived to spring had been larger at metamorphosis on average than those that did not survive; in contrast, B. woodhousii that survived the winter were smaller at metamorphosis on average than those that did not survive. Carbaryl exposure affected mass at metamorphosis of R. clamitans and B. woodhousii that were added to enclosures, but this difference disappeared or did not increase by spring emergence. Overall, exposure to carbaryl during the larval period did not have any apparent effects on survival or growth during the terrestrial phase. In my study, anurans were able to offset small size at metamorphosis with terrestrial growth, although there was a trend of reduced overwinter survival for ranid species that metamorphosed at a smaller size. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  11. Body size affects the predatory interactions between introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and native anurans in China: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Guo, Z.; Pearl, C.A.; Li, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have established breeding populations in several provinces in China since their introduction in 1959. Although Bullfrogs are viewed as a potentially important predator of Chinese native anurans, their impacts in the field are difficult to quantify. We used two experiments to examine factors likely to mediate Bullfrog predation on native anurans. First, we examined effects of Bullfrog size and sex on daily consumption of a common Chinese native (Rana limnocharis). Second, we examined whether Bullfrogs consumed similar proportions of four Chinese natives: Black-Spotted Pond Frog (Rana nigromaculata), Green Pond Frog (Rana plancyi plancyi), Rice Frog (R. limnocharis), and Zhoushan Toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans). We found that larger Rana catesbeiana consumed more R. limnocharis per day than did smaller R. catesbeiana, and that daily consumption of R. limnocharis was positively related to R. catesbeiana body size. When provided with adults of four anurans that differed significantly in body size, R. catesbeiana consumed more individuals of the smallest species (R. limnocharis). However, when provided with similarly sized juveniles of the same four species, R. catesbeiana did not consume any species more than expected by chance. Our results suggest that body size plays an important role in the predatory interactions between R. catesbeiana and Chinese native anurans and that, other things being equal, smaller species and individuals are at greater risk of predation by R. catesbeiana. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  12. Diet of introduced bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana): Predation on and diet overlap with native frogs on Daishan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengjun; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Adams, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined diet of introduced Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and three native frog species (Rana limnocharis, Rana nigromaculata, and Bufo bufo gargarizans) co-occurring at a group of ponds on Daishan Island, east of China, to gain insight into the nature of potential interactions between Bullfrogs and native frog species. For postmetamorphic Bullfrogs, aquatic prey items dominated volumetrically. Prey size, diet volume and volumetric percentage of native frogs in diet increased with Bullfrog body size. The number and volumetric percentage of native frogs in the diet were not different for female and male Bullfrogs, and both were higher for adults than for juveniles. Diet overlap between males and juveniles was higher than that between males and females and between females and juveniles. Diet overlap with each native frog species of male Bullfrogs was lower than that of female Bullfrogs and juvenile Bullfrogs. We did not exam effects of Bullfrogs on native frogs but our results suggest that the primary threat posed by juvenile Bullfrogs to native frogs on Daishan Island is competition for food, whereas the primary threat posed by male Bullfrogs is direct predation. Female Bullfrogs may threaten native frogs by both competition and predation. These differences among Bullfrog groups may be attributed to differences in body size and microhabitat use.

  13. Studies on the physiological function of spermine in the process of progesterone induced toad oocyte maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIRUNSHENG; JIAKETSO

    1992-01-01

    Spermidine or spermine but not putrescine inhibited progesterone induced Bufo bufo gargarizans oocyte maturation.The ID50 for spermine inhibition via intra -oocyte microinjection on maturation induced by progesterone was 6.8mM(100nl).Spermine could inhibit MPF induced toad oocyte maturation with a much higher ID50.A 55 kD protein was dephosphorylated during the process of progesterone induced oocyte maturation .Spermine selectively promoted the level of phosphorylation of this protein in both progesterone-stimulated and hormone-untreated oocytes.The extent of its dephosphorylation was fairly Correlated with the percentage of GVBD in the hormone stimulated oocytes.The level of endogenous spermine was reduced by 28% between the perod of 0.40 GVBD50 and 0.60 GVBD50,at which 55 kD protein was dephosphorylated.Spermine inhibited progesterone-stimulated protein synthesis in almost the same dose dependent manner as its inhititory effect on the hormone-induced maturation,The endogenous spermine regulated 55 kD protein dephosphorylation which may trigger the increase of protein dephosphorylation which may trigger the increase of protein synthesis and in turn promote the activation of MPF,It is possible that 55 kD protein may be one of the components of messenger ribonucleoprotein(mRNP) particles.

  14. Linking global warming to amphibian declines through its effects on female body condition and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, C J

    2007-02-01

    There is general consensus that climate change has contributed to the observed decline, and extinction, of many amphibian species throughout the world. However, the mechanisms of its effects remain unclear. A laboratory study in 1980-1981 in which temperate zone amphibians that were prevented from hibernating had decreased growth rates, matured at a smaller size and had increased mortality compared with those that hibernated suggested one possible mechanism. I used data from a field study of common toads (Bufo bufo) in the UK, between 1983 and 2005, to determine whether this also occurs in the field. The results demonstrated two pathways by which global warming may cause amphibian declines. First, there was a clear relationship between a decline in the body condition of female common toads and the occurrence of warmer than average years since 1983. This was paralleled by a decline in their annual survival rates with the relationship between these two declines being highly correlated. Second, there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of mild winters and a reduction in female body size, resulting in fewer eggs being laid annually. Climate warming can, therefore, act on wild temperate zone amphibians by deleteriously affecting their physiology, during and after hibernation, causing increased female mortality rates and decreased fecundity in survivors. PMID:17024381

  15. Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üveges, Bálint; Mahr, Katharina; Szederkényi, Márk; Bókony, Veronika; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates today, experiencing worldwide declines. In recent years considerable effort was invested in exposing the causes of these declines. Climate change has been identified as such a cause; however, the expectable effects of predicted milder, shorter winters on hibernation success of temperate-zone Amphibians have remained controversial, mainly due to a lack of controlled experimental studies. Here we present a laboratory experiment, testing the effects of simulated climate change on hibernating juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo). We simulated hibernation conditions by exposing toadlets to current (1.5 °C) or elevated (4.5 °C) hibernation temperatures in combination with current (91 days) or shortened (61 days) hibernation length. We found that a shorter winter and milder hibernation temperature increased survival of toads during hibernation. Furthermore, the increase in temperature and shortening of the cold period had a synergistic positive effect on body mass change during hibernation. Consequently, while climate change may pose severe challenges for amphibians of the temperate zone during their activity period, the negative effects may be dampened by shorter and milder winters experienced during hibernation. PMID:27229882

  16. First detection of circovirus-like sequences in amphibians and novel putative circoviruses in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, Zoltán László; Pénzes, Judit J; Tóth, Róza P; Benkő, Mária

    2014-03-01

    The negative samples of a collection, established originally for seeking new adeno- and herpesviruses in lower vertebrates, were screened for the pres-ence of circoviruses by a consensus nested PCR targeting the gene coding for the replication-associated protein. Six fish samples representing five species, namely asp (Aspius aspius), roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and monkey goby (Neogobius fluviatilis), as well as three frog samples were found positive for circoviral DNA. Sequence analysis of the amplicons indicated the presence of three novel putative circo-like viruses and a circovirus in Hungarian fishes and one novel circovirus in a common toad (Bufo bufo), and another one in a dead and an alive specimen of green tree frog (Litoria caerulea), respectively. In phylogeny reconstruction, the putative bream circovirus clustered together with circoviruses discovered in other cyprinid fishes recently. Three other piscine circoviral sequences appeared closest to sequences derived from different environmental samples. Surprisingly, the nucleotide sequence derived from two fish samples (a bream and a monkey goby) proved to be from porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), almost identical to a sequence detected in Sweden previously. This is the first report on the detection of PCV2 in fish and circoviral DNA in amphibian hosts. PMID:24334078

  17. Buforins: histone H2A-derived antimicrobial peptides from toad stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ju Hyun; Sung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sun Chang

    2009-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute an important component of the innate immune system in a variety of organisms. Buforin I is a 39-amino acid AMP that was first isolated from the stomach tissue of the Asian toad Bufo bufo gargarizans. Buforin II is a 21-amino acid peptide that is derived from buforin I and displays an even more potent antimicrobial activity than its parent AMP. Both peptides share complete sequence identity with the N-terminal region of histone H2A that interacts directly with nucleic acids. Buforin I is generated from histone H2A by pepsin-directed proteolysis in the cytoplasm of gastric gland cells. After secretion into the gastric lumen, buforin I remains adhered to the mucous biofilm that lines the stomach, thus providing a protective antimicrobial coat. Buforins, which house a helix-hinge-helix domain, kill a microorganism by entering the cell without membrane permeabilization and thus binding to nucleic acids. The proline hinge is crucial for the cell penetrating activity of buforins. Buforins also are known to possess anti-endotoxin and anticancer activities, thus making these peptides attractive reagents for pharmaceutical applications. This review describes the role of buforins in innate host defense; future research paradigms; and use of these agents as human therapeutics.

  18. SU-E-T-150: End to End Tests On the First Clinical EDGETM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, S; Schmelzer, P [Varian Medical Systems, Baden - Daettwil (Switzerland); Vieira, S; Greco, C [Champalimaud Foundation, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the sub millimeter overall accuracy of EDGETM, the dedicated linac based SRS/SABR treatment platform from Varian, using a novel End-to-End (E2E) test phantom. Methods: The new E2E test phantom developed by Varian consists of a cube with an outer dimension of 15x15x15 cm3. The phantom is equipped with an exchangable inner cube (7×7×7 cm3) to hold radiochromic films or a tungsten ball (diameter = 5 mm) for Winston-Lutz tests. 16 ceramic balls (diameter = 5 mm) are embedded in the outer cube. Three embedded Calypso transponders allow for Calypso based monitoring. The outer surface of the phantom is tracked using the Optical Surface Monitoring System (OSMS). The phantom is positioned using kV, MV and CBCT images. A simCT of the phantom was acquired and SRS/SABR plans were treated using the new phantom on the first clinical installed EDGETM. As a first step a series of EPID based Winston-Lutz tests have been performed. As a second step the calculated dose distribution applied to the phantom was verified with radiochromic films in orthogonal planes. The measured dose distribution is compared with the calculated (Eclipse) one based on the known isocenter on both dose distributions. The geometrical shift needed to match both dose distributions is the overall accuracy and is determined using dose profiles, isodose lines or gamma pass rates (3%, 1 mm). Results: Winston-Lutz tests using the central tungsten BB demonstrated a targeting accuracy of 0.44±0.18mm for jaw (2cm × 2cm) defined 0.39±0.19mm for MLC (2cm × 2cm) defined and 0.37±0.15mm for cone (12.5 mm) defined fields. A treated patient plan (spinal metastases lesion with integrated boost) showed a dosimetric dose localization accuracy of 0.6mm. Conclusion: Geometric and dosimetric E2E tests on EDGETM, show sub-millimeter E2E targeting and dose localisation accuracy.

  19. SU-E-J-48: Imaging Origin-Radiation Isocenter Coincidence for Linac-Based SRS with Novalis Tx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraghty, C; Workie, D; Hasson, B [Anne Arundel Medical Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose To implement and evaluate an image-based Winston-Lutz (WL) test to measure the displacement between ExacTrac imaging origin and radiation isocenter on a Novalis Tx system using RIT V6.2 software analysis tools. Displacement between imaging and radiation isocenters was tracked over time. The method was applied for cone-based and MLC-based WL tests. Methods The Brainlab Winston-Lutz phantom was aligned to room lasers. The ExacTrac imaging system was then used to detect the Winston- Lutz phantom and obtain the displacement between the center of the phantom and the imaging origin. EPID images of the phantom were obtained at various gantry and couch angles and analyzed with RIT calculating the phantom center to radiation isocenter displacement. The RIT and Exactrac displacements were combined to calculate the displacement between imaging origin and radiation isocenter. Results were tracked over time. Results Mean displacements between ExacTrac origin and radiation isocenter were: VRT: −0.1mm ± 0.3mm, LNG: 0.5mm ± 0.2mm, LAT: 0.2mm ± 0.2mm (vector magnitude of 0.7 ± 0.2mm). Radiation isocenter was characterized by the mean of the standard deviations of the WL phantom displacements: σVRT: 0.2mm, σLNG: 0.4mm, σLAT: 0.6mm. The linac couch base was serviced to reduce couch walkout. This reduced σLAT to 0.2mm. These measurements established a new baseline of radiation isocenter-imaging origin coincidence. Conclusion The image-based WL test has ensured submillimeter localization accuracy using the ExacTrac imaging system. Standard deviations of ExacTrac-radiation isocenter displacements indicate that average agreement within 0.3mm is possible in each axis. This WL test is a departure from the tradiational WL in that imaging origin/radiation isocenter agreement is the end goal not lasers/radiation isocenter.

  20. Garantia de qualidade em citopatologia: aspectos da correlação cito-histopatológica Quality assurance in cytopathology: aspects of the cytohistological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. di Loreto

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores avaliaram a concordância diagnóstica cito-histológica de lesões de colo uterino e discutiram as eventuais discrepâncias. OBJETIVO. Averiguar o nível de concordância cito-histológica nos casos da Divisão de Patologia do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL e aprimorar a estratégia de garantia de qualidade na instituição. MATERIAL E MÉTODO. Estudaram 157 casos consecutivos dos arquivos do IAL em que foram enviadas citologia cérvico-vaginal e biópsia. RESULTADO. Houve concordância absoluta em 119 (75,8% casos; nos demais, a citologia superestimou 11 lesões (7,0% e subestimou 27 (17,2%. Observou-se que em 5 casos, inicialmente diagnosticados como inflamatório pela citologia, dois foram, à revisão, considerados como NIC 1; os demais foram ratificados como inflamatórios, apesar de suas respectivas biópsias terem diagnóstico de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical. CONCLUSÃO. Tais resultados demonstram a importância da correlação cito-histológica para o sistema de garantia de qualidade em diagnóstico citológico e apontam para a colheita como um dos fatores determinantes nas discrepâncias diagnósticas.The cytohistologic diagnosis concordance of the cervix-uterine lesions was evaluated and the discordances are discussed. PURPOSE. To evalute the level of cytohistological diagnosis agreement in the Pathology Division of the Adolfo Lutz Institute and enhance parameters of quality assurance system developed in this institution. METHODS. The authors retrospectively evaluated 157 pairs of cytologyhistology consecutive cases from the files the Adolfo Lutz Institute (Division of Pathology. RESULTS. Agreement was found in 119 cases (75.8%; in the remaining cases cytologic diagnosis were higher than histology in 11 lesions (7.0% and lower in 27 (17.2%. We also observed that in 5 cases previously diagnosed as inflammatory, 2 of them were reclassified as CIN 1; after revision, the others remained as inflammatory even though they had a

  1. Effects of azadirachtin on the biology of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) adult female, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia Alves; De Souza, Nataly Araujo; Silva, Vanderlei Campos; Souza, Adelson A; Gonzalez, Marcelo Salabert; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    The effects of azadirachtin A added to the sucrose diet of the adult females on the mortality, oviposition, and hatching of the sand fly vector of American visceral leishmaniasis Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) were investigated. Concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 microg/mg of azadirachtin significantly increased insect mortality in comparison with control insects. The same dose also significantly reduced oviposition but not hatching. After a long development period, significantly fewer adult insects were obtained from eggs hatching by azadirachtin-treated females in a dose-response manner. These results indicate that azadirachtin is a potent sterilizer that could be used against the development of Lu. longipalpis populations and as a tool for studying physiological and biochemical processes in phlebotomine species. PMID:25118426

  2. Nuclear armament in the East-West conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mr. Lutz deals with the military balance of power in the field of Nuclear forces in and for Europe. After having taken stock and compared forces, he concludes that anything but a military inferiority of NATO can be assumed from the Theatre Nuclear Forces (TNF) area. First arm, then negotiate has to be replaced by the demand for including TNF into the cooperative armament control. Mr. Krell examines the military balance of power with strategic nuclear weapons. He gives definitions, statistical comparisons, factors of dynamic analysis and military strategies. According to the author's standards, a reliably calculatable first-strike capacity is not in sight for either one of the two superpowers. Both sides intend to deter each other from attacking by an option on war prevention and warfare. Finally, the text of SALT II is given. (HSCH)

  3. Species composition and relative abundance of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Weekly sand fly collections were made from pigpens, houses, and natural resting sites, using hand-held aspirators, sticky (oiled) paper traps, and opossum-baited Disney traps. In total, 263,094 sand flies were collected; L. longipalpis predominated (86.1%), followed by L. trinidadensis (11.0%), L. cayennensis (2.7%), and 8 other Lutzomyia species. The species composition and sex ratio of these sand flies varied among sites and by collection method. L. longipalpis were captured most efficiently by direct aspiration from animal bait. Conversely, sticky paper traps, especially inside houses and at rock resting sites, collected a greater diversity of species, but a lower relative abundance of L. longipalpis.

  4. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DE FORMULAÇÕES FARMACÊUTICAS CONTENDO SULFATO FERROSO, DISPENSADAS NA REDE PÚBLICA DE SAÚDE

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Miyoco Yano; Cibele Nicolaski Pedron; Valéria Adriana Pereira Martins; Fernanda Fernandes Farias; Luz Marina Trujillo; Nelson Aranha Dias

    2016-01-01

    Para o controle e prevenção da anemia temporária de ferro na população, é recomendado seguir uma suplementação adequada, sendo o sulfato ferroso o principal fármaco de escolha. Considerando que este medicamento é distribuído pelo governo, principalmente para hospitais públicos e Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS), torna-se necessária a análise para verificação da qualidade em suas diversas formas farmacêuticas. Foi estabelecido entre o Instituto Adolfo Lutz e a Vigilância Sanitária de São Paulo,...

  5. The bloodsucking biting midges of Argentina (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R Spinelli

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A key is presented for the identification of the adults of 54 species of bloodsucking ceratopogonids, 51 of which are known inhabitants of Argentina, and Culicoides uruguayensis Ronderos, C. pifanoi Ortiz, and C. trilineatus Fox, which are known to occur in bordering Uruguay and Paraguay. Wing photographs are provided of females of the 45 species of Culicoides. Three new species of Culicoides Latreille from Northeastern Argentina are described and illustrated: C. austroparaensis Spinelli, C. bachmanni Spinelli, and C. williamsi Spinelli. The following six species are recorded for the first time from Argentina and/or bordering localities in Paraguay: Leptoconops brasiliensis (Lutz, C. gabaldoni Ortiz, C. ginesi Ortiz, C. pifanoi Ortiz, C. pseudocrescentis Tavares and Luna Dias, and C. trilineatus; and C. estevezae Ronderos and Spinelli is newly recorded from Misiones province of Argentina. C. lopesi Barretto is excluded from the Argentinean ceratopogonid fauna.

  6. Delfina Serrano Ruano (éd.), Crueldad y compasíon en la literatura árabe e islámica

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, François

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage constitue les actes du séminaire « Narrar y suscitar : violencia, compasíon y crueldad en la literatura árabe e islámica », qui s’est tenu en octobre 2008 à l’Institut des langues et cultures de la Méditerranée et du Proche-Orient (CCHS-CSIC, Madrid). Il s’inscrit dans le champ des recherches sur l’histoire des émotions, un domaine de plus en plus exploré (voir les travaux de C. Lutz et L. Abu-Lughod, B. H. Rosenwein, ou D. Boquet et P. Nagy), mais encore largement en friche en ce...

  7. L’amor come stile culturale. Auto-poiesi e strategie emozionali tra i giovani di Bubaque, Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Bordonaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L’antropologia delle emozioni è legata in prevalenza a contesti etnografici descritti, direbbero Gupta e Ferguson (a cura, 1997, come “campi puri”. La maggior parte degli antropologi che lavora sulle emozioni, ha osservato William Reddy (1999, p. 256, utilizzano nelle loro etnografie il presente etnografico e si avvalgono di generalizzazioni che si fondano implicitamente su una concezione dei contesti culturali come ambiti di significati articolati logicamente in un sistema e segnati da confini precisi. Anche quando viene riconosciuta una molteplicità di discorsi contrastanti sulle emozioni, come nell’analisi di Lila Abu-Lughod (1986 delle performance emozionali tra i beduini awlad’ ali, l’ordine culturale all’interno del quale queste collisioni discorsive vengono comunque orchestrate getta un fondato sospetto sull’utilizzabilità degli strumenti di analisi proposti nel “manifesto” di Abu-Lughod e Lutz (a cura, 1990 in contesti meno puri o, forse, meno purificati.

  8. Novos anfíbios anuros das Serras costeiras do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Lutz

    1958-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, one of the authors has turned her attention, increasingly, to the anuran fauna of the high forested ranges near the sea-board of S.E. Brazil. This has led to the finding of a number of very interesting frogs which do not occur in the lower, mesic, or, occasionally, xeric, open country. One of these forms is presented here. As it did not fit perfectly into any of the known genera, she decided to consult her fellow herpetologist at the National Museum, Mr. Antenor Leitão de Carvalho, who is interested in anatomy. He cleared an adult and a juvenille specimen; the osteological characters found are given below. Joint publication was decided upon, one author contributing her field-notes and the morphological characters and drafting the text, whereas the other contributed the osteology, drawings and measurements. The specific name was also chosen by Leitão de Carvalho, in homage to the late Professor Adolpho Lutz, a pioneer in the study of Brazilian frogs. In regard to the specific designation, the co-author and daughter of Adolpho Lutz wishes to publish the following.Ao correr dos últimos anos, a co-autora dêste trabalho vem se dedicando ao estudo da fauna anura das zonas mais elevadas das serras vizinhas da costa brasileira. Êste fato conduziu à descoberta, ou ao conhecimento mais exato, de certo número de formas muito interessantes que não ocorrem em altitudes menores ou na planície. Uma destas formas constitui o assunto do presente trabalho. Tratando-se de batrácio que não se enquadra perfeitamente em nenhum dos gêneros descritos, resolveu ela consultar o seu colega Sr. Antenor Leitão de Carvalho, conhecedor exímio de anatomia, que diafanisou um exemplar adulto e outro juvenil. Os caractéres osteológicos encontrados levaram á criação de mais um gênero cujos caractéres diferenciais são enumerados abaixo. Ficou resolvido que seria descrito por ambos os herpetologistas do Museu Nacional, de conjunto

  9. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Feliciangeli, María Dora; Quintana, María Gabriela; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research. PMID:26517497

  10. Opportunities and challenges for digital morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prohaska Steffen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advances in digital data acquisition, analysis, and storage have revolutionized the work in many biological disciplines such as genomics, molecular phylogenetics, and structural biology, but have not yet found satisfactory acceptance in morphology. Improvements in non-invasive imaging and three-dimensional visualization techniques, however, permit high-throughput analyses also of whole biological specimens, including museum material. These developments pave the way towards a digital era in morphology. Using sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, we provide examples illustrating the power of these techniques. However, remote visualization, the creation of a specialized database, and the implementation of standardized, world-wide accepted data deposition practices prior to publication are essential to cope with the foreseeable exponential increase in digital morphological data. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Marc D. Sutton (nominated by Stephan Beck, Gonzalo Giribet (nominated by Lutz Walter, and Lennart Olsson (nominated by Purificación López-García.

  11. ALICE doffs hat to two companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    During the fifth annual ALICE Industrial Awards ceremony, the ALICE Collaboration honoured two companies for their outstanding contributions to the construction of the experiment.For the past five years, the ALICE collaboration has been presenting its industrial partners with awards for meeting demanding or unusual requirements, for excellence in design or execution, for delivery on-time and on-budget and for outstanding cooperation. This year, on 9 March, ALICE presented awards to two companies for their exceptional performance. From left to right: Kees Oskamp (ALICE SSD), Arie de Haas (ALICE SSD), Gert-Jan Nooren (ALICE SSD), Shon Shmuel (FIBERNET), Yehuda Mor-Yosef (FIBERNET), Hans Boggild (ALICE), Jurgen Schukraft (ALICE Spokesperson), Catherine Decosse (ALICE) and Jean-Robert Lutz (ALICE SSD). FIBERNET Ltd., based in Yokneam, Israel, was rewarded for the excellent and timely assembly of the Silicon Strip Detector boards (SSD) of the Inner Tracking System with cable connections. Special low-mass cables, ...

  12. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the ALICE week held in Bologna from 19 to 23 June, the Collaboration recognized two of its top suppliers. From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste). Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg). It is in the picturesque city of Bologna that the ALICE Collaboration has rewarded two Italian suppliers, Istituto Trentino di Cultura ITC-irst (Trento) and MIPOT (Cormons), both involved in the construction of the Sili...

  13. The Role of Low-Angle Extensional Tectonics, Flat Fracture Domains, and Gravity Slides in Hydrothermal and EGS Resources of the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Moore

    2011-08-24

    The Steamboat Springs geothermal system provides the most dramatic example of subhorizontal thermal-fluid aquifers in crystalline rock in the Basin and Range, but this is by no means an isolated case. Similar but more diffuse subhorizontal permeability has been reported at Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove-Fort Sulphurdale, Utah; and a km-scale gravity-slide block channels injectate at Dixie Valley, Nevada. During the course of this phase of the project 2543 reports including text, figures and large format enclosures, 1428 maps, and 698 well logs were scanned. The information is stored in a Microsoft Access Database on the Geothermal Server. Detailed geologic cross sections of the Desert Peak geothermal field were developed to identify the structural controls on the geothermal system and locate possible fluid flow paths. The results of this work were published by Lutz and others (2009, Appendix 1) in the Stanford Reservoir Engineering Conference Proceedings.

  14. Accurate distances to nearby massive stars with the new reduction of the Hipparcos raw data

    CERN Document Server

    Apellániz, J Maíz; Sota, A

    2008-01-01

    We use the new reduction of the Hipparcos data (van Leeuwen 2007) and a self-consistent distance determination technique for Lutz-Kelker limited samples to obtain distances to the massive stars in the solar vicinity. The distance uncertainties for the nearest massive stars have been substantially reduced with respect to those derived from the old Hipparcos reduction. In two cases (gamma2 Vel and theta2 Ori A) we have been able to verify that the new values are in good agreement with recent determinations with alternative methods. We also derive new values for the vertical displacement of the Sun with respect to the Galactic Plane and for the scale height of the thin disk from the spatial distribution of massive stars around us.

  15. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Feliciangeli, María Dora; Quintana, María Gabriela; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2015-11-01

    Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003) and Lainson and Rangel (2005) have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research. PMID:26517497

  16. An Integrated, Multi-Stage, Multi-Scale Framework for Achieving Sustainable Process Synthesis-Intensification-Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil;

    The chemical and biochemical industry needs major reductions in energy consumption, waste generation, etc., in order to remain competitive through the design and operation of more sustainable chemical and biochemical processes. These required reductions can be addressed through process synthesis...... not be able to generate new integrations/combinations of intensified existing equipment. However, to find innovative processes designs, extensions of the current concepts are necessary. Here, process synthesis-intensification using a phenomena based process synthesis method (Lutze et al., 2013) can play......-intensification-control, that is, the efficient use of raw materials (feedstock), the use of sustainable technologies and the design (and control) of processes that directly impact and improves sustainability/LCA factors. The unit operations concept, which has been sufficient until now, is one of the most used for performing...

  17. Achieving process intensification form the application of a phenomena based synthesis, Design and intensification methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Lutze, Philip; Woodley, John;

    Process Intensification/Process Systems Engineering. Process intensification (PI) is a means by which one can achieve a more efficient and sustainable chemical process. Major success in the area of PI has been achieved by Eastman chemicals [1] which in 1984 intensified the process...... of PI still faces challenges [2] because the identification and design of intensified processes is not simple [3]. Lutze et al [3] has developed a systematic PI synthesis/design method at the unit operations (Unit-Ops) level, where the search space is based on a knowledge-base of existing PI equipment...... for the manufacture of methyl acetate by replacing with one single reactive distillation column the multi-step process which consisted of one reactor, extractive distillation, liquid-liquid separation and azeotropic distillation. However, except for reactive distillation and dividing wall columns, the implementation...

  18. [Prominence in the media, renown in the sciences: the construction of a paradigmatic feminist and a scientist at Rio de Janeiro's Museu Nacional].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria Margaret

    2008-06-01

    Bertha Lutz was one of the women of her generation who enjoyed indisputable political and scientific authority. She wrote much and even more was written about her, especially during her day. The newspaper chronicles by Lima Barreto, countless letters, scientific papers, and unpublished texts by Bertha herself that are surveyed in this article indicate how much her feminism--inseparable from other dimensions of her life--fostered her professional career. Her feminism earned her a carefully constructed renown and visibility that interlocked with her professional performance. Science lent her social prestige and guaranteed legitimacy for her causes. During a period when the scientific community itself was engaged in publicizing its own activities, Bertha's feminist prominence in the media helped her make a name in the sciences. PMID:19397030

  19. Decision support by Operations Research in the energy sector and environment sector. Proceedings; Entscheidungsunterstuetzung durch Operations Research im Energie- und Umweltbereich. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renatus, Fabian; Kunze, Robert; Karschin, Ingo; Geldermann, Jutta; Fichtner, Wolf (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    Within the workshop of the GOR work groups ''OR in Environmental Protection'' and ''Decision theory and decision-making practice'' from 1st to 2nd March, 2012, in Goslar (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) An extended solution representation for the biobjective inventory routing problem (Thibaut Barthelemy); (2) Decision support at load management (Lutz Hillemacher); (3) A quantitative demand analysis of cogeneration units in a virtual network (Marius Hilleke); (4) Decision behaviour in the Newsvendor model (Christian Koester); (5) Operational environmental information systems for the next generation (Fabian Renatus); (6) Fuzzy decision theory - A satisfying Approach (Heinrich J. Rommelfanger); (7) Optimization of the expansion planning of electrical distribution systems with evolutionary algorithms under consideration of economic-regulatory contexts (Stefan Schnabel).

  20. Lutzomyia longipalpis urbanisation and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Daniel Salomón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the description of Lutzomyia longipalpis by Lutz and Neiva more than 100 years ago, much has been written in the scientific literature about this phlebotomine species. Soares and Turco (2003 and Lainson and Rangel (2005 have written extensive reviews focused on vector-host-parasite interactions and American visceral leishmaniasis ecology. However, during the last two decades, the success of Lu. longipalpis in colonising urban environments and its simultaneous geographical spreading have led to new theoretical and operational questions. Therefore, this review updates the general information about this species and notes the more challenging topics regarding the new scenario of urbanisation-spreading and its control in America. Here, we summarise the literature on these issues and the remaining unsolved questions, which pose recommendations for operational research.

  1. Study on the population structure of the paradoxical frog, Pseudis bolbodactyla (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae, using natural markings for individual identification

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    Werther P. Ramalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the population structure of Pseudis bolbodactyla Lutz, 1925 using natural markings to identify individuals. Recruitment, survival, and population size estimations were obtained using the Jolly-Seber stochastic method. A total of 166 individuals were captured, and the striped, spotted, and dotted patterns that make their recognition possible were recorded. Of the specimens captured, 27 were recaptured, including some at pre and post-metamorphic stages. The estimate maximum population size was 52. The indices of survival and recruitment varied among samplings. Sexual dimorphism in size and in the operational sex ratio were detected. Despite the limited scope of our characterization of the P. bolbodactyla population, our data might be useful in the interpretation and elaboration of new hypotheses about ecological processes acting on anuran populations.

  2. Enteroparasitosis and their ethnographic relationship to food handlers in a tourist and economic center in Paraná, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the occurrence of enteroparasites based on data from an ethnographic study of food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Fecal material from 343 food handlers of both sexes, between 14 and 75 years of age, was analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Ethnographic relationships were investigated by means of specific questionnaires. Positive fecal samples were found for 131 (38.2%) handlers. Endolimax nana (67.9%) was the predominant species, followed by Entamoeba coli (35.9%), Blastocystis hominis (28.2%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1%) and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%). Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections (p = 0.00). The positive results for some parasites were associated with the male sex, professional category, and the performance of other activities (p food via handling.

  3. Moonlight and blood-feeding behaviour of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotominae, vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil

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    Nataly A Souza

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and L. whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, two important vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil, occur in sympatry in the locality of Posse county, Petrópolis municipality, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated the influence of the lunar cycle on the frequency of specimens of the two species caught while attempting to bite the collectors and in CDC light traps. Analysis of the numbers of sand flies captured in different lunar phases for two consecutive years in the peridomestic site and forest shows that there is a significant positive correlation between moonlight intensity and the numbers of L. intermedia and L. whitmani females collected while blood-feeding, whereas the opposite was observed for the CDC traps.

  4. Early Development of Squamous Cell Carsinoma in Two Sister Cases with pidermodysplasia Verruciformis

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    Ömer Çalka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (Lewandowsky-Lutz syndrome is an uncommon disease characterized by multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, defects of cell-mediated immunity, and tendency to develop skin malignancies, primarily on sun-exposed areas. Most commonly it is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer found in patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Human papilloma virus 5, 8, and 47 are found in more than 90% of epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin cancers. Treatment for epidermodysplasia verruciformis consists largely of preventive measures. Photoprotection remains essential for management. In this report, two sister case of epidermodisplasia verruciformis with plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, and squamous cell carcinomas on sun-exposed areas of skin was presented for it is a rarely encountered disease and associated with early development of malignancy.

  5. Severe agitation in severe early-onset Alzheimer’s disease resolves with ECT

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    Aksay SS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Suna Su Aksay, Lucrezia Hausner, Lutz Frölich, Alexander Sartorius Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany Abstract: Dementia-related behavioral disturbances are mostly treated with antipsychotics; however, the observed beneficial effects are modest and the risk of serious adverse effects high. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman with severe early-onset Alzheimer’s disease and severe agitation, whom we treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. A significant clinical improvement was achieved over eight ECT sessions, which were tolerated well without cognitive worsening, and lasted approximately 3 months. Our case demonstrates the safe and effective use of ECT in pharmacotherapy-resistant severe agitation in Alzheimer’s disease. The risk–benefit profile of ECT for dementia-related agitation should be further investigated in clinical trials. Keywords: dementia, electroconvulsive therapy, cognition, emotional distress, disinhibition.

  6. Parasitos em alfaces (Lactuca sativa de mercados e feiras livres de Lages - Santa Catarina = Lettuces (Lactuca sativa parasites in markets and free fairs from Lages - Santa Catarina

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    Quadros, Rosiléia Marinho de

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a contaminação por parasitos de interesse em Saúde Pública em alfaces (Lactuca sativa comercializadas no município de Lages, Santa Catarina. Materiais e Métodos: Foi utilizado um processo de amostragem intencional, selecionando-se oito supermercados e duas feiras, de acordo com a abrangência e volume de vendas desses estabelecimentos para a cidade. Foram processadas 122 amostras de alfaces, pelas técnicas de sedimentação espontânea (Lutz, centrífugo-flutuação em sulfato de zinco (Faust, centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose (Sheather e coloração de Ziehl Neelsen modificada. Resultados: O índice de parasitismo foi de 88,5% (108/122 com 77% (94/122 e 11,5% (14/122 para as amostras de supermercados e de feiras livres, respectivamente. A técnica de Lutz detectou 46,7% (57/122 de alfaces parasitadas; Sheather e Faust evidenciaram 31,1% (38/122 e 10,6% (13/122 de alfaces com ovos e/ou oocistos de parasitos, respectivamente. Predominaram os gêneros Eimeria, Giardia e Entamoeba. Conclusões: As amostras analisadas apresentaram baixos padrões higiênicos, necessitando de vigilância sanitária mais atuante na fiscalização de todas as etapas do processo produtivo de hortaliças.

  7. Culicideofauna (Diptera encontrada em entrenós de taquara de uma mata residual na área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Fauna of Culicidae (Diptera found in the internodes of the bamboo in a residual forest in the urban area of Londrina - Paraná, Brazil

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    João Antonio Cyrino Zequi

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A fragment of a forest, located in the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, was chosen to represent the area for this study. Many Merostachys Spreng, 1824 bamboo, which were naturally perforated and, therefore, ready to retain water, were found in the interior of this forest. Bamboo were collected every fifteen days during field actions. They were then measured and cut meter by meter before their contents were analyzed in the laboratory. A total of 542 specimens from the following species were collected during one year: Sabethes aurescens (Lutz, 1905, Sabethes melanomymphe Dyar, 1924, Sabethes identicus Dyar & Knab, 1907, Wyeomyia rooti (Del Ponte, 1939, Wyeomyia limai Lane & Cerqueira, 1942, Wyeomyia sp., Trichoprosopon pallidiventer (Lutz, 1905, Trichoprosopon humboldti Lane & Cerqueira, 1942, Toxorhynchites sp. e Shannoniana schedocyclium (Dyar & Knab, 1908. Wyeomyia limai and Sabethes aurescens were the most frequently found species. The first specie had the highest population index in february whereas the Sabethes aurescens, had its highest index in july, february and november. The largest number of larvae were obtained in the months of february and march. As for stratification, the greatest quantity of larvae was found at two meters. The specie Wyeomyia limai predominated in all heights, being most abundant at three meters high whereas the Sabethes was most abundant at one meter high. The presence of bamboo in small forest spots in urban areas is enough to host a certain variety of Culicidae of the Sabethini tribe which are considered wild mosquito. These same mosquito, due to their hematophagus habitat, can be hazardous to public health.

  8. SU-E-T-300: Spatial Variations of Multiple Off-Axial Targets for a Single Isocenter SRS Treatment Plan in ExacTrac 6D Robotic Couch System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S [Genesis Medical Center, Davenport, IA (United States); Tseng, T [Mount Sinai Hospital, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the spatial variations of multiple off-axial targets for a single isocenter stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment plan in ExacTrac 6D robotic couch system (BrainLab AG). Methods: Five metallic ball bearing (BB) markers were placed sparsely in 3D off-axial locations (non-coplanar) inside a skull phantom as the representatives of multiple targets mimicking multiple brain metastases. The locations of the BB markers were carefully chosen to minimize overlapping of each other in a port imaging detector plane. The skull phantom was immobilized by a frameless mask and CT scanned with a BrainLab Head and Neck Localizer using a GE Optima MDCT scanner. The CT images were exported to iPlan software (BrainLab AG) and a multiple target PTV was drawn by combining all the contours of the BBs. The margin of the MLC opening was selected as 3 mm expansion outward. Two coplanar arc beams were placed to generate a single isocenter SRS plan to treat the PTV. The arc beams were delivered using Novalis Tx system with portal imaging acquisition mode per 10% temporal resolution. The locations of the BBs were visualized and analyzed with respect to the MLC aperture in the treatment plan similar to the Winston-Lutz test. Results: All the BBs were clearly identified inside the MLC openings. The positional errors for the BBs were overall less than 1 mm along the rotational path of the two arcs. Conclusion: This study verified that the spatial deviations of multiple off-axial targets for a single isocenter SRS treatment plan is within sub-millimeter range in ExacTrac 6D robotic couch system. Accompanied with the Winston-Lutz test, this test will quality-assure the spatial accuracies of the isocenter as well as the positions of multiple off-axial targets for the SRS treatment using a single isocenter multiple target treatment plan.

  9. Microhabitats de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae em internódios de taquara na Mata Atlântica, Paraná, Brasil Mosquitoes microhabitats (Diptera, Culicidae in bamboo internodes in Atlantic forest, Paraná, Brazil

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    Ana Leuch Lozovei

    Full Text Available During two consecutive years, from January 1985 to December 1986, a comparative study of mosquitoes preferences for breeding habitat was carried out in the Atlantic Forest of the Serra do Mar, Paraná State, Brazil. To achieve it, 1875 bamboo internodes aligned vertically in live green, bamboo plants Merostachys speciosa Munro and Merostachys sp. were used, in which metabolic water was exuded from the plant itself, and presenting different size/pattern holes at their lateral walls, bored by the local sylvan fauna. Another group of 1200 individual internode traps was used as comparative element, carved out with a transversal cut by a saw, filled with local stream water and held in branches at different heights in the vegetal strata nearby. At both microhabitat types, a total of 17 culicid species was registered. Culex (Microculex neglectus Lutz, 1904, Cx. (Carrollia soperi Antunes & Lane, 1937, Sabethes (Sabethes batesi Lane & Cerqueira, 1942 and Sa. (Sabethinus melanonymphe (Dyar, 1924colonized exclusively live plant internodes, while Culex (Microculex elongatus Rozeboom & Lane, 1950, Cx. (Carrollia iridescens (Lutz, 1905, Cx. (Carrollia kompi Valencia,1973and Trichoprosopon (Trichoprosopon soaresi Dyar & Knab, 1907 bred only in internode traps. The remaining nine species colonized both habitats indistinctly. Quantitatively, was detected the abundance of 60.1% at live green internodes, against 39.9% for internode traps. Concerning the different patterns of bored live internode holes, 40.3% of the total computed specimens were collected in square or rectangular holes, 31.9% in two hole internodes, one minute circular, the other wider, and the remaining 28.8% of specimens distributed in other pattern type internodes. The mosquitoes breeding at these microhabitats fall in the culicid entomofauna specialized at locating and detecting peculiar and propitious mesogen conditions for breeding purposes.

  10. INIBIÇÃO DE SALMONELLA POR EXTRATO DE ALECRIM (Rosmarinus officinalis: OBTENÇÃO DE EXTRATOS DE ALECRIM EM SOLVENTES ORGÂNICOS INHIBITION OF Salmonella BY ROSEMARY (Rosmarinus officinalis EXTRACTS: ORGANIC SOLVENTS ROSEMARY EXTRACT OBTENTION

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    Maria Célia Lopes Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de se obter um extrato de alecrim em solvente orgânico, a ser utilizado na inibição de Salmonella, em alimentos, foram testados quatro tipos de solventes, a saber: metanol, etanol, acetona e hexano. Na obtenção dos extratos foi adotada a técnica recomendada para determinação de lipídeos, conforme as NORMAS ANALÍTICAS DO INSTITUTO ADOLFO LUTZ (1976. A análise dos resultados evidenciou um excelente desempenho do metanol, não sendo contudo recomendada a utilização em produtos alimentares em virtude da sua toxidez. Também o etanol apresentou elevados índices de extração, sem os inconvenientes associados ao uso do metanol, sendo por isto o solvente indicado para a continuidade do estudo proposto.

    Aiming to obtain a rosemary extract in organic solvent to be used in Salmonella inhibition, in food, were tested four kinds of solvents, namely: methane alcohol, ethyl alcohol, acetone and hexane. It was used the recommended technique for lipids determination in extracts determination according to the analytic rules used by Instituto Adolfo Lutz. Analysis results showed an excellent performance for methane alcohol, but its use is not recommended in feed products due to its toxicity. Ethyl alcohol presented also elevated extraction indexes without inconvenients associated to methane alcohol use, by this reason being a solvent indicated for continuity to the proposed study.

  11. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae as etiological agents of conjunctivitis outbreaks in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

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    Marta I. C. MEDEIROS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study of conjunctivitis outbreaks occurring from September 1994 to September 1996 in the region of Ribeirão Preto, conjunctival exudates of 92 patients were cultivated in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratory I, Ribeirão Preto. Most cases occurred in the age range 2-7 years. The etiological agents which were most frequently isolated from the analyzed cases were: Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, in 40.22% and 21.74%, respectively. 51.35% of the S. pneumoniae isolated strains were not typable. The oxacillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains were submitted to the minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC and three of them presented intermediate resistance, whereas only one was highly resistant to penicillin.No estudo de surtos de conjuntivite ocorridos no período de setembro de 1994 a setembro de 1996, na região de Ribeirão Preto, foram semeadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz Laboratório I, Ribeirão Preto, exsudatos conjuntivais de 92 pacientes, sendo que a maioria dos casos estava na faixa etária de 2-7 anos. Os agentes etiológicos mais freqüentemente isolados dos casos analisados foram: Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae em 40,22% e 21,74% respectivamente. 51,35% das cepas de S. pneumoniae isoladas foram não tipáveis. As cepas de S. pneumoniae oxacilina resistente foram submetidas ao teste de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM, sendo que três apresentaram resistência intermediária e apenas uma foi altamente resistente à penicilina.

  12. Photobleaching correction in fluorescence microscopy images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, Nathalie B; Diaz Zamboni, Javier E; Adur, Javier F; Paravani, Enrique V; Casco, Victor H [Microscopy Laboratory, School of Engineering - Bioengineering, National University of Entre Rios (UNER), Ruta 11, Km 10 (3101), Oro Verde, Entre Rios (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Fluorophores are used to detect molecular expression by highly specific antigen-antibody reactions in fluorescence microscopy techniques. A portion of the fluorophore emits fluorescence when irradiated with electromagnetic waves of particular wavelengths, enabling its detection. Photobleaching irreversibly destroys fluorophores stimulated by radiation within the excitation spectrum, thus eliminating potentially useful information. Since this process may not be completely prevented, techniques have been developed to slow it down or to correct resulting alterations (mainly, the decrease in fluorescent signal). In the present work, the correction by photobleaching curve was studied using E-cadherin (a cell-cell adhesion molecule) expression in Bufo arenarum embryos. Significant improvements were observed when applying this simple, inexpensive and fast technique.

  13. Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

  14. THE KARYOTYPE OF SEVEN SPECIES OF AMPHIBIANS (ANURAN ORDER FROM SOUTH-EAST SULAWESI

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    Nasaruddin -

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As chromosome of different species differs in the size, shape, and number, their caryotpes areexpected to provide a distinctive and characteristic feature of the organism. The caryotypes ofseven amphibian species : Limnonectes gruniens, L modestus, Rana (Hylarana chalconota,Fajervarya cancrivora, Polypedates celebensis, Bufo celebensis and B biporcatus of South EastSulawesi-origin were investigated. The result showed that the number of diploid chromosomes inthe seven anuran varied between 22-26. The highest diploid chromosomes were observed in Rchalconota, F cancrivora (26, followed by L gruniens, L modestus (24 and the lowest were observed22 in P celebensis, B celebensis and B biporcatus (22. In general, all the the seven anuran sharesfour metacentric chromosomes pairs which is in pairs No 5, 6, 9, and 10 respectively. Howeverdifferences were observed in other chromosomes pairs numbers among the seven species.

  15. Distribution of the herpetofauna community associated to four areas with different interference degree in Gorgona Island, Colombian pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 1840 individuals from 28 species (19 reptiles and 9 amphibians) were found in Gorgona Island, during June and July 2001. Based on 32 transects placed in four areas with different antropic perturbation degree (Prison, palm plantations, secondary forest and primary forest) it was found that the species richness was higher at the secondary forest. The species registered at primary and secondary forest where very similar as well as the species present at the prison and the palm plantations. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed that Boa constricto1; Basiliscus galeritus. Ameiva bridgesii and Epipedobates boulengeri were found to be associated to open areas and their distribution was hardly affected by the environmental temperature. From the following species associated with forested areas, the canopy cover over the micro habitat influenced the distribution of Eleutherodactylus gularis. Eleutherodactylus achatinus and Bothrops atrox. While the understory cover influenced the distribution of Atelopus elegans. Bufo typhonius. Micrurus mipartitus y Enyalioides heterolepis

  16. Trends in anuran occupancy from northeastern states of the North American Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Linda; Fiske, Ian J.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We present the first multi-year occupancy trends from North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) data in 10 northeastern states using seven years of data (2001-2007). NAAMP uses a calling survey technique where observers listen for anuran vocalizations along assigned random roadside routes. We were able to assess occupancy trends in 10 northeastern states for 16 species and one species complex, for 94 species/state combinations. We found no significant trends for 64 species/state combinations. For the remaining 30 species/state combinations with significant trends, these split between declining and increasing trends. On a species-by-species basis, two species had declining trends, with significant trends in six states for Pseudacris crucifer and four states for Bufo americanus. The trends of Rana catesbeiana significantly increased in four states, but had no trend in the remaining states.

  17. AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN BIOGEOCOENOSIS WITH DIFFERENT STAGES OF ANTHROPOGENIC CLYMAX

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    Marchenkovskaya А. А.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the abundance of juvenile (fingerlings and yearlings and sexually mature (3-6 years of various anurans at various biotopes with different degrees of anthropogenic influence. Population analysis has revealed that the number of juveniles in all the habitats are depended on type and level of anthropogenic influence. In all the habitats the most numerous species was synanthropic bufo viridis. In biotopes with high contamination of pollutants, only one species of amphibians - the marsh frog has populations with juveniles migrating here in the early fall. The highest number of mature individuals registered for the population of Bombina bombina, pelobates fuscus and in one biotope for hyla arborea. The populations of pelophylax ridibundus could be considered as the most balanced by number of juvenile and mature individuals.

  18. Aportes al conocimiento de la fauna Amphibia de la Orinoquía colombiana

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    Ardila Robayo María Cristina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Como producto del acopio de información bibliográfica, de notas de campo y del catálogo de especies de la colección de anfibios del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (ICNMHN, se encontraron 82 especies de anfibios para la región de la Orinoquia colombiana pertenecientes a 35 géneros y 11 familias. Las familias que representaron el mayor número de especies fueron Hylidae (29 y Leptadactylidae (26. Los géneros más ricos fueron Leptodactylus (12, Hypsiboas (7, Scinax (7, Bufo (6 y Eleutherodactylus (6. Los órdenes Apoda y Urodela estuvieron representados cada uno por dos y tres especies
    respectivamente. Se encontraron 18 especies nativas de Colombia, seis de las cuales fueron endémicas de la Orinoquia colombiana.

  19. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos Influenza in heterothermics

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini; Rita Maria Zucatelli Mendonça; Aurora Marques Cianciarullo; Leonardo Setsuo Kobashi; Hermínio Gomes Trindade; Wilson Fernandes; José Ricardo Pinto

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino d...

  20. Effects of an insecticide on amphibians in large-scale experimental ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, M.D.; Semlitsch, R.D.; Fairchild, J.F.; Rothermel, B.B.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the effects of the insecticide carbaryl on larval amphibian communities in large-scale experimental ponds. Tadpoles of two anurans, Woodhouse's toad (Bufo woodhousii) and southern leopard Frog (Rana sphenocephala), were reared in ponds (800 m3 volume) to determine the effects of tadpole density and carbaryl exposure on mass at metamorphosis and on time and survival to metamorphosis. Exposure to carbaryl significantly affected toads at metamorphosis, but not leopard frogs. Carbaryl exposure nearly doubled toad survival compared to controls; this effect may be attributable to an indirect effect of earbaryl increasing algal food resources. The competitive environment (i.e., density) and carbaryl exposure significantly affected the trade-off between mass and time to metamorphosis for toads. Our study is the first to demonstrate that in pond communities where predation and competition may be strong, short-lived insecticides can significantly alter the community dynamics of amphibians.

  1. Studies of Annual and Seasonal Variations in Four Species of Reptiles and Amphibians at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D.C.; Nelson, E.I.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S.; Haarmann, T.K.

    1998-07-01

    Baseline studies of reptiles and amphibians of the Pajarito wetlands at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been conducted by the Ecology group since 1990. With the data gathered from 1990-1997 (excluding 1992), we examined the annual and seasonal population changes of four species of reptiles and amphibians over the past seven years. The four species studied are the Woodhouse toad (Bufo woodhousii), the western chorus frog (Pseudacris triseriata), the many-lined skink (Eunzeces nudtivirgatus), and the plateau striped whiptail lizard (Cnemidophorus velox). Statistical analyses indicate a significant change on a seasonal basis for the western chorus frog and the many-lined skink. Results indicate a significant difference in the annual population of the Woodhouse toad.

  2. Widespread occurrence in frogs and toads of skin compounds interacting with the ouabain site of Na+, K+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flier, J; Edwards, M W; Daly, J W; Myers, C W

    1980-05-01

    Amphibians of the family Bufonidae contain high levels of skin compounds that both inhibit Na+- and K+-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase and antagonize the binding of ouabain to the enzyme. In species of Bufo and Atelopus, these compounds are relatively nonpolar bufodienolides, whereas Dendrophryniscus and Melanophryniscus contain more polar compounds of unknown structure. Skin extracts from 30 of 48 species of frogs representing an additional eight families contained relatively low levels of compounds that inhibit binding of ouabain to Na+,K+-adenosinetriphosphatase. The widespread occurrence of low levels of inhibitory compounds is consonant with the role for these compounds as physiological regulators of Na+,K+-adenosinetriphosphatase in amphibian skin; high levels in the Bufonidae probably also serve as a defense against some predators. PMID:6245447

  3. Effects of amphibian chytrid fungus on individual survival probability in wild boreal toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, D.S.; Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Bartelt, P.E.; Corn, P.S.; Hossack, B.R.; Lambert, B.A.; Mccaffery, R.; Gaughan, C.

    2010-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis is linked to the worldwide decline of amphibians, yet little is known about the demographic effects of the disease. We collected capture-recapture data on three populations of boreal toads (Bufo boreas [Bufo = Anaxyrus]) in the Rocky Mountains (U.S.A.). Two of the populations were infected with chytridiomycosis and one was not. We examined the effect of the presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]; the agent of chytridiomycosis) on survival probability and population growth rate. Toads that were infected with Bd had lower average annual survival probability than uninfected individuals at sites where Bd was detected, which suggests chytridiomycosis may reduce survival by 31-42% in wild boreal toads. Toads that were negative for Bd at infected sites had survival probabilities comparable to toads at the uninfected site. Evidence that environmental covariates (particularly cold temperatures during the breeding season) influenced toad survival was weak. The number of individuals in diseased populations declined by 5-7%/year over the 6 years of the study, whereas the uninfected population had comparatively stable population growth. Our data suggest that the presence of Bd in these toad populations is not causing rapid population declines. Rather, chytridiomycosis appears to be functioning as a low-level, chronic disease whereby some infected individuals survive but the overall population effects are still negative. Our results show that some amphibian populations may be coexisting with Bd and highlight the importance of quantitative assessments of survival in diseased animal populations. Journal compilation. ?? 2010 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original US government works.

  4. Keystone predators (eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens) reduce the impacts of an aquatic invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.

    2006-01-01

    Predation, competition, and their interaction are known to be important factors that influence the structure of ecological communities. In particular, in those cases where a competitive hierarchy exists among prey species, the presence of certain keystone predators can result in enhanced diversity in the prey community. However, little is known regarding the influence of keystone predator presence on invaded prey communities. Given the widespread occurrence of invasive species and substantial concern regarding their ecological impacts, studies on this topic are needed. In this study I used naturalistic replications of an experimental tadpole assemblage to assess the influence of predatory eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, on the outcome of interspecific competition among native and nonindigenous tadpoles. When newts were absent, the presence of the tadpoles of one invasive species, the Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, resulted in decreased survival and growth rate of the dominant native species, Bufo terrestris, and dominance of the tadpole assemblage by O. septentrionalis. However, the presence of one adult newt generally reduced or eliminated the negative impacts of O. septentrionalis tadpoles, resulting in comparable survival and performance of native species in invaded and noninvaded treatments. Differential mortality among the tadpole species suggests that newts preyed selectively on O. septentrionalis tadpoles, supporting the hypothesis that newts acted as keystone predators in the invaded assemblage. The presence of nonindigenous larval cane toads, Bufo marinus, did not significantly affect native species, and this species was not negatively affected by the presence of newts. Collectively, these results suggest that eastern newts significantly modified the competitive hierarchy of the invaded tadpole assemblage and reduced the impacts of a competitively superior invasive species. If general, these results suggest that the presence of

  5. Enthalpic consequences of reduced chloride binding in Andean frog (Telmatobius peruvianus) hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roy E

    2014-07-01

    Based on the exothermic nature of heme oxygenation, the O2 affinity of hemoglobin (Hb) decreases with increasing temperature, which may be physiologically advantageous in augmenting O2 unloading from blood in warm tissues with elevated metabolic rates. This negative oxygenation enthalpy (∆H (O)) may, however, become maladaptive, as in cold-tolerant ungulates where it may hamper O2 unloading in cold extremities and commonly is mitigated by an 'additional' chloride-binding site that decreases the temperature effect by increasing the endothermic release of Cl(-) ions upon O2 binding. Since no previous studies have focused on the consequences of reduced Cl(-) binding, I report and compare the enthalpic effects of chloride ions and the allosteric effector, ATP, on Hbs of the high-altitude aquatic Andean frog Telmatobius peruvianus that lacks the α-chain chloride-binding site, and the lowland (sub-)tropical frog Xenopus laevis that has retained this site and exhibits high chloride sensitivity. In contrast to Xenopus, Telmatobius Hb exhibits high temperature sensitivity (high negative ∆H') in the presence of Cl(-) ions, supporting the inverse relationship between the number of Cl(-)-binding sites and temperature sensitivity, and extending it to ectothermic vertebrates. The radically reduced chloride binding in Telmatobius Hb permits assessment of the enthalpy of ATP binding [(∆H' ≈ -62 kJ (mol ATP)(-1) at pH 7.0]-which contrasts sharply with previously reported increases in temperature sensitivity by ATP in toad (Bufo bufo) Hb. The high temperature sensitivity associated with decreased chloride binding and low phosphate sensitivity of Telmatobius Hb likely promotes cutaneous O2 uptake in cold, high-altitude ponds and streams.

  6. Seasonal patterns of activity and community structure in an amphibian assemblage at a pond network with variable hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Leonardo; Bologna, Marco A.; Luiselli, Luca

    2007-03-01

    We studied community structure and seasonal activity patterns in a system of four ponds with seasonally-variable hydrology at a Mediterranean area in central Italy. We used a set of field methods to assess species presence and relative frequency of observation. The network of ponds was inhabited by six species of amphibians, two salamanders and four frogs. The breeding phenology of the six species did not vary remarkably among ponds, but there were significant differences among species in use of ponds. Factorial analysis of pond similarity drawn from percentage composition of the amphibian fauna, revealed that each of the four ponds was treatable as independent units, with no influence of relative inter-pond distance. PCA analysis allowed us to spatially arrange the amphibian species into three main groups: two were monospecific groups (i.e., Triturus vulgaris and Bufo bufo) and the third consisted of those species that selected not only the largest-deepest ponds, but also the ephemeral ones (i.e., Triturus carnifex, Hyla intermedia, the green frogs and Rana dalmatina). Our results suggest that the inter-pond differences in riparian vegetation, water depth, aquatic vegetation structure/abundance, and soil composition may produce differences among pond ecological characteristics (i.e., water turbidity and temperature, shelter availability, abundance of oviposition micro-sites), which may in turn influence different patterns of use by amphibians. To our knowledge, this is the first study emphasizing the potential role of heterochrony in the maintenance of a high species richness in Mediterranean amphibian communities. Preservation of freshwater vertebrate biodiversity requires management and protection not only of the main ponds and water bodies but also the temporary and ephemeral shallow ponds.

  7. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of cinobufacini and its active components bufalin and cinobufagin in HepG2.2.15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Xu, Huanli; Wang, Dongliang; Qi, Fanghua; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fang, Dingzhi; Tang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Cinobufacini (Huachansu) is a Chinese medicine prepared from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (Bufonidae), which has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of present study was to examine the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities of cinobufacini and its active components bufalin and cinobufagin in the human HBV-transfected cell line HepG2.2.15. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay after HepG2.2.15 cells were respectively treated with different concentrations of cinobufacini, bufalin, and cinobufagin for 3 or 6 d. HBV DNA and mRNA were determined using transcription-mediated amplification and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. On d 3, cinobufacini at a concentration of 1 µg/ml had no activity against HBV virological markers. However, on d 6, cinobufacini at 1 µg/ml effectively inhibited the secretion of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBcrAg by 29.58, 32.87, and 42.52%. It was more potent than the positive control lamivudine (100 µg/ml). Bufalin and cinobufagin slightly inhibited HBV antigen secretion. Treatment with cinobufacini, bufalin, or cinobufagin had no anti-HBV effect on DNA in cell culture medium. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, HBV mRNA expression was markedly inhibited in comparison to the control when HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with cinobufacini, bufalin, or cinobufagin. Results suggested that cinobufacini had more potent activity against HBV antigen secretion than its components bufalin and cinobufagin and this inhibitory role was attributed to the specific inhibition of HBV mRNA expression.

  8. Aprendizaje instrumental en anfibios

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    Rubén N. Muzio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una revisión de los estudios realizados acerca de los mecanismos de aprendizaje en anfibios. Se conoce muy poco acerca de los procesos de aprendizaje en anfibios, y aún menos respecto de las relaciones cerebro-aprendizaje. Recientemente hemos comenzado el estudio sistemático del aprendizaje instrumental en el sapo Bufo arenarum dentro de un marco comparativo. Se observaron diversos fenómenos de aprendizaje comunes a una amplia variedad de vertebrados, tales como la adquisición bajo condiciones de entrenamiento masivo y espaciado, la extinción, la recuperación espontánea, el efecto subsiguiente al refuerzo, y el efecto en al adquisición de la magnitud del reforzamiento. Además, comenzamos el análisis de los efectos sobre el aprendizaje de las lesiones del pallium medial (estructura postulada como homóloga al hipocampo de los mamíferos. La lesión del paIlium medial no tuvo efectos sobre el desempeño ni sobre la tasa de captación de agua durante la adquisición. Pero retardó significativamente la extinción de la respuesta instrumental en un corredor recto. Estos datos sugieren que el palli um medial de los sapos juega un papel en la inhibición de respuestas previamente aprendidas. Los resultados de nuestros estudios en el sapo Bufo arenarum aportan datos origi na1es a la limitada información disponible sobre aprendizaje en anfibios.

  9. Ground Water Chemistry Changes before Major Earthquakes and Possible Effects on Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel A.; Halliday, Tim; Balderer, Werner P.; Leuenberger, Fanny; Newcomer, Michelle; Cyr, Gary; Freund, Friedemann T.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to major earthquakes many changes in the environment have been documented. Though often subtle and fleeting, these changes are noticeable at the land surface, in water, in the air, and in the ionosphere. Key to understanding these diverse pre-earthquake phenomena has been the discovery that, when tectonic stresses build up in the Earth’s crust, highly mobile electronic charge carriers are activated. These charge carriers are defect electrons on the oxygen anion sublattice of silicate minerals, known as positive holes, chemically equivalent to O− in a matrix of O2−. They are remarkable inasmuch as they can flow out of the stressed rock volume and spread into the surrounding unstressed rocks. Travelling fast and far the positive holes cause a range of follow-on reactions when they arrive at the Earth’s surface, where they cause air ionization, injecting massive amounts of primarily positive air ions into the lower atmosphere. When they arrive at the rock-water interface, they act as •O radicals, oxidizing water to hydrogen peroxide. Other reactions at the rock-water interface include the oxidation or partial oxidation of dissolved organic compounds, leading to changes of their fluorescence spectra. Some compounds thus formed may be irritants or toxins to certain species of animals. Common toads, Bufo bufo, were observed to exhibit a highly unusual behavior prior to a M6.3 earthquake that hit L’Aquila, Italy, on April 06, 2009: a few days before the seismic event the toads suddenly disappeared from their breeding site in a small lake about 75 km from the epicenter and did not return until after the aftershock series. In this paper we discuss potential changes in groundwater chemistry prior to seismic events and their possible effects on animals. PMID:21776211

  10. Mapping the Relative Probability of Common Toad Occurrence in Terrestrial Lowland Farm Habitat in the United Kingdom.

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    Rosie D Salazar

    Full Text Available The common toad (Bufo bufo is of increasing conservation concern in the United Kingdom (UK due to dramatic population declines occurring in the past century. Many of these population declines coincided with reductions in both terrestrial and aquatic habitat availability and quality and have been primarily attributed to the effect of agricultural land conversion (of natural and semi-natural habitats to arable and pasture fields and pond drainage. However, there is little evidence available to link habitat availability with common toad population declines, especially when examined at a broad landscape scale. Assessing such patterns of population declines at the landscape scale, for instance, require an understanding of how this species uses terrestrial habitat.We intensively studied the terrestrial resource selection of a large population of common toads in Oxfordshire, England, UK. Adult common toads were fitted with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags to allow detection in the terrestrial environment using a portable PIT antenna once toads left the pond and before going into hibernation (April/May-October 2012 and 2013. We developed a population-level resource selection function (RSF to assess the relative probability of toad occurrence in the terrestrial environment by collecting location data for 90 recaptured toads.The predicted relative probability of toad occurrence for this population was greatest in wooded habitat near to water bodies; relative probability of occurrence declined dramatically > 50 m from these habitats. Toads also tended to select habitat near to their breeding pond and toad occurrence was negatively related to urban environments.

  11. Ground Water Chemistry Changes before Major Earthquakes and Possible Effects on Animals

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    Friedemann T. Freund

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior to major earthquakes many changes in the environment have been documented. Though often subtle and fleeting, these changes are noticeable at the land surface, in water, in the air, and in the ionosphere. Key to understanding these diverse pre-earthquake phenomena has been the discovery that, when tectonic stresses build up in the Earth’s crust, highly mobile electronic charge carriers are activated. These charge carriers are defect electrons on the oxygen anion sublattice of silicate minerals, known as positive holes, chemically equivalent to O– in a matrix of O2–. They are remarkable inasmuch as they can flow out of the stressed rock volume and spread into the surrounding unstressed rocks. Travelling fast and far the positive holes cause a range of follow-on reactions when they arrive at the Earth’s surface, where they cause air ionization, injecting massive amounts of primarily positive air ions into the lower atmosphere. When they arrive at the rock-water interface, they act as •O radicals, oxidizing water to hydrogen peroxide. Other reactions at the rock-water interface include the oxidation or partial oxidation of dissolved organic compounds, leading to changes of their fluorescence spectra. Some compounds thus formed may be irritants or toxins to certain species of animals. Common toads, Bufo bufo, were observed to exhibit a highly unusual behavior prior to a M6.3 earthquake that hit L’Aquila, Italy, on April 06, 2009: a few days before the seismic event the toads suddenly disappeared from their breeding site in a small lake about 75 km from the epicenter and did not return until after the aftershock series. In this paper we discuss potential changes in groundwater chemistry prior to seismic events and their possible effects on animals.

  12. Use of stress-hormone levels and habitat selection to assess functional connectivity of a landscape for an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Agnès; Léna, Jean-Paul; Deblois, Sandrine; Joly, Pierre

    2012-10-01

    The influence of landscape matrix on functional connectivity has been clearly established. Now methods to assess the effects of different land uses on species' movements are needed because current methods are often biased. The use of physiological parameters as indicators of the level of resistance to animal movement associated with different land uses (i.e., matrix resistance) could provide estimates of energetic costs and risks to animals migrating through the matrix. To assess whether corticosterone levels indicate matrix resistance, we conducted experiments on substrate choice and measured levels of corticosterone before and after exposure of toads (Bufo bufo) to 3 common substrates (ploughed soil, meadow, and forest litter). We expected matrix resistance and hormone levels to increase from forest litter (habitat of the toad) to meadows to ploughed soil. Adult toads had higher corticosterone levels on ploughed soil than on forest litter or meadow substrates. Hormone levels did not differ between forest litter and meadow. Toads avoided moving onto ploughed soil. Corticosterone levels in juvenile toads were not related to substrate type; however, hormone levels decreased as humidity increased. Juveniles, unlike adults, did not avoid moving over ploughed soil. The difference in responses between adult and juvenile toads may have been due to differences in experimental design (for juveniles, entire body used to measure corticosterone concentration; for adults, saliva alone); differences in the scale of sensory perception of the substrate (juveniles are much smaller than adults); or differences in cognitive processes between adult and juvenile toads. Adults probably had experience with different substrate types, whereas juveniles first emerging from the water probably did not. As a consequence, arable lands could act as ecological traps for juvenile toads. PMID:22891816

  13. Ixodídeos em animais silvestres na Região do Planalto Serrano, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Marcia Sangaletti Lavina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da fauna de ixodídeos, bem como a potencialidade como transmissores de patógenos aos seus hospedeiros e em alguns casos aos humanos, é de grande importância para o estabelecimento de programas de saúde pública e vigilância epidemiológica. Com o objetivo de identificar ixodídeos de mamíferos silvestres no Planalto Serrano de Santa Catarina foram examinados carrapatos, coletados ou recebidos no Laboratório de Parasitologia e Doenças Parasitárias do Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias – CAV/UDESC no período 2001 a 2011. Os ixodídeos eram provenientes de animais silvestres que passaram pelo processo de triagem do Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias (HCV do CAV e de animais encontrados mortos em rodovias do Estado. De acordo com as chaves dicotômicas específicas identificou-se Amblyomma aureolatum coletados em Pseudalopex gymnocercus, Lycalopex gymnocercus, Leopardus pardalis, Cerdocyon thous, Leopardus tigrinus, Puma concolor e Bufo sp.; A. dubitatum em Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris; A. rotundatum em Puma concolor e Bohtrops sp.; A. ovale em Bufo sp.; e Rhipicephalus microplus em Mazama gouazoubira. Foi identificado um exemplar de A. longirostre que se encontrava em uma residência da área urbana do município de Lages. As espécies A. rotundatum em Bohtrops sp. e em Puma concolor; e A. longirostre, encontrada no ambiente, foram relatadas pela primeira vez no estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. 

  14. Detecção da citotoxicidade de materiais biocompatíveis nas linhagens celulares MRC-5, HeLa e RC-IAL MRC-5, HeLa and RC-IAL cell lines sensitivity for detection of cytotoxicity of biocompatible materials

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    Aurea S. Cruz

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensibilidade de uma linhagem celular diplóide e duas heteroplóides, para a detecção de citotoxicidade através do método de difusão em camada de ágar sobre culturas celulares, foi avaliada experimentalmente com solução de ácido ascórbico em diferentes concentrações e, na prática, frente a 562 amostras de 21 diferentes materiais industriais enviados para análise na Seção de Culturas Celulares do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. A linhagem celular heteroplóide designada RC-IAL apresentou, em relação às linhagens MRC-5 e HeLa, maior sensibilidade porque revelou a presença de efeito citotóxico nas menores concentrações utilizadas (10 e 25 ug/ml do ácido ascórbico e apresentou maior diâmetro do halo citotóxico em 15 amostras e igual diâmetro em 16 das 43 amostras (7,6% que resultaram positivas. Nas 43 amostras positivas, a linhagem MRC-5 não revelou citotoxicidade em 3 amostras de espuma e 1 de resina acrílica. O polivinilcloreto (PVC e o polietileno, raramente revelaram positividade, enquanto plástico, algodão e resinas acrílicas revelaram citotoxicidade ao redor de 5%. Em vista dos resultados é discutida a proposta da utilização da linhagem RC-IAL e HeLa para a continuidade das futuras análises solicitadas ao Instituto Adolfo LutzThe sensitivity of diploid and heteroploid cell lines for detection of cytotoxicity using the agar diffusion method on cell culture, was tested with ascorbic acid solution of different concentrations. A total of 562 samples of 21 various materials were tested. The heteroploid cell line, RC-IAL, showed in relation to the MRC-5 and HeLa cell lines, greater sensitivity because it showed the presence of cytotoxic effect with the lowest concentration used (10 and 25ug/ml of ascorbic acid and showed greater diameter of cytotoxic halo in 15 samples and equal diameter in 16 of the 43 positive samples (7.6%. Out of 43 positive samples, the MRC-5 line did not show cytotoxicity in 3 sponge samples and

  15. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STRAINS OF Salmonella spp IN RED-FOOT-TORTOISES FROM WILDLIFE TRADE ISOLAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE CEPAS DE Salmonella spp DE JABUTIS-PIRANGA ORIUNDOS DO TRÁFICO DE ANIMAIS SILVESTRES

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    Oberdan Coutinho Nunes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Salmonella sp. in red-foot tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria because of the fact this particular reptile shows high frequency of illegal commerce, and also because this situation represents a serious risk for health. We collected feces of 89 turtles from the wildlife center “Chico Mendes” - IBAMA/SUPES-BA. Characteristic colonies of Salmonella sp. were isolated in 12.36% of the tortoises (11/89. Nine colonies were identificated at the Adolfo Lutz Institute, distributed into six different sorotypes: S. enterica salamae 47:b:-; S. enterica houtenae 21:g,z51; S. Panama; S. Poona; S. Javiana e S. Michigan. All of them, according to literature, without previous description of infection in C. carbonaria whatsoever. However, there are previous cases of infections and antibiotics resistance involving these sorotypes, confirming the risk represented by wildlife trade to public health concerning the children’s exposition to the source of infection as well as the dissemination of resistant sorotypes.

    KEY WORDS: Epidemiology, reptiles, zoonosis.

    Este trabalho objetivou investigar a ocorrência de Salmonella sp. em jabutis-piranga (Chelonoides carbonaria, dada sua elevada frequência no comércio ilegal e risco que representa para a saúde. Coletaram-se fezes de 89 jabutis mantidos no Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres Chico Mendes – IBAMA/SUPES-BA. Isolaram-se colônias características de Salmonella sp. em 12,36% dos jabutis (11/89. Destas, nove foram identificadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, distribuindo-se em seis diferentes sorovares: S. enterica salamae 47:b:-; S. enterica houtenae 21:g,z51; S. Panama; S. Poona; S. Javiana e S. Michigan, todas, segundo a literatura consultada, sem prévia descrição para C. carbonária. No entanto, estão presentes em relatos de infecções e em estudos sobre resistência a antibióticos, confirmando o risco representado pelo tráfico de animais para a sa

  16. Influência do aquecimento sobre diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Influence of heating under different titration methods of residual SO2 on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

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    Karla Patrícia Brito de Araújo Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O metabissulfito de sódio é o conservante mais aplicado na carcinicultura, com uso amparado em legislações vigentes no país, todavia, seu resíduo, dióxido de enxofre (SO2, em concentrações altas, pode provocar reações adversas à saúde. Este estudo foidesenvolvido com a finalidade de observar a influência do aquecimento sob diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei. Os camarões foram submetidos a nove concentrações de metabissulfito de sódio e avaliados com diferentesmétodos de detecção de SO2. O método da titulação Adolfo Lutz adaptado apresentou grande sensibilidade para detecção de SO2 residual. O método da titulação iodométrica com aquecimento possibilitou a detecção de maiores níveis de SO2, quando comparado aométodo sem o aquecimento. O aquecimento interferiu negativamente no método da fita reativa. Conclui-se que o aquecimento influenciou positivamente a titulação iodométrica, não ocorrendo o mesmo com a fita reativa.Sodium metabisulfite is the most applied preservative in shrimp culture, with its use supported by current legislation; however, its residue, sulfur dioxide (SO2, in high concentrations can provoke adverse health reactions. This study evaluated the influence of heating under different methods of residual SO2 titration in Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimps were treated with nine concentrations of sodium metabisulfite and evaluated by different methods of SO2 titration. The adapted Adolfo Lutz titration method presented the highest sensitivity for the detection of SO2. The method of iodometric titration with heating made possible the detention ofhigher levels of SO2, when compared to the same method without heating. The heating influenced negatively on the reactive ribbon method. It is concluded that the heating influenced positively on the iodometric titration, as opposed to the reactive ribbon.

  17. Influência do aquecimento sobre diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3437 Influence of heating under different titration methods of residual SO2 on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i1.3437

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    Alfredo Oliveira Galvez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O metabissulfito de sódio é o conservante mais aplicado na carcinicultura, com uso amparado em legislações vigentes no país, todavia, seu resíduo, dióxido de enxofre (SO2, em concentrações altas, pode provocar reações adversas à saúde. Este estudo teve como finalidade observar a influência do aquecimento sob diferentes métodos de titulação de SO2 residual em camarões Litopenaeus vannamei. Os camarões foram submetidos a nove concentrações de metabissulfito de sódio e avaliados diferentes métodos de detecção de SO2. O método da titulação Adolfo Lutz adaptado apresentou grande sensibilidade para detecção de SO2 residual. O método da titulação iodométrica com aquecimento possibilitou a detecção de maiores níveis de SO2, quando comparado ao método sem o aquecimento. O aquecimento interferiu negativamente no método da fita reativa. Conclui-se que o aquecimento influenciou positivamente a titulação iodométrica, não ocorrendo o mesmo com a fita reativa.Sodium metabisulfite is the most applied preservative in shrimp culture, with its use supported by current legislation; however, its residue, sulfur dioxide (SO2, in high concentrations can provoke adverse health reactions. This study evaluated the influence of heating under different methods of residual SO2 titration in em>Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimps were treated with nine concentrations of sodium metabisulfite and evaluated by different methods of SO2 titration. The adapted Adolfo Lutz titration method presented the highest sensitivity for the detection of SO2. The method of iodometric titration with heating made possible the detention of higher levels of SO2, when compared to the same method without heating. The heating influenced negatively on the reactive ribbon method. It is concluded that the heating influenced positively on the iodometric titration, as opposed to the reactive ribbon.

  18. Echovirus 4 associated to hand, foot and mouth disease Echovirus 4 associado à doença de mão, pé e boca

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    Denise Hage Russo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD is a contagious enteroviral infection occurring primarily in children and characterized by vesicular palmoplantar eruptions and erosive stomatitis. Echovirus 4 (EV-4 has been commonly associated with aseptic meningitis. The association of HFMD with EV-4 has not been reported previously. Two samples of a 14-month child who presented mild fever, sores in the mouth, rash with blisters on the palm of hands and soles of feet were sent to Enteric Viruses Laboratory of Adolfo Lutz Institute. Clinical samples were inoculated in three different cell lines, and those which presented cytopathic effect (CPE, were submitted to Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and "one step" RT-PCR. Agarose gel electrophoresis from RT-PCR product, showed a product with 437 bp, which is characteristic of Enterovirus group. Echovirus 4 was identified by IFA. Although HFMD is a viral infection associated mainly with Enterovirus 71 (HEV-71 and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16, our results demonstrate a diversity of serotype related to HFMD and stress the importance of epidemiological surveillance to this disease and its complications.A Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca (DMPB é uma infecção enteroviral contagiosa que ocorre principalmente em crianças sendo caracterizada por erupções palmoplantares vesiculares e estomatite. Echovirus 4 (EV-4 é comumente associado a meningite asséptica. A associação de DMPB por EV-4 não foi descrita anteriormente. Duas amostras provenientes de uma criança de 14 meses apresentando febre, secreções na garganta e exantemas nas palmas das mãos e dos pés, foram enviadas para o Laboratório de Vírus Entéricos do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. As amostras foram inoculadas em três diferentes linhagens celulares; aquelas que apresentaram efeito citopático (ECP, foram submetidas a ensaio de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e "one step" RT-PCR. A eletroforese em gel de agarose realizada com o produto de PCR apresentou

  19. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp. in non diarrheal faeces from children, in a day care center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil Detecção de Cryptosporidium sp. em fezes não diarréicas de crianças, em uma escola de educação infantil de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Therezinha T. Carvalho-Almeida

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan Cryptosporidium sp. has been frequently detected in faeces from children with persistent diarrhoea. This work achieved to investigate an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis, in a day care center, attending children of high socio-economic level, between 0 and six years old. The outbreak was detected through the network of public health, when stool samples, not diarrhoeic, were examined at the Parasitology Service of the Adolfo Lutz Institute. Among the 64 examined children, 13 (20.3% showed oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. in the faeces examined by Kinyoun technique: seven children one year old, three, two years old and three, three years old. Among the 23 examined adults, only a 22 years old woman, possibly having an immunocomprometiment, was positive. Clinical and epidemiological aspects were investigated by questionnaires, highlighting the occurrence of the outbreak in a very dry period.O protozoário Cryptosporidium sp. tem sido detectado com freqüência em fezes de crianças com diarréia persistente. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar um surto de criptosporidiose, em uma escola de educação infantil, que atende crianças de classe média alta, de 0 a seis anos de idade. O surto foi detectado a partir de amostras fecais não diarréicas encaminhadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz através da rede de saúde pública. Das 64 crianças 13 (20,3% apresentaram oocistos de Cryptosporidium nas fezes, examinadas pelo método de Kinyoun, sendo sete crianças com um ano de idade, três com dois anos de idade e três, com três anos de idade. Dos 23 adultos examinados, apenas uma mulher de 22 anos, com possível imunocomprometimento, foi positiva. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos foram investigados por meio de questionários, ressaltando-se que o surto ocorreu em período muito seco.

  20. Fauna de parasitos metazoários de Pimelodus maculatus La Cépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.130 Metazoan parasite fauna of Pimelodus maculatus La Cépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae from the Guandu river, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Sandra Regina Lima de Castro Lemos Pita

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Sessenta espéimes de Pimelodus maculatus provenientes do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de janeiro, foram examinados para estudo de sua parasitofauna, no perído de agosto de 1999 a fevereiro de 2001. Foram coletados espéimes de doze espécies de parasitos metazoários alocados em sete grupos taxonômicos - Monogenoidea: Demidospermus uncusvalidus Gutiérez and Suriano, 1992, D. paravalenciennesi Gutiérez and Suriano, 1992, D. majusculus Kritsky and Gutiérez, 1998 e Scleroductus sp.; Digenea: Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928; Eucestoda: Nomimoscolex sp.; Nematoda: Cucullanus pinnai Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 e Procamallanus sp. (jovem; Hirudinea: Helobdella sp.; Myxozoa: Henneguya sp. e Myxobolus absonus Cellere, Cordeiro e Adriano, 2002, al駑 de uma esp馗ie de Acanthocephala (cistacanto não identificada. Houve correlação entre o sexo do hospedeiro com a preval麩cia e com a abundâcia de D. paravalenciennesi. A espéie mais dominante na comunidade parasitáia de P. maculatus do rio Guandu foi D. uncusvalidus (50%, seguida de C. pinnai (18,3%. Demidospermus majusculus e Henneguya sp. constituem primeiro registro em P. maculatus. Demidospermus uncusvalidus, D. paravalenciennesi, D. majusculus, Scleroductus sp., Nomimoscolex sp., C. pinnai, Procamallanus sp., Helobdella sp., Henneguya sp. e M. absonus apresentam ampliada sua distribui鈬o geogr畴ica conhecida.Sixty specimens of Pimelodus maculatus from the Guandu River in Rio de Janeiro State were examined to describe their parasitofauna, in the period from August 1999 to February 2001. Specimens of twelve metazoan parasite species were collected, allocated into seven taxonomic groups - Monogenoidea: Demidospermus uncusvalidus Gutiérez and Suriano, 1992, D. paravalenciennesi Gutiérez and Suriano, 1992, D. majusculus Kritsky and Gutiérez, 1998 and Scleroductus sp.; Digenea: Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928; Eucestoda: Nomimoscolex sp.; Nematoda: Cucullanus pinnai

  1. Metazoan parasite fauna of Pimelodus maculatus La Cépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae from the Guandu river, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil = Fauna de parasitos metazoários de Pimelodus maculatus La Cépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Michelle Daniele dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty specimens of Pimelodus maculatus from the Guandu River in Rio de Janeiro State were examined to describe their parasitofauna, in the period from August 1999 to February 2001. Specimens of twelve metazoan parasite species were collected, allocated into seventaxonomic groups - Monogenoidea: Demidospermus uncusvalidus Gutiérrez and Suriano, 1992, D. paravalenciennesi Gutiérrez and Suriano, 1992, D. majusculus Kritsky and Gutiérrez, 1998 and Scleroductus sp.; Digenea: Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928; Eucestoda: Nomimoscolex sp.; Nematoda: Cucullanus pinnai Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 and Procamallanus sp. (young specimen; Hirudinea: Helobdella sp.; Myxozoa: Henneguya sp. and Myxobolus absonus Cellere,Cordeiro and Adriano, 2002, along with one unidentified species of Acanthocephala (cystacanth. There was a correlation between the host sex and the prevalence and abundance of D. paravalenciennesi. The most dominant species in the parasite community of P. maculatus from the Guandu River was D. uncusvalidus (50%, followed by C. pinnai (18,3%. This study is the first report of D. majusculus and Henneguya sp. in P. maculatus, while it expands the known geographicdistribution of D. uncusvalidus, D. paravalenciennesi, D. majusculus, Scleroductus sp., Nomimoscolex sp., C. pinnai, Procamallanus sp., Helobdella sp., Henneguya sp. and M. absonus.Sessenta espécimes de Pimelodus maculatus provenientes do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de janeiro, foram examinados para estudo de sua parasitofauna, no período de agosto de 1999 a fevereiro de 2001. Foram coletados espécimes de doze espécies de parasitos metazoáriosalocados em sete grupos taxonômicos - Monogenoidea: Demidospermus uncusvalidus Gutiérrez and Suriano, 1992, D. paravalenciennesi Gutiérrez and Suriano, 1992, D. majusculus Kritsky and Gutiérrez, 1998 e Scleroductus sp.; Digenea: Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz,1928; Eucestoda: Nomimoscolex sp.; Nematoda: Cucullanus pinnai

  2. Narrativas da violência: a dimensão micropolítica das emoções Narratives of violence: the micropolitical dimension of emotions

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    Maria Claudia Coelho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo examinar as emoções presentes em relatos de experiências de vitimização em segmentos das camadas médias do Rio de Janeiro. A proposta é explorar a fecundidade da vertente "contextualista" (Lutz & Abu Lughod 1990 da antropologia das emoções para a compreensão da violência, com foco na dimensão micropolítica dos discursos sobre as emoções ligadas à vitimização. Os dados analisados são um conjunto de oito entrevistas em profundidade realizadas com casais que passaram, marido e mulher, pela experiência de terem suas residências assaltadas enquanto estavam em casa. A análise está focada na recorrência de duas emoções presentes nas descrições que os entrevistados fazem de seus sentimentos em relação aos assaltantes: compaixão e desprezo. A emergência destas duas emoções, cujas relações com a hierarquia já foram apontadas pelas ciências sociais, é então interpretada como uma tentativa de restabelecer hierarquias que teriam sido ameaçadas pelos assaltos.This paper analyzes the emotions described in narratives of victimization among Rio de Janeiro's middle classes. It explores the so-called 'contextualist' trend (Lutz & Abu-Lughod 1990 in the anthropology of emotions as a means to understanding violence, focusing on the micropolitical dimension of emotion discourses on victimization. The data analyzed is derived from eight in-depth interviews with married couples who have been through the experience of having their residences assaulted while both of them were at home. The analysis focuses on the recurrence of two emotions in the interviewees' depictions of their feelings towards their assailants: sympathy and contempt. The emergence of these two emotions, whose relations to hierarchy have already been well documented by social scientists, is interpreted as an attempt to re-establish the hierarchies perceived to have been overturned by the assaults.

  3. Sorodiagnóstico da doença de Chagas: novo reagente para o teste de hemaglutinação indireta (THAI IAL

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    Álvaro Toshiaki Sasaki

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Reagente novo destinado ao teste de hemaglutinação indireta, THAI IAL, foi padronizado, utilizando hemácias de ganso, como suporte inerte, para o diagnóstico de campo da tripanosomíase americana. O objetivo foi o de substituir o reagente liofilizado ou congelado de THAI produzido rotineiramente, empregando hemácias humanas, no Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, Brasil. O reagente padronizado apresentou longa estabilidade em suspensão líquida, e foi avaliado em 137 amostras de soros de pacientes chagásicos e não chagásicos, em THAL IAl. O desempenho diagnóstico deste teste foi semelhante ao de THAI utilizando hemácias humanas e ao de THAl de procedência comercial. A sensibilidade foi 1,00, especificidade 0,98, valores de preditivo positivo 0,96, e negativo 1,00. As diferentes partidas de reagente sucessivamente produzidas demonstraram ser reprodutíveis em método de controle de qualidade. O novo reagente é mais econômico que o anterior, de fácil preparo e aplicável aos estudos soroepidemiológicos.A new reagent was designed to the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT IAL, utilizing goose red blood cells as inert matrix and standardized for the field diagnosis of American trypanosomiasis. The objective was to substitute the tyophilized or frozen reagent of IHAT produced routinely using human erythrocytes in the Adolfo Lutz Institute (São Paulo/Brazil. The standardized reagent presented a long stability in liquid suspension, and was evaluated in 137 serum samples from patient with and without Chagas disease, by IHAT ILA. The diagnostic performance of this lest was similar to the IHAT utilizing human erythrocytes and to that of a commercial IHA Tkit. The sensitivity was 1.00, specificity 0.98, predictive value of positive 0.96 and of negative 1.00. Different batches of reagent successively produced proved to be reproducible in a quality control method. The new reagent is more economic than the former reagent, it can be produced

  4. Enteroparasitoses em escolares do Distrito de Martinésia, Uberlândia, MG: um estudo piloto

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    Carla Borges Ferreira

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia a ocorrência de parasitas intestinais em estudantes do Distrito de Martinésia, município de Uberlândia (MG. Foram examinadas 103 crianças, no período de setembro a novembro de 1995, segundo o método de Lutz ou Hoffman, Pons & Janer. O coeficiente geral de prevalência foi de 22,3% e os índices de infecção mais elevados foram observados no grupo etário 8 a 9 anos (34,8%, nos moradores da vila (30,0% e no sexo feminino (26,9%. Helmintoses e protozooses apresentaram taxas de prevalência similares (10,7% e 12,6%, respectivamente. Giardia lamblia foi o único protozoário parasito verificado e apenas um caso de poliparasitismo foi encontrado. Conclui-se que a prevalência de enteroparasitoses no grupo estudado é menor do que o esperado para uma comunidade rural, o que é, provavelmente, uma conseqüência das boas condições sanitárias presentes naquele distrito.This work evaluates the occurence of intestinal parasites in the students of the Martinesia district, Uberlândia municipality, Minas Gerais State. A total of 103 children were examined, from september to november 1995, according to Lutz or Hoffman, Pons and Janer method. The overall prevalence rate was 22.3% and the highest indices of infection were observed in 8-9 age group (34.8%, in village dwellers (30.0% and in females (26.9%. Helminthosis and protozoosis showed similar prevalence rates (10.7% and 12.6%, respectively. Giardia lamblia was the unique protozoan parasite verified and only one case of poliparasitism was found. We concluded that: the prevalence of enteroparasitosis in the studied group is lower than expectations for a rural community, what is, probably, a consequence of the good sanitary conditions presenting in that district.

  5. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Cross-sectional study of intestinal parasites and Chagas' disease in the Municipality of Novo Airão, State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Marcio N. Boia

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".A cross-sectional study was performed on the residents of one in every ten households in the town of Novo Airão, in the northern meso-region of the State of Amazonas, 250 kilometers from Manaus by riverboat. A family cluster sample of 89 dwellings was studied. A stool sample was requested from each of the inhabitants for examination using the Lutz sedimentation and Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho techniques, and blood was taken by venous puncture for Trypanosoma cruzi ELISA antibody testing and immunofluorescence. From a total of 316 stool samples, 87.6% had one or more parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (35.1%, Entamoeba histolytica (29.1%, Giardia lamblia (17.4%, and other parasites with lower prevalence rates. These results were directly correlated with lack of sanitation and clean water supply. Of the 346 sera examined, 16 (4.6% were reactive to T

  6. Far-field breakup of spiral waves in the plankton ecological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Quan-Xing

    2007-01-01

    For oscillatory conditions, breakup of the spiral waves far away from the spiral core (as so-called "far-field breakup") was reported in a simple activator-inhibitor model by Markus B\\"{a}r, Michal Or-Guil and Lutz Brusch [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{82}, 1160 (1999) and New J. Phys. \\textbf{6}, 5 (2004)], which is in the chemical reaction-diffusion system. In present letter, the scenario in the plankton ecological system is reported. The spatial plankton model is studied numerically by computer and we find that the far-field breakup also exists in the oceanic ecological systems over a range of diffusion coefficients of phytoplankton and zooplankton. The far-field breakup leading to the spatial chaos patterns can be verified in field observation and is useful to understand the population dynamics of oceanic ecological systems. It also indicates that the far-field breakup may be a common phenomenon in the world. Finally, we give some illumination from the ecological meaning.

  7. Lutzomyia longipalpis and the eco-epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis, with particular reference to Brazil: a review

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    Ralph Lainson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An historical review is given of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL, with particular reference to the eco-epidemiology of the disease in Brazil. Following the first records of AVL in this country, in 1934, the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912 was incriminated as the principal vector. It is now generally accepted, however, that there exist a number of cryptic species under the name of Lu. longipalpis s.l. and that variations in the quantity of the vasodilatory peptide maxadilan in the saliva of flies from different populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l., may account for the variable clinical manifestations of AVL seen in different geographic regions. Distribution of AVL has been shown to extend throughout most of South and Central America, with the domestic dog serving as the principal reservoir of infection for man. However, while one hypothesis suggests that the causative parasite is Leishmania infantum, imported from Europe with the Portuguese and Spanish colonists, the demonstration of a high rate of benign, inapparent infection in foxes in Amazonian Brazil raised an opposing suggestion that the parasite is indigenous to the Americas. Recent reports of similar infections in native marsupials, and possibly rodents, tend to support this view, particularly as Lu. longipalpis is primordially a silvatic sandfly. Although effective control measures in foci of the disease will diminish the number of canine and human infections, the presence of such an enzootic in a variety of native animals will render the total eradication of AVL unlikely.

  8. The PL calibration for Milky Way Cepheids and its implications for the distance scale

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, David G

    2009-01-01

    The rationale behind recent calibrations of the Cepheid PL relation using the Wesenheit formulation is reviewed and reanalyzed, and it is shown that recent conclusions regarding a possible change in slope of the PL relation for short-period and long-period Cepheids are tied to a pathological distribution of HST calibrators within the instability strip. A recalibration of the period-luminosity relation is obtained using Galactic Cepheids in open clusters and groups, the resulting relationship, described by log L/L_sun = 2.415(+-0.035) + 1.148(+-0.044)log P, exhibiting only the moderate scatter expected from color spread within the instability strip. The relationship is confirmed by Cepheids with HST parallaxes, although without the need for Lutz-Kelker corrections, and in general by Cepheids with revised Hipparcos parallaxes, albeit with concerns about the cited precisions of the latter. A Wesenheit formulation of Wv = -2.259(+-0.083) - 4.185(+-0.103)log P for Galactic Cepheids is tested successfully using Cep...

  9. Wing geometry as a tool for studying the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae complex

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    J De la Riva

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Toro Toro (T and Yungas (Y have been described as genetically well differentiated populations of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 complex in Bolivia. Here we use geometric morphometrics to compare samples from these populations and new populations (Bolivia and Nicaragua, representing distant geographical origins, qualitative morphological variation ("one-spot" or "two-spots" phenotypes, ecologically distinct traits (peridomestic and silvatic populations, and possibly different epidemiological roles (transmitting or nor transmitting Leishmania chagasi. The Nicaragua (N (Somotillo sample was "one-spot" phenotype and a possible peridomestic vector. The Bolivian sample of the Y was also "one-spot" phenotype and a demonstrated peridomestic vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL. The three remaining samples were silvatic, "two-spots" phenotypes. Two of them (Uyuni and T were collected in the highlands of Bolivian where VL never has been reported. The last one (Robore, R came from the lowlands of Bolivia, where human cases of VL are sporadically reported. The decomposition of metric variation into size and shape by geometric morphometric techniques suggests the existence of two groups (N/Y/R, and U/T. Several arguments indicate that such subdivision of Lu. longipalpis could correspond to different evolutionary units.

  10. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: current treatment options and critical appraisal of nintedanib

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    Bonella F

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Bonella,1 Susanne Stowasser,2 Lutz Wollin3 1Interstitial and Rare Lung Disease Unit, Ruhrlandklinik, University Hospital, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, 2Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Ingelheim am Rhein, 3Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach an der Riss, Germany Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is the most common type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and is characterized by a poor prognosis, with an estimated 5-year survival of approximately 20%. Progressive and irreversible lung functional impairment leads to chronic respiratory insufficiency with a severely impaired quality of life. In the last 2 decades, novel treatments for IPF have been developed as a consequence of an increasing understanding of disease pathogenesis and pathobiology. In IPF, injured dysfunctional alveolar epithelial cells promote fibroblast recruitment and proliferation, resulting in scarring of the lung tissue. Recently, pirfenidone and nintedanib have been approved for the treatment of IPF, having shown efficacy to slow functional decline and disease progression. This article focuses on the pharmacologic characteristics and clinical evidence supporting the use of nintedanib, a potent small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as therapy for IPF. After introducing the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics, an overview of the safety and efficacy results from the most recent clinical trials of nintedanib in IPF is presented. Keywords: tyrosine kinase, disease progression, treatment outcome, usual interstitial pneumonia, therapeutics

  11. High-precision timing of 42 millisecond pulsars with the European Pulsar Timing Array

    CERN Document Server

    Desvignes, G; Lentati, L; Verbiest, J P W; Champion, D J; Stappers, B W; Janssen, G H; Lazarus, P; Osłowski, S; Babak, S; Bassa, C G; Brem, P; Burgay, M; Cognard, I; Gair, J R; Graikou, E; Guillemot, L; Hessels, J W T; Jessner, A; Jordan, C; Karuppusamy, R; Kramer, M; Lassus, A; Lazaridis, K; Lee, K J; Liu, K; Lyne, A G; McKee, J; Mingarelli, C M F; Perrodin, D; Petiteau, A; Possenti, A; Purver, M B; Rosado, P A; Sanidas, S; Sesana, A; Shaifullah, G; Smits, R; Taylor, S R; Theureau, G; Tiburzi, C; van Haasteren, R; Vecchio, A

    2016-01-01

    We report on the high-precision timing of 42 radio millisecond pulsars (MSPs) observed by the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA). This EPTA Data Release 1.0 extends up to mid-2014 and baselines range from 7-18 years. It forms the basis for the stochastic gravitational-wave background, anisotropic background, and continuous-wave limits recently presented by the EPTA elsewhere. The Bayesian timing analysis performed with TempoNest yields the detection of several new parameters: seven parallaxes, nine proper motions and, in the case of six binary pulsars, an apparent change of the semi-major axis. We find the NE2001 Galactic electron density model to be a better match to our parallax distances (after correction from the Lutz-Kelker bias) than the M2 and M3 models by Schnitzeler (2012). However, we measure an average uncertainty of 80\\% (fractional) for NE2001, three times larger than what is typically assumed in the literature. We revisit the transverse velocity distribution for a set of 19 isolated and 57 bina...

  12. Is Education a Key to Reducing Vulnerability to Natural Disasters and hence Unavoidable Climate Change?

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    Raya Muttarak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The collection of articles in this Special Feature is part of a larger project on "Forecasting Societies' Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change" (an Advanced Grant of the European Research Council to Wolfgang Lutz. In investigating how global change will affect population vulnerability to climate variability and extremes, the project aims to help develop strategies that enable societies to better cope with the consequences of climate change. In doing so, the basic hypothesis being tested is that societies can develop the most effective long-term defense against the dangers of climate change by strengthening human capacity, primarily through education. Education can directly influence risk perception, skills and knowledge and indirectly reduce poverty, improve health and promote access to information and resources. Hence, when facing natural hazards or climate risks, educated individuals, households and societies are assumed to be more empowered and more adaptive in their response to, preparation for, and recovery from disasters. Indeed the findings from eleven original empirical studies set in diverse geographic, socioeconomic, cultural and hazard contexts provide consistent and robust evidence on the positive impact of formal education on vulnerability reduction. Highly educated individuals and societies are reported to have better preparedness and response to the disasters, suffered lower negative impacts, and are able to recover faster. This suggests that public investment in empowering people and enhancing human capacity through education can have a positive externality in reducing vulnerability and strengthening adaptive capacity amidst the challenges of a changing climate.

  13. CARACTERIZAÇÃO QUÍMICA DO ÓLEO EXTRAÍDO DA Pachira aquatica Aubl

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    CAMARGO, Mairo Fabio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pachira aquática Aubl is an originary tree of the Amazon region and comes being widely used as ornamentin the cities. The objective of this work was centered in the characterization of the main chemical properties ofthe oil and in the determination of the crude protein level of chestnuts produced for such species. The methodsused in the analyses of saponificação index, acidity, ester and peroxide had followed the Analytical Normsestablished by the Institute Adolph Lutz. The crude protein levels was determined through the Kjeldhal halfmicronmethod. The result suggests that the chestnuts of the aquatic Pachira Aubl. may be used as analternative in the feeding of the population a that presents 12.45% of protein, percentage of tolerable acidity(4,32% ác oléico, index of saponificação and ester inside of the standards recommended for literature (103,86mgKOH g-1 e (96,46 mgKOH g-1, respectively, and low peroxide index (0,97 mEq kg-1

  14. Larval microhabitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Morrison, A C

    1997-11-01

    An intensive search for the larval habitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was conducted from November 1992 to October 1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Emergence traps constructed from polyvinyl chloride pipes were used to sample a variety of soil microhabitats that included edge areas of covered pigpens, cattle corrals, the base of trees, and leaf litter at sites within 40 m of a house, rocks in fields located between 50 and 500 m from houses, and sites within a patch of secondary forest (rocks, base of palm trees, and leaf litter). The teneral status of the sand flies captured in the emergence traps was confirmed by laboratory studies that determined the rate of terminalia rotation in male L. longipalpis and the rate of cuticular growth layer formation of the thoracic phragma in both sexes of this species. A total of 58 teneral sand flies was captured during the study period (49 wk). Fifteen specimens were L. longipalpis; of these 11 (5 sand flies per square meter) were captured near pigpens, 3 (1.4 sand flies per square meter) were captured near rock resting sites, and 1 (1.6 sand flies per square meter) was collected at the base of a tree. The remainder of the sand flies were either L. trinidadensis (Newstead) or L. cayennensis (Flock & Abonnenc). Our results indicate that L. longipalpis larvae were dispersed widely in sites near houses, rather than concentrated in a few optimal microhabitats.

  15. Evolution of bacterial meningitis diagnosis in Sao Paulo State-Brazil and future challenges

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    Maristela Marques Salgado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis (BM is a severe disease and still represents a serious public health problem with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The most common cases of BM around the world, mainly in Brazil, have been caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Bacterial culture is the gold-standard technique for BM confirmation, but approximately 50% of suspected cases are not culture-confirmed, due to problems related to improper transportation and seeding or previous antibiotic treatment. Immunological methods present low sensitivity and have possibility of cross-reactions. Real time PCR (qPCR is a molecular technique and has been successful used for BM diagnosis at Instituto Adolfo Lutz in São Paulo State, Brazil, since 2007. The incorporation of qPCR in the Public Health surveillance routine in our state resulted in diminishing 50% of undetermined BM cases. Our efforts are focused on qPCR implementation in the BM diagnostic routine throughout Brazil.

  16. From "forest malaria" to "bromeliad malaria": a case-study of scientific controversy and malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, P

    1994-08-01

    The article analyses the evolution of knowledge and rationale of control of a special case of malaria transmission based on Bromelia-Kerteszia complex. Since bromeliaceae function as a 'host of the carrier' and were previously associated with natural forests, the elucidation of bromeliad malaria historically elicited controversies concerning the imputation of Kertesziae as transmitters as well as over control strategies directed to bromelia eradication (manual removal, herbicides and deforestation), use of insecticides and chemoprophylaxis. Established authority, disciplinary traditions, conceptual premises and contemporary criteria for validating knowledge in the field partly explain the long time gap since Adolpho Lutz announced at the beginning of the century the existence of a new mosquito and breeding site as responsible for a 'forest malaria' epidemic occurring at a high altitude. The article brings attention to how economic, political and institutional determinants played an important role in redefining studies that led both in Trinidad and Brazil to the recognition of the importance of kerteszia transmission, including urban areas, and establishing new approaches to its study, most relevant of all the concurrence of broad ecological research. The article then describes the Brazilian campaign strategies which showed significant short-term results but had to wait four decades to achieve the goal of eradication due to the peculiar characteristics of this pathogenic complex. Finally, it brings attention to the importance of encompassing social values and discourses, in this case, environmental preservation, to understanding historical trends of malaria control programs.

  17. Variabilidad genética en Lutzomyia ( verrucarum evansi (Núñez-Tovar, 1924, vector de Leishmaniosis visceral americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Porter

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Lutzomyia evansi (Núñez-Tovar, 1924, Lutzomyia longipalpis
    (Lutz y Neiva, 1912 y Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938, son los
    vectores de Leishmania infantum Nicolle, 1908, en el neotrópico. Lu. evansi ha sido incriminada como vector en zonas rurales de la Costa Caribe Colombiana, y algunas zonas de Venezuela y Nicaragua. A pesar de que esta especie reviste gran importancia en Salud Pública, no existen a la fecha estudios sobre su variabilidad genética, desconociéndose si existe o no flujo genético entre las poblaciones rurales y urbanas, endémicas y no endémicas de leishmaniosis visceral (LV. Con base en los genes mitocondriales Citocromo b, RNA de transferencia para Serina, subunidades uno y cuatro de la NADH deshidrogenasa, se estudió la variabilidad genética entre las distintas poblaciones de Lu. evansi en la Costa Caribe, incluyendo la población
    geográficamente aislada de Isla Fuerte, y una población de Venezuela.

     

  18. Privatiserung von Geschichte. Probleme einer differenzierten Aufarbeitung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe Kundrus

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Ausgangspunkt der Untersuchung von Vera Neumann ist die These, daß im Krieg Erlebtes und Erlittenes in den Wiederaufbau- und Wirtschaftswunderjahren Westdeutschlands einem Thematisierungstabu unterlegen sei. Anhand von 50 Interviews, die in den 80er Jahren im Rahmen des von Lutz Niethammer geleiteten Projekts „Lebensgeschichte und Sozialgeschichte im Ruhrgebiet 1930–1960“ (LUSIR entstanden sind und die sie jetzt anhand der Tonbandprotokolle und Abschriften ein zweites Mal auswertet, möchte die Historikerin diese Verschüttungen aufspüren. Im Anschluß an Niethammers These der „Privatisierung von Geschichte“ will sie zeigen, daß seelische und körperliche Kriegsfolgen wie Deprivations- und Überlastungsgefühle, der Verlust von Angehörigen und Kriegsbeschädigungen „privatisiert“, d.h. an die Familien übertragen wurden. Dort seien dann in erster Linie die weiblichen Familienmitglieder mit der Versorgungs- und Pflegearbeit konfrontiert worden. An vier Fallbeispiele schließt sich eine detaillierte Auswertung des gesamten Interviewmaterials an. Diesen Teilen folgt ein Abschnitt zur staatlichen Kriegsopferversorgung in der frühen Bundesrepublik.

  19. Homogeneity study of the internal quality control sera for immunodiagnosis of HIV/AIDS

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    Márcia Jorge Castejon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study reports the data from the first homogeneity assessment of samples composing the serum panels produced at the Immunology Center of Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo. These samples have been distributed to the public laboratories and those partaking in the Brazilian Unified Health System, and to the participants in the Internal Quality Control Program for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibody (Ab testing. Objective: To assess the homogeneity of serum samples in panels from different lots for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS immunodiagnosis by using the statistical method to ensure quality of the reference material. Method: Sera homogeneity was evaluated by means of enzyme-linked immunoassay/enzyme immunoassay (ELISA/EIA for detection of HIV Ab, and the one-way analysis of variance was employed for analyzing the data. No statistically significant differences were found among the several serum vials. Conclusion: The sera dispensed in the vials were homogeneous in the respective lots.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites of swine raised in different management systems in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alynne S. Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: From 2012 to 2013 were surveyed gastrointestinal parasites from pig farms located in different municpaliyies in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Fecal samples from 790 pigs were collected from the rectum on 88 family farms and 702 farms with industrial production. The samples were subjected to Faust et al., Sheather, Ritchie, Lutz and direct examination faecal techniques. The estimated parasite prevalence was 93.1% in family farms and 59.1% in industrial farms. Balantidium coli, coccidia and Entamoeba sp. were the parasites with the highest frequencies, and the male and female reproductive categories and fatteners pigs the most infected (p<0.05. Trophozoites of B. coli were most evident in stool samples from semi-solid followed by solid and diarrheal consistencies. Strongyles eggs and Trichuris suis have been detected exclusively in family farms. Ascaris suum eggs and Strongyloides ransomi showed low frequency. The high degree of parasitism, especially protozoa, indicates the need to reassess the management of pigs in both types of production.

  2. Metagenomic and satellite analyses of red snow in the Russian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisakawa, Nao; Quistad, Steven D; Hester, Eric R; Martynova, Daria; Maughan, Heather; Sala, Enric; Gavrilo, Maria V; Rohwer, Forest

    2015-01-01

    Cryophilic algae thrive in liquid water within snow and ice in alpine and polar regions worldwide. Blooms of these algae lower albedo (reflection of sunlight), thereby altering melting patterns (Kohshima, Seko & Yoshimura, 1993; Lutz et al., 2014; Thomas & Duval, 1995). Here metagenomic DNA analysis and satellite imaging were used to investigate red snow in Franz Josef Land in the Russian Arctic. Franz Josef Land red snow metagenomes confirmed that the communities are composed of the autotroph Chlamydomonas nivalis that is supporting a complex viral and heterotrophic bacterial community. Comparisons with white snow communities from other sites suggest that white snow and ice are initially colonized by fungal-dominated communities and then succeeded by the more complex C. nivalis-heterotroph red snow. Satellite image analysis showed that red snow covers up to 80% of the surface of snow and ice fields in Franz Josef Land and globally. Together these results show that C. nivalis supports a local food web that is on the rise as temperatures warm, with potential widespread impacts on alpine and polar environments worldwide. PMID:26713242

  3. Parallax Results From URAT Epoch Data

    CERN Document Server

    Finch, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    We present 1103 trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions from the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) observations taken at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS) over a 3 year period from April 2012 to June 2015 covering the entire sky north of about minus 10 deg declination. We selected 2 samples previously suspected nearby stars from known photometric distances and stars showing a large, significant parallax signature in URAT epoch data without any prior selection criteria. All systems presented in this paper have an observed parallax greater than equal to 40 mas with no previous published trigonometric parallax. The formal errors on these weighted parallax solutions are mostly between 4 and 10 mas. This sample gives a significant (order 50%) increase to the number of known systems having a trigonometric parallax to be within 25 pc of the Sun (without applying Lutz Kelker bias corrections). A few of these are found to be within 10 pc. Many of these new nea...

  4. Toward an appreciation of hydrothennal-vent animals: Their environment, physiological ecology, and tissue stable isotope values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles R.

    In the last few years several comprehensive reviews of the biology of hydrothermal vent organisms and communities have been published. In this contribution I will not attempt to exhaustively review the literature, list the fauna, or the known sites, but rather present a conceptual basis for understanding the relation between the dominant metazoan "primary producers" in hydrothermal vent communities and their environment. In addition to the other chapters in this volume, interested readers are encouraged to consult the following reviews for a more detailed discussion of particular aspects of vent biology. The community ecology of hydrothermal vents is reviewed by Grassle [1986], Tunnicliffe [1991], and Lutz and Kennish [1993]. Tunnicliffe [1991] contains the most complete species lists and general site descriptions currently available. Fisher [1990] reviews the literature on chemoautotrophic symbioses and presents species lists of the hosts to chemoautotrophic symbionts known at that time. Those lists are updated in Nelson and Fisher [1995] and the physiology of the associations reviewed from a distinctly bacterial (symbiont) viewpoint. The 1992 review by Childress and Fisher takes a detailed look at the physiology of vent fauna, with a full coverage of subjects such as rate processes, blood function, and chemical composition, which are not covered in depth in the other reviews, but are of special relevance to this contribution. Uses (and abuses) of stable isotopes are discussed in several of the above reviews, and are also reviewed specifically by Conway et al. [1994], Fiala-Médioni et al. [1993], and Kennicutt et al. [1992].

  5. Metagenomic and satellite analyses of red snow in the Russian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisakawa, Nao; Quistad, Steven D; Hester, Eric R; Martynova, Daria; Maughan, Heather; Sala, Enric; Gavrilo, Maria V; Rohwer, Forest

    2015-01-01

    Cryophilic algae thrive in liquid water within snow and ice in alpine and polar regions worldwide. Blooms of these algae lower albedo (reflection of sunlight), thereby altering melting patterns (Kohshima, Seko & Yoshimura, 1993; Lutz et al., 2014; Thomas & Duval, 1995). Here metagenomic DNA analysis and satellite imaging were used to investigate red snow in Franz Josef Land in the Russian Arctic. Franz Josef Land red snow metagenomes confirmed that the communities are composed of the autotroph Chlamydomonas nivalis that is supporting a complex viral and heterotrophic bacterial community. Comparisons with white snow communities from other sites suggest that white snow and ice are initially colonized by fungal-dominated communities and then succeeded by the more complex C. nivalis-heterotroph red snow. Satellite image analysis showed that red snow covers up to 80% of the surface of snow and ice fields in Franz Josef Land and globally. Together these results show that C. nivalis supports a local food web that is on the rise as temperatures warm, with potential widespread impacts on alpine and polar environments worldwide.

  6. Notas sôbre Tabânidas brasileiros: III. Fidena adnaticornis n. sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. de Oliveira Castro

    1945-10-01

    Full Text Available Fidena adnaticornis n. sp. is described from female specimens. It closely resembles Fidena besckii (WIED. , 1828 and indeed more closely Fidena soledadei (LUTZ, 1911. It can be distinguished from both by the antenna which are so close together that the distance between their basis is less that the width of the first antennal segment; also by the prevalence of yellow hairs on the coxae. In F. soledadei and chiefly in F. besckii the antennae an evidently more separated; they have also few yellow hairs limited to the base extremity of the coxae with prevalence of brown or black hairs. In F. besck the prealar hairs are predominantly yellow ones and there exist yellow hair around the edge of the scutellum, which does not occours in F. adnaticorn and in F. soledadei. In the abdomen the following areas, covered by whit hairs are more extensive in F. besckii: the mid row of white patches on the sternites is more conspicuous and involves the fifth segment; on the sternites instead of stripes the hairs form bands somewhat broader at the middle the respective segment, they may even form triangles with the base as with as the whole segment. Both cotypes of F. soledadei have the hairs damages but, at least, in the 1+2 sternites the areas covered by the white hairs see to be larger than in F. adnaticornis; they have also a higher frons: index : = 2.9.

  7. Updated Checklist of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Stanislas; Dejean, Alain; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain

    2015-09-01

    The incredible mosquito species diversity in the Neotropics can provoke major confusion during vector control programs when precise identification is needed. This is especially true in French Guiana where studies on mosquito diversity practically ceased 35 yr ago. In order to fill this gap, we propose here an updated and comprehensive checklist of the mosquitoes of French Guiana, reflecting the latest changes in classification and geographical distribution and the recognition of current or erroneous synonymies. This work was undertaken in order to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes in a broad range of disciplines such as ecology, biogeography, and medical entomology. Thirty-two valid species cited in older lists have been removed, and 24 species have been added including 12 species (comprising two new genera and three new subgenera) reported from French Guiana for the first time. New records are from collections conducted on various phytotelmata in French Guiana and include the following species: Onirion sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (2000), Sabethes (Peytonulus) hadrognathus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) paradoxus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) soperi Lane and Cerqueira, Sabethes (Sabethinus) idiogenes Harbach, Sabethes (Sabethes) quasicyaneus Peryassú, Runchomyia (Ctenogoeldia) magna (Theobald), Wyeomyia (Caenomyiella) sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (1990), Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) ypsipola Dyar, Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia) lamellata (Bonne-Wepster and Bonne), Wyeomyia (Miamyia) oblita (Lutz), and Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab). At this time, the mosquitoes of French Guiana are represented by 235 species distributed across 22 genera, nine tribes, and two subfamilies.

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex differentiation using gyrB-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Chimara

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC members are causative agents of human and animal tuberculosis. Differentiation of MTBC members is required for appropriate treatment of individual patients and for epidemiological purposes. Strains from six MTBC species - M. tuberculosis, M. bovis subsp. bovis, M. bovis BCG, M. africanum, M. pinnipedii, and "M. canetti" - were studied using gyrB-restriction fragment length polymorphism (gyrB-RFLP analysis. A table was elaborated, based on observed restriction patterns and published gyrB sequences. To evaluate applicability of gyrB-RFLP at Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Mycobacterial Reference Laboratory, 311 MTBC clinical isolates, previously identified using traditional methods as M. tuberculosis (306, M. bovis (3, and M. bovis BCG (2, were analyzed by gyrB-RFLP. All isolates were correctly identified by the molecular method, but no distinction between M. bovis and M. bovis BCG was obtained. Differentiation of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis is of utmost importance, because they require different treatment schedules. In conclusion, gyrB-RFLP is accurate and easy-to-perform, with potential to reduce time needed for conventional differentiation methods. However, application for epidemiological studies remains limited, because it cannot differentiate M. tuberculosis from M. africanum subtype II, and "M. canetti", M. africanum subtype I from M. pinnipedii, and. M. bovis from M. bovis BCG.

  9. What can the monetary incentive delay task tell us about the neural processing of reward and punishment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kai Lutz,1–3 Mario Widmer1,2,41Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, 2Cereneo, Center for Neurology and Rehabilitation, Vitznau, 3Division of Neuropsychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Zürich, Zürich, 4Neural Control of Movement Lab, ETH Zürich, Zürich, SwitzerlandAbstract: Since its introduction in 2000, the monetary incentive delay (MID task has been used extensively to investigate changes in neural activity in response to the processing of reward and punishment in healthy, but also in clinical populations. Typically, the MID task requires an individual to react to a target stimulus presented after an incentive cue to win or to avoid losing the indicated reward. In doing so, this paradigm allows the detailed examination of different stages of reward processing like reward prediction, anticipation, outcome processing, and consumption as well as the processing of tasks under different reward conditions. This review gives an overview of different utilizations of the MID task by outlining the neuronal processes involved in distinct aspects of human reward processing, such as anticipation versus consumption, reward versus punishment, and, with a special focus, reward-based learning processes. Furthermore, literature on specific influences on reward processing like behavioral, clinical and developmental influences, is reviewed, describing current findings and possible future directions.Keywords: reward, punishment, dopamine, reward system

  10. Generation and Identification of GM-CSF Derived Alveolar-like Macrophages and Dendritic Cells From Mouse Bone Marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yifei; Arif, Arif A; Poon, Grace F T; Hardman, Blair; Dosanjh, Manisha; Johnson, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are innate immune cells found in tissues and lymphoid organs that play a key role in the defense against pathogens. However, they are difficult to isolate in sufficient numbers to study them in detail, therefore, in vitro models have been developed. In vitro cultures of bone marrow-derived macrophages and dendritic cells are well-established and valuable methods for immunological studies. Here, a method for culturing and identifying both DCs and macrophages from a single culture of primary mouse bone marrow cells using the cytokine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is described. This protocol is based on the established procedure first developed by Lutz et al. in 1999 for bone marrow-derived DCs. The culture is heterogeneous, and MHCII and fluoresceinated hyaluronan (FL-HA) are used to distinguish macrophages from immature and mature DCs. These GM-CSF derived macrophages provide a convenient source of in vitro derived macrophages that closely resemble alveolar macrophages in both phenotype and function. PMID:27404290

  11. Características físico-químicas dos méis do município de São Fidélis-RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZEREDO Maria Aparecida Alves

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com a tonalidade as amostras de mel foram divididas em grupos, armazenadas em diferentes condições e analisadas segundo os métodos adotados pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Laboratório Nacional de Referência Animal e Association of Official Analytical Chemists. As amostras foram acondicionadas em recipientes de vidro e de polipropileno e armazenadas à temperatura ambiente. Um grupo de amostras foi armazenada em luminosidade ambiente enquanto o outro grupo ao abrigo da luz. As determinações de umidade, pH, acidez, cor, açúcares redutores e não-redutores, hidroximetilfurfural e índices de Lugol, Lund, Fiehe e diastase foram efetuadas por um período de um ano de armazenamento. Os resultados obtidos indicam que as amostras analisadas mantiveram suas características dentre os padrões aceitáveis e que os produtores devem ser orientados para o uso de técnicas de acondicionamento e armazenamento dos méis, para garantir a qualidade dos seus produtos.

  12. End of the nuclear energy era? From Fukushima to the energy policy turnaround; Ende des Atomzeitalters? Von Fukushima in die Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepenbrink, Johannes (comp.)

    2012-07-01

    Due to a violent earthquake and the resulting tsunami, a core melt down resulted at the nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi in Japan. Thus, at 30th June, 2011, the Federal Government decided to complete the utilization of the nuclear power in Germany. Is this the end of the atomic age? Under this aspect, the booklet under consideration consists of the following nine contributions: (1) Why is the ''energy policy turnaround'' a social question? (Harald Welzer); (2) Tsunami in the living room: Catastrophes facilitated by the media (Joerg R. Bergmann); (3) Learning from the catastrophe (Manfred Buerger); (4) Perspectives of the nuclear power in Europe and globally (Lutz Mez); (5) Outsider or leader? The 'model Germany' and the European energy policy (Severin Fischer); (6) 'Energy policy turnaround': Quo vadis? (Hardo Bruhns); (7) Energy policy turnarounds in Germany: Motifs and impacts for the European electricity market (Hans-Jochen Luhmann); (8) A short story of the German anti-nuclear movement (Joachim Radkau); (9) Popularity of the apocalypse: Reflections on the cultural history of the fear against nuclear accidents since 1945 (Philipp Gassert).

  13. Atividade de Culicidae em remanescente florestal na região urbana de Curitiba (Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa Andréia Aparecida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation islands inside urban area can propitiate the formation of: a adults refuge to many mosquitoes species, b diversity of hosters, c allows the proliferation of immature stages through naturals and artificial breeding, these ones were done by the interaction between antropic activity developed in these spaces or around areas. Considering the possibilities of contacts between the vector and the human population, the aim of this work was to verify the Culicidae species that can use man as blood source in the restricted areas of Botanical Garden, Curitiba. The capture of adults using the method of human bait at soil level, inside the forest, monthly during the period of October 13th 1998 to September 22nd 1999, from 5:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. 312 Culicidae specimens were captured, and 15 species were found. The predomiant species belong to Culex (Culex coronator Dyar & Knab, 1906 group. Others species found with potential epidemiological importance were: Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon, 1924, Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus fluviatilis (Lutz, 1904 e Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus strodei Root, 1926.

  14. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to traps in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, D P; Bandi, K K; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G; Hamilton, J G C

    2009-05-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world's burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly because vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results show the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world's most important neglected diseases, AVL. We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (+/-)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. By formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, showing the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control. PMID:19496409

  15. Degree-Regular Triangulations of Torus and Klein Bottle-Erratum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basudeb Datta; Ashish Kumar Upadhyay

    2005-08-01

    A triangulation of a connected closed surface is called weakly regular if the action of its automorphism group on its vertices is transitive. A triangulation of a connected closed surface is called degree-regular if each of its vertices have the same degree. Clearly, a weakly regular triangulation is degree-regular. In [8], Lutz has classified all the weakly regular triangulations on at most 15 vertices. In [5], Datta and Nilakantan have classified all the degree-regular triangulations of closed surfaces on at most 11 vertices. In this article, we have proved that any degree-regular triangulation of the torus is weakly regular. We have shown that there exists an -vertex degree-regular triangulation of the Klein bottle if and only if is a composite number ≥ 9. We have constructed two distinct -vertex weakly regular triangulations of the torus for each ≥ 12 and a (4+2)-vertex weakly regular triangulation of the Klein bottle for each ≥ 2. For 12 ≤ ≤ 15, we have classified all the -vertex degree-regular triangulations of the torus and the Klein bottle. There are exactly 19 such triangulations, 12 of which are triangulations of the torus and remaining 7 are triangulations of the Klein bottle. Among the last 7, only one is weakly regular.

  16. Larvas de simulídeos (Diptera, Simuliidae do centro oeste, sudeste e sul do Brasil, parasitadas por microsporídeos (Protozoa e mermitídeos (Nematoda Simulids larvae (Diptera, Simuliidae from middle western, southeastern and southern Brazil, with microsporids (Protozoa and mermithids (Nematoda parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ambrós Ginarte

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of simulid larval parasites was carried out in different localities of the states of Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from February 1996 to May 1998. Prevalences for the microsporidian Polydispyrenia simulii Lutz & Splendore, 1908 were found in Morungaba and Leme, São Paulo, ranging from around 0.7 to 66.7%, depending mainly on the host simulid species. Microsporidiosis was registered in localities of São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. Parasitism by Isomermis sp. (Nematoda, Mermithidae was found in Simulium larvae from Serra do Japi, ranging from 0.8 to 45.8%, depending on the simulid species and the larval microhabitat in the stream, whether a cemented ramp in a lake outlet or the natural stream bed. Parasitism by mermithids was also found in ten localities. Mycoses caused by Coelomycidium sp. were for the first time recorded for larvae of Simulium (Chirostilbia pertinax Kollar, 1832.

  17. Infrared line ratios revealing starburst conditions in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Viegas, S M M; Contini, T; Viegas, Sueli M.; Contini, Marcella; Contini, Thierry

    1999-01-01

    The physical conditions in typical starburst galaxies are investigated through critical infrared (IR) line ratios, as previously suggested by Lutz et al. (1998, A&A, 333, L75). The calculations by a composite model which consistently accounts for the coupled effect of shock and photoionization by hot stars definitely fit the observed line ratios of single objects and explain the observed relation between [OIV]/([NeII]+0.44[NeIII]) and [NeIII]/[NeII]. The shock velocity and the gas density are the critical parameters. Most of the shocks are produced in low density-velocity (n_0 = 100 cm-3 and V_s = 50 - 100 km/s) clouds which represent the bulk of the ionized gas in starburst galaxies. However, though they are by many orders less numerous, high-velocity (= 400 - 600 km/s) shocks in dense (= 500 - 800 cm-3) clouds are necessary to reproduce the critical IR line ratios observed in the low-excitation Starburst Nucleus Galaxies (SBNGs: M82, M83, NGC 253, NGC 3256, NGC 3690, and NGC 4945). These model predictio...

  18. Bias Properties of Extragalactic Distance Indicators.XI. Methods to Correct for Observational Selection Bias for RR Lyrae Absolute Magnitudes from Trigonometric Parallaxes Expected from the FAME Astrometric Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Sandage, A; Sandage, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Please note that this abstract has been shortened from that found in the paper. A brief history is given of the development of the correction for observation selection bias inherent in the calibration of absolute magnitudes using trigonometric parallaxes. As a tutorial to gain an intuitive understanding of several complicated trigonometric bias problems, we study a toy bias model of a parallax catalog which incorporates assumed parallax measuring errors of various severities. The two effects of bias errors on the derived absolute magnitudes are (1) the Lutz-Kelker correction itself that depends on the fractional parallax error and the spatial distribution, and (2) a Malmquist-like `incompleteness' correction of opposite sign due to various apparent magnitude cut-offs as they are progressively imposed on the catalog. The simulations involve 3 million stars spread with varying density distributions in a volume bounded by a radius of 50,000 pc. A fixed absolute magnitude of M_V = +0.6 is used to imitate RR Lyrae...

  19. Sorodiagnóstico da doença de Chagas: novo reagente para o teste de hemaglutinação indireta (THAI IAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Toshiaki Sasaki

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Reagente novo destinado ao teste de hemaglutinação indireta, THAI IAL, foi padronizado, utilizando hemácias de ganso, como suporte inerte, para o diagnóstico de campo da tripanosomíase americana. O objetivo foi o de substituir o reagente liofilizado ou congelado de THAI produzido rotineiramente, empregando hemácias humanas, no Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, Brasil. O reagente padronizado apresentou longa estabilidade em suspensão líquida, e foi avaliado em 137 amostras de soros de pacientes chagásicos e não chagásicos, em THAL IAl. O desempenho diagnóstico deste teste foi semelhante ao de THAI utilizando hemácias humanas e ao de THAl de procedência comercial. A sensibilidade foi 1,00, especificidade 0,98, valores de preditivo positivo 0,96, e negativo 1,00. As diferentes partidas de reagente sucessivamente produzidas demonstraram ser reprodutíveis em método de controle de qualidade. O novo reagente é mais econômico que o anterior, de fácil preparo e aplicável aos estudos soroepidemiológicos.

  20. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alexander

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested, aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926, Lu. migonei (França 1920, Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959 and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho 1939 were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912, was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations.

  1. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, David S; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G; Black, William C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose-response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management.

  2. Study of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected in a Leishmania-endemic area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Gontijo, Célia M F; Falcão, Alda L; Andrade Filho, José D

    2010-11-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are distributed across nearly all faunal regions of the world, represented by over 800 species, of which many are important vectors of human pathogens. Brazil is currently faced with the expansion and urbanization of leishmaniases, with an increase in the numbers of human cases and seropositive dogs in various medium-sized to large cities. The objective of the current study was to survey the phlebotomine sand fly species in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), i.e., the municipal district of Santa Luzia, lying within the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Sand flies were collected monthly in 2004-2005 using modified Falcão light traps hung in the peridomiciles of houses and surrounding wooded areas in the district of Baronesa. A total of 1,552 sand flies belonging to seven species was collected, and an interesting pattern of the distribution of the most abundant species relative to the sampling locality was revealed. In the wooded areas Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) predominated, whereas in the urban area Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was the most abundant species. These results indicate two possible epidemiological patterns of Leishmania transmission in Santa Luzia: one for American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated predominantly with wooded areas, and another for AVL, with transmission principally occurring around human habitations.

  3. Feeding preferences of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector, for Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Silva, Virgínia P; Martins, Daniella R A; De Queiroz, Paula Vivianne Souza; Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo G; Freire, Caio C M; Queiroz, José W; Dupnik, Kathryn M; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Ximenes, Maria De Fátima F M

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, is spread mostly by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). We trapped sand flies in endemic neighborhoods near Natal, Brazil, where cases of human and dog VL were documented. Amplification of species-specific cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes by polymerase chain reaction revealed that sand flies from rural and periurban areas harbored blood from different sources. The most common source ofbloodmeal was human, but blood from dog, chicken, and armadillo was also present. We tested the preference for a source of bloodmeal experimentally by feeding L. longipalpis F1 with blood from different animals. There were significant differences between the proportion of flies engorged and number of eggs laid among flies fed on different sources, varying from 8.4 to 19 (P sand fly oviposition, but human blood also supported sand fly oviposition well. No sand flies fed on cats, and sand flies feeding on the opossum Monodelphis domestica Wagner produced no eggs. These data support the hypothesis that L. longipalpis is an eclectic feeder, and humans are an important source of blood for this sand fly species in periurban areas of Brazil.

  4. Enteroparasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues; Santos, Dircelina Silva; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts located in the northern, southern, eastern and western sectors of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, using the Baermann methods as modified by Moraes and Lutz. Out of 160 individuals studied, 93 (58.1% CI: 50.4-65.7) were infected, distributed among the sectors as follows: northern (72.5%), southern (47.5%), eastern (57.5%) and western (55%). The positive findings according to age groups were: 0-5 years (26.9%), 5-10 years (21.2%) and 10-15 years (10%). Male children presented 2.7 times higher risk of infection than females did (OR: 2.7; CI: 1052-7001). The parasites and commensals identified were: Giardia lamblia (27.5%), Entamoeba coli (20.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (14.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (8.8%), Hymenolepis nana (7.5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (5%), hookworms (3.1%), Trichuris trichiura (2.5%), Endolimax nana (2.5%), Entamoeba hartmanni (2.5%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Capillaria hepatica (0.6%). The infection rate in these children was high and showed the need to implement prophylactic education programs in the community. PMID:19142436

  5. Ensaios de micologia contribuição para o conhecimento das Esporotricoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio de Magalhães

    1956-10-01

    Full Text Available The author describes the forms found in material obtained from a human lesion localized in the mouth. The patient was a farmer and the diagnosis unknown. The author found yeast forms, some germinating, resembling those found in the mycosis of LUTZ. It was Sporotricosis and only once, in 96 cases, has the author found these fungous forms in the suspected material. The cultures in Sabouraud glucose and in many other media were positive for Sporotrichum, resembling that described by BENEDEK in 1926 (variety? principally by the reddish colour of some cultures. The author thinks there is, perhaps, a mutation influenced by the surroundings and the light in certain cultures and that the dark pigment is the dominant one. He considers that the pigment will not do for the differentiation of species and that it is, really, Sporotrichum Schencki-Beurmanni. The author calls attention to the question of diagnosis and studies separately, each of the elements in which his opinion is based, finding that only a macro and microscopic study of the cultures decides the question.

  6. Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Parallaxes of Galactic Cepheid Variable Stars: Period-Luminosity Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Benedict, G F; Feast, M W; Barnes, T G; Harrison, T E; Patterson, R J; Menzies, J W; Bean, J L; Freedman, W L; Arthur, Barbara E. Mc; Feast, Michael W.; Barnes, Thomas G.; Harrison, Thomas E.; Patterson, Richard J.; Menzies, John W.; Bean, Jacob L.; Freedman, Wendy L.

    2006-01-01

    (abridged) We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and relative proper motions for nine Galactic Cepheid variable stars: l Car, zeta Gem, beta Dor, W Sgr, X Sgr, Y Sgr, FF Aql, T Vul, and RT Aur. We obtain these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensor 1r, a white-light interferometer on Hubble Space Telescope. We find absolute parallaxes with an average sigma_pi/pi = 8%. Two stars (FF Aql and W Sgr) required the inclusion of binary astrometric perturbations, providing Cepheid mass estimates. With these parallaxes we compute absolute magnitudes in V, I, K, and Wesenheit W_{VI} bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Adding our previous absolute magnitude determination for delta Cep, we construct Period-Luminosity relations for ten Galactic Cepheids. We compare our new Period-Luminosity relations with those adopted by several recent investigations, including the Freedman and Sandage H_0 projects. Adopting our Period-Luminosity relationship would ten...

  7. Radiation effects on vitamin A and β-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, vitamin A and β-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy 60Co γ-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  8. Strongyloides stercoralis and other Enteroparasites in Children at Uberlândia City, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Machado Eleuza

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the rate of infection by Strongyloides stercoralis and other enteroparasites a survey was conducted in the city of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 900 stool samples from 300 children aging from four months to seven years, randomly selected in ten nursery schools from September 1994 to December 1995, were examined, both by the Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. Thirty nine children (13% were found to be infected by S. stercoralis, 64.1% were boys and 35.9% were girls. Taking all the enteroparasites as a whole the results of the survey pointed out that 265 (88.4% of the 300 children were infected by the following: Giardia lamblia, 78.3%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 15.3%; S. stercoralis, 13%; Hymenolepis nana, 6.7%; hookworms, 6%; Enterobius vermicularis, 4%; Hymenole-pis diminuta, 4% and Trichuris trichiura, 0.7%. From 265 infected children 64.5% were mono-infected, 27.2% were infected by two parasites and 8.3% had a poly-specific parasite burden. It was concluded that strongyloidiasis is hyperendemic in this area

  9. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio N. Boia

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".

  10. Estudo das parasitoses intestinais e da infecção chagásica no Município de Novo Airão, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boia Marcio N.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo seccional descritivo em uma amostra sistemática por conglomerado de uma em cada dez famílias residentes na sede do Município de Novo Airão, na meso-região norte do Estado do Amazonas, a 250 quilômetros de Manaus por via fluvial. De cada um dos residentes nos 89 domicílios da amostra foram solicitadas fezes para exame pelos métodos de sedimentação de Lutz e pelo Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho e colhido sangue por punção venosa para testes de ELISA e imunofluorescência para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi. O exame de 316 amostras de fezes mostrou 87,6% com um ou mais parasitos: 35,1% com Ascaris lumbricoides, 29,1% com Entamoeba histolytica, 17,4% com Giardia lamblia e outros parasitos com menor prevalência. Estes resultados foram correlacionados com a falta de saneamento e de suprimento de água tratada. De 346 soros examinados 16 (4,6% foram reativos para anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, mas somente em três deles houve correlação entre este resultado e o contacto das pessoas com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como "piolho da piaçava".

  11. Spatial distribution and enteroparasite contamination in peridomiciliar soil and water in the Apucaraninha Indigenous Land, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joseane Balan; Piva, Camila; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; de Ornelas Toledo, Max Jean

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence and distribution of soil and water samples contaminated with enteroparasites of humans and animals with zoonotic potential (EHAZP) in Apucaraninha Indigenous Land (AIL), southern Brazil, was evaluated. An environmental survey was conducted to evaluate the presence of parasitic forms in peridomiciliary soil and associated variables. Soil samples were collected from 40/293 domiciles (10 domiciles per season), from November 2010 to June 2011, and evaluated by modified methods of Faust et al. and Lutz. Analyses of water from seven consumption sites were also performed. The overall prevalence of soil samples contaminated by EHAZP was 23.8 %. The most prevalent parasitic forms were cyst of Entamoeba spp. and eggs of Ascaris spp. The highest prevalence of contaminated soil samples was observed in winter (31 %). The probability map obtained with geostatistical analyses showed an average of 47 % soil contamination at a distance of approximately 140 m. The parasitological analysis of water did not detect Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. and showed that all collection points were within the standards of the Brazilian law. However, the microbiological analysis showed the presence of Escherichia coli in 6/7 sampled points. Despite the low level of contamination by EHAZP in peridomiciliar soil and the absence of pathogenic protozoa in water, the AIL soil and water (due to the presence of fecal coliforms) are potential sources of infection for the population, indicating the need for improvements in sanitation and water treatment, in addition periodic treatment of the population with antiparasitic. PMID:26960764

  12. Sustainable development through continuous optimization; Nachhaltige Entwicklung durch kontinuierliche Optimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-07-01

    Lafarge operates one of Germany's most modern cement plants in Woessingen (Fig. 1). With the changeover from the semi-dry (Lepol) process to the dry process, which was completed in 2009 after only 17 months, the products were improved, the emissions were significantly reduced and the fuel mix was optimized. ZKG INTERNATIONAL has talked to the plant manager, Lutz Weber, about his experience with operating the new plant (see webcode ZKG0M6RR). Continuous optimization and modernization is traditional at Woessingen. Over the years this has enabled it to maintain its competitiveness and improve it still further. An open door day was held in September 2010 on the 60{sup th} anniversary of the cement plant at Woessingen to which politicians, neighbours and customers were invited to see the current state of the plant for themselves. Thanks to the new production line with a 5-stage cyclone preheater with calciner and combustion chamber from A TEC (Fig. 2) the way is open for a successful future for the Lafarge plant at Woessingen. (orig.)

  13. DIAGNOSIS OF Strongyloides stercoralis INFECTION IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS BY SEROLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    de PAULA, Fabiana Martins; MALTA, Fernanda Mello; CORRAL, Marcelo Andreetta; MARQUES, Priscilla Duarte; GOTTARDI, Maiara; MEISEL, Dirce Mary Correia Lima; YAMASHIRO, Juliana; PINHO, João Renato Rebello; CASTILHO, Vera Lucia Pagliusi; GONÇALVES, Elenice Messias do Nascimento; GRYSCHEK, Ronaldo César Borges; CHIEFFI, Pedro Paulo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Strongyloidiasis is a potentially serious infection in immunocompromised patients. Thus, the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic methods is desirable, especially in the context of immunosuppressed patients in whom the diagnosis and treatment of strongyloidiasis is of utmost importance. In this study, serological and molecular tools were used to diagnose Strongyloides stercoralis infections in immunosuppressed patients. Serum and stool samples were obtained from 52 patients. Stool samples were first analyzed by Lutz, Rugai, and Agar plate culture methods, and then by a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Serum samples were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a soluble (AS) or a membrane fractions antigen (AM) obtained from alkaline solutions of the filariform larvae of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Of the 52 immunosuppressed patients, three (5.8%) were positive for S. stercoralis by parasitological methods, compared to two patients (3.8%) and one patient (1.9%) who were detected by ELISA using the AS and the AM antigens, respectively. S. stercoralis DNA was amplified in seven (13.5%) stool samples by qPCR. These results suggest the utility of qPCR as an alternative diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection in immunocompromised patients, considering the possible severity of this helminthiasis in this group of patients. PMID:27680168

  14. Larval microhabitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Morrison, A C

    1997-11-01

    An intensive search for the larval habitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was conducted from November 1992 to October 1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Emergence traps constructed from polyvinyl chloride pipes were used to sample a variety of soil microhabitats that included edge areas of covered pigpens, cattle corrals, the base of trees, and leaf litter at sites within 40 m of a house, rocks in fields located between 50 and 500 m from houses, and sites within a patch of secondary forest (rocks, base of palm trees, and leaf litter). The teneral status of the sand flies captured in the emergence traps was confirmed by laboratory studies that determined the rate of terminalia rotation in male L. longipalpis and the rate of cuticular growth layer formation of the thoracic phragma in both sexes of this species. A total of 58 teneral sand flies was captured during the study period (49 wk). Fifteen specimens were L. longipalpis; of these 11 (5 sand flies per square meter) were captured near pigpens, 3 (1.4 sand flies per square meter) were captured near rock resting sites, and 1 (1.6 sand flies per square meter) was collected at the base of a tree. The remainder of the sand flies were either L. trinidadensis (Newstead) or L. cayennensis (Flock & Abonnenc). Our results indicate that L. longipalpis larvae were dispersed widely in sites near houses, rather than concentrated in a few optimal microhabitats. PMID:9439128

  15. Análise físico-química e legalidade em bebidas de laranja
    Physical-chemical analysis and legality in orange beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FIGUEIRA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi mensurar o °Brix, acidez titulável (AT e ratio em sucos concentrados, sucos, néctares e refrigerantes de laranja comerciais e compará-los com os seus Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade (PIQ publicados pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA e Codex Alimentarius. Quatro sucos concentrados, vinte e dois sucos, sete néctares e treze refrigerantes foram analisados. A densidade das bebidas foi mensurada em densímetro digital e convertida para °Brix, utilizando uma tabela que relaciona estas variáveis. A AT foi calculada conforme as Normas Analíticas do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. O ratio foi obtido pela razão entre °Brix e AT. Todos os sucos concentrados estavam em acordo com o Codex Alimentarius. A grande maioria dos sucos e refrigerantes comerciais respeita a legislação brasileira. Os néctares de laranja não puderam ser comparados com padrões legais, pois estes são inexistentes tanto no MAPA quanto no Codex Alimentarius.

  16. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  17. Morphometric Analysis of Longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) Complex Populations in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mirella F C; Andrade Filho, José D; Fernandes, Carlos E S; Mateus, Nathália L F; Eguchi, Gabriel U; Fernandes, Wedson D; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Oliveira, Everton F; Oliveira, Alessandra G

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the existence of cryptic species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically, the search for new taxonomic characters and methods for identifying and classifying sand flies continues. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) (Diptera: Psychodidae) are two such species that occur in sympatry in some regions of Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS). Twenty females and twenty males from each of the five populations of Lu. longipalpis and one population of Lu. cruzi from MS were examined. An outlying population of Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, State of Alagoas, was used to compare the degree of divergence among the groups in MS. Specimens were cleared, mounted on slides, identified, and measured using LAS-Leica. The principal component analysis of morphometric characters showed a high degree of variation among females, while males varied to a lower degree. The populations of Alagoas and Miranda demonstrated the greatest variation. The first region, Alagoas, is geographically distant from the others and occurs under distinctly different ecological conditions, which likely accounts for the variation. Further studies should be made to elucidate the factors that contribute to the differences found between the populations of MS.

  18. Advertisement and release calls of Phyllomedusa ayeaye (Anura: Hylidae with comments on the social context of emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Nali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Male calls play different roles in anuran social organization, such as spacing, territoriality and female attraction. However, calls and associated behaviors remain poorly described for many anuran species. Here we describe the advertisement and release calls of the tree frog Phyllomedusa ayeaye (Lutz, 1966 and report on the social context of emissions and a physical combat. Approximately 35 minutes of digital recordings were obtained from 34 hours of observations at one breeding site in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Bioacoustic analysis showed that males emitted two types of advertisement calls: 1 simple call (a sequence of short pulsed notes and 2 composite call (a sequence of short pulsed notes followed by a long pulsed note. Composite calls were emitted more frequently during more intense chorus activity, with various active males at the breeding site. The release call was also composed by short pulsed notes, with a wider spectrum of frequencies and emitted more rapidly than the advertisement calls. Our results suggest that the composite call of P. ayeaye may represent a mixed advertisement call. Long notes might be the aggressive part directed to males, whereas short notes directed to females. Our description of call types, their functions, and male physical interactions will be useful for studies investigating the systematics and behavior of Phyllomedusa species.

  19. Radiation effects on vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents in bovine liver and swine pate de foie; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a vitamina A e o {beta}-caroteno de figado bovino e suino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda Sinigalia

    2001-07-01

    In this study, vitamin A and {beta}-carotene contents and the percent of activity retention were analyzed in 3 kGy and 30 kGy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-irradiated samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate. Six different lots of liver samples weighing 100 g obtained at the meat market were employed. Irradiation was performed with liver samples initially frozen (-15 deg C). Similarly, six different lots of swine liver pate samples weighing about 100 - 125 g , at temperature of 7 deg C were irradiated. Pre-treatments and analysis methods were those described in Instituto Adolfo Lutz Norms for food analyses. Two and five- gram samples in duplicates for bovine liver and five gram-samples for swine liver pate were used. The results showed that there were no losses of either vitamin A or provitamin A activities in the samples of bovine liver and swine liver pate irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy (retention about 100%). On the other hand, for swine liver pate samples of vitamin A were maintained after irradiation with 30 kGy. (author)

  20. An outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with astrovirus serotype 1 in a day care center, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    AMV Silva

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Between June 4th and June 20th1996 rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus (HAstrV were investigated in fecal samples from 27 children under three years old with acute diarrhea, attending the Bertha Lutz day care center, in Rio de Janeiro. All fecal samples were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, enzyme immunoassays (EIA, and electron microscopy (EM. Nine of them (33% showed positive results for HAstrV by at least one of the employed methodologies. Eight were positive by RT-PCR and EIA, and six by EM. All positive samples were inoculated onto HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma cultured cells for HAstrV isolation and seven were positive after three passages. The sequencing analysis of eight RT-PCR products (449 bp from gene that codifies VP2 protein, showed a total nucleotide identity among them and 98% with HAstrV-1 (strain Oxford type 1. This is the first report of a gastroenteritis outbreak associated with HAstrv-1 in a day care center in Rio de Janeiro and it reinforces the importance of this virus in association with infantile acute gastroenteritis.

  1. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by real-time PCR in sputum samples and its use in the routine diagnosis in a reference laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe Pinhata, Juliana Maira; Cergole-Novella, Maria Cecilia; Moreira dos Santos Carmo, Andreia; Ruivo Ferro e Silva, Regina; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Tavares Sacchi, Claudio; Siqueira de Oliveira, Rosangela

    2015-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease of global distribution, constituting a serious public health problem in Brazil. São Paulo State, located in the south-east of Brazil, notified 16,580 new TB cases in 2013. The Instituto Adolfo Lutz is a public health reference laboratory for TB diagnosis for all the State. Considering that rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential for TB control, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an in-house real-time (RT)-PCR assay targeting the mpt64 gene in the routine diagnosis of TB, and to compare this technique with smear microscopy and culture. From August 2012 to October 2013, 715 sputum samples from 657 patients were included in the study. Smear microscopy, culture, phenotypic and PRA-hsp65 identification of mycobacteria, and mpt64 RT-PCR were performed. With respect to confirmed TB cases (n = 62/657; 9.4%), smear microscopy had a sensitivity of 82.3%. Culture and RT-PCR showed the same sensitivity, i.e. 90.3%. Specificity was 99.7, 99.4 and 98.6% for smear microscopy, culture and RT-PCR, respectively. mpt64 RT-PCR showed high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in sputum samples. This technique can be deployed in laboratories that do not have a rapid test for TB available, enabling the performance of TB diagnosis in up to 5 h.

  2. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos Influenza in heterothermics

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    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino do tipo A e tipo B. O mesmo ocorreu com serpentes recém chegadas. Quanto ao teste de inibição da hemaglutinação dos soros dos répteis observou-se títulos protetores de anticorpos aos vírus influenza tipo A (origens humana e eqüina e tipo B. Com soro de sapo não se observou reação de inibição da hemaglutinação porém, 83,3% das rãs obtiveram médias de 40UIH para algumas cepas. Conclui-se que animais heterotérmicos podem oferecer condições de hospedeiros aos vírus influenza, assim como susceptibilidade à infecção.The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza

  3. Sodium recirculation and isotonic transport in toad small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedergaard, S; Larsen, E H; Ussing, H H

    1999-04-01

    Isolated small intestine of toad (Bufo bufo) was mounted on glass tubes for perfusion studies with oxygenated amphibian Ringer's solution containing glucose and acetate. Under open-circuit conditions (Vt = -3.9 +/- 1.8 mV, N = 14) the preparation generated a net influx of 134Cs+. The time course of unidirectional 134Cs+-fluxes was mono-exponential with similar rate constants for influx and outflux when measured in the same preparation. The flux-ratio was time invariant from the beginning of appearance of the tracers to steady state was achieved. Thus, just a single pathway, the paracellular pathway, is available for transepithelial transport of Cs+. From the ratio of unidirectional Cs+-fluxes the paracellular force was calculated to be, 18.2 +/- 1.5 mV (N = 6), which is directed against the small transepithelial potential difference. The paracellular netflux of cesium ions, therefore, is caused by solvent drag. The flux of 134Cs+ entering and trapped by the cells was of a magnitude similar to that passing the paracellular route. Therefore, independent of the convective flux of 134Cs+, every second 134Cs+ ion flowing into the lateral space was pumped into the cells rather than proceeding, via the low resistance pathway, to the serosal bath. It is thus indicated that the paracellular convective flow of 134Cs+ is driven by lateral Na+/K+-pumps. Transepithelial unidirectional 42K+ fluxes did not reach steady state within an observation period of 70 min, indicating that components of the fluxes in both directions pass the large cellular pool of potassium ions. The ratio of unidirectional 24Na+ fluxes was time-variant and declined from an initial value of 3.66 +/- 0.34 to a significantly smaller steady-state value of 2.57 +/- 0.26 (P water-filled pores. With a new set of equations, the fraction of the sodium flux passing the basement membrane barrier of the lateral space that is recirculated through the cellular compartment is estimated. This fraction was, on average, 0

  4. Intoxicação por veneno de sapo em um canino Toad venom intoxication in a dog

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    Luciana Sonne

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O sapo do gênero Bufo possui nas suas glândulas paratóides uma secreção mucóide contendo toxinas como bufaginas e Bufotoxinas, que são esteróides cardiogênicos. Os cães podem atacar os sapos, entrando em contato com o veneno por meio das mucosas. Um canino, da raça Bulldog Francês, foi encaminhado ao Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS para a necropsia com histórico de provável intoxicação por veneno de sapo. Na necropsia o canino apresentava pulmões aumentados de volume, avermelhados e com edema, e rins de coloração vermelho-escura. As alterações microscópicas indicaram congestão, hemorragia e edema pulmonar. Nos rins, no baço e nos linfonodos foi observada congestão. As análises toxicológicas para os venenos de rotina foram negativas. Porém, a investigação do veneno de sapo a partir de cromatografia por camada delgada e gasosa demonstrou resultado positivo, revelando ser esta a causa da morte do canino.The toads of the genus Bufo produce, in their parotoid glands, a mucoid secretion containing toxins such as bufagins and Bufotoxins, which are cardiogenic steroids. The mucous membranes of dogs can absorb this venom when they attack the toads. A French bulldog with a history of probable toad venom intoxication was referred to Veterinary Pathology Section of Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS for necropsy. The necropsy revealed enlarged, reddish, edematous lungs, and kidneys displaying a dark red color. The microscopic alterations indicated the presence of congestion, hemorrhage, and pulmonary edema. Congestion was observed in the kidneys, spleen and lymph nodes. The routine toxicological analyses for venom detection were negative. Nevertheless, the toad venom test result was positive as assessed by thin layer and gas chromatography, indicating that toad venom intoxication was the cause of death.

  5. 虎纹蛙蝌蚪对同域分布两种蝌蚪的食物选择%Prey selection by tiger frog larvae (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) of two sympatric anuran species' tadpoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦力; 林植华; 赵仁友; 陈世通

    2013-01-01

    We examined the prey selection and behavioral responses of tiger frog Hoplobatrachus chinensis larvae exposed to unpalatable and palatable sympatric prey tadpoles,Bufo melanostictus and Pelophylax nigromaculatus.We found that after a short exposure to the toxic toad tadpoles B.melanostictus,predators may learn to decrease going after unpalatable prey,subsequently it seems they may express short-term behavioral memory in order to avoid the toxic prey.In general,H.chinensis showed no preference for either any of the two prey species,which may be the result of P.nigromaculatus using behavioral performance and chemical defense as antipredatation strategies.These results facilitate further investigation of other aspects of the behavioral ecology of these three anuran species and hint at some potentially interesting possibilities of memory in choice of prey which may suggest further study.%该文以虎纹蛙(Hoplobatrachus chinensis)蝌蚪为研究对象,检测其作为捕食者对同域分布两种不同类型(可口性和非可口性)猎物蝌蚪(黑眶蟾蜍和黑斑侧褶蛙)的食物选择及行为响应.结果表明,由于该两种被捕食物种在面对其共同捕食者或天敌时采取不同的反捕食策略(化学防卫及行为表现),即虎纹蛙蝌蚪在进食具有毒素的黑眶蟾蜍(Bufo melanostictus)蝌蚪后,能够在短时间内减少对这种可口性差的食物的选择,具有短期记忆行为,而黑斑侧褶蛙(Pelophylax nigromaculatus)蝌蚪能够采用行为防卫机制以减少被捕食风险,因此,虎纹蛙蝌蚪对两种猎物蝌蚪的总体选择不表现明显倾向.该结果为这3种两栖类动物的行为生态学研究提供了基础数据.

  6. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION IN AN ANURAN COMMUNITY IN MUNICIPALITY OF RIO CLARO, SP, BRAZIL = DISTRIBUIÇÃO ESPACIAL E TEMPORAL DE UMA COMUNIDADE DE ANFÍBIOS ANUROS DO MUNICÍPIO DE RIO CLARO, SÃO PAULO, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio Fernando Baptista Haddad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of structure and functioning of communities arefundamental for the execution of conservation efforts in forested areas. In the present study we evaluated a community of anurans in a State Forest in Southeast Brazil, emphasizing the reproductive biology of the species. It has been found 21 species, of four families: Bufonidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae, and Microhylidae. The species of the family Bufonidae reproduced during the dry and cold season, while other species reproduced only during the wet and warm season of the year. Besides temporal segregation, some species divided the physical environment during reproductive season. Strong temporal and spatial overlap was observed among phylogenetically close species (of the same genus, such as Hyla nana and H. sanborni, Scinax fuscovarius and Scinax sp. (aff. similis, and Leptodactylus fuscus, L. mystacinus, and Leptodactylus sp. (gr. fuscus. In these cases, acoustic differences may be the main factor responsible for thereproductive segregation. Lack of reproductive segregation was observed among species of the genus Bufo, which were found in interespecific amplexus, even with acoustic differences in their advertisement calls. = A compreensão da composição e inter-relações das comunidades faunísticas são fundamentais para a execução de medidas conservacionistas em ambientes florestais. No presente estudo nos avaliamos a comunidade de anfíbios de uma floresta estadual nomunicípio de Rio Claro, SP, com enfoque na biologia reprodutiva. Foram registradas 21 espécies, de quarto famílias: Bufonidae, Hylidae, Leptodactylidae e Microhylidae. As espécies da família Bufonidae reproduziram durante a estação fria e seca do ano e asdemais somente durante a estação quente e chuvosa. Além de segregação temporal, algumas espécies dividiram o ambiente físico durante o período reprodutivo. Acentuada sobreposição temporal e espacial foi observada entre esp

  7. Toxicity of a glufosinate- and several glyphosate-based herbicides to juvenile amphibians from the Southern High Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Simon K; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Philip N; Haukos, David A

    2009-01-15

    Pesticide toxicity is often proposed as a contributing factor to the world-wide decline of amphibian populations. We assessed acute toxicity (48 h) of a glufosinate-based herbicide (Ignite 280 SL) and several glyphosate-based herbicide formulations (Roundup WeatherMAX, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Super Concentrate, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Ready-To-Use Plus on two species of amphibians housed on soil or moist paper towels. Survival of juvenile Great Plains toads (Bufo cognatus) and New Mexico spadefoots (Spea multiplicata) was reduced by exposure to Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Ready-To-Use Plus on both substrates. Great Plains toad survival was also reduced by exposure to Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Super Concentrate on paper towels. New Mexico spadefoot and Great Plains toad survival was not affected by exposure to the two agricultural herbicides (Roundup WeatherMAX and Ignite 280 SL) on either substrate, suggesting that these herbicides likely do not pose an immediate risk to these species under field conditions. PMID:19000631

  8. Comparative ultrastructural analysis of two tortoise bladders, Testudo graeca and Geochelone carbonaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strum, J M; Danon, D

    1976-01-01

    Urinary bladders from the desert tortoises, Testudo graeca and Geochelone carbonaria were removed at specific times during the year and species in all bladders examined: (1) granular cells, (2) mitochondria-rich cells, and (3) basal cells. Cells analogous to these three types have also been observed in amphibian bladders (from toad Bufo marinus and bullfrog, Rana catesbiana) and reptilian bladders (from Pseudemys scripta and Clemmys caspica). Both tortoises have an incomplete layer of basal cells so that the granular and mitochondria-rich cells extend from the lumen to the basement membrane: something was not observed in bladders from bullfrog or turtles. A flask-shaped light cell was observed in the Geochelone carbonaria bladder obtained in April. No counterpart of this cell was seen in the same species sacrificed in January, or in any of the Testudo graeca bladders, although a similar cell has been described in the turtle, Pseudemys scripta (Rosen, Expt. Molec. Path., 12: 286-296, '70). This study was undertaken to characterize the cell types present in tortoise bladder and to compare them with cell types in the bladder of the turtle, bullfrog and toad. PMID:1252017

  9. How might you compare mitochondria from different tissues and different species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, A J; Turner, Nigel; Hinde, Jack; Else, Paul; Guderley, Helga

    2006-02-01

    Mitochondria were isolated from the liver, kidney and mixed hindlimb skeletal muscle of three vertebrate species; the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus, the bearded dragon lizard Pogona vitticeps, and the cane toad Bufo marinus. These vertebrate species are approximately the same body mass and have similar body temperatures. The content of cytochromes B, C, C1, and A were measured in these isolated mitochondria by oxidised-reduced difference spectra. Adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) was measured by titration of mitochondrial respiration with carboxyactractyloside and the protein and phospholipid content of isolated mitochondria were also measured. Fatty acid composition of mitochondrial phospholipids was measured. Mitochondrial respiration was measured at 37 degrees C under states III and IV conditions as well as during oligomycin inhibition. Species differed in the ratios of different mitochondrial cytochromes. Muscle mitochondria differed from kidney and liver mitochondria by having a higher ANT content relative to cytochrome content. Respiration rates were compared relative to a number of denominators and found to be most variable when expressed relative to mitochondrial protein content and least variable when expressed relative to mitochondrial cytochrome A and ANT content. The turnover of cytochromes was calculated and found to vary between 1 and 94 electrons s(-1). The molecular activity of mitochondrial cytochromes was found to be significantly positively correlated with the relative polyunsaturation of mitochondrial membrane lipids. PMID:16408229

  10. Influence of land use on metal concentrations in playa sediments and amphibians in the Southern High Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern High Plains (SHP) is a semi-arid region in which playa wetlands are the focal points of biodiversity. Playas are highly influenced by surrounding land use. Most of the SHP is in agricultural production (primarily cotton) with a history of arsenic-containing herbicide use. Metals influence reproduction and development in amphibians. We analyzed metal residues in playa sediment and whole body tissue of Spea spp. and Bufo cognatus metamorphs from two land uses: cropland and native grassland. Cd and Ni concentrations in B. cognatus tissues differed between land uses. Metal concentrations in Spea spp. tissues did not differ between land uses. Ba was higher in Spea spp. than B. cognatus collected from the same grassland playas, indicating differential habitat use. No correlations between sediment and tissue concentrations were found. Land use appeared to have little influence on metal concentrations and levels were below those known to cause effects in amphibians. - Land use surrounding playas has little effect on metal concentrations in sediments

  11. Hydrosmotic effect of angiotensin II in the toad skin: role of cyclic AMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, A; Brauckmann, E S; de Atenor, M S; Apud, J A; Causarano, J

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the hydrosmotic response of the isolated skin of the toad Bufo arenarum Hensel to angiotensin II was studied by means of an indirect pharmacological approach. Angiotensin II (2.10(-10) M), vasopressin (2.10(-13) M) and theophylline (10(-4) and 10(-3) M) in subliminal doses produced a significant increase on water permeability when added in different paired combinations. Angiotensin II (2.10(-7) M) and vasopressin (2.10(-8) M) in doses producing significant effects on water permeability increased the response to submaximal doses of epinephrine (10(-6) M) but not to higher doses (10(-5) M). Acid pH (6.4) and prostaglandin E1 (2.10(-7) M) reduced significantly the hydrosmotic response to angiotensin II, but in contrast with the toad bladder, the effect was not completely abolished. Present results support the view that the hydrosmotic effect of angiotensin II in toad skin is mediated by the adenylate cyclase - cyclic AMP system. PMID:189568

  12. Pharmacologically screened aphrodisiac plant-A review of current scientific literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patel DK; Kumar R; Prasad SK; Hemalatha S

    2011-01-01

    Substances which are used to treat sexual dysfunction or to improve sexual behavior and satisfaction in humans and animals are called ‘aphrodisiac’. Uses of plant material to treat sexual disorder is a long back history in the different system of medicine and it was practiced by different type of vaidyas and traditional healer in almost all the countries in the world, like China, India, Egypt, Rome and Greek. Even though there was an unavailability of the scientific data, these substances have been used as aphrodisiac. During the historic times Lytta vesicatoria,Tribulus terrestris, Ptychopetalum olacoides, Crocus sativus, Bufo marinus, Myristica fragrans, Theobroma cocao and other plants have been investigated for its aphrodisiac activity by in vivo and in vitro model. Even though the study showed positive response to a particular substance, there is always a need to run the clinical trial before administering the tested drug in human being. The present review article summarizes the plant material which has been tested for its aphrodisiac activity in different experimental model (in vitro, in vivo on animal models, or in human clinical trials) and comply its claim in the different system of medicine. A brief overview about the data of percentage study in the last eighteen years duration on aphrodisiac activity of plant material was done on the basis of the CAB abstract database.

  13. Predator interference effects on biological control: The "paradox" of the generalist predator revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshad, Rana D.; Bhowmick, Suman; Quansah, Emmanuel; Basheer, Aladeen; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    An interesting conundrum in biological control questions the efficiency of generalist predators as biological control agents. Theory suggests, generalist predators are poor agents for biological control, primarily due to mutual interference. However field evidence shows they are actually quite effective in regulating pest densities. In this work we provide a plausible answer to this paradox. We analyze a three species model, where a generalist top predator is introduced into an ecosystem as a biological control, to check the population of a middle predator, that in turn is depredating on a prey species. We show that the inclusion of predator interference alone, can cause the solution of the top predator equation to blow-up in finite time, while there is global existence in the no interference case. This result shows that interference could actually cause a population explosion of the top predator, enabling it to control the target species, thus corroborating recent field evidence. Our results might also partially explain the population explosion of certain species, introduced originally for biological control purposes, such as the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Australia, which now functions as a generalist top predator. We also show both Turing instability and spatio-temporal chaos in the model. Lastly we investigate time delay effects.

  14. Recent records of alien anurans on the Pacific Island of Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, M.T.; Clark, C.S.; Gee, D.E.; Vice, D.; Vice, D.S.; Warner, M.P.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Rodda, G.H.; Savidge, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Eight anuran species were recorded for the first time in Guam in the period May 2003-December 2005, all apparently the result of arrivals to the island since 2000. Three of the eight species (Rana guentheri, Polypedates megacephalus, and Eleutherodactylus planirostris) had well-established breeding populations by 2005. A further three (Fejevarya cf. livinocharis, Fejervarya cancrivora, and Microhyla pulchra) were recorded from a number of individuals, but it is not known whether these species have established breeding populations. Two species (Kaloula pulchra and Eleutherodactylus coqui) appear to be incidental transportations to the island that have not established. Before 2003, five anuran species, all introductions, had been recorded from Guam. Three of these, Polypedates leucomystax, Pseudacris regilla, and Kaloula picta, were detected on Guam in incoming cargo but destroyed. Two species established: Bufo marinus was deliberately introduced and the Australian hylid Litoria fallax was probably an accidental introduction. Successful establishment of anurans on Guam has increased the risk of frog introductions to nearby islands. By providing additional food sources for the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), anuran introductions have increased the chance that B. irregularis might substantially increase in numbers and in turn increase the risk of the snake being accidentally transported to other islands. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  15. Status of amphibians on the Continental Divide:Surveys on a transect from Montana to Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P.S.; Hossack, B.R.; Muths, E.; Patla, D.A.; Peterson, C.R.; Gallant, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Region of the United States Geological Survey's Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative is conducting monitoring of the status of amphibians on a transect that extends along the Continental Divide from Canada to Colorado and comprises four National Parks. Monitoring uses visual encounter surveys to determine site occupancy, with multiple visits to a subset of sites to estimate detection probabilities for each species. Detection probabilities were generally high (above 0.65) among species. There was a gradient in site occupancy, with most species scarce in the south and relatively common in the north. For example, Bufo boreas is close to extinction in Rocky Mountain National Park, was found at fewer than 5 % of sites in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks in the middle of the transect, but occurs at approximately 10 % of sites in Glacier National Park. The salamander Ambystoma tigrinum was rare in Rocky Mountain and occurred at less than 25 % of sites at Yellowstone and Grand Teton, but A. macrodactylum occurred at more than 50 % of sites in Glacier. There are numerous differences among parks, such as latitude, climate, numbers of visitors, and human population density in the surrounding landscape. The degree to which these factors have influenced the current distribution and abundance of amphibians is unknown but should be a focus of additional research.

  16. The toxicity of glyphosate alone and glyphosate-surfactant mixtures to western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kim; Davidson, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Pesticide choice based on toxicity to nontarget wildlife is reliant on available toxicity data. Despite a number of recent studies examining the effects of glyphosate on amphibians, very few have aimed to understand the toxicological effects of glyphosate in combination with surfactants as it is commonly applied in the field. Land managers interested in making pesticide choices based on minimizing impacts to nontarget wildlife are hindered by a lack of published toxicity data. Short-term acute toxicity trials were conducted for glyphosate in the form of isopropylamine salt (IPA) alone and mixed with 2 surfactants: Agri-dex and Competitor with western toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] boreas) tadpoles. Glyphosate IPA mixed with Competitor was 6 times more toxic than glyphosate IPA mixed with Agri-dex, and both mixtures were more toxic than glyphosate IPA alone. The median lethal concentrations reported for 24-h and 48-h exposures were 8279 mg/L (24 h) and 6392 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA alone; 5092 mg/L (24 h) and 4254 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA mixed with Agri-dex; and 853 mg/L (24 h) and 711 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA mixed with Competitor. The present study indicates that the toxicity of a tank mix may be greatly increased by the addition of surfactants and may vary widely depending on the specific surfactant.

  17. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel

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    Gil Wizen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: E. dejeani and E. circumscriptus. In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-amphibian trophic interaction. In the field we recorded three cases of E. dejeani preying upon amphibian metamorphs and also found that Epomis adults share shelters with amphibians. Laboratory experiments supported the observations that both Epomis species can prey on amphibians. Predation of the three anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla savignyi and Rana bedriagae and two urodele species (Triturus vittatus and Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata is described. Only E. dejeani consumed T. vittatus. Therefore, we conclude that the two species display a partial overlap in food habit.

  18. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital

    2011-01-01

    The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: Epomis dejeani and Epomis circumscriptus. In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-amphibian trophic interaction. In the field we recorded three cases of Epomis dejeani preying upon amphibian metamorphs and also found that Epomis adults share shelters with amphibians. Laboratory experiments supported the observations that both Epomis species can prey on amphibians. Predation of the three anuran species (Bufo viridis, Hyla savignyi and Rana bedriagae) and two urodele species (Triturus vittatus and Salamandra salamandra infraimmaculata) is described. Only Epomis dejeani consumed Triturus vittatus. Therefore, we conclude that the two species display a partial overlap in food habit. PMID:21738411

  19. Amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in coastal and montane California, USA Anurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Cole, Rebecca A.; Reinitz, David M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    We found amphibian chytrid fungus (Bd = Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) to be widespread within a coastalwatershed at Point Reyes National Seashore, California and within two high elevation watersheds at Yosemite NationalPark, California. Bd was associated with all six species that we sampled (Bufo boreas, B. canorus, Pseudacris regilla, Ranadraytonii, R. sierrae, and Lithobates catesbeianus). For those species sampled at 10 or more sites within a watershed, thepercentage of Bd-positive sites varied from a low of 20.7% for P. regilla at one Yosemite watershed to a high of 79.6% forP. regilla at the Olema watershed at Point Reyes. At Olema, the percent of Bd-positive water bodies declined each year ofour study (2005-2007). Because P. regilla was the only species found in all watersheds, we used that species to evaluatehabitat variables related to the sites where P. regilla was Bd-positive. At Olema, significant variables were year, length ofshoreline (perimeter), percentage cover of rooted vegetation, and water depth. At the two Yosemite watersheds, waterdepth, water temperature, and silt/mud were the most important covariates, though the importance of these three factorsdiffered between the two watersheds. The presence of Bd in species that are not declining suggests that some of theamphibians in our study were innately resistant to Bd, or had developed resistance after Bd became established.

  20. Amphibian breeding and climate change: The importance of snow in the mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P. Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The breeding phenologies of ectotherms are inextricably linked to weather, and amphibians in some temperate locations may have been breeding earlier in recent years in response to warmer spring temperatures (Beebee 1995: Forchhammer et al. 1998; Gibbs & Breisch 2001). Directional change in the timing of breeding resulting from climate change may have consequences for the fitness of individuals and may affect the persistence of amphibian populations (Ovaska 1997: Donnelly & Crump 1998). Blaustein et al. (2001) contribute valuable information to the small, but growing, data set of long-term observations of amphibian breeding phenology. As in other studies, Blaustein et al. found a significant relationship between air temperature and phenology, with earlier breeding associated with warmer air temperatures for boreal toads (Bufo boreas) and Cascades frogs (Rana cascadae) in Oregon and for spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) in Michigan. Contrary to other studies, however, there was no trend toward earlier breeding relative to year for any of these species or for Fowler's toads (B. fouleri) in Ontario. These results are important in demonstrating that changes in breeding phenology due to climate change are not universal among amphibians.

  1. Biological response to climate change on a tropical mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, J. Alan; Fogden, Michael P. L.; Campbell, John H.

    1999-04-01

    Recent warming has caused changes in species distribution and abundance, but the extent of the effects is unclear. Here we investigate whether such changes in highland forests at Monteverde, Costa Rica, are related to the increase in air temperatures that followed a step-like warming of tropical oceans in 1976 (refs4, 5). Twenty of 50 species of anurans (frogs and toads) in a 30-km2 study area, including the locally endemic golden toad (Bufo periglenes), disappeared following synchronous population crashes in 1987 (refs 6-8). Our results indicate that these crashes probably belong to a constellation of demographic changes that have altered communities of birds, reptiles and amphibians in the area and are linked to recent warming. The changes are all associated with patterns of dry-season mist frequency, which is negatively correlated with sea surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific and has declined dramatically since the mid-1970s. The biological and climatic patterns suggest that atmospheric warming has raised the average altitude at the base of the orographic cloud bank, as predicted by the lifting-cloud-base hypothesis,.

  2. 长白山路域两栖动物调查与保护%The investigation and protection of roadside amphibian in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉梅; 王超; 朴正吉; 王卓聪; 睢亚橙; 李卓; 邰志娟

    2015-01-01

    The investigation result of roadside amphibian in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve of different season showed that roadside amphibian in Changbai Mountain was Rana chensinensis, Hynobius keyserlingii, Bombina orientalis and Bufo gargarizans.The biological characteristics of roadside amphibian in Changbai Mountain had changed to some extent that the post-hibernation and spawning period had advance tendency and the species and quantity descended sharply.The reason was analyzed aimed at this change.Furthermore, the protection measure was raised.%不同季节长白山自然保护区路域两栖动物的调查结果表明:长白山路域两栖动物种类主要有中国林蛙、极北鲵、东方铃蟾和中华大蟾蜍。长白山地区的两栖动物生物学特性有所改变,出蛰和产卵期有提前趋势;种类和数量急剧下降。针对产生这一变化的原因进行了分析,并提出了保护措施。

  3. Factors contributing to amphibian road mortality in a wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijun GU; Qiang DAI; Qian WANG; Yuezhao WANG

    2011-01-01

    To understand road characteristics and landscape features associated with high road mortality of amphibians in Zoige Wetland National Nature Reserve,we surveyed road mortality along four major roads after rainfall in May and September 2007.Road mortality of three species,Rana kukunoris,Nanorana pleskei and Bufo minshanicus,was surveyed across 225 transects (115 in May and 110 in September).Transects were 100 m long and repeated every two kilometers along the four major roads.We used model averaging to assess factors that might determine amphibian road mortality.We recorded an average of 24.6 amphibian road mortalities per kilometer in May and 19.2 in September.Among road characteristics,road width was positively associated with road morality for R.kukunori and B.minshanicus.Traffic volume also increased the road mortality of B.minshanicus in September.Of the landscape features measured,area proportions of three types of grassland (wet,mesic and dry) within 1 km of the roads,particularly that of wet grassland,significantly increased road mortality for R.kukunori and total mortality across all three species.To most effectively reduce road mortality of amphibians in the Zoige wetlands,we suggest better road design such as avoiding wet grasslands,minimizing road width,underground passes and traffic control measures.The implementation of public transit in the area would reduce traffic volume,and hence mortality [Current Zoology 57 (6):768-774,2011].

  4. Amphibians at risk? Susceptibility of terrestrial amphibian life stages to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühl, Carsten A; Pieper, Silvia; Weber, Brigitte

    2011-11-01

    Current pesticide risk assessment does not specifically consider amphibians. Amphibians in the aquatic environment (aquatic life stages or postmetamorphic aquatic amphibians) and terrestrial living juvenile or adult amphibians are assumed to be covered by the risk assessment for aquatic invertebrates and fish, or mammals and birds, respectively. This procedure has been evaluated as being sufficiently protective regarding the acute risk posed by a number of pesticides to aquatic amphibian life stages (eggs, larvae). However, it is unknown whether the exposure and sensitivity of terrestrial living amphibians are comparable to mammalian and avian exposure and sensitivity. We reviewed the literature on dermal pesticide absorption and toxicity studies for terrestrial life stages of amphibians, focusing on the dermal exposure pathway, that is, through treated soil or direct overspray. In vitro studies demonstrated that cutaneous absorption of chemicals is significant and that chemical percutaneous passage, P (cm/h), is higher in amphibians than in mammals. In vivo, the rapid and substantial uptake of the herbicide atrazine from treated soil by toads (Bufo americanus) has been described. Severe toxic effects on various amphibian species have been reported for field-relevant application rates of different pesticides. In general, exposure and toxicity studies for terrestrial amphibian life stages are scarce, and the reported data indicate the need for further research, especially in light of the global amphibian decline.

  5. Review of the systematics, distribution, biogeography and natural history of Moroccan amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukema, Wouter; De Pous, Philip; Donaire-Barroso, David; Boaerts, Sergé; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Escoriza, Daniel; Arribas, Oscar J; El Mouden, El Hassan; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The amphibian fauna of the Kingdom of Morocco was traditionally regarded as poor and closely related to its European counterpart. However, an increase in research during the last decades revealed a considerable degree of endemism amongst Moroccan amphibians, as well as phenotypic and genotypic inter- and intraspecific divergence. Despite this increase in knowledge, a comprehensible overview is lacking while several systematic issues have remained unresolved. We herein present a contemporary overview of the distribution, taxonomy and biogeography of Moroccan amphibians. Fourteen fieldtrips were made by the authors and colleagues between 2000 and 2012, which produced a total of 292 new distribution records. Furthermore, based on the results of the present work, we (i) review the systematics of the genus Salamandra in Morocco, including the description of a new subspecies from the Rif- and Middle Atlas Mountains, Salamandra algira splendens ssp. nov.; (ii) present data on intraspecific morphological variability of Pelobates varaldiiand Pleurodeles waltl in Morocco; (iii) attempt to resolve the phylogenetic position of Bufo brongersmai and erect a new genus for this species, Barbarophryne gen. nov.; (iv) summarize and assess the availability of tadpole-specific characteristics and bioacoustical data, and (v) summarize natural history data.

  6. Differences and Similarities among Parotoid Macrogland Secretions in South American Toads: A Preliminary Biochemical Delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mozer Sciani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians are known by cutaneous glands, spread over the skin, containing toxins (proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, steroidal bufadienolides, and alkaloids used as chemical defense against predators and microbial infection. Toads are characterized by the presence of parotoid macroglands. The common toads have lately been divided into two genera: Bufo (Europe, Asia, and Africa and Rhinella (South America. Basal Rhaebo genus is exclusively of Central America and Amazon region. Although Rhinella and Rhaebo are related, species may share differences due to the diversity of environments that they live in. In this work, we have performed a biochemical characterization of the components of the poison of eight Rhinella species and one Rhaebo by means of RP-HPLC with either UV or MS detection and by SDS-PAGE, in order to verify whether phylogenetic and biological differences, such as habitat, diet, and defensive strategies, between them may also be reflected in poison composition. Although some components were common among the secretions, we were able to identify exclusive molecules to some species. The fact that closely related animals living in different habitats secrete different molecules into the skin is an indication that biological features, and not only evolution, seem to directly influence the skin secretion composition.

  7. Invasive species management and research using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Tracy R.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2007-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are powerful tools in the field of invasive species management. GIS can be used to create potential distribution maps for all manner of taxa, including plants, animals, and diseases. GIS also performs well in the early detection and rapid assessment of invasive species. Here, we used GIS applications to investigate species richness and invasion patterns in fish in the United States (US) at the 6-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) level. We also created maps of potential spread of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in the southeastern US at the 8-digit HUC level using regression and environmental envelope techniques. Equipped with this potential map, resource managers can target their field surveys to areas most vulnerable to invasion. Advances in GIS technology, maps, data, and many of these techniques can be found on websites such as the National Institute of Invasive Species Science (www.NIISS.org). Such websites provide a forum for data sharing and analysis that is an invaluable service to the invasive species community.

  8. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Corn, P.S.; Lambert, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Potential component Allee effects and their impact on wetland management in the conservation of endangered anurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele A Gaston

    Full Text Available Effective management of wetland quantity and quality is crucial for effective conservation of declining amphibian populations. In particular, frogs and toads that employ aggregative breeding strategies may suffer negative population impacts in response to changes in availability of aquatic breeding habitat, including overabundance of suitable habitat, if density of conspecifics attending aggregations is positively correlated with reproductive success. Here we document such a positive relationship, potentially the first example of a component Allee effect in an anuran, in the critically endangered Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis. We assessed the relationship between mean yearly chorus size and reproductive success of males at the pond level using an information theoretic model selection approach and a two-sample t-test. The chosen model contained the single variable of mean yearly chorus size to predict probability of reproduction, as selected using the Akaike Information Criterion corrected for small sample size and Akaike weight. Mean chorus sizes were significantly higher among ponds exhibiting evidence of reproduction than in those that showed no evidence of reproduction. Our results suggest that chorusing alone is a poor proxy for inference of population stability and highlight a need for reassessment of widely-used amphibian monitoring protocols. Further, amphibian conservation efforts should account for potential Allee effects in order to optimize benefits and avoid underestimating critical population thresholds, particularly in species exhibiting rapid population declines.

  10. First detection of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in free-ranging populations of amphibians on mainland Asia: survey in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, HyoJin; Baek, HaeJun; Speare, Richard; Webb, Rebecca; Park, SunKyung; Kim, TaeHo; Lasater, Kelly C; Shin, SangPhil; Son, SangHo; Park, JaeHak; Min, MiSook; Kim, YoungJun; Na, Kijeong; Lee, Hang; Park, SeChang

    2009-09-01

    Chytridiomycosis, a disease that has caused amphibian population declines globally and elevated many species of anurans to endangered or threatened status, has recently been declared an internationally notifiable disease. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the amphibian chytrid fungus causing this disease, has not been previously reported in Korea or on mainland Asia. Thirty-six frog specimens representing 7 species were collected from the wild in South Korea and examined for Bd using standard PCR. Bd was detected in 14 (38.8%) samples from 3 species (Bufo gargarizans, Hyla japonica, and Rana catesbiana). Skin sections from all 14 PCR-positive frogs were examined using 2 staining techniques: haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Bd immunoperoxidase (IPX). In histological sections, zoosporangia were found in 6 frogs, with lower sensitivity for H&E (21%) than for IPX (46%). Intensity of infection, based on histopathology, was low in all frogs. These results confirm that Bd is present in South Korea and, hence, on the Asian mainland. Studies are urgently required to determine the impact of chytridiomycosis on Korean amphibians, and to map the distribution of Bd in Korea and other Asian mainland countries.

  11. Multiple stressors in amphibian communities: Effects of chemical contamination, bullfrogs, and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, M.D.; Semlitsch, R.D.; Little, E.E.; Doyle, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    A leading hypothesis of amphibian population declines is that combinations of multiple stressors contribute to declines. We examined the role that chemical contamination, competition, and predation play singly and in combination in aquatic amphibian communities. We exposed larvae of American toads (Bufo americanus), southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala), and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) to overwintered bullfrog tadpoles (R. catesbeiana), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), the insecticide carbaryl, and ammonium nitrate fertilizer in 1000-L mesocosms. Most significantly, our study demonstrated that the presence of multiple factors reduced survival of B. americanus and A. maculatum and lengthened larval periods of R. sphenocephala. The presence of bluegill had the largest impact on the community; it eliminated B. americanus and A. maculatum and reduced the abundance of R. sphenocephala. Chemical contaminants had the second strongest effect on the community with the insecticide, reducing A. maculatum abundance by 50% and increasing the mass of anurans (frogs and toads) at metamorphosis; the fertilizer positively influenced time and mass at metamorphosis for both anurans and A. maculatum. Presence of overwintered bullfrogs reduced mass and increased time to metamorphosis of anurans. While both bluegill and overwintered bullfrog tadpoles had negative effects on the amphibian community, they performed better in the presence of one another and in contaminated habitats. Our results indicate that predicting deleterious combinations from single-factor effects may not be straightforward. Our research supports the hypothesis that combinations of factors can negatively impact some amphibian species and could contribute to population declines. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Multiple pathways for invasion of anurans on a Pacific island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, M.T.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1937, thirteen species of non-indigenous anurans have made their way to Guam. Of these, at least six have established breeding populations. Various pathways led to the introduction of these species to the island. The only anuran intentionally introduced was Chaunus marinus (formerly Bufo marinus), which was brought to Guam as a biocontrol agent. Kaloula picta, K. pulchra, Polypedates leucomystax, and probably Litoria fallax arrived as stowaways via maritime or air-transport vessels. Eleutherodactylus coqui and Euhyas (formerly Eleutherodactylus) planirostris appear to have entered Guam through the horticultural trade. Specimens of Pseudacris regilla were found among agricultural products and Christmas trees. Five species have been transported to Guam via the aquacultural trade. The importation of tilapia, milkfish, and white shrimp from China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the Philippines was associated with the introduction to Guam of Fejervarya cancrivora, F. limnocharis sensu lato, Microhyla pulchra, Polypedates megacephalus, and Sylvirana guentheri (formerly Rana guentheri). Presently, no quarantine or containment guidelines have been established for Guam's aquacultural industry. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  13. The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the toxicity of fire-fighting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, R.D.; Little, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The interactive effects of ultraviolet (UV) and fire-retardant chemicals were evaluated by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) juveniles and tadpoles of southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) to six fire-retardant formulations with and without sodium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of soda [YPS]) and to YPS alone under three simulated UV light treatments. Yellow prussiate of soda is used as a corrosion inhibitor in some of the fire-retardant chemical formulations. The underwater UV intensities measured were about 2 to 10% of surface irradiance measured in various aquatic habitats and were within tolerance limits for the species tested. Mortality of trout and tadpoles exposed to Fire-Trol?? GTS-R, Fire-Trol 300-F, Fire-Trol LCA-R, and Fire-Trol LCA-F was significantly increased in the presence of UV radiation when YPS was present in the formulation. The boreal toad (Bufo boreas), listed as endangered by the state of Colorado (USA), and southern leopard frog were similar in their sensitivity to these chemicals. Photoenhancement of fire-retardant chemicals can occur in a range of aquatic habitats and may be of concern even when optical clarity of water is low; however, other habitat characteristics can also reduce fire retardant toxicity.

  14. Microcosm investigations of stormwater pond sediment toxicity to embryonic and larval amphibians: Variation in sensitivity among species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stormwater ponds have become common features of modern development and often represent significant amounts of open space in urbanized areas. Although stormwater ponds may provide habitat for wildlife, factors responsible for producing variation in wildlife use of ponds have received limited attention. To investigate the role of variation in species tolerances of pollutants in structuring pond-breeding amphibian assemblages, we exposed species tolerant (Bufo americanus) and not tolerant (Rana sylvatica) of urbanization to pond sediments in laboratory microcosms. Pond microcosms had elevated sediment metal levels and chloride water concentrations. Among R. sylvatica embryos, exposure to pond sediments resulted in 100% mortality. In contrast, B. americanus embryos and larvae experienced only sublethal effects (i.e., reduced size at metamorphosis) due to pond sediment exposure. Our results suggest variation in pollutant tolerance among early developmental stages of amphibians may act in concert with terrestrial habitat availability to structure amphibian assemblages associated with stormwater ponds. - Variation among species in sensitivity to pollutants can influence stormwater pond amphibian assemblages

  15. Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deposition of chemical pollutants into roadside wetlands from runoff is a current environmental concern. In northern latitudes, a major pollutant in runoff water is salt (NaCl), used as de-icing agents. In this study, 26 roadside ponds were surveyed for amphibian species richness and chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests (LC50) were performed on five locally common amphibian species using a range of environmentally significant NaCl concentrations. Field surveys indicated that spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) did not occupy high chloride ponds. American toads (Bufo americanus) showed no pond preference based on chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests showed spotted salamanders and wood frogs were most sensitive to chloride, and American toads were the least. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) showed intermediate sensitivities. We concluded that chloride concentrations in ponds due to application of de-icing salts, influenced community structure by excluding salt intolerant species. - Salt toxicity is presented as a mechanism affecting the distribution of amphibians and structure of amphibian communities in roadside wetlands

  16. Gorgoderina festoni n. sp. (Digenea: Gorgoderidae) in Anurans (Amphibia) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-López, Rosario; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2005-11-01

    Gorgoderina festoni n. sp. is described from the urinary bladder of Gastrophryne usta, Leptodactylus labialis, L. melanonotus and Bufo marinus from localities at low altitude in the states of Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero and Colima, Mexico. This species differs from most other species of the genus by a combination of the following characters: lobed vitelline masses, body size 3.45-4.26 (mean 3.75) mm and sucker-ratio 1:1.3-1.52 (mean 1:1.44). The new species shares these three features with G. bilobata Rankin, 1937, G. schistorchis Steelman, 1938, G. tenua Rankin, 1937, G. vitelliloba (Olsson, 1876) and G. cryptorchis Travassos, 1924, but it differs from the first four in having gonads with entire margins. G. festoni most closely resembles G. cryptorchis, but differs from this species in body width at the level of the ventral sucker and in the absence of oesophageal glands. The autapomorphy that distinguishes G. festoni from all other members of the genus is the presence of a tegumental extension (festoon) on the external margin of the ventral sucker.

  17. Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

    2012-02-01

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 μg/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 μg/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant. PMID:21811884

  18. Expresión heteróloga de ARN mensajeros de Leishmania en ovocitos de anfibios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo Olarte Rubén Darío

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La técnica de expresión heteróloga en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis ha sido ampliamente utilizada para la caracterización funcional de canales iónicos. En este estudio se reporta el uso del modelo nativo de ovocitos de Bufo marinus para la expresión heteróloga de ARN poliadenilado (ARNm poli(A+ de Leishmania amazonensis y la posterior identificación de canales iónicos mediante registros electrofisiológicos utilizando la técnica de voltaje controlado (voltage-clamp. Se logró realizar la maduración, extracción y cultivo de ovocitos de B. marinus bajo condiciones similares a las estandarizadas para X. laevis. El potencial de reposo promedio así como las corrientes endógenas mostraron ser definidas por canales de cloruro dependientes de calcio y rectificadores de salida, de manera similar a lo reportado en X. laevis. La inyección de ARNm poli(A+ de L. amazonensis generó la expresión de corrientes de cloruro de  amplitud, cinética y características farmacológicas diferentes a las corrientes endógenas, reportadas en estudios previos con X. laevis como posible resultado de la expresión heteróloga de canales iónicos de L. amazonensis.

  19. Male size does not correlate with fertilization success in two bufonid toads that show size-assortative mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li FAN, Zhi-Hua LIN, Xiang JI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined sexual size dimorphism (SSD, mating pattern, fertilization efficiency and female reproductive traits in two bufonid toads (Bufo gargarizans and Duttaphrynus melanostictus to test the idea that importance of male body size for egg fertilization success depends on the mating pattern. Female-biased SSD was evident only in D. melanostictus. Female B. gargarizans laid fewer larger eggs nearly three months earlier than did female D. melanostictus. Fertilization efficiencies on average were higher in B. gargarizans (95% than in D. melanostictus (91%. Though differing in the degree of SSD, body size, breeding season, clutch size, egg size and fertilization efficiency, the two toads were similar in four aspects: (1 both showed size-assortative mating; (2 females did not tradeoff egg size against egg number; (3 male size, clutch size and clutch dry mass were greater in male-larger than in female-larger pairs after accounting for female snout-vent length (SVL; and (4 the ratio of male to female SVL did not affect fertilization efficiency. Our data show that: (1 a female preference for large males is likely not important in terms of egg fertilization success; (2 a male preference for large females is likely important because larger females are more fecund; and (3 size-assortative mating arises from a male preference for large females. Our study demonstrates that male size is not always important for egg fertilization success in anurans that show size-assortative mating [Current Zoology 59 (6: 740–746, 2013].

  20. Evolution of erythrocyte morphology in amphibians (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We compared the morphology of the erythrocytes of five anurans, two toad species - Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799 and three frog species - Fejervarya limnocharis (Gravenhorst, 1829, Microhyla ornata (Duméril & Bibron, 1841, and Rana zhenhaiensis (Ye, Fei & Matsui, 1995. We then reconstructed the ancestral state of erythrocyte size (ES and nuclear size (NS in amphibians based on a molecular tree. Nine morphological traits of erythrocytes were all significantly different among the five species. The results of principal component analysis showed that the first component (49.1% of variance explained had a high positive loading for erythrocyte length, nuclear length, NS and ratio of erythrocyte length/erythrocyte width; the second axis (28.5% of variance explained mainly represented erythrocyte width and ES. Phylogenetic generalized least squares analysis showed that the relationship between NS and ES was not affected by phylogenetic relationships although there was a significant linear relationship between these two variables. These results suggested that (1 the nine morphological traits of erythrocytes in the five anuran species were species-specific; (2 in amphibians, larger erythrocytes generally had larger nuclei.

  1. Insulin-stimulated Na+ transport in a model renal epithelium: protein synthesis dependence and receptor interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The urinary bladder of the toad, Bufo marinus, is a well characterized model of the mammalian distal nephron. Porcine insulin (∼ 0.5-5.0 μM) stimulates net mucosal to serosal Na+ flux within 10 minutes of hormone addition. The response is maintained for at least 5 hr and is completely abolished by low doses (10μM) of the epithelial Na+ channel blocker amiloride. Insulin-stimulated Na+ transport does not require new protein synthesis since it is actinomycin-D (10μg/ml) insensitive. Also in 3 separate experiments in which epithelial cell proteins were examined by 35S-methionine labeling, 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/autoradiography, no insulin induced proteins were observed. Equimolar concentrations of purified porcine proinsulin and insulin (0.64μM) stimulate Na+ transport to the same extent. Thus, the putative toad insulin receptor may have different affinity characteristics than those demonstrated for insulin and proinsulin in mammalian tissues. Alternatively, the natriferic action of insulin in toad urinary bladders may be mediated by occupancy of another receptor. Preliminary experiments indicating that nanomolar concentrations of IGF1 stimulate Na+ transport in this tissue support the latter contention

  2. Insulin-stimulated Na/sup +/ transport in a model renal epithelium: protein synthesis dependence and receptor interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazer-Yost, B.L.; Cox, M.

    1987-05-01

    The urinary bladder of the toad, Bufo marinus, is a well characterized model of the mammalian distal nephron. Porcine insulin (approx. 0.5-5.0 ..mu..M) stimulates net mucosal to serosal Na/sup +/ flux within 10 minutes of hormone addition. The response is maintained for at least 5 hr and is completely abolished by low doses (10..mu..M) of the epithelial Na/sup +/ channel blocker amiloride. Insulin-stimulated Na/sup +/ transport does not require new protein synthesis since it is actinomycin-D (10..mu..g/ml) insensitive. Also in 3 separate experiments in which epithelial cell proteins were examined by /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/autoradiography, no insulin induced proteins were observed. Equimolar concentrations of purified porcine proinsulin and insulin (0.64..mu..M) stimulate Na/sup +/ transport to the same extent. Thus, the putative toad insulin receptor may have different affinity characteristics than those demonstrated for insulin and proinsulin in mammalian tissues. Alternatively, the natriferic action of insulin in toad urinary bladders may be mediated by occupancy of another receptor. Preliminary experiments indicating that nanomolar concentrations of IGF/sub 1/ stimulate Na/sup +/ transport in this tissue support the latter contention.

  3. Hemoparasites of the genus Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) and hemogregarines in Anurans of the São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul States - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Denise D M; O'dwyer, Lucia H; Ribeiro, Vitor C; Silva, Reinaldo J; Ferreira, Vanda L; Rodrigues, Rozangela B

    2009-06-01

    Wild animals are exposed to numerous pathogens, including hemoparasites. The Trypanosoma and hemogregarinegroup are frequently reported as parasites in anurans (frogs, tree frogs and toads). The identification of these hemoparasites is usually made through stage observation of their morphology in the peripheral blood of the host. There areno studies, however, based on the biological cycle of these hemoparasites. The objective of the present study was toevaluate the presence of hemogregarines and Trypanosoma spp. in anurans captured in the States of São Paulo andMato Grosso do Sul- Brazil and to perform the morphological and morphometric characterization of these hemoparasites. The species of anurans examined were: Dendropsophus nanus, D. minutus, Leptodactylus chaquensis L. podicipinus, L. labyrinthicus, L. fuscus, Bufo granulosus, B. schneideri, Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis, Trachicephalus venulosus, Scinax fuscovarius and Hypsiboas albopunctatus. Of the total of 40 animals studied, four (10%)were positive for hemogregarines and eight (20%) were positive for Trypanosoma spp. Hemogregarine gamontsshowed variable morphology and, in addition to intraerythrocytic forms, extraerythrocytic forms were also observed.Extremely different forms of Trypanosoma were observed, as described in the literature, with the broad and oval forms being the most common. PMID:19488624

  4. The uranium content in the blood of some vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of fission track analysis has been used to estimate the uranium concentration in the blood of some vertebrates like lata fish (Ophiocephalus punctatus - class Pisces), toad (Bufo melanostictus -class Amphibia) and man (Homo Sapiens - class Mammalia). The uranium content in the blood of these vertebrates has been found to range from 0.20 ± 0.016 to 0.94 ± 0.038 microgram/litre. However, the concentration in toad is found to be the lowest (0.20 ± 0.016 to 0.40 ± 0.022 microgram/litre) as compared to that in fish (0.50 ± 0.027 to 0.94 ± 0.038 microgram/litre) and man (0.33 ± 0.023 to 0.74 ± 0.034 microgram/litre). The intervariation among the different classes of vertebrates as regards uranium concentration has been found to be statistically significant. (author)

  5. Effects of ADH on the apical and basolateral membranes of toad urinary bladder epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P J; Leader, J P

    1993-11-01

    Short-circuited urinary bladders from Bufo marinus were supported on their apical surface by an agar mounting method and impaled with microelectrodes via their basolateral membrane. This arrangement provided stable and long-lasting impalements of epithelial cells and yielded reliable membrane potentials and voltage divider ratios (Ra/Rb), where Ra and Rb are apical and basolateral membrane resistances respectively. The membrane potential under short-circuit conditions (Vsc) was -51.4 +/- 2.2 mV (n = 59), while under open-circuit conditions apical membrane potential (Va) and basolateral membrane potential (Vb) were -31.0 +/- 2.4 and 59.5 +/- 2.4 mV, respectively. This yields a "well-shaped" potential profile across the toad urinary bladder, where Va is inversely related to the rate of transport, Isc. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced a hyperpolarisation of Vsc and Vb but had no significant effect on Va. In addition, Ra/Rb was significantly increased by ADH (4.6 +/- 0.5 to 10.2 +/- 3.6). Calculation of individual membrane resistances following the addition of amiloride showed that ADH produced a parallel decrease in Ra and Rb membrane resistance, with the observed increase in Ra/Rb being due to a greater percentage decrease in Rb than in Ra. The ability of ADH to effect parallel changes in apical and basolateral membrane conductance helps to maintain a constant cellular volume despite an increase in transepithelial transport. PMID:8309781

  6. A survey on the faunal diversity of Savar Upazila, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Eftekhar; Chowdhury, Mohammad Mamun; Iqubal, Kazi Farhed

    2008-02-01

    A survey was conducted during January to December 2006 to assess the status of faunal diversity of Savar Upazila, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 30 species of birds, 24 species of winter birds, 7 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, 15 species of mammalians and 32 species of fishes were recorded. Relative abundance of those species were determined. Of the birds, House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) was abundant while Blyth's Kingfisher (Alcedo hercules), Rock Eagle Owl (Bubo bengalensis), Hooded Pitta (Pitta sordida), Black-headed Oriole (Oriolus xanthornus), White-winged Duck (Cairina seululala) and Duck (Anser indicus) were rare. The relative abundance of winter bird could not be assessed because of their migratory habit. Striped keelback (Amphiesma stolata) and Common Smooth Water Snake (Enhydris enhydris) were very common while Black pond turtle (Geoclyms hamiltonii) and Pond tortoise (Melanochelys trijuga) were recorded as endangered. Common Toad (Bufo melanostictus) were abundant but Bull Frog (Rana tigrina) was rare. Asiatic Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus) and House Mouse (Mus musculus) were abundant while Common Otter, Large Indian Civet, Irrawaddy River Dolphin, Indian Hare were rare. Carpu, Silver carp, Tilapia, Nilotica were abundant while, Freshwater Garfish, One stripe spinyeel and Grey Featherback were rare. Landfilling, deforestation, poaching, industrial effluents and current jal were identified as major threats to the faunal diversity of Savar area. PMID:18817158

  7. Descriptive risk assessment of the effects of acidic deposition on Rocky Mountain amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Paul Stephen; Vertucci, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the risk of habitat acidification to the six species of amphibians that occur in the mountains of Colorado and Wyoming. Our evaluation included extrinsic environmental factors (habitat sensitivity and amount of acidic atmospheric deposition) and species-specific intrinsic factors (sensitivity to acid conditions, habitat preferences, and timing of breeding). Only one of 57 surveyed localities had both acid neutralizing capacity μeq/L and sulfate deposition >10 kg/ha/yr, extrinsic conditions with a possible risk of acidification. Amphibian breeding habitats in the Rocky Mountains do not appear to be sufficiently acidic to kill amphibian embryos. Some species breed in high-elevation vernal pools during snowmelt, and an acidic pulse during snowmelt may pose a risk to embryos of these species. However, the acidic pulse, if present, probably occurs before open water appears and before breeding begins. Although inherent variability of amphibian population size may make detection of declines from anthropogenic effects difficult, acidic deposition is unlikely to have caused the observed declines of Bufo boreas and Rana pipiens in Colorado and Wyoming. Amphibians in the Rocky Mountains are not likely to be at risk with acidification inputs at present levels.

  8. Sympatric Masticophis flagellum and Coluber constrictor select vertebrate prey at different levels of taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, B.J.; Mushinsky, H.R.; McCoy, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Masticophis flagellum (Coachwhip) and Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer) are widespread North American snakes with similar foraging modes and habits. Little is known about the selection of prey by either species, and despite their apparently similar foraging habits, comparative studies of the foraging ecology of sympatric M. flagellum and C. constrictor are lacking. We examined the foraging ecology and prey selection of these actively foraging snakes in xeric, open-canopied Florida scrub habitat by defining prey availability separately for each snake to elucidate mechanisms underlying geographic, temporal, and interspecific variation in predator diets. Nineteen percent of M. flagellum and 28% of C. constrictor contained stomach contents, and most snakes contained only one prey item. Mean relative prey mass for both species was less than 10%. Larger C. constrictor consumed larger prey than small individuals, but this relationship disappeared when prey size was scaled to snake size. Masticophis flagellum was selective at the prey category level, and positively selected lizards and mammals; however, within these categories it consumed prey species in proportion to their availability. In contrast, C. constrictor preyed upon prey categories opportunistically, but was selective with regard to species. Specifically, C. constrictor positively selected Hyla femoralis (Pine Woods Treefrog) and negatively selected Bufo querclcus (Oak Toad), B. terrestris (Southern Toad), and Gastrophryne carolinensis (Eastern Narrowmouth Toad). Thus, despite their similar foraging habits, M. flagellum and C. constrictor select different prey and are selective of prey at different levels of taxonomy. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  9. 基于自然的算法在资源管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mrinmoy Majumder; 全元

    2014-01-01

    本书是由Mrinmoy Majumder与Rabindra Nath Barman等人对基于自然的算法在资源领域应用的概述。全书总共有4个部分,第1部分新的基于自然的算法,含第1—5章:1.论述了蚁群算法(ant colony optimization)在生态公园等生态旅游项目选址中的应用;2.关于蜂巢理论(hive theory)在豪猪(porcupine)栖息地选择的过程中的应用;3.关于粒子群算法(particle swarnl optimization)在小型水电站效率优化方面的应用;4.关于人工神经网络(artificial neural networks)在降雨量的短期预测中的应用研究;5.关于遗传算法(genetica lgorithm)在城市森林中黑框蟾蜍(Bufo melanostictus)生长率研究中的应用。

  10. Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, J Alan; Bustamante, Martín R; Coloma, Luis A; Consuegra, Jamie A; Fogden, Michael P L; Foster, Pru N; La Marca, Enrique; Masters, Karen L; Merino-Viteri, Andrés; Puschendorf, Robert; Ron, Santiago R; Sánchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Still, Christopher J; Young, Bruce E

    2006-01-12

    As the Earth warms, many species are likely to disappear, often because of changing disease dynamics. Here we show that a recent mass extinction associated with pathogen outbreaks is tied to global warming. Seventeen years ago, in the mountains of Costa Rica, the Monteverde harlequin frog (Atelopus sp.) vanished along with the golden toad (Bufo periglenes). An estimated 67% of the 110 or so species of Atelopus, which are endemic to the American tropics, have met the same fate, and a pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) is implicated. Analysing the timing of losses in relation to changes in sea surface and air temperatures, we conclude with 'very high confidence' (> 99%, following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC) that large-scale warming is a key factor in the disappearances. We propose that temperatures at many highland localities are shifting towards the growth optimum of Batrachochytrium, thus encouraging outbreaks. With climate change promoting infectious disease and eroding biodiversity, the urgency of reducing greenhouse-gas concentrations is now undeniable. PMID:16407945

  11. Performances of HTLV serological tests in diagnosing HTLV infection in high-risk population of São Paulo, Brazil Desempenho de testes sorológicos para o diagnóstico de infecção por HTLV em população de alto-risco de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Jacob

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Testing problems in diagnosing human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV infection, mostly HTLV-II, have been documented in HIV/AIDS patients. Since December 1998, the Immunology Department of Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL offers HTLV-I/II serology to Public Health Units that attend HTLV high-risk individuals. Two thousand, three hundred and twelve serum samples: 1,393 from AIDS Reference Centers (Group I, and 919 from HTLV out-patient clinics (Group II were sent to IAL for HTLV-I/II antibodies detection. The majority of them were screened by two enzyme immunoassays (EIAs, and confirmed by Western Blot (WB 2.4, Genelabs. Seven different EIA kits were employed during the period, and according to WB results, the best performance was obtained by EIAs that contain HTLV-I and HTLV-II viral lysates and rgp21 as antigens. Neither 1st and 2nd, nor 3rd generation EIA kits were 100% sensitive in detecting truly HTLV-I/II reactive samples. HTLV-I and HTLV-II prevalence rates of 3.3% and 2.5% were detected in Group I, and of 9.6% and 3.6% in Group II, respectively. High percentages of HTLV-seroindeterminate WB sera were detected in both Groups. The algorithm testing to be employed in HTLV high-risk population from São Paulo, Brazil, needs the use of two EIA kits of different formats and compounds as screening, and because of high seroindeterminate WB, may be another confirmatory assay.Problemas nos testes diagnósticos de infecção pelos vírus linfotrópicos de células T humanas (HTLV, principalmente HTLV-II, têm sido observados em pacientes com HIV/Aids. Desde Dezembro de 1998, a Seção de Imunologia do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL oferece a sorologia para HTLV-I/II para Serviços de Saúde Pública que atendem populações consideradas de risco para esta infecção. Duas mil trezentas e doze amostras de soro: 1.393 de Centros de Referência em Aids (Grupo I e 919 de Clínicas de Especialidade em HTLV (Grupo II foram encaminhadas para o IAL para a pesquisa de

  12. Streptococcus pneumoniae: estudo das cepas isoladas de liquor Streptococcus pneumoniae: a study of strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataiza C. Vieira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência dos sorotipos capsulares e a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae, assim como dar suporte à indicação de vacinas disponíveis e ao uso de antimicrobianos. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo retrospectivo, foram adotadas metodologias padronizadas para identificar, sorotipar e determinar a susceptibilidade à penicilina, cefotaxima e vancomicina. O estudo foi realizado com cepas de pneumococo isoladas de liquor em pacientes atendidos nos hospitais públicos e em três hospitais particulares do Distrito Federal no período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2004. A identificação e a determinação de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos foi realizada no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública no Distrito Federal. A sorotipagem foi realizada no Instituto Adolfo Lutz. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas 232 cepas de pneumococo, compreendendo 126 cepas (54,31% de pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade dos pacientes variou de 0 a 62 anos, sendo agrupados em faixas etárias de 0 a 5, 6 a 17, 18 a 50 e acima de 50 anos. Identificaram-se 36 sorotipos distintos. Desses destacaram-se oito: 14, 6B, 18C, 5, 19F, 23F, 9V e 6A. O teste de oxacilina caracterizou 67 cepas resistentes à penicilina; dessas, 47 foram confirmadas pelo E teste com resistência de nível intermediário. Nenhuma cepa apresentou resistência de alto nível. CONCLUSÃO: A resistência do pneumococo à penicilina apresentou um aumento gradativo nos últimos 10 anos no Distrito Federal. Os sorotipos mais isolados na faixa etária de 0 a 5 anos foram também os mais envolvidos na resistência à penicilina, e estão incluídos na vacina 7-valente.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of capsular serotypes and the antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as to provide recommendations on the use of available vaccines and antimicrobial drugs. METHODS: In this retrospective study, standard procedures were followed

  13. Infecção por clonorchis sinensis em imigrantes asiáticos no Brasil: tratamento com praziquantel Clonorchis sinensis infection in asian immigrants in Brazil: treatment with praziquantel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. M. Leite

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se quinze pacientes com infecção assintomática por Clonorchis sinensis, revelada através de exame parasitológico de fezes. Todos eram de origem asiática e procuraram o Laboratório Central do Instituto Adolfo Lutz para se submeterem a exames laboratoriais necessários à regularização de sua situação, face à nova legislação sobre imigrantes. Eram todos indivíduos adultos, seis pertencendo ao sexo feminino e nove ao masculino. Os quinze pacientes com clonorquíase foram internados no Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP e tratados com Praziquantel, na dosagem de 60 mg/kg de peso corporal, dividida em duas tomadas. Foram realizados exames coprológicos quantitativos (método de Kato-Katz, antes do tratamento específico e no 15º, 30º e 60º dias após a terapêutica. Na última avaliação (60? dia após terapêutica, em nove pacientes (60,0% não se encontraram ovos do trematódeo nas fezes e nos seis (40,0%, que continuavam eliminando ovos, notou-se redução na quantidade eliminada (superior a 90% em cinco e a 30% no paciente restante. Os pacientes foram também submetidos a exames subsidiários, para avaliação do estado geral e função hepática, antes da administração de Praziquantel e, posteriormente, no seguimento ambulatorial. A medicação foi relativamente bem tolerada pelos pacientes, verificando-se a ocorrência de efeitos colaterais representados por náuseas e vômitos (dois casos, vertigens e tonturas (dois casos, epigastralgia (dois casos e diarréia no 3? dia após tratamento (um caso.Fifteen adult patients with assymptomatic infection due to Clonorchis sinensis, diagnosed by coprological examination, were studied. They all came from Asia (twelve from Taiwan, two from South Korea and one from Hong Kong and were examined at the Adolfo Lutz Institute and the Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, in São Paulo, Brazil. Six patients were women and nine men. All

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil Prevalência de parasitoses intestinais em crianças institucionalizadas na região de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais

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    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.INTRODUÇÃO: As crianças são importantes grupos de risco para infecções por helmintos e protozoários. Os centros de educação infantil são ambientes onde as crianças estão mais expostas à infecção por parasitas intestinais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de parasitas intestinais em crianças de duas creches mantidas pelo governo municipal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os exames coproparasitológicos foram realizados em 133 crianças (73 crianças da Escola Municipal de Educação Infantil - EMEI A e 60 da EMEI B, depois da identificação da criança de acordo com a idade e sexo, e concordância dos

  15. Enteroparasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais Enteroparasitas e comensais em crianças de quatro bairros da periferia de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais

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    Eleuza Rodrigues Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts located in the northern, southern, eastern and western sectors of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, using the Baermann methods as modified by Moraes and Lutz. Out of 160 individuals studied, 93 (58.1% CI: 50.4-65.7 were infected, distributed among the sectors as follows: northern (72.5%, southern (47.5%, eastern (57.5% and western (55%. The positive findings according to age groups were: 0-5 years (26.9%, 5-10 years (21.2% and 10-15 years (10%. Male children presented 2.7 times higher risk of infection than females did (OR: 2.7; CI: 1052-7001. The parasites and commensals identified were: Giardia lamblia (27.5%, Entamoeba coli (20.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (14.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (8.8%, Hymenolepis nana (7.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (5%, hookworms (3.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.5%, Endolimax nana (2.5%, Entamoeba hartmanni (2.5%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1.3%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3% and Capillaria hepatica (0.6%. The infection rate in these children was high and showed the need to implement prophylactic education programs in the community.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de parasitas e comensais intestinais em crianças de quatro bairros periféricos, localizados nos setores norte, sul, leste e oeste em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, utilizando os métodos de Baermann modificado por Moraes, e de Lutz. Dos 160 indivíduos estudados, 93 (58,1%, IC: 50,4-65,7 estavam infectados, assim distribuídos: setor norte (72,5%, sul (47,5%, leste (57,5% e oeste (55%. A positividade por faixa etária foi: 0 - 5 anos (26,9%, 5 - 10 (21,2% e 10 - 15 anos (10%. As crianças do sexo masculino mostraram 2,7 maior risco de infecção (OR: 2,7, IC: 1052-7001. Os agentes identificados foram: Giardia lamblia (27,5%, Entamoeba coli (20,6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (14,4%, Enterobius vermicularis (8,8%, Hymenolepis nana

  16. Caracterização química e valor nutricional dos frutos de Byrsonima myricifolia Griseb (Malpighiaceae – alimento de aves silvestres. Chemical composition and nutritional value of fruits of Byrsonima myricifolia Griseb (Malpighiaceae – avifauna food.

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    Elisabeth de OLIVEIRA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Frutos maduros de Byrsonima myricifoliaGriseb (murici, pertencente à família Malpighiaceae,provenientes do Núcleo Curucutu do ParqueEstadual da Serra do Mar, Estado de São Paulo,foram avaliados quanto à sua composição químicae potencial nutricional. Os frutos, muito procuradospela avifauna local, foram coletados e sua polpasubmetida à análise química, segundo as NormasAnalíticas do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. A determinaçãodos elementos inorgânicos foi realizada através dadigestão ácida da amostra em HNO3 a 30% v/v,assistida por radiação de microondas e quantificada através da técnica da espectrometria de emissãoótica acoplada ao plasma por indução (ICP-OES.A polpa se mostrou ácida (pH = 3,6, com altosteores de substâncias voláteis (80,7% p/p, açúcares(6,7% p/p e fibras alimentares (9,4% p/p.Apresentou baixos teores de lipídios (1,3% p/pe proteínas (1,3% p/p. Quanto aos minerais,mostrou-se rica nos elementos K, Na, Ca e Mg enos microelementos Cu, Zn, Fe e V. A presença doelemento Pb evidenciou problemas de contaminaçãoantrópica no local de coleta. Mature fruits of Byrsonima myricifoliaGriseb (murici, belonging to the Malpighiaceaefamily and proceeding from Serra do Mar StatePark, Curucutu Nucleus, São Paulo State, wereevaluated concerning to the chemical compositionand nutritional potential. The fruits are frequentlysearched by the local avifauna. They were collectedand their pulp was submitted to chemical analysisaccording to the norms of the Adolfo Lutz Institute.The determination of the inorganic elements wasmade through the acid digestion of the sample inHNO3 at 30% v/v, aided by microwaves radiation,and quantified through the technique of ICP-OES.The pulp was acid (pH = 3.6 and with high contentsof volatile substances (80.7% w/w, sugar (6.7% w/w,and alimentary fibers (9.4% w/w. The pulp presentedlow level of fat (1.3% w/w and protein (1.3% w/w.As for the minerals, they were rich in theelements K, Na, Mg and

  17. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses of strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised and non-immunocompromised children at Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil Diagnóstico parasitológico e imunológico da estrongiloidíase em crianças imunodeprimidas e imunocompetentes na cidade de Uberlândia, MG, Brasil

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    Fabiana Martins de PAULA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological and immunological diagnoses were part of a study conducted among 151 children, 83 immunocompromised (IC and 68 non-immunocompromised (non-IC aged from zero to 12, seen at the University Hospital, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from February, 1996, to June, 1998. Three fecal samples from each child were analyzed for the parasitological diagnosis by Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. The immunological diagnosis to detect IgG and IgM antibodies was carried out by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT with cryo-microtome sections of Strongyloides stercoralis and Strongyloides ratti larvae as antigens and by the ELISA test with an alkaline extract of S. ratti as the antigens. Of the 151 children 5 (3.31% were infected with larvae of S. stercoralis (2 cases IC, 2.41%, and 3 cases non-IC, 4.41%. The IFAT-IgG detected 7 (8.43% serum samples positive among IC, and 2 (2.94% cases among non-IC. The ELISA-IgG test detected 10 (12.05% serum samples positive among IC, and 1 (1.47% case among non-IC. The IFAT-IgM detected 6 (7.22% positive cases among IC, and 3 (4.41% cases among non-IC. ELISA-IgM test detected 10 (12.05% positive cases among IC, and 3 (4.41% cases among non-IC. It was concluded that the immunological tests can help in the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised children.O diagnóstico parasitológico e imunológico da estrongiloidíase foi realizado em 151 crianças (83 imunodeprimidas -ID e 68 imunocompetentes -IC de zero a 12 anos de idade internadas no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de fevereiro de 1996 a junho de 1998. Para o diagnóstico parasitológico três amostras de fezes de cada indivíduo foram processadas pelos métodos de Baermann-Moraes e de Lutz. O diagnóstico imunológico para a detecção de anticorpos IgG e IgM foi realizado através das reações de imunofluorescência indireta

  18. Caracterização microbiológica e físico-química de leite pasteurizado destinado ao programa do leite no Estado de Alagoas Microbiological and physico-chemical characterization of pasteurized milk for the milk program in the State of Alagoas

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    Maria Cristina Delgado da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente 17 mini usinas fazem parte do Programa do Leite no estado de Alagoas, e através de um convênio firmado entre o Laboratório de Microbiologia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Alagoas e a Cooperativa de Laticínio de Alagoas - CPLA para monitorar a qualidade microbiológica e físico-química de leite pasteurizado tipo C, foram analisadas 348 amostras deste produto e avaliadas quanto à contagem de coliformes a 35 e 45 °C, quanto a bactérias aeróbias mesófilas, bactérias psicrotróficas e pesquisa de Salmonella sp., segundo metodologia convencional proposta pela Instrução Normativa nº 62/2003 do MAPA. Os parâmetros físico-químicos (acidez titulável em graus Dornic, estabilidade ao álcool, densidade a 15 °C, índice crioscópico, teor de gordura, extrato seco desengordurado e teor de proteína foram avaliados segundo metodologia convencional recomendada pelo Instituto Adolfo Lutz. As análises de gordura, proteína e extrato seco desengordurado foram realizadas utilizando o aparelho Ekomilk, conforme recomendação do fabricante. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, 134 (38,5% e 159 (45,7% amostras apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões microbiológicos e físico-químicos, respectivamente, segundo a legislação em vigor. Salmonella sp. não foi detectada nas amostras analisadas. Recomenda-se a implantação de programas de boas práticas de fabricação e análise de perigos e pontos críticos de controle para assegurar a inocuidade deste produto.Nowadays, there are 17 mini-milk processing plants in the state of Alagoas attending the "Fome Zero Program". Microbial and physico-chemical qualities of their products are being monitored at the Food Microbiology Laboratory of the Federal University of Alagoas. Three hundred and forty eight samples of type C pasteurized milk were analyzed for coliforms at 35 and 45 °C; mesophilic and psycrotrophic bacteria, as well as for the presence of Salmonella, according to the

  19. Substituição da gordura hidrogenada por óleo de soja na elaboração de pães de linhaça e avaliação da aceitabilidade Substitution of hydrogenated fat by soy oil in the elaboration of flaxseed bread and evaluation of sensory acceptance

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    Valéria Alcântara Santos Calderelli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A semente de linhaça apresenta cerca de 60% de ácidos graxos ômega-3, os quais auxiliam na prevenção de células malignas, enquanto que os ácidos graxos trans podem levar a implicações nutricionais negativas. Foi objetivo do trabalho elaborar uma nova formulação de pão de linhaça com a substituição da gordura hidrogenada por óleo de soja. Foi verificada a aceitação e realizada a quantificação dos ácidos graxos trans e ácidos graxos ômega-3 e ômega-6 nos produtos padrão e modificado. Foram, ainda, avaliados parâmetros instrumentais de cor e textura. As análises físico-químicas e de composição centesimal seguiram as metodologias do Instituto Adolf Lutz e AOAC. Para determinação de ácidos graxos utilizou-se cromatografia gasosa. A nova formulação apresentou maiores teores de ácidos graxos ômega-6 e ômega-3 e de poliinsaturados em relação ao padrão. Inversamente, a quantidade de ácidos graxos trans foi significativamente maior no pão padrão. Não foi observada diferença na cor de casca, mas a formulação com óleo de soja apresentou miolo mais amarelado e maior maciez que o padrão. O pão formulado com óleo de soja apresentou boa aceitação sensorial.Flaxseed presents about 60% omega-3 fatty acids, which aid in the prevention of the growth of cancerous cells, while trans fatty acids can lead to negative nutritional implications. This work aimed at elaborating a novel formulation of flaxseed bread with the substitution of hydrogenated fat by soy oil. Sensory acceptance was verified and the quantification of trans fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids was accomplished in the modified and standard products. Instrumental parameters of color and texture were evaluated. Physical-chemical analysis and proximate composition were carried out according to Adolfo Lutz Institute and AOAC methodology. Gas chromatography was used to determine fatty acid composition. The novel formulation presented higher

  20. Soroprevalência da hepatite B e avaliação da resposta imunológica à vacinação contra a hepatite B por via intramuscular e intradérmica em profissionais de um laboratório de saúde pública Hepatitis B seroprevalence and evaluation of immune response to hepatitis B vaccination using intramuscular and intradermal routes in public health laboratory employees

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    Regina Célia Moreira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência dos marcadores da hepatite B (HBsAg e anti-HBs e avaliar a resposta à vacinação contra hepatite B por via intradérmica (ID em profissionais de saúde que não responderam à vacinação por via intramuscular (IM. MÉTODO: Todos os funcionários do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (IAL foram convidados a participar do estudo. Amostras de soro foram colhidas no momento da administração da primeira dose de vacina (Engerix® B e o HBsAg e o anti-HBs foram pesquisados, utilizando-se kits comerciais (Laboratórios Abbott®. Aos funcionários que não responderam à vacinação convencional (três doses por via IM foram oferecidas doses de 5µg da mesma vacina por via ID. RESULTADOS: Foram envolvidos nesse estudo 404 funcionários do IAL, dos quais dois (0,5% eram HBsAg e 42 (10,5%, anti-HBs reagentes. Dos 360 voluntários com sorologia negativa, 316 (87,8% receberam três doses de vacina (IM e, desses, 259 colheram soros para avaliação pós-vacinal. Do total, 242 (93,4% apresentaram anticorpos acima de 10 UI/L após completarem o esquema inicial. Foram administradas duas doses de reforço, porém sete funcionários permaneceram sem resposta imunológica. A vacinação intradérmica foi realizada em cinco voluntários, e todos produziram anticorpos após a utilização dessa via de administração. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência da hepatite B não foi maior nessa população do que na população geral. A vacinação por via intradérmica pode ser uma boa alternativa na imunização de pessoas que não respondem ao esquema convencional.OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBs and to evaluate the response of intradermal hepatitis vaccination in healthcare workers non-responsive to previous repeated intramuscular vaccination. MATERIAL AND METHOD: All of the employees from Instituto Adolfo Lutz were invited to participate on this study. Serum samples were obtained and HBsAg and anti-HBs were detected