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Sample records for bufo gargarizans amphibia

  1. Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura

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    Ning Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin α-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two α-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

  2. Toxic effects of NH4+-N on embryonic development of Bufo gargarizans and Rana chensinensis.

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    Deng, Hongzhang; Chai, Lihong; Luo, Pingping; Zhou, Meimei; Nover, Daniel; Zhao, Xiaohong

    2017-09-01

    Although nitrogen fertilizer is commonly used worldwide, little information is currently available about NH 4 + -N toxicity on amphibians. This study determined the acute and chronic toxic effects of NH 4 + -N on two native Chinese amphibian species (Bufo gargarizans and Rana chensinensis), and compared the negative sensitivity of different embryos to NH 4 + -N. Static renewal aqueous exposures were performed using B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis embryos at Gosner stage 2 over 96 h. In terms of 96 h-LC 50 , B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis embryos had significantly different responses to NH 4 + -N, and the latter was more sensitive to NH 4 + -N than the former. In the chronic toxicity test, exposure to 10 mg L -1 NH 4 + -N or higher significantly decreased the hatching rate of embryos in both species. Significant increases in the abnormality rate of embryos at 50 mg L -1 NH 4 + -N or higher were observed and morphological abnormalities were characterized by axial flexures, yolk sac edema, and hyperplasia in both species. Additionally, the total length of embryos decreased in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to NH 4 + -N. The results indicate that NH 4 + -N exposure can increase abnormality and inhibit the hatching and development of embryos in B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Population Genetic Structure and Species Status of Asiatic Toads (Bufo gargarizans) in Western China.

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    Wen, Guannan; Yang, Weizhao; Fu, Jinzhong

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the population genetic structure of Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans) from the mountains of western China to determine their species status, using genotypic data of ten microsatellite DNA loci and DNA sequences from one mitochondrial gene. A total of 197 samples from eight sites were examined, which cover a large range of elevations (559-3457 m), as well as all three traditionally defined species (or subspecies). AMOVA did not reveal any particularly large among-groups structure, whether the sites were grouped by drainage, elevation, region, or species (subspecies). Individual assignment tests placed all samples into two genetic clusters, which largely corresponded to their geographic locations. An isolation-by-distance pattern was also detected when an outlier population (site 3) was excluded. Furthermore, a mitochondrial gene tree revealed deep divergence among haplotypes, sometimes within the same site. The clade patterns were partially associated with geographic distribution but had no resemblance to the traditional 2- or 3-species classification. Overall, these toad populations harbor a large amount of genetic diversity and have very high population differentiation, but taken together the evidence suggests that all populations belong to a single species. Our results are consistent with most previous molecular studies, and we recommend using Bufo gargarizans to represent all Asiatic toad populations from western China without subspecies division.

  4. Transcriptomics provides mechanistic indicators of fluoride toxicology on endochondral ossification in the hind limb of Bufo gargarizans.

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    Chao, Wu; Zhang, Yuhui; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2018-06-10

    Endochondral ossification, the process by which most of the bone is formed, is regulated by many specific groups of molecules and extracellular matrix components. Hind limb of Bufo gargarizans is a model to study endochondral ossification during metamorphosis. Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg L -1 ) from G3 to G42. The development of hind limb of B. gargarizans was observed using the double staining methodology. The transcriptome of hind limb of B. gargarizans was conducted using RNA-seq approach, and differentially expressed gene was also validated. In addition, the location of Sox9 and Ihh in the growth cartilage was determined using in situ hybridization. Our results showed that 5 mg L -1 stimulated bone mineralization, while 10 and 20 mg L -1 exposure could inhibit the tibio-fibula, tarsus and metacarpals ossification. Besides, 10 mg F/L treatment could down-regulate Ihh, Sox9, D2, D3, TRα, TRβ, Wnt10, FGF3 and BMP6 expression, while up-regulate ObRb and HHAT mRNA expression in the hind limb of B. gargarizans. Transcript level changes of Ihh, Sox9, D2, D3, TRα, TRβ, Wnt10, FGF3 and BMP6 were consistent with the results of RT-qPCR. In situ hybridization revealed that Ihh was expressed in prehypertrophic chondrocytes, while Sox9 was abundantly expressed in proliferous, prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes. However, 10 mg F-/L did not cause any affect in the location of the Ihh and Sox9 mRNA. Therefore, high concentration of fluoride could affect the ossification-related genes mRNA expression and then inhibit the endochondral ossification. The present study thus will greatly contribute to our understanding of the effect of environmental contaminant on ossification in amphibian. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of nitrate on metamorphosis, thyroid and iodothyronine deiodinases expression in Bufo gargarizans larvae.

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    Wang, Ming; Chai, Lihong; Zhao, Hongfeng; Wu, Minyao; Wang, Hongyuan

    2015-11-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles were exposed to nitrate (10, 50 and 100mg/L NO3-N) from the beginning of the larval period through metamorphic climax. We examined the effects of chronic nitrate exposure on metamorphosis, mortality, body size and thyroid gland. In addition, thyroid hormone (TH) levels, type II iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2) and type III iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio3) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. Results showed that significant metamorphic delay and mortality increased were caused in larvae exposed to 100mg/L NO3-N. The larvae exposed to 100mg/L NO3-N clearly exhibited a greater reduction in thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) levels. Moreover, treatment with NO3-N induced down-regulation of Dio2 mRNA levels and up-regulation of Dio3 mRNA levels, reflecting the disruption of thyroid endocrine. It seems that increased mass and body size may be correlated with prolonged metamorphosis. Interestingly, we observed an exception that exposure to 100mg/L NO3-N did not exhibit remarkable alterations of thyroid gland size. Compared with control groups, 100mg/L NO3-N caused partial colloid depletion in the thyroid gland follicles. These results suggest that nitrate can act as a chemical stressor inducing retardation in development and metamorphosis. Therefore, we concluded that the presence of high concentrations nitrate can influence the growth, decline the survival, impair TH synthesis and induce metamorphosis retardation of B. gargarizans larvae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of copper on growth, metamorphosis and endocrine disruption of Bufo gargarizans larvae.

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    Wang, Chao; Liang, Gang; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles were exposed to copper (1, 6.4, 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper) from the beginning of larval period through completion of metamorphosis. We examined the effects of chronic copper exposure on mortality, growth, time to metamorphosis, tail resorption time, body size at the metamorphic climax (Gs 42) and completion of metamorphosis (Gs 46) and thyroid gland histology. In addition, type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. Our result showed that 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper concentration increased the mortality and inhibited the growth of B. gargarizans tadpoles. In addition, significant reduction in size at Gs 42 and a time delay to Gs 42 were observed at 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper treatments. Moreover, histological examinations have clearly revealed that 64μgL(-1) copper caused follicular cell hyperplasia in thyroid gland. According to real-time PCR results, exposure to 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of Dio3, but down-regulated mRNA expression of TRα and TRβ mRNA level. We concluded that copper delayed amphibian metamorphosis through changing mRNA expression of Dio3, TRα and TRβ, which suggests that copper might have the endocrine-disrupting effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Trophic ecology and microhabitat utilization by the Bufo gargarizans, Rana guentheri, and Rana limnocharis in southwestern China

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    Tonglei Yu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the trophic ecology and microhabitat use of the Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842; Guentheri frog, Rana guentheri (Boulenger, 1882; and the Ricefield frog, Rana limnocharis (Boie, 1834. These three species are common around Nanchong City, in southwestern China, where they live in the same habitat before hibernation. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diets and patterns of coexistence relative to the microhabitat of each species. In the Asiatic toad, based on index of relative importance, the diet was dominated by adult Coleoptera, Isopoda, and Hymenoptera (29.53%, 22.07%, and 15.20%, respectively, while the Guenther's frog and Ricefield frog ingested predominantly Orthoptera (67.44% and 40.94%, respectively. The standardized feeding niche breadth of the Asiatic toad (0.277 was wider than that of the Guentheri frog (0.177 and Ricefield frog (0.269. The overlap in the trophic niche (prey proportion between the toad and two species of frog was low (toad vs. Guentheri frog, C H = 0.526; toad vs. Ricefield frog, C H = 0.521, while this was high for the two species of frogs (C H = 0.942. The three species also differed in microhabitat use. Asiatic toads showed strong preference for small roads close to shrubs or pre-harvest corn, while Guenther's frogs preferred bare surfaces on habitat edges, and Ricefield frogs showed a preference for bare surfaces as feeding sites in the middle of habitat. The difference in diet observed during three species seems to be explained by the difference in microhabitat use and body size of three species.

  8. Phylogeographic and population insights of the Asian common toad (Bufo gargarizans in Korea and China: population isolation and expansions as response to the ice ages

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    Amaël Borzée

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ice ages on speciation have been well documented for many European and North American taxa. In contrast, very few studies have addressed the consequences of such environmental and topographical changes in North East Asian species. More precisely, the Korean Peninsula offers a unique model to assess patterns and processes of speciation as it hosts the northern- and eastern-most distribution limit of some widespread Asian taxa. Despite this, studies addressing phylogeographic patterns and population genetics in the peninsula and surrounding countries are few and studies for most families are lacking. Here we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of the common toad (Bufo gargarizans from South Korea and their North East Asian counterpart populations, based on mitochondrial data. Korean B. gargarizans GenBank BLASTs matched few individuals from nearby China, but the presence of a Korean clade suggests isolation on the Korean Peninsula, previous to the last glacial maximum, linked to sea level resurgence. Molecular clock calibrations within this group were used to date the divergence between clades and their relationship to paleo-climatic events in the area. Lack of genetic structure among South Korean populations and strong homogeneity between the Korean and some Chinese localities suggest weak isolation and recent expansion. Geographical projection of continuous coalescent maximum-clade-credibility trees shows an original Chinese expansion towards the Korean Peninsula through the Yellow Sea circa two million years ago with colonisation events dating circa 800 thousand years ago (K. y. a.. Following this colonisation, the data point to outgoing Korean Peninsula dispersal events throughout different periods, towards the North through land, and West through land bridge formations over the Yellow Sea during sea level falls. In accordance, demographic analyses revealed a population expansion in the Koran Peninsula circa 300 K. y. a

  9. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura and an intermediate form in sympatry

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    Azevedo MFC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR. The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also analyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

  10. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature.

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    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Hein, Thomas; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivanković, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Brühl, Carsten A; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L -1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L -1 ) on larval development of Common toads ( Bufo bufo , L.; Amphibia: Anura) and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C). Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (-8%), induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails) and reduced algae diversity (-6%). Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl) +66%, length-to-width ratio +4%) and decreased algae diversity (-21%). No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological interactions in freshwater ecosystems. Although no clear dose

  11. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia and associated algae are altered by temperature

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    Fabian Baier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1 on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C. Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%, induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails and reduced algae diversity (−6%. Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl +66%, length-to-width ratio +4% and decreased algae diversity (−21%. No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological

  12. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

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    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  13. Infestação de Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae em sapos Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: novo registro de hospedeiro Infestation of Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae ticks on Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: new host record

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    Germano Woehl Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824 toad population (N = 125 foraging in lighted areas in the Corupá Municipality, Santa Catarina State, was surveyed to evaluate the prevalence (percentage of infestation and the mean infestation intensity of Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 (Acari, Ixodidae ticks. The prevalence was of 19.2% and the mean infestation intensity was 7.4 ticks per infested toad. For the first time B. ictericus as host of A. rotundatum is reported.

  14. Radiosensitivity of amphibia

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    Muramatsu, S [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1975-04-01

    Radiosensitivity (semi-lethal dose) and the damages of radiation in the amphibia were studied by /sup 3/H-TdR from the standpoint of cellular kinetics. The cell mitosis cycle of the amphibia required a long time. The functional cell regeneration and the physiological function of the cell were slower than in mice. The reason for the low radiosensitivity of the amphibia was discussed relative to the environmental factor of temperature. Because the amphibia change body temperature according to environmental temperature, the danger of radiation damage, the actual lethal dose and the period of survival were influenced by the environmental temperature. Acute radiation danger to amphibia was essentially the same as the danger to mammalia, both young and old. LD/sub 50/ irradiation effects varied among the species. The cell regeneration, turn over, and the mitosis in the amphibia, were affected by environmental temperature, however, the courses proceeded slower than those of the mammalia. Therefore, the question remains, whether the comparison of the radiosensitivities of amphibia with other classes of animal by LDsub(50/30) irradiation was appropriate.

  15. A new phylogeographic pattern of endemic Bufo bankorensis in Taiwan Island is attributed to the genetic variation of populations.

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    Teng-Lang Yu

    Full Text Available To comprehend the phylogeographic patterns of genetic variation in anurans at Taiwan Island, this study attempted to examine (1 the existence of various geological barriers (Central Mountain Ranges, CMRs; and (2 the genetic variation of Bufo bankorensis using mtDNA sequences among populations located in different regions of Taiwan, characterized by different climates and existing under extreme conditions when compared available sequences of related species B. gargarizans of mainland China.Phylogenetic analyses of the dataset with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA D-loop gene (348 bp recovered a close relationship between B. bankorensis and B. gargarizans, identified three distinct lineages. Furthermore, the network of mtDNA D-loop gene (564 bp amplified (279 individuals, 27 localities from Taiwan Island indicated three divergent clades within B. bankorensis (Clade W, E and S, corresponding to the geography, thereby verifying the importance of the CMRs and Kaoping River drainage as major biogeographic barriers. Mismatch distribution analysis, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots revealed that a significant population expansion occurred for the total population and Clade W, with horizons dated to approximately 0.08 and 0.07 Mya, respectively. These results suggest that the population expansion of Taiwan Island species B. bankorensis might have resulted from the release of available habitat in post-glacial periods, the genetic variation on mtDNA showing habitat selection, subsequent population dispersal, and co-distribution among clades.The multiple origins (different clades of B. bankorensis mtDNA sequences were first evident in this study. The divergent genetic clades found within B. bankorensis could be independent colonization by previously diverged lineages; inferring B. bankorensis originated from B. gargarizans of mainland China, then dispersal followed by isolation within Taiwan Island. Highly divergent clades between W and E of B

  16. Trypanosomes of Bufo americanus from northern Michigan.

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    Werner, J K; Davis, J S; Slaght, K S

    1988-10-01

    Two hundred one American toads (Bufo americanus) from northern Michigan were examined for blood trypanosomes. Three species, Trypanosoma bufophlebotomi, T. schmidti-like sp. and T. pseudopodia, had prevalences of 27, 16 and 1%, respectively. Cross experimental inoculations showed that T. bufophlebotomi from toads is not the same as T. ranarum found in frogs of the family Ranidae of this region.

  17. A DESCRIPTION OF BUFO PARDALIS TADPOLES (ANURA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadpoles of Bufo parda/is Hewitt from Kei Road, Cape Province, are described. INTRODUCTION. Although tadpoles of B. pardalis have been included in Van Dijk's (1971) key to the genus Bufa, no adequate description of this taxon has yet been published. Further studies on variability depend upon a complete description ...

  18. BUFO PARDALIS (ANURA: BUFONIDAE): MATING CALL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the calls of one of these species, Bufo pardalis. Hewitt, were not analysed by Tandy & Keith. (1972). Furthennore there is some confusion in the literature regarding the mating call of this species. For these reasons this mating call is here clarified. The mating call of B. pardaiis was first described by Ranger (in Hewitt 1935) as ...

  19. Lankesterella alencari n. sp., a toxoplasma-like organism in the central nervous system of Amphibia (Protozoa, Sporozoa Lankesterella alencari n. sp., um toxoplasma-like no sistema nervoso central de Amphibia (Protozoa, Sporozoa

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    Sylvio Celso Gonçalves da Costa

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella alencari n. sp. a Sporozoa that occur in the blood and CNS of the South American frog Leptodactylus acellatus is described. Since the tissue forms of this parasite have been previously reported as belonging to the genus Toxoplasma, we attempted in fection of 2 species of amphibia (Bufo marinus an dLeptodactylus ocellatus with a Toxoplasma strain of human origen; inoculation was by intraperitoneal injection of parasite-containing ascitic fluid from infected mice. Attempt of experimental inoculation of the parasite found in the CNS of L. ocellatus in a highly susceptible host (mice was unsuccessful. These results suggest that Toxoplasma does not occur naturally in the amphibia; be related to Toxoplasma is excluded. The following genera of haematozoa found in brazilian amphibia have been considered briedfly: Haemobartonella, Cytamoeba, Dactylosoma, Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma.Os autores descrevem uma espécie do gênero Lankesterella considerada nova para a ciência, que ocorre com certa freqüência parasitando a rã Leptodactylus ocellatus no Brasil. Como os cistos dêste parasito, encontrados no SNC, foram anteriormente relacionados ao gênero Toxoplasma por outro autor, realizamos uma série de inoculações experimentais para eliminar a hipótese. Tanto as inoculações com amostra de Toxoplasma gondii de origem humana em anfíbios, como as de mascerados de SNC de rã contendo cistos em camundongos, foram negativas. As inoculações de T. gondii em anfíbios foram realizadas em temperatura ambiente que no Rio de Janeiro, na época era 30º-39ºC. Não encontramos, por outro lado, cistos no SNC de anfíbios do gênero Bufo, fato assinalado por outros autores. Realizamos algumas técnicas citoquímicas para melhor caracterização do parasito. Tendo em vista o grande número de hemoparasitos encontrados nas rãs brasileiras e as infecções múltiplas ocorrerem com freqüência, apresentamos também a incidência dêstes parasitos

  20. [Conseqquences of dorso-ventral and anterior-posterior reversion of early neurula lateral mesoblast on development of urogenital system in common toad, Bufo bufo. (Amphibia anura)].

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    Hakim, J; Gipouloux, J D

    1975-10-27

    At early neurula stage of the toad, cranio-caudal and dorso-ventral reversal of lateral mesoblast is performed. The genito-urinary system is therefore missing after this intervention. The three following factors of the formation of this system anlage are anlyzed: lateral mesoderm competence, stimulative activites of dorso-caudal endoblast on the one hand, of chordo-mesoderm on the other hand.

  1. Thyroid anatomy and topography of toad (Bufo marinus ictericus)

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    Santos, O.R. dos.

    1970-01-01

    The autoradiographic method is used for the study of the toad's thyroid of Bufo marinus ictericus by 131 I. Histolological proceedings are done. Comparative evaluations with bibliographic informations are presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of the west-palearctic common toads (Bufo bufo species complex).

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    Garcia-Porta, J; Litvinchuk, S N; Crochet, P A; Romano, A; Geniez, P H; Lo-Valvo, M; Lymberakis, P; Carranza, S

    2012-04-01

    In most pan-Eurasiatic species complexes, two phenomena have been traditionally considered key processes of their cladogenesis and biogeography. First, it is hypothesized that the origin and development of the Central Asian Deserts generated a biogeographic barrier that fragmented past continuous distributions in Eastern and Western domains. Second, Pleistocene glaciations have been proposed as the main process driving the regional diversification within each of these domains. The European common toad and its closest relatives provide an interesting opportunity to examine the relative contributions of these paleogeographic and paleoclimatic events to the phylogeny and biogeography of a widespread Eurasiatic group. We investigate this issue by applying a multiproxy approach combining information from molecular phylogenies, a multiple correspondence analysis of allozyme data and species distribution models. Our study includes 304 specimens from 164 populations, covering most of the distributional range of the Bufo bufo species complex in the Western Palearctic. The phylogenies (ML and Bayesian analyses) were based on a total of 1988 bp of mitochondrial DNA encompassing three genes (tRNAval, 16S and ND1). A dataset with 173 species of the family Bufonidae was assembled to estimate the separation of the two pan-Eurasiatic species complexes of Bufo and to date the main biogeographic events within the Bufo bufo species complex. The allozyme study included sixteen protein systems, corresponding to 21 presumptive loci. Finally, the distribution models were based on maximum entropy. Our distribution models show that Eastern and Western species complexes are greatly isolated by the Central Asian Deserts, and our dating estimates place this divergence during the Middle Miocene, a moment in which different sources of evidence document a major upturn of the aridification rate of Central Asia. This climate-driven process likely separated the Eastern and Western species. At the

  3. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na+/K+-ATPase localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca; Tripepi, Manuela; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na + /K + -ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was greater and we

  4. Anomalías oculares en híbridos Bufo paranecmis ♂ x Bufo arenarum ♀ (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengel, Dora

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Los híbridos entre Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum se encuadran en los llamados "híbridos vitales". Los resultados han evidenciado relevantes anomalías oculares que se manifiestan en un 90% de los casos. En algunas larvas falta el cristalino tanto en uno como en ambos ojos (20%; en otras larvas el cristalino se encuentra ubicado en posición opuesta al normal (25% o bien puede ocurrir que se forme un ojo normal y el otro de forma distinta (20%. El análisis histológico mostró anomalías en la zona retiniana, evidenciándose a partir de los estratos pigmentarios, repliegues y movimientos flexuosos (5%. También existen ojos replegados sobre sí mismos (5%. Las alteraciones más severas llevaron a procesos de anoftalmia (10%. En ocasiones (5% en lugar del ojo se evidencian grumos de pigmento. Se obtuvo un 10% con ojos normales. Los otros órganos presentan analogía con los de las larvas de Bufo paracnemis, inclusive la librea dorsal. The hybrids between Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum are counted among tbe so called "vital hybrids". Our results have revealed relevant ocular anomalies in 90% of cases. In some larvae the lens is lacking in either one or both eyes (20%; in others the lens it is found in an opposite position to normal (25% or else one normal and one different eye is formed (20%. Histological analysis reveals anomalies in the retinal area, observing flexuous movements in the pigmentary strata (5%. Eyes folded over themselves were also observed (5%. The most severe alterations produced cases of anophtalmia (10%. On occasions (5%, groupings of pigments were found instead of the eyes. l0% of the larvae were normal. The other organs show analogies to those of the larvae of Bufo paracnemis, including the dorsal pattem.

  5. Experimental population dynamics of Rhabdias bufonis (Nematoda) in toads (Bufo bufo): density-dependence in the primary infection

    OpenAIRE

    Goater, C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Density-dependence in worm establishment, numbers, biomass and larval production were examined in primary infections of 0, 10, 40, 80 and 160 larvae of the lung nematode, Rhabdias bufonis in the common toad, Bufo bufo. The infection procedure established 4 non-overlapping levels of infection which persisted until 6 weeks post-infection (p.i.), after which there was an overall decline up to 12 weeks p.i. Worm numbers had no direct effect on adult worm survival but temporal changes in worm weig...

  6. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Tripepi, Manuela [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, 201 Leidy Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brunelli, Elvira, E-mail: brunelli@unical.it [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was

  7. The distribution of Bufo poweri in southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-03-13

    Mar 13, 1990 ... regularis (Frost 1985). ,. Bufo garmani was described from Somalia (Meek 1897), while the morphologically similar B. poweri was described from Kimberley (Hewitt 1935). A long-standing problem has been to determine the status of B. poweri, based on preserved material. These two species are so similar ...

  8. Evolution of Acoustic Behaviour in African Bufo (Anura: Bufonidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mating calls are known for 29 species of African Bufo belonging to 11 species groups. Twenty-five African species, representing eight species groups (including four groups or complexes having 2N=22) have calls which Martin (1972) termed Type I. This call type is also found in Schismaderma carens, Nectophrynoides ...

  9. Differing long term trends for two common amphibian species (Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria in alpine landscapes of Salzburg, Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kyek

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the population trends of two widespread European anuran species: the common toad (Bufo bufo and the common frog (Rana temporaria. The basis of this study is data gathered over two decades of amphibian fencing alongside roads in the Austrian state of Salzburg. Different statistical approaches were used to analyse the data. Overall average increase or decrease of each species was estimated by calculating a simple average locality index. In addition the statistical software TRIM was used to verify these trends as well as to categorize the data based on the geographic location of each migration site. The results show differing overall trends for the two species: the common toad being stable and the common frog showing a substantial decline over the last two decades. Further analyses based on geographic categorization reveal the strongest decrease in the alpine range of the species. Drainage and agricultural intensification are still ongoing problems within alpine areas, not only in Salzburg. Particularly in respect to micro-climate and the availability of spawning places these changes appear to have a greater impact on the habitats of the common frog than the common toad. Therefore we consider habitat destruction to be the main potential reason behind this dramatic decline. We also conclude that the substantial loss of biomass of a widespread species such as the common frog must have a severe, and often overlooked, ecological impact.

  10. Primeras observaciones sobre la alimentación de sapos (Bufo bufo) juveniles durante la emergencia en el País Vasco

    OpenAIRE

    VIGNES, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Se aportan las primeras observaciones sobre Bufo bufo, que vienen a completar los estudios de alimentación de anuros juveniles realizados en el País Vasco durante el periodo de emergencia. Se analiza el contenido estomacal de 35 individuos (longitud media de 11,54 mm) emergidos de una charca a comienzos de agosto. Todos los jóvenes sapos se alimentan de invertebrados terrestres desde su emergencia, siendo los ácaros de presa más consumida (75,7%), seguida de los coleópteros adultos y los hi...

  11. [The effects of anterio-posterior and dorso-ventral inversions of the lateral mesoblast of the neurula on the formation of the mesonephric, medullary, and adrenal anlage of the common toad, Bufo bufo L. (Amphibia, Anoura)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipouloux, J D; Hakim, J

    1975-10-13

    The experimental results of cranio-caudal reversal and dorso-ventral reversal of the lateral mesoblast of the toad early neurula prove that, at this stage, the cranio-caudal polarity of this tissue is fixed but not the dorso-ventral one. External factors are responsible for the formation of mesonephric, adrenal and gonadal medullary anlage by the lateral mesoblast.

  12. Localization of water channels in the skin of two species of desert toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) punctatus and Incilius (Bufo) alvarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yuki; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Hillyard, Stanley D; Nagai, Takatoshi

    2011-09-01

    Anuran amphibians obtain water by osmosis across their ventral skin. A specialized region in the pelvic skin of semiterrestrial species, termed the seat patch, contains aquaporins (AQPs) that become inserted into the apical plasma membrane of the epidermis following stimulation by arginine vasotocin (AVT) to facilitate rehydration. Two AVT-stimulated AQPs, AQP-h2 and AQP-h3, have been identified in the epidermis of seat patch skin of the Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica, and show a high degree of homology with those of bufonid species. We used antibodies raised against AQP-h2 and AQP-h3 to characterize the expression of homologous AQPs in the skin of two species of toads that inhabit arid desert regions of southwestern North America. Western blot analysis of proteins gave positive results for AQP-h2-like proteins in the pelvic skin and also the urinary bladder of Anaxyrus (Bufo) punctatus while AQP-h3-like proteins were found in extracts from the pelvic skin and the more anterior ventral skin, but not the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical observations showed both AQP-h2- and AQP-h3-like proteins were present in the apical membrane of skin from the pelvic skin of hydrated and dehydrated A. punctatus. Further stimulation by AVT or isoproterenol treatment of living toads was not evident. In contrast, skin from hydrated Incilius (Bufo) alvarius showed very weak labeling of AQP-h2- and AQP-h3-like proteins and labeling turned intense following stimulation by AVT. These results are similar to those of tree frogs and toads that occupy mesic habitats and suggest this pattern of AQP expression is the result of phylogenetic factors shared by hylid and bufonid anurans.

  13. Mechanisms underlying the organizer formation in Bufo arenarum embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, M E; Nieto, O L

    1989-06-01

    In the early gastrula of Bufo arenarum the prospective mesoderm was previously identified as a marginal belt of grey cells. To analyze their differentiation capacity explants of these cells were cultured within ectodermal vesicles, in isolation and in combination with vegetal components. When cultured in isolation, dorsal and ventral fragments from the deep marginal zone behaved differently. Whilst ventral explants produced blood cells, dorsal explants failed to differentiate, remaining as masses of yolk-laden cells. On the other hand, both cultures were drastically modified when associated with superficial cells from the blastoporal zone, which caused the following effects: a) Promotion of differentiation in dorsal marginal explants, able now to produce notochordal and somitic structures, in addition to mesenchymatic cells. b) Promotion of dorsalization in ventral marginal explants, which changed their expected destiny developing axial components, similar to those furnished by "activated" dorso marginal explants. On the contrary, combined cultures of animal and vegetal pieces were unable to generate mesodermal structures. These studies suggest that the axial mesoderm, identified as the "organizer", develops from a marginal substrate of genuine mesodermal cells through a dorsalizing inductive stimulus originated in superficial periblastoporal cells.

  14. Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isioma Tongo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE, corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxidative stress. Toads were exposed to 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 g/L for 28 days. Brain AChE activity reduced by 96% in the highest concentration (0.04 g/L compared to the control brain. Similarly, AChE activities in serum, liver, lungs and GIT tissues (88%, 88%, 87, 87% umg-1 protein respectively were also inhibited in the toads. Corticosterone and total protein levels in the tissues decreased compared to the control. The accumulation results obtained showed accumulation in the tissues (liver>serum>brain> lung>GIT, with a direct relationship between tissue concentration and changes in the biochemical indices. The alterations in all the indices were significantly concentration dependent. The biomarkers described in this study could be useful complementary indices in the risk assessment of diazinon pesticide.

  15. A new species of Bufo Laurenti (Anura, Bufonidae from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nazaré Stevaux

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of bufonid load, Bufo jimi sp. nov., is described from Maracás and Itagibá, State of Bahia, Brazil. This species shows close relationships to B. paracnemis Lutz, 1925 by sharing the presence of tibial glands and the paratoid glands shape. The new species is a member of the Bufo marinus-group, and is characlerized by having well-defined glands in most part of dorsal faceof the forearms, in the extcrn side of the feet and in both sides of cloacal region.

  16. Primeras observaciones sobre la alimentación de sapos (Bufo bufo juveniles durante la emergencia en el País Vasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIGNES, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aportan las primeras observaciones sobre Bufo bufo, que vienen a completar los estudios de alimentación de anuros juveniles realizados en el País Vasco durante el periodo de emergencia. Se analiza el contenido estomacal de 35 individuos (longitud media de 11,54 mm emergidos de una charca a comienzos de agosto. Todos los jóvenes sapos se alimentan de invertebrados terrestres desde su emergencia, siendo los ácaros de presa más consumida (75,7%, seguida de los coleópteros adultos y los himenópteros alados. Aunque las presas fundamentales son las mismas, los regímenes comparados de los metamorfoseados de varias especies de anuros (Rana dalmatina, R. temporaria et Hyla arborea muestran diferencias en la selección trófica.

  17. Factors limiting the recovery of boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, C.; Corn, P.S.; Jones, M.S.; Livo, L.J.; Muths, E.; Loeffler, C.W.; Lannoo, M.

    2005-01-01

    Boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas) are widely distributed over much of the mountainous western United States. Populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains suffered extensive declines in the late 1970s through early 1980s (Carey, 1993). At the time, these mass mortalities were thought to be associated with a bacterial infection (Carey, 1993). Although the few populations that survived the mass die-offs were not systematically monitored until at least 1993, no mass mortalities had been observed until 1996 when die-offs were observed. A mycotic skin infection associated with a chytrid fungus is now causing mortality of toads in at least two of the populations (M.S. Jones and D.E. Green, unpublished data; Muths et al., 2003). Boreal toads are now absent throughout large areas of their former distribution in Colorado and southern Wyoming and may be extinct in New Mexico (Corn et al., 1989; Carey, 1993; Stuart and Painter, 1994). These toads are classified as “endangered” by Colorado and New Mexico and are designated as a protected non-game species in Wyoming. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has categorized the Southern Rocky Mountain populations for federal listing and is currently reviewing their designation as a “warranted but precluded” species for possible listing in the next few years. For the management of boreal toads and their habitats, a Boreal Toad Recovery Team was formed by the Colorado Division of Wildlife in 1995 as part of a collaborative effort with federal agencies within the United States’ departments of the Interior and Agriculture and with agencies in two adjoining states. To date, conservation agreements have been signed by eight state and federal agencies and by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. Although boreal toads were considered common throughout their range in Colorado, no comprehensive surveys of the numbers and sizes of their populations were conducted prior to mass die-offs in the 1970s. Surveys completed in the late 1980s to

  18. How fast do amphibians disperse? Introductions, distribution and dispersal of the common frog Rana temporaria and the common toad Bufo bufo on a coastal island in Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Dolmen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common frog (Rana temporaria and the common toad (Bufo bufo were introduced successfully to the coastal island of Frøya in Central Norway several times during 1960–2012. There is still a very high degree of conformity between sites where they were introduced and the present distribution of the two species. However, in western Frøya, a release of frogs about 1996 was followed by a quick expansion of their distribution area; in 2012 and 2013, breeding was registered close to 7 km westwards and eastwards, respectively, i.e. a population dispersal speed of approximately 0.4 km/yr. On eastern Frøya and some small islands in the archipelago, area expansions at another four frog localities have been prevented by ecological barriers like unfavourable limnetic or terrestrial habitats or salty water. Two local common toad populations on eastern Frøya do not show any expansion either. However, an apparently isolated record of the species on western Frøya in 2011 can possibly be explained by the expansion westwards of a population in northern central Frøya, where toads were introduced around 1995. This stretch is about 9.9 km, i.e. an average population dispersal speed of 0.6 km/yr.

  19. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2015-01-01

    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50% of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The issue of maternal transfer of thallium from females to oocytes is discussed. Due to a significant accumulation of thallium, spawn analysis can be used as a sensitive indicator of the presence of this element in the environment and may replace more invasive methods that involve the killing of adult animals. In those regions that are abundant in Zn-Pb ores, the spawn of amphibians may be a very important source of thallium contamination for predators. From among all tissues of the Bukowno adult toads, the livers have shown the highest accumulation of thallium (mean 3.98 mg/kg d.w. and maximum value--18.63). For as many as 96.5% of livers, concentrations exceeded 1.0 mgTl/kg d.w. which is treated as indicative of poisoning.

  20. Uma nova hemogregarina no sangue de Bufo crucifer wied, 1821 do Brasil A new hemogregarine in the blood of Bufo crucifer wied, 1821 from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de hemagregarinas no sangue dos sapos que examinamos (Bufo crucifer, B. marinus e Melanophryniscus moreirae revelou-se extremamente rara; apenas um exemplar de B. crucifer procedente de Manguinhos (Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara apresentou-se parasitado. As formas sanguíneas encontradas eram intra-eritrocitárias, medindo em média 10,8/ 3,6µ; não as identificamos como trofozoítos ou gametócitos e discutimos este fato. As hemácias parasitadas tinham dimensões normais, porém podiam ter o núcleo deslocado. Supomos ser esta a primeira referência a hemogregarinas neste hospedeiro. Não encontramos identidade entre as formas que descrevemos e aquelas referidas em outras espécies de sapos; fornecemos uma lista das hemogregarinas achadas nestes hospedeiros. Denominamos provisoriamente os parasitos que encontramos Haemogregarina "sensu lato", até que novos dados sobre seu ciclo evolutivo sejam conhecidos.The occurrence of hemogregarines in the blood of Brazilian toads that we have examined (Bufo crucifer, B. Marinus and Melanophryniscus moreirae has displayed very scarce; only one specimen of B. crucifer from Manguinhos (Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara was infected. The blood forms that we found were intraerythrocytic, averaging 10,8 by 3,6µ; we did not differenciate them as thophozoites or as gametocytes and we discuss this fact. The infected erythrocytes were not hypertrophied and their nucleus was normal and sometimes displaced. We think that it is the first reference to hemogregarines in this host. We did not evidence identity among the forms that we described and those reported in other species of toads; we give a list of hemogregarines found in those hosts. We provisorily named the parasites that we found Haemogregarina "sensu lato", until new data about their life cycle become known.

  1. Antibacterial activity of the parotid glands secretions of sudanese indigenous african toad (Bufo spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugabr, H. E.; Elhussein, S. A.; Mahmoud, Z. N.

    2009-01-01

    The study revealed a well-built first line innate immunity system in Bufo Spp., the skin extracts illustrated a very active antibiotic attitude which inhibited the growth of human pathogenic bacteria species, Escherichia coli (ATCC 19615), staphylococcus aureus(ATCC29213) and streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC25922). Heat treatment of secretion supported the fact that the antibacterial components possess an enzymatic attitude. Gel filtration chromatography accompanied with sensitivity tests against S.aureus showed the existence of four groups responsible for antibacterial activity in the parotoid glands secretions.(Author)

  2. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243 on Bufo marinus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Daniels

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Limnothrix (strain AC0243 is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243 live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine are discussed.

  3. The Effects of the Toxic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix (Strain AC0243) on Bufo marinus Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Olivia; Fabbro, Larelle; Makiela, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Limnothrix (strain AC0243) is a cyanobacterium, which has only recently been identified as toxin producing. Under laboratory conditions, Bufo marinus larvae were exposed to 100,000 cells mL−1 of Limnothrix (strain AC0243) live cultures for seven days. Histological examinations were conducted post mortem and revealed damage to the notochord, eyes, brain, liver, kidney, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. The histopathological results highlight the toxicological impact of this strain, particularly during developmental stages. Toxicological similarities to β-N-Methylamino-l-alanine are discussed. PMID:24662524

  4. Radiography atlas of domestic animals. Small mammals, birds, reptilia, and amphibia. Atlas der Roentgendiagnostik bei Heimtieren. Kleinsaeuger, Voegel, Reptilien und Amphibien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebel, G.A.; Isenbuegel, E.; Wolvekamp, P. (eds.); Gabrisch, K.; Grimm, F.; Koblik, P.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Oschwald, C.P.; Schildger, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 370 radiographs presented in the atlas together with notes and explanations give information on normal roentgenographic findings, physiological variations, and important pathological findings observed in small mammals, birds, reptilia and amphibia. Introductory notes to each chapter explain the principles of exposure techniques and the handling of the animals. (VHE).

  5. Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Lankesterellidae from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Paperna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. is described from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru. Merogony and oogony occur in the capillary endothelium and the macrophages in the liver, spleen and kidneys. Meronts are oval, 25,2–29,4 x 15,7–16,8 μm in size and yield 35–46 merozoites. Oocysts are 26,3–29,4 x 15,1–17,6 μm in size; sporozoites 9,2-9,8 x 4,2–5,0 μm in size, assemble in macrophages. Released 8,7–9,8 x 2,8–3,1 μm sporozoites enter erythrocytes. L. poeppigii is compared with Lankesterella petiti Lainson & Paperna, 1995 infecting Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil. The above mentioned specific characters, added to differences in hosts and geographical location warrant the description of Lankesterella poeppigii from B. poeppigii as a new species.

  6. Seasonal and daily plasma corticosterone rhythms in American toads, Bufo americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancak, M.K.; Taylor, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of corticosterone were measured in the plasma of American toads, Bufo americanus, on a seasonal basis using a radioimmunoassay technique. Two populations of toads, maintained under different light conditions, were monitored to observe the effects of photoperiod on the seasonal rhythm of plasma corticosterone. Under a natural photoperiod toads demonstrated a rhythm consisting of a spring peak and a fall peak in corticosterone concentration. Toads maintained under a 12L:12D photoperiod all year round demonstrated a similar rhythm with peaks in the spring and fall. This suggests that an endogenous (circannual) rhythm of corticosterone may be playing an important role in the seasonal change of overt behavior and physiology of Bufo americanus. A daily rhythm of corticosterone was also detected in toads when blood samples were taken every 4 hr. When compared to a previously published circadian rhythm study of locomotor activity, the surge in corticosterone concentration for the day occurred at 1730 just prior to the peak in locomotor activity

  7. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  8. Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Parameters of Pelophylax Esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broshko Ye. O.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Prameters of Pelophylax esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones. Broshko Ye. O. — Structural and biomechanical parameters of Edible Frog, Pelophylax esculentus (Linnaeus, 1758, limb bones, namely, mass, linear dimensions, parameters of the shaft’s cross-sectional shape (cross-sectional area, moments of inertia, radiuses of inertia were investigated. Some coefficients were also estimated: diameters ratio (df/ds, cross-sectional index (ik, principal moments of inertia ratio (Imax/Imin.. Coefficients of variation of linear dimensions (11.9-20.0 % anrelative bone mass (22-35 % were established. Moments of inertia of various bones are more variable (CV = 41.67-56.35 % in relation to radii of inertia (CV = 9.68-14.67 %. Shaft’s cross-sectional shape is invariable in all cases. However, there is high individual variability of structural and biomechanical parameters of P. esculentus limb bones. Variability of parameters was limited by the certain range. We suggest the presence of stable norm in bone structure. Stylopodium bones have the primary biomechanical function among the elements of limb skeleton, because their parameters most clearly responsive to changes in body mass.

  9. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorchin, A.; Shanas, U.

    2010-01-01

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  10. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchin, A; Shanas, U

    2010-12-01

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's "first flush", but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative......, and apparent leakage conductance was reduced. Application of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to skin of fully salt-adapted toads increased the transepithelial Cl- conductance, and the time courses of voltage clamp currents became more like those of water-adapted toads. Apparent...... leakage conductance was increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  12. Serum and hepatic vitamin A levels in captive and wild marine toads (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkvens, Charlene N; Lentini, Andrew; Dutton, Christopher J; Pearl, David L; Barker, Ian K; Crawshaw, Graham J

    2014-01-01

    The captive breeding program for the endangered Puerto Rican crested toad (Peltophryne [Bufo] lemur) has been hampered by an undiagnosed condition called "Brown Skin Disease" (BSD). Toads develop widespread skin darkening, skin thickening and abnormal shedding and eventually succumb to a chronic loss of viability. This project evaluated the marine toad (Bufo marinus) as a model for the PRCT, examining vitamin A deficiency as a potential cause of BSD. Wild caught marine toads had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations (61.89 ± 63.49 µg/g) than captive born marine toads (0.58 ± 0.59 µg/g); P<0.001). A significant difference in serum vitamin A concentration was found between the captive and wild caught toads (P=0.013) and between the low vitamin A-fed and wild caught toads (P=0.004), when controlling for liver vitamin A concentrations. After captive toads were treated with topical and/or oral vitamin A, their hepatic vitamin A concentrations were similar to those of the wild toads, averaging 48.41 ± 37.03 µg/g. However, plasma vitamin A concentrations pre- and post-vitamin A supplementation did not differ statistically. We concluded that plasma vitamin A concentrations do not provide a linear indication of liver/body vitamin A status, and that both topical and oral supplementation with an oil-based vitamin A formulation can increase liver stores in amphibians. No evidence of BSD or other signs of deficiency were noted in the marine toads, although this feeding trial was relatively short (127 days). To date, clinical, pathological and research findings do not support vitamin A deficiency as a primary factor underlying BSD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Alimentación y fecundidad de Bufo variegatus (Anura: Bufonidae en Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappi, Guillermina E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la alimentación de una población de Bufo variegatus procedente de la región de Lago del Desierto, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. De los 11 ítems presa identificados, los más consumidos por los adultos (tanto machos como hembras fueron los coleópteros. En los machos la segunda categoría presa mas importante en la contribución a la dieta fueron los ácaros, mientras que en las hembras las hormigas y las larvas de insectos siguieron en importancia al consumo de coleópteros. En los especímenes juveniles, los ácaros fueron las presas más consumidas, quedando los coleópteros en segundo lugar en importancia relativa. Se demuestra la existencia de una correlación positiva significativa entre el volumen de las presas y el tamaño del depredador. Se aportan datos referentes a la fecundidad de B. variegatus y se comprueba la ausencia de correlación entre el tamaño de las hembras grávidas y el número de óvulos maduros. The diet of a population of Bufo variegatus from the region of Lago del Desierto, Santa Cruz province, Argentina, is described. Of the 11 prey items identified, Coleoptera was the most consumed prey both for males and females. In males, the second most important prey was Acarii, while in females they were the ants and insect larvae. Acarii was the most consumed prey for juveniles, followed by Coleoptera. A significant positive correlation was found between prey volume and predator body size. Fecundity information for B. variegwus is given, and a lack of correlation between snout-vent length of mature females and ovarian egg complement is demonstrated.

  14. Diets of tadpoles from a temporary pond in southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de C. Rossa-Feres

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of tadpoles of 13 anuran species was determined to verify whether food resource partitioning occurs and whether the degree of diet similarity is related to taxonomic affinity. Tadpoles of all species studied were mainly herbivorous, except for these of Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 which were mycophagous. Although some species had exclusive items in their diet, most tadpole species ingested the same items, but differed in the amount of each item consumed. Two guilds were found: tadpoles that feed on diatoms on the pond bottom, and tadpoles that feed on Oedogonium Link, 1820 algae in midwater. Diet similarity was related to the taxonomic relationship, microhabitat and feeding behavior of tadpoles indicating that the community organization is complex and resulting from the interaction of several parameters.Dieta dos girinos de um açude temporário no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura. Determinou-se a dieta dos girinos de 13 espécies de anuros, com o objetivo de verificar se ocorre partilha de recursos alimentares e se o grau de similaridade na dieta é relacionado ao parentesco, inferido pela proximidade taxonômica. Os girinos de todas as espécies estudadas foram preponderantemente herbívoros, exceto os de Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 que foram micófagos. Embora algumas espécies tenham apresentado itens exclusivos em sua dieta, os girinos da maioria das espécies ingeriram os mesmos itens, diferindo na quantidade consumida de cada item. Duas guildas foram encontradas: girinos que se alimentam de diatomáceas no fundo do corpo d'água e girinos que se alimentam de algas do gênero Oedogonium Link, 1820 à meia-água. A similaridade na dieta foi relacionada à proximidade taxonômica, ao microhabitat e ao comportamento de alimentação, indicando que a organização desta comunidade é complexa e resultante da interação entre vários fatores.

  15. Comparative study on the tongue of Bufo regularis and Chalcides ocellatus in relation to their habitats

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    E.H. Elsheikh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the structure of the tongue of the toad, Bufo regularis and the lizard, Chalcides ocellatus. They have different feeding habits and live in different habitats. The tongue of the toad contains two types of lingual papillae; fungiform papillae and filiform papillae. The fungiform papillae are usually scattered among the filiform papillae and are believed to function in gustation and in the secretion of salivary fluid. Scanning electron microscopical studies revealed that no ciliated cells were observed on the surface of the filiform papillae or in the surrounding area of the sensory disc. In C. ocellatus the tip of the tongue is bifurcated and keratinized. The dorsal surface of the tongue is covered with several types of papillae; irregular, scale and ridge-shaped. Taste buds were present in the epithelium of the tongue. The lingual glands consist of mucous cells that form crypt-like invaginations between papillae. The present study revealed that there is a marked correlation between the structure of the tongue of both B. regularis and C. ocellatus and habitats and feeding mechanism of the two species.

  16. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkovits, J.; D’Eramo, J. L.; Fridman, O.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300–310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

  17. ALIMENTACIÓN DE BUFO MARINUS (LINNAEUS, 1758 (BUFONIDAE: ANURA, EN UNA LOCALIDAD DE SUCRE, COLOMBIA

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    Sampedro Alcides

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron recolectas nocturnas de Bufo marinus en una localidad del departamento de Sucre. Se recolectaron 197 ejemplares, de los cuales 128 fueron hembras y 69 machos. Los ejemplares fueron medidos y pesados y se les practicó una disección para extraer el estómago y determinar aspectos cualitativos (tipo de presas y cuantitativos (número y tamaño de presas. Insectos del orden Hymenoptera fueron las presas de mayor importancia. Los individuos de mayor tamaño ingieren presas más grandes y en menor cantidad mientras que los de menor talla, presas pequeñas, pero en mayor cantidad. La proporción del peso del contenido estomacal en relación con el peso corporal, tanto para hembras como para machos fue similar (6%. Esta especie no parece representar un peligro para la fauna nativa en el departamento de Sucre.

  18. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

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    S. A. Sakr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55 and postmetamorphic (66 stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63 displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled.

  19. Berberine-induced pigment dispersion in Bufo melanostictus melanophores by stimulation of beta-2 adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sharique A; Naaz, Ishrat; Choudhary, Ram Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Reduced production of melanin by decreased or the absence of melanocytes leads to various hypopigmentation disorders, and the development of melanogenetic agents for photoprotection and hypopigmentation disorders is one of the top priority areas of research. Hence, the present study was carried out to elucidate the ability of berberine, a principal active ingredient present in the roots of the herb Berberis vulgaris to stimulate pigment dispersion in the isolated skin melanophores of the toad Bufo melanostictus. In the present study, mean melanophore size index of the isolated skin melanophores of B. melanostictus was assayed after treating with various concentrations of berberine. A marked melanin dispersion response leading to skin darkening was observed in the isolated melanophores of toad in response to berberine, which was found to be mediated through beta-2 adrenergic receptors. The physiologically significant dose-related melanin dispersion effects of berberine per se were found to be completely abolished by propranolol, which is a specific beta-2 adrenergic receptor blocker. These per se melanin dispersal effects were also found to be markedly potentiated by isoprenaline, which is a specific beta-adrenoceptor agonist. The results indicate that berberine causes a tremendous, dose-dependent, physiologically significant pigment dispersing in the isolated skin melanophores of B. melanostictus.

  20. Efficacy of fenbendazole and levamisole treatments in captive Houston toads (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Catherine M; Johnson, Cassidy B; Howard, Lauren L; Crump, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Effective disease monitoring and prevention is critical to the success of captive amphibian care. Nematodes, including the genera Rhabdias and Strongyloides, are known to contribute to mortality in captive amphibians and have been identified in the Houston Zoo's endangered Houston toad (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis) captive assurance colony. Five years of fecal data for the toad colony were compiled and analyzed in order to investigate the efficacy of two anthelminthic medications, fenbendazole (FBZ) and levamisole (LMS), which were used to control nematode infections. Both FBZ (dusted onto food items) and topical LMS (6.5 to 13.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of nematode eggs, larvae, and adults observed by fecal parasitologic examination. There were no significant differences between treatments, and egg reappearance periods were difficult to compare as a result of low sample size. No adverse effects from either anthelminthic treatment were observed. Both topical LMS and oral FBZ appear to be safe and efficacious treatments for the reduction of the internal nematode burden in captive Houston toads.

  1. The uptake of 14C-glycine to Bufo vulgaris formosus (Boulenger) larva at metamorphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Haruo; Ishiguro, Shigeru; Nonoyama, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Harumi.

    1981-01-01

    With the eggs of Bufo vulgaris formosus (Boulenger) immediately after fertilization, the larvae in the 50 ml solution containing 1 ml of 14 C-glycine were developed to the end of metamorphosis. Measurements were made on the length of body, tail, fore limb and hind leg through the stages of tail degeneration and vestige. The radioactivity of the cut off fore limbs, hind legs, tails and head trunks was measured with a scintillation counter, and the 10 μ sections of the samples were used for autoradiography. The larvae uptook orally 14 C-glycine to the organs of cell tissues. On the basis of the reports of the autolysis of tails and the activation of lysosome enzyme in metamorphosis and on the uptake of 14 C-leucine and 14 C-proline to four legs by other workers, and on the present results, the free amino acids formed from the autolysis of tails were utilized for the recomposition of organ protein synthesis in the metamorphosis of the amphibians. (J.P.N.)

  2. Microsatellite analysis of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) in Denmark: populations are islands in a fragmented landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allentoft, Morten Erik; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Briggs, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The European natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) has declined rapidly in recent years, primarily due to loss of habitat, and in Denmark it is estimated that 50% of the isolated populations are lost each decade. To efficiently manage and conserve this species and its genetic diversity, knowledge...... of isolation by distance within major regions supported this apparent lack of a gene flow continuum. Indications of a genetic bottleneck were found in three populations. The analyses suggest that the remaining Bufo calamita populations in Denmark are genetically isolated, and represent independent units...... in a highly fragmented gene pool. Future conservation management of this species is discussed in light of these results....

  3. Helmintos parásitos de anfibios: Dos Especies de Nemátodos parásitos de Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi

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    Asucena Naupay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo sobre los helmintos que parasitan a Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi de la localidad de Huánuco, se presentan dos especies conocidas para la ciencia pero una de ellas nueva para el Perú.

  4. Testicular Morphohistology of Hypsiboas pulchellus (Amphibia, Hylidae During the Breeding Season

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    Fernando José CAREZZANO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, data concerning to the morphological testicular features of Hypsiboas pulchel-lus during the breeding season is provided, in order to know aspects of their reproductive biology. The testis, ovoid and yellowish with 4.64 ± 0.48 mm length and 2.05 ± 0.23 mm wide, are surrounded by the tunica albuginea which measures 5.60 ± 0.82 µm. The seminif-erous locules, placed internally, measure 257.47 ± 58.25 µm in diameter, and cysts with spermatogenic cells associated with Sertoli cells are distinguished in them. The interstitial tissue is scarce. The biggest cells of the germinal series are the spermatogonia I (14.34 ± 1.74 µm, from which spermatogonia II (10.14 ± 1.33 µm originate. Spermatocytes I measure 9.34 ± 0.32 µm and have slightly condensed chromatin. The spermatocytes II are 8.12 ± 1.07 µm long. The spermatids I are spherical, grouped in rounded cysts, and measure 7.61 ± 1.45 µm. On the other hand, spermatids II are elongated (4.09 ± 0.51 µm and not within the cysts. Towards the center of the loculus, the free, lengthened and flagellated spermatozoids are located. The morphohistology of the analyzed testicles show similarities with those observed in other neotropical amphibians, being all the cells of the spermatogenic lineage in the same locule MORFOHISTOLOGÍA TESTICULAR DE Hypsiboas pulchellus (AMPHIBIA, HYLIDAE. En este estudio se aportan datos sobre la morfohistología testicular de Hypsiboas pulchellus para conocer aspectos de su biología reproductiva. Las gónadas se procesaron empleando técnicas histológicas básicas, cortándose a 8 µm y tiñéndose con hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico de Masson. Los testículos, ovoides y amarillentos de 4,64 ± 0,48 mm de largo por 2,05 ± 0,23 mm de ancho, están rodeados por la túnica albugínea que mide 5,60 ± 0,82 µm. Internamente presentan lóculos seminíferos de 257,47 ± 58,25 µm de diámetro, distinguiéndose en ellos cistos con células espermatog

  5. Prostaglandins as mediators of acidification in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, L.W.; Yorio, T.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether prostaglandins (PG) play a role in H+ and NH4+ excretion in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus. Ten paired hemibladders from normal toads were mounted in chambers. One was control and the other hemibladder received PGE2 in the serosal medium (10(-5) M). H+ excretion was measured by change in pH in the mucosal fluid and reported in units of nmol (100 mg tissue)-1 (min)-1. NH4+ excretion was measured colorimetrically and reported in the same units. The control group H+ excretion was 8.4 +/- 1.67, while the experimental group was 16.3 +/- 2.64 (P less than 0.01). The NH4+ excretion in the experimental and control group was not significantly different. Bladders from toads in a 48-hr NH4+Cl acidosis (metabolic) did not demonstrate this response to PGE2 (P greater than 0.30). Toads were put in metabolic acidosis by gavaging with 10 ml of 120 mM NH4+Cl 3 x day for 2 days. In another experiment, we measured levels of PG in bladders from control (N) and animals placed in metabolic acidosis (MA). Bladders were removed from the respective toad, homogenized, extracted, and PG separated using high-pressure liquid chromatography and quantified against PG standards. The results are reported in ng (mg tissue)-1. PGE2 fraction in N was 1.09 +/- 0.14 and in MA was 3.21 +/- 0.63 (P less than 0.01). PGF1 alpha, F2 alpha and I2 were not significantly different in N and MA toads. Bladders were also removed from N and MA toads, and incubated in Ringer's solution containing [3H]arachidonic acid (0.2 microCi/ml) at 25 degrees C for 2 hr. Bladders were then extracted for PG and the extracts separated by thin layer chromatography. PG were identified using standards and autoradiography, scraped from plates, and counted in a scintillation detector. The results are reported in cpm/mg tissue x hr +/- SEM

  6. Hormonal priming, induction of ovulation and in-vitro fertilization of the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri

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    Seratt Jessica

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri is the subject of an extensive captive breeding and reintroduction program. Wyoming toads in captivity rarely ovulate spontaneously and hormonal induction is used to ovulate females or to stimulate spermiation in males. With hormonal induction, ovulation is unreliable and egg numbers are low. The sequential administration of anovulatory doses of hormones (priming has increased egg numbers and quality in both anurans and fish. Consequently, we tested the efficacy of a combination of human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG and Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone analogue (LHRHa administered as one dose, or two or three sequential doses to Bufo baxteri on egg numbers, fertilization and early embryo development. Spawning toads deposited eggs into Simplified Amphibian Ringers (SAR solution to enable controlled in-vitro fertilization (IVF with sperm from hormonally induced male toads. Unprimed females receiving a single mixed normally ovulatory dose of 500 IU hCG plus 4 micrograms of LHRHa produced no eggs. Whereas females primed with this dose and an anovulatory dose (100 IU hCG and 0.8 micrograms of LHRHa of the same hormones, or primed only with an anovulatory dose, spawned after then receiving an ovulatory dose. Higher total egg numbers were produced with two primings than with one priming. Moreover, two primings produced significantly more eggs from each individual female than one priming. The cleavage rate of eggs was not found to differ between one or two primings. Nevertheless, embryo development with eggs from two primings gave a significantly greater percentage neurulation and swim-up than those from one priming. Of the male toads receiving a single dose of 300 IU hCG, 80% produced spermic urine with the greatest sperm concentration 7 hours post-administration (PA. However, peak sperm motility (95% was achieved at 5 hours PA and remained relatively constant until declining 20 hours PA. In

  7. El ciclo evolutivo experimental de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei en Paracyclops fimbriatus, larvas de Bufo arenarum y caninos Experimental life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei in Paracyclops fimbriatus, tadpoles of Bufo arenarum and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Venturini

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue lograr la reproducción experimental del ciclo evolutivo de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea con la intervención de Paracyclops fimbriatus y larvas de Bufo arenarum como hospedadores intermediarios y caninos como hospedadores definitivos. Los huevos del parásito se obtuvieron de heces de caninos infectados naturalmente y se conservaron refrigerados en agua. Se incubaron 7 días a 25°C para que desarrollaran los coracidios y se pusieron en recipientes que contenían a los copépodos mencionados. Al cabo de 12 días a 22,6°C (promedio se hallaron procercoides maduros en ellos y se agregaron 10 renacuajos de Bufo arenarum. Estos se examinaron por disección 22, 23, 61 y 107 días después, hallándose en todos 1 o más plerocercoides (Temperatura promedio: 24,9°C. El día 23, de 6 renacuajos se obtuvieron 49 plerocercoides, de los cuales se administraron 28, por vía oral, a una perra. El día 107, 3 de 11 plerocercoides obtenidos de un renacuajo se le dieron a otra perra por la misma vía. Se hallaron huevos del cestode en las heces del primer canino a partir del día 22 posterior a la infección (p.i. y a los 30 días p.i., segmentos de estróbila. En el segundo canino se hallaron huevos a los 30 días p.i..Experiments were performed in order to develop the life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea in Paracyclops fimbriatus and Bufo arenarum as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The eggs of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei from faeces of naturally infected dogs were kept refrigered, in water. In order to obtain coracidiums they were incubated at 25°C, and then were placed in a flask which contained Paracyclops fimbriatus. The copepods were observed to be infected with procercoids 12 days after, (mean temperature 22.6°C and then, ten tadpoles of Bufo arenarum were put into the same flask. The tadpoles were examined

  8. Retina damage after exposure to UVA radiation on the early developmental stages of the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis Reuss

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    Alaa El-Din H. Sayed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the retina on different developmental stages of Egyptian toad Bufo regularis. Our experiment started when tadpoles begin to feed. The adapted embryos are divided into 3 large tanks of 200 embryos each, collections of samples started from feeding age every three days. Both histological and histochemical results showed that the general architecture of the retina organ is correlated with the state of development. Therefore, it displayed different characteristic features depending on the investigated developmental stage starting from the larval stage (feeding began, stage 44 and ending with the post-metamorphic stage 66. Also, the present work aimed to study the chronic effects of UVA on the retina structure of B. regularis during development and metamorphosis for the first time.

  9. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B

    1980-01-01

    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and smaller in the toad. In contrast, granulated juxtaglomerular arteriolar myoephithelial cells were much more readily found and larger in the toad than in the axolotl. No consistent differences were noted in juxtaglomerular cells or their granules in response to changes in environmental chloride concentration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7410189

  10. Revisión taxonómica de Alytes grandis Brunner (Amphibia, Anura

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    Sanchiz, B.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only existing remain referred to Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, presumably a discoglossid frog from the German Pleistocene, is examined and compared with other living and fossil Palaearctic anurans. The analysis rejects its validity as an independent extinct species, as The material is clearly within the known variability of living Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, of which it should be considered merely a sinonym.

    Se examina el holotipo y único resto atribuido de Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, un supuesto discoglósido del Pleistoceno alemán, comparándose con otros anuros actuales y fósiles del Paleártico. El análisis permite desechar su pertenencia a una especie extinta independiente, siendo en cambio atribuible con toda claridad a la viviente Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, de la que debe considerarse sinónimo.
    Zum systematischen Status von Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957 (Amphibia, Anura. Der bislang einzig bekannte und von Brunner (1957 beschriebene Rest zu Alytes grandis aus pleistozänen Ablagerungen der Breitenberghöhle bei Gössweinstein (Fränk, Alb wird beschrieben und aufgrund ausführlicher Vergleichsuntersuchungen der rezenten Art Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, zugeordnet, Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, ist somit als synonyrn zu Rana temporaria zu betrachten.

  11. Dieta de Leptodactylus macrosternum (Amphibia; Anura; Leptodactylidae no Sertão da Paraíba, Brasil

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    Dyego Francisco Silva da Costa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Entender a ecologia alimentar de anuros é essencial para compreender a biologia de vida destes animais. Essas informações fornecem dados necessários sobre seu habitat, morfologia, fisiologia e comportamento. Nesse sentido objetivou-se analisar a dieta de uma população Leptodactylus macrosternum, da fazenda Cajueiro, município de Catolé do Rocha, Sertão paraibano. As coletas ocorreram mensalmente entre os meses de outubro de 2013 e junho de 2014, realizadas por meio de busca ativa auditiva/visual. Em laboratório, verificou- se os conteúdos alimentares até o nível taxonômico de Ordem. Foram identificadas 10 categorias alimentares, sendo sete pertencentes à classe Insecta, duas Arachinida e uma Gasthropoda, além de vegetais e terra/pedra. Os principais itens alimentares na dieta, segundo o Índice de Importância Alimentar, foram Coleoptera e Hymenoptera, seguidos de Odonata, Hemiptera e Orthoptera, não ocorrendo de modo geral modificações significativas no consumo dos itens alimentares. As alterações no consumo dos itens na dieta de L. macrosternum, possivelmente resultam da disponibilidade, associada a variações pluviométricas da região. Diet of Leptodactylus macrosternum (Amphibia Anura: Leptodactylidae in the backlands of Paraiba, BrazilAbstract: Understanding the frogs food ecology is essential to understand the biology of life of these animals. This information provides necessary data on their habitat, morphology, physiology and behavior. In the study we analyzed the diet of a Leptodactylus macrosternum population, of the farm Cajueiro, city of Catolé do Rocha, wilderness region of Paraíba. The gatherings were executed between October of 2013 and June of 2014, by hearing/visual active search. In the laboratory, the food contents were analyzed in the taxonomic categories of Order. Were identified 10 feeding categories, being 7 belonging to the class Insecta, 2 Arachinida, 1 Gasthropoda, in addition to vegetables and

  12. Ocorrência de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 e Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Bufo arenalis no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurence of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 and Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae in Bufo arenalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a ocorrência do parasitismo monoespecífico de A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 e A. humerale KOCH, 1844 em sapos (Bufo arenalis no Município de Rosana, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este relato caracteriza um novo hospedeiro e uma nova localização geográfica para estas duas espécies de carrapatos.The objective of this work is to describe the occurence of the monoespecific parasitism of A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 and A. humerale KOCH, 1844 in toads (Bufo arenalis from the County of Rosana, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This is the description of a new host and new geographic site for those two species.

  13. Characterization and quantification of corticosteroid-binding globulin in a southern toad, Bufo terrestris, exposed to coal-combustion-waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.K.; Fontes, C.; Breuner, C.W.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (USA). Dept. of Biological Science

    2007-05-15

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a plasma protein that binds corticosterone and may regulate access of hormone to tissues. The role of CBG during a stress response is not clear. In this study, southern toads, Bufo terrestris, were exposed to a chronic pollutant (coal-combustion-waste), to determine changes in CBG and free corticosterone levels. Since toads exposed to chronic pollutants in previous studies did not exhibit the predicted changes in metabolic rate and mass, but did experience a significant elevation in total corticosterone, we hypothesized that CBG would likewise increase and thus, mitigate the effects of a chronic (i.e. 2 months) pollutant stressor. To conduct this study, we first characterized the properties of CBG in southern toads. After characterization, we monitored the changes in CBG, total corticosterone, and free corticosterone in male toads that were exposed to either coal-combustion-waste or control conditions. CBG increased in all groups throughout the experiment. Total corticosterone, on the other hand, was only significantly elevated at four weeks of exposure to coal-combustion-waste. The increase in CBG did not parallel the increase in total corticosterone; as a result, free corticosterone levels were not buffered by CBG, but showed a peak at four weeks similar to total corticosterone. This finding indicates that, in this species, CBG may not provide a protective mechanism during long-term pollution exposure.

  14. Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metts, Brian S.; Buhlmann, Kurt A.; Scott, David E.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Hopkins, William A.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a mesocosm study to assess the individual and interactive effects of previous maternal exposure and larval exposure to trace element-laden sediments on southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival to metamorphosis up to 57% compared to larvae of unexposed females. Larvae reared on CCW accumulated significant concentrations of trace elements resulting in extended larval periods, reduced growth rates, and reduced mass at metamorphosis. However, the effects were dependent on age of sediments, suggesting the effects of contaminants from CCW may be partially ameliorated over time through the reduced bioavailability of trace elements in aged CCW. Most importantly, maternal exposure to contaminants coupled with larval exposure to fresh CCW interacted to reduce survival to metamorphosis by 85% compared to reference conditions. Our study yields further evidence that disposal of CCW in aquatic basins potentially creates ecological traps for some amphibian populations. - Highlights: ► The interaction of maternal exposure and larval exposure to CCW reduced survival. ► Previous maternal exposure to CCW had a latent effect on survival to metamorphosis. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW experienced prolonged larval periods. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced growth rates. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced mass at metamorphosis. - Maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes interact to decrease survival in larval amphibians.

  15. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  16. Supplementary studies of Pleurogenoides medians (Digenea: Lecithodendriidae infecting the Marsh frog Rana Ridibunda (Amphibia: Ranidae in Egypt

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    Rewaida Abdel-Gaber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pleurogenoides medians, a digenean lecithodendriid trematode, parasitize numerous aquatic vertebrate species including frogs, freshwater fish, urodeles and anurans. In the present study, a total of 190 out of 300 (63.33% marsh frogs Rana Ridibunda were found to be infected with this digenean parasite. The highest percentage of infection was recorded in winter reaching 93.33%, and the lowest value was recorded to be 6.66% during summer. Prevalence and intensity of infection were positively correlated with the host size. Host sex showed no effect in this respect. Morphological studies based on light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the adult worms characterized by small body size measured 1.980–2.430 (2.205 ± 0.1 mm long and 0.870–1.20 (9.87 ± 0.01 mm wide with spines of similar size distributed all over the body surface; oral sucker is sub-terminal and measured 0.180–0.230 (0.203 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.120–0.180 (0.150 ± 0.01 mm wide; ventral sucker is smaller than the oral sucker, post-ovarian located at 1/3 level from the anterior end and measured 0.080–0.102 (0.090 ± 0.001 mm long and 0.100–0140 (0.120 ± 0.001 mm wide; two symmetrical testes were located near the cecal termination on both sides of the ventral sucker, measured 0.153–0.193 (0.176 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.160–0.192 (0.175 ± 0.01 mm wide; pre-acetabular ovary was present and measured 0.130–0.150 (0.140 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.100–0.130 (0.120 ± 0.01 mm wide; vitellaria are extra-caecal and extended from the level of the pharynx to a level slightly beyond the ovary. By comparing the recovered parasite with different species of the same genus from different hosts having different localities, it was found that the present species morphometrically more or less different from the comparable species and the only similar species was P. medians described previously from the common toad Bufo bufo by having all similar

  17. Morphological and genetic differentiation among Chilean populations of Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae Diferenciación morfológica y genética entre poblaciones chilenas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Marco A. Méndez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Bufo spinulosus has a wide and fragmented range distribution in Chile (18° to 33° S along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. Genetic variation was estimated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers in 10 populations from northern and central Chile. Morphometric and genetic information was analyzed as a function of geographical origin. The correlation between genetic and morphometric differentiation was analyzed by the Mantel test. An increase in body size as a function of latitude was observed. Specimens from El Tatio had the smallest body size and the greatest morphometric divergence. The AMOVA applied to genetic data indicated that 57.85 % of the variance is explained by interregional differences and that 30.12 % of the variance is found within populations. Low levels of within-regions genetic differentiation was observed in northern populations while higher levels of genetic differentiation was found in populations from central Chile. Mantel tests revealed a significant, positive correlation between genetic variation and geographic distance. When we excluded El Tatio population, Mantel test analyses showed significant correlations between morphological distance and genetic and geographic distances. We discuss whether water temperature could explain the morphological divergence observed in individuals from El TatioBufo spinulosus presenta una amplia y fragmentada distribución en Chile (18º a 33º S a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales y latitudinales. La variación genética fue estimada utilizando marcadores RAPD ("Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA" en diez poblaciones del norte y centro de Chile. La información morfométrica y genética fue analizada en función de la procedencia geográfica. La correlación entre diferenciación genética y morfométrica fue analizada utilizando la prueba de Mantel. Se observó un incremento en el tamaño corporal en función de la latitud. Los individuos de El Tatio mostraron el tama

  18. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  19. Modeling amphibian energetics, habitat suitability, and movements of western toads, Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas, across present and future landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Klaver, Robert W.; Porter, Warren P.

    2010-01-01

    Effective conservation of amphibian populations requires the prediction of how amphibians use and move through a landscape. Amphibians are closely coupled to their physical environment. Thus an approach that uses the physiological attributes of amphibians, together with knowledge of their natural history, should be helpful. We used Niche Mapper™ to model the known movements and habitat use patterns of a population of Western toads (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas) occupying forested habitats in southeastern Idaho. Niche Mapper uses first principles of environmental biophysics to combine features of topography, climate, land cover, and animal features to model microclimates and animal physiology and behavior across landscapes. Niche Mapper reproduced core body temperatures (Tc) and evaporation rates of live toads with average errors of 1.6 ± 0.4 °C and 0.8 ± 0.2 g/h, respectively. For four different habitat types, it reproduced similar mid-summer daily temperature patterns as those measured in the field and calculated evaporation rates (g/h) with an average error rate of 7.2 ± 5.5%. Sensitivity analyses indicate these errors do not significantly affect estimates of food consumption or activity. Using Niche Mapper we predicted the daily habitats used by free-ranging toads; our accuracy for female toads was greater than for male toads (74.2 ± 6.8% and 53.6 ± 15.8%, respectively), reflecting the stronger patterns of habitat selection among females. Using these changing to construct a cost surface, we also reconstructed movement paths that were consistent with field observations. The effect of climate warming on toads depends on the interaction of temperature and atmospheric moisture. If climate change occurs as predicted, results from Niche Mapper suggests that climate warming will increase the physiological cost of landscapes thereby limiting the activity for toads in different habitats.

  20. Expression pattern of glycoconjugates in the Bidderian and ovarian follicles of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus analyzed by lectin histochemistry

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    C. F. Farias

    Full Text Available The Bidder's organ and ovary of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus were studied by light microscopy, using hematoxylin-eosin (HE and periodic acid Schiff (PAS staining. The expression and distribution of carbohydrate moieties was analyzed by lectin histochemistry, using 8 lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: Ulex europaeus (UEA I, Lens culinaris (LCA, Erythrina cristagalli (ECA, Arachis hypogaea (PNA, Ricinus communis (RCA I, Aleuria aurantia (AAA, Triticum vulgaris (WGA, and Glycine maximum (SBA. The results showed that the Bidderian zona pellucida presented alpha-mannose, alpha-L-fucose, beta-D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. The Bidderian follicular cells showed the presence of beta-D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. In the extracellular matrix, alpha-mannose and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues were detected. The ovarian zona pellucida showed alpha-L-fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues, and alpha-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues were detected in the follicular cells. Thus, the zona pellucida in both organs contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. alpha-L-fucose residues were detected in the zona pellucida of both organs, using different lectins. Considering that beta-D-galactose residue was absent from ovary but present in the Bidder's organ, this sugar residue may play an important role in follicle development, blocking the Bidderian follicles and preventing further development of the Bidder's organ into a functional ovary.

  1. The Species Richness of Vascular Plants and Amphibia in Major Plant Communities in Temperate to Tropical Australia: Relationship with Annual Biomass Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, R. L.; Tyler, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aerodynamic fluxes (frictional, thermal, evaporative) in the atmosphere as it flows over and through a plant community determine the Foliage Projective Covers and eco-morphological attributes of new leaves developed annually in overstorey and understorey strata. The number of leaves produced on vertical foliage shoots depends on available soil water and nutrients, also ambient temperature, during this short growth season. Stem density (number of stems per hectare) and species richness (number of species per hectare) in the overstorey of major Floristic Groups are correlated with annual shoot growth (ASG, t ha-1) in that stratum. Species richness in the overstorey increases in the climatic gradient from the arid to the humid zone as well as with increasing air temperatures (about 10 degree C) from temperate to tropical Australia. Species richness in the understorey is highest in plant communities in temperate Australia, decreasing in the temperature gradient towards the tropics. As with other major plant and animal groups within an ecosystem, the species richness of Amphibia is correlated with the amount of solar energy fixed (per annum) by the major plant formation in the regional photosynthetic potential determined by the foliage shoots (ASG, t ha-1) produced annually in the overstorey.

  2. The Species Richness of Vascular Plants and Amphibia in Major Plant Communities in Temperate to Tropical Australia: Relationship with Annual Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Specht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic fluxes (frictional, thermal, evaporative in the atmosphere as it flows over and through a plant community determine the Foliage Projective Covers and eco-morphological attributes of new leaves developed annually in overstorey and understorey strata. The number of leaves produced on vertical foliage shoots depends on available soil water and nutrients, also ambient temperature, during this short growth season. Stem density (number of stems per hectare and species richness (number of species per hectare in the overstorey of major Floristic Groups are correlated with annual shoot growth (ASG, t ha−1 in that stratum. Species richness in the overstorey increases in the climatic gradient from the arid to the humid zone as well as with increasing air temperatures (about 10oC from temperate to tropical Australia. Species richness in the understorey is highest in plant communities in temperate Australia, decreasing in the temperature gradient towards the tropics. As with other major plant and animal groups within an ecosystem, the species richness of Amphibia is correlated with the amount of solar energy fixed (per annum by the major plant formation in the region—a photosynthetic potential determined by the foliage shoots (ASG, t ha−1 produced annually in the overstorey.

  3. Estudio morfométrico sobre el desarrollo y evolución de las glándulas tiroides durante la metamorfosis de Bufo arenarum

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    Miranda, Leandro Andrés

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el desarrollo y la evolución de las glándulas tiroideas durante la morfogénesis de Bufo arenarum. Usando diferentes parámetros morfométricos, hemos relacionado el crecimiento y desarrollo larval con el desarrollo de las glándulas tiroideas. Se observó que la longitud total, el peso de las larvas, el volumen glandular tiroideo y el diámetro folicular, aumentan hasta el estadio XV (fin de la prometamorfosis, mientras que el número de folículos y la altura de las células foliculares tiroideas se incrementan hasta el estadio XVII (mitad del clímax metamórfico. Todos estos parámetros disminuyeron considerablemente durante el clímax metamórfico mientras que en animales postmetamórficos se observó un incremento en los valores registrados. En base a los resultados obtenidos concluimos que hay un período de síntesis y almacenamiento de hormonas tiroideas durante el crecimiento larval y un segundo período caracterizado por la liberación de hormonas tiroideas hacia el final de la prometamorfosis y durante el clímax metamórfico. We studied the development and evolution of thyroid glands during Bufo arenarum morphogenesis. Using different morphometric parameters we related larval growth and metamorphosis with thyroid glands development We observed that total length, larval weight, thyroid gland volume and follicle diameter increased until stage XV (end of prometamorphosis, meanwhile the number of follicles and follicle cell height increased until stage XVII (midclimax. All these parameters decreased during metamorphic climax and an increase was observed in postmetamorphic animals. Our results lead us to conclude that during larval growth there is a period of synthesis and store of thyroid hormones. There is a second period characterized by thyroid hormones release during the end of prometamorphosis and metamorphic climax.

  4. ENVENENAMENTO DE CÃES POR BUFADIENOLÍDEOS (Substâncias encontradas na secreção das glândulas paratóides dos sapos do gênero Bufo POISONING OF DOGS BY BUFADIENOLIDES (SUBSTANCES FOUND IN THE PARATOID GLAND SECRETION OF FROGS OF THE GENUS Bufo

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    Lourival Pereira Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Os autores estudaram o efeito da aplicação na mucosa bucal de cães, do produto secretado pelas glândulas paratóides de sapos do gênero Bufo. Os cães apresentaram sinais de graves intoxicações, imediatamente após a aplicação do referido produto.

    In the present paper, the authors report the effects of toad’s poison in dogs. This is the first case describe in Goiás.

  5. The role of the egg jelly coat in protecting Hyla regilla and Bufo canorus embryos from Ultraviolet B radiation during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, L.J.; Fabacher, D.L.; Calfee, R.

    2002-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have suggested that Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may play a role in amphibian population declines. Some of these studies also indicate that egg hatching success is unaltered in some species of anurans as a result of UVB exposure. It has been proposed that the egg mass jelly provides photoprotection to the developing embryos. Methods. Direct spectrophotometric scans of egg jelly, scans of egg jelly methanol extracts, and experimental manipulation in a solar simulator during development were all used to assess the role of egg mass jelly as a photoprotective agent. Results/Discussion. For Hyla regilla, scans of egg jelly and methanolic extracts (for mycosporine-like amino acid content) both displayed no absorption in the UV range. Experimental manipulation (removal of egg mass jelly) with both Hyla regilla and Bufo canorus egg masses in a solar simulator demonstrated that egg mass jelly played no apparent role in photoprotection of either of these species. Conclusions. Based on the results in this study it seems unlikely that the egg jelly coat is playing a crucial role in protecting developing embryos from the impact of UVB radiation.

  6. Effects of seasonal variation on oxidative stress physiology in natural population of toad Bufo melanostictus; clues for analysis of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Luna; Paital, Biswaranjan

    2016-11-01

    Natural population of Bufo melanostictus in response to environmental cues shows several physiologic changes such as reproductive activity, hibernation, aestivation and metabolic depression in different seasons. We investigated the effects of seasonal fluctuations on oxidative stress (OS) physiology biomarkers, such as endogenous (ELPx) and induced (ILPx) lipid peroxidation, front-line redox regulatory enzymes (superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase) and two non-enzyme antioxidant metabolites (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) in liver, gonad and cerebral hemisphere of toads collected from the Bhubaneswar area of India, where temperature fluctuates considerably rising to the highest in summer (∼46 °C) and being lowest in winter (pollutants alone and/or as results of metabolic changes under hibernation, aestivation and due to reproductive activities. Therefore, seasonal changes in OS physiological responses in poikilothermic models especially in toads must be cautiously used as indicators to assess environmental impact, mainly soil pollution. Results of the present study may be used as baseline data for any future analyses of the physiological impacts of environmental changes using toads as model organism.

  7. Effects of temperature on embryonic and larval development and growth in the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita in a semi-arid zone

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    Sanuy, D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects the duration of embryonic and larval periods in amphibians. Plasticity in time to metamorphosis is especially important in amphibian populations of Mediterranean semi-arid zones where temperatures are high and precipitation is low, increasing the rate of pond desiccation. In order to test the influence of water temperature on the larval development and growth of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita, we collected two spawns in a semi¿arid zone at Balaguer (Lleida, NE Iberian peninsula. Approximately 50 (+/-10 eggs (stage 14-16 were raised in the lab at different temperature conditions: 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25ºC with 12:12 photoperiod. The results show a lengthening of development time with decreasing temperatures and a better survival performance of B. calamita to high temperatures. However, mean size at metamorphosis was not different across treatments, thus, suggesting that this population of B. calamita requires a minimum size to complete the metamorphosis. This study is the first approach to examine the effects that climatic factors have on the growth and development of B. calamita in semi-arid zones.

  8. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus

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    Anup Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.

  9. The effect of soil composition and hydration on the bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to hibernating juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stacy M.; Little, Edward E.; Semlitsch, Raymond D.

    2004-01-01

    The soil ecotoxicology literature has focused primarily on a few major taxa, to the neglect of other fossorial organisms such as amphibians. We selected cadmium (Cd) and the American toad (Bufo americanus) as a model contaminant and biological species to assess the impact of soil contamination on amphibian hibernation survival and post-hibernation condition. Soil sand composition (50, 70, 90%) and hydration (100, 150% water holding capacity (WHC)) were manipulated in addition to Cd concentration (0, 56, 165, 483 μg/g) to determine whether these soil properties affect toxicity. Soil Cd concentration significantly reduced survival and locomotor performance, and was correlated negatively with percent mass loss and positively with whole body Cd concentration. Higher sand content resulted in less mass loss and greater Cd uptake. Toads that were hibernated in 50% sand hydrated to 100% WHC had higher survival, less mass loss, and better sprint performance than those hibernated in 50% sand, 150% WHC. This study demonstrates that concentrations of Cd found in soil at highly contaminated sites can be bioaccumulated by hibernating amphibians and may reduce fitness. Differences in microhabitat use may cause species to vary in their exposure and susceptibility to soil contamination. The toxicity of Cd to amphibians could be greater in natural systems where there are multiple stressors and fluctuations in environmental variables.

  10. Formation and function of synapses with respect to Schwann cells at the end of motor nerve terminal branches on mature amphibian (Bufo marinus) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, G T; Dickens, P A; Bennett, M R

    2001-04-01

    A study has been made of the formation and regression of synapses with respect to Schwann cells at the ends of motor nerve terminal branches in mature toad (Bufo marinus) muscle. Synapse formation and regression, as inferred from the appearance and loss of N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide (FM1-43)-stained vesicle clusters, occurred at the ends of terminal branches over a 16 hr period. Multiple microelectrodes placed in an array about FM1-43 blobs at the ends of terminal branches detected the electrical signs of neurotransmitter being released onto receptors. Injection of a calcium indicator (Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1) into the motor nerve with subsequent imaging of the calcium transients, in response to stimulation, often showed a reduced calcium influx in the ends of terminal branches. Injection of a fluorescent dye into motor nerves revealed the full extent of their terminal branches and growing processes. Injection of the terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) often revealed pseudopodial TSC processes up to 10-microm-long. Imaging of these TSC processes over minutes or hours showed that they were highly labile and capable of extending several micrometers in a few minutes. Injection of motor nerve terminals with a different dye to that injected into their TSCs revealed that terminal processes sometimes followed the TSC processes over a few hours. It is suggested that the ends of motor nerve terminals in vivo are in a constant state of remodeling through the formation and regression of processes, that TSC processes guide the remodeling, and that it can occur over a relatively short period of time.

  11. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn F Gerchen

    Full Text Available Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%, many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species.

  12. Fluctuating asymmetry rather than oxidative stress in Bufo raddei can be an accurate indicator of environmental pollution induced by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Wenya; Ai, Shiwei; Ren, Liang; Zhang, Yingmei

    2017-06-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as risk markers for environmental stress are widely used to predict changes in the health and fitness of many animals exposed to pollutants. However, from the perspective of protecting declining amphibians, it remains to be verified which one would be a reliable indicator for amphibians exposed to long-term heavy metal pollution under natural conditions. In this study, the OS and FA of Bufo raddei exposed to natural heavy metal pollution were analyzed to determine which marker is more accurate for indicating heavy metal-induced stress. Three years of data were collected during the breeding season of B. raddei from Baiyin (BY), which has been mainly contaminated with Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd compounds for a long period, and from Liujiaxia (LJX), which is a relatively unpolluted area. Unexpectedly, although significant accumulation of the four heavy metals was found in the kidney and liver of B. raddei from BY, the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde in these two organs were found to be irregular, with low repeatability in both BY and LJX. However, significant differences in the levels of FA were observed in B. raddei populations from these two areas over the past 3 years (P < 0.01). The degrees of FA in B. raddei populations from BY and LJX were assessed as degree 4 and 1, respectively. In short, this study suggested that FA was a more reliable and effective indicator than OS to monitor and predict long-term environmental stress on anuran amphibians.

  13. Nomenclatural availability of the names applied to “varieties” of the green toad (Bufo viridis subgroup in the Italian territory, with emphasis on the variety lineata of Ninni (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Novarini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular investigations on Eurasian green toads led to the recognition of distinct lineages and to the establishment of new taxa within the former Bufo viridis; as a consequence, significant range-wide nomenclatural changes have been proposed, although some uncertainties remained on the available names applicable within the Italian territory. In order to contribute to clarify the matter, we evaluated, under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the nomenclatural availability of all the names that have been applied to infrasubspecific entities of the Bufo viridis subgroup within the Italian territory. We also provided a historical overview of the usage of all these names, as well as detailed information on the original material upon which the variety lineata of A.P. Ninni was established. Our analysis supports the view that only the names crucigera Eichwald, 1831 and balearica Boettger, 1880 are available, the former being however junior synonym of B. viridis Laurenti, 1768, whereas the names acutirostris and obtusirostris of Lessona, lineata of Ninni, concolor and maculata of Camerano, and nardoi of Paolucci, Fuhn and Bruno are all not available.

  14. The effects of aquatic oxygen concentration, body size and respiratory behaviour on the stamina of obligate aquatic (Bufo americanus) and facultative air-breathing (Xenopus laevis and Rana berlandieri) anuran larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassersug, R J; Feder, M E

    1983-07-01

    Larvae of the anurans Rana berlandieri and Xenopus laevis have lungs and can breathe air as well as irrigate buccal and pharyngeal surfaces for aquatic respiration. Larvae of Bufo americanus lack lungs until just before metamorphosis and are obligately aquatic. We examined the relationship between the locomotor stamina (time to fatigue), aquatic oxygen concentration, body size, and respiratory behaviour of swimming larvae of these species, with the following results: Stamina is size-dependent in all three species. Aquatic hypoxia reduces stamina in larvae of all three species, but most conspicuously in Bufo. Breathing air increases stamina in Rana larvae, especially in large animals and under aquatic hypoxia. In contrast to Rana larvae, Xenopus larvae swimming in normoxic water undergo a reduction in stamina when allowed to breathe air. In hypoxic water, aerial respiration moderates the reduction in stamina seen in Xenopus larvae. Branchial irrigation is associated with increased stamina in Xenopus, and is increased under hypoxia and at high swimming velocities. Respiratory demand, buoyancy and the drag associated with branchial irrigation all affect respiratory behaviour in Xenopus larvae. The great amount of interspecific variation in the relationship between respiratory behaviour and stamina reveals the importance of measuring performance directly when attempting to interpret the functional significance of respiratory structures and behaviour.

  15. PIGMENTOS EN LOS TESTÍCULOS DE CINCO ANFIBIOS ENDÉMICOS DE CUBA (Eleutherodactylus turquinensis, E. cuneatus, E. glamyrus, Bufo longinasus longinasus y B. longinasus cajalbanensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Ochotorena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los vertebrados ectotérmicos pueden presentar un sistema pigmentario de función desconocida, aunque en algunos casos se han descrito los centros de melanomacrófagos con evidente función fagocítica; sin embargo, no es frecuente encontrar las gónadas pigmentadas en los anfibios anuros. El objetivo fundamental del presente trabajo es informar y analizar la presencia de pigmentos en los testículos de tres especies de ranas endémicas cubanas y en un sapo cubano, también endémico. Se estudiaron las especies Eleutherodactylus turquinensis, E. cuneatus, E. glamyrus y Bufo longinasus (subespecies B. l. longinasus y B. l. cajalbanensis, las cuales fueron colectadas en las zonas occidental y oriental de la Isla de Cuba. Los ejemplares se anestesiaron con éter una vez que se trasladaron al laboratorio. Se extrajeron las gónadas y se procesaron para microscopía óptica y en el caso de B. longinasus también para microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Los resultados indican una morfología de los testículos similar a otro anuros, se observó una organización cística de las células sexuales en los túbulos seminíferos y todos los ejemplares estaban en espermatogénesis total. Los testículos de todas las especies estudiadas mostraron una pigmentación oscura y abundante en la túnica albugínea y en el tejido intersticial. Se observaron muchos melanosomas. Se analiza en el trabajo que la causa de la fuerte pigmentación testicular pueda ser una respuesta a la contaminación, asimismo, se propone que los pigmentos son producidos por otro tipo celular quizás similar a los melanomacrófagos y no por melanocitos.

  16. Multiple major histocompatibility complex class I genes in Asian anurans: Ontogeny and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didinger, Chelsea; Eimes, John A; Lillie, Mette; Waldman, Bruce

    2017-05-01

    Amphibians, as the first terrestrial vertebrates, offer a window into early major histocompatibility complex (MHC) evolution. We characterized the MHC class I of two Korean amphibians, the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans) and the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica). We found at least four transcribed MHC class I (MHC I) loci, the highest number confirmed in any anuran to date. Furthermore, we identified MHC I transcripts in terrestrial adults, and possibly in aquatic larvae, of both species. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis based on MHC I sequence data and found that B. gargarizans and H. japonica cluster together in the superfamily Nobleobatrachia. We further identified three supertypes shared by the two species. Our results reveal substantial variation in the number of MHC I loci in anurans and suggest that certain supertypes have particular physiochemical properties that may confer pathogen resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Comparison of chemical composition between fresh and processed Bufonis Venenum by UPLC-TQ-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-yue; Wang, Hong-lan; Zhou, Jing; Ma, Hong-yue; Gong, Yan; Yan, Wen-li; Qian, Da-wei

    2015-10-01

    Toad venom is the Bufo bufo gargarizans or B. melanostictus after the ears of the gland secretion, used in the treatment of various cancers in recent years. Research shows that the main anti-tumor components in bufadienolide. Bufadienolide have free type structure and conjunct type structure. To identify and clarify the difference between bufogenin and bufotoxin contained in Bufonis Venenum, which was from B. bufo gargarizans, an UPLC-TQ-MS method has been established. UPLC-TQ-MS method was used to identify and quantify the major bufadienolides in Bufonis Venenum. UPLC-TQ-MS assay with positive ion mode was performed on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C, (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 µm) with the mobile phase consisting of 0. 1% aqueous formic and acidacetonitrile in gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL · min⁻¹ and the column temperature was set at 35 °C. By comparing their retention time and high resolution mass data of Bufonis Venenum extracts, 37 effective components were primarily identified by MS/MS analysis in positive ion mode. Twenty-six of them were free-type bufadienolides (bufogenin), 11 of them were conjugated bufadienolides. There were significant differences in the main composition between fresh and processed Bufonis Venenum. The study found that the chemical composition of toad venom through great changes after processing, conjunct type content is much less, free type content as well change.

  18. The tactile-stimulated startle response of tadpoles: acceleration performance and its relationship to the anatomy of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidietis, Laura

    2006-04-01

    I described the tactile-stimulated startle response (TSR) of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles. One purpose was to rank species in terms of maximum acceleration performance. Also, I tested whether anatomical indicators of performance potential were predictive of realized performance. TSRs were elicited in a laboratory setting, filmed at 250 Hz, and digitally analyzed. TSRs began with two, initial body curls during which tadpoles showed a broad spectrum of movement patterns. TSR performance was quantified by maximum linear acceleration and maximum rotational acceleration of the head/body, both of which tended to occur immediately upon initiation of motion ( wood frog > American toad. The species' rank order for the anatomical indicator of rotational acceleration potential was bullfrog > wood frog = American toad. Thus, the anatomical indicators roughly predicted the rank order of interspecific average performance. However, the anatomical indicators did not correlate with individual tadpole performance. Variability in behavioral patterns may obscure the connection between anatomy and performance. This is seen in the current lack of intraspecific correlation between a morphological indicator of acceleration capacity and acceleration performance.

  19. Final report on effects of environmental radiation of Kori nuclear power plant on human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Kim, J.B.; Chung, K.H.; Lee, K.S.; Kim, S.R.; Yang, S.Y.

    1980-01-01

    In order to clarify and protect the effects of environmental radiation according to the operation of Kori nuclear power plant on the human population, the base line survey for the human monitoring, human life habits, expected individual exposure dose, frequencies of chromosomal aberration, gene frequencies and karyotypes in amphibia, fauna, and radiation sensitivities in microorganisms which have been living around the power plant site were carried out. Kilchonri population which took for the human monitoring lie within a 2 km distance from the power plant site. Human monitoring, house and food characteristics, individual experience of x-ray exposures, human chromosome analysis and fauna were surveyed and expressed in numerical tables. Chromosome number obtained from the amphibia which were collected around the power plant area was as follows: Kaloula borealis 2N=30, Rana amurensis 2N=26, Rana dybouskii 2N=24, Rana rugosa 2N=26, Rana nigromaculata 2N=26, Rana plancyi 2N=26, Bombina orientalis 2N=24, Hyla arborea 2N=24, Bufo stejnegeri 2N=22, Bufo bufo 2N=22. (author)

  20. Chromosome evolution in Cophomantini (Amphibia, Anura, Hylinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Pablo; Boeris, Juan M.; Blasco-Zúñiga, Ailin; Barbero, Gastón; Gomes, Anderson; Gazoni, Thiago; Costa, William; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y.; Rivera, Miryan; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia P.; Wiley, John E.; Pieczarka, Julio C.; Haddad, Celio F. B.; Faivovich, Julián; Baldo, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The hylid tribe Cophomantini is a diverse clade of Neotropical treefrogs composed of the genera Aplastodiscus, Boana, Bokermannohyla, Hyloscirtus, and Myersiohyla. The phylogenetic relationships of Cophomantini have been comprehensively reviewed in the literature, providing a suitable framework for the study of chromosome evolution. Employing different banding techniques, we studied the chromosomes of 25 species of Boana and 3 of Hyloscirtus; thus providing, for the first time, data for Hyloscirtus and for 15 species of Boana. Most species showed karyotypes with 2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes; some species of the B. albopunctata group have 2n = 2x = 22, and H. alytolylax has 2n = 2x = 20. Karyotypes are all bi-armed in most species presented, with the exception of H. larinopygion (FN = 46) and H. alytolylax (FN = 38), with karyotypes that have a single pair of small telocentric chromosomes. In most species of Boana, NORs are observed in a single pair of chromosomes, mostly in the small chromosomes, although in some species of the B. albopunctata, B. pulchella, and B. semilineata groups, this marker occurs on the larger pairs 8, 1, and 7, respectively. In Hyloscirtus, NOR position differs in the three studied species: H. alytolylax (4p), H. palmeri (4q), and H. larinopygion (1p). Heterochromatin is a variable marker that could provide valuable evidence, but it would be necesserary to understand the molecular composition of the C-bands that are observed in different species in order to test its putative homology. In H. alytolylax, a centromeric DAPI+ band was observed on one homologue of chromosome pair 2. The band was present in males but absent in females, providing evidence for an XX/XY sex determining system in this species. We review and discuss the importance of the different chromosome markers (NOR position, C-bands, and DAPI/CMA3 patterns) for their impact on the taxonomy and karyotype evolution in Cophomantini. PMID:29444174

  1. Chromosome evolution in Cophomantini (Amphibia, Anura, Hylinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M Ferro

    Full Text Available The hylid tribe Cophomantini is a diverse clade of Neotropical treefrogs composed of the genera Aplastodiscus, Boana, Bokermannohyla, Hyloscirtus, and Myersiohyla. The phylogenetic relationships of Cophomantini have been comprehensively reviewed in the literature, providing a suitable framework for the study of chromosome evolution. Employing different banding techniques, we studied the chromosomes of 25 species of Boana and 3 of Hyloscirtus; thus providing, for the first time, data for Hyloscirtus and for 15 species of Boana. Most species showed karyotypes with 2n = 2x = 24 chromosomes; some species of the B. albopunctata group have 2n = 2x = 22, and H. alytolylax has 2n = 2x = 20. Karyotypes are all bi-armed in most species presented, with the exception of H. larinopygion (FN = 46 and H. alytolylax (FN = 38, with karyotypes that have a single pair of small telocentric chromosomes. In most species of Boana, NORs are observed in a single pair of chromosomes, mostly in the small chromosomes, although in some species of the B. albopunctata, B. pulchella, and B. semilineata groups, this marker occurs on the larger pairs 8, 1, and 7, respectively. In Hyloscirtus, NOR position differs in the three studied species: H. alytolylax (4p, H. palmeri (4q, and H. larinopygion (1p. Heterochromatin is a variable marker that could provide valuable evidence, but it would be necesserary to understand the molecular composition of the C-bands that are observed in different species in order to test its putative homology. In H. alytolylax, a centromeric DAPI+ band was observed on one homologue of chromosome pair 2. The band was present in males but absent in females, providing evidence for an XX/XY sex determining system in this species. We review and discuss the importance of the different chromosome markers (NOR position, C-bands, and DAPI/CMA3 patterns for their impact on the taxonomy and karyotype evolution in Cophomantini.

  2. Electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the vertebrates of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoori, Abdul Rauf; Zaheer, Saleem Akhtar; Ahmad, Muhammad Salih.

    1976-01-01

    The electrophoretic pattern of blood serum proteins of some of the common fishes e.g. Catla catla, Cirrhina mrigala, Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Wallago attu, Heterop-neustes fossilis; amphibia e.g., Rana tigrina, Rana cyanophlyctis, Bufo melanostictus; reptiles e.g. Varanus bengalensis, Uromastix hardwickii; birds e.g. Columba livia, Gallus domesticus, Passer domestica, Anas platyrhynchos; and mammals e.g. Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Lepus cuniculus have been described. The mobility of proteins of blood sera has been studied over cellulose acetate paper and then a comparative pattern analysed

  3. Blood parasites of amphibians from Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, J K

    1993-06-01

    Two hundred forty-six amphibians from Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China, were examined for blood parasites between April and June 1990. Six trypanosome species were found, 2 of which were not identified because of poor material. Trypanosoma rotatorium (sensu Mayer, 1843) was found in Rana limnocharis and Rana nigromaculata. Trypanosoma chattoni and a T. rotatorium-like species were found in Bufo gargarizans. A sphaeromastigote similar to Trypanosoma tsunezomiyatai was seen in R. limnocharis. The relationship of this parasite to T. chattoni is unclear. Dactylosoma ranarum, Lankesterella minima, and Aegyptianella bacterifera were identified in ranids. Frog erythrocytic virus (FEV) was found in 2 ranids and a bufonid. Differences in shape of FEV and its assumed effect on the host-cell nucleus suggest that different kinds of viruses may be involved.

  4. Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brum Zorrilla N.

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.

  5. Immunolocation of mitochondria-rich cells in epidermis of the common toad, Bufo bufo L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Ingrid B.M.

    1997-01-01

    Adult toads, skin, flask-shaped cells, cytoskeleton, keratin expression, immunohistochemistry, differentiation.......Adult toads, skin, flask-shaped cells, cytoskeleton, keratin expression, immunohistochemistry, differentiation....

  6. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol for protection of aquatic life in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Daqiang; Jin Hongjun; Yu Lingwei; Hu Shuangqing

    2003-01-01

    Criteria were established for an organic pollutant in freshwaters of China. - Freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) were developed with particular reference to the aquatic biota in China, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on nine different domestic species indigenous to China to determine 48-h LC 50 and 96-h LC 50 values for 2,4-DCP. In addition, 21 day survival-reproduction tests with Daphnia magna, 30-day embryo-larval tests with Carassius auratus, 60 day fry-juvenile test with Ctenopharyngodon idellus, 30 d early life stage tests with Bufo bufo gargarizans and 96 h growth inhibition tests with Scenedesms obliqaus were conducted, to estimate lower chronic limit (LCL) and upper chronic limit (UCL) values. The final acute value (FAV) was 2.49 mg/l 2,4-DCP. Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR) ranged from 3.74 to 22.5. The final chronic value (FCV) and the final plant value (FPV) of 2.4-DCP were 0.212 mg/l and 7.07 mg/l respectively. Based on FAV, FCV, and FPV, a criteria maximum concentration (CMC) of 1.25 mg/l and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) of 0.212 mg/l were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for 2,4-DCP based on aquatic biota in China

  7. Is Huachansu Beneficial in Treating Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of Its Efficacy Combined with Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingduo Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Huachansu, the sterilized water extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans toad skin, is used in China to alleviate the side-effects and enhance the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess Huachansu’s efficacy. Methods. We extensively searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CBM, Cochrane Library, CNKI, CEBM, WFDP, CSCD, CSTD, and IPA for randomized controlled trials containing Huachansu plus chemotherapy as the test group and chemotherapy as the control group. Seventeen trials were selected based on the selection criteria. The pooled relative ratio (RR of indicators with 95% confidence interval (95% CI was calculated for efficacy evaluation. Results. The meta-analysis demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in objective tumor response, one-year survival, Karnofsky performance status, pain relief, and alleviation of severe side-effects (nausea and vomiting, leukocytopenia in the test group as compared to the control group, but no significant difference in thrombocytopenia. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the efficacy of Huachansu combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. However, limitations exist and high-quality trials are needed for further verification.

  8. Effects of environmental radiation of Kori nuclear power plant on the human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.

    1979-01-01

    In order to clarify and protect the effects of environmental radiation according to the operation of Kori nuclear power plant on human population, the base line survey for the human monitoring, the fauna of land nocturnal insects, and the karyotypes of amphibian species which have been living around the power plant site were carried out. ''Kilchunri'' population which took for the human monitoring lie within a 2km distance from power plant site. Human monitoring, house and food characteristics, individual experience of X-ray exposures, human chromosome analysis and fauna of nocturnal land insects were surveyed and expressed in numerical tables. Chromosome number obtained from the amphibia which were collected around the power plant area was as follows; Kaloula borealis 2N=30, Rana amurensis 2N=26, Rana dybouskii 2N=24, Rana rugosa 2N=26, Rana migromaculata 2N=26, Rana plancyi 2N=26, Bombina orientalis 2N=24, Hyla arborea 2N=24, Bufo stejnegeri 2N=22, and Bufo bufo 2N=22. (author)

  9. A NEW TREE-FROG FROM MALAWI (HYPEROLIINAEt AMPHIBIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with a broad head and protruding eyes exhibiting great sexual dimorphism in size. During the breeding ... heavily concentrated around the nares and on the canthus. ..... Systematic and Field keys to the families, genera and described species.

  10. Amphibia, Leptodactylidae, Paratelmatobius mantiqueira Pombal and Haddad, 1999: distribution extension

    OpenAIRE

    Vrcibradic, Davor; Ariani, Cristina; Van Sluys, Monique; Rocha, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    A female Paratelmatobius mantiqueira Pombal and Haddad, 1999 was collected in November 2005 at an altitude of ca. 1,650 m at an Atlantic Forest area within the Área de Preservação Ambiental (APA) da Mantiqueira, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The current record extends its distribution 130 km eastward from the type locality, represents the first records in the state, and provides information on its color in life.

  11. Advertisement calls of Bolivian species of Scinax (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, de la Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime

    1994-01-01

    The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the

  12. Structural diversity of nuptial pads in Phyllomedusinae (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Maria Celeste; Taboada, Carlos; Baêta, Délio; Faivovich, Julián

    2012-07-01

    We studied the morphological variation of the nuptial pads using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in 26 species of phyllomedusines (Anura: Hylidae), representing the five currently recognized genera. All phyllomedusines have single nuptial pads with dark colored epidermal projections (EPs). Spine-shaped EPs occur in Cruziohyla calcarifer, Phrynomedusa appendiculata and in one species of Phasmahyla. The other species have roundish EPs. The density of the EPs on the pad is variable. Species in the Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis Group have EPs with a density that varies between 764 ± 58/mm(2) and 923 ± 160/mm(2). In all other studied species (including the Phyllomedusa burmeisteri and Phyllomedusa perinesos groups, Phyllomedusa camba, Phyllomedusa boliviana, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Phyllomedusa bicolor, and Phyllomedusa tomopterna) the density of EPs varies between 108 ± 20/mm(2) and 552 ± 97/mm(2). Pores were observed with SEM in C. calcarifer, Agalychnis lemur, Agalychnis moreletii, but its presence is confirmed through histological sections on several other species. Its visibility using SEM seems to be related with the level of separation between adjacent EPs. The pores in the four studied species of Agalychnis are shown with SEM and histological sections to have a characteristic epidermal rim, that is absent in the otherphyllomedusines. Unlike most previous reports on breeding glands, those of phyllomedusines are alcian blue positive, indicating the presence of acidic mucosubstances on its secretions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Generic diversity and distributional dynamics of the Palaeobatrachidae (Amphibia: Anura)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wuttke, M.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Ratnikov, V. Y.; Dvořák, Z.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2012), s. 367-395 ISSN 1867-1594 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * Anura (Europe) * evolution * osteology * Palaeobatrachidae * palaeogeography Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  14. Proton pump-driven cutaneous chloride uptake in anuran amphibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Willumsen, Niels J.; Amstrup, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Krogh introduced the concept of active ion uptake across surface epithelia of freshwater animals, and proved independent transports of Na(+) and Cl(-) in anuran skin and fish gill. He suggested that the fluxes of Na(+) and Cl(-) involve exchanges with ions of similar charge. In the so-called Krog...

  15. A new species of Cacosternum (Amphibia: Anura; Ranidae) from Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-29

    Mar 29, 1987 ... KENSLEY, B. 1972. Shrimps and prawns of southern. Africa. Trustees of the S.A. Museum, Cape Town. KENSLEY, B. 1981. On the zoogeography of southern. African decapod Crustacea, with a distributional .... capense Hewitt, 1925; and C. JeJeupi Laurent, 1950. The frog here described undoubtedly ...

  16. Diet and trophic niche of Lithobates catesbeianus (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson T. Leivas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802 is an invasive anuran introduced in Brazil that is associated with the displacement and the decline of populations of native species worldwide. There is evidence that biological invasions are facilitated by certain attributes of the invading species, for instance niche breath, and that invasive species have a broader ecological niche with respect to native ones. We designed a study to ascertain the temporal, ontogenetic, and sex differences in the niche dynamics of the American bullfrog. We sampled monthly from June 2008 to May 2009 in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. For each individual, we gathered biometric and stomach content data. We then estimated the niche breath of the juveniles and adults, and compared it between the sexes. A total of 104 females and 77 males were sampled. Lithobates catesbeianus has a generalist diet, preying upon invertebrates and vertebrates. Even though the diet of the studied population varied seasonally, it did not differ between the sexes nor did it respond to biometric variables. Niche breadth was more restricted in the winter than in the autumn. The trophic niche of juveniles and adults did not overlap much when compared with the trophic niche overlap between males and females. Adult males and females had a considerable niche overlap, but females had a broader trophic niche than males in the winter and in the spring. These niche characteristics point to an opportunistic predation strategy that may have facilitated the process of invasion and establishment of this species in the study area.

  17. Chromosome Banding in Amphibia. XXXII. The Genus Xenopus (Anura, Pipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic chromosomes of 16 species of the frog genus Xenopus were prepared from kidney and lung cell cultures. In the chromosomes of 7 species, high-resolution replication banding patterns could be induced by treating the cultures with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and deoxythymidine (dT) in succession, and in 6 of these species the BrdU/dT-banded chromosomes could be arranged into karyotypes. In the 3 species of the clade with 2n = 20 and 4n = 40 chromosomes (X. tropicalis, X. epitropicalis, X. new tetraploid 1), as well as in the 3 species with 4n = 36 chromosomes (X. laevis, X. borealis, X. muelleri), the BrdU/dT-banded karyotypes show a high degree of homoeology, though differences were detected between these groups. Translocations, inversions, insertions or sex-specific replication bands were not observed. Minor replication asynchronies found between chromosomes probably involve heterochromatic regions. BrdU/dT replication banding of Xenopus chromosomes provides the landmarks necessary for the exact physical mapping of genes and repetitive sequences. FISH with an X. laevis 5S rDNA probe detected multiple hybridization sites at or near the long-arm telomeric regions in most chromosomes of X. laevis and X. borealis, whereas in X. muelleri, the 5S rDNA sequences are located exclusively at the long-arm telomeres of a single chromosome pair. Staining with the AT base pair-specific fluorochrome quinacrine mustard revealed brightly fluorescing heterochromatic regions in the majority of X. borealis chromosomes which are absent in other Xenopus species.

  18. Introduction of Eleutherodactylus planirostris (Amphibia, Anura, Eleutherodactylidae to Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Ho Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified small frog species was first encountered in Hong Kong Special Administration Region (SAR, China, in 2000, where the local amphibian diversity is well-studied. We herein identified this unknown frog as Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog using DNA barcoding. We found that its distribution in Hong Kong is widespread (>18 localities, and breeding has been observed in multiple occasions. The populations in at least four localities persisted for over seven years. We discuss its potential negative impacts to terrestrial ecosystems in Hong Kong, with particular concern of its potential competition with the endemic Liuixalus romeri. We call for studies to investigate the impacts of the introduced E. planirostris on the local ecosystem. Screening for E. planirostris in exported plants from Hong Kong should be carried out.

  19. Extreme variation in the atrial septation of caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Desiderius M; Wilkinson, Mark; Jensen, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    Caecilians (order Gymnophiona) are elongate, limbless, snake-like amphibians that are the sister-group (closest relatives) of all other recent amphibians (frogs and salamanders). Little is known of their cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, but one nearly century old study suggests that Hypogeophis (family Indotyphlidae), commonly relied upon as a representative caecilian species, has atrial septation in the frontal plane and more than one septum. In contrast, in other vertebrates there generally is one atrial septum in the sagittal plane. We studied the adult heart of Idiocranium (also Indotyphlidae) using immunohistochemistry and confirm that the interatrial septum is close to the frontal plane. Additionally, a parallel right atrial septum divides three-fourths of the right atrial cavity of this species. Idiocranium embryos in the Hill collection reveal that atrial septation initiates in the sagittal plane as in other tetrapods. Late developmental stages, however, see a left-ward shift of visceral organs and a concordant rotation of the atria that reorients the atrial septa towards the frontal plane. The gross anatomies of species from six other caecilian families reveal that (i) the right atrial septum developed early in caecilian evolution (only absent in Rhinatrematidae) and that (ii) rotation of the atria evolved later and its degree varies between families. In most vertebrates a prominent atrial trabeculation associates with the sinuatrial valve, the so-called septum spurium, and the right atrial septum seems homologous to this trabeculation but much more developed. The right atrial septum does not appear to be a consequence of body elongation because it is absent in some caecilians and in snakes. The interatrial septum of caecilians shares multiple characters with the atrial septum of lungfishes, salamanders and the embryonic septum primum of amniotes. In conclusion, atrial septation in caecilians is based on evolutionarily conserved structures but possibly exhibits greater variation than in any other vertebrate order. PMID:25400089

  20. Status of some populations of Mexican salamanders (Amphibia: Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Parra-Olea

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Mexican plethodontid salamanders have been surveyed non-systematically over the last 25 years. In light of many reports of disappearance of amphibians around the world, we checked for persistence of reported species at ten of these sites. All of the commoner species persist (we observed individuals representing a total of 30 species. While observed densities of many species of Mexican plethodontids are lower to much lower than was the case 20 to 25 years ago, evidence for recent extinctions, such as has been reported for amphibian taxa elsewhere, is equivocal or lacking. Habitat modification has contributed to difficulties in finding certain species.Poblaciones de varias especies de salamandras pletodóntidas en México han sido monitoreadas de manera no sistemática durante los últimos 25 años. Diez de éstas poblaciones fueran visitadas recientemente con el propósito de verificar la persistencia de las especies reportadas para dichas localidades. Nuestras observaciones confirman la persistencia local de más de 30 especies cuyo estatus era desconocido, aunque la frecuencia de observación de estas especies es en general menor que en fechas anteriores. Estas observaciones son particularmente relevantes dada la situación actual de preocupación por la disminución mundial de anfibios.

  1. Central thermoregulatory effects of lactate in the toad Bufo paracnemis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, L G; Steiner, A A

    1999-04-01

    Hypoxia induces a regulated decrease in body temperature (Tb; anapyrexia) in organisms ranging from protozoans to mammals, but very little is known about the mechanisms involved. Several candidates have been suggested to mediate hypoxia-induced anapyrexia, among them lactate, which is a classical compansion of hypoxic stress in vertebrates. The present study was designed to assess the central thermoregulatory effects of lactate in Bujo paracnemis. Toads equipped with a temperature probe were tested over a thermal gradient (10-40 degrees C). Lactate injected systemically (4.0 mmol kg-1) caused a significant reduction of Tb from 24.6 +/- 2.1 to 17.4 +/- 3.9 degrees C. To assess the role of central thermoregulatory mechanisms, a lower dose (0.4 mmol kg-1) of lactate was injected into the fourth cerebral ventricle or systemically. Intracerebroventricular injection of lactate caused a similar decrease in Tb, whereas systemic injection caused no change. The data indicate that lactate may play a role in hypoxia-induced anapyrexia in central rather than peripheral sites.

  2. (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) from the urinary bladder of Bufo gutturalis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-09-07

    Sep 7, 1988 ... vesicola Suzuki, 1950 from Rana rugosa (Suzuki 1950). The question arises whether T. dampanula sp. n. may possibly be the same species as observed by Fantham. (1924) in the urinary bladder of B. regularis, i.e. T. bufonis. Owing to the fact that none of the character- istics provided by Fantham (1924) ...

  3. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...

  4. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol for protection of aquatic life in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Daqiang; Jin Hongjun; Yu Lingwei; Hu Shuangqing

    2003-04-01

    Criteria were established for an organic pollutant in freshwaters of China. - Freshwater quality criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) were developed with particular reference to the aquatic biota in China, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on nine different domestic species indigenous to China to determine 48-h LC{sub 50} and 96-h LC{sub 50} values for 2,4-DCP. In addition, 21 day survival-reproduction tests with Daphnia magna, 30-day embryo-larval tests with Carassius auratus, 60 day fry-juvenile test with Ctenopharyngodon idellus, 30 d early life stage tests with Bufo bufo gargarizans and 96 h growth inhibition tests with Scenedesms obliqaus were conducted, to estimate lower chronic limit (LCL) and upper chronic limit (UCL) values. The final acute value (FAV) was 2.49 mg/l 2,4-DCP. Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR) ranged from 3.74 to 22.5. The final chronic value (FCV) and the final plant value (FPV) of 2.4-DCP were 0.212 mg/l and 7.07 mg/l respectively. Based on FAV, FCV, and FPV, a criteria maximum concentration (CMC) of 1.25 mg/l and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) of 0.212 mg/l were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for 2,4-DCP based on aquatic biota in China.

  5. Transcriptome profiles of metamorphosis in the ornamented pygmy frog Microhyla fissipes clarify the functions of thyroid hormone receptors in metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lanying; Liu, Lusha; Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hongyuan; Jiang, Jianping

    2016-06-02

    Anuran metamorphosis is an excellent system in which to study postembryonic development. Studies on Xenopus (Mesobatrachia) show that thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) regulate metamorphosis in a ligand-dependent manner by coordinating the action of hundreds of genes. However, whether this mechanism is conserved among amphibians is still unknown. To understand the molecular mechanism of this universal phenomenon, we report the transcriptional profiles of the three key developmental stages in Microhyla fissipes (Neobatrachia): premetamorphosis (PM), metamorphic climax (MC) and completion of metamorphosis (CM). In total, 2,293 differentially expressed genes were identified from comparisons of transcriptomes, and these genes showed stage-specific expression patterns. Unexpectedly, we found that TRα was highly expressed in Xenopus laevis and Bufo gargarizans at premetamorphosis but showed low expression in M. fissipes. In contrast, TRβ was highly expressed during metamorphosis in M. fissipes and X. laevis. This result may imply that TRβ is essential for initiating metamorphosis, at least in M. fissipes. Thus, our work not only identifies genes that are likely to be involved in Neobatrachia metamorphosis but also clarifies the roles of unliganded TRα in regulating tadpole growth and timing of metamorphosis, which may be conserved in anurans, and the role of liganded TRβ in launching metamorphosis.

  6. Status Sistematico del Género Geobatrachus Ruthven 1915 (amphibia: Anura Status Sistematico del Género Geobatrachus Ruthven 1915 (amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardila Robayo María Cristina

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Se recopilan las diferentes asignaciones en cuanto a familia que han sido formuladas hasta la fecha para el género Geobatrachus. Mediante la recolección de una serie de topótipos virtuales de este género monotípico, endémico del sector noroeste del macizo de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Departamento del Magdalena, Colombia, se elaboró una descripción detallada y se procedió a un análisis de 67 características morfológicas, a las cuales se adicionó el numero cromosómico (2n = 20, seleccionadas conforme a las utilizadas por LYNCH y HEYER en sus estudios sobre clasificación y filogenia de los Leptodactylidae, las cuales, después de un examen inicial, se consideraron significativas, a fin de precisar las afinidades de este género, Simultáneamente con la recolección del material se adelantaron observaciones ecológicas que permitieron establecer que su distribución se opera en el área de bosques húmedos, frecuentemente nublados entre los 1.750 y 3.000 metros, y que la especie tolera situaciones paraclimácicas (plantaciones artificiales de Cupressus sp., Pinus sp. y piso cubierto de Pennisetum clandestinum y que sus hábitos son netamente terrestres y semifosoriales. De los caracteres externos cabe destacar una gran variabilidad cromática individual; el integumento desprovisto de adaptaciones xeromorfas y de complejos glandulares especializados, indica una adaptación hacia un hábitat higrófilo, añadidos a la extremada reducción del primer dedo pedial. Las características esqueléticas determinadas mediante disección y tinción diferencial, muestran un tipo generalizado sin reducción pronunciada de elementos craneales, con presencia de dientes no pedicelados en la arcada maxilar, sin evidencias de adaptaciones fragmóticas ni fosoriales ni ornamentación epicraneal o exóstosis, aparato hioideo generalizado, 8 vértebras presacras sin fusión ni imbricación y con procesos transversos especializados, sacro con diapófisis no dilatadas, astrágalo y calcáneo fusionados, tarsales reducidos a dos.  Es llamativa la presencia de falanges terminales en forma de T, lo cual podría sugerir una pre adaptación hacia un régimen arborícola (o bien la derivación a partir de un antecesor arborícola, Una condición firmisternal plena de la cintura escapular y la notable reducción de la clavícula insinuarían una aparente relación con los Microhylidae.  La musculatura muestra un M. intermandibularis con rafé medial, la inserción del M. adductor mandibularis subexternus de tipo "S", el tendón distal del M. semitendinosus con recorrido ventral a los Mm. graciles; el M. adductor longus con inserción en la rodilla, y la ausencia de una cabeza accesoria o tendón del M. glutaeus magnus (carácter único dentro de los Neobatrachia, pero verosímilmente debido a pérdida secundaria. Una de las características más llamativas (en contra de registros previos de renacuajos atribuidos tentativamente a esta especie es la confirmación de un desarrollo directo que a priori podría suponerse dada la reducida postura de huevos megalecitales en lugares protegidos y que corresponde a una adaptación hacia ambientes de montaña con escasa oportunidad para un desarrollo larvario acuático.  Los 68 caracteres utilizados fueron codificados numéricamente según sus condiciones primitivas o derivadas, según criterios aceptados en la literatura reciente, tanto para facilitar las comparaciones como para intentar reconstruir la filogenia según principios de taxonomía numérica.  Fácilmente por exclusión se descartó la posibilidad de que Geobatrachus representase conforme a la firmisternia un elemento de los Microhyloidea, y la ausencia de elementos esqueléticos interfalangeales, excluyen cualquier posible afinidad con los Centrolenidae, Hylidae y Pseudidae, aun cuando ninguna característica, salvo la ausencia del tendón accesorio del M. glutaeus magnus (interpretada como pérdida secundaria excluye la asignación de Geobatrachus a los Bufonoidea. Ninguna característica en particular permite referir el genero a los Myobatrachidae ni a los Heleophrynidae, la ausencia de órgano de Bidder (única característica diagnóstica entre Leptodactylidae y Bufonidae elimina, aparte de la afinidad mostrada por cladogramas experimentales, la familia Bufonidae de toda su consideración adicional. En cuanto a los Brachycephalidae (sensu McDIARMID 1969, si bien aparentemente derivados de los Leptodactylidae, diferencias tales como la estructura de la cintura escapular  y el desarrollo de osteodermos dorsales los excluyen de consideración.  El análisis combinatorial realizado mediante cladogramas confirma que los Phyllobatinae (= Dendrobatidae son derivados de los Elosiini, y que los acreditan mejor en el rango de subfamilia dentro de los Leptodactylidae que como familia separada. Aun cuando la firmisternia en particular puede sugerir afinidades con Geobatrachus, ciertamente este género al igual que Rhinoderma no pueden ser asignados a los Phyllobatinae. El análisis de los caracteres de Rhinoderma indica que este género se derivó del antecesor inmediato de los Leptodactylinae o de elementos antiguos de este grupo y que, al igual que en el caso de los Phyllobatinae, bien pueden involucrarse dentro de los Leptodactylidae como una sub familia, a menos que se recurra a dividir dicha familia en varios grupos de jerarquía familiar. No obstante Geobatrachus difiere ampliamente de los Rhinodermatinae y, como lo indican los cladogramas elaborados, muestra su máxima afinidad con los Eleutherodactylini, si bien representa un género bien diferenciado dentro de la tribu quizás como resultado de la evolución in situ de un "stock" antiguo de aislamiento desde el Terciario, que ha sobrevivido en condiciones favorecidas por la ecuabilidad climática, Hipótesis basadas en las evidencias paleogeográficas y paleoclimáticas  disponibles, así como con forme a la posible dicotomía fundamental de los llamados grupos ,.Alpha" y “Beta" de los Eleutherodactylus son discutidas.  Con exclusión de Euparkerella y Holoaden los Eleutherodactylini (cuya diferenciación inicial quizás tuvo lugar en el S. E. de Brasil, los restantes géneros del grupo se hallan estrechamente relacionados entre sí, aun cuando una revisión exhaustiva de Eleutherodactylus que eventualmente puede llegar a subdividir este género, puede llevar a conclusiones que si bien no se aparten substancialmente de las interpretaciones aquí ofrecidas, si conduzcan a una interpretación mejor fundada de la que las hipótesis planteadas o incluso a una reducción del número de géneros actualmente reconocidos.  Tanto la firmisternia como la pérdida del tendón accesorio del M. glutaeus magnus y el número comparativamente reducido de cromosomas con ausencia de acrocéntricos, sugieren que Geobatrachus represente una línea extrema de especialización dentro de los Eleutherodactylini.  La evidencia aportada por el análisis cladístico no favorece considerar a los Eleutherodactylinae como derivados de Adenomera o de un antecesor inmediato común con este género y, por tanto, la adquisición del desarrollo directo dentro de los Leptodactylidae parece haber ocurrido independientemente al menos en dos líneas filéticas. The different familial assignations proposed until now for Geobatracbus are compiled. Through the collection of a virtual topotypical series of this monotypic genus, which is endemic of the NW section of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif (Departamento del Magdalena, Colombia, a detailed description was made.  67 morphological characters were selected according to the criteria used by Lynch and Heyer in their studies on the philogeny and classification of the leptodactylid frogs, and such characters, compled with the chromosome number (2n =20 were analysed, after initial examination of their meaning in order to ascertain the affinities of the genus. Field work carried on in the region showed that its distribution cover the area of humid forest, with frequent mists, at. 1.750-3.000 m., and pointed also that the species tolerates paraclimacic situations (in plantations of Cupressus sp., and Pinus sp. , and their habits are exclusively terrestrial and semifossorial.  Among the external characters it can be emphasized the high degree of chromatic individual variation, the absence of xeromorphic adaptations and specialized glandular complexes in the skin, which point towards an adaptation towards a hygrophilic habitat, added to the extreme reduction of the first pedial digit. The skeleton characters, studied through dissection and differential staining, show a generalized type without pronounced reduction in the cranial elements, the occurrence of non-pedicellated teeth in the maxillary arch, the absence of either phragmotic or fossorial adaptations, or epicraneal ornamentation exostosis; a generalized hyoid apparatus; 8 presacral vertebrae without fusion or imbrication, and with specialized transverse processes; no expanded sacral diapophyses, fused talus and calcaneus and only two tarsalia. The T-shaped terminal phalanges might suggest a preadaptation towards an arboreal way of life (or, conversely, an arboreal ancestor; also the full firmisternal condition of the pectoral girdle and the striking clavicular reduction which would show an apparent relationship with the Microhylids. The following muscular characters are noteworthy: M. intermandibularis with medial raphe, the type "s" insertion of the M. adductor mandibularis subexternus, the distal tendon of M. semitendinosus passing ventral to the Mm. graciles, the insertion over the knee of the M. adductor longus, and the absence of an accessory head (or tendon in the M. glutaeus magnus (an unique condition among the Neobatrachia, presumably due to secondary loss.  In contrast with previous wrong assertions, a direct development (without free larval stages was confirmed, a condition expected a priori since the eggs are megalecythal and laid in reduced numbers in protected places, in accordance with the scare opportunities for aquatic larval development in mountain environments.  Each of the 68 used characters were codified according to their primitive or derived represented stages, following criteria adopted in the recent literature, with the aim of using principles of numeric taxonomy to at temp the reconstruction of the phylogeny. The possibility that Geobatrachus could belong to the Microhyloidea due to its firmisternal condition, was easily discarded, and the absence of intercalary skeletal pieces in the digits, prevent also any possible close relationship with the Centrolenidae, Hylidae and Pseudidae, although there are no characters (except for the absence of an accessory tendon in the M. glutaeus magnus, regarded as a secondary loss that might exclude the inclusion of Geobatrachus in the Bufonoidea. No particular characters allow the inclusion of the genus either in the Myobatrachidae or the Heleophrynidae.  The absence of Bidder's organ (which is the only diagnostic difference between the Leptodactylidae and the Bufonidae eliminate the family Bufonidae from any further consideration, a conclusion that is supported also by experimental cladograms. Distinctive features such as the morphology of the pectoral girdle and the presence of dorsal osteoderms, characteristic of the Brachycephalidae (sensu McDIARMID, 1969 also exclude this family from consideration.   The combinational analysis made through cladograms confirms the presumptive derivation of the Phyllobatinae (= Dendrobatidae from the Elosiini, and leads to the conclusion that this group might be better regarded as a subfamily of the Leptodactylidae than as a family of their own. Although, in particular the firmisternal condition might suggest affinities of Geobatrachus with the Phyllobatinae, neither this genus or Rhinoderma can be referred to this subfamily. The analysis of the characters of Rhinoderma shows rather conclusively that this genus was derived from the immediate anc estor of the Leptodactylinae or from early members of this group, and under such circumstances Rhinoderma can equally be included in the Leptodactylidae as a representative of a monotypic subfamily. Otherwise, the Leptodactylidae should be divided in several groups of familial hierarchy. However, Geobatrachus widely differs from the Rhinodermatinae, and, as its clearly shown by the cladograms, shows its greater affinity with the Eleutherodactylini, although Geobatrachus is rather outstandingly different from the other genera of this tribe. This condition might be due to the in situ evolution of an early stock, isolated since the Tertiary, that has survived in favored conditions due to climatic equability. Several hypothesis based on the available paleogeographic and paleoclimatic evidence are discussed, in conjunction with the possible fundamental dichotomy of the" Alpha" and" Beta" groups of the genus Eleutberodactylus. With the noticeable exceptions of the genera Euparkerella and Holoaden, the Eleutherodactylini (perhaps originally issued in S. E. Brazil represent a group of closely related genera, although an exhaustive review of Eleutherodactylus might eventually lead to the splitting of this genus, and to conclusions that agreeing essentially with the conclusions here offered, could otherwise provide basis for a better interpretation of the facts here presented, or even to a reduction of the currently recognized genera for this tribe.  Both, the firmisterny, the loss of the accessory tendon of the M. glutaeus magnus, and the caryotipe (with comparatively reduced number of chromosomes and the lack of acrocentrics, suggest that Geobatrachus represents an extreme line of specialization among the Eleutherodactylini. The evidence afforded by the cladistic analysis gives no support to regard the Eleutherodactylini are derived from Adenomera or an immediate common ancestor with this genus, and so the acquisition of the direct development among the Leptodactylidae seens to have occurred independently at least in two phyletic lines.

  7. [Early stages of development of Trypanosoma rotatorium (Mayer, 1843) from peripheral blood and internal organs of Anurans Bufo bufo (Linnaeus) and Rana sp. (Anura)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysheva, M N

    2014-01-01

    The data on the fauna of trypanosomes of Anura of the Leningrad Province are given. The initial development stages of Trypanosoma rotatorium in peripheral blood and internal organs of the frog are described for the first time.

  8. Tissue kinetics, ion transport, and recruitment of mitochondria-rich cells in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo) in response to exposure to distilled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz, Poul Egede; Christoffersen, Betina C.; Johansen, Jesper S.

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) of the amphibian epidermis are responsible for active chloride uptake at low external salinity, and new MRCs are recruited in response to exposure to distilled (deionized) water. The time-course of this recruitment, the tissue kinetics and ion transport have been...

  9. K+ transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo : microelectrode recordings from isolated and perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    V, respectively (N=11; 11). This conductance could also be inhibited by Ba(2+), which depolarized a V(bl) of -71+/-5 mV by 9+/-3 mV (N=5). The pump inhibitor ouabain (1 mmol l(-1)) depolarized V(bl), but addition of furosemide to bath solution did not affect V(bl). The [K(+)] in urine varied from 1.3 to 22.8 mmol...

  10. Non-invasive treatments of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone for inducing spermiation in American (Bufo americanus) and Gulf Coast (Bufo valliceps) toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Angela D.; Obringer, Amy R.; Roth, Terri L.

    2001-01-01

    As many as 20% of all assessed amphibian species are threatened with extinction, and captive breeding programs are becoming important components of conservation strategies for this taxon. For some species, exogenous hormone administration has been integrated into breeding protocols to improve propagation. However, most treatments are administered by an intraperitoneal injection that can be associated with some risks. The general goal of this study was to identify a non-invasive method of applying luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), which reliably induces sperm release in toads. Specific objectives were to 1) test the spermiation response after topical application of different LHRH doses to the abdominal seat region, 2) evaluate the effects of adding the absorption enhancers dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetone, and glyceryl monocaprylate (GMC) to the LHRH, 3) assess the spermiation response after oral delivery of LHRH in a mealworm vehicle, and 4) compare sperm characteristics and spermiation responses to treatments in two different toad species. Male American (n = 9) and Gulf Coast (n = 7) toads were rotated systematically through a series of treatments. Urine was collected and evaluated for the presence of sperm at 0, 3, 7, 12, and 24 hours post-treatment. There were no statistical differences in spermiation induction or sperm characteristics between American and Gulf Coast toads after the treatments. Oral administration of 100 &mgr;g LHRH was occasionally successful in inducing spermiation, but results appeared largely unreliable. Ventral dermal application of 100 or 10 &mgr;g LHRH in 40% DMSO were more effective (P Zoo Biol 20:63-74, 2001. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. First report of satellite males during breeding in Leptodactylus latrans (Amphibia, Anura

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    Gabriel Laufer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of satellite males is a common behaviour across anuran taxa. Satellite males take peripheral positions to calling males and adopt tactics in an attempt to intercept females that are attracted to calling males to increase their own mating success. Satellite males could have an inexpensive form of mate-locating, avoiding predators, and saving energy. Furthermore, this strategy could play an important role in the genetic structure of populations. The genus Leptodactylus consists of approximately 70 described species that are widely distributed in South America. The literature on the biology of this genus is extensive; however, we found only two reports on the existence of multi-male mating behavior in the genus (L. chaquensis and L. podicipinus. Herein, we report intrasexual competition in the form of satellite behavior in Leptodactylus latrans, where multiple satellite males were observed in close vicinity to a calling male.

  12. DNA barcoding and the identification of tree frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ning-Xin; Sun, Feng-Hui; Lv, Yun-Yun; Zhao, Bo-Han; Wang, Ji-Chao; Murphy, Robert W; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Li, Jia-Tang

    2016-07-01

    The DNA barcoding gene COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) effectively identifies many species. Herein, we barcoded 172 individuals from 37 species belonging to nine genera in Rhacophoridae to test if the gene serves equally well to identify species of tree frogs. Phenetic neighbor joining and phylogenetic Bayesian inference were used to construct phylogenetic trees, which resolved all nine genera as monophyletic taxa except for Rhacophorus, two new matrilines for Liuixalus, and Polypedates leucomystax species complex. Intraspecific genetic distances ranged from 0.000 to 0.119 and interspecific genetic distances ranged from 0.015 to 0.334. Within Rhacophorus and Kurixalus, the intra- and interspecific genetic distances did not reveal an obvious barcode gap. Notwithstanding, we found that COI sequences unambiguously identified rhacophorid species and helped to discover likely new cryptic species via the synthesis of genealogical relationships and divergence patterns. Our results supported that COI is an effective DNA barcoding marker for Rhacophoridae.

  13. Three new species of Eleutherodactylus (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae from high elevations of the cordillera Central of Colombia

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    Lynch John D.

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Eleutherodactylus orcesi group, the smallest member of the group, is described from the Páramo de los Valles (Tolima. It is very similar to E. slmoterus. From the same locality, a new species of dwarf Eleutherodactylus, lacking a tympanum, is described. It appears to be a member of the E. myersi group. Lastly, a new large black Eleutherodactylusis described from páramo and subpáramo habitats of the Cordillera Central. This species is distributed from Antioquia to Cauca. With these three species, fifteen species of Eleutherodactylus are known for páramo and subpáramo habitats of the Cordillera Central north of the Macizo de Pasto. These 15 species be long to tour species groups.Se describe una especie nueva del grupo de Eleutherodactylus orcesi del Páramo de los Valles (Tolima. Esta especie es muy parecida a E. simoterus pero se distingue por su tamaño (la especie nueva es la más pequeña del grupo. Se describe también una especie enanita del Páramo de los Valles que posiblemente es una especie del grupo de Eleutherodactylus myersl. La especie es muy distinta porque carece de tímpano. Finalmente, se describe una especie grande y negra que se encuentra desde Antioquia hacia Cauca en la Cordillera Central. Con estas especies, tenemos 15 especies de Eleutherodactylus conocidas de los páramos y subpáramos de la Cordillera Central al norte del Macizo de Pasto, que pertenecen a cuatro grupos de especies.

  14. Redescription of the advertisement call of Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederassi, Jonas; Lima, Mauro Sérgio Cruz Souza; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Souza, Patrícia Dos Santos; Santos, Mayra Caroliny De Oliveira; Silva, Islaíane Costa

    2015-08-03

    The genus Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 is composed by 46 species occurring from north to southern South America, east of the Andes (Frost 2015). Physalaemus albifrons is morphologically differentiated from the other species mainly due to the presence of a second tarsal tubercle located nearly the tibio-tarsal articulation (Bokermann 1966). Physalaemus albifrons occurs in Brazil from north of the State of Maranhão through the states of Piauí, Ceará, Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas, being its more austral occurrence in the State of Minas Gerais (Frost 2015). The advertisement call of P. albifrons was described by Bokermann (1966); however, the description needs improvement by applying new technologies, which we provide herein.

  15. Feeding biomechanics of Late Triassic metoposaurids (Amphibia: Temnospondyli): a 3D finite element analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuny, Josep; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Konietzko-Meier, Dorota

    2017-06-01

    The Late Triassic freshwater ecosystems were occupied by different tetrapod groups including large-sized anamniotes, such as metoposaurids. Most members of this group of temnospondyls acquired gigantic sizes (up to 5 m long) with a nearly worldwide distribution. The paleoecology of metoposaurids is controversial; they have been historically considered passive, bottom-dwelling animals, waiting for prey on the bottom of rivers and lakes, or they have been suggested to be active mid-water feeders. The present study aims to expand upon the paleoecological interpretations of these animals using 3D finite element analyses (FEA). Skulls from two taxa, Metoposaurus krasiejowensis, a gigantic taxon from Europe, and Apachesaurus gregorii, a non-gigantic taxon from North America, were analyzed under different biomechanical scenarios. Both 3D models of the skulls were scaled to allow comparisons between them and reveal that the general stress distribution pattern found in both taxa is clearly similar in all scenarios. In light of our results, both previous hypotheses about the paleoecology of these animals can be partly merged: metoposaurids probably were ambush and active predators, but not the top predators of these aquatic environments. The FEA results demonstrate that they were particularly efficient at bilateral biting, and together with their characteristically anteropositioned orbits, optimal for an ambush strategy. Nonetheless, the results also show that these animals were capable of lateral strikes of the head, suggesting active hunting of prey. Regarding the important skull size differences between the taxa analyzed, our results suggest that the size reduction in the North American taxon could be related to drastic environmental changes or the increase of competitors. The size reduction might have helped them expand into new ecological niches, but they likely remained fully aquatic, as are all other metoposaurids. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  16. Natural history and distribution of Agalychnis craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957) (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Cadle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Aspects of reproductive behaviour, calls, clutch sizes, and larval morphology are described for Agalychnis craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957). New distributional records extend the range of this species to southern Amazonian Peru. In most respects reproductive behaviour of A. craspedopus is similar to

  17. The agricultural impact of pesticides on Physalaemus cuvieri tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura ascertained by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macks W. Gonçalves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amphibians inhabiting agricultural areas are constantly exposed to large amounts of chemicals, which reach the aquatic environment during the rainy season through runoff, drainage, and leaching. We performed a comet assay on the erythrocytes of tadpoles found in the surroundings of agricultural fields (soybean and corn crops, where there is an intense release of several kinds of pesticides in different quantities. We aimed to detect differences in the genotoxic parameters between populations collected from soybeans and cornfields, and between them and tadpoles sampled from non-agricultural areas (control group. Tadpoles collected from ponds located at soybean fields had significantly more DNA damage, followed by tadpoles collected from cornfields. In contrast, animals sampled from non-agricultural areas had the lowest incidence of DNA damage. In addition, we found a negative correlation between the parameters of the comet assay and the area of the ponds surrounding soybean. This correlation indicates a possible dilution effect in the concentration of pesticides. Finally, Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 seems to be a good bioindicator for detecting the genotoxic effects of field agricultural insecticides; therefore, we suggest that this species should be used in environmental biomonitoring studies, since it is common and abundant where it occurs.

  18. Una nueva especie del grupo Hyloscirtus larinopygion (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae del suroccidente de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonh Jairo Mueses-Cisneros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie del grupo Hyloscirtus larinopygion del Nudo de los Pastos en el departamento de Nariño, Colombia. Hyloscirtus tigrinus sp. nov. puede ser distinguida fácilmente de sus especies similares por la presencia de un tubérculo calcar carnoso y prominente, además de su distintivo patrón de coloración. Se realizan algunos comentarios sobre la coloración de la garganta y coloración ventral en Hyloscirtus caucanus, H. larinopygion, H. lindae y H. tigrinus. La coloración de la garganta es altamente variable, por lo tanto no puede ser utilizada para diagnosticar a estas especies.A new species of the Hyloscirtus larinopygion group from Nudo de los Pastos, Nariño department, Colombia is described. Hyloscirtus tigrinus sp. nov. can be distinguished easily from similar species by the presence of a fleshy and prominent calcar tubercle and by its distinctive color pattern. Some remarks on throat and ventral coloration in Hyloscirtus caucanus, H. larinopygion, H. lindae and H. tigrinus are presented. The throat coloration is highly variable and cannot be used to diagnose any of these species.

  19. Polymorphism versus species richness - systematics of large Dendrobates from the eastern Guiana Shield (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenberg, K.; Veith, M.K.H.; Noonan, B.P.; Lötters, S.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A molecular phylogeny based on a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene and morphological comparisons suggest that only one polymorphic species of large Dendrobates, commonly assigned to D. tinctorius, occurs on the eastern Guiana Shield and its vicinities. The oldest available name

  20. A taxonomic revision of the Neotropical poison frog genus Ranitomeya (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.L.; Twomey, E.; Amézquita, A.; Souza, M.B.; Caldwell, J.P.; Lötters, S.; May, R.; Melo-Sampaio, P.R.; Mejía-Vargas, D.; Perez-Peña, P.; Pepper, M.; Poelman, E.H.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Summers, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Neotropical poison frog genus Ranitomeya is revised, resulting in one new genus, one new species, five synonymies and one species classified as nomen dubium. We present an expanded molecular phylogeny that contains 235 terminals, 104 of which are new to this study. Notable additions to this

  1. New material of Beelzebufo, a hyperossified frog (Amphibia: Anura from the late cretaceous of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Evans

    Full Text Available The extant anuran fauna of Madagascar is exceptionally rich and almost completely endemic. In recent years, many new species have been described and understanding of the history and relationships of this fauna has been greatly advanced by molecular studies, but very little is known of the fossil history of frogs on the island. Beelzebufo ampinga, the first named pre-Holocene frog from Madagascar, was described in 2008 on the basis of numerous disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian Maevarano Formation of Madagascar. These specimens documented the presence of a hyperossified taxon that differed strikingly from extant Malagasy frogs in its large size and heavy coarse cranial exostosis. Here we describe and analyse new, articulated, and more complete material of the skull, vertebral column, and hind limb, as well as additional isolated elements discovered since 2008. μCT scans allow a detailed understanding of both internal and external morphology and permit a more accurate reconstruction. The new material shows Beelzebufo to have been even more bizarre than originally interpreted, with large posterolateral skull flanges and sculptured vertebral spine tables. The apparent absence of a tympanic membrane, the strong cranial exostosis, and vertebral morphology suggest it may have burrowed during seasonally arid conditions, which have been interpreted for the Maevarano Formation from independent sedimentological and taphonomic evidence. New phylogenetic analyses, incorporating both morphological and molecular data, continue to place Beelzebufo with hyloid rather than ranoid frogs. Within Hyloidea, Beelzebufo still groups with the South American Ceratophryidae thus continuing to pose difficulties with both biogeographic interpretations and prior molecular divergence dates.

  2. Oviduct modifications in foam-nesting frogs, with emphasis on the genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Andrew I.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Heyer, W. Ronald; Zug, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Various species of frogs produce foam nests that hold their eggs during development. We examined the external morphology and histology of structures associated with foam nest production in frogs of the genus Leptodactylus and a few other taxa. We found that the posterior convolutions of the oviducts in all mature female foam-nesting frogs that we examined were enlarged and compressed into globular structures. This organ-like portion of the oviduct has been called a "foam gland" and these structures almost certainly produce the secretion that is beaten by rhythmic limb movements into foam that forms the nest. However, the label "foam gland" is a misnomer because the structures are simply enlarged and tightly folded regions of the pars convoluta of the oviduct, rather than a separate structure; we suggest the name pars convoluta dilata (PCD) for this feature. Although all the foam-nesters we examined had a pars convoluta dilata, its size and shape showed considerable interspecific variation. Some of this variation likely reflects differences in the breeding behaviors among species and in the size, type, and placement of their foam nests. Other variation, particularly in size, may be associated with the physiological periodicity and reproductive state of the female, her age, and/or the number of times she has laid eggs.

  3. Food Habits of the Endemic Long Legged Wood Frog, Rana Pseudodalmatina (Amphibia, Ranidae, in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najibzadeh M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Iranian long legged wood frog, Rana pseudodalmatina Eiselt & Schmidtler, 1971 is a brown frog species endemic to the Hyrcanian forest. The objective of the present study is to collect detailed information on the feeding habits of 44 specimens of this species (24 ♂, 20 ♀ by analyzing the stomach contents of individuals from 10 populations inhabiting range. The food habit of R. pseudodalmatina generally varies by the availability of surrounding prey items, and it is a foraging predator, the food of which consists largely of Coleoptera (mainly Carabidae, Dytiscidae and Haliplidae, Diptera (Muscidae and Hymenoptera (Formicidae, and no difference was found between females and males in the stomach content.

  4. A new species of Telmatobius (Amphibia, Anura, Telmatobiidae from the Pacific slopes of the Andes, Peru

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    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Telmatobius from the Pacific slopes of the Andes in central Peru. Specimens were collected at 3900 m elevation near Huaytará, Huancavelica, in the upper drainage of the Pisco river. The new species has a snout–vent length of 52.5 ± 1.1 mm (49.3–55.7 mm, n = 6 in adult females, and 48.5 mm in the single adult male. The new species has bright yellow and orange coloration ventrally and is readily distinguished from all other central Peruvian Andean species of Telmatobius but T. intermedius by having vomerine teeth but lacking premaxillary and maxillary teeth, and by its slender body shape and long legs. The new species differs from T. intermedius by its larger size, flatter head, and the absence of cutaneous keratinized spicules (present even in immature females of T. intermedius, and in males by the presence of minute, densely packed nuptial spines on dorsal and medial surfaces of thumbs (large, sparsely packed nuptial spines in T. intermedius. The hyper-arid coastal valleys of Peru generally support low species richness, particularly for groups such as aquatic breeding amphibians. The discovery of a new species in this environment, and along a major highway crossing the Andes, shows that much remains to be done to document amphibian diversity in Peru.

  5. Light shines through the spindrift – Phylogeny of African torrent frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Petropedetidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barej, M. F.; Rödel, M.-O.; Loader, S. P.; Menegon, M.; Gonwouo, N.L.; Penner, J.; Gvoždík, Václav; Günther, R.; Bell, R. C.; Nagel, B.; Schmitz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2014), s. 261-273 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Africa * Amphibians * Taxonomy * Arthroleptides * Petropedetes * Odontobatrachus gen. nov Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.916, year: 2014

  6. Organophosphorus pesticides effect on early stages of the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Mendoza, C; García-Basilio, C; Cram-Heydrich, S; Hernández-Quiroz, M; Vanegas-Pérez, C

    2009-02-01

    Ambystoma mexicanum is an endemic salamander of Xochimilco, a wetland of the basin of Mexico valley. Nowadays, axolotl populations are decreasing due environmental stressors. Particularly, studies about organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs; i.e. chlorpyrifos and malathion) toxicity are of great importance due to their intensive use in agricultural activities in Xochimilco. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate under controlled conditions the toxicity of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and malathion (MLT) on embryos and larvae (stage 44 and 54) of A. mexicanum. Embryos and larvae were exposure 96h from 0.5 to 3mg CPFL(-1) and from 10 to 30mg MLTL(-1) in independent tests. Embryos at the end of this period were maintained 9d without pesticide in order to identify possible recuperation. Differences obtained in mortality, hatching success, development, morphological abnormalities, behaviour and activity, suggest that toxicity of CPF and MLT differs in embryos and larval stages. Embryos were less sensitive to OPPs acute exposure than axolotl larvae; additionally, toxicity of CPF in larval stages was greater than MLT. On the other hand, data obtained in axolotl embryos during the period of recuperation to CPF in particular as delay and inhibition of development, malformations and success of hatching, indicated that these responses turned out more sensitive than mortality. This study allowed to identify the toxicological potential of OPPs on early developmental stages of A. mexicanum and it is a valuable contribution for the future management of the axolotl wild population.

  7. A new species of nematode (Molineidae) from Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) in Guerrero, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Torres, Nallely; García-Prieto, Luis; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Violante-González, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Oswaldocruzia lamotheargumedoi n. sp., inhabiting the intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina (L.), in Laguna de Coyuca, Guerrero, México, is described here. The new species differs from 10 congeners infecting bufonid hosts because it has a type I bursa. In contrast, 7 of these species have type II bursa and 3 more a type III bursa. The species most similar to the species described herein is Oswaldocruzia pipiens Walton, 1929 . These 2 species share traits such as body size, bursa type, presence of cervical alae, and dorsal ray morphology. Nevertheless, both species can be distinguished based on the number of synlophe ridges at mid-body (54-56 for O. lamotheargumedoi vs. 45-48 for O. pipiens) and by the presence of a chitinous support in the long, and well developed, cervical alae of O. pipiens. In the new species, these structures are short, poorly developed, and lack chitinous support. Previous records of species of Oswaldocruzia in México include Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Rudolphi, 1819) Travassos, 1917 in the Neotropical Realm and O. pipiens in the Nearctic.

  8. Voltage gated potassium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis(AMPHIBIA oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedna Chaves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterologous expression has been an important tool for structural and functionalcharacterization of proteins. The study of biophysical properties of ion channels,pumps and transporters has been possible thanks to their expression in Xenopuslaevisoocytes. Here we report the expression of two voltage gated channels, Kv1.1and Shaker, in X. laevisoocytes using a method for oocyte extraction, isolation, cul-ture, and microinjection adapted to the latitude and altitude conditions of Bogotá,Colombia.

  9. A new species of Thaumastosaurus (Amphibia : Anura) from the Eocene of Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rage, J. C.; Roček, Zbyněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2007), s. 329-336 ISSN 0272-4634 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Lower Tertiary * South-America * genus * affinities * Paleogene * England * Quercy * basin * fauna Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.376, year: 2007

  10. First parasitological study of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, Amphibia in Chile

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    Cristóbal Castillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduced species can arrive into new territories with parasites; however, these species are expected to face lower parasite richness than in their original regions. Both introduced hosts and parasites can affect native fauna. Since their release into the wild in Chile following laboratory use, Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 has widely spread throughout central Chile. The only pathogen described on the host is the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Longcore, Pessier, Nichols, 1999; thus, this is the first parasitological study of this species in Chile. In 10 localities in central Chile, 179 specimens of X. laevis were captured and examined for parasites in the gastrointestinal tube, cavities, lungs, liver, and skin. Only nine specimens of the genus Contracaecum Railliet, Henry, 1912 were found in six specimens of X. laevis from a private dam in La Patagua. It is likely that these parasites originated from species of native birds. This is the first record of Contracaecum sp. in Chilean amphibians.

  11. Schellackia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae of the brazilian tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa (Amphibia: Anura from Amazonian Brazil

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    I. Paperna

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous stages of a Schellackia species are described in histological sections of the intestine of the tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa, from North Brazil. Most oocysts sporulate within the epithelial cells of the gut, but a few were detected in the lamina propria.

  12. Leech presence on Iberian Brown Frog, Rana iberica, (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae from north-western Spain

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    César Ayres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of parasitism on Rana iberica by two species of leeches, Batracobdella sp. and Hirudo medicinalis, in a mountainous area of north-western Spain. Conservation implications of high parasite load on small and isolated populations are discussed.

  13. Histological changes, apoptosis and metallothionein levels in Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) exposed to environmental cadmium concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capaldo, Anna, E-mail: anna.capaldo@unina.it [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Gay, Flaminia [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Caputo, Ivana; Lepretti, Marilena; Marabotti, Anna; Esposito, Carla [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Laforgia, Vincenza [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Specimens of the newt Triturus carnifex were exposed to environmental Cd doses. • Newts exposed to Cd during 9 months accumulated Cd in their tissues. • Cd induced histological alterations in the skin, liver and kidneys. • Cd induced apoptosis only in the kidneys. • Cd did not increase metallothionein levels in the skin and the liver, nor MTs mRNA. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to verify if the freshwater safety values established from the European Community (1998) and the Italian Ministry of Health (2001) for cadmium (44.5 nM/L in drinking water and 178 nM/L in sewage waters) were safe for amphibians, since at these same concentrations cadmium induced endocrine disruption in the newt Triturus carnifex. Adult male specimens of T. carnifex were exposed daily to cadmium (44.5 nM/L and 178 nM/L as CdCl{sub 2}, nominal concentrations), respectively, during 3- and 9-months; at the same time, control newts were exposed to tap water only. The accumulation of cadmium in the skin, liver and kidney, the levels of metallothioneins in the skin and the liver, the expression of metallothionein mRNA in the liver, as well as the presence of histological alterations and of apoptosis in the target organs were evaluated. The 9-months exposure induced cadmium accumulation in all the tissues examined; moreover, histological changes were observed in all the tissues examined, irrespective of the dose or the time of exposure. Apoptosis was only detected in the kidney, whereas metallothioneins and metallothionein mRNA did not increase. This study demonstrates that the existing chronic water quality criterion established for cadmium induces in the newt T. carnifex cadmium accumulation and histological alterations in the target organs examined. Together with our previous results, showing that, at these same concentrations, cadmium induced endocrine disruption, the present results suggest that the existing chronic water quality criterion for cadmium appears to be not protective of amphibians.

  14. Updated distribution of hybrids between Lissotriton vulgaris and Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae in Romania

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    Iulian Gherghel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lissotriton montandoni is an endemic newt species found only in the Carpathian Mountains and lives in sympatry with Lissotriton vulgaris in many aquatic habitats from the entire range of the former species in the Carpathian and Sudetes Mountains or in the hilly areas from the Subcarpathians. These two species usually generate hybrids where their parapatric ranges meet, especially along rivers that flow from the inside of the Carpathians, where valleys are used as ecological corridors by L. vulgaris. We surveyed several regions of the Eastern Carpathian Mountains between 2008 and 2011 and found 11 new populations of newts where hybrids between the two mentioned species were present. All new records of L. montandoni x L. vulgaris were described in the eastern part of the Eastern Carpathians, in Neamț County, a region known also from previous literature to be a ‘hot spot’ for hybrids between these two species. The present paper also presents an updated review of the distribution of Lissotriton hybrids in Romania.

  15. A new montane species of Philautus (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from western Sarawak, Malaysia, Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehling, J Maximilian; Dehling, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Philautus is described from western Sarawak. The new species was collected in lower montane forest in two national parks in Sarawak and recorded from another park. It differs from its congeners by a unique combination of morphological characters, including a long, acuminate snout, long legs, and comparatively extensive toe webbing. The advertisement call of the new species differs from all calls of other species that have been analyzed so far. Comparison of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequence corroborates its distinct specific status.

  16. Estudio preliminar de la fauna Amphibia del valle de Sibundoy, Alto Putumayo, Colombia

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    Jonh Jairo Mueses-Cisneros

    2004-07-01

    (Valle de Sibundoy y por localidades muestreadas, se hace una comparación con las faunas realizadas en el transecto Napo en Ecuador y en el transecto Montañita-Alto Gabinete en Caquetá y se presenta una clave taxonómica y una serie de fotografías para facilitar su  reconocimiento. El estudio además aporta cinco especies nuevas para la ciencia, amplía el rango altitudinal de otras ocho y presenta tres más para ser incluidas al listado general de las especies de anfibios de Colombia, las cuales habían sido ya anteriormente reportadas para el país por otros autores, pero no habían sido tenidas en cuenta en el último listado.

  17. .i.Palaeobatrachus eurydices./i., sp. nov. (Amphibia, Anura), the last Western European palaeobatrachid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Villa, A.; Roček, Zbyněk; Tschopp, E.; van den Hoek Ostende, L. W.; Delfino, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 6 (2016), č. článku e1211664. ISSN 0272-4634 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Palaeobatrachus * Palaeobatrachus eurydices * Anura Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.114, year: 2016

  18. Hydrophylax bahuvistara, a new species of fungoid frog (Amphibia: Ranidae from peninsular India

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    Anand D. Padhye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophylax bahuvistara, a new species of fungoid frog, is described from peninsular India. It can be separated from its congeners based on a combination of characters including wider head, outline of snout in dorsal view truncated, finger and toe tips without lateroventral groove, foot moderately webbed, metatarsals of 4th and 5th toes closely set, outer metatarsal tubercle small, foot length less than or equal to half of snout vent length, dorsal parts of shank without glandular folds and sparse horny spinules, and heels touch each other when the legs are folded at right angles to the body.  Genetically, H. bahuvistara forms a monophyletic group with H. malabaricus as a sister clade separated by a raw distance of 4.0 to 4.5% in the 16s rRNA gene.  Morphometrically, H. bahuvistara forms a significantly different cluster from H. malabaricus and H. gracilis in Discriminant Analysis.  

  19. Los renacuajos de los anuros (Amphibia altoandinos de Venezuela: morfología externa y claves

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    Abraham Mijares-Urrutia

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo una revisión de las referencias pertinentes y se examinaron una serie de lotes de renacuajos representativos (al menos una especie por cada género de los anuros altoandinos de Venezuela. Se presentan también una lista de 41 caracteres con algunas ilustraciones explicativas, intentando describir en detalle la morfología externa larvaria de esos anuros. Se propone emplear la medición de ángulos respecto al eje longitudinal del cuerpo para establecer la forma de la punta de la cola y la ubicación del aparato oral. Igualmente, se tomaron 19 medidas para determinar las proporciones morfológicas. Se incluye una clave para identificar a partir exclusi-vamente de caracteres morfológicos externos (presencia/ausencia, tamaño, forma, número, ubicación, etc., los cuales no se modifican (o apenas se modifican ligeramente a lo largo de los estadios de desarrollo larvario más jóvenes e intermedios. Esta clave sirve para identificar los renacuajos al nivel de familia y género de las ranas y sapos que habitan en la región antes mencionada. La clave abarca seis familias y 11 géneros. Adicionalmente, y como un modelo de este trabajo, se describe e ilustra por primera vez el renacuajo de Hyla pelidna, coincidiendo bastante bien con las características larvarias del grupo de H. labialis (fórmula de filas de queratodontes 1/2 o 2/2, papilas marginales en filas múltiples, diastema rostral presente, abertura cloacal diestra y abdominal [separado de la aleta ventral], aletas caudales más anchas que la musculatura caudal a la mitad de su longitud, abertura narinal con un anillo carnoso, liso, no protuberante. Este trabajo representa el primer esfuerzo para compilar en idioma español la morfología larvaria de los anfibios anuros.A literature review and examination of several lots of tadpoles representative of the high Venezuelan Andes species (at least one species per genus allowed identification of 41 useful characters. These are presented (with some illustrations in a detailed description of their external morphology. Angle measurements (related to body longitudinal axis are recommended to describe tail tip shape and location of oral apparatuses. Additionally, nineteen meristic data were used to assert morphological proportions. The identification key is based exclusively on external morphology (presence/absence, size, shape, number, location, etc., that remains mostly unmodified in larval early and intermediate development. The key allows identification to genus for frogs and toads that occur in the region (six families, 11 genera. As a model of this proposal, the tadpole of Hyla pelidna is described and illustrated for the first time; it fits the larval characteristics of the H. labialis group (keratodont rows formula 1/2 or 2/2, marginal papillae in multiple rows, rostral gap present, dextral cloacal opening abdominal [separated from the ventral fin], caudal fins widest than caudal musculature at tail midlength, narial opening with fleshy, smooth, not protuberant rim. This is a first effort to establish an anuran larval terminology in Spanish.

  20. Food composition of some low altitude Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia, Caudata populations from North-Western Romania

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    Covaciu-Marcov S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of some populations of Lissotriton montandoni from north-western Romania is composed of prey belonging to 20 categories. The food components of the Carpathian newts are similar to those of other species of newts. Most of the prey are aquatic animals, but terrestrial prey also has a high percentage abundance. The consumed prey categories are common in the newts' habitats as well, but in natural ponds the prey item with the highest abundance in the diet is not the most frequent one in the habitat. Thus, although the Carpathian newts are basically opportunistic predators, they still display a certain trophic selectivity.

  1. Histology of parotoid gland of Anuran species Rhinella schneideri (Amphibia: Bufonidae

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    Juliana Costa Sousa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed histologic evaluation of the parotid glands of 10 (male and female Rhinella schneideri. Animals were manually captured during nocturnal collections in Bom Jesus, Piauí, and euthanized by administering a lethal dose of anesthetic thiopental. The parotid glands were then collected and embedded in paraffin, and sectioned to 4 µm blocks using a manual rotary microtome. Considering the lack of general information concerning anatomical and histological conditions of Rhinella scheneideri, we sought to address key characteristics of macro glands found in the species with the goal of a better understanding of the operation of this type of defense mechanism. Histological analysis revealed the presence of macrogland alveoli with ducts encircled with differentiated mucous cells, known as "accessory glands", as well as granular glands. We also discovered glandular ducts on the glands which communicate with the outside of the body. These ducts are internally lined by duct glandular epithelial cells, forming a plug which promotes total obstruction of the duct. There were no histological differences in macro gland anatomy in this species compared to other species in Bufonidae.

  2. Population Genetic Structure of the Endangered Kaiser's Mountain Newt, Neurergus kaiseri (Amphibia: Salamandridae.

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    Hossein Farasat

    Full Text Available Species often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in an endemic and critically endangered stream breeding mountain newt, Neurergus kaiseri, within its entire range in southwestern Iran. We identified two geographic regions based on phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood of 779 bp mtDNA (D-loop in 111 individuals from ten of twelve known breeding populations. This analysis revealed a clear divergence between northern populations, located in more humid habitats at higher elevation, and southern populations, from drier habitats at lower elevations regions. From seven haplotypes found in these populations none was shared between the two regions. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA of N. kaiseri indicates that 94.03% of sequence variation is distributed among newt populations and 5.97% within them. Moreover, a high degree of genetic subdivision, mainly attributable to the existence of significant variance among the two regions is shown (θCT = 0.94, P = 0.002. The positive and significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances (r = 0.61, P = 0.002 following controlling for environmental distance suggests an important influence of geographic divergence of the sites in shaping the genetic variation and may provide tools for a possible conservation based prioritization policy for the endangered species.

  3. Description of a new species of Microhyla from Bali, Indonesia (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Masafumi; Hamidy, Amir; Eto, Koshiro

    2013-01-01

    We describe a microhylid frog from Bali, Indonesia as a new species, Microhyla orientalis sp. nov. It belongs to the M. achatina group and is close to M. mantheyi, M. malang, and M. borneensis. It is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: small size (adult males about 16-17 mm in SVL); a faint vertebral stripe present; a black lateral stripe from behind eye to half length of trunk; snout rounded in profile; eyelid without supraciliary spines; first finger less than one-fifth of third; tips of three outer fingers weakly dilated, forming weak disks, dorsally with median longitudinal groove; outer palmar tubercle single; tibiotarsal articulation reaching up to center of eye; tips of toes distinctly dilated into disks, dorsally with median longitudinal groove; inner and outer metatarsal tubercles present; four or more phalanges on inner and outer sides of fourth toe, and three phalanges on inner side of fifth toe free of web; and tail of larva with a black marking at middle. The male advertisement call of the new species consists of a series of notes each lasts for 0.01-0.08 s and composed of 3-5 pulses with a dominant frequency of 3.2-3.6 kHz. Uncorrected sequence divergences between M. orientalis and all homologous 16S rRNA sequences available were > 6.6%. At present, the new species is known from rice fields between 435-815 m elevation in Wongaya Gede and Batukaru.

  4. Molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of the endemic Asian salamander family Hynobiidae (Amphibia, Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisrock, David W; Macey, J Robert; Matsui, Masafumi; Mulcahy, Daniel G; Papenfuss, Theodore J

    2013-01-01

    The salamander family Hynobiidae contains over 50 species and has been the subject of a number of molecular phylogenetic investigations aimed at reconstructing branches across the entire family. In general, studies using the greatest amount of sequence data have used reduced taxon sampling, while the study with the greatest taxon sampling has used a limited sequence data set. Here, we provide insights into the phylogenetic history of the Hynobiidae using both dense taxon sampling and a large mitochondrial DNA sequence data set. We report exclusive new mitochondrial DNA data of 2566 aligned bases (with 151 excluded sites, of included sites 1157 are variable with 957 parsimony informative). This is sampled from two genic regions encoding a 12S-16S region (the 3' end of 12S rRNA, tRNA(VAI), and the 5' end of 16S rRNA), and a ND2-COI region (ND2, tRNA(Trp), tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Asn), the origin for light strand replication--O(L), tRNA(Cys), tRNAT(Tyr), and the 5' end of COI). Analyses using parsimony, Bayesian, and maximum likelihood optimality criteria produce similar phylogenetic trees, with discordant branches generally receiving low levels of branch support. Monophyly of the Hynobiidae is strongly supported across all analyses, as is the sister relationship and deep divergence between the genus Onychodactylus with all remaining hynobiids. Within this latter grouping our phylogenetic results identify six clades that are relatively divergent from one another, but for which there is minimal support for their phylogenetic placement. This includes the genus Batrachuperus, the genus Hynobius, the genus Pachyhynobius, the genus Salamandrella, a clade containing the genera Ranodon and Paradactylodon, and a clade containing the genera Liua and Pseudohynobius. This latter clade receives low bootstrap support in the parsimony analysis, but is consistent across all three analytical methods. Our results also clarify a number of well-supported relationships within the larger Batrachuperus and Hynobius clades. While the relationships identified in this study do much to clarify the phylogenetic history of the Hynobiidae, the poor resolution among major hynobiid clades, and the contrast of mtDNA-derived relationships with recent phylogenetic results from a small number of nuclear genes, highlights the need for continued phylogenetic study with larger numbers of nuclear loci.

  5. The testicular sperm ducts and genital kidney of male Ambystoma maculatum (Amphibia, Urodela, Ambystomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Dustin S; Aldridge, Robert D; Rheubert, Justin L; Gribbins, Kevin M; Sever, David M; Trauth, Stanley E

    2013-03-01

    The ducts associated with sperm transport from the testicular lobules to the Wolffian ducts in Ambystoma maculatum were examined with transmission electron microscopy. Based on the ultrastructure and historical precedence, new terminology for this network of ducts is proposed that better represents primary hypotheses of homology. Furthermore, the terminology proposed better characterizes the distinct regions of the sperm transport ducts in salamanders based on anatomy and should, therefore, lead to more accurate comparisons in the future. While developing the above ontology, we also tested the hypothesis that nephrons from the genital kidney are modified from those of the pelvic kidney due to the fact that the former nephrons function in sperm transport. Our ultrastructural analysis of the genital kidney supports this hypothesis, as the basal plasma membrane of distinct functional regions of the nephron (proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, and collecting tubule) appear less folded (indicating decreased surface area and reduced reabsorption efficiency) and the proximal convoluted tubule possesses ciliated epithelial cells along its entire length. Furthermore, visible luminal filtrate is absent from the nephrons of the genital kidney throughout their entire length. Thus, it appears that the nephrons of the genital kidney have reduced reabsorptive capacity and ciliated cells of the proximal convoluted tubule may increase the movement of immature sperm through the sperm transport ducts or aid in the mixing of seminal fluids within the ducts. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Morfohistología testicular de Ceratophrys ornata (Bell (Amphibia, Anura, Ceratophryidae

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    Fernando Carezzano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describen las características morfohistológicas del testículo de individuos adultos (n=5 de Ceratophrys ornata (Bell, 1843 provenientes de humedales del centro de Argentina. Los mismos se procesaron mediante técnicas histológicas de rutina, se cortaron a 8 µm y las láminas obtenidas se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico de Masson. Las gónadas son órganos pares, amarillentos, alargados y contorneados de 18,58 ± 0,23 mm de largo por 1,51 ± 0,13 mm de ancho. Histológicamente se observa una delgada túnica albugínea (6,29 ± 0,83 µm rodeando a los testículos. En su interior se hallan lóculos seminíferos que miden 240,64 ± 38,52 µm de diámetro, en ellos se distinguen cistos con células espermatogénicas en distintas etapas de desarrollo. El tejido intersticial es escaso y en él se destacan las células de Leydig y vasos sanguíneos. Las espermatogonias I son las células más grandes de la serie germinal (20,03 ± 2,27 µm; poseen la cromatina granular y de aspecto multilobular, hallándose comúnmente una por cisto, estas originan a las espermatogonias II, más pequeñas (12,06 ± 1,14 µm. Los espermatocitos I presentan la cromatina levemente condensada y son un poco más chicos que sus precedentes (11,64 ± 0,36 µm. Los espermatocitos II miden 8,85 ± 0,54 µm. Las espermátidas I son esféricas, miden 5,95 ± 0,42 µm y se agrupan en cistos redondeados. Las espermátidas II, en cambio son alargadas y no se hallan dentro de cistos, pero siguen organizadas en paquetes asociadas a células de Sertoli. Los espermatozoides son células libres hacia el centro del lóculo, alargadas, flageladas y con una notable compactación nuclear. La morfohistología de los testículos analizados muestran características macroscópicas e histológicas similares a las observadas en otras especies de anfibios anuros neotropicales, presentando todas las células del linaje espermatogénico en un mismo lóculo, lo que indicaría que presentan ciclos espermatogénicos continuos.

  7. Molecular cloning and expression patterns of the Vasa gene from Rana nigromaculata (Amphibia: Anura

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    Rui Jia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vasa protein is a member of the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Alu-Asp box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. The Vasa gene is specifically expressed in germ-line cells of many metazoans and is known to play a critical role in gametogenesis and reproductive regulation. In this paper, we isolate the full length cDNA sequence of the Vasa gene from the frog Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861. The open reading frame (ORF encoding 398 amino acid residues has nine conserved motifs. According to the similarities at the amino acid sequenceythe phylogenetic analysis of Vasa gene was consistent with the evolution relationships from chordates to mammals. Furthermore, the expression pattern analysis of RnVasa mRNA, using the technique of Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR, showed a high level of transcripts in testis, ovary and kidney, whereas little to no signal was detected in other tissues, which suggests that it may play a role during gametogenesis.

  8. Status sistematico del género geobatrachus ruthven 1915 (amphibia: anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Ardila Robayo, María Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The different familial assignations proposed until now for Geobatracbus are compiled. Through the collection of a virtual topotypical series of this monotypic genus, which is endemic of the NW section of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Massif (Departamento del Magdalena, Colombia), a detailed description was made.  67 morphological characters were selected according to the criteria used by Lynch and Heyer in their studies on the philogeny and classification of the leptodactylid frogs, and su...

  9. A new diminutive frog species of Adelophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço-de-Moraes, Ricardo; Ferreira, Rodrigo Barbosa; Fouquet, Antoine; Bastos, Rogério Pereira

    2014-08-04

    The genus Adelophryne is composed of diminutive frogs occurring in northern Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest. Herein we describe a new species of Adelophryne found in the leaf litter of primary and secondary forests in the mountainous region of Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The new species is characterized by its small body size, two phalanges in the finger IV, and a glandular ridge line that runs from the posterior part of eye to the insertion of the forelimb. This species is sensitive to edge effect and conversion of native forest into coffee and Eucalyptus plantations and may be listed as Endangered (EN) under B1ab(iii) criteria of the IUCN Red List.

  10. Skin secretion of Siphonops paulensis (Gymnophiona, Amphibia forms voltage-dependent ionic channels in lipid membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. Schwartz

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the skin secretion of the amphibian Siphonops paulensis was investigated by monitoring the changes in conductance of an artificial planar lipid bilayer. Skin secretion was obtained by exposure of the animals to ether-saturated air, and then rinsing the animals with distilled water. Artificial lipid bilayers were obtained by spreading a solution of azolectin over an aperture of a Delrin cup inserted into a cut-away polyvinyl chloride block. In 9 of 12 experiments, the addition of the skin secretion to lipid bilayers displayed voltage-dependent channels with average unitary conductance of 258 ± 41.67 pS, rather than nonspecific changes in bilayer conductance. These channels were not sensitive to 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid or tetraethylammonium ion, but the experimental protocol used does not permit us to specify their characteristics.

  11. Natural history of Holoaden luederwaldti (Amphibia: Strabomantidae: Holoadeninae in southeastern of Brazil

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    Itamar A. Martins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the rediscovery of Holoaden luederwaldti Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 and provides information on the distribution, sexual dimorphism, reproduction and vocalization of a population of this species in Campos do Jordão, São Paulo (southeastern Brazil. Sampling was carried out in the Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão (PECJ from October 2005 through December 2008. Collecting was conducted using pitfall traps with a drift-fence on different altitudinal gradients (1,540 m, 1,780 m and 2,000 m a.s.l.. Fifty-two specimens of H. luederwaldti were collected in the PECJ. The mean snout-vent length (SVL was 36.17 mm for males and 42.61 mm for females, indicating sexual dimorphism in body size. Holoaden luederwaldti occurred during the warm-rainy months. The population was distributed between 1500 and 2000 m, and the greater abundance was registered in well preserved forest areas. Mature females contained from 36 to 41 oocytes and the mean of oocyte diameter was 3.72 mm. The advertisement call of H. luederwaldti consists of simple notes composed of three harmonics. The record of the population of H. luederwaldti in the PECJ has reinforced the importance of investigating different areas of the forest when conducting faunal surveys.

  12. Contribution to the knowledge of the herpetofauna of the Sălaj-region, Romania (amphibia, reptilia

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    Katona G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide 79 data of 53 collecting events originating from the Sălaj-region of western Transylvania, Romania between 22. April, 2014 and 10. September, 2015. Geographical, spatial and temporal records are documented for the better knowledge of nine amphibian and seven reptilian species. We remark that the number of roadkilled animals is very high despite the low traffic in the research areas.

  13. A Molecular Assessment of Phylogenetic Relationships and LineageDiversification Within the Family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisrock, David W.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Macey, J. Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H.; Zhao, Ermi; Larson, Allan

    2005-08-08

    Phylogenetic relationships among species of the salamanderfamily Salamandridae are investigated using nearly 3000 nucleotide basesof newly reported mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the mtDNA genicregion spanning the genes tRNALeu-COI. This study uses nearlycomprehensive species-level sampling to provide the first completephylogeny for the Salamandridae. Deep phylogenetic relationships amongthe three most divergent lineages in the family Salamandrina terdigitata,a clade comprising the "True" salamanders, and a clade comprising allnewts except S. terdigitata are difficult to resolve. However, mostrelationships within the latter two lineages are resolved with robustlevels of branch support. The genera Euproctus and Triturus arestatistically shown to be nonmonophyletic, instead each contains adiverse set of lineages positioned within the large newt clade. The genusParamesotriton is also resolve as a nonmonophyletic group, with the newlydescribed species P. laoensis constituting a divergent lineage placed ina sister position to clade containing all Pachytriton species and allremaining Paramesotriton species. Sequence divergences between P.laoensis and other Paramesotriton species are as great as those comparingP. laoensis and species of the genera Cynops and Pachytriton. Analyses oflineage diversification across the Salamandridae indicate that, despiteits exceptional diversity, lineage accumulation appears to have beenconstant across time, indicating that it does not represent a truespecies radiation.

  14. Toxins and pharmacologically active compounds from species of the family Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Candelario; Rollins-Smith, Louise; Ibáñez, Roberto; Durant-Archibold, Armando A; Gutiérrez, Marcelino

    2017-02-23

    Among amphibians, 15 of the 47 species reported to be used in traditional medicines belong to the family Bufonidae, which demonstrates their potential in pharmacological and natural products research. For example, Asian and American tribes use the skin and the parotoid gland secretions of some common toads in the treatment of hemorrhages, bites and stings from venomous animals, skin and stomach disorders, as well as several types of cancers. In addition to reviewing the occurrence of chemical constituents present in the family Bufonidae, the cytotoxic and biomedical potential of the active compounds produced by different taxa are presented. Available information on bioactive compounds isolated from species of the family Bufonidae was obtained from ACS Publications, Google, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Sciendirect and Springer. Papers written in Chinese, English, German and Spanish were considered. Recent reports show more than 30% of amphibians are in decline and some of bufonid species are considered to be extinct. For centuries, bufonids have been used as traditional folk remedies to treat allergies, inflammation, cancer, infections and other ailments, highlighting their importance as a prolific source for novel drugs and therapies. Toxins and bioactive chemical constituents from skin and parotid gland secretions of bufonid species can be grouped in five families, the guanidine alkaloids isolated and characterized from Atelopus, the lipophilic alkaloids isolated from Melanophryniscus, the indole alkaloids and bufadienolides known to be synthesized by species of bufonids, and peptides and proteins isolated from the skin and gastrointestinal extracts of some common toads. Overall, the bioactive secretions of this family of anurans may have antimicrobial, protease inhibitor and anticancer properties, as well as being active at the neuromuscular level. In this article, the traditional uses, toxicity and pharmacological potential of chemical compounds from bufonids have been summarized. In spite of being reported to be used to treat several diseases, neither extracts nor metabolites from bufonids have been tested in such illness like acne, osteoporosis, arthritis and other illnesses. However, the cytotoxicity of these metabolites needs to be evaluated on adequate animal models due to the limited conditions of in vitro assays. Novel qualitative and quantitative tools based on MS spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy is now available to study the complex secretions of bufonids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The tadpole of Scinax melanodactylus (Lourenço, Luna & Pombal Jr, 2014) (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Rafael Oliveira De; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; Trevisan, Camila Costa; Camardelli, Milena; Dória, Thais Andrade Ferreira; Silva, Lucas Menezes

    2015-07-06

    Scinax melanodactylus is a small treefrog distributed within the Tropical Atlantic morphoclimatic domain (see Ab'Sáber 1977 for South American morphoclimatic domains), from northern Espírito Santo state to Sergipe state in Brazil (Lourenço et al. 2014). The species is usually found inhabiting herbaceous and shrubby xerophytic vegetation (e.g. terrestrial tank-bromeliads) from sandy plains of beach ridges known in Brazil as Restingas (see Rocha et al. 2007 for a Restinga definition), and also the edge of forest areas with temporary ponds and/or permanent lakes and streams near these environments (Bastazini et al. 2007, as Scinax agilis; Lourenço et al. 2014). Scinax melanodactylus is currently placed in the S. catharinae species group (Lourenço et al. 2014), which in turn is included in the S. catharinae clade (sensu Faivovich et al. 2005). The S. catharinae clade is currently comprised of 46 species, 33 placed in the catharinae group and 13 in the perpusillus group (Faivovich et al. 2010, Silva & Alves-da-Silva 2011, Lourenço et al. 2014, Frost 2015). From these, 32 species have tadpoles with external morphology and oral disc formerly described. Here, we describe the external morphology, oral disc and color patterns of the previously unknown tadpole of S. melanodactylus.

  16. Phospholipid transfer activities in toad oocytes and developing embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinol, A.; Salomon, R.A.; Bloj, B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of lipid transfer proteins during plasma membrane biogenesis was explored. Developing amphibia embryos were used because during their growth an active plasma membrane biosynthesis occurs together with negligible mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum proliferation. Sonicated vesicles, containing 14 C-labeled phospholipids and 3 H-labeled triolein, as donor particles and cross-linked erythrocyte ghosts as acceptor particles were used to measure phospholipid transfer activities in unfertilized oocytes and in developing embryos of the toad Bufo arenarum. Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity in pH 5.1 supernatant of unfertilized oocytes was 8-fold higher than the activity found in female toad liver supernatant, but dropped steadily after fertilization. After 20 hr of development, at the stage of late blastula, the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity had dropped 4-fold. Unfertilized oocyte supernatant exhibited phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activity also, but at the late blastula stage the former had dropped 18-fold and the latter was no longer detectable under our assay conditions. Our results show that fertilization does not trigger a phospholipid transport process catalyzed by lipid transfer proteins. Moreover, they imply that 75% of the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity and more than 95% of the phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activities present in pH 5.1 supernatants of unfertilized oocytes may not be essential for toad embryo development. Our findings do not rule out, however, that a phosphatidylcholine-specific lipid transfer protein could be required for embryo early growth

  17. The uranium content in the blood of some vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, K.C.; Hanifa, A.; Goswami, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    The method of fission track analysis has been used to estimate the uranium concentration in the blood of some vertebrates like lata fish (Ophiocephalus punctatus - class Pisces), toad (Bufo melanostictus -class Amphibia) and man (Homo Sapiens - class Mammalia). The uranium content in the blood of these vertebrates has been found to range from 0.20 ± 0.016 to 0.94 ± 0.038 microgram/litre. However, the concentration in toad is found to be the lowest (0.20 ± 0.016 to 0.40 ± 0.022 microgram/litre) as compared to that in fish (0.50 ± 0.027 to 0.94 ± 0.038 microgram/litre) and man (0.33 ± 0.023 to 0.74 ± 0.034 microgram/litre). The intervariation among the different classes of vertebrates as regards uranium concentration has been found to be statistically significant. (author)

  18. The ontogeny of kin recognition in tadpoles of the toad Bufo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences ... Embryos and tadpoles of the toad were reared as ... Preference of test tadpoles to associate near the end compartments whether empty or containing members of specific stimulus ...

  19. induced gastric acid secretion in the common african toad – bufo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    supported by the report of Sitmewoka (2000) which showed that absence of NO inhibits the secretion of gastric acid. However, Kato et al. (1998) observed that either exogenous or endogenous NO has inhibitory action on gastric acid secretion in mammals. This observation was supported by. Takeuchi et al. (1994) who also ...

  20. Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT: We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n _ 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May–September. Adult captures during June–August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May–September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10- yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw little evidence of local extinction or ‘‘rescue,’’ but were unable to determine whether juveniles returned to natal ponds or colonized new ponds for breeding as adults. Oak toad conservation can best be ensured by maintaining multiple ponds within a landscape to increase the probability of recruitment within the landscape neighborhood during at least some years and at some ponds, and to increase the likelihood of interpond movement.

  1. ULTRAESTRUCTURA DE LA GÓNADA DEL MACHO DE DOS SUBESPECIES DE Bufo longinasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Ochotorena

    2009-01-01

    organización quística, es decir, forman grupos de células asociadas a las células de Sertoli, que son los cistos espermatogenéticos o espermatocistos dentro de los túbulos seminíferos. Los espermatozoides se caracterizan por una extraordinaria compactación nuclear y se observó la presencia de una membrana ondulante.

  2. Catalogue of anuran types in the Eugenio Izecksohn Herpetological Collection (Amphibia, Anura Catálogo de tipos de anuros da coleção Eugenio Izecksohn (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo L. Peixoto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A list of type specimens housed at the Eugenio Izecksohn Herpetological Collection is presented, information is given on specimens donation to other herpetological collections, as well as corrections regarding some miss information presented in the original descriptions, also remarks are made on the present conservation status of some specimens.Uma lista de exemplares-tipo depositados na Coleção Herpetológica Eugenio Izecksohn é apresentada, informações sobre doação de espécimes a outras coleções herpetológicas são fornecidas, bem como correções de informações apresentadas nas descrições originais, o estado atual de conservação de alguns tipos é comentado.

  3. Catalogue of anuran types in the Eugenio Izecksohn Herpetological Collection (Amphibia, Anura) Catálogo de tipos de anuros da coleção Eugenio Izecksohn (Amphibia, Anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Oswaldo L. Peixoto; Marcia dos R. Gomes

    2007-01-01

    A list of type specimens housed at the Eugenio Izecksohn Herpetological Collection is presented, information is given on specimens donation to other herpetological collections, as well as corrections regarding some miss information presented in the original descriptions, also remarks are made on the present conservation status of some specimens.Uma lista de exemplares-tipo depositados na Coleção Herpetológica Eugenio Izecksohn é apresentada, informações sobre doação de espécimes a outras cole...

  4. A new species of skin-feeding caecilian and the first report of reproductive mode in Microcaecilia (amphibia: Gymnophiona: Siphonopidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wilkinson

    Full Text Available A new species of siphonopid caecilian, Microcaecilia dermatophagasp. nov., is described based on nine specimens from French Guiana. The new species is the first new caecilian to be described from French Guiana for more than 150 years. It differs from all other Microcaecilia in having fewer secondary annular grooves and/or in lacking a transverse groove on the dorsum of the first collar. Observations of oviparity and of extended parental care in M. dermatophaga are the first reproductive mode data for any species of the genus. Microcaecilia dermatophaga is the third species, and represents the third genus, for which there has been direct observation of young animals feeding on the skin of their attending mother. The species is named for this maternal dermatophagy, which is hypothesised to be characteristic of the Siphonopidae.

  5. Distribution and present numbers of the Tree Frog Hyla arborea in Zealand Flanders, The Netherlands (Amphibia, Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Stumpel, Anton H.P.

    1987-01-01

    A distribution survey of Hyla arborea has been carried out in the western part of Zealand Flanders over a period of six years. Additional data on the eastern part and the neighbouring Belgian area have been collected. The relationship between the maximum number of males calling on one evening/night and the estimate of their population size is a suitable basis to predict the total number of males in other pools during a season. Methodological aspects of the fieldwork are discussed. Great fluct...

  6. Nueva especie de rana del género Pristimantis del grupo lacrimosus (Amphibia: Craugastoridae del Parque Nacional Sangay, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Batallas R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una nueva especie de rana terrestre del genero Pristimantis de tamaño mediano (LRC en machos desde 22.18 a 25.13 mm descubierta en los bosques nublados de las estribaciones orientales del Parque Nacional Sangay, al centro oriente de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 2750 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis latericius sp. nov., al grupo Pristimantis lacrimosus, el cual se diferencia del resto de miembros de este grupo por presentar tubérculos prominentes en el parpado superior y una coloración rojo anaranjado en el dorso. Las llamadas son cortas, conformadas por una sola nota y dos bandas armónicas. Importantes levantamientos de información faunística se han venido generando en los últimos años en el Parque Nacional Sangay, sin embargo es necesario incrementar estudios que ayuden a documentar la ecología e historia natural de los anfibios, ya que sin lugar a dudas ayudaran a comprender procesos ecológicos. El descubrimiento de esta y otras nuevas especies en este sector, demuestra su importancia biológica confortando al desarrollo de planes de conservación en este importante Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad.

  7. Extremely Low Genetic Diversity Indicating the Endangered Status of Ranodon sibiricus (Amphibia: Caudata) and Implications for Phylogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Ling; Sun, Jian-Yun; Xue, Yan; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Background The Siberian salamander (Ranodon sibiricus), distributed in geographically isolated areas of Central Asia, is an ideal alpine species for studies of conservation and phylogeography. However, there are few data regarding the genetic diversity in R. sibiricus populations. Methodology/Principal Findings We used two genetic markers (mtDNA and microsatellites) to survey all six populations of R. sibiricus in China. Both of the markers revealed extreme genetic uniformity among these populations. There were only three haplotypes in the mtDNA, and the overall nucleotide diversity in the mtDNA was 0.00064, ranging from 0.00000 to 0.00091 for the six populations. Although we recovered 70 sequences containing microsatellite repeats, there were only two loci that displayed polymorphism. We used the approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) method to study the demographic history of the populations. This analysis suggested that the extant populations diverged from the ancestral population approximately 120 years ago and that the historical population size was much larger than the present population size; i.e., R. sibiricus has experienced dramatic population declines. Conclusion/Significance Our findings suggest that the genetic diversity in the R. sibiricus populations is the lowest among all investigated amphibians. We conclude that the isolation of R. sibiricus populations occurred recently and was a result of recent human activity and/or climatic changes. The Pleistocene glaciation oscillations may have facilitated intraspecies genetic homogeneity rather than enhanced divergence. A low genomic evolutionary rate and elevated inbreeding frequency may have also contributed to the low genetic variation observed in this species. Our findings indicate the urgency of implementing a protection plan for this endangered species. PMID:22428037

  8. The advertisement call of Proceratophrys branti Brandão, Caramaschi, Vaz-Silva Campos, 2013 (Amphibia, Anura, Odontophrynidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Andrade, Sheila Pereira; Rocha, Cezar Filho; Vaz-Silva, Wilian

    2018-02-15

    Proceratophrys Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 currently comprises 40 species (Frost 2017) of which 15 are allocated into the Proceratophrys cristiceps species group (sensu Brandão et al. 2013). The species in this group are characterized by the absence of postocular swellings and, except for P. concavitympanum, are found in seasonally open habitats in Brazilian Cerrado and Caatinga morphoclimatic domains (Giaretta et al. 2000; Ávila et al. 2012; Teixeira Jr. et al. 2012; Brandão et al. 2013). Information on advertisement calls is available for 11 species of the group (Eterovick Sazima 1998; Nunes Juncá 2006; Brasileiro et al. 2008; Santana et al. 2010; Ávila et al. 2012; Martins Giaretta 2011; 2012; 2013; Ferreira et al. 2016). Proceratophrys branti Brandão, Carmaschi, Vaz-Silva Campos, 2013 has been recently described and allocated in the P. cristiceps species group. The species occurs in open areas in the north-central portion of the Brazilian Cerrado, in the states of Goiás, Minas Gerais and Tocantins (Brandão et al. 2013). Herein we describe for the first time its advertisement call, based on recordings made in an area of Cerrado biome in the state of Tocantins.

  9. Annual cycle of sperm storage in spermathecae of the red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens (Amphibia: Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Rania, Lisa C; Krenz, John D

    1996-02-01

    Female sperm storage was studied in a population of Notophthalmus viridescens from South Carolina. Spermathecae initiate production of a glycoprotein secretory product in October. At this time ovarian follicles are immature (0.5-0.9 mm dia), and mating does not occur despite spermiation in males. Six of the 10 females collected in December had sperm in their spermathecae, indicating onset of mating. Unmated females collected in October and sacrificed in February and March possessed mature ovarian follicles (1.3-1.4 mm dia), and the spermathecae contained large secretory vacuoles 2-3 μm dia. Release of secretory product is concomitant with the appearance of sperm in the spermathecae. Thus mated females lack secretory vacuoles in the spermathecal epithelium, and additional synthesis of secretory product does not occur. All females collected in February and March have mated. Sperm are embedded in the spermathecal epithelium and are undergoing degradation in February. Degradation of sperm in the lumen and epithelium is evident in specimens examined from May and June. Atresia of ovarian follicles begins in April in captive specimens, and specimens captured from the bay in May are spent. A general postbreeding emigration from the pond occurs in summer. Fourteen females collected 7 March were injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on 9 March and laid fertile eggs 10-18 March. Two of these females were sacrificed each month from April-September; all retained some sperm in their spermathecae, but further oviposition did not occur. Four females were kept 1 year after oviposition of fertile eggs, and oviposition again was induced with hCG; these eggs were infertile, and spermathecae lacked sperm. Spermathecae are inactive from June-September in captive and wild-caught specimens. Sperm may be stored effectively up to 6 months (December-May), and no evidence was found for retention of viable sperm from one breeding season to the next. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam : III. A new species of Dendrobates (Amphibia salientia, Dendrobatidae) from Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1969-01-01

    INTRODUCTION During a recent collecting trip, financed by grant W 956-2 from WOTRO (Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research), I spent 47 days (22 August-7 October 1968) on the Sipaliwini savannah in southern Surinam. The Sipaliwini savannah is part of an extensive savannah

  11. The Euro-American genus Eopelobates, and a re-definition of the family Pelobatidae (Amphibia, Anura)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Wuttke, M.; Gardner, J. D.; Bhullar, B.-A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 4 (2014), s. 529-567 ISSN 1867-1594 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Eopelobates * fossoriality * Green River * formation * palaeobiogeography * Pelobates * Pelobatidae Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Morphological variation in two genetically distinct groups of the golden-striped salamander, Chioglossa lusitanica (Amphibia: Urodela)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrino, J.; Ferrand, N.; Arntzen, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Morphometric and colour pattern variation in the endemic Iberian salamander Chioglossa lusitanica is concordant with the genetic differentiation of two groups of populations separated by the Mondego river in Portugal. Salamanders from the south have shorter digits than those from the north. Clinal

  13. Diversification in a biodiversity hotspot--the evolution of Southeast Asian rhacophorid tree frogs on Borneo (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Stefan T; Schweizer, Manuel; Das, Indraneil; Haas, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    The tree-frog family Rhacophoridae is a major group contributing to the high pecies richness and reproductive diversity among vertebrates of Sundaland. Nonetheless, rhacophorid evolution, specially on Borneo, has not been studied within a phylogenetic context. In this study, we examine the phylogenetic relationships of 38 (out of 41) Bornean species of Rhacophoridae, in combination with data from previous phylogenetic studies. In the final super matrix of 91 species, we analyse sequence data from two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes. The resulting trees show the genus Rhacophorus as a paraphyletic assemblage. As a consequence, we transfer Rhacophorus appendiculatus and R. kajau to two other genera and propose the new phylogeny-based combinations--Kurixalus appendiculatus and Feihyla kajau, respectively. Furthermore, we use our phylogenetic hypotheses to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive modes in rhacophorid tree frogs. Direct development to the exclusion of a free larval stage evolved twice independently, once in an ancestor of the Pseudophilautus+Raorchestes clade in India and Sri Lanka, and once within Philautus in Southeast Asia. The deposition of egg clutches covered by a layer of jelly in Feihyla is also present in F. kajau and thus confirms our generic reassignment. The remarkably high diversity of rhacophorid tree frogs on Borneo is the outcome of a complex pattern of repeated vicariance and dispersal events caused by past changes in the climatic and geological history of the Sunda shelf. We identified geographic clades of closely related endemic species within Rhacophorus and Philautus, which result from local island radiations on Borneo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Liver histopathology in the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae), induced by Ortleppascaris sp. larvae (Nematoda: Ascarididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jefferson P E; da Silva, Djane C B; Melo, Francisco T V; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Santos, Jeannie N

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to parasites is considered to be an important factor in the development of many diseases and histopathologies which are the result of the parasite-host interaction. The present study evaluated the impact of natural infection by larvae of Ortleppascaris sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) in the liver of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758). Larvae were encysted in nodules delimited by collagenous fibers and fibroblasts or freely within the hepatic parenchyma, provoking a clear response from the host. The histological examination of the liver revealed viable larvae in a number of different developmental stages, as well as cysts filled with amorphous material and cell residues and surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. The infection of the liver by these larvae induces a significant increase in the area occupied by melanomacrophages and a reduction or deficit in the vascularization of the liver, hypertrophy of the hepatocytes, vacuolar bodies, and cytoplasmatic granules. Focal concentrations of inflammatory infiltrates were observed enclosing the unencapsulated early-stage larvae. These results indicate that infection by Ortleppascaris sp. induces severe physiological problems and histopathological lesions in the liver of R. marina .

  15. Description of the tadpoles of three rare species of megophryid frogs (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) from Gunung Mulu, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhummer, Evelyne; Barten, Catherin; Schweizer, Manuel; Das, Indraneil; Haas, Alexander; Hertwig, Stefan T

    2014-07-09

    The megophryid frogs Leptobrachella brevicrus, Leptolalax dringi and Megophrys dringi are species exclusively known  from highly localised areas in isolated mountain ranges on Borneo. The tadpoles and adults in this study were collected at the shared type locality for the three species in Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia (Borneo). The species identities of larvae were determined via comparison to syntopic adults using DNA barcoding techniques based on partial 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene sequences. The genetic data supported the status of the three taxa as valid species. Descriptions of colouration in life and after preservation, external morphological features, morphometric measurements and ecological notes in comparison to congeneric species are supplied. The tadpoles of L. brevicrus and L. dringi show similar adaptations to a fossorial lifestyle. These include an elongated, vermiform body, a relatively long tail and small eyes. Both were found in the gravel beds of a small mountain stream. In contrast, the larvae of M. dringi are adapted to occupying and feeding at the surface of pools within the stream. 

  16. A striking new genus and species of cave-dwelling frog (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae: Asterophryinae) from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Sumontha, Montri; Tunprasert, Jitthep; Ruangsuwan, Thiti; Pawangkhanant, Parinya; Korost, Dmitriy V; Poyarkov, Nikolay A

    2018-01-01

    We report on a discovery of Siamophryne troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov., a new troglophilous genus and species of microhylid frog from a limestone cave in the tropical forests of western Thailand. To assess its phylogenetic relationships we studied the 12S rRNA-16S rRNA mtDNA fragment with final alignment comprising up to 2,591 bp for 56 microhylid species. Morphological characterization of the new genus is based on examination of external morphology and analysis of osteological characteristics using microCT-scanning. Phylogenetic analyses place the new genus into the mainly Australasian subfamily Asterophryinae as a sister taxon to the genus Gastrophrynoides , the only member of the subfamily known from Sundaland. The new genus markedly differs from all other Asterophryinae members by a number of diagnostic morphological characters and demonstrates significant mtDNA sequence divergence. We provide a preliminary description of a tadpole of the new genus. Thus, it represents the only asterophryine taxon with documented free-living larval stage and troglophilous life style. Our work demonstrates that S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. represents an old lineage of the initial radiation of Asterophryinae which took place in the mainland Southeast Asia. Our results strongly support the "out of Indo-Eurasia" biogeographic scenario for this group of frogs. To date, the new frog is only known from a single limestone cave system in Sai Yok District of Kanchanaburi Province of Thailand; its habitat is affected by illegal bat guano mining and other human activities. As such, S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. is likely to be at high risk of habitat loss. Considering high ecological specialization and a small known range of the new taxon, we propose a IUCN Red List status of endangered for it.

  17. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prehn Lea R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three kidney systems appear during vertebrate development: the pronephroi, mesonephroi and metanephroi. The pronephric duct is the first or primary ureter of these kidney systems. Its role as a key player in the induction of nephrogenic mesenchyme is well established. Here we investigate whether the duct is involved in urine modification using larvae of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl as model. Results We investigated structural as well as physiological properties of the pronephric duct. The key elements of our methodology were: using histology, light and transmission electron microscopy as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy on fixed tissue and applying the microperfusion technique on isolated pronephric ducts in combination with single cell microelectrode impalements. Our data show that the fully differentiated pronephric duct is composed of a single layered epithelium consisting of one cell type comparable to the principal cell of the renal collecting duct system. The cells are characterized by a prominent basolateral labyrinth and a relatively smooth apical surface with one central cilium. Cellular impalements demonstrate the presence of apical Na+ and K+ conductances, as well as a large K+ conductance in the basolateral cell membrane. Immunolabeling experiments indicate heavy expression of Na+/K+-ATPase in the basolateral labyrinth. Conclusions We propose that the pronephric duct is important for the subsequent modification of urine produced by the pronephros. Our results indicate that it reabsorbs sodium and secretes potassium via channels present in the apical cell membrane with the driving force for ion movement provided by the Na+/K+ pump. This is to our knowledge the first characterization of the pronephric duct, the precursor of the collecting duct system, which provides a model of cell structure and basic mechanisms for ion transport. Such information may be important in understanding the evolution of vertebrate kidney systems and human diseases associated with congenital malformations.

  18. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Birgitte M; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jespersen, Åse

    2010-01-01

    whether the duct is involved in urine modification using larvae of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) as model. Results We investigated structural as well as physiological properties of the pronephric duct. The key elements of our methodology were: using histology, light...

  19. [Specific growth rate and the rate of energy metabolism in the ontogenesis of axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, I G; Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Alekseeva, T A; Radzinskaia, L I

    2003-01-01

    Concordant changes in the rate of energy metabolism and specific growth rate of axolotls have been revealed. Several periods of ontogeny are distinguished, which differ in the ratio of energy metabolism to body weight and, therefore, are described by different allometric equations. It is suggested that the specific growth rate of an animal determines the type of dependence of energy metabolism on body weight.

  20. Osteological Variation among Extreme Morphological Forms in the Mexican Salamander Genus Chiropterotriton (Amphibia: Plethodontidae: Morphological Evolution And Homoplasy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Darda

    Full Text Available Osteological variation is recorded among and within four of the most distinctive species of the Mexican salamander genus Chiropterotriton. Analysis of the data is consistent with the monophyletic status of the genus and documents previously unrecorded intraspecific and interspecific variation. Most of the recorded variation involves qualitative and quantitative proportional differences, but four fixed differences constitute autapomorphic states that affirm and diagnose some species (C. dimidiatus, C. magnipes. Osteological variation in 15 characters is analyzed with respect to predictions generated from four hypotheses: 1 phylogeny, 2 adaptation to specific habitats (the four species include cave-dwelling, terrestrial, and arboreal forms, 3 size-free shape, and 4 size. High levels of intraspecific variation suggest that the characters studied are not subject to rigid functional constraints in salamanders, regardless of size. The pattern predicted by the hypothesis based on size differences seen among these four Chiropterotriton species matches most closely the observed pattern of relative skull robustness. Since size change and heterochrony are often associated in plethodontid evolution, it is likely that changes in developmental timing play a role in the morphological transitions among these morphologically diverse taxa. Webbed feet, miniaturization, body shape, and an unusual tarsal arrangement are morphologies exhibited in species of Chiropterotrition that are shown to be homoplastic with other clades of tropical plethodontids. Although extensive homoplasy in salamanders might be seen as a roadblock to unraveling phylogenetic hypotheses, the homologous developmental systems that appear to underlie such homoplasy may reveal common and consistent evolutionary processes at work.

  1. A new species of Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826 from the Atlantic Rain Forest, Eastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Caramaschi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Rhinella is described from Canavieiras, southern State of Bahia, in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Eastern Brazil. Rhinella hoogmoedi sp. nov. is characterized by the medium size for the genus (SVL 39.4-52.1 mm in males, snout rounded in dorsal view, with a vertical apical ridge which gives a nearly mucronate aspect, and nearly acute in profile, antorbital and supra-orbital crests developed, parietal crest poorly developed, post-orbital crest large, forming a small lateral ledge, tympanum evident, vertebral apophyses not salient on dorsum, presence of a dorsolateral line of pointed tubercles on the external border of the parotoid gland, continuing along the lateral side of body to the groin, a rounded tubercle at the posterior corner of mouth, and vocal slits present. The new species is distributed from the State of Ceará to the State of Paraná, Brazil.Uma nova espécie do gênero Rhinella é descrita de Canavieiras, no sul do Estado da Bahia, na Floresta Atlântica do leste do Brasil. Rhinella hoogmoedi sp. nov. é caracterizada pelo tamanho médio para o gênero (CRA 39,4-52,1 mm em machos, focinho arredondado em vista dorsal, com uma prega apical vertical que lhe dá um aspecto aproximadamente mucronado, e próximo de agudo em perfil, cristas anterorbital e supra-orbital desenvolvidas, crista parietal pouco desenvolvida, crista pós-orbital grande, formando uma pequena aba lateral, tímpano evidente, apófises vertebrais não salientes no dorso, presença de uma linha dorsolateral de tubérculos pontiagudos na borda externa da glândula parotóide, continuando-se ao longo da lateral do corpo até a virilha, um tubérculo arredondado no canto posterior da boca e fendas vocais presentes. A nova espécie está distribuída do Estado do Ceará até o Estado do Paraná, Brasil.

  2. Pseudophilautus dilmah, a new species of shrub frog (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae from a threatened habitat Loolkandura in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Mendis Wickramasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of shrub frog Pseudophilautus dilmah is described from the Central Hills of Sri Lanka.  This unique species is distinguished from all the other congeners from a combination of characters; snout rounded in lateral aspect, bluntly pointed in dorsal and ventral aspect, canthus rostralis rounded, vomerine teeth, lingual papilla and nuptial pads absent, dermal fringe distinct on inside of fingers III and IV, small blunt tubercles on metacarpal and ulnar folds, toes basally webbed, interorbital area smooth, upper eyelid prominent tubercles present, anterior and posterior dorsum without horny spinules but tubercles present, upper part of flank weakly granular, supratympanic fold distinct, prominent small calcar present at the distal end of the tibia, throat granular, chest and belly coarsely granular.  Based on comparison of 16s rRNA gene we also show that the species is genetically distinct from other members of Pseudophilautus for which gene sequences are available.  The high rate of deforestation and anthropogenic activities threaten this population in its natural habitat. 

  3. Amphibia and insects as potential bioindicators of high acid and aluminium levels in the northern part of the Black Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, J.; Vollmer, W.; Rahmann, H.

    1992-01-01

    Atmospheric sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide loads have caused an acidification of numerous surface waters in the calcium-deficient regions of Europe. The effects of acidification on aquatic organisms was examined in the Northern Black Forest. High acid loads and correlatively high aluminium loads were found to decrease the diversity of aquatic species. Both in wild conditions and in the aquarium embryonic and larval mortality rates were seen to be elevated, leading to a decrease in population of many species. Sublethal impairments such as damage to organs or growth or behavioural disorders were also found. The observed changes in amphibian spawn and populations were used exemplarily as a bioindication of the acid state of the 37 standing waters studied. (orig.) [de

  4. Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae, Chiasmocleis avilapiresae Peloso and Sturaro, 2008: First record from the state of Acre, southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampaio, P. R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We record for the first time the presence of Chiasmocleis avilapiresae in the state of Acre, Brazil. This microhylidfrog is found throughout Amazon in Brazil and no information about its distribution in the Acre state was reported previously.An increase on sampling efforts, revision of material housed in herpetological collections, and use of diverse herpetofaunasampling methods might reveal additional localities and more information about this species.

  5. Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae, Chiasmocleis avilapiresae Peloso and Sturaro, 2008: first record for the state of Acre, southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Paulo; da Silva, Talisson; Peloso, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    We record for the first time the presence of Chiasmocleis avilapiresae in the state of Acre, Brazil. This microhylid frog is found throughout Amazon in Brazil and no information about its distribution in the Acre state was reported previously. An increase on sampling efforts, revision of material housed in herpetological collections, and use of diverse herpetofauna sampling methods might reveal additional localities and more information about this species.

  6. Effect of different restoration approaches on two species of newts (Amphibia: Caudata) in Central European lignite spoil heaps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Vojtěch; Tichánek, Filip; Tropek, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 99, FEB 05 (2017), s. 310-315 ISSN 0925-8574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/2525 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 158/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amphibians * biodiversity conservation * freshwaters Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.914, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925857416306656

  7. The pelvic kidney of male Ambystoma maculatum (Amphibia, urodela, ambystomatidae) with special reference to the sexual collecting ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Dustin S; Sever, David M; Aldridge, Robert D

    2010-12-01

    This study details the gross and microscopic anatomy of the pelvic kidney in male Ambystoma maculatum. The nephron of male Ambystoma maculatum is divided into six distinct regions leading sequentially away from a renal corpuscle: (1) neck segment, which communicates with the coelomic cavity via a ventrally positioned pleuroperitoneal funnel, (2) proximal tubule, (3) intermediate segment, (4) distal tubule, (5) collecting tubule, and (6) collecting duct. The proximal tubule is divided into a vacuolated proximal region and a distal lysosomic region. The basal plasma membrane is modified into intertwining microvillus lamellae. The epithelium of the distal tubule varies little along its length and is demarcated by columns of mitochondria with their long axes oriented perpendicular to the basal lamina. The distal tubule possesses highly interdigitating microvillus lamellae from the lateral membranes and pronounced foot processes of the basal membrane that are not intertwined, but perpendicular to the basal lamina. The collecting tubule is lined by an epithelium with dark and light cells. Light cells are similar to those observed in the distal tuble except with less mitochondria and microvillus lamellae of the lateral and basal plasma membrane. Dark cells possess dark euchromatic nuclei and are filled with numerous small mitochondria. The epithelium of the neck segment, pleuroperitoneal funnel, and intermediate segment is composed entirely of ciliated cells with cilia protruding from only the central portion of the apical plasma membrane. The collecting duct is lined by a highly secretory epithelium that produces numerous membrane bound granules that stain positively for neutral carbohydrates and proteins. Apically positioned ciliated cells are intercalated between secretory cells. The collecting ducts anastomose caudally and unite with the Wolffian duct via a common collecting duct. The Wolffian duct is secretory, but not to the extent of the collecting duct, synthesizes neutral carbohydrates and proteins, and is also lined by apical ciliated cells intercalated between secretory cells. Although functional aspects associated with the morphological variation along the length of the proximal portions of the nephron have been investigated, the role of a highly secretory collecting duct has not. Historical data that implicated secretory activity concordant with mating activity, and similarity of structure and chemistry to sexual segments of the kidneys in other vertebrates, lead us to believe that the collecting duct functions as a secondary sexual organ in Ambystoma maculatum. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Microhabitat partitioning between leiuperidae and bufonidae species (amphibia: anura) in tropical dry forest areas in Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Torres, Argelina; Bonilla Gomez, Maria Argenis

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed partitioning of microhabitats by five species of frogs in the families, Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, r. granulosa), and Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops and Pseudopaludicola pusilla) in six different localities of the Colombian Caribbean with tropical dry forest fragments and different land uses. We identified 29 types of microhabitats; permanent ponds in pastures with trees (CPPA) and flooded pastures without trees (PISA) were the most important environmental used. Engystomops pustulosus used the must microhabitats, and none are used by specialist species. Thus, differences in the use of resource on regional and local scales appeared. Dynamics of microhabitat uses was influenced by the climatic variations of the tropical dry forest. Microhabitats distribution as a mechanism of coexistence in these species is implemented for dry season but in rainfall season this mechanism not exists.

  9. A new species of the Pristimantis orestes group (Amphibia: Strabomantidae) from the high Andes of Ecuador, Reserva Mazar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayasamin, Juan M; Arteaga, Alejandro F

    2013-02-21

    We describe a new Pristimantis from La Libertad and Rumiloma, Reserva Mazar, Andes of Southeastern Ecuador, at elevations between 2895-3415 m. This species is assigned to the P. orestes group, from whose members it differs by its small body size (adult males ≤ 18.1 mm; adult females ≤ 23.7 mm), usually reticulated ventral pattern, and visible tympanum. The vocalization of the new species consists of a series of calls; each call is composed by a pulsed, non-modulated note in frequency, and with a dominant frequency of 3122-3171 Hz. A molecular phylogeny based on a fragment of the mitochondrial gene 12S shows that the new species is sister to Pristimantis simonbolivari.

  10. Patterns of Apoptosis and Proliferation throughout the Biennial Reproductive Cycle of Viviparous Female Typhlonectes compressicauda (Amphibia, Gymnophiona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Raquet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Typhlonectes compressicauda is an aquatic gymnophionan amphibian living in South America. Its breeding cycle is linked to seasons, characterized by a regular alternation of rainy and dry seasons. During a complex biennial cycle, the female genital tract undergoes a series of alternations of increasing and decreasing, governed by equilibrium of proliferation and apoptotic phenomena. Immunohistochemical methods were used to visualize cell proliferation with the detection of Ki67 antibody, a protein present in proliferative cells; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL and Apostain were performed to detect apoptotic cells on sections of ovaries and oviducts. In ovaries, both phenomena affect the germinal nests and follicles according to the cycle period. In the oviduct, the balance was in favor of proliferation during preparation for reproduction, and in favor of apoptosis when genital ducts regress. Apoptosis and proliferation are narrowly implicated in the remodeling of the genital tract and they are accompanied by the differentiation of tissues according to the phase of the breeding cycle. These variations permit the capture of oocytes at ovulation, always at the same period, and the parturition after 6–7 months of gestation, at a period in which the newborns live with their mother, protected in burrows in the mud. During the intervening year of sexual inactivity, the female reconstitutes body reserves.

  11. Training for Translocation: Predator Conditioning Induces Behavioral Plasticity and Physiological Changes in Captive Eastern Hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis (Cryptobranchidae, Amphibia

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    Erin K. Kenison

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations are stressful, especially when captive animals are naïve to natural stimuli. Captive eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis identify predatory fish as threats, but may be more vulnerable to predation and stress because of inexperience with them. We investigated the use of predator conditioning to prepare hellbenders, behaviorally and physiologically, for the presence of a common predator, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides. We reared hellbenders for 30 d with and without continuous exposure to largemouth bass kairomones and heterospecific alarm cues and found conditioned hellbenders became less active compared to unconditioned individuals (p = 0.017. After conditioning, we exposed hellbenders to water, a low concentration of kairomones, or a high concentration of kairomones in a closed respirometer system. We measured activity within respirometer chambers and routine metabolic rate. We found unconditioned hellbenders exposed to low and high concentrations of kairomones were 41% and 119% more active than conditioned animals (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001. Moreover, conditioned individuals had on average 6.5% lower metabolic rates across all three kairomone concentrations compared to unconditioned individuals (p = 0.017. Our data suggest that predator conditioning induces behavioral avoidance tactics and physiological changes that could improve future translocation efforts for hellbenders and other imperiled species.

  12. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepack, Alexander; von May, Rudolf; Ttito, Alex; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristimantis lacrimosus and Pristimantis waoranii superficially most resemble the new species, but Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. differs from both species by having a rostral tubercle (absent in Pristimantis waoranii and variable in Pristimantis lacrimosus) and larger size, from Pristimantis lacrimosus by its call emitted at a lower frequency, and from Pristimantis waoranii for its dorsal coloration with dark markings. Two other species have partially overlapping distributions and resemble the new species, Pristimantis mendax and Pristimantis olivaceus, but they produce advertisement calls with much higher dominant frequencies than the advertisement call of the new species. Furthermore, Pristimantis mendax differs from the new species by lacking a rostral tubercle and by having a sigmoid inner tarsal fold, whereas Pristimantis olivaceus differs by being smaller and by having dorsal skin shagreen with scattered tubercles. The new species has snout-vent length of 21.8–26.9 mm in males (n = 12) and 28.8 mm in a single female. PMID:27408563

  13. A striking new genus and species of cave-dwelling frog (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae: Asterophryinae from Thailand

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    Chatmongkon Suwannapoom

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a discovery of Siamophryne troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov., a new troglophilous genus and species of microhylid frog from a limestone cave in the tropical forests of western Thailand. To assess its phylogenetic relationships we studied the 12S rRNA–16S rRNA mtDNA fragment with final alignment comprising up to 2,591 bp for 56 microhylid species. Morphological characterization of the new genus is based on examination of external morphology and analysis of osteological characteristics using microCT-scanning. Phylogenetic analyses place the new genus into the mainly Australasian subfamily Asterophryinae as a sister taxon to the genus Gastrophrynoides, the only member of the subfamily known from Sundaland. The new genus markedly differs from all other Asterophryinae members by a number of diagnostic morphological characters and demonstrates significant mtDNA sequence divergence. We provide a preliminary description of a tadpole of the new genus. Thus, it represents the only asterophryine taxon with documented free-living larval stage and troglophilous life style. Our work demonstrates that S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. represents an old lineage of the initial radiation of Asterophryinae which took place in the mainland Southeast Asia. Our results strongly support the “out of Indo-Eurasia” biogeographic scenario for this group of frogs. To date, the new frog is only known from a single limestone cave system in Sai Yok District of Kanchanaburi Province of Thailand; its habitat is affected by illegal bat guano mining and other human activities. As such, S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. is likely to be at high risk of habitat loss. Considering high ecological specialization and a small known range of the new taxon, we propose a IUCN Red List status of endangered for it.

  14. A new golden frog species of the genus Diasporus (Amphibia, Eleutherodactylidae from the Cordillera Central, western Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hertz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the frog species Diasporus citrinobapheus sp. n. from the Cordillera Central of western Panama. The new species differs from all other species in its genus in coloration, disk cover and disk pad shape, skin texture, advertisement call, and size. It is most similar to D. tigrillo, from which it differs in dorsal skin texture, relative tibia length, number of vomerine teeth, ventral coloration, dorsal markings, and relative tympanum size, and to D. gularis, from which it can be distinguished by the lack of membranes between the toes, adult size, posterior thigh coloration, and position of the choanae. We provide data on morphology, vocalization, and distribution of the new species, as well as brief information on its natural history.

  15. A new golden frog species of the genus Diasporus (Amphibia, Eleutherodactylidae) from the Cordillera Central, western Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Andreas; Hauenschild, Frank; Lotzkat, Sebastian; Köhler, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    We describe the frog species Diasporus citrinobapheussp. n. from the Cordillera Central of western Panama. The new species differs from all other species in its genus in coloration, disk cover and disk pad shape, skin texture, advertisement call, and size. It is most similar to Diasporus tigrillo, from which it differs in dorsal skin texture, relative tibia length, number of vomerine teeth, ventral coloration, dorsal markings, and relative tympanum size, and to Diasporus gularis, from which it can be distinguished by the lack of membranes between the toes, adult size, posterior thigh coloration, and position of the choanae. We provide data on morpho- logy, vocalization, and distribution of the new species, as well as brief information on its natural history.

  16. Chromosome Banding in Amphibia. XXXVI. Multimorphic Sex Chromosomes and an Enigmatic Sex Determination in Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura, Eleutherodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus

    2018-01-01

    A detailed cytogenetic study on the leaf litter frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei from 14 different Caribbean islands and the mainlands of Venezuela and Guyana revealed the existence of multimorphic XY♂/XX♀ sex chromosomes 14. Their male sex determination and development depends either on the presence of 2 telocentric chromosomes 14 (XtYt), or on 1 submetacentric chromosome 14 (Xsm) plus 1 telocentric chromosome 14 (Yt), or on the presence of 2 submetacentric chromosomes 14 (XsmYsm). The female sex determination and development requires either the presence of 2 telocentric chromosomes 14 (XtXt) or 2 submetacentric chromosomes 14 (XsmXsm). In all individuals analyzed, the sex chromosomes 14 carry a prominent nucleolus organizer region in their long arms. An explanation is given for the origin of the (XtYt)♂, (XsmYt)♂, (XsmYsm)♂, (XtXt)♀, and (XsmXsm)♀ in the different populations of E. johnstonei. Furthermore, the present study gives detailed data on the chromosome banding patterns, in situ hybridization experiments, and the genome size of E. johnstonei. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Advertisement call of Scinax littoralis and S. angrensis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae, with notes on the reproductive activity of S. littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel V. Garey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Scinax littoralis and S. angrensis are poorly known Atlantic forest endemic species from the Scinax catharinae group, which is known from southern and southeastern Brazil. Herein, we describe the advertisement calls of these two species and compare them to other species within the S. catharinae group. Additionally, we provide information on breeding sites, and calling activity in S. littoralis. Advertisement calls of S. angrensis and S. littoralis are composed of multi-pulsed notes with multiple frequency bands and frequency modulation. Scinax littoralis has a higher minimum and maximum frequency, and lower dominant frequency than S. angrensis, while Scinax littoralis has a longer call. Scinax littoralis appears to be a habitat generalist, occurring from secondary to mature forests, and breeding both in temporary and in permanent ponds. Male S. littoralis were usually observed calling perched on shrub stems, and displayed satellite behavior when the male density was high.

  18. Long bone histology of the stem salamander Kokartus honorarius (Amphibia: Caudata) from the Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutschas, Pavel; Stein, Koen

    2015-04-01

    Kokartus honorarius from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Kyrgyzstan is one of the oldest salamanders in the fossil record, characterized by a mixture of plesiomorphic morphological features and characters shared with crown-group salamanders. Here we present a detailed histological analysis of its long bones. The analysis of a growth series demonstrates a significant histological maturation during ontogeny, expressed by the progressive appearance of longitudinally oriented primary vascular canals, primary osteons, growth marks, remodelling features in primary bone tissues, as well as progressive resorption of the calcified cartilage, formation of endochondral bone and development of cartilaginous to bony trabeculae in the epiphyses. Apart from the presence of secondary osteons, the long bone histology of Kokartus is very similar to that of miniaturized temnospondyls, other Jurassic stem salamanders, miniaturized seymouriamorphs and modern crown-group salamanders. We propose that the presence of secondary osteons in Kokartus honorarius is a plesiomorphic feature, and the loss of secondary osteons in the long bones of crown-group salamanders as well as in those of miniaturized temnospondyls is the result of miniaturization processes. Hitherto, all stem salamander long bong histology (Kokartus, Marmorerpeton and 'salamander A') has been generally described as having paedomorphic features (i.e. the presence of Katschenko's Line and a layer of calcified cartilage), these taxa were thus most likely neotenic forms. The absence of clear lines of arrested growth and annuli in long bones of Kokartus honorarius suggests that the animals lived in an environment with stable local conditions. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  19. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea, a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphibia: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and three-dimensional (3D reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank.

  20. ROLE OF THE EGG JELLY COAT IN PROTECTING HYLA REGILLA AND BUFO CANORUS EMBRYOS FROM ULTRAVIOLET B RADIATION DURING DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have suggested that Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may play a role in amphibian population declines. Some of these studies also indicate that egg hatching success is unaltered in some species of anurans as a result of UVB exposure. It has been proposed that the eg...

  1. Ecology of anuran populations inhabiting thermally stressed aquatic ecosystems, with emphasis on larval Rana pipiens and Bufo terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the responses of anuran populations to thermally stressed aquatic ecosystems. Adult and larval amphibians were sampled in and around a cool arm of a 67 ha reservoir that receives high temperature effluent from a nuclear production reactor on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in South Carolina. Patterns for some species were compared with data from nearby unheated areas and analyzed in terms of the thermal gradient (16-45 C) extending the length of the reservoir's cool arm. The adaptation to breeding during nocturnal rainfall fortuitously confers a double advantage especially to anurans breeding in thermally stressed waters. (U.S.)

  2. JUVENILE WESTERN TOADS, BUFO BOREAS, AVOID CHEMICAL CUES OF SNAKES FED JUVENILE, BUT NOT LARVAL, CONSPECIFICS. (U915529)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis in an amphibian (Bufo terrestris) exposed to coal combustion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, W.A.; Mendonca, M.T.; Congdon, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the responsiveness of the interrenal axis to stress, we injected toads exposed to coal combustion wastes and toads from an unpolluted reference site with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), as well as the vehicle alone (saline). Initial circulating levels of corticosterone in toads captured at the polluted area were significantly higher than levels in toads from the reference site. Corticosterone levels in toads from the polluted site remained high even after 2 weeks of laboratory acclimation and injection with saline. The results may suggest disruption of hepatic enzymes responsible for the metabolic clearance of steroid hormones. Injection of toads from the polluted site with ACTH had no effect on plasma corticosterone levels, whereas a similar treatment of toads from the reference site stimulated a marked increase in corticosterone. Our study provides evidence that toads exposed to coal combustion wastes may be less efficient at responding to additional environmental stressors. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Study on the radiation dose assessment of non-human species near a site in the south of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianguo; Han Baohua; Ma Binghui; Han Xuelei; Shang Honglian; Huang Peng; Geng Li

    2012-01-01

    In the external environment of a site located in the South China, the Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans), dry duck and teal, and pine tree (Pinus massoniana Lamb) are studied as reference organisms. Through investigation, the parameters of biological characteristics of the species are provided. The radionuclide concentration ratio CR (defined as the ratio of activity concentration in biota whole body (Bq · kg -1 fresh weight) and activity concentration of soil (Bq · kg -1 dry weight) or activity concentration of filtered water(Bq · L -1 )) are provided by collecting biological and environmental media samples and 90 Sr and 137 Cs activity analysis. By the ERICA tool of EC, the dose rates of the species for 90 Sr and 137 Cs are estimated. The results show that the dose rates of 90 Sr and 137 Cs for Chinese toad are 1.69 E 03 μGy · h -1 and 6.96 E-03 μGy · h -1 respectively, the total dose rate is 8.65 E-03 μGy · h -1 . The dose rates of 90 Sr and 137 Cs for teal are 1.56 E-04 μGy · h -1 and 2.68 E-04EμGy · h -1 , the total dose rate is 4.24E-04 μGy · h -1 . The dose rates of 90 Sr and 137 Cs for dry duck are 2.04E-04 μGy · h -1 and 2.29 E-04EμGy · h -1 , the total dose rate is 4.33E-04 μGy · h -1 . The total dose rates of the reference animals are well below the IAEA recommended dose limit for terrestrial animals (40 μGy · h -1 ). The order of dose rates of 90 Sr and 137 Cs for pine, from high to low are: pine needles > pine branches > pine trunk. The total dose rate of pine needles is 1.38E-03 μGy · h -1 , which is well below the IAEA recommended dose limit for terrestrial plants (400 μGy · h -1 ). (authors)

  5. THE HERPETOLOGICAL COLLECTION OF ZOOLOGY MUSEUM, ISTANBUL UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgün Kaya; Oya Özuluğ

    2017-01-01

    Amphibia and Reptilia collections at the Zoological Museum, University of Istanbul (ZMUI) were studied and revised. The samples were collected from 1921 until today. The localities of most species are found in the diffrent regions of Turkey. The collection have 74 species of which 20 species are amphibia and 54 species are reptiles.

  6. Observations on the breeding of toads in a restricted habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population consisted of two kinds of toads: Bufo gutturalis Power and a hybrid population believed to be derived from crosses between Bufo gutturalis Power and Bufo rangeri Hewitt. Individual animals can be distinguished by differences in the shape of dark spots on their backs. A record was made of every pair found ...

  7. Water balance of field-excavated aestivating Australian desert frogs, the cocoon-forming Neobatrachus aquilonius and the non-cocooning Notaden nichollsi (Amphibia: Myobatrachidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, Victoria A; Withers, Philip C; McMaster, Kellie A; Thompson, Graham G; Bradshaw, S Don

    2006-09-01

    Burrowed aestivating frogs of the cocoon-forming species Neobatrachus aquilonius and the non-cocooning species Notaden nichollsi were excavated in the Gibson Desert of central Australia. Their hydration state (osmotic pressure of the plasma and urine) was compared to the moisture content and water potential of the surrounding soil. The non-cocooning N. nichollsi was consistently found in sand dunes. While this sand had favourable water potential properties for buried frogs, the considerable spatial and temporal variation in sand moisture meant that frogs were not always in positive water balance with respect to the surrounding soil. The cocoon-forming N. aquilonius was excavated from two distinct habitat types, a claypan in which frogs had a well-formed cocoon and a dune swale where frogs did not have a cocoon. Cocoons of excavated frogs ranged in thickness from 19.4 microm to 55.61 microm and consisted of 81-229 layers. Cocooned claypan N. aquilonius were nearing exhaustion of their bladder water reserves and had a urine osmolality approaching that of the plasma. By contrast, non-cocooned N. aquilonius from the dune swale were fully hydrated, although soil moisture levels were not as high as calculated to be necessary to maintain water balance. Both species had similar plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) concentrations ranging from 9.4 to 164 pg ml(-1), except for one cocooned N. aquilonius with a higher concentration of 394 pg ml(-1). For both species, AVT showed no relationship with plasma osmolality over the lower range of plasma osmolalities but was appreciably increased at the highest osmolality recorded. This study provides the first evidence that cocoon formation following burrowing is not obligatory in species that are capable of doing so, but that cocoon formation occurs when soil water conditions are more desiccating than for non-cocooned frogs.

  8. Evolutionary origins and genetic variation of the Seychelles treefrog, Tachycnemis seychellensis (Duméril and Bibron, 1841) (Amphibia: Anura: Hyperoliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Simon T; Day, Julia J; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Wilkinson, Mark; Gower, David J

    2014-06-01

    The hyperoliid frog Tachycnemis seychellensis, the only species of its genus, is endemic to the four largest granitic islands of the Seychelles archipelago and is reliant on freshwater bodies for reproduction. Its presence in the Seychelles is thought to be the product of a transoceanic dispersal, diverging from the genus Heterixalus, its closest living relative (currently endemic to Madagascar), between approximately 10-35Ma. A previous study documented substantial intraspecific morphological variation among island populations and also among populations within the largest island (Mahé). To assess intraspecific genetic variation and to infer the closest living relative(s) of T. seychellensis, DNA sequence data were generated for three mitochondrial and four nuclear markers. These data support a sister-group relationship between T. seychellensis and Heterixalus, with the divergence between the two occurring between approximately 11-19Ma based on cytb p-distances. Low levels of genetic variation were found among major mitochondrial haplotype clades of T. seychellensis (maximum 0.7% p-distance concatenated mtDNA), and samples from each of the islands (except La Digue) comprised multiple mitochondrial haplotype clades. Two nuclear genes (rag1 and tyr) showed no variation, and the other two (rho and pomc) lacked any notable geographic structuring, counter to patterns observed within presumably more vagile Seychelles taxa such as lizards. The low levels of genetic variation and phylogeographic structure support an interpretation that there is a single but morphologically highly variable species of Seychelles treefrog. The contrasting genetic and morphological intraspecific variation may be attributable to relatively recent admixture during low sea-level stands, ecophenotypic plasticity, local adaptation to different environmental conditions, and/or current and previously small population sizes. Low genetic phylogeographic structure but substantial morphological variation is unusual within anurans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The advertisement call and comments on the distribution of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus Bokermann, 1975, an endemic frog of Bahia State, Brazil (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; de Mira-Mendes, Caio Vinicius; Souza-Costa, Carlos Augusto; Juncá, Flora Acuña; Solé, Mirco

    2017-01-01

    Advertisement calls can be used to aid solving taxonomic problems and understanding the evolution of certain groups. In this study, the advertisement call of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus is described. It is composed by two different notes with a total duration of 0.529-4.241 seconds and dominant frequency of 1.72-3.45 kHz. Additionally, new data is provided on the geographical distribution of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus and the most inland record for this species.

  10. Not Good, but Not All Bad: Dehydration Effects on Body Fluids, Organ Masses, and Water Flux through the Skin of Rhinella schneideri (Amphibia, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodolfo C O; Bovo, Rafael P; Eismann, Carlos E; Menegario, Amauri A; Andrade, Denis V

    Because of their permeable skin, terrestrial amphibians are constantly challenged by the potential risk of dehydration. However, some of the physiological consequences associated with dehydration may affect aspects that are themselves relevant to the regulation of water balance. Accordingly, we examined the effects of graded levels of dehydration on the rates of evaporative water loss and water absorption through the skin in the terrestrial Neotropical toad, Rhinella schneideri. Concomitantly, we monitored the effects of dehydration on the mass of visceral organs; hematocrit and hemoglobin content; plasma osmolality; and plasma concentration of urea, sodium, chloride, and potassium. We found that dehydration caused an increase in the concentration of body fluids, as indicated by virtually all the parameters examined. There was a proportional change in the relative masses of visceral organs, except for the liver and kidneys, which exhibited a decrease in their relative masses greater than the whole-body level of dehydration. Changes-or the preservation-of relative organ masses during dehydration may be explained by organ-specific physiological adjustments in response to the functional stress introduced by the dehydration itself. As dehydration progressed, evaporative water loss diminished and water reabsorption increased. In both cases, the increase in body fluid concentration associated with the dehydration provided the osmotic driver for these changes in water flux. Additionally, dehydration-induced alterations on the cutaneous barrier may also have contributed to the decrease in water flux. Dehydration, therefore, while posing a considerable challenge on the water balance regulation of anurans, paradoxically facilitates water conservation and absorption.

  11. A review of the biology and conservation of the Cope's giant salamander Dicamptodon copei Nussbaum, 1970 (Amphibia: Caudata: Dicamptodontidae) in the Pacific northwestern region of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex D. Foster; Deanna H. Olson; Lawrence L.C. Jones

    2015-01-01

    The Cope’s Giant Salamander Dicamptodon copei is a stream dwelling amphibian reliant on cool streams, native to forested areas primarily west of the crest of the Cascade Range in the Pacific Northwest region, USA. Unlike other members of the genus, adult D. copei are most often found in a paedomorphic form, and rarely transforms to a terrestrial stage. As a result,...

  12. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR DE LA FAUNA AMPHIBIA EN EL CERRO MURRUCUCÚ, PARQUE NATURAL NACIONAL PARAMILLO Y ZONA AMORTIGUADORA, TIERRALTA, CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA

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    ROMERO-MARTÍNEZ HERÓN JOSÉ

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de estudiar la fauna anfibia en el Cerro Murrucucú (PNN Paramillo,Tierralta, Córdoba, se realizaron muestreos durante los meses de diciembre de2004, enero y febrero de 2005 en diferentes localidades; se utilizaron dos estrategiasde muestreo (búsqueda libre por inspección visual y trampas de caída. En primerainstancia se comparó la riqueza y la abundancia de las especies en tres zonasaltitudinales en uno de los sectores mejor conservados del Cerro. Se encontró queen la parte baja y media predominan las especies de la familia Hylidae, mientras queen la parte alta predominan representantes de la familia Brachycephalidae, en sumayoría especies del género Eleutherodactylus. Se registran 52 especies para el CerroMurrucucú, que representan el 8% del total de especies en Colombia y más del 80% delas documentadas para el Departamento de Córdoba; las cuales están agrupadas en dosórdenes, 10 familias y 26 géneros. Las familias más representativas, Brachycephalidaee Hylidae, concentran un poco más del 50% de las especies. También se registraronpor primera vez 18 especies para el Departamento de Córdoba y se amplia el rangode distribución geográfico de 18 especies y altitudinal de siete de estas. Se tiene elprimer registro de Eleutherodactylus cruentus para Colombia y el primero de E. viejaspara la Cordillera Occidental Colombiana

  13. The role of phytophysiognomies and seasonality on the structure of ground-dwelling anuran (Amphibia) in the Pampa biome, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragno, Franciéle P; Santos, Tiago G; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2013-09-01

    Considering that habitat use by amphibians is related both with climate and environmental features, we tested the hypothesis that anuran assemblages found in different phytophysiognomies and in different seasons vary in structure. Additionally, we searched for species which can be indicators of habitat and seasons. The study was conducted in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. Sampling was done through pitfall traps placed in three phytophysiognomies: grassland, ecotone grassland/forest; and forest. The seasonality factor was created by grouping months in warn and cold seasons. Sixteen species were found and the assemblages were influenced both by phytophysiognomies and climatic seasonality. In a paired comparison, the three phytophysiognomies differed in structure of assemblage from each other. Physalaemus henselii, P. riograndensis, Pseudopaludicola falcipes and Pseudis minuta were indicators of ecotone. Leptodactylus gracilis and Physalaemus biligonigerus were indicators of grassland. None species was indicator of forest. Most of the species were indicators of warm season: Elachistocleis bicolor, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. gracilis, L. latinasus, L. latrans, L. mystacinus, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuvieri and Pseudis minuta. None species was indicator of cold season. We found that even for species of open areas, as Pampa, heterogeneous phytophysiognomies are important for maintaining abundance and constancy of populations of anuran.

  14. Morphology and evolutionary implications of the annual cycle of secretion and sperm storage in spermathecae of the salamander Ambystoma opacum (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Krenz, John D; Johnson, Kristin M; Rania, Lisa C

    1995-01-01

    Females of the marbled salamander, Ambystoma opacum, store sperm in exocrine glands called spermathecae in the roof of the cloaca. Eggs are fertilized by sperm released from the spermathecae during oviposition. Some sperm remain in the spermathecae following oviposition, but these sperm degenerate within a month and none persists more than 6 mo after oviposition. Thus, sperm storage between successive breeding seasons does not occur. Apical secretory vaculoes are abundant during the fall mating season and contain a substance that is alcian blue+ at pH 2.5. Production of secretory vacuoles decreases markedly after oviposition, and the glands are inactive by the summer months. Ambystoma opacum is a terrestrial breeder, and some mating occurs prior to arrival at pond basins where oviposition occurs. Mating prior to arrival at the ovipository site may prolong the breeding season, leading to fitness implications for both males and females. Females have opportunities for more matings, and the possibilities for sperm competition in the spermathecae are enhanced. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Effects of glyphosate and its commercial formulation, Roundup® Ultramax, on liver histology of tadpoles of the neotropical frog, Leptodactylus latrans (amphibia: Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Nadia C; Marino, Damián J G; Natale, Guillermo S; Somoza, Gustavo M

    2018-07-01

    In the last years, the agricultural expansion has led to an increased use of pesticides, with glyphosate as the most widely used worldwide. This is also the situation in Argentina, where glyphosate formulations are the most commercialized herbicides. It is known that glyphosate formulations are much more toxic than the active ingredient, and this difference in toxicity can be attributed to the adjuvants present in the formula. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare sub-lethal histological effects of the glyphosate formulation Roundup Ultramax and glyphosate active ingredient on Leptodactylus latrans tadpoles at Gosner-stage 36. Semi-static bioassays were performed using 96 h of exposure with Roundup Ultramax formulation (RU; 0.37-5.25 mg a.e./L), glyphosate (GLY; 3-300 mg/L), and a control group. RU exposure showed an increment in the melanomacrophagic cells (MMc) and melanomacrophagic centers (MMCs) from 0.37 mg a.e./L. GLY exposure showed a significant increment in the number of MMc from 15 mg/L, and of MMCs from 3 mg/L. Also, histopathological lesions were observed in the liver of tadpoles exposed to both, GLY and RU. These lesions included: lipidosis and hepatic congestion, but only RU showed significant differences respect to control, with a LOEC value of 2.22 mg a.e./L for both effects. In sum, this study represents the first evidence of adverse effects of glyphosate and RU formulation on the liver of anuran larvae at concentrations frequently found in the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporada e turno de vocalização de Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930 (Amphibia, Anura na mata atlântica de Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Fabiana Oliveira de Amorim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de vocalização de uma população de Leptodactylus natalensis foi monitorada em uma poça temporária entre novembro/2002 e outubro/2004. A poça está situada em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica conhecido como Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, município de Igarassu, Estado de Pernambuco. Os animais apresentaram-se ativos na maioria dos meses, apresentando picos na estação seca. A atividade de vocalização foi registrada durante o dia e a noite. Houve influência negativa e significativa entre a atividade vocal e a temperatura. O número de indivíduos vocalizando não foi significantemente afetado pela precipitação pluviométrica, mas o foi pelo número de fêmeas no ambiente. Verificou-se uma grande plasticidade na atividade de vocalização de L. natalensis durante a temporada e turno.Vocalizations of a population of Leptodactylus natalensis were monitored in a temporary pond from November 2002 to October 2004. This pond is located in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest belonging to the private Ecologic Refuge Charles Darwin, in the city of Igarassu, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Individuals were active during most of the studied months, with peaks of activity during dry season. Vocal activity was recorded both in day and nighttime. There was a significant negative effect of temperature on vocal activity. The number of individuals vocalizing was not affected significantly by rainfall, but it was by the number of females on the environment. A great plasticity of vocal activities of L. natalensis was verified, both in season and turn.

  17. Observações sobre história natural de Zachaenus carvalhoi Izecksohn, 1983“1982” (Amphibia: Anura: Cycloramphidae

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    Cássio Zandomenico Zocca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos a densidade populacional, o comportamento parental e de defesa, aspectos da biologia reprodutiva e a estrutura do sítio de oviposição de Zachaenus carvalhoi. Amostramos 168 parcelas de 5x5 m, estabelecidas no interior florestal e nos três tipos de matrizes circundantes da Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi em Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo. A densidade populacional foi de 0,07 indivíduos/100 m2, representados por dois machos e uma fêmea, todos encontrados no interior da floresta. Um macho estava em repouso acima e o outro abaixo da camada de serrapilheira, enquanto a fêmea foi encontrada junto a 20 ovos em uma cavidade em meio a radículas e coberta por serrapilheira. A fêmea defendeu os ovos quando incomodada. Um macho encontrado inflou o corpo e exibiu reflexo parcial de Bombina como comportamentos defensivos. Essa espécie possui girinos endotróficos que completam o desenvolvimento dentro no ninho. Suspeitamos que Z. carvalhoi pode estar seriamente ameaçado em fragmentos florestais por possivelmente estar restrito às áreas florestais e pela baixa densidade populacional.

  18. A new species of the genus Centrolene (Amphibia : Anura : Centrolenidae) from Ecuador with comments on the taxonomy and biogeography of Glassfrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new species of Glassfrog, Centrolene mariaelenae n. sp., from the Contrafuerte de Tzunantza, southeastern Ecuador. The new species is assigned to the Centrolene gorzulai species group, a clade previously known only from the Guayana Shield region, because the parietal peritoneum is transparent and the hepatic peritoneum is covered by guanophores. We analyze the diversity patterns of Glassfrogs from eastern Ecuador. The distribution of the new species herein described supports previous hypothesis of a biogeographical connection between the Andes and the Guayana Shield for various groups of plants and animals; particularly a relationship between the Guayana Shield and the sandstone outcrops mountain ranges of southeastern Ecuador and northeastern Peru. We also comment on the infrageneric and generic classification of Glassfrogs, and propose the new combinations Centrolene balionotum n. comb., Cochranella antisthenesi n. comb., and Cochranella pulverata n. comb.

  19. Revision of the characters of Centrolenidae (Amphibia : Anura : Athesphatanura), with comments on its taxonomy and the description of new taxa of glassfrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Anurans of the family Centrolenidae are a diverse clade of arboreal frogs distributed across tropical America. Knowledge of their taxonomy, systematics, ecology, behavior, morphology, and other evolutionary aspects of their biology is deficient. Relationships among centrolenid species remain largely unresolved, with no satisfactory phylogenetic hypothesis, and none of the current genera has compelling evidence of monophyly. Further, understanding the phylogeny of glassfrogs is constrained by species-level taxonomic problems, including incorrect description of characters, incomplete analyses of intraspecific variation, and lack of appreciation of species diversity. Herein, we define and analyze the 23 characters that are useful, in combination, in diagnosing centrolenid species, and thereby provide a reference for the use of future workers. We propose revised classifications for the parietal and visceral peritoneal pigmentation, liver form and coloration of its associated hepatic peritoneum, nuptial excrescences, and hand ornamentation. We comment on the generic and species-level taxonomy of Centrolenidae, proposing the recognition of a new genus and describing a new species from Ecuador. We treat Hyla ocellifera Boulenger as a synonym of Centrolene prosoblepon (Boettger), Hyalinobatrachium cardiacalyptum McCranie & Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Taylor), and Hyalinobatrachium crybetes McCranie and Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum (Taylor). We also present an annotated list of the species of glassfrogs from the Republic of Ecuador with some distributional remarks.

  20. A new species of Phrynopus (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Edgar; von May, Rudolf; Moravec, Jiří; Cusi, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands (puna) of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings (Región Junín, central Peru) and compare it morphologically and genetically with other species of Phrynopus . Phrynopus inti sp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l. Studied specimens of the new species are characterized by a snout-vent length of 27.2-35.2 mm in males (n = 6), and 40.4 mm in a single female, by having the skin on dorsum and flanks smooth with scattered tubercles, venter smooth, by lacking a tympanum, and males without vocal slits and nuptial pads. In life, the dorsum is pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches, or dorsum blackish brown with small yellow flecks, throat, chest and venter are pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin is pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks, and the iris is golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations. The new species is morphologically most similar to Phrynopus kauneorum and P. juninensis . For the latter we describe the coloration in life for a specimen obtained at the type locality. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences inferred that the new species is most closely related to Phrynopus kauneorum , P. miroslawae , P. tautzorum , and an undescribed species distributed at high elevation in Región Pasco, central Peru.

  1. NUEVA ESPECIE DE RANA BROMELÍCOLA DEL GÉNERO PRISTIMANTIS (AMPHIBIA: CRAUGASTORIDAE, MESETA DE LA CORDILLERA DEL CÓNDOR, ECUADOR

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    JORGE BRITO M.

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Describimos una especie pequeña de rana bromelícola del género Pristimantis (longitud rostro-cloaca en hembras 20.3-23.3 mm; en machos 16.1-17.4 mm, proveniente de una remota meseta de arenisca de la Cordillera del Cóndor, en el sureste de Ecuador, con un rango altitudinal de 2.045-2.860 m. Una filogenia en base a secuencias de ADN (genes mitocondriales y nucleares muestra que la nueva especie forma parte del grupo P. orestes y está más cercanamente relacionada con una especie de Pristimantis aún no descrita de la vertiente sur oriental ecuatoriana. Difiere de sus congéneres de Ecuador, por su coloración dorsal y ventral predominantemente negra; superficie palmar amplia y robusta con dedos cortos y gruesos; presencia de un surco profundo y amplio extendido desde la base anterior del I dedo manual hasta la base posterior del tubérculo palmar; tubérculos subarticulares divididos, tubérculos supernumerarios agrandados y con granulaciones pequeñas. Todos los individuos registrados estuvieron en bromelias terrestres. Las llamadas son cortas, de frecuencia modulada, conformada por una nota con duración de 5-15 ms. Los insectos representaron el 80% de la dieta de la especie nueva.

  2. 3D bite modeling and feeding mechanics of the largest living amphibian, the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus (Amphibia:Urodela.

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    Josep Fortuny

    Full Text Available Biting is an integral feature of the feeding mechanism for aquatic and terrestrial salamanders to capture, fix or immobilize elusive or struggling prey. However, little information is available on how it works and the functional implications of this biting system in amphibians although such approaches might be essential to understand feeding systems performed by early tetrapods. Herein, the skull biomechanics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus is investigated using 3D finite element analysis. The results reveal that the prey contact position is crucial for the structural performance of the skull, which is probably related to the lack of a bony bridge between the posterior end of the maxilla and the anterior quadrato-squamosal region. Giant salamanders perform asymmetrical strikes. These strikes are unusual and specialized behavior but might indeed be beneficial in such sit-and-wait or ambush-predators to capture laterally approaching prey. However, once captured by an asymmetrical strike, large, elusive and struggling prey have to be brought to the anterior jaw region to be subdued by a strong bite. Given their basal position within extant salamanders and their "conservative" morphology, cryptobranchids may be useful models to reconstruct the feeding ecology and biomechanics of different members of early tetrapods and amphibians, with similar osteological and myological constraints.

  3. Environmental parameters affecting the structure of leaf-litter frog (Amphibia: Anura communities in tropical forests: a case study from an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil

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    Carla C. Siqueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite a recent increase of information on leaf litter frog communities from Atlantic rainforests, few studies have analyzed the relationship between environmental parameters and community structure of these animals. We analyzed the effects of some environmental factors on a leaf litter frog community at an Atlantic Rainforest area in southeastern Brazil. Data collection lasted ten consecutive days in January 2010, at elevations ranging between 300 and 520 m above sea level. We established 50 quadrats of 5 x 5 m on the forest floor, totaling 1,250 m² of sampled area, and recorded the mean leaf-litter depth and the number of trees within the plot, as well as altitude. We found 307 individuals belonging to ten frog species within the plots. The overall density of leaf-litter frogs estimated from the plots was 24.6 ind/100m², with Euparkerella brasiliensis (Parker, 1926, Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864, Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 and Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824 presenting the highest estimated densities. Among the environmental variables analyzed, only altitude influenced the parameters of anuran community. Our results indicate that the study area has a very high density of forest floor leaf litter frogs at altitudes of 300-500 m. Future estimates of litter frog density might benefit from taking the local altitudinal variation into consideration. Neglecting such variation might result in underestimated/overestimated values if they are extrapolated to the whole area.

  4. Microhyla laterite sp. nov., A New Species of Microhyla Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae from a Laterite Rock Formation in South West India.

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    K S Seshadri

    Full Text Available In recent times, several new species of amphibians have been described from India. Many of these discoveries are from biodiversity hotspots or from within protected areas. We undertook amphibian surveys in human dominated landscapes outside of protected areas in south western region of India between years 2013-2015. We encountered a new species of Microhyla which is described here as Microhyla laterite sp. nov. It was delimited using molecular, morphometric and bioacoustics comparisons. Microhyla laterite sp. nov. appears to be restricted to areas of the West coast of India dominated by laterite rock formations. The laterite rock formations date as far back as the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and are considered to be wastelands in-spite of their intriguing geological history. We identify knowledge gaps in our understanding of the genus Microhyla from the Indian subcontinent and suggest ways to bridge them.

  5. Which frog's legs do froggies eat? The use of DNA barcoding for identification of deep frozen frog legs (Dicroglossidae, Amphibia) commercialized in France

    OpenAIRE

    Ohler, Annemarie; Nicolas, Violaine

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Several millions frogs captured in the wild in Indonesia are sold for food yearly in French supermarkets, as deep frozen frog legs. They are commercialized as Rana macrodon, but up to 15 look-alike species might also be concerned by this trade. From December 2012 to May 2013, we bought 209 specimens of deep frozen frog legs, and identified them through a barcoding approach based on the 16S gene. Our results show that 206 out of the 209 specimens belong to Fejervarya ca...

  6. Which frog's legs do froggies eat? The use of DNA barcoding for identification of deep frozen frog legs (Dicroglossidae, Amphibia commercialized in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ohler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several millions frogs captured in the wild in Indonesia are sold for food yearly in French supermarkets, as deep frozen frog legs. They are commercialized as Rana macrodon, but up to 15 look-alike species might also be concerned by this trade. From December 2012 to May 2013, we bought 209 specimens of deep frozen frog legs, and identified them through a barcoding approach based on the 16S gene. Our results show that 206 out of the 209 specimens belong to Fejervarya cancrivora, two to Limnonectes macrodon and one to F. moodiei. Thus only 0.96 % of the frogs were correctly identified. Unless misclassification was intentional, it seems that Indonesian frog leg exporters are not able to discriminate between the species. The quasi absence of L. macrodon in our samples might be an indication of its rarity, confirming that its natural populations are declining rapidly, in agreement with its “vulnerable” status according to the IUCN Red List. Our results show that the genetic and morphological diversity of the frogs in trade is much higher than the genetic and morphological diversity measured so far by scientific studies. These results underline the need for large scale studies to assess the status of wild populations.

  7. Nueva localidad para Alsodes tumultuosus Veloso, Iturra & Galleguillos, 1979 (Amphibia, Alsodidae en la Cordillera de los Andes, Region de O’Higgins, Chile

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    Diego Ramírez Álvarez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alsodes tumultuosus Veloso, Iturra & Galleguillos, 1979 es un anfibio endémico de Chile, descrito y hasta hace poco conocido únicamente en su localidad tipo, los arroyos cordilleranos del Sector La Parva, en la región Metropolitana. En este artículo se detalla el hallazgo de una nueva localidad para esta especie, en la región de O’Higgins, aproximadamente a 100 kilómetros al sur de La Parva. Este hallazgo, sugiere la ampliación del rango de distribución de esta especie al cordón cordillerano Andino de la región de O’Higgins, y señala la necesidad de efectuar mayores prospecciones e investigación de la especie, que permitan definir claramente su estado de conservación en Chile.

  8. Phylogeography of the Middle Eastern tree frogs (Hyla, Hylidae, Amphibia) as an inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation, with a description of a new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gvoždík, Václav; Moravec, J.; Klütsch, C.; Kotlík, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2010), s. 1146-1166 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Hyla savignyi * Hyla felixarabica sp. nov. * Hyla orientalis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.889, year: 2010

  9. Morphological description of Cosmocerca sp. (Nematoda: Cosmocerdidae) from the Mascarene grass frog Ptychadena cf. mascareniensis (Amphibia: Ptychadenidae). A light and scanning electron microscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Kamel, Reem; Maher, Sherein; El Deeb, Nashwa; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2017-06-01

    The Mascarene grass frog Ptychadena cf. mascareniensis is a species of frog with a vast area of distribution in Africa. A total of 300 frog specimens were collected from different localities at El-Giza province, Egypt; then dissected and examined for the presence of parasitic infection. Only eighty six (28.66%) specimens were found to be naturally infected with nematode parasite. Seasonally, the prevalence of infection was reached its maximum value of 74.66% during summer and minimum values of 26.66% (20/75), 13.33% (10/75) during spring and autumn, respectively; while no records were observed during winter season. The morphology of the recovered parasite was studied by using light and scanning electron microscopy. The adult worm characterized by anterior extremity with small mouth opening being surrounded by three lips provided with four sub-median cephalic papillae and one pair of lateral amphids. Body measurements showed that male worms were smaller than females measuring 1.22-2.43 (2.21 ± 0.1) mm in length and 0.21-0.34 (0.29 ± 0.01) mm in width. Females measured 1.9-3.7 (2.8 ± 0.1) mm in length and 0.24-0.42 (0.38 ± 0.01) mm in width. Comparing the present parasite with other species of the same genus described previously, several similarities were observed. However, peculiar new characteristics such as the arrangement of plectanes and somatic papillae, the presence of gubernaculum, the position of nerve ring, excretory pore, and vulval opening make it reasonable belongs to the family Cosmocercidae and identified as Cosmocerca sp. In addition, the present study was the first report for occurrence of cosmocercid species from the Mascarene grass frog in Egypt.

  10. B-esterase activities and blood cell morphology in the frog Leptodactylus chaquensis (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) on rice agroecosystems from Santa Fe Province (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Andrés M; Cabagna-Zenklusen, Mariana; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Peltzer, Paola M; Junges, Celina; Bassó, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    Activity of B-esterases (BChE: butyrylcholinesterase and CbE: carboxylesterase using two model substrates: α-naphthyl acetate and 4-nitrophenyl valerate) in a native frog, Leptodactylus chaquensis from rice fields (RF1: methamidophos and RF2: cypermethrin and endosulfan sprayed by aircraft) and non-contaminated area (pristine forest) was measured. The ability of pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM) to reactivate BChE levels was also explored. In addition, changes in blood cell morphology and parasite infection were determined. Mean values of plasma BChE activities were lower in samples from the two rice fields than in those from the reference site. CbE (4-nitrophenyl valerate) levels varied in the three sites studied, being highest in RF1. Frog plasma from RF1 showed positive reactivation of BChE activity after incubation with 2-PAM. Blood parameters of frogs from RF2 revealed morphological alterations (anisochromasia and immature erythrocytes frequency). Moreover, a major infection of protozoan Trypanosoma sp. in individuals from the two rice fields was detected. We suggest that integrated use of several biomarkers (BChE and CBEs, chemical reactivation of plasma with 2-PAM, and blood cell parameters) may be a promising procedure for use in biomonitoring programmes to diagnose pesticide exposure of wild populations of this frog and other native anuran species in Argentina.

  11. Ecotoxicological Effects of Imidacloprid and Lambda-Cyhalothrin (Insecticide on Tadpoles of the African Common Toad, Amietophrynus Regularis (Reuss, 1833 (Amphibia: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brice Kenko Nkontcheu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the main activity carried out in Cameroon and pesticide use is believed to be a common rule for its success. Most of the farms are situated close to water bodies, thus constituting a potential risk to non-target aquatic organisms. Declines of amphibian populations have been a worldwide issue of concern for the scientific community during the last several decades. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of an insecticide used by local farmers in Buea on amphibians. Parastar 40WP® which is constituted of imidacloprid + lambda-cyhalothrin a commonly used insecticide was applied on tadpoles of the African common toad Amietophrynus regularis (Reuss, 1833 in a static renewal experiment. The acute toxicity test was carried out after a range finding test from which seven test concentrations were selected. These concentrations were 0.0025mg/l, 0.005mg/l, 0.01mg/l, 0.05mg/l, 0.1mg/l, 0.5mg/l and 0.2mg/l. Signs of toxicity such as hyperactive symptoms, loss of balance, motionlessness and death were recorded. A varying degree of mortality (dose-dependent was noticed during the test. On the contrary, no such toxicity signs and mortality occurred in the control, indicating that they were caused by the test substance. The 24h LC50 was 3.66mg/l, which is less than the recommended application dose (125mg/l. Products constituted of imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin should therefore be handled with care and far from water bodies because of their potential to cause harm to non-target aquatic biota.

  12. Una especie nueva de rana arbórea del género Hyloscirtus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae de la Cordillera del Cóndor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Almendáriz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ranas ecuatorianas del género Hyloscirtus incluyen 16 especies descritas, de las cuales 11 pertenecen al grupo H. larinopygion. Su distribución se limita a los flancos de la Cordillera de los Andes, tanto al oriente como al occidente. Una evaluación de la herpetofauna en el sector meridional de la Cordillera del Cóndor (bosques montanos sobre mesetas de arenisca en la provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador, condujo al descubrimiento de una especie nueva del grupo que describimos aquí como Hyloscirtus condor sp. nov.; se analizan los renacuajos, las llamadas de anuncio y se estima las relaciones filogenéticas de la especie nueva y de las especies relacionadas en base a nuevas secuencias de los genes mitocondriales 12S, tRNA Val y 16S, con un total de hasta 2508 bp. Los resultados muestran que el grupo H. larinopygion está conformado por dos clados, uno distribuido en los Andes norte y centro de Ecuador y el otro al sur. La nueva especie pertenece al clado sur y es hermana de H. tapichalaca y de una especie aparentemente no descrita de la Provincia Morona Santiago. La especie nueva difiere de sus congéneres por su patrón de coloración dorsal, que consiste de puntos amarillo obscuro en un fondo canela. Es la especie más grande del grupo H. larinopygion y comparte con H. tapichalaca la presencia de una espina prepólica grande y curvada y brazos hipertrofiados. La especie nueva habita un área remota y bien conservada de la Cordillera del Cóndor. El descubrimiento de ésta y otras especies nuevas del mismo lugar denota la importancia biológica del área y motivan al desarrollo de planes de conservación.

  13. Resurrection and re-description of Plethodontohyla laevis (Boettger, 1913 and transfer of Rhombophryne alluaudi (Mocquard, 1901 to the genus Plethodontohyla (Amphibia, Microhylidae, Cophylinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bellati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The systematics of the cophyline microhylid frog genera Plethodontohyla and Rhombophryne have long been intertwined, and their relationships have only recently started to become clear. While Rhombophryne has received a lot of recent taxonomic attention, Plethodontohyla has been largely neglected. Our study is a showcase of just how complex the taxonomic situation between these two genera is, and the care that must be taken to resolve taxonomic conundrums where old material, multiple genus transitions, and misattribution of new material obfuscate the picture. We assessed the identity of the historic names Dyscophus alluaudi (currently in the genus Rhombophryne, Phrynocara laeve and Plethodontohyla laevis tsianovohensis (both synonyms of Rhombophryne alluaudi based on an integrative taxonomic approach harnessing genetics, external morphology, osteological data obtained via micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT and bioacoustics. We show that (1 the holotype of Dyscophus alluaudi is a member of the genus Plethodontohyla; (2 the Rhombophryne specimens from central Madagascar currently assigned to Rhombophryne alluaudi have no affinity with that species, and are instead an undescribed species; and (3 Phrynocara laeve and Dyscophus alluaudi are not synonymous, but represent closely related species, whereas Plethodontohyla laevis tsianovohensis is tentatively confirmed as synonym of D. alluaudi. We resurrect and re-describe Plethodontohyla laevis, and re-allocate and re-describe Plethodontohyla alluaudi on the basis of new and historic material.

  14. Goussia Labbé , 1896 (Apicomplexa, Eimeriorina) in Amphibia: Diversity, Biology, Molecular Phylogeny and Comments on theStatus of the Genus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Jirků, Milan; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2009), s. 123-136 ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Anura * coccidia * cryptic species * Goussia * phylogeny * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.853, year: 2009

  15. A new species of Phrynopus (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Lehr

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands (puna of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings (Región Junín, central Peru and compare it morphologically and genetically with other species of Phrynopus. Phrynopus inti sp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l. Studied specimens of the new species are characterized by a snout-vent length of 27.2–35.2 mm in males (n = 6, and 40.4 mm in a single female, by having the skin on dorsum and flanks smooth with scattered tubercles, venter smooth, by lacking a tympanum, and males without vocal slits and nuptial pads. In life, the dorsum is pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches, or dorsum blackish brown with small yellow flecks, throat, chest and venter are pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin is pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks, and the iris is golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations. The new species is morphologically most similar to Phrynopus kauneorum and P. juninensis. For the latter we describe the coloration in life for a specimen obtained at the type locality. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences inferred that the new species is most closely related to Phrynopus kauneorum, P. miroslawae, P. tautzorum, and an undescribed species distributed at high elevation in Región Pasco, central Peru.

  16. Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae, with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Valbuena-Ureña

    Full Text Available The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper, restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi, endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM, molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors to guarantee the long-term population viability.

  17. A new species of dusky salamander (Amphibia: Plethodontidae: Desmognathus) from the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of the United States and a redescription of D. auriculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, D Bruce; Lamb, Jennifer Y; Bernardo, Joseph

    2017-05-10

    The Coastal Plain of the southeastern U. S. is one of the planet's top biodiversity hotspots and yet many taxa have not been adequately studied. The plethodontid salamander, Desmognathus auriculatus, was originally thought to occur from east Texas to Virginia, a range spanning dozens of interfluves and large river systems. Beamer and Lamb (2008) found five independent mitochondrial lineages of what has been called D. auriculatus in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, but did not examine the extensive distribution of D. auriculatus in the Gulf Coastal Plain. We present morphological and molecular genetic data distinguishing two evolutionarily independent and distantly related lineages that are currently subsumed under the taxon D. auriculatus in the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. We describe one of these as a new species, Desmognathus valentinei sp. nov., and assign the second one to D. auriculatus which we formally redescribe.

  18. Amended diagnosis and redescription of Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900 (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, with a description of its advertisement call and notes on its breeding ecology and phylogenetic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe J.R. Kok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The frog Pristimantis marmoratus was originally described as Hylodes marmoratus by George A. Boulenger in 1900 based on a single specimen reported to have been collected at the foot of Mount Roraima in Guyana in 1898. We herein discuss the exact location of the type locality of P. marmoratus and provide a redescription of the species based on new material from Kaieteur National Park and from the slopes of Maringma-tepui in Guyana. We also describe the previously unknown vocalization and breeding ecology of the species, and conducted an exploratory molecular analysis of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Pristimantis represented by the members of the “unistrigatus species group” in the Guiana Shield. Pristimantis marmoratus is a small-sized species mainly distinguished from its known Guiana Shield congeners by the combination of F I < II, SVL ≤ 20.4 in males, presence of vocal slits in males, granular/pustulate dorsal skin with well-developed scapular ridges, basal webbing between fingers, fringes on fingers and toes, crossed iris, diffuse yellow or pale green wash on groin, and absence of flashy colour on axillary/pre-axillary region. The advertisement call consists of a single note repeated at a rate of ca 11 calls/min with a dominant frequency ranging from 2756 to 3101 Hz. Pristimantis marmoratus is primarily arboreal, exclusively active at dusk, and probably restricted to the pristine rainforests of the Pantepui uplands and highlands, east of the Gran Sabana between ca 600 and 1800 m above sea level. Preliminary molecular analyses recovered Pristimantis marmoratus as sister to an unnamed species from the Eastern Guiana Shield. On grounds of the newly established distributional extent we suggest maintaining the IUCN conservation status as Least Concern.

  19. A new species of Psychrophrynella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from the humid montane forests of Cusco, eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Psychrophrynella from the humid montane forest of the Department Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2,670–3,165 m elevation in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llakta, Japumayo valley, near Comunidad Campesina de Japu, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Psychrophrynella but P. bagrecito and P. usurpator by possessing a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and from these two species by its yellow ventral coloration on abdomen and limbs. Furthermore, the new species is like P. bagrecito and P. usurpator in having an advertisement call composed of multiple notes, whereas other species of Psychrophrynella whose calls are known have a pulsed call (P. teqta or a short, tonal call composed of a single note. The new species has a snout-vent length of 16.1–24.1 mm in males and 23.3–27.7 mm in females. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Psychrophrynella inhabits high-elevation forests in the tropical Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  20. Una nueva especie de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, de la Cordillera de Kutukú, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Brito M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una especie nueva de mediano tamaño (LRC en la hembra 38.7 mm; en machos de 23.8 a 26.4 mm de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis de los bosques sub-tropicales de la Cordillera de Kutukú, del sureste de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 1581-1820 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis almendariz sp. nov., al subgénero Hypodictyon, serie de especies ridens. La nueva especie difiere de otros miembros de la serie ridens por su patrón distintivo con manchas dorsales, membrana timpánica ausente, presencia de tubérculos cónicos agrandados en el párpado, tubérculo inter-orbital prominente, e iris plateado con reticulaciones negras.

  1. A new genus and two new species of minute leptodactylid frogs from northern South America, with comments upon Phyzelaphryne (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Lescure, J.

    1984-01-01

    The synonymisation of Phyzelaphryne miriamae Heyer with Eleutherodactylus nigrovittatus Andersson is denied and it is shown that both species are quite distinct in numerous characters. A new genus (Adelophryne) of minute leptodactylid frogs with pointed discs on the toes and a distinctly reduced fourth finger, containing two new species (A. adiastola spec. nov. and A. gutturosa spec. nov.) is described from northern South America. A key to separate the diminutive leptodactylid frogs with poin...

  2. A new genus and two new species of minute leptodactylid frogs from northern South America, with comments upon Phyzelaphryne (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Lescure, J.

    1984-01-01

    The synonymisation of Phyzelaphryne miriamae Heyer with Eleutherodactylus nigrovittatus Andersson is denied and it is shown that both species are quite distinct in numerous characters. A new genus (Adelophryne) of minute leptodactylid frogs with pointed discs on the toes and a distinctly reduced

  3. The pioneering use of ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat in Neotropical anurans: preliminary assessment of genetic diversity in populations of Physalaemus cuvieri (Amphibia, Leiuperidae

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    Rafaela M Moresco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The greatest diversity of anurans in the world is in Brazil and one of the major challenges is to reconcile the accelerated economic development with strategies that aim to maintain this diversity in forest fragments, often representing ESUs of some biomes. This study aimed to obtain data that will support conservation projects through the pioneering use of ISSR analysis in Neotropical anurans, estimating the intra- and interpopulation genetic diversity of four populations of P. cuvieri (Paraná and São Paulo regions. Of the 65 loci scored 58 were polymorphic, with 0.797 intrapopulation variation and 0.203 interpopulation variation. The index of interpopulation genetic differentiation (Fst proved to be high among the population of Marmeleiro-PR and the three populations of SP (Fst > 0.288; genetic dissimilarity was related to the geographical distance. The ISSR proved to be efficient and useful molecular markers in comparison with other markers most widely used for preliminary diagnosis of genetic diversity in populations of amphibians, and could be applied as a tool for future conservation projects, since they could identify potential ESUs and influence decisions on the preservation of fragments.

  4. Three new species of the genus Adelophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae) from northeastern Brazil, with remarks on the other species of the genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Borges, D.M.; Cascon, P.

    1994-01-01

    In the present paper three new species of the genus Adelophryne from the coastal Atlantic forest in Brazil are described. The species are separated from the two species formerly known from the Amazon forest by caatinga vegetation and a distance of at least 1600 km. A. pachydactylus from Bahia has a

  5. The effects of fasting and cold exposure on metabolic rate and mitochondrial proton leak in liver and skeletal muscle of an amphibian, the cane toad Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcionka, M; Withers, K W; Klingenspor, M; Jastroch, M

    2008-06-01

    Futile cycling of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane contributes significantly to standard metabolic rate in a variety of ectothermic and endothermic animals, but adaptations of the mitochondrial bioenergetics to different environmental conditions have rarely been studied in ectotherms. Changes in ambient temperature and nutritional status have a great effect on the physiological demands of ectothermic amphibians and may require the adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency. In order to investigate the effect of temperature and nutritional status on the mitochondrial level, we exposed male cane toads to either 10 degrees C or 30 degrees C and fasted half of the animals in each group. Cold exposure resulted in a fourfold reduction of the resting metabolic rate whereas nutritional status had only minor effects. The mitochondrial adjustments to each condition were observed by comparing the proton leak kinetics of isolated liver and skeletal muscle mitochondria at 25 degrees C. In response to cold exposure, liver mitochondria showed a decrease in proton conductance while skeletal muscle mitochondria were unchanged. Additional food deprivation had minor effects in skeletal muscle, but in liver we uncovered surprising differences in energy saving mechanisms between the acclimation temperatures: in warm-acclimated toads, fasting resulted in a decrease of the proton conductance whereas in cold-acclimated toads, the activity of the respiratory chain was reduced. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial proton leakage, we determined the adenine-nucleotide transporter (ANT) content, which explained tissue-specific differences in the basal proton leak, but neither the ANT nor uncoupling protein (UCP) gene expression correlated with alterations of the proton leak in response to physiological stimuli.

  6. The effects of dexamethasone (DXM) and vitamin A on the growth and metamorphosis of gamma irradiated, thyroxine induced Bufo melanostictus tadpoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Haider, N.; Siddiqui, R.Q.R.

    1980-01-01

    This study deals with the effects of vitamin A and dexamethasone (DXM) on the metamorphosis of irradiated tadpoles. Results indicate that hypervitaminosis A depresses the metamorphosing action of thyroxine for several days. On the contrary, dexamethasone accelerates the action of exogenous thyroxine on tadpoles. Thus present data suggest that DXM supresses STH synthesis and promotes TSH secretion. Moreover, muscle appears to be its target tissue and DXM seems to promote the proteolytic digestion of the larval tail. (author)

  7. Descrição da larva de Scinax similis (Cochran com notas comparativas sobre o grupo "ruber" no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae Description of the larva of Scinax similis (Cochran with comparative notes on the Scinax ruber group in Southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.R Alves

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Scinax similis (Cochran, 1952 is described from Ilha do Fundão (Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Comparisons with other species of the group that occur in Southeastern Brazil are added. The larva of S. similis can be distinguished by the following diagnostic features: (1 eyes large in relation to body length (17,3%, body height (26,8%, and body width (29,7%, interocular distance three times larger than eye diameter; (2 lower beak with two transverse stripes, proximal half white and distal half black.

  8. The diet of Scinax angrensis (Lutz tadpoles in an area of the Atlantic Forest (Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae Dieta de girinos de Scinax angrensis (Lutz na Floresta Atlântica (Mangaratiba, Rio deJaneiro (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izidro F. de Sousa Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Scinax angrensis (Lutz, 1973 is an endemic species, which occurs in low altitude hillside forests, distributed from the municipalities of Mangaratiba to Parati in the south of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aim of this study was to compare the morphology of S. angrensis tadpoles in two different stages of development, and verify their feeding spectrum. The mouth morphology of the two stages studied (27 and 37 appeared similar, with a difference in the size of the oral opening as well as an increase in the dimensions of the body. The examined species presented a trophic spectrum comprised of algae, protozoan, rotifers, microcrustaceans, nematodes, vegetation and invertebrate remains, fungus hyphae, and sand grains. Significant differences were found between dimensions of the two stages, but not between diets, although a differentiated preference with regards to planktonic items has been verified. The results suggest that the partitioning of feeding resources is not only related to morphology and occupation of different microhabitats but also to the feeding behaviour of tadpoles. The relevance of important food items to the natural diet of S. angrensis tadpoles, especially the diatoms and filamentous algae, reveal the importance of the periphytic community to the conservation of this species in the Atlantic Forest.Scinax angrensis (Lutz, 1973 é uma espécie endêmica ocorrendo em florestas de encosta de baixa altitude, no sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de comparar a morfologia e verificar o espectro alimentar de girinos de S. angrensis de dois estágios diferenciados de desenvolvimento. A morfologia bucal dos dois estágios (27 e 37 apresentou-se similar, havendo diferença de tamanho da abertura oral, bem como aumento das dimensões do corpo e da cauda. A espécie examinada apresentou um espectro trófico integrado por algas, protozoários, rotíferos, microcrustáceos, nematódeos, restos de vegetais e de invertebrados, hifas de fungo e grãos de areia. Foram verificadas diferenças significativas entre as dimensões dos dois estágios, embora não se tenha encontrado uma diferença significativa entre as dietas, apesar de se ter observado uma preferência diferenciada por itens planctônicos. Os resultados sugerem que a partilha de recursos alimentares está relacionada não só com a morfologia e ocupação de diferentes microhábitats, mas também ao comportamento alimentar dos girinos. A relevância de itens importantes para a dieta natural dos girinos de S. angrensis, especialmente as algas diatomáceas e filamentosas, revela a importância da comunidade perifítica para a conservação desta espécie de anuro na Mata Atlântica.

  9. Habitat use by a tree frog species of Scinax (Amphibia, Hylidae at an urban forest fragment from south-eastern Brazil Uso do hábitat por uma espécie de Scinax (Amphibia, Hylidae em um fragmento florestal urbano no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado A. B. Galdino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the pattern of habitat use by the tree frog Scinax aff. perereca. Fieldworks were performed from August 1996 to August 1997 at Parque das Mangabeiras, Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Calling males were observed in September, October and December 1996, February to April and June 1997. Females were found only in October 1996. Specimens were found perched on vegetation, on the ground or on stones near waterfall. At Parque das Mangabeiras, S. aff. perereca occupied nine types of substrata. The most frequently used substrata were shrubs, stones at the stream edges, and fallen trunks. The pattern of spatial occupation varied among months. Males were found calling in aggregations on the vegetation and spatial niche breadth was related to species abundance.No presente estudo é tratado o uso do hábitat por Scinax aff. perereca, durante o período de agosto de 1996 a agosto de 1997 em uma área de mata urbana em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. Machos em atividade de vocalização foram encontrados em setembro, outubro e dezembro de 1996 e de fevereiro a abril e junho de 1997. As fêmeas foram capturadas apenas em outubro de 1996. Os indivíduos foram encontrados em galhos da vegetação no solo ou em pedras próximas a quedas de água. Na área estudada, S. aff. perereca usa nove tipos de substratos, sendo os mais freqüentes a vegetação herbácea, pedras na margem do riacho e troncos caídos. O padrão de ocupação espacial variou ao longo dos meses. Os machos foram encontrados vocalizando em agregados e a largura de nicho espacial foi diretamente relacionada a abundância da espécie.

  10. Pigmentação testicular em Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner (Amphibia, Anura com observações anatômicas sobre o sistema pigmentar extracutâneo Testicular pigmentation in Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner (Amphibia, Anura with anatomical observations on the extracutaneous pigmentary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Classius de Oliveira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com o intuito de relatar a ocorrência e morfologia de células pigmentares viscerais constituintes do "sistema pigmentar extracutâneo" em Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner, 1863 (Leptodactylidae. Foram utilizados dez exemplares machos para a análise macroscópica e obtenção de fragmentos testiculares incluídos em resina e corados com H/E. Os anuros, dentre outros animais exotérmicos, possuem células especiais, os melanócitos, que se caracteriza por intensa pigmentação e sintetiza melanina, além de melanomacrófagos, que se caracteriza por atividade fagocítica e muitas vezes apresentam intensa pigmentação. A nomenclatura destas células não é consensual e, por isso, várias denominações são apresentadas, principalmente nos seguintes órgãos: fígado (como sinônimo de células de Kupffer, rins, baço e menos freqüentemente em outras localizações, com os termos - células pigmentares, células pigmentares extracutâneas, macrófagos pigmentados, melanomacrófagos, melanófagos, melanóforos e melanócitos. Para os anuros os estudos são recentes e relatam células pigmentares em poucas espécies. Em Physalaemus nattereri e alguns anuros, os pigmentos melânicos são encontrados, além da cútis, em outros órgãos constituindo um sistema pigmentar extracutâneo, com diferentes ocorrências, tipos e quantidade em distintas espécies. Associados ao aparelho reprodutor de P. nattereri, os melanócitos foram observados nas gônadas, na albugínea e no interstício, especialmente associado com vasos sangüíneos. A notória presença de numerosas células com pigmento distribuídas no testículo confere uma coloração que varia do preto mesclado com branco ao preto intenso. Trata-se de uma rara peculiaridade e não há informações sobre seu significado funcional ou valor biológico.The testes in the anurans are paired ovoid organs constituted by seminiferous structures surrounded by the fibrous connective tissue, commonly unprovided of pigments. This study tried to analyze the morphological characteristics of rare and conspicuous pigment-containing cells and their relationship with other structures. The pigment cells are variously and indistinctly also termed Kuppfer cells in the liver, pigment cells, extracutaneous pigment cells, pigmented macrophages, melanomacrophages, melanophage, melanophores and melanocytes in the liver, spleen and kidney and other visceral structures of exothermic vertebrates. Ten male samples of Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner, 1863 (Leptodactylidae were used. After macroscopic analyses, the testicular fragments were submitted to the histological routine, fixed with karnovisky, embedded Historesin and coloration with Haematoxylin/Eosin. A rare peculiarity was the presence of numerous pigment-containing cells (melanocytes randomly distributed in the albuginea tunic and testicular interstitium, giving the testes a dark brown coloration. This unusual characteristic has been rarely described and in other lower vertebrates, the pigment cells can be found in different organs, constituting an extracutaneous pigmentary system of unknown function. Further, it was identified a conspicuous variation, as to presence and distribution pattern due to possible species-specific aspects. However, histologically there is no difference in the germ epithelium arrangement. Between the seminiferous locules, there is an inter-locular tissue composed by Leydig interstitial cells, fibroblasts, efferent ductules, melanocytes and blood vessels. This inter-locular tissue is relatively scarce, presenting melanocytes in all specimens analyzed intimate associated with blood vessels. They are irregular cells with numerous melanosomes and long cytoplasmic processes.

  11. Temporal variation and size class distribution in a hepertological assemblage from Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martori, Ricardo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista de la conservación, conocer la abundancia, la diversidad, y los patrones de actividad de un ensamble herpetológico son medulares para comprender la dinámica de la comunidad y el modo de cómo es utilizado el hábitat. En este proyecto propusimos cuatro hipótesis nulas: 1 La frecuencia de captura de cada una de las especies será similar en los dos años relevados. 2 La frecuencia de capturas de cada especie es similar durante los meses estudiados. 3 La actividad de cada especie es similar a la actividad del resto del ensamble. 4 Las proporciones de cada grupo etario de cada especie se mantienen constantes en el tiempo. Durante este estudio fueron colectadas diecinueve especies, diez especies de Amphibia distribuidas en cuatro familias y nueve especies de Squamata distribuidas en siete familias. En hábitats relativamente complicados que poseen una estructura vegetal compleja y presentan patrones de actividad herpetológica irregular, el uso de trampas de caída resulta uno de los pocos métodos eficientes para la evaluación de la actividad de animales terrestres. El uso de trampas de caída es un método efectivo para realizar inventarios herpetológicos pero los resultados deben ser tratados con precaución porque este método captura algunas especies más fácilmente que otras. Los principales resultados obtenidos por este estudio fueron: La hipótesis 1 fue rechazada, para todas las especies exceptuando a Mabuya dorsivittata, que mostró frecuencias de actividad similares en ambos años, la hipótesis 2 también fue rechazada porque todas las especies mostraron significativas diferencias de actividad temporal. Las especies más variables fueron Odontophrynus americanus y Bufo fernandezae; la más constante Pantodactylus schreibersi. La tercera hipótesis fue rechazada para todas las especies salvo Elachistocleis bicolor que presentó un patrón de actividad similar al ensamble. La hipótesis 4 fue rechazada, los

  12. TRATAMENTO DE CÃES ENVENENADOS EXPERIMENTALMENTE POR BUFADIENOLÍDEOS (SUBSTÂNCIAS ENCONTRADAS NA SECREÇÃO DAS GLÂNDULAS PARATÓIDES DOS SAPOS DO GÊNERO BUFO TREATMENT OF DOGS EXPERIMENTALLY POISONED BY BUFADIENOLIDES (SUBSTANCES FOUND IN THE SECRETION OF PARATOID GLANDS OF THE Bufo GENUS FROGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Os autores estudaram a administração de dois princípios medicamentosos no tratamento de dez cães envenenados experimentalmente por bufadienolídeos. A medicação utilizada atuou satisfatoriamente, ocorrendo a recuperação total em oito animais. Pelos resultados obtidos no presente experimento, podemos concluir: a A medicação utilizada atuou satisfatoriamente, e que nos animais envenenados em condições naturais, ela será tanto mais eficaz, quanto mais rapidamente for levada a efeito; b Com relação ao animal que morreu logo após ser medicado, a necrópsia e a histopatologia revelaram alterações orgânicas pré-existentes e que a nosso ver, foram agravadas através da ação do princípio tóxico utilizado.

    The authors studied the Atropin and Amplictil effects in the treatment of 10 dogs poisoned by bufadienolideos. Eight dogs clinically recovered.

  13. Esparganose em alguns vertebrados do Brasil: dificuldades na identificaçao das espécies de Luheella (Spirometra Sparganum in some brazilian vertebrates: problems in the identification of species of Luheella (Spirometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arandas Rego

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species of Amphibia and Reptilia are listed as new hosts of spargana, from material deposited in the Helminthological Collection of Oswaldo Cruz Institute. It is discussed the difficulties in identifying the larvae (Sparganum and also the identification of adults of Luheella species from South America. The histopathology induced by spargana in the liver of a species of Amphibia is briefly described.

  14. Altitudinal distribution and advertisement call of Colostethus latinasus (Amphibia: Dendrobatidae), endemic species from eastern Panama and type species of Colostethus , with a molecular assessment of similar sympatric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Roberto D; Griffith, Edgardo J; Lips, Karen R; Crawford, Andrew J

    2017-04-12

    We conducted a molecular assessment of Colostethus-like frogs along an elevational gradient in the Serranía de Pirre, above Santa Cruz de Cana, eastern Panama, aiming to establish their species identity and to determine the altitudinal distribution of C. latinasus. Our findings confirm the view of C. latinasus as an endemic species restricted to the highlands of this mountain range, i.e., 1350-1475 m.a.s.l., considered to be type locality of this species. We described the advertisement call of C. latinasus that consists of a series of 4-18 single, short and relatively loud "peep"-like notes given in rapid succession, and its spectral and temporal features were compared with calls of congeneric species. For the first time, DNA sequences from C. latinasus were obtained, since previously reported sequences were based on misidentified specimens. This is particularly important because C. latinasus is the type species of Colostethus, a genus considered paraphyletic according to recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data.

  15. Inclusión de Physalaemus riograndensis Milstead, 1960 en la batracofauna de Misiones, Argentina, y otros aportes para el conocimiento de su distribución (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebez, Juan C.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Physalaemus riograndensis Milstead, 1960. Rep. ARGENTINA, PROV.DE MISIONES, Dpto. Candelaria, Campo San Juan, 27° 25' S, 55° 40' W. 1 ejemplar. MACN número 34.646. Colector: E. Krauczuck.

  16. A new minute species of Pristimantis (Amphibia: Anura: Craugastoridae) with a large head from the Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park in central Peru, with comments on the phylogenetic diversity of Pristimantis occurring in the Cordillera Yanachaga

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehr, E.; Moravec, J.; Cusi, J. C.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 325, June (2017), s. 1-22 ISSN 2118-9773 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Andes * DNA barcoding * frogs * molecular phylogeny * new species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2016

  17. Connexins in the early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis (Amphibia: The role of the connexin43 carboxyl terminal tail in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Cofre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Connexins are a family of related proteins identified in vertebrate forming gap junctions, which mediate cell-to-cell communication in early embryos, with an important role in establishing embryonic asymmetry and ‘communication compartments’. By in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and western blotting we show that a Cx43-like molecule is present in oocytes and embryos of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, with specific localization in the animal-vegetal axis. This specific distribution is suggestive for an important role for this protein in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis. Antisense RNA and antibodies directed against rat carboxyl terminal tail of the Cx43 (CT-Cx43 and injected in 1-cell stage Xenopus embryos, induced pronounced alterations in nervous system development, with a severe ventralization phenotype. Coherently, the overexpression of CT-Cx43 produced a dorsalization of the embryos. In antisense treated embryos, the expression of the beta-catenin gene is eliminated from the Nieuwkoop center, the pattern expression of the Chordin, Xnot and Xbra is modified, with no effect in expression of the Goosecoid gene. In CT-Cx43 mRNA treated embryos the pattern of expression of the beta-catenin, Chordin, Goosecoid, Xnot and engrailed-2 genes is modified. The expression of beta-catenin is increased in the Nieuwkoop center, the expression pattern of Chordin and Goosecoid is expanded to the posterior neural plate and engrailed-2 presents ectopic expression in the ventral region. Taken together our data suggest a role for CT-Cx43 as a maternal determinant with a critical function in the formation of the dorso-ventral axis in Xenopus laevis. The Cx43 may be one of the earliest markers of the dorso-ventral axis in these embryos and could possibly be acting through regionalization of factors responsible for the establishment of this axis.

  18. Ocorrência e distribuição espacial e temporal das larvas de anuros (Amphibia) em diferentes sistemas aquáticos da Ilha Grande (Rio de Janeiro)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Cavalcanti Fatorelli Carneiro

    2011-01-01

    Os girinos dos anuros podem ocorrer em inúmeros tipos de sistemas hídricos, desde ambientes relativamente simples e previsíveis, como na água acumulada em epífitas ou uma poça temporária, até hábitats aquáticos permanentes mais complexos, como os riachos. A interação entre os fatores ambientais bióticos e abióticos existentes nesses diferentes ambientes com os fatores históricos é essencial para explicar a estrutura das comunidades dessa fase de vida dos anuros. O entendimento ...

  19. Regional summary, textbook, handbook and scientific monograph. Review to the book V. L. Bulakhov, V. Y. Gasso, A. Y. Pakhomov «Biological Diversity of Ukraine. The Dnipropetrovsk region. Amphibians and Reptiles (Amphibia et Reptilia / A. Y. Pakhomov (ed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Shabanov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The review on the monograph of specialists of the Dnipropetrovs’k National University describes main scientific and methodical achievements of the authors and initiates discussion on some moot points, which are presented in the monograph.

  20. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Bufo bufo [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Bufo bufo 名詞 一般 * * * * Bufo bufo ... MeSH D002023 200906035471563603 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Bufo   bufo

  1. Concentration dependence of halide fluxes and selectivity of the anion pathway in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harck, A F; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1986-01-01

    The isolated toad (Bufo bufo) skin was mounted under voltage-clamp conditions in a chamber shown to cause no significant edge damage. The serosal side of the skin was bathed with NaCl-Ringer's, and the passive voltage-sensitive anion conductance studied in its fully voltage activated state, V = -...

  2. Chloride channels in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E

    1982-01-01

    A study of the voltage and time dependence of a transepithelial Cl- current in toad skin (Bufo bufo) by the voltage-clamp method leads to the conclusion that potential has a dual role for Cl- transport. One is to control the permeability of an apical membrane Cl-pathway, the other is to drive Cl-...

  3. Ontogenesis peculiarities species of genus Rorippa Scopoli (Cruciferae in the subzone of the southern taiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Shabalkina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Latent, pregenerative and generative periods in the ontogeny of Rorippa amphibia (L. Bess., R. palustris (L. Bess. and R. ×anceps (Wahlenb. Reichenb. were described. Skipping of a postgenerative stage, and some of ontogenetic states demonstrates the dynamic multiplicity of individual development; while the combination of seed and vegetative reproductions – multiplicity of the ways of reproduction and generation. The ontogeny of R. palustris individuals corresponds to A-type, R. amphibia and R. ×anceps – to G-type, and R. ×anceps – to D-type.

  4. Drug: D06750 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06750 Crude ... Drug Toad venom (JP17) Hellebrin [CPD:C08868], Resibufogenin [CPD...:C17058], Cinobufagin [CPD:C16931], Bufalin [CPD:C16922], Bufotalin [CPD:C16923], Cinobufotalin [CPD:C16932], Gamabufo...C16921], Cardenolides, Bufotenine [CPD:C08299], Bufotenidine [CPD:C13664], Epiren...aginol, Marinobufagin, Resibufagin, Serotonine, Bufothionine, Dehydrobufotenine, Bufotoxin, Cholesterol [CPD...terol [CPD:C01694], Campesterol [CPD:C01789], Sitosterol [CPD:C01753] ... Bufo bufo gargagrizans [TAX:30331], Bufo

  5. Salida de campo a Orihuela del Tremedal (Teruel) entre el 14 y el 16 de julio de 1952

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo del autor y Francisco Bernis a Orihuela del Tremedal, en Teruel, entre el 14 y el 16 de julio de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre los siguientes anfibios: Alytes sp. (Sapo partero), Bufo bufo (Sapo común, llamado B.vulgaris por el autor), Epidalea calamita (Sapo corredor, llamado Bufo calamita por el autor) y Hyla sp. (Ranita), los siguientes reptiles: Chalcides sp. (Eslizón, también llamado Eliso por el autor), Podarcis muralis (Lagartija roquera, llamada Lac...

  6. Thermoregulation in the hippopotamus on land

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-11-28

    Nov 28, 1986 ... tadpoles (Anura: Bufonidae). Zool. Afr. 8:153-156. CHANNING, A. 1976. Rana johnstoni inyangae tadpoles from Rhodesia. Amoldia Rhod. 8: 1-4. CHANNING, A. 1978. A new bufonid genus (Amphibia: Anura) from Rhodesia. Herpetologica 34: 394-397. FROST, D.R 1985. Amphibian species of the world.

  7. Mismatch between ectotherm thermal preferenda and optima for swimming: a test of the evolutionary pace hypothesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gvoždík, Lumír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2015), s. 137-145 ISSN 0071-3260 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2170 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amphibia * Coadaptation * Evolutionary rates * Newts * Preferred body temperatures * Thermal performance curves * Thermal sensitivity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.267, year: 2015

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 6. A skeletochronological study of growth, longevity, and age at sexual maturity in a population of Rana latastei (Amphibia, Anura). Fabio M Guarino Silvia Lunardi Michela Carlomagno Stefano Mazzotti. Articles Volume 28 Issue 6 December 2003 pp 775-782 ...

  9. A new species of Osteocephalus (Anura: Hylidae) from Amazonian Bolivia: first evidence of tree frog breeding in fruit capsules of the Brazil nut tree

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, J.; Aparicio, J.; Guerrero-Reinhard, M.; Calderón, G.; Jungfer, K. H.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2215, - (2009), s. 37-54 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.891, year: 2009

  10. The Late Cretaceous frog Gobiates from Central Asia: its evolutionary status and possible phylogenetic relationships

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2008), s. 577-591 ISSN 0195-6671 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Gobiatidae * Cretaceous * Cretaceous (Mongolia) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2008

  11. Njv Magazine 3 final

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En-Joy

    diseases, including neoplasia (Done, 1996), viral (Buffetaut and Upton, 1997;. Jacopson, 1989), bacterial (Foggin, 1987) mycotic (Jacopson, 1989) and parasitic .... LECLAIR Jr., R and CASTANET, J. A. (1987): Skeletochronological assessment of age and growth in the frog Rana pipiens Schreber. (Amphibia, Anura) from.

  12. (Hyperolius marmoratus) populations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How far can reed frogs migrate and maintain gene- flow when bced by barriers of unsuitable habitat and sepa- rated by considerable geographical distances? ..... IAGEID. S.S. 1994. Lb:tropllOn:tic and morphometric cviucl1(;c for t\\\\O species of the genus Hana (Amphibia, Ranidae) and sum oftheir vari

  13. Developmental morphological diversity in caecilian amphibians : systematic and evolutionary implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    Caecilians, or Gymnophiona, constitute one of the three extant orders of the Recent Amphibia and are the least known, major living tetrapod clade. Compared to frogs and salamanders, caecilians have an unusual skull morphology. Earlier reports of an unusually high number of individual skull

  14. Gigantism in tadpoles of the Neogene frog Palaeobatrachus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Böttcher, R.; Wassersug, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2006), s. 666-675 ISSN 0094-8373 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Neogene * Germany * development Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.405, year: 2006

  15. Spring Migration Distances of Some Central European Amphibian Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovář, R.; Brabec, Marek; Víta, R.; Boček, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 30, - (2009), s. 367-378 ISSN 0173-5373 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : amphibia * dispersal * life history * migration * reproduction Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.949, year: 2009

  16. Radiography atlas of domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebel, G.A.; Isenbuegel, E.; Wolvekamp, P.; Gabrisch, K.; Grimm, F.; Koblik, P.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Oschwald, C.P.; Schildger, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 370 radiographs presented in the atlas together with notes and explanations give information on normal roentgenographic findings, physiological variations, and important pathological findings observed in small mammals, birds, reptilia and amphibia. Introductory notes to each chapter explain the principles of exposure techniques and the handling of the animals. (VHE) [de

  17. No ecological opportunity signal on a continental scale? Diversification and life-history evolution of African true toads (Anura: Bufonidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liedtke, H. C.; Müller, H.; Rödel, M.-O.; Menegon, M.; Gonwouo, L. N.; Barej, M. F.; Gvoždík, Václav; Schmitz, A.; Channing, A.; Nagel, P.; Loader, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 8 (2016), s. 1717-1733 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-13415Y Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amphibia * BAMM * bGMYC * disparity * evolutionary rate dynamics * molecular phylogeny Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.201, year: 2016

  18. Strategies of water conservation in southern African frogs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three approaches which anurans have adopted in response to water ... seen migrating along a path towards the dam, the weather being overcast after light rain .... (1967) has shown that Bufo regularis has an endogenous activity rhythm.

  19. Department oJZoology. University oJTexas bufonids Schismaderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The European and Asian Bu/o faunas appear to be derived primarily from American ... Such data for Eurasian species are principally from. Inger (1972). ...... Effects of temperature, body size, and hybridization on mating calls of toads, Bufo a.

  20. Nomenclatural notes on living and fossil amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of extinct and living amphibians known from fossils (Allocaudata, Anura and Caudata has revealed several cases that require nomenclatural changes in order to stabilize the taxonomy of the group. Nomenclatural changes include homonym replacements, corrections of spelling variants and authorships, name availabilities, and in particular, the proposal of new combinations. These changes will allow the incorporation of some palaeontological taxa to the current evolutionary models of relationship of modern forms based on molecular phylogenies. Rana cadurcorum for Rana plicata Filhol, 1877, Rana auscitana for Rana pygmaea Lartet, 1851, and Rana sendoa for Rana robusta Brunner, 1956. Anchylorana Taylor, 1942 is considered a new synonym of Lithobates Fitzinger, 1843. New combinations proposed are: Anaxyrus defensor for Bufo defensor Meylan, 2005; Anaxyrus hibbardi for Bufo hibbardi Taylor, 1937; Anaxyrus pliocompactilis for Bufo pliocompactilis Wilson, 1968; Anaxyrus repentinus for Bufo repentinus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus rexroadensis for Bufo rexroadensis Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus spongifrons for Bufo spongifrons Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus suspectus for Bufo suspectus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus tiheni for Bufo tiheni Auffenberg, 1957; Anaxyrus valentinensis for Bufo valentinensis Estes et Tihen, 1964; Ichthyosaura wintershofi for Triturus wintershofi Lunau, 1950; Incilius praevius for Bufo praevius Tihen, 1951; Lithobates bucella for Rana bucella Holman, 1965; Lithobates dubitus for Anchylorana dubita Taylor, 1942; Lithobates fayeae for Rana fayeae Taylor, 1942; Lithobates miocenicus for Rana miocenica Holman, 1965; Lithobates moorei for Anchylorana moorei Taylor, 1942; Lithobates parvissimus for Rana parvissima

  1. Diversidade e ocorrência temporal da anurofauna (Amphibia, Anura em São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brasil Diversity and seasonal occurrence of anurans in São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Conte

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A Floresta Atlântica é o bioma com a maior diversidade e taxa de endemismo de anfíbios anuros do mundo. Entretanto, informações sobre a história natural e os padrões de ocorrência das espécies são, em grande parte, ainda desconhecidas para esse bioma. No presente estudo, a diversidade e a ocorrência temporal de espécies de anuros foram determinadas em área de ecótono entre Floresta Ombrófila Densa e Floresta Ombrófila Mista no estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. No levantamento, realizado entre janeiro de 2003 e maio de 2004, foram registradas 34 espécies de cinco famílias: Bufonidae (duas espécies, Hylidae (17 espécies, Leptodactylidae (13 espécies, Microhylidae (uma espécie e Ranidae (uma espécie. A riqueza registrada é uma das maiores do Paraná e oito, dos nove hábitats amostrados, apresentaram alta diversidade de espécies. Isso pode ser decorrente do fato da área estudada estar localizada em região de ecótono, o que favoreceu a ocorrência de espécies típicas de cada formação vegetal. Além disso, uma hipótese adicional é a do distúrbio intermediário, decorrente do desmatamento ocorrido até trinta anos atrás, que possibilitou a ocorrência de algumas espécies típicas de áreas abertas. Machos da maioria das espécies (48% vocalizaram no período chuvoso e quente do ano, mas a proporção de espécies anuais (25% foi grande, semelhante à encontrada em regiões com clima tropical úmido (30%. A similaridade na composição de espécies de nove localidades no Paraná foi associada à fisionomia vegetal das áreas amostradas.The Atlantic Forest is the biome with the largest biodiversity and endemism rate of anuran amphibians in the world. However, information on natural history and patterns of occurrence are still unknown for most of the species that occur in this biome. In this study the diversity and the seasonal occurrence of anuran amphibians were determined in an ecotone area between Atlantic Forest and Araucaria Forest, in the southeastern of Paraná state. In the survey, accomplished from January 2003 to May 2004, 34 species from five families were registered: Bufonidae (two species, Hylidae (17 species, Leptodactylidae (13 species, Microhylidae (one species and Ranidae (one species. The species richness is one of the largest of Paraná state and eight of the nine studied sites presented high diversity of species. The fact that the studied area is located in an ecotone supports the occurrence of typical species from two physiognomies. Besides, an additional hypothesis to explain this great diversity is the intermediate disturbance due to the deforestation that occurred until thirty years ago, which made the occurrence of some typical species from open areas possible. The largest number of species (48% occurred during the rainy season, however, the proportion of annual species was great (25%, similar to the one found in regions with wet tropical climate (30%. The similarity in species composition among nine localities in Atlantic Forest in Paraná State was associated to the vegetal physiognomy of the studied areas.

  2. Heterochronical patterns of evolution in the transitional stages of vertebrate classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, W

    1993-12-01

    Transitional forms of the recent classes of vertebrates are only known in paleontology. The well described examples are: Eusthenopteron foordi (Crossopterygii), Ichthyostega and Acanthostega (Labyrinthodontia) between Osteichthyes and Amphibia, Seymouria baylorensis (Amphibiosaria) between Amphibia and Reptilia, Archaeopteryx lithographica (Archaeornithes) between Reptilia and Aves, and the mammal-like reptiles Pelycosauria, Therapsida and Cynodontia between Reptilia and Aves, and the description of their phylogenetical heterochronies in terms of peramorphosis and paedomorphosis shows the progressive role of the motorial, especially the locomotorial organ systems and their functions in comparison with the retarded evolution of the axial system, especially the skull and central nervous system. The evolution of the Hominidae shows the same rule. The evaluation of these transitional forms in their fossil context reveals them as inhabitants of biotopes situated in the border areas of coastal and shore landscapes of marine, brackish or fresh water. These biotopes have obviously favoured the innovations on the high taxonimic level of macro-evolutionary characteristics.

  3. A Model for Taxonomic Work on Homoxenous Coccidia: Redescription, Host Specificity, and Molecular Phylogeny of Eimeria ranae Dobell, 1909, with a Review of Anuran-Host Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Jirků, Milan; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2009), s. 39-51 ISSN 1066-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * experimental infections * metamorphosis * morphotypes * SSU rDNA sequence * tadpoles * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2009

  4. Leapfrogging into new territory: How Mascarene ridged frogs diversified across Africa and Madagascar to maintain their ecological niche

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zimkus, B. M.; Lawson, L. P.; Barej, M. F.; Barratt, C. D.; Channing, A.; Dash, K. M.; Dehling, J. M.; Du Preez, L.; Gehring, P.-S.; Greenbaum, E.; Gvoždík, Václav; Harvey, J.; Kielgast, J.; Kusamba, C.; Nagy, Z. T.; Pabijan, M.; Penner, J.; Rödel, M.-O.; Vences, M.; Lötters, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 106, January (2017), s. 254-269 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-13415Y Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amphibia * Historical biogeography * Pan-African * Phylogeny * Ptychadena * Species delimitation * Species distribution modeling Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 4.419, year: 2016

  5. Tracing the genus Sphaerospora: rediscovery, redescription and phylogeny of the Sphaerospora ranae (Morelle, 1929) n. comb. (Myxosporea, Sphaerosporidae), with emendation of the genus Sphaerospora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Fiala, Ivan; Modrý, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 12 (2007), s. 1727-1739 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Myxosporea * Amphibia * Rana * redescription * phylogeny * SSU rDNA * genus emendation * molecular characteristic Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.081, year: 2007

  6. Another Chloromyxid Lineage: Molecular Phylogeny and Redescription of Chloromyxum careni from the Asian Horned frog Megophrys nasuta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Bartošová, Pavla; Kodádková, Alena; Mutschmann, F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2011), s. 50-59 ISSN 1066-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2330 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Chloromyxum careni * LSU rDNA * Megophrys nasuta * molecular phylogeny * Myxozoa * redescription * SSU rDNA * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2011

  7. Evidence for Integrity of Parental Genomes in the Diploid Hybridogenetic Water Frog Pelophylax esculentus by Genomic in situ Hybridization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zalésna, A.; Choleva, Lukáš; Ogielska, M.; Rábová, Marie; Marec, František; Ráb, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 3 (2011), s. 206-212 ISSN 1424-8581 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GA523/09/2106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Amphibia * Chromosomes * Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2011

  8. Ultrastructure and localisation of late-sporogonic developmental stages of Sphaerospora ranae (Myxosporea: Sphaerosporidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Bartošová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 311-321 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2330; GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P724 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * Europe * kidneys * myxospore * Myxozoa * Rana * sporogony * synchronisation * in situ hybridisation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014

  9. Amphibians of the Simbruini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the herpetological fauna of the Simbruini Mountains Regional Park, Latium (Central Italy. In this study, we surveyed 50 sites in the course of about ten years of field research, especially during the period 2005-2008. Nine amphibian species, four Caudata and five Anura, 60.0% out of the 15 amphibian species so far observed in Latium, were discovered in the protected area: Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus carnifex, Bombina pachypus, Bufo balearicus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina, Rana italica. Physiography of sites has been detailed together with potential threatening patterns. For each species the following topics have been discussed; ecology of sites, altitudinal distribution, phenology, sintopy. Salamandra salamandra and Bombina pachypus are at higher risk. The importance of the maintenance of artificial/natural water bodies for the conservation management of amphibian population of this territory is discussed.

  10. Nematodes of amphibians from Java, Indonesia, with a description of new species, Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. (Nematoda : Heterakoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2015-06-24

    During a survey on the parasites of amphibians of Indonesia, toads (30 Bufo melanostictus) and 246 frogs (213 Fejervarya cancrivora, 11 F. limnocharis, 22 Rana macrodon from West Java and 68 F. cancrivora from Central Java) were examined for parasitic nematodes. Three species of nematodes were found and described, i.e. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. from Fejervaria cancrivora; Meteterakis japonica from Bufo melanostictus, F. cancrivora and F. limnocharis; and Chabaudus sp. from F. cancrivora, F. limnocharis and Rana macrodon. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. is distinguished from other species of the genus by the length and shape of spicules, the number of caudal papillae, the presence of gubernaculum in male and the presence of vulval flap in female. Bufo melanostictus and Java are recorded as new host and locality for M. japonica, respectively.

  11. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durette-Desset M.C.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region.

  12. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences - Vol 31, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Petrol Exposure on Glucose, Liver and Muscle glycogen levels in the Common African toad Bufo regularis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ... Effect of insulin on visuo-spatial memory and histology of cerebral cortex in the presence or absence of nitric oxide inhibition · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  13. The advertisement call, breeding biology, description of the tadpole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Males of Bufo dombensis were observed calling late at night at Ongongo Waterfall in north-western Namibia. The analyzed advertisement calls differ distinctly from those of B. vertebralis, B. hoeschi and B. fenoulheti, indicating that all these taxa are separate valid species. Tadpoles raised from a breeding pair found at ...

  14. Habitat suitability of patch types: A case study of the Yosemite toad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina T. Liang; Thomas J. Stohlgren

    2011-01-01

    Understanding patch variability is crucial in understanding the spatial population structure of wildlife species, especially for rare or threatened species.We used a well-tested maximum entropy species distribution model (Maxent) to map the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (= Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra Nevada...

  15. Surveys for California red-legged frog and arroyo toad on the Los Padres National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerie K. Hubbartt; Thomas G. Murphey

    2005-01-01

    Starting in the spring of 1999 through the fall of 2000, USDA Forest Service biologists have conducted surveys throughout the Los Padres National Forest for the federally-listed California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) and arroyo toad (Bufo californicus). Sites known to have frogs or toads present were monitored for...

  16. Cultural Resources Investigations in the Vicinity of Fort Jackson, Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana: The Proposed Solari Borrow Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    tory of flora. Trees such as Virginia live oak (Quercus virginiana), black willow (Salix nigra), hackberry (Celtislaevi- gata), and persimmon ( Diospyros ...bullfrog, is a human food source today and may have been prehistorically as well. The toad, however, of the genus Bufo is not normally consumed

  17. Influence of nitric oxide on histamine and carbachol – induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to determine the influence of nitric oxide (NO) on the action of histamine and carbachol on acid secretion in the common African toad – Bufo regularis. Gastric acidity was determined by titration method. The acid secretion was determined when nitric oxide was absent following administration of NO synthase ...

  18. Life Histories of Frogs in the Namib Desert | Channing | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four anuran taxa inhabit the central Namib: Xenopus laevis, Tomopterna delalandei cryptotis, Phrynomerus annectens and Bufo vertebrate hoeschi. Xenopus is confined to permanent pools in the Kuiseb river canyon. Tomopterna extends further into the Namib, but is restricted to the Kuiseb river bed. The Kuiseb is normally ...

  19. Journal of Aquatic Sciences - Vol 20, No 1 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of acute toxicity of cadmium and lead to amphibian tadpoles (Toad: Bufo maculatus and frog: Ptychadena bibroni) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Helminths parasites of Chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (Houttuyn, 1782) from the harbour of Mehdia-Kenitra (Atlantic Coast of Morocco) · EMAIL FULL ...

  20. The role of adrenergic receptors in nicotine-induced hyperglycemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of adrenergic receptors in nicotine-induced hyperglycaemia has not been well studied in amphibians. Thus, this study investigates the effects of alpha and beta adrenergic receptor blockers in nicotine-induced hyperglycaemia in the common African toad Bufo regularis. Toads fasted for 24 h were anaesthetized with ...

  1. 76 FR 70479 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Safe Harbor Agreement for the Houston Toad Within Nine Texas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...] Draft Environmental Assessment and Safe Harbor Agreement for the Houston Toad Within Nine Texas Counties... of the endangered Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis) as a result of conservation actions, land...: [email protected] . Include ``Clear Lake Ecological Services Field Office draft Houston Toad...

  2. Fossil frogs (Anura) from Shanwang (Middle Miocene; Shandong Province, China)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roček, Zbyněk; Dong, L.; Přikryl, Tomáš; Sun, Ch.; Tan, J.; Wang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 5 (2011), s. 499-518 ISSN 0016-6995 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Anura * Neogene * Bufo * Macropelobates * Rana * Tadpole * East Asia Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.010, year: 2011

  3. Observations on the oesophageal glands in some Tanzanian anurans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Hyla, Rana, BUfo, Pelobates and Triturus more pep- sinogen was produced in these glands than in the gastric glands. The aim of the present study was to obtain data on the occurrence of oesophageal glands in selected anurans from Tanzania and to compare their structure with the better known gastric glands. Materials ...

  4. Discrimination between micronuclei induced by spindle poisons and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discrimination between micronuclei induced by spindle poisons and clastogens by using toad bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes. ... Egyptian Journal of Biology ... The used chemicals induced high percentages of micronuclei with variable sizes, which clarify the sensitivity of bone marrow cells of Bufo regularis to ...

  5. Fauna anfibia del valle de sibundoy, putumayo-colombia

    OpenAIRE

    MUESES-CISNEROS, JONH JAIRO

    2012-01-01

    La fauna Amphibia del Valle de Sibundoy consta de 32 especies agrupadas en dos órdenes, cinco familias y siete géneros. De éstas, cinco son especies nuevas cuya descripción se encuentra en proceso. Se amplía el límite altitudinal de otras siete y se presentan tres más para ser incluidas en la lista de anfibios de Colombia. A pesar de que en el lugar se han realizado colectas herpetológicas desde finales de los años sesenta, este estudio es el primero que se realiza en el Putumayo (uno de los ...

  6. Evidence of independent action of neurohypophyseal peptides on osmotic water flow and active sodium transport in the same target organ: studies on RANA esculenta skin and bladder (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguet, J.; Maetz, J.

    1961-01-01

    Neurohypophyseal peptides produce on the skin and bladder of certain amphibia simultaneous increases of the passive osmotic permeability to water and active transport of sodium. The present work shows that oxytocin and two of its analogues arginine-8-oxytocin (arginine vasotocin) and lysine-8-oxytocin (lysine vasotocin) may produce the same increase of water permeability, while stimulating in quite different ways the sodium transport. This is the case for both skin and bladder. In other words, there is no correlation between natriferic and hydro-osmotic activities. The results are interpreted as evidence that neurohypophyseal hormones act on not one, as previously assumed, but two targets, inside the same epithelial cell. (author) [fr

  7. Species complexes and phylogenetic lineages of Hoferellus (Myxozoa, Cnidaria) including revision of the genus: A problematic case for taxonomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alama-Bermejo, Gema; Jirků, Miloslav; Kodádková, Alena; Pecková, Hana; Fiala, Ivan; Holzer, Astrid S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, JAN 11 (2016), č. článku 13. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GAP506/10/2330; GA ČR(CZ) GP14-28784P Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200961205 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * fish * Carassius * Cyprinus carpio * ITS cloning * mode of attachment * Teleostei * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Hyla_japonica_L.png Hyla_jap...onica_NL.png Hyla_japonica_S.png Hyla_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese giant salamander [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Andrias_japonicus_L.png Andrias_jap...onicus_NL.png Andrias_japonicus_S.png Andrias_japonicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+jap...onicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=NS ...

  10. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (No. A-4 Kunbetsu-dake area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-30

    Of the FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey, the primary environmental effect survey in the Kunbetsu-dake area was conducted, and the results were arranged. In the well drilling survey, etc., the survey was made aiming at extracting areas to be preserved from an environmental aspect. The results of the survey were summarized as follows: As to the mammalia, 12 families 46 species were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery by literature survey. Out of them, the noticeable species which are considered important from an academic viewpoint are 10 families 19 species. As to the aves, 55 families 340 species were confirmed, of which 29 families 79 species are noticeable species. About the amphibia/reptilia, 3 families 3 species in the amphibia and 4 families 6 species in the reptilia were confirmed by literature and hearing survey. The noticeable species is 1 family 1 species in the amphilia. Concerning the terrestrial insecta, 135 families 873 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 11 families 20 species. As to the flora, 115 families 1055 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 46 families 126 species. Relating to the living vegetation, the one higher than 9 in nature reserves shows a substantial rate, and the periphery of Kaibetsu-dake is designated as the specified flora colony. (NEDO)

  11. Asociacion faunistica de vertebrados mesozoicos de la localidad de Galve (Teruel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Hemández, B.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Sediments of Tithonian-Barremian of Iberian Basin in the surroundings of Galve (Teniel, Spain have a high content of vertebrate's remains. These ones have been studied since s. XX until today by different scientists. More than ninety taxons have been mentioned in these papers, distributed in Hybodontiformes, Squalomorpha, Batoidea, Rajiforms, Amphibia, Reptilia (Chelonia, Sauria, Crocodylia, Pterosauria, Ornithischia, Saurischia and Marnmalia.Los sedimentos del Tithónico-Barremiense de la Cuenca Ibérica aflorantes en los alrededores de la localidad de Galve (Teniel, son particularmente ricos en restos de vertebrados mesozoicos. Estos han sido estudiados por diferentes autores, desde principios del siglo xx hasta la actualidad. El objetivo del presente artículo es recopilar los distintos taxones que han sido citados para esta área, a lo largo del tiempo, recogiéndose más de noventa taxones distribuidos entre Hybodontiformes, Squalomorpha, Batoidea, Rajiformes, Amphibia, Reptilia (Testudines, Sauria, Crocodilia, Pterosauria, Ornithischia, Saurischia y Mammalia.

  12. Helminth parasite communities in anuran amphibians of Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary (Haryana), India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Anjum N; Bhutia, Pasang T

    2010-10-01

    Helminth parasite fauna in anuran amphibia were investigated during the general faunistic surveys of Kalesar Wildlife Sanctuary, situated in Haryana state. Three species of amphibian hosts were found to harbour 12 genera of helminth parasites. The prevalence, intensity and abundance were studied. Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis harboured maximum parasite species followed by Fejervarya limnocharis and Duttaphrynus melanostictus. In E. cyanophlyctis, among nematode parasites, the genus Camallanus was most prevalent followed by Cosmocerca and Cosmocercoides, whereas, Rhabdias and Aplectana were the least prevalent genera. Among trematode parasites, Ganeo was the most prevalent genus and least was Diplodiscus. Acanthocephalus was recovered only once and no cestode infection was found. In F. limnocharis, the most prevalent nematode genus was Oxysomatium, followed by Cosmocerca and the only trematode recorded was Ganeo, whereas, cestode Proteocephalus was also recovered once. In D. melanostictus, only two nematode genera were recovered of which Oxysomatium was dominant followed by Cosmocerca. The helminth parasite community in anuran amphibia of Kalesar WLS comprised 52.9% of nematodes, 46.2% of trematodes, 0.58% cestodes and 0.29% acanthocephala.

  13. Morphological and molecular characterization of Seuratascaris numidica (Seurat, 1917) (Ascaridida: Ascarididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Xia; Zhang, Kuang; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2018-03-26

    Seuratascaris numidica (Seurat, 1917) is a specialized nematode species parasitizing amphibians only. In the present study, the detailed morphology of this poorly known species was studied using light and scanning electron microscopy based on the newly material collected from Hoplobatrachus chinensis (Osbeck) (Amphibia: Anura) in China. We found that the relative length of intestinal caecum in our male specimens (representing 68.4-71.1% of oesophageal length) is slighter longer than the previously reported data (not over 60.0% of oesophageal length). Our SEM observations also revealed the presence of ca. 64-76 small conical denticles on each lip. In addition, Angusticaecum wuyiensis Wang, 1981, collected from Rana schmackeri Boettger (Amphibia: Anura) from Wuyi Mountain in Fujian Province, China was considered as a new synonym of S. numidica. The ITS and cox1 sequences of S. numidica were also sequenced for the first time and there is no nucleotide variability detected in both regions. The present supplementary morphological and molecular data (especially the ITS and cox1 sequences) obtained herein is extremely important and useful to determine the morphological variability, population genetics and phylogenetic position of S. numidica in the future.

  14. Amphibians of the “Cilento e Vallo di Diano” National Park (Campania, Southern Italy: updated check list, distribution and conservation notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the results of our field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park (Southern Italy. Two hundred and thirty three spawning sites (167 original and 66 derived from literature, and 11 amphibian species were found. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina terdigitata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica, Rana dalmatina and Pelophylax synkl. hispanica. The distribution record of many species is widely improved with respect to bibliographic data. Our results also suggested that preservation and restoration of small aquatic sites, in particular of the artificial ones, such as stony wells and drinking-troughs, are fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibians in the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park.

  15. CRAYFISH PREDATION ON TADPOLES : A COMPARISON BETWEEN A NATIVE (AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES AND AN ALIEN SPECIES (PROCAMBARUS CLARKII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHERARDI F.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In the laboratory, the motivation and/or ability to prey on anuran larvae (Bufo bufo, Rana kl. esculenta and R. italica were compared between a native European (Austropotamobius pallipes and an alien North American crayfish species (Procambarus clarkii. Both were skilled predators of tadpoles, adopting a sit-and-wait strategy. However, because P. clarkii displayed lower latency times in the presence of one of the three amphibians (Rana kl. esculenta here tested, the hypothesis is raised that invasive crayfish are more opportunistic predators and possibly faster in switching to different prey than those species they are displacing. From a conservation perspective, these preliminary results further emphasise the importance of studies centred on the invasion-displacement dichotomy.

  16. Cane toads a threat to West Indian wildlife: mortality of Jamaican boas attributable to toad ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron S. Wilson; Susan E. Koenig; Rick van Veen; Erika Miersma; D. Craig. Rudolph

    2011-01-01

    The notorious ‘‘cane toad’’ (Bufo marinus) is considered to be one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world. A native of South and Central America, Mexico, and the Rio Grande Valley of the United States, this large toad was intentionally introduced to islands in the Caribbean, and subsequently throughout the southern Pacific, as a biological control agent to...

  17. A new record of Morula anaxares with a description of the radula of three other species from Goa, Central West Coast of India (Gastropoda: Muricidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumbhar, J; Rivonker, C

    konkanensis (Melvill 1893) and Purpura bufo Lamarck 1822 from Goa are described for the first time using SEM photographs. Keywords: Muricidae, Goa, new record, taxonomic diagnosis, radula, SEM. 190 J.V. Kumbhar and C.U. Rivonker / Turk. J. Fish... optical zoom). The specimens were subsequently identified up to species Figure 1. Map of study area indicating sampling sites J.V. Kumbhar and C.U. Rivonker / Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 189-197 (2012) 191...

  18. Phlebotomus Sandflies of the Paloich Area in the Sudan (Diptera, Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-10-01

    Hamster, Cricetus auratus Toad, Bufo regularis (?) Gecko, H. turicus Skink, M. striata Puff adder Snake, CMNH HH-9111’ Snake, CMNH HH-9112’ Hedgehog ...Pharynx unarmed distally or only with few, smail spines ; pigment patch not dark enough to obscure teeth .................. 8 Pharynx heavily...armed distally with numerous, dark spines ; pigment patch very dark, 1964 Quate: Sudanese sandflies 237 often obscuring teeth unless specimen well

  19. Environmental Assessment: Space Innovation and Development Center Schriever AFB, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    coloradensis T Greenback cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki stomias T Least tern (interior population) .A Sterna antillarum E Mexican spotted owl Strix...Haliaeetus leucocephalus T Boreal toad Bufo boreas boreas c Canada lynx Lynx canadensis T Greenback cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki stomias T Least...T CUSTER Bald eagle IIaliaeetus leucocephalus T Canada lynx Lynx canadensis T Greenback cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki stomias T Mexican

  20. Assessing the Influence of the Automobile Traffic on the Amphibians and Reptiles in the Buffer Zone of Biosphere Reserve “Srebarna” (NE Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelin A. Mollov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently the problem of the effects of the road network and traffic on the amphibians and reptiles in Bulgaria is poorly studied. During the period March 2002 - March 2004 in the Buffer Zone of Biosphere Reserve "Srebarna" (NE Bulgaria were built two anti-fire roads from the eastern and western side of the lake in area of grasslands of semi-steppe type, typical for north-eastern Bulgaria. The aim of the constructed roads is to provide access for fire vehicles to areas in and around the reserve. The current study aims to provide data on the impact of road traffic and the newly constructed road network and another previously existing road on the amphibians and reptiles inhabiting the buffer zone of the biosphere reserve "Srebarna". For the entire period of study in the three studied road sections a total of 15 dead specimens of amphibians belonging to 4 species (Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis and 70 dead specimens of reptiles belonging to 8 species (Emys orbicularis, Ablepharus kitaibelii, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis tauricus, Podarcis muralis, Natrix natrix, Coronella austriaca and Dolichophis caspius were recorded. Several “hot spots”, where most cadavers were recorded are well described and possible conservation measures are discussed.

  1. Detection of the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Andrey N.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Charles, Kaylene M.; Nebergall, Emily E.; Olson, Deanna H.

    2014-01-01

    In a population of the European common toad Bufo bufo from a rural pond in the region of Lake Glubokoe Regional Reserve in Moscow province, Russia, unexplained mass mortality events involving larvae and metamorphs have been observed over a monitoring period of >20 yr. We tested toads from this and a nearby site for the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranavirus (Rv). Both pathogens were detected, and at the rural pond site, with the above-noted losses and decline in toad breeding success, 40% of B. bufo metamorphs were Bd positive, 46% were Rv positive and 20% were co-infected with both pathogens. Toad metamorphs from a neighbouring water body were also Bd and Rv positive (25 and 55%, respectively). This is the first confirmation of these pathogens in Russia. Questions remain as to the origins of these pathogens in Russia and their roles in documented mass mortality events.

  2. Avian IgY antibodies: characteristics and applications in immunodiagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Silveira Munhoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin Y (IgY is the major antibody isotype in birds, reptiles, amphibia, and lungfish, playing a similar biological role as mammal IgG. Due to its phylogenetic distance, immune diversification and presence in the egg yolk, IgY provide a number of advantages in immunodiagnostic compared to IgG from mammals. Moreover, IgY production is in agreement with international efforts to reduce, refine and if possible, to replace animals in experimentation, contributing substantially in favor of animal welfare. This article presents an overview about structural and functional features, production and applications of IgY in immunodiagnostic, as well as the advantages of chicken antibodies use.

  3. FAUNA ANFIBIA DEL VALLE DE SIBUNDOY, PUTUMAYO-COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUESES-CISNEROS JONH JAIRO

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La fauna Amphibia del Valle de Sibundoy consta de 32 especies agrupadas en dos órdenes, cinco familias y siete géneros. De éstas, cinco son especies nuevas cuya descripción se encuentra en proceso. Se amplía el límite altitudinal de otras siete y se presentan tres más para ser incluidas en la lista de anfibios de Colombia. A pesar de que en el lugar se han realizado colectas herpetológicas desde finales de los años sesenta, este estudio es el primero que se realiza en el Putumayo (uno de los departamentos menos muestreados del país.

  4. Dieta de Leptodactylus latrans (Steffen, 1815 na Serra do Sudeste, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Maria Melo Pazinato

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p147 Esse trabalho descreve a dieta de Leptodactylus latrans baseado no conteúdo estomacal de 37 espécimes procedentes do município de Caçapava do Sul, RS, tendo como objetivo analisar qualitativa e quantitativamente essa dieta. As amostras foram coletadas no período de janeiro de 2007 a fevereiro de 2008. A composição da dieta foi analisada sob estereomicroscópio e identificada até o nível de ordem, estando composta por 17 categorias de presas. Coleoptera e Aranae foram os itens mais frequentes com 55% e 22,5% respectivamente. Volumetricamente os itens mais importantes foram Crustacea, Decapoda (15,5% e Amphibia (13,59%.

  5. [Algo-bacterial communities of the Kulunda steppe (Altai region, Russia) soda lakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samylina, O S; Sapozhnikov, F V; Gaĭnanova, O Iu; Riabova, A V; Nikitin, M A; Sorokin, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    The composition and macroscopic structure of the floating oxygenic phototrophic communities from Kulunda steppe soda lakes (Petukhovskoe sodovoe, Tanatara VI, and Gorchiny 3) was described based on the data of the 2011 and 2012 expeditions (Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology). The algo-bacterial community with a green alga Ctenocladus circinnatus as an edificator was the typical one. Filamentous Geitlerinema sp. and Nodosilinea sp. were the dominant cyanobacteria. Apart from C. circinnatus, the algological component of the community contained unicellular green algae Dunaliella viridis and cf. Chlorella minutissima, as well as diatoms (Anomeoneis sphaerophora, Brchysira brebissonii, Brachysira zellensis, Mastogloia pusilla var. subcapitata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia communis, and Nitzschia sp.1). The latter have not been previously identified in the lakes under study. In all lakes, a considerable increase in salinity was found to result in changes in the composition and macroscopic structure of algo-bacterial communities.

  6. Mapping the space of genomic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Kari

    Full Text Available We propose a computational method to measure and visualize interrelationships among any number of DNA sequences allowing, for example, the examination of hundreds or thousands of complete mitochondrial genomes. An "image distance" is computed for each pair of graphical representations of DNA sequences, and the distances are visualized as a Molecular Distance Map: Each point on the map represents a DNA sequence, and the spatial proximity between any two points reflects the degree of structural similarity between the corresponding sequences. The graphical representation of DNA sequences utilized, Chaos Game Representation (CGR, is genome- and species-specific and can thus act as a genomic signature. Consequently, Molecular Distance Maps could inform species identification, taxonomic classifications and, to a certain extent, evolutionary history. The image distance employed, Structural Dissimilarity Index (DSSIM, implicitly compares the occurrences of oligomers of length up to k (herein k = 9 in DNA sequences. We computed DSSIM distances for more than 5 million pairs of complete mitochondrial genomes, and used Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS to obtain Molecular Distance Maps that visually display the sequence relatedness in various subsets, at different taxonomic levels. This general-purpose method does not require DNA sequence alignment and can thus be used to compare similar or vastly different DNA sequences, genomic or computer-generated, of the same or different lengths. We illustrate potential uses of this approach by applying it to several taxonomic subsets: phylum Vertebrata, (superkingdom Protista, classes Amphibia-Insecta-Mammalia, class Amphibia, and order Primates. This analysis of an extensive dataset confirms that the oligomer composition of full mtDNA sequences can be a source of taxonomic information. This method also correctly finds the mtDNA sequences most closely related to that of the anatomically modern human (the Neanderthal

  7. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the genus Wittrockiella (Pithophoraceae, Cladophorales), including the descriptions of W. australis sp. nov. and W. zosterae sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Christian; O'Kelly, Charles J; West, John A; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Neale, Adele; Wakana, Isamu; Wilcox, Mike D; Karsten, Ulf; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C

    2017-06-01

    Wittrockiella is a small genus of filamentous green algae that occurs in habitats with reduced or fluctuating salinities. Many aspects of the basic biology of these algae are still unknown and the phylogenetic relationships within the genus have not been fully explored. We provide a phylogeny based on three ribosomal markers (ITS, LSU, and SSU rDNA) of the genus, including broad intraspecific sampling for W. lyallii and W. salina, recommendations for the use of existing names are made, and highlight aspects of their physiology and life cycle. Molecular data indicate that there are five species of Wittrockiella. Two new species, W. australis and W. zosterae, are described, both are endophytes. Although W. lyallii and W. salina can be identified morphologically, there are no diagnostic morphological characters to distinguish between W. amphibia, W. australis, and W. zosterae. A range of low molecular weight carbohydrates were analyzed but proved to not be taxonomically informative. The distribution range of W. salina is extended to the Northern Hemisphere as this species has been found in brackish lakes in Japan. Furthermore, it is shown that there are no grounds to recognize W. salina var. kraftii, which was described as an endemic variety from a freshwater habitat on Lord Howe Island, Australia. Culture experiments indicate that W. australis has a preference for growth in lower salinities over full seawater. For W. amphibia and W. zosterae, sexual reproduction is documented, and the split of these species is possibly attributable to polyploidization. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  8. Combined exposure to ambient UVB radiation and nitrite negatively affects survival of amphibian early life stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, Guadalupe; Marco, Adolfo; Blaustein, Andrew R.

    2007-01-01

    Many aquatic species are sensitive to ambient levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) and chemical fertilizers. However, recent studies indicate that the interaction among multiple stressors acting simultaneously could be contributing to the population declines of some animal species. Therefore, we tested the potential synergistic effects between ambient levels of UVB and a contaminant, sodium nitrite in the larvae of two amphibian species, the common European toad Bufo bufo and the Iberian green frog Rana perezi. We studied R. perezi from both mountain and coastal populations to examine if populations of the same species varied in their response to stressors in different habitats. Both species were sensitive to the two stressors acting alone, but the interaction between the two stressors caused a multiplicative impact on tadpole survival. For B. bufo, the combination of UVB and nitrite was up to seven times more lethal than mortality for each stressor alone. In a coastal wetland, the combination of UVB and nitrite was four times more toxic for R. perezi than the sum of the effect on mortality for each stressor alone. One mg/L of nitrite killed half the population of R. perezi at Gredos Mountains at day 10 in the absence of UVB. In the presence of UVB, 50% of the tadpoles from the same experiment died at day 7. Similar toxic response were found for R. perezi in two highly contrasted environments suggesting this synergistic interaction can be a widespread phenomenon. The interaction of excess chemical fertilizers and manure with ambient UVB radiation could be contributing to the global decline of some amphibian species. We suggest that potential exposure to UVB radiation be accounted for when assessing water quality criteria regarding nitrite pollution

  9. Combined exposure to ambient UVB radiation and nitrite negatively affects survival of amphibian early life stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, Guadalupe [Donana Biological Station, CSIC, Spanish Council for Scientific Research. P.O. Box 1056, Sevilla 41013 (Spain); Marco, Adolfo [Donana Biological Station, CSIC, Spanish Council for Scientific Research. P.O. Box 1056, Sevilla 41013 (Spain)], E-mail: amarco@ebd.csic.es; Blaustein, Andrew R. [Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Many aquatic species are sensitive to ambient levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) and chemical fertilizers. However, recent studies indicate that the interaction among multiple stressors acting simultaneously could be contributing to the population declines of some animal species. Therefore, we tested the potential synergistic effects between ambient levels of UVB and a contaminant, sodium nitrite in the larvae of two amphibian species, the common European toad Bufo bufo and the Iberian green frog Rana perezi. We studied R. perezi from both mountain and coastal populations to examine if populations of the same species varied in their response to stressors in different habitats. Both species were sensitive to the two stressors acting alone, but the interaction between the two stressors caused a multiplicative impact on tadpole survival. For B. bufo, the combination of UVB and nitrite was up to seven times more lethal than mortality for each stressor alone. In a coastal wetland, the combination of UVB and nitrite was four times more toxic for R. perezi than the sum of the effect on mortality for each stressor alone. One mg/L of nitrite killed half the population of R. perezi at Gredos Mountains at day 10 in the absence of UVB. In the presence of UVB, 50% of the tadpoles from the same experiment died at day 7. Similar toxic response were found for R. perezi in two highly contrasted environments suggesting this synergistic interaction can be a widespread phenomenon. The interaction of excess chemical fertilizers and manure with ambient UVB radiation could be contributing to the global decline of some amphibian species. We suggest that potential exposure to UVB radiation be accounted for when assessing water quality criteria regarding nitrite pollution.

  10. Environ: E00121 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00121 Toad venom (JP17) Crude drug Hellebrin [CPD:C08868], Resibufogenin [CPD:C17...058], Cinobufagin [CPD:C16931], Bufalin [CPD:C16922], Bufotalin [CPD:C16923], Cinobufotalin [CPD:C16932], Gamabufo...talin [CPD:C16962], Telocinobufagin [CPD:C17072], Hellebrigenin [CPD:C16969], Bufadienolides [CPD:C16921], Cardenolides, Bufo...tenine [CPD:C08299], Bufotenidine [CPD:C13664], Epirenamin...ol, Marinobufagin, Resibufagin, Serotonine, Bufothionine, Dehydrobufotenine, Bufotoxin, Cholesterol [CPD:C00

  11. NHE-1 sequence and expression in toad, snake and fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steffen Nyegaard; Wang, Tobias; Kristensen, Torsten

    Red blood cells (RBC) from reptiles appear not to express regulatory volume increase (RVI) upon shrinkage (Kristensen et al., 2008). In other vertebrates, the RVI response is primarily mediated by activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE-1) and we, therefore decided to investigate whether red cells...... of reptiles express a different NHE-1 that responds less to volume activation compared to other vertebrates or simply lack the Na+/H+ exchanger. Using various tissues from the ball python (Python regius), Cane toad (Bufo marinus) and European perch (Perca fluviatilis), cDNA libraries were created...

  12. Four new species of frogs and one new species of snake from the Chapare region of Bolivia, with notes on other species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.P.; Foster, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    We report on a collection of 74 frogs, 11 lots of frog eggs or tadpoles, and two snakes collected from the Chapare Region in the yungas of the eastern Andean Cordillera de Cochabamba, Bolivia. Collecting localities range from approximately 300 m to >3200 m in elevation. The specimens pertain to 23 species, probably 10 of which are undescribed. We describe four new species of frogs, one each in the genera Bufo, Centrolenella, Colostethus, and Hyla, and one new species of snake, genus Dipsas. We place Atelopus rugulosus in synonymy with A. tricolor.

  13. A Suspected Parasite Spill-Back of Two Novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) Causing Disease in Australian Endemic Frogs Found in the Invasive Cane Toad

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartigan, A.; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirků, Miloslav; Okimoto, B.; Rose, K.; Phalen, D. N.; Šlapeta, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2011), e18871 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960701 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP204/09/P519 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : EW-SOUTH-WALES * BUFO-MARINUS * BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS * INFECTIOUS-DISEASES * NORTH-AMERICA * TREE FROG * MYXOZOA * SEQUENCES * PHYLOGENY * ECOLOGY Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  14. Reacción de galli mainini para el diagnóstico precoz del embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Mejía, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    La reacción de Galli Mainini efectuada en batracios machos parael diagnóstico precoz del embarazo, se deriva del conjunto de trabajos realizados por Houssay y su escuela, quienes desde el año de 1922 venían trabajando en forma intensa e ininterrumpida, sobre anatomía histología y fisiología gonadales, observando las relaciones entre éstas y las gonadotrofinas en diversos batracios. En el año de 1929 hallaron la liberación de los espermatozoides en el testículo del Bufo arenarum Hensel, por la...

  15. Caracterización morfológica de larvas de anuros del Noroeste argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrezi, Marissa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan caracteres morfológicos en larvas de catorce especies de anuros. Las especies analizadas son Bufo arenarum, B. paracnemis, Leptodadylus chaquensis, L. latinasus, Odontophrynus americanus, O. lavillai, Phrynohyas venulosa, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuqui, Pleurodema borellii, P. tucumana, Scinax fuscovaria y S. nasica. Estas especies se desarrollan en charcas temporarias del Noroeste de Argentina. Se caracterizan las larvas de cada especie por el análisis de la morfología externa e interna, caracteres de la cavidad oral, condrocráneo y arcos viscerales. Algunos de estos aspectos morfológicos se discuten con las hipótesis propuestas acerca de larvas generalizadas. We have analyzed morphological characters in tadpoles of fourteen anuran species. The species considered are Bufo arenaum, B. paracnemis, Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. latinasus, Odontopbynus americanus, O.lavillai, Phrynohyas venulosa, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuqui, Pleurodema borellii, P. tucumana, Scinax fuscovaria and S. nasica. They develop in similar temporary ponds of Northwestern of Argentina. We characterized the larvae of each species by the analyses on external morphology, internal oral features, chondrocranium and visceral archs. Some of these morphological aspects have been discussed with proposal hypotheses about generalized tadpoles.

  16. Beta-adrenergic activation of solute coupled water uptake by toad skin epithelium results in near-isosmotic transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2007-01-01

    (V) with a [Na+] of the transported fluid of 130+/-24 mM ([Na+]Ringer's solution = 117.4 mM). Addition of bumetanide to the inside solution reduced J(V). Water was transported uphill and J(V) reversed at an excess outside osmotic concentration, deltaC(S,rev) = 28.9+/-3.9 mOsm, amiloride decreased delta......C(S,rev) to 7.5+/-1.5 mOsm. It is concluded that water uptake is accomplished by osmotic coupling in the lateral intercellular space (lis), and hypothesized that a small fraction of the Na+ flux pumped into lis is recirculated via basolateral NKCC transporters.......Transepithelial potential (V(T)), conductance (G(T)), and water flow (J(V)) were measured simultaneously with good time resolution (min) in isolated toad (Bufo bufo) skin epithelium with Ringer on both sides. Inside application of 5 microM isoproterenol resulted in the fast increase in G(T) from 1...

  17. Amphibian recovery after a decrease in acidic precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmen, Dag; Finstad, Anders Gravbrøt; Skei, Jon Kristian

    2018-04-01

    We here report the first sign of amphibian recovery after a strong decline due to acidic precipitation over many decades and peaking around 1980-90. In 2010, the pH level of ponds and small lakes in two heavily acidified areas in southwestern Scandinavia (Aust-Agder and Østfold in Norway) had risen significantly at an (arithmetic) average of 0.14 since 1988-89. Parallel with the general rise in pH, amphibians (Rana temporaria, R. arvalis, Bufo bufo, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Triturus cristatus) had become significantly more common: the frequency of amphibian localities rose from 33% to 49% (n = 115), and the average number of amphibian species per locality had risen from 0.51 to 0.88. In two other (reference) areas, one with better buffering capacity (Telemark, n = 21) and the other with much less input of acidic precipitation (Nord-Trøndelag, n = 106), there were no significant changes in pH or amphibians.

  18. Distinction of neurochemistry between the cores and their shells of auditory nuclei in tetrapod species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, ShaoJu; Li, Jia; Zhang, XinWen; Zuo, MingXue

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of Met-enkephalin (ENK), substance P (SP) and serotonin (5-HT) differs between the core and shell regions of the mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory nuclei of the turtle [Belekhova et al., 2002]. These neurochemical distinctions are also found in other tetrapods (mammals, birds and amphibians). The distribution of ENK, SP and 5-HT was examined in the core and shell regions of both mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory nuclei, and in the telencephalic auditory areas of Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata) and mice (Mus musculus), as well as in corresponding auditory areas in toads (Bufo bufo). ENK, SP and 5-HT immunoreactive fibers and perikarya were largely absent from the core regions of both mesencephalic and diencephalic auditory nuclei, in comparison with the shell regions of mice and Bengalese finches. In the toad, however, this pattern was observed in the mesencephalic auditory nucleus, but not in the diencephalic auditory areas. ENK and SP immunoreactive perikarya were detected in the telencephalic auditory area of mice, whereas no ENK, SP or 5-HT immunolabeling was observed in the telencephalic auditory area (Field L) of Bengalese finches. These findings are discussed in terms of the evolution of the core-and-shell organization of auditory nuclei of tetrapods. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Glucosinolate diversity within a phylogenetic framework of the tribe Cardamineae (Brassicaceae) unraveled with HPLC-MS/MS and NMR-based analytical distinction of 70 desulfoglucosinolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Carl Erik; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Hansen, Cecilie I C; Cipollini, Don; Ørgaard, Marian; Matthes, Annemarie; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Koch, Marcus A; Agerbirk, Niels

    2016-12-01

    As a basis for future investigations of evolutionary trajectories and biosynthetic mechanisms underlying variations in glucosinolate structures, we screened members of the crucifer tribe Cardamineae by HPLC-MS/MS, isolated and identified glucosinolates by NMR, searched the literature for previous data for the tribe, and collected HPLC-MS/MS data for nearly all glucosinolates known from the tribe as well as some related structures (70 in total). This is a considerable proportion of the approximately 142 currently documented natural glucosinolates. Calibration with authentic references allowed distinction (or elucidation) of isomers in many cases, such as distinction of β-hydroxyls, methylthios, methylsulfinyls and methylsulfonyls. A mechanism for fragmentation of secondary β-hydroxyls in MS was elucidated, and two novel glucosinolates were discovered: 2-hydroxy-3-methylpentylglucosinolate in roots of Cardamine pratensis and 2-hydroxy-8-(methylsulfinyl)octylglucosinolate in seeds of Rorippa amphibia. A large number of glucosinolates (ca. 54 with high structural certainty and a further 28 or more suggested from tandem MS), representing a wide structural variation, is documented from the tribe. This included glucosinolates apparently derived from Met, Phe, Trp, Val/Leu, Ile and higher homologues. Normal side chain elongation and side chain decoration by oxidation or methylation was observed, as well as rare abnormal side chain decoration (hydroxylation of aliphatics at the δ rather than β-position). Some species had diverse profiles, e.g. R. amphibia and C. pratensis (19 and 16 individual glucosinolates, respectively), comparable to total diversity in literature reports of Armoracia rusticana (17?), Barbarea vulgaris (20-24), and Rorippa indica (>20?). The ancestor or the tribe would appear to have used Trp, Met, and homoPhe as glucosinolate precursor amino acids, and to exhibit oxidation of thio to sulfinyl, formation of alkenyls, β-hydroxylation of aliphatic

  20. THE GARGANO TERRE ROSSE INSULAR FAUNAS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEDERICO MASINI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available After forty years from its discovery, the history of the field surveys and of the researches on the fossiliferous deposits on Gargano is briefly reported. The Gargano fauna belongs to the Abruzzo-Apulian Palaeobioprovince (including also Scontrone and Palena, Abruzzo. The fossil assemblage comprehends all the classes of terrestrial vertebrates: Reptilia, Amphibia, Aves and Mammalia. The faunal composition is unbalanced and presents the features of a typical insular endemic fauna. The bulk of the assemblage is composed of small mammals and birds. Based on literature, we report the most characteristic features, phylogenetic relationships, and evolutionary remarks on a list of mammals, focusing particularly on the adaptations of the most endemic taxa. Moreover, a biochronological scheme of the major faunal events is proposed and illustrated. Although still imperfect, the scheme is the first synopsis of all the biochronological and taxonomical information on mammals so far available. Eventually, the hypotheses on the origin and modes of colonisation are summarized and shortly discussed. From this overview the Gargano fauna is indeed of great interest for studies of evolution and biogeography. Nonetheless, there are persistent uncertainties on its age and origin, as well as on the age of infilling of the karstic fissure system of this unique fossiliferous locality. 

  1. Evidence of independent action of neurohypophyseal peptides on osmotic water flow and active sodium transport in the same target organ: studies on RANA esculenta skin and bladder (1961); Arguments en faveur de l'independance des mecanismes d'action de divers peptides neurohypophysaires sur le flux osmotique d'eau et sur le transport actif de sodium au sein d'un meme recepteur: etudes sur la vessie et la peau de RANA esculanta L (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourguet, J; Maetz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    Neurohypophyseal peptides produce on the skin and bladder of certain amphibia simultaneous increases of the passive osmotic permeability to water and active transport of sodium. The present work shows that oxytocin and two of its analogues arginine-8-oxytocin (arginine vasotocin) and lysine-8-oxytocin (lysine vasotocin) may produce the same increase of water permeability, while stimulating in quite different ways the sodium transport. This is the case for both skin and bladder. In other words, there is no correlation between natriferic and hydro-osmotic activities. The results are interpreted as evidence that neurohypophyseal hormones act on not one, as previously assumed, but two targets, inside the same epithelial cell. (author) [French] Les peptides neurohypophysaires produisent simultanement une augmentation de la permeabilite osmotique passive a l'eau, et une stimulation du transport actif de sodium sur la peau et sur la vessie de certains amphibiens. Ce travail montre que l'ocytocine et deux de ses analogues, l'arginine 8-ocytocine (arginine vasotocine) et la lysine-8-ocytocine (lysine vasotocine ) entrainent un accroissement identique de la permeabilite a l'eau, mais stimulent de facon differente le transport de sodium. Ceci est vrai aussi bien pour la peau que pour la vessie. Autrement dit, il n'existe pas de correlation entre les activites natriferique et hydrosmotique. Les resultats suggerent que les hormones neurohypophysaires agissent non sur une seule cible comme on l'avait cru, mais sur deux cibles se trouvant dans la meme cellule. (auteur)

  2. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (animals/plants, No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (doshokubutsu, No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey was conducted to estimate effects of drilling of geothermal exploration well on the environment, aiming at grasping the present state of environmental elements before the survey/development. As a result of the literature survey, the following distribution were confirmed in the fauna: 5 orders 10 families 19 species in the mammalia, 10 orders 25 families 73 species in the aves, 1 order 3 families 6 species in the reptilia, 2 orders 6 families 9 species in the amphibia, and 17 orders 179 families 719 species in the insecta. In the flora, a distribution of 132 families 670 species was confirmed. The results of studying the above indicated that in the fauna, there were 10 species such as antelope as valuable animal in the area surveyed and that it is necessary to pay much attention to the environmental preservation of the habitat for those animals in the well drilling associated with geothermal survey. In the flora, the 13 valuable animals selected as animal having a fear of extinction in the 'plant-version red list' were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery. Further, as to the plant colony, there are no important colonies in terms of preservation. In well drilling, important things are efforts exerted to restore to the original state of the area altered, prevention of the washed-away of mud water, etc., and efforts exerted to preserve the environment of vegetation. (NEDO)

  3. Material tipo de la Colección de Herpetología del Museo de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferraro, Daiana Paola

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El Museo de la Plata (Buenos Aires, República Argentina se fundó en 1889, y la colección herpetológica comenzó a funcionar poco tiempo después, bajo la responsabilidad deJulio G. Koslowsky. En esta contribución se listan los ejemplares tipo de Anfibios y Reptiles depositados en la colección herpetológica del Museo de La Plata. El material tipo depositado corresponde a 32 especies descriptas desde 1895 hasta la actualidad, incluyendo: 14 holotipos, 115 paratipos, 4 lectotipos, 22 paralectotipos, 1 neotipo y 12 sintipos (sin incluir los ejemplares extraviados. Se proporciona, para cada taxón, la información completa referida a estatus de cada ejemplar tipo, sexo, datos de recolección y modificaciones taxonómicas posteriores. The La Plata Museum (Buenos Aires, República Argentina was founded on 1889, and after a little time, the herpetological collection started under the responsibility of Julio G. Koslowsky. In this paper the type specimens of Amphibia and Reptilia housed in the collection of the Herpetology Section at the La Plata Museum are listed. These type materials correspondto 32 species described since 1895 until nowadays, and include: 14 holotypes, 115 paratypes, 4 lectotypes, 22 paralectotypes, 1 neotype and 12 sintypes (this list does not include lost specimens. Complete data about taxonomic status, sex, collection data, and subsequent taxonomic changes are given for each taxon.

  4. A consistent nomenclature of antimicrobial peptides isolated from frogs of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiche, Mohamed; Ladram, Ali; Nicolas, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    A growing number of cationic antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from the skin of hylid frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily. The amino acid sequences of these peptides are currently located in several databases under identifiers with no consistent system of nomenclature to describe them. In order to provide a workable terminology for antimicrobial peptides from Phyllomedusid frogs, we have made a systematic effort to collect, analyze, and classify all the Phyllomedusid peptide sequences available in databases. We propose that frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily should be described by the species names set out in Amphibian Species of the World: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Multiple alignments analysis of at least 80 antimicrobial peptides isolated from 12 Phyllomedusinae species were distributed in seven distinct peptide families including dermaseptin, phylloseptin, plasticin, dermatoxin, phylloxin, hyposin and orphan peptides, and will be considered as the name of the headgroup of each family. The parent peptide's name should be followed by the first upper letter of the species for orthologous peptides and publication date determines priority. For example, the abbreviation B for bicolor and H for hypochondrialis. When two species begin with the same letter, two letters in upper case should be used (the first letter followed by the second or the third letter and so on). For example, the abbreviation DI for distincta, DU for duellmani, VA for vaillanti and VN for vanzolinii. Paralogous peptides should bear letter(s) in upper case followed by numbers.

  5. Reflections on a systematic nomenclature for antimicrobial peptides from the skins of frogs of the family Ranidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael

    2008-10-01

    Frogs belonging to the extensive family Ranidae represent a valuable source of antimicrobial peptides with therapeutic potential but there is currently no consistent system of nomenclature to describe these peptides. Terminology based solely on species name does not reflect the evolutionary relationships existing between peptides encoded by orthologous and paralogous genes. On the basis of limited structural similarity, at least 14 well-established peptide families have been identified (brevinin-1, brevinin-2, esculentin-1, esculentin-2, japonicin-1, japonicin-2, nigrocin-2, palustrin-1, palustrin-2, ranacyclin, ranalexin, ranatuerin-1, ranatuerin-2, temporin). It is proposed that terms that are synonymous with these names should no longer be used. Orthologous peptides from different species may be characterized by the initial letter of that species, set in upper case, with paralogs belonging to the same peptide family being assigned letters set in lower case, e.g. brevinin-1Pa, brevinin-1Pb, etc. When two species begin with the same initial letter, two letters may be used, e.g. P for pipiens and PL for palustris. Species names and assignments to genera may be obtained from Amphibian Species of the World Electronic Database, accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

  6. Entomologic perception by teachers and students in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Maia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify and interpret the entomologic perception of students and teachers living in the Santa Cruz do Xingu, Médio Araguaia region. Semistructured interviews were carried out in December 2006 with students and teachers of the basic and intermediate levels, as well as in Youth and Adult Education, in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso. Of the living beings perceived as “insects” by all the interviewees, 82.75% belonged to the Insecta Class, but the rest belonged either to the Fungi Kingdom or to Classes of Animalia (Amphibia, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Gastropoda, Mammalia and Reptilia. The “insects” were defined by the interviewees as small bugs, which were disgusting and dangerous. When in contact with the “insects”, 76% of the interviewees admitted that they killed them, and the greatest reason given for this was the psychological damage caused by the presence of these animals (65%. To 78% of those interviewed, the “insects” were beings without positive importance. Due to the scarce knowledge about their positive aspects, the perception of the “insects” by the students and teachers living in the Santa Cruz do Xingu region is mainly related to their belief in the negative qualities of these animals, causing aggressive reactions against them as soon as they are perceived in the environment.

  7. Drought, deluge and declines: the impact of precipitation extremes on amphibians in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan C.; Barichivich, William J.; Brown, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The Class Amphibia is one of the most severely impacted taxa in an on-going global biodiversity crisis. Because amphibian reproduction is tightly associated with the presence of water, climatic changes that affect water availability pose a particularly menacing threat to both aquatic and terrestrial-breeding amphibians. We explore the impacts that one facet of climate change—that of extreme variation in precipitation—may have on amphibians. This variation is manifested principally as increases in the incidence and severity of both drought and major storm events. We stress the need to consider not only total precipitation amounts but also the pattern and timing of rainfall events. Such rainfall “pulses” are likely to become increasingly more influential on amphibians, especially in relation to seasonal reproduction. Changes in reproductive phenology can strongly influence the outcome of competitive and predatory interactions, thus potentially altering community dynamics in assemblages of co-existing species. We present a conceptual model to illustrate possible landscape and metapopulation consequences of alternative climate change scenarios for pond-breeding amphibians, using the Mole Salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, as an example. Although amphibians have evolved a variety of life history strategies that enable them to cope with environmental uncertainty, it is unclear whether adaptations can keep pace with the escalating rate of climate change. Climate change, especially in combination with other stressors, is a daunting challenge for the persistence of amphibians and, thus, the conservation of global biodiversity.

  8. Kynureninase-type enzymes and the evolution of the aerobic tryptophan-to-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, F.H.; Shetty, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    Kynureninase-type (L-kynurenine hydrolase, EC 3.7.1.3) activity has been found to be present in the livers of fish, amphibia, reptiles, and birds. In addition to past information concerning this enzyme activity in mammalian liver, it is now clear that all the major classes of vertebrates carry a highly specialized kynureninase-type enzyme, which we have termed a hydroxykynureninase. To compare the reactivities of these enzymes with L-kynurenine and L-3-hydroxykynurenine, ratios of tau values (K/sub m//V) were used. Based on this comparison, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens carries the most efficient kynureninase, whereas the amphibian Xenopus laevis has the most efficient hydroxykynurenase. In these two cases, the ratio of tau values differs by a factor of 38,000. It is hypothesized that the tryptophan-to-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthetic pathway evolved from a catabolic system of enzymes, and that the differences observed in the kynureninase-type enzymes between lower and higher organisms reflect the specialization of the function of these enzymes from a strictly catabolic role to an anabolic one during the course of evolution.

  9. Survey on acceleration of geothermal development in fiscal 1998. Report on survey for influence on environment (No. B-7, Kuwanosawa district); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa.Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    A survey was performed on the current situation in the Kuwanosawa district in Akita Prefecture to identify influence on the surrounding environment due to drilling of geothermal structure testing wells. The survey on animals covered mammals of five divisions, 10 families and 19 species, Aves of ten divisions, 25 families and 73 species, reptiles of one division, 3 families and 6 species, Amphibia of two divisions, 6 families, 9 species, and Insects of 17 divisions, 179 families and 719 species. Precious animals of a several species including black salamander were identified. In the plant survey, 132 families and 670 species were identified, with several species listed as the precious plants. In the survey of hot springs, those at three locations were all high-temperature hot springs at as high as 53.8 to 96.9 degrees C. Amount of discharge, pH and electrical conductivity differ largely by the hot springs. The hot spring in Takamatsu did not show large variation throughout the survey period. The Ogura Inn at Doroyu Spa has small variation in pH and hot spring temperature, but large variation in the amount of discharge and Al{sup 3+} concentration. Correlation was recognized between hot spring temperature and amount of discharge, between hot spring temperature and anion, between amount of discharge and electric conductivity, and between amount of discharge and anion. (NEDO)

  10. A microcosm system to evaluate the toxicity of the triazine herbicide simazine on aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco, E-mail: marco.vervliet@biologie.uni-freiburg.d [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Straus, Alain [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Tremp, Horst [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Hamer, Mick [Ecological Sciences, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, Jealott' s Hill International Research Centre, Bracknell, Berkshire RG42 6EY (United Kingdom); Maund, Stephen J. [Ecological Sciences, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, 4002 Basel (Switzerland); Wagner, Edgar [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Schulz, Ralf [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    This study evaluates the effects of the triazine herbicide simazine in an outdoor pond microcosm test system that contained two submerged rooted species (Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea canadensis) and two emergent rooted species (Persicaria amphibia and Glyceria maxima) over a period of 84 days. Simazine was applied to the microcosms at nominal concentrations of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/L. General biological endpoints and physiological endpoints were used to evaluate herbicide toxicity on macrophytes and the algae developing naturally in the system. Concentration-related responses of macrophytes and algae were obtained for the endpoints selected, resulting in a no observed ecologically adverse effect concentration (NOEAEC) at simazine concentrations of 0.05 mg active ingredient/L after 84 days. E. canadensis was the most negatively affected species based on length increase, which was consistently a very sensitive parameter for all macrophytes. The experimental design presented might constitute a suitable alternative to conventional laboratory single-species testing. - Simazine at concentrations of 0.05 mg/L does not cause long-term negative effects to aquatic macrophytes or algae.

  11. The role of the nervous system in fish evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Hofmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in the evolution and adaptation of animals. All sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive abilities are organized in the brain and spinal cord. Volumetric measurements of different brain regions were made in more than 150 species of ray finned fishes as well as in several outgroups. In Actanthopterygii, the hypothalamus shows greatest enlargement most likely due to an enormous visual input via the nucleus glomerulosos. The telencephalon is highly differentiated in many acanthopterygii, mostly coral reef species, but its relative size is not much effected. There is, however, a clear shift from olfactory to visual functions in ray finned fishes. In species with a highly differentiated telencephalon, the area where place memory may be located is very prominent. In basal ray finned fishes, lungfish, amphibia and elasmobranchs, the olfactory bulb is relatively large and the ratio of the olfactory bulb and telencephalon large as well. This holds also for elopomorpha and spiny eels, but in most other groups vision dominates. Apart from differences between larger clades, variation in brain architecture are also seen in closely related species and even between sexes of the same species. Profound differences are present in the cerebellum between male and female swordtails and in the telencephalon of sticklebacks. Morphometric analysis of brain architecture turned out to be an important tool to study the evolution and adaptations of the brain in fishes.

  12. Growth performance and biochemical composition of nineteen microalgae collected from different Moroccan reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL. A. IDRISSI ABDELKHALEK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and microalgae have recently received much attention due to their valuable chemical constituents. In order to increase existing data, the authors studied nineteen microalgae species isolated from different reservoirs in the Fez region (northern Morocco, undertaking experiments to determine for each species the specific growth rate, their total amounts of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids and the influence of the growth phase on these chemical constituents. Conditions of cultivation were as follows: light intensity equal to 300 μmol photons m-2 s-1, with a temperature regime of 25/20°C (day/night and a 16/8 (light/dark photoperiod cycle. The growth rates of the nineteen studied species of microalgae showed a wide variation between species, ranging from 0.27 g l-1 d-1 for Chlamydomonas ovalis to 3.64 g l-1 d-1 for Chlorococcum wemmeri. Protein, carbohydrate and lipid contents varied greatly between taxa and within genera. Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Chlamydomonas ovalis, Chlorococcum sp., Hyaloraphidium contortum, Scenedesmus protuberans, and Synechocystis aquatilis tended to synthesize proteins, the concentrations exceeding 20% dry weight (DW. Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Ankistrodesmus sp., Chlorococcum wemmeri, Coenocystis sp., Isocystis sp., Lyngbya bergei, Oscillatoria amphibia, Polytoma papillatum, Scenedesmus protuberans, Scenedesmus sp. and Synechocystis aquatilis showed a high capacity for lipid storage, greater than 20% DW. For carbohydrate contents, only Scenedesmus protuberans and Scenedesmus quadricauda showed an excessive level compared to other scanned species with 29.21% and 24.76% DW, respectively.

  13. A microcosm system to evaluate the toxicity of the triazine herbicide simazine on aquatic macrophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco; Straus, Alain; Tremp, Horst; Hamer, Mick; Maund, Stephen J.; Wagner, Edgar; Schulz, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of the triazine herbicide simazine in an outdoor pond microcosm test system that contained two submerged rooted species (Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea canadensis) and two emergent rooted species (Persicaria amphibia and Glyceria maxima) over a period of 84 days. Simazine was applied to the microcosms at nominal concentrations of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/L. General biological endpoints and physiological endpoints were used to evaluate herbicide toxicity on macrophytes and the algae developing naturally in the system. Concentration-related responses of macrophytes and algae were obtained for the endpoints selected, resulting in a no observed ecologically adverse effect concentration (NOEAEC) at simazine concentrations of 0.05 mg active ingredient/L after 84 days. E. canadensis was the most negatively affected species based on length increase, which was consistently a very sensitive parameter for all macrophytes. The experimental design presented might constitute a suitable alternative to conventional laboratory single-species testing. - Simazine at concentrations of 0.05 mg/L does not cause long-term negative effects to aquatic macrophytes or algae.

  14. The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo diet in the Trøndelag region (Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuch Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2008 and 2015 we collected pellets of the Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in the Trøndelag region of central Norway and identified the food remains in these samples. We collected material at 45 sites with samples from a total of 76 nests. Some of the samples were from older and already abandoned nests, but at several sites we also found and collected fresh B. bubo pellets. In total 40,766 items of prey were identified from the osteological material. The most dominant food components were mammals (Mammalia, 25 species, 63.5%. The species representation of birds was very diverse (Aves, more than 150 species, 19.4%. Of amphibians (Amphibia, 1 6.8%, the well-represented species were Rana temporaria. Fish (Pisces, 0.3% were represented rarely, while invertebrates were represented only sporadically (Invertebrata, 0.05%. A special composition was found in the diet spectra of the mammals and birds in the mountainous areas at altitudes between 220-780 m above sea level. The highest proportion of frogs was found in areas in the proximity of the mainland shore. On the northern islands located near the coast a significant proportion of the B. bubo diet consisted of rodents (Rodentia. On the more isolated southern islands of Frøya, Hitra and Storfosna the main prey was sea birds, and of the mammals there were also hedgehogs and rats.

  15. Student-oriented learning: an inquiry-based developmental biology lecture course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacinski, George M

    2003-01-01

    In this junior-level undergraduate course, developmental life cycles exhibited by various organisms are reviewed, with special attention--where relevant--to the human embryo. Morphological features and processes are described and recent insights into the molecular biology of gene expression are discussed. Ways are studied in which model systems, including marine invertebrates, amphibia, fruit flies and other laboratory species are employed to elucidate general principles which apply to fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation and organogenesis. Special attention is given to insights into those topics which will soon be researched with data from the Human Genome Project. The learning experience is divided into three parts: Part I is a in which the Socratic (inquiry) method is employed by the instructor (GMM) to organize a review of classical developmental phenomena; Part II represents an in which students study the details related to the surveys included in Part I as they have been reported in research journals; Part III focuses on a class project--the preparation of a spiral bound on a topic of relevance to human developmental biology (e.g.,Textbook of Embryonal Stem Cells). Student response to the use of the Socratic method increases as the course progresses and represents the most successful aspect of the course.

  16. Phylogenetically-informed priorities for amphibian conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Nick J B; Redding, David W; Meredith, Helen M; Safi, Kamran

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian decline and extinction crisis demands urgent action to prevent further large numbers of species extinctions. Lists of priority species for conservation, based on a combination of species' threat status and unique contribution to phylogenetic diversity, are one tool for the direction and catalyzation of conservation action. We describe the construction of a near-complete species-level phylogeny of 5713 amphibian species, which we use to create a list of evolutionarily distinct and globally endangered species (EDGE list) for the entire class Amphibia. We present sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our priority list to uncertainty in species' phylogenetic position and threat status. We find that both sources of uncertainty have only minor impacts on our 'top 100' list of priority species, indicating the robustness of the approach. By contrast, our analyses suggest that a large number of Data Deficient species are likely to be high priorities for conservation action from the perspective of their contribution to the evolutionary history.

  17. Phylogenetically-informed priorities for amphibian conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick J B Isaac

    Full Text Available The amphibian decline and extinction crisis demands urgent action to prevent further large numbers of species extinctions. Lists of priority species for conservation, based on a combination of species' threat status and unique contribution to phylogenetic diversity, are one tool for the direction and catalyzation of conservation action. We describe the construction of a near-complete species-level phylogeny of 5713 amphibian species, which we use to create a list of evolutionarily distinct and globally endangered species (EDGE list for the entire class Amphibia. We present sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our priority list to uncertainty in species' phylogenetic position and threat status. We find that both sources of uncertainty have only minor impacts on our 'top 100' list of priority species, indicating the robustness of the approach. By contrast, our analyses suggest that a large number of Data Deficient species are likely to be high priorities for conservation action from the perspective of their contribution to the evolutionary history.

  18. A myogenic precursor cell that could contribute to regeneration in zebrafish and its similarity to the satellite cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Ashley L; Gurevich, David B; Currie, Peter D

    2013-09-01

    The cellular basis for mammalian muscle regeneration has been an area of intense investigation over recent decades. The consensus is that a specialized self-renewing stem cell, termed the satellite cell, plays a major role during the process of regeneration in amniotes. How broadly this mechanism is deployed within the vertebrate phylogeny remains an open question. A lack of information on the role of cells analogous to the satellite cell in other vertebrate systems is even more unexpected given the fact that satellite cells were first designated in frogs. An intriguing aspect of this debate is that a number of amphibia and many fish species exhibit epimorphic regenerative processes in specific tissues, whereby regeneration occurs by the dedifferentiation of the damaged tissue, without deploying specialized stem cell populations analogous to satellite cells. Hence, it is feasible that a cellular process completely distinct from that deployed during mammalian muscle regeneration could operate in species capable of epimorphic regeneration. In this minireview, we examine the evidence for the broad phylogenetic distribution of satellite cells. We conclude that, in the vertebrates examined so far, epimorphosis does not appear to be deployed during muscle regeneration, and that analogous cells expressing similar marker genes to satellite cells appear to be deployed during the regenerative process. However, the functional definition of these cells as self-renewing muscle stem cells remains a final hurdle to the definition of the satellite cell as a generic vertebrate cell type. © 2013 FEBS.

  19. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Jennifer M; Bishop, Phillip J

    2009-02-01

    Translocations are important tools in the field of conservation. Despite increased use over the last few decades, the appropriateness of translocations for amphibians and reptiles has been debated widely over the past 20 years. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation, we reviewed the results of amphibian and reptile translocation projects published between 1991 and 2006. The success rate of amphibian and reptile translocations reported over this period was twice that reported in an earlier review in 1991. Success and failure rates were independent of the taxonomic class (Amphibia or Reptilia) released. Reptile translocations driven by human-wildlife conflict mitigation had a higher failure rate than those motivated by conservation, and more recent projects of reptile translocations had unknown outcomes. The outcomes of amphibian translocations were significantly related to the number of animals released, with projects releasing over 1000 individuals being most successful. The most common reported causes of translocation failure were homing and migration of introduced individuals out of release sites and poor habitat. The increased success of amphibian and reptile translocations reviewed in this study compared with the 1991 review is encouraging for future conservation projects. Nevertheless, more preparation, monitoring, reporting of results, and experimental testing of techniques and reintroduction questions need to occur to improve translocations of amphibians and reptiles as a whole.

  20. Distribution of the herpetofauna community associated to four areas with different interference degree in Gorgona Island, Colombian pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbina C, Jose Nicolas; Londono M, Maria Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    A total of 1840 individuals from 28 species (19 reptiles and 9 amphibians) were found in Gorgona Island, during June and July 2001. Based on 32 transects placed in four areas with different antropic perturbation degree (Prison, palm plantations, secondary forest and primary forest) it was found that the species richness was higher at the secondary forest. The species registered at primary and secondary forest where very similar as well as the species present at the prison and the palm plantations. A Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed that Boa constricto1; Basiliscus galeritus. Ameiva bridgesii and Epipedobates boulengeri were found to be associated to open areas and their distribution was hardly affected by the environmental temperature. From the following species associated with forested areas, the canopy cover over the micro habitat influenced the distribution of Eleutherodactylus gularis. Eleutherodactylus achatinus and Bothrops atrox. While the understory cover influenced the distribution of Atelopus elegans. Bufo typhonius. Micrurus mipartitus y Enyalioides heterolepis

  1. Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara J; Russell, Ronald W

    2009-01-01

    The deposition of chemical pollutants into roadside wetlands from runoff is a current environmental concern. In northern latitudes, a major pollutant in runoff water is salt (NaCl), used as de-icing agents. In this study, 26 roadside ponds were surveyed for amphibian species richness and chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests (LC(50)) were performed on five locally common amphibian species using a range of environmentally significant NaCl concentrations. Field surveys indicated that spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) did not occupy high chloride ponds. American toads (Bufo americanus) showed no pond preference based on chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests showed spotted salamanders and wood frogs were most sensitive to chloride, and American toads were the least. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) showed intermediate sensitivities. We concluded that chloride concentrations in ponds due to application of de-icing salts, influenced community structure by excluding salt intolerant species.

  2. Exotic Amphibians in the Pet Shops of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chun Lucy Hou

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Pet trade is an important mechanism for introducing alien species. We surveyed a total of 434 pet shops in major cities of Taiwan and found 49 species of alien amphibians belonging to 14 families and 31 genera. Two of the alien species, Rana catesbeiana and Kaloula pulchra, have established in the fields and the other three, Bufo marinus, Xenopus laevis, and Dendrobates auratus, have invasion records in other countries. There were 16 CITES Appendix II species. The most frequently displayed species were the horned frogs, eratophrys spp. And the most abundant species was the American Bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. We urge the authority of Taiwan establishing regulations on pet trade and enforcing the wildlife conservation law to reduce the risks of alien species invasions.

  3. AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN BIOGEOCOENOSIS WITH DIFFERENT STAGES OF ANTHROPOGENIC CLYMAX

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    Marchenkovskaya А. А.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the abundance of juvenile (fingerlings and yearlings and sexually mature (3-6 years of various anurans at various biotopes with different degrees of anthropogenic influence. Population analysis has revealed that the number of juveniles in all the habitats are depended on type and level of anthropogenic influence. In all the habitats the most numerous species was synanthropic bufo viridis. In biotopes with high contamination of pollutants, only one species of amphibians - the marsh frog has populations with juveniles migrating here in the early fall. The highest number of mature individuals registered for the population of Bombina bombina, pelobates fuscus and in one biotope for hyla arborea. The populations of pelophylax ridibundus could be considered as the most balanced by number of juvenile and mature individuals.

  4. Allozyme comparison of three Trypanosoma species (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) of toads and frogs by starch-gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D S; Desser, S S; Hong, H

    1992-04-01

    Six metabolic enzymes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucosephosphate isomerase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, from clonal isolates of 3 presumptive species of Trypanosoma (T. fallisi, T. ranarum, and T. rotatorium) from 3 anuran hosts (Bufo americanus, Rana clamitans, and Rana catesbeiana) were compared using starch-gel electrophoresis. Although bands were shared among the different zymodemes of isolates of the same host genus, low genetic polymorphism of the enzyme loci was observed with few apparent shared bands between samples isolated from frogs and toads. A distance value calculated between toad and frog trypanosome isolates suggests the likelihood of long-time separation of species. Cluster analysis based on overall similarity distinguished the trypanosomes of toads and frogs as separate taxa, suggesting that host specificity and observed morphological differences are consistent with heritable allozyme differences.

  5. CONSIDERAÇÕES SOBRE A ADAPTAÇÃO PARA AO AUDIOVISUAL: FICÇÃO NOIR

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    Marcelo Bulhões

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo é tratar da questão da adaptação audiovisual como fenômeno intersemiótico e de “tradução cultural”, enfocando um gênero cuja trajetória histórica é exemplar da dinâmica de absorção, transformação e recriação que envolve a relações entre cinema e a literatura: o noir. São avaliadas três realizações audiovisuais brasileiras: os filmes A Grande Arte, de Walter Salles Jr., e Bufo & Spallanzani, de Flávio Tambellini; e a minissérie televisiva Agosto, dirigida por Paulo José.

  6. Tadpoles of three common anuran species from Thailand do not prey on mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Robbie

    2015-12-01

    Tadpoles are often considered to be predators of mosquito larvae and are therefore beneficial for the control of certain disease vectors. Nevertheless, only a few species have actually been recorded to prey on mosquito larvae. The mosquito larvae predation rates of tadpoles of three common Thai anuran species (Bufo melanostictus, Kaloula pulchra and Hylarana raniceps) were experimentally tested. Tadpoles in varying developmental stages were used to assess a size/age effect on the predation rate. In addition, different instars of Culex quinquefasciatus were used in order to assess a prey size effect on the predation rates. All three species failed to show any evidence of mosquito larvae predation. Neither small nor large tadpoles fed on mosquito larvae. Prey size also did not affect predation. Although tadpoles do not feed on mosquito larvae, there may be other direct or indirect inter-specific interactions that adversely impact the development of larvae in shared habitats with tadpoles. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  7. Photobleaching correction in fluorescence microscopy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, Nathalie B; Diaz Zamboni, Javier E; Adur, Javier F; Paravani, Enrique V; Casco, Victor H

    2007-01-01

    Fluorophores are used to detect molecular expression by highly specific antigen-antibody reactions in fluorescence microscopy techniques. A portion of the fluorophore emits fluorescence when irradiated with electromagnetic waves of particular wavelengths, enabling its detection. Photobleaching irreversibly destroys fluorophores stimulated by radiation within the excitation spectrum, thus eliminating potentially useful information. Since this process may not be completely prevented, techniques have been developed to slow it down or to correct resulting alterations (mainly, the decrease in fluorescent signal). In the present work, the correction by photobleaching curve was studied using E-cadherin (a cell-cell adhesion molecule) expression in Bufo arenarum embryos. Significant improvements were observed when applying this simple, inexpensive and fast technique

  8. Inhibition of Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, , from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

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    Shawna T. Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads ( Anaxyrus ( Bufo boreas boreas located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad's coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis.

  9. Comparing pseudo-absences generation techniques in Boosted Regression Trees models for conservation purposes: A case study on amphibians in a protected area.

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    Francesco Cerasoli

    Full Text Available Boosted Regression Trees (BRT is one of the modelling techniques most recently applied to biodiversity conservation and it can be implemented with presence-only data through the generation of artificial absences (pseudo-absences. In this paper, three pseudo-absences generation techniques are compared, namely the generation of pseudo-absences within target-group background (TGB, testing both the weighted (WTGB and unweighted (UTGB scheme, and the generation at random (RDM, evaluating their performance and applicability in distribution modelling and species conservation. The choice of the target group fell on amphibians, because of their rapid decline worldwide and the frequent lack of guidelines for conservation strategies and regional-scale planning, which instead could be provided through an appropriate implementation of SDMs. Bufo bufo, Salamandrina perspicillata and Triturus carnifex were considered as target species, in order to perform our analysis with species having different ecological and distributional characteristics. The study area is the "Gran Sasso-Monti della Laga" National Park, which hosts 15 Natura 2000 sites and represents one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in Europe. Our results show that the model calibration ameliorates when using the target-group based pseudo-absences compared to the random ones, especially when applying the WTGB. Contrarily, model discrimination did not significantly vary in a consistent way among the three approaches with respect to the tree target species. Both WTGB and RDM clearly isolate the highly contributing variables, supplying many relevant indications for species conservation actions. Moreover, the assessment of pairwise variable interactions and their three-dimensional visualization further increase the amount of useful information for protected areas' managers. Finally, we suggest the use of RDM as an admissible alternative when it is not possible to individuate a suitable set of

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Bufonis Venenum by Using TLC, HPLC, and LC-MS for Different Extraction Methods

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    Lee Hyo-Jae

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Toad venom, called Chan-Su, is a traditional Oriental medicine secreted from the auricular and the skin glands of the Bufo bufo gargarizanz Cantor or B. melanosticus Schneider and has been widely used in China, Korea and other parts of Asia for the treatment of pain, heart conditions, and cancer. We examined the concentrations of the main chemical constituents within a commerciallyavailable toad venom product and compared the levels for different extraction methods. Methods: Toad venom was extracted using either cold or hot water, ethanol (EtOH, methanol (MeOH, or ethyl acetate (EtOAc, was fractionated using precipitation or reflux, and was then analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC, high-performance liquid chromatography (HTLC, and liquid chroma-tography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Individual components were identified by comparisons of the retention times, the ultraviolet spectra, and mass spectras and differences in chemical constituents for different solvents and extraction methods are presented. Results:Components with authentic standards, including serotonin and bufodienolides (cinobufagen, bufalin, cinobufalin, and resibufogenin, were detected. The water extract of toad venom contained the greatest amount of serotonin (75.7 ± 0.1 mg/g, but very small amounts of bufodienolides (3.8 ± 0.0 mg/g. In contrast, the use of MeOH or EtOH extraction solutions resulted in 5-26 times higher concentrations of bufodienolides, with only trace amounts of serotonin. The relative and the absolute concentrations of the component also varied based on the extraction method; i.e., EtOH extracts yielded the greatest total amounts of bufodienolides, and EtOAc precipitation had the lowest amounts of bufodienolides. Conclusions: Toad venom consists of serotonin and several bufodienolides, and the choice of solvent to extract chemical the constituents is important as a way to enrich the purported active components for treating different

  11. Use of stress-hormone levels and habitat selection to assess functional connectivity of a landscape for an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Agnès; Léna, Jean-Paul; Deblois, Sandrine; Joly, Pierre

    2012-10-01

    The influence of landscape matrix on functional connectivity has been clearly established. Now methods to assess the effects of different land uses on species' movements are needed because current methods are often biased. The use of physiological parameters as indicators of the level of resistance to animal movement associated with different land uses (i.e., matrix resistance) could provide estimates of energetic costs and risks to animals migrating through the matrix. To assess whether corticosterone levels indicate matrix resistance, we conducted experiments on substrate choice and measured levels of corticosterone before and after exposure of toads (Bufo bufo) to 3 common substrates (ploughed soil, meadow, and forest litter). We expected matrix resistance and hormone levels to increase from forest litter (habitat of the toad) to meadows to ploughed soil. Adult toads had higher corticosterone levels on ploughed soil than on forest litter or meadow substrates. Hormone levels did not differ between forest litter and meadow. Toads avoided moving onto ploughed soil. Corticosterone levels in juvenile toads were not related to substrate type; however, hormone levels decreased as humidity increased. Juveniles, unlike adults, did not avoid moving over ploughed soil. The difference in responses between adult and juvenile toads may have been due to differences in experimental design (for juveniles, entire body used to measure corticosterone concentration; for adults, saliva alone); differences in the scale of sensory perception of the substrate (juveniles are much smaller than adults); or differences in cognitive processes between adult and juvenile toads. Adults probably had experience with different substrate types, whereas juveniles first emerging from the water probably did not. As a consequence, arable lands could act as ecological traps for juvenile toads. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Ground Water Chemistry Changes before Major Earthquakes and Possible Effects on Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel A.; Halliday, Tim; Balderer, Werner P.; Leuenberger, Fanny; Newcomer, Michelle; Cyr, Gary; Freund, Friedemann T.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to major earthquakes many changes in the environment have been documented. Though often subtle and fleeting, these changes are noticeable at the land surface, in water, in the air, and in the ionosphere. Key to understanding these diverse pre-earthquake phenomena has been the discovery that, when tectonic stresses build up in the Earth’s crust, highly mobile electronic charge carriers are activated. These charge carriers are defect electrons on the oxygen anion sublattice of silicate minerals, known as positive holes, chemically equivalent to O− in a matrix of O2−. They are remarkable inasmuch as they can flow out of the stressed rock volume and spread into the surrounding unstressed rocks. Travelling fast and far the positive holes cause a range of follow-on reactions when they arrive at the Earth’s surface, where they cause air ionization, injecting massive amounts of primarily positive air ions into the lower atmosphere. When they arrive at the rock-water interface, they act as •O radicals, oxidizing water to hydrogen peroxide. Other reactions at the rock-water interface include the oxidation or partial oxidation of dissolved organic compounds, leading to changes of their fluorescence spectra. Some compounds thus formed may be irritants or toxins to certain species of animals. Common toads, Bufo bufo, were observed to exhibit a highly unusual behavior prior to a M6.3 earthquake that hit L’Aquila, Italy, on April 06, 2009: a few days before the seismic event the toads suddenly disappeared from their breeding site in a small lake about 75 km from the epicenter and did not return until after the aftershock series. In this paper we discuss potential changes in groundwater chemistry prior to seismic events and their possible effects on animals. PMID:21776211

  13. Keystone predators (eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens) reduce the impacts of an aquatic invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.

    2006-01-01

    Predation, competition, and their interaction are known to be important factors that influence the structure of ecological communities. In particular, in those cases where a competitive hierarchy exists among prey species, the presence of certain keystone predators can result in enhanced diversity in the prey community. However, little is known regarding the influence of keystone predator presence on invaded prey communities. Given the widespread occurrence of invasive species and substantial concern regarding their ecological impacts, studies on this topic are needed. In this study I used naturalistic replications of an experimental tadpole assemblage to assess the influence of predatory eastern newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, on the outcome of interspecific competition among native and nonindigenous tadpoles. When newts were absent, the presence of the tadpoles of one invasive species, the Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, resulted in decreased survival and growth rate of the dominant native species, Bufo terrestris, and dominance of the tadpole assemblage by O. septentrionalis. However, the presence of one adult newt generally reduced or eliminated the negative impacts of O. septentrionalis tadpoles, resulting in comparable survival and performance of native species in invaded and noninvaded treatments. Differential mortality among the tadpole species suggests that newts preyed selectively on O. septentrionalis tadpoles, supporting the hypothesis that newts acted as keystone predators in the invaded assemblage. The presence of nonindigenous larval cane toads, Bufo marinus, did not significantly affect native species, and this species was not negatively affected by the presence of newts. Collectively, these results suggest that eastern newts significantly modified the competitive hierarchy of the invaded tadpole assemblage and reduced the impacts of a competitively superior invasive species. If general, these results suggest that the presence of

  14. Ground Water Chemistry Changes before Major Earthquakes and Possible Effects on Animals

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    Friedemann T. Freund

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior to major earthquakes many changes in the environment have been documented. Though often subtle and fleeting, these changes are noticeable at the land surface, in water, in the air, and in the ionosphere. Key to understanding these diverse pre-earthquake phenomena has been the discovery that, when tectonic stresses build up in the Earth’s crust, highly mobile electronic charge carriers are activated. These charge carriers are defect electrons on the oxygen anion sublattice of silicate minerals, known as positive holes, chemically equivalent to O– in a matrix of O2–. They are remarkable inasmuch as they can flow out of the stressed rock volume and spread into the surrounding unstressed rocks. Travelling fast and far the positive holes cause a range of follow-on reactions when they arrive at the Earth’s surface, where they cause air ionization, injecting massive amounts of primarily positive air ions into the lower atmosphere. When they arrive at the rock-water interface, they act as •O radicals, oxidizing water to hydrogen peroxide. Other reactions at the rock-water interface include the oxidation or partial oxidation of dissolved organic compounds, leading to changes of their fluorescence spectra. Some compounds thus formed may be irritants or toxins to certain species of animals. Common toads, Bufo bufo, were observed to exhibit a highly unusual behavior prior to a M6.3 earthquake that hit L’Aquila, Italy, on April 06, 2009: a few days before the seismic event the toads suddenly disappeared from their breeding site in a small lake about 75 km from the epicenter and did not return until after the aftershock series. In this paper we discuss potential changes in groundwater chemistry prior to seismic events and their possible effects on animals.

  15. Fossil amphibians and reptiles from Tegelen (Province of Limburg) and the early Pleistocene palaeoclimate of The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Andrea; Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; van den Hoek Ostende, Lars W.; Delfino, Massimo

    2018-05-01

    Few Quaternary herpetofaunas have been recovered from The Netherlands. Among these, the one coming from the early Pleistocene site of the Russel-Tiglia-Egypte pit near Tegelen is of particular interest, because it is the type locality of the recently described, last western European palaeobatrachid anuran, Palaeobatrachus eurydices. The large number of fossil remains of amphibians and reptiles found in the pit are representative of a very diverse fauna, including at least 17 taxa: Triturus gr. T. cristatus, Lissotriton sp., Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, Bombina sp., Pelophylax sp., Rana sp., Hyla gr. H. arborea, Pelodytes sp., Mauremys sp., Lacerta sp., Lacertidae indet., Anguis gr. A. fragilis, cf. Pseudopus sp., "colubrines" indet., Natrix natrix and Vipera sp. Emys orbicularis, previously reported from a different Tegelen pit, is not present in this assemblage. Palaeoclimatic conditions reconstructed based on the herpetofaunistic association indicate a humid subtropical climate (Cfa according to the Köppen-Geiger classification of climates) for Tegelen during the TC5 section of the Tiglian, with low, but fairly regular rainfalls during the year. Mean annual temperature was 13.4 ± 0.3 °C and mean annual precipitation was 542 ± 50 mm. Moreover, three dry months were present during summer and early autumn, resulting in a much drier climate than the one present at Tegelen today. Nevertheless, the occurrence of the water-dwelling P. eurydices suggests the persistence of suitable permanent water bodies during the whole year, and the survival of this taxon in this part of Europe might have been allowed by the generally humid climate.

  16. Seasonal patterns of activity and community structure in an amphibian assemblage at a pond network with variable hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Leonardo; Bologna, Marco A.; Luiselli, Luca

    2007-03-01

    We studied community structure and seasonal activity patterns in a system of four ponds with seasonally-variable hydrology at a Mediterranean area in central Italy. We used a set of field methods to assess species presence and relative frequency of observation. The network of ponds was inhabited by six species of amphibians, two salamanders and four frogs. The breeding phenology of the six species did not vary remarkably among ponds, but there were significant differences among species in use of ponds. Factorial analysis of pond similarity drawn from percentage composition of the amphibian fauna, revealed that each of the four ponds was treatable as independent units, with no influence of relative inter-pond distance. PCA analysis allowed us to spatially arrange the amphibian species into three main groups: two were monospecific groups (i.e., Triturus vulgaris and Bufo bufo) and the third consisted of those species that selected not only the largest-deepest ponds, but also the ephemeral ones (i.e., Triturus carnifex, Hyla intermedia, the green frogs and Rana dalmatina). Our results suggest that the inter-pond differences in riparian vegetation, water depth, aquatic vegetation structure/abundance, and soil composition may produce differences among pond ecological characteristics (i.e., water turbidity and temperature, shelter availability, abundance of oviposition micro-sites), which may in turn influence different patterns of use by amphibians. To our knowledge, this is the first study emphasizing the potential role of heterochrony in the maintenance of a high species richness in Mediterranean amphibian communities. Preservation of freshwater vertebrate biodiversity requires management and protection not only of the main ponds and water bodies but also the temporary and ephemeral shallow ponds.

  17. Mapping the Relative Probability of Common Toad Occurrence in Terrestrial Lowland Farm Habitat in the United Kingdom.

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    Rosie D Salazar

    Full Text Available The common toad (Bufo bufo is of increasing conservation concern in the United Kingdom (UK due to dramatic population declines occurring in the past century. Many of these population declines coincided with reductions in both terrestrial and aquatic habitat availability and quality and have been primarily attributed to the effect of agricultural land conversion (of natural and semi-natural habitats to arable and pasture fields and pond drainage. However, there is little evidence available to link habitat availability with common toad population declines, especially when examined at a broad landscape scale. Assessing such patterns of population declines at the landscape scale, for instance, require an understanding of how this species uses terrestrial habitat.We intensively studied the terrestrial resource selection of a large population of common toads in Oxfordshire, England, UK. Adult common toads were fitted with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags to allow detection in the terrestrial environment using a portable PIT antenna once toads left the pond and before going into hibernation (April/May-October 2012 and 2013. We developed a population-level resource selection function (RSF to assess the relative probability of toad occurrence in the terrestrial environment by collecting location data for 90 recaptured toads.The predicted relative probability of toad occurrence for this population was greatest in wooded habitat near to water bodies; relative probability of occurrence declined dramatically > 50 m from these habitats. Toads also tended to select habitat near to their breeding pond and toad occurrence was negatively related to urban environments.

  18. Effects of amphibian chytrid fungus on individual survival probability in wild boreal toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, D.S.; Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Bartelt, P.E.; Corn, P.S.; Hossack, B.R.; Lambert, B.A.; Mccaffery, R.; Gaughan, C.

    2010-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis is linked to the worldwide decline of amphibians, yet little is known about the demographic effects of the disease. We collected capture-recapture data on three populations of boreal toads (Bufo boreas [Bufo = Anaxyrus]) in the Rocky Mountains (U.S.A.). Two of the populations were infected with chytridiomycosis and one was not. We examined the effect of the presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]; the agent of chytridiomycosis) on survival probability and population growth rate. Toads that were infected with Bd had lower average annual survival probability than uninfected individuals at sites where Bd was detected, which suggests chytridiomycosis may reduce survival by 31-42% in wild boreal toads. Toads that were negative for Bd at infected sites had survival probabilities comparable to toads at the uninfected site. Evidence that environmental covariates (particularly cold temperatures during the breeding season) influenced toad survival was weak. The number of individuals in diseased populations declined by 5-7%/year over the 6 years of the study, whereas the uninfected population had comparatively stable population growth. Our data suggest that the presence of Bd in these toad populations is not causing rapid population declines. Rather, chytridiomycosis appears to be functioning as a low-level, chronic disease whereby some infected individuals survive but the overall population effects are still negative. Our results show that some amphibian populations may be coexisting with Bd and highlight the importance of quantitative assessments of survival in diseased animal populations. Journal compilation. ?? 2010 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original US government works.

  19. Phylogeny of caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona) based on complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear RAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro, Diego; Gower, David J; Oommen, Oommen V; Wilkinson, Mark; Zardoya, Rafael

    2004-11-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of five individual caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) representing five of the six recognized families: Rhinatrema bivittatum (Rhinatrematidae), Ichthyophis glutinosus (Ichthyophiidae), Uraeotyphlus cf. oxyurus (Uraeotyphlidae), Scolecomorphus vittatus (Scolecomorphidae), and Gegeneophis ramaswamii (Caeciliidae). The organization and size of these newly determined mitogenomes are similar to those previously reported for the caecilian Typhlonectes natans (Typhlonectidae), and for other vertebrates. Nucleotide sequences of the nuclear RAG1 gene were also determined for these six species of caecilians, and the salamander Mertensiella luschani atifi. RAG1 (both at the amino acid and nucleotide level) shows slower rates of evolution than almost all mt protein-coding genes (at the amino acid level). The new mt and nuclear sequences were compared with data for other amphibians and subjected to separate and combined phylogenetic analyses (Maximum Parsimony, Minimum Evolution, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian Inference). All analyses strongly support the monophyly of the three amphibian Orders. The Batrachia hypothesis (Gymnophiona, (Anura, Caudata) receives moderate or good support depending on the method of analysis. Within Gymnophiona, the optimal tree (Rhinatrema, (Ichthyophis, Uraeotyphlus), (Scolecomorphus, (Gegeneophis Typhlonectes) agrees with the most recent morphological and molecular studies. The sister group relationship between Rhinatrematidae and all other caecilians, that between Ichthyophiidae and Uraeotyphlidae, and the monophyly of the higher caecilians Scolecomorphidae+Caeciliidae+Typhlonectidae, are strongly supported, whereas the relationships among the higher caecilians are less unambiguously resolved. Analysis of RAG1 is affected by a spurious local rooting problem and associated low support that is ameliorated when outgroups are excluded. Comparisons of trees using the

  20. Insulin receptor-related receptor as an extracellular pH sensor involved in the regulation of acid-base balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Alexander G; Zozulya, Sergey A; Deyev, Igor E; Eladari, Dominique

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies of insulin receptor-related receptor (IRR) revealed its unusual property to activate upon extracellular application of mildly alkaline media, pH>7.9. The activation of IRR with hydroxyl anion has typical features of ligand-receptor interaction; it is specific, dose-dependent, involves the IRR extracellular domain and is accompanied by a major conformational change. IRR is a member of the insulin receptor minifamily and has been long viewed as an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase since no peptide or protein agonist of IRR was found. In the evolution, IRR is highly conserved since its divergence from the insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors in amphibia. The latter two cannot be activated by alkali. Another major difference between them is that unlike ubiquitously expressed insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptors, IRR is found in specific sets of cells of only some tissues, most of them being exposed to extracorporeal liquids of extreme pH. In particular, largest concentrations of IRR are in beta-intercalated cells of the kidneys. The primary physiological function of these cells is to excrete excessive alkali as bicarbonate into urine. When IRR is removed genetically, animals loose the property to excrete bicarbonate upon experimentally induced alkalosis. In this review, we will discuss the available in vitro and in vivo data that support the hypothesis of IRR role as a physiological alkali sensor that regulates acid-base balance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Emerging recognition and activation mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Buckmaster

    Full Text Available Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus. These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  2. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  3. Uptake of propranolol, a cardiovascular pharmaceutical, from water into fish plasma and its effects on growth and organ biometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Stewart F.; Huggett, Duane B.; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Hetheridge, Malcolm J.; Kinter, Lewis B.; Ericson, Jon. F.; Sumpter, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals in the environment (PIE) are of importance since these compounds are designed to affect biological receptors/enzymes that are often conserved across vertebrate families. Across-species extrapolation of these therapeutic targets suggests potential for impacting amphibia and fish in the aquatic environment. Due to the scarcity of relevant ecotoxicological data, the long-tem impact of PIE remains a research question. Efficient use of mammalian data has been proposed to better understand and predict the potential for a given pharmaceutical to impact the environment. Using a model cardiovascular pharmaceutical (propranolol, a non-specific β 1 /β 2 -adrenergic antagonist), the hypothesis that mammalian data can be used to predict toxicity in fish was tested. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)) have β-adrenergic signalling mechanisms analogous to human cardiovascular receptors that respond to pharmacological doses of agonists and antagonists. Trout absorbed propranolol from water such that after 40 days of exposure, the linear relationship was [plasma] = 0.59[water] (n = 31, r = 0.96). Growth rate was affected only at very high aqueous concentrations (10-day growth NOEC = 1.0 and growth LOEC = 10 mg/l). Growth recovered with time (40-day growth NOEC = 10 mg/l), suggesting possible adaptation to the pharmaceutical, although the internal plasma concentration in trout exposed to 10 mg propranolol/l of water was higher than the mammalian therapeutic plasma concentration. Additional endpoints suggested subtle changes of liver and heart size at much lower concentrations may have occurred, although these were not concentration-related. There was, however, a dose-dependent effect upon overall body condition. The trout plasma concentrations at these effective aqueous concentrations fell within the range of mammalian effective plasma concentrations, supporting the potential for developing 'read-across' from mammalian pharmacology safety data to fish

  4. Percepção entomológica por docentes e discentes do município de Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Frida Hatsue Modro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n2p153 Este trabalho objetivou identificar e interpretar a percepção entomológica de alunos e professores residentes em Santa Cruz do Xingu, região do Médio Araguaia. Entrevistas semi-estruturadas foram realizadas em dezembro de 2006 com alunos e professores dos ensinos fundamental, médio e Educação de Jovens e Adultos em dezembro de 2006, no Município de Santa Cruz do Xingu, Mato Grosso. Dos seres vivos percebidos como “insetos” por todos os entrevistados, 82,75% pertenceram à Classe Insecta, as demais citações foram pertencentes ao Reino Fungi e a outras Classes do Reino Animalia (Amphibia, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Gastropoda, Mammalia e Reptilia. Os “insetos” foram definidos, como bichos pequenos, nojentos ou perigosos. Em contato com os “insetos”, 76% dos entrevistados admitiram matá-los e a maior razão para tal reação foi o dano psicológico causado pela presença destes animais (65%. Para 78% dos entrevistados, os “insetos” foram seres sem importância positiva. Devido ao pouco conhecimento sobre os seus aspectos positivos, a percepção dos “insetos” por alunos e professores residentes da região de Santa Cruz do Xingu está relacionada, principalmente, à atribuição de qualidades negativas a estes animais, provocando reações de agressividade contra os “insetos” assim que percebidos no ambiente.

  5. Traps of carnivorous pitcher plants as a habitat: composition of the fluid, biodiversity and mutualistic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Peroutka, Marianne; Lendl, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants (CPPs) use cone-shaped leaves to trap animals for nutrient supply but are not able to kill all intruders of their traps. Numerous species, ranging from bacteria to vertrebrates, survive and propagate in the otherwise deadly traps. This paper reviews the literature on phytotelmata of CPPs. Fluid as a Habitat The volumes of pitchers range from 0·2 mL to 1·5 L. In Nepenthes and Cephalotus, the fluid is secreted by the trap; the other genera collect rain water. The fluid is usually acidic, rich in O(2) and contains digestive enzymes. In some taxa, toxins or detergents are found, or the fluid is extremely viscous. In Heliamphora or Sarracenia, the fluid differs little from pure water. Diversity Pitcher inquilines comprise bacteria, protozoa, algae, fungi, rotifers, crustaceans, arachnids, insects and amphibia. The dominant groups are protists and Dipteran larvae. The various species of CPPs host different sets of inquilines. Sarracenia purpurea hosts up to 165 species of inquilines, followed by Nepenthes ampullaria with 59 species, compared with only three species from Brocchinia reducta. Reasons for these differences include size, the life span of the pitcher as well as its fluid. MUTUALISTIC: Activities Inquilines closely interact with their host. Some live as parasites, but the vast majority are mutualists. Beneficial activities include secretion of enzymes, feeding on the plant's prey and successive excretion of inorganic nutrients, mechanical break up of the prey, removal of excessive prey and assimilation of atmospheric N(2). There is strong evidence that CPPs influence their phytotelm. Two strategies can be distinguished: (1) Nepenthes and Cephalotus produce acidic, toxic or digestive fluids and host a limited diversity of inquilines. (2) Genera without efficient enzymes such as Sarracenia or Heliamphora host diverse organisms and depend to a large extent on their symbionts for prey utilization.

  6. Using catenas for GIS-based mapping of NW Mediterranean littoral habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Simone; Cefalì, Maria Elena; Terradas, Marc; Chappuis, Eglantine; Ballesteros, Enric

    2014-06-01

    Studies aimed at describing habitats and mapping their distributions are pivotal to implementing management plans and to effectively guide conservation measures. We developed a novel approach of data collection and entry (CAT-LIT) to establish a detailed cartography of the littoral habitats found along the Catalan coast (Spain). Field data were recorded using coded, two-digit hierarchical lists (e.g. Aa, Ab, etc.) of horizons found at each point along the coast, called catenas. The horizons were either dominated by species (on the rocky bottoms) or sediment types (on the beaches) and corresponded to LPRE, EUNIS and CORINE habitats. Catenas were transferred into a database and calculations about the extent of bottom types, habitats, and catenas themselves along the coast were carried out with GIS tools. In addition, habitat link richness was calculated and represented using network analysis programs. The application of CAT-LIT to the Catalan coast showed that the habitats dominated by the lichen Verrucaria amphibia and the flattened barnacle Euraphia depressa and those dominated by the barnacle Chthamalus spp. were almost ubiquitous. Those dominated by the red alga Corallina elongata, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the red alga Rissoella verruculosa were also common. Because of the frequency of their connections, those habitats formed a huge hub of links in the networks. By using catenas, the habitats can be viewed using GIS based programs keeping the catena as the main informational and ecological unit. The catenas allow maximum compactness when vertically distributed habitats are to be shown on a 2D map. The complete cartography and dataset on the spatial distribution of the littoral habitats from Catalonia is valuable for coastal management and conservation to study changes in the habitat distribution and relate such changes to anthropogenic pressures. Furthermore, the CAT-LIT can be easily adapted to shores of other seas and oceans to obtain accurate

  7. "Legal highs"--toxicity in the clinical and medico-legal aspect as exemplified by suicide with bk-MBDB administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojek, Sebastian; Kłys, Małgorzata; Strona, Marcin; Maciów, Martyna; Kula, Karol

    2012-10-10

    The easily available "legal highs", which are products containing psychoactive substances, such as cathinones, piperazines and synthetic cannabinoids, are abused by adolescents in Poland and in the world as alternatives to classic drugs, such as amphetamines or marijuana. The majority of these potentially dangerous substances are still legal and they are associated with a risk of severe poisoning or even death, and provide new challenges in clinical and forensic toxicological practice. Investigations in the field of "designer drugs" may be well illustrated by the case of a suicide of a 21-year old male who ingested a specified dose of a preparation called "Amphi-bi-a" that contains bk-MBDB, chemically 2-methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl) butan-1-one, which belongs to the cathinone group, as a synthetic euphoric empathogen and psychoactive stimulant that is chemically similar to MDMA. It is one of more common components of "legal highs" examined in Poland and other countries. The documentation of the case includes a clinical assessment of the patient's health status performed during his almost 4-h hospitalization before death, autopsy and histological examinations supported by toxicological findings revealing bk-MBDB at extremely high concentrations (at 20 mg/l in the blood and 33 mg/kg in the liver); hence, this body of evidence contributes to knowledge in the field of "designer drugs". Inventions of designers of new psychoactive xenobiotics, which are much in demand, especially in view of the dynamic Internet marketing, which drums up narcobusiness, must be balanced by a national strategy developed by medical, legal and educational circles in the modern civilized world in order to prevent the spreading of the phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of different levels of UV-B radiation on marine epilithic communities: a short-term microcosm study

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    R. A. Danilov

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Epilithic communities from brackish coastal water of the east coast of Sweden were studied in order to reveal their responses to different levels of UV-B radiation. The experiment was conducted for seven days in an indoor microcosm system. The epilithic communities were exposed daily to different doses of UV-B radiation: 1, 3, 5 and 7 hours, respectively. The intensity of the UV-B radiation used was similar to that in natural environments. After seven days clear shifts both in species composition and community structure were observed. All species of diatoms showed negative correlation with enhanced levels of UV-B. On the other hand, abundance of cyanobacteria was positively correlated with enhanced levels of UV-B (Calothrix aeruginea, R=0.49;Oscillatoria amphibia, R=0.93; Pseudanabaena mucicola, R=0.26. Communities dominated by diatoms and green algae at the initial stage of the experiment did show a drastic decrease in diatom abundance under UV-B stress and finally became dominated by cyanobacteria. Among green algae the abundance of Cladophora sericea correlated positively (R=0.33 with enhanced exposure to UV-B, while Monoraphidium-species exhibited negative correlation to UV-B. Otherwise, no significant correlation between other green algae species identified and UV-B stress could be detected. We conclude that UV-B radiation, even at lower levels, is capable to induce severe changes to marine epilithic communities. The trends revealed in the present study predict a shift from communities dominated by diatoms and green algae to those dominated by cyanobacteria.

  9. Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae from Malacomys longipes (Rodentia: Muridae in Gabon, first record of the genus in the Ethiopian Realm

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    Bain Odile

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichospirura aethiopica n. sp. is described from unidentified tubular structures (pancreatic ducts? near the stomach of the murid Malacomys longipes Milne-Edwards, 1877 in Gabon. The extremely long and narrow buccal capsule, posterior position of the vulva, unequal spicules and absence of caudal alae readily identified the specimens as belonging to Trichospirura Smith & Chitwood, 1967, but a combination of several characters distinguished them from the described species in this genus. Males of the new species are characterized by the absence of precloacal papillae, the presence of four pairs of postcloacal papillae and a left spicule length of 165–200 μm. With only five nominal and one unnamed species, the host range of Trichospirura extends into the Neotropical, Indo-Malayan and Ethiopian Realms and comprises three classes of vertebrates, Amphibia, Reptilia and Mammalia, suggesting a larger species diversity than that currently recorded. Detection is difficult as predilection sites are often outside the gut lumen. It was noted that, irrespective of their geographic origin, species from mammals share certain characters (shorter left spicule and absence of precloacal papillae that oppose them to those from amphibians and reptiles. A hypothesis for the origin of Trichospirura in mammals through a remote host-switching event in tupaiids in southern Asia, likely facilitated by the intermediate hosts, and for their subsequent migration to the Ethiopian and finally Neotropical Realm is proposed. Regarding the two species from anurans and saurians in the Antilles, one or two host-switching events are considered equally possible, based on morphological characters.

  10. Climate and environment of the earliest West European hominins inferred from amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages: Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit, Atapuerca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Bailon, Salvador; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Bennàsar, Maria; Rofes, Juan; López-García, Juan Manuel; Huguet, Rosa; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José Maria; Carbonell, Eudald

    2010-11-01

    The Sima del Elefante cave, in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain), is famous for the fact that level TE9 of its Lower Red Unit recently delivered the oldest hominin remains of Western Europe, identified as Homo antecessor and dated by biostratigraphy and radiometric methods to ca 1.2 Ma. Given the importance of this discovery, every effort is being made to reconstruct the landscapes where these hominins once thrived. The amphibian and squamate reptile assemblage of the Sima del Elefante Lower Red Unit is here studied for the first time. The faunal list comprises at least 17 species (roughly 12,000 bone fossil remains): Salamandra salamandra, Triturus cf. marmoratus, Alytes obstetricans, Pelobates cultripes, Pelodytes punctatus, Bufo bufo, Bufo calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana sp., cf. Pelophylax sp., Lacerta s.l., small-sized indeterminate lacertids, Anguis fragilis, Natrix cf. natrix, Natrix cf. maura, Coronella cf. girondica and Vipera sp. As the amphibians and squamate reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the amphibian and squamate reptile assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The results from the squamate and amphibian study indicate that during the hominin presence the mean annual temperature (MAT = 10-13 °C) was always slightly warmer than at present and the mean annual precipitation (MAP = 800-1000 mm) was greater than today in the Burgos area. The landscape had open habitats in the vicinity of the Atapuerca caves throughout the sequence, with wet points in the surrounding area, and a predominance of humid meadows and open woodlands. These results mainly agree with those for large mammals, small mammals and the pollen analysis. The climate and landscape of TE-LRU are very similar to those reconstructed for the TD6 "Aurora Stratum

  11. Macroinvertebrates as tadpole food: importance and body size relationships Macroinvertebrados como alimento de girinos: importância e relações com tamanho de corpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Dutra

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates as food were recorded for three anurans tadpoles: Hyla saxicola (Bokermann, 1964 (Hylidae, Scinax machadoi (Bokermann & Sazima, 1973 (Hylidae, and Bufo rubescens (Lutz, 1925 (Bufonidae. These species are commonly found in the mountain streams at Serra do Cipó National Park, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Tadpoles were collected in pools of second-order reach in Mascates stream and third and fourth order reaches of Indaiá stream from March-October, 2003. Biometrical data were recorded before dissecting each individual and a feeding importance index was estimated. Eight taxa of chironomids and three taxa of mayfly exuviae were found in the guts, but no significantly differences were found between tadpole species (ANOVA, p > 0.05. The results support the drift transport hypothesis that predicts that tadpoles commonly ingest suspended matter in lotic ecosystems, are generalist feeders, and macroinvertebrates are probably incidental ingested.A presença de macroinvertebrados como item na dieta de girinos foi estudada para as espécies Hyla saxicola (Bokermann, 1964 (Hylidae, Scinax machadoi (Bokermann & Sazima, 1973 (Hylidae e Bufo rubescens (Lutz, 1925 (Bufonidae. Estas espécies são comumente encontradas nos córregos de altitude no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os girinos foram coletados em poções em um trecho de segunda ordem no córrego Mascates, e em trechos de terceira e quarta ordens no córrego Indaiá, entre março e outubro de 2003. Medidas biométricas foram mensuradas antes da dessecação de cada indivíduo e foi estimado um índice de importância de alimentação para os macroinvertebrados encontrados. Oito taxa de Chironomidae e três taxa de exúvias de Ephemeroptera foram encontrados, mas não houve diferenças significativas entre os macroinvertebrados encontrados nas espécies de girinos (ANOVA, p > 0,05. Os resultados obtidos corroboram a hipótese de transporte por

  12. Diversity and dynamics of amphibians in floodplain ecosystems of the Samara river

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    O. V. Zhukov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High emphasis is placed on amphibian importance as a buffer system, which has inhibiting effect on technogenic transformation of biogeocoenoses. Issues of the animals’ use in biological restoration, ecological rehabilitation of technogenic landscapes and in bioindication of environmental conditions are covered. Сhange in any component of the ecosystem leads to changing of the whole ecosystem. Anuran amphibians are extremely vulnerable to harmful effects of many factors of natural and anthropogenic origin. That is why, the destruction of forests, draining of wetlands, global climate change, global and local environmental pollution lead to complete disappearance or drastic decrease in numbers of many species of amphibians, reduction and fragmentation of their habitats, increased diversity and overall proportion of morphological anomalies in the natural populations of this group of animals. Recent studies of morphological changes in amphibians are increasingly being used to assess the state of the natural state of their populations and quality of their environment. In the biogeocenoses which are in the conditions of transformation amphibians have a number of advantages relative to their activity, the rate of reproduction, and euribiont character. Practical recommendations on protection and enrichment of the regional herpetofauna are given. The impact of the number and species diversity of amphibians on forest ecosystems of the steppe Dnieperin various conditions is assessed. Parametric entropy factors, the coefficient of biodiversity helped to identify the dominant species of amphibians. Taking into account the influence of predictors, there is the possibility to determine the number and species diversity of amphibians in the conditions of floodplain lime-ash forest. As a result of recording, the following species were caught: Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768, Rana arvalis Nilsson, 1842, Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758, Bombina bombina (Linnaeus, 1758

  13. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos Influenza in heterothermics

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    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino do tipo A e tipo B. O mesmo ocorreu com serpentes recém chegadas. Quanto ao teste de inibição da hemaglutinação dos soros dos répteis observou-se títulos protetores de anticorpos aos vírus influenza tipo A (origens humana e eqüina e tipo B. Com soro de sapo não se observou reação de inibição da hemaglutinação porém, 83,3% das rãs obtiveram médias de 40UIH para algumas cepas. Conclui-se que animais heterotérmicos podem oferecer condições de hospedeiros aos vírus influenza, assim como susceptibilidade à infecção.The objective was to study Orthomyxovirus in heterothermic animals. Blood samples from snakes (genus Bothrops and Crotalus and from toads and frogs (genus Bufo and Rana were collected to evaluate the red cell receptors and antibodies specific to influenza virus by the hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests, respectively. Both snakes and toads kept in captivity presented receptors in their red cells and antibodies specific to either influenza virus type A (human and equine origin or influenza type B. The same was observed with recently captured snakes. Concerning the influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibodies protective levels were observed in the reptiles' serum, against influenza type A and type B. Unlike the toads, 83.3% of the frogs presented mean levels of Ab 40HIU for some influenza strains. It was concluded that heterothermic animals could offer host conditions to the influenza

  14. The nerve protection and in vivo therapeutic effect of Acalypha indica extract in frogs

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    Ernie H. Purwaningsih

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim To demonstrate nerve protection and/or treatment effect of Acalypha indica Linn. extract on nerve paralysis induced by subcutaneus injection of pancuronium bromide on frog’s back.Methods The study was performed on sixty frogs (Bufo melanostictus Schneider that divided into two groups, i.e. the neuro-protection and neuro-therapy group. Each group was divided further into 6 sub-treatment groups: negative control group treated by water and positive control group treated by piracetam, treatment groups received the extracts 200, 300, 400, 500 mg/kgBW. Pancuronium bromide 0.2% (1 : 20 dilutions were injected subcutaneously as muscle relaxant. The protective effect was studied by giving the extract orally, 1 hour prior to injection; while the therapeutic effect of the extract was studied by 10 minute treatment after injecting pancuronium bromide solution. The parameters measured were the onset and duration of paralysis (in minutes and the recovery time (time needed to recover into normal condition.Results The study showed significantly different protective effect of Acalypha indica Linn. root water extract at 400 and 500 mg/KgBW compared to negative control group and positive control group (piracetam (p < 0.05; while the therapeutic effect was obvious at the dose 200-500 mg/KgBW compared to negative control group (p = 0.000. There was no significant difference compared to positive control group (piracetam, except at 300 mg/KgBW (p = 0.012.Conclusion These results have proven that the water extract of Acalypha indica Linn. root has comparable protective and treatment effect on nerves system, as piracetam, but further studies should be performed to provide more evidences particularly pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on two animal models that commonly used. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:96-102Keywords: Acalypha indica Linn, Bufo melanostictus Schneider, nerve-protection

  15. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan

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    Davit Vasilyan

    2017-03-01

    , Bombina, Hyla, Bufo bufo, and a small part of this assemblage included Eastern Palaearctic taxa (e.g. Salamandrella, Tylototriton, Bufotes viridis. For several taxa (e.g. Mioproteus, Hyla, Bombina, Rana temporaria, the Western Siberian occurrences represented their most eastern Eurasian records. The most diverse collection of fossil remains was found in the Middle Miocene. Less diversity has been registered towards the Early Pleistocene, potentially due to the progressive cooling of the climate in the Northern Hemisphere. The results of our study showed higher-amplitude changes of precipitation development in Western Siberia from the Early Miocene to the Pliocene, than previously assumed.

  16. Intoxicação por veneno de sapo em um canino Toad venom intoxication in a dog

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    Luciana Sonne

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O sapo do gênero Bufo possui nas suas glândulas paratóides uma secreção mucóide contendo toxinas como bufaginas e Bufotoxinas, que são esteróides cardiogênicos. Os cães podem atacar os sapos, entrando em contato com o veneno por meio das mucosas. Um canino, da raça Bulldog Francês, foi encaminhado ao Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS para a necropsia com histórico de provável intoxicação por veneno de sapo. Na necropsia o canino apresentava pulmões aumentados de volume, avermelhados e com edema, e rins de coloração vermelho-escura. As alterações microscópicas indicaram congestão, hemorragia e edema pulmonar. Nos rins, no baço e nos linfonodos foi observada congestão. As análises toxicológicas para os venenos de rotina foram negativas. Porém, a investigação do veneno de sapo a partir de cromatografia por camada delgada e gasosa demonstrou resultado positivo, revelando ser esta a causa da morte do canino.The toads of the genus Bufo produce, in their parotoid glands, a mucoid secretion containing toxins such as bufagins and Bufotoxins, which are cardiogenic steroids. The mucous membranes of dogs can absorb this venom when they attack the toads. A French bulldog with a history of probable toad venom intoxication was referred to Veterinary Pathology Section of Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS for necropsy. The necropsy revealed enlarged, reddish, edematous lungs, and kidneys displaying a dark red color. The microscopic alterations indicated the presence of congestion, hemorrhage, and pulmonary edema. Congestion was observed in the kidneys, spleen and lymph nodes. The routine toxicological analyses for venom detection were negative. Nevertheless, the toad venom test result was positive as assessed by thin layer and gas chromatography, indicating that toad venom intoxication was the cause of death.

  17. Neogene amphibians and reptiles (Caudata, Anura, Gekkota, Lacertilia, and Testudines) from the south of Western Siberia, Russia, and Northeastern Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Zazhigin, Vladimir S; Böhme, Madelaine

    2017-01-01

    The present-day amphibian and reptile fauna of Western Siberia are the least diverse of the Palaearctic Realm, as a consequence of the unfavourable climatic conditions that predominate in this region. The origin and emergence of these herpetofaunal groups are poorly understood. Aside from the better-explored European Neogene localities yielding amphibian and reptile fossil remains, the Neogene herpetofauna of Western Asia is understudied. The few available data need critical reviews and new interpretations, taking into account the more recent records of the European herpetofauna. The comparison of this previous data with that of European fossil records would provide data on palaeobiogeographic affiliations of the region as well as on the origin and emergence of the present-day fauna of Western Siberia. An overview of the earliest occurrences of certain amphibian lineages is still needed. In addition, studies that address such knowledge gaps can be useful for molecular biologists in their calibration of molecular clocks. In this study, we considered critically reviewed available data from amphibian and reptile fauna from over 40 Western Siberian, Russian and Northeastern Kazakhstan localities, ranging from the Middle Miocene to Early Pleistocene. Herein, we provided new interpretations that arose from our assessment of the previously published and new data. More than 50 amphibians and reptile taxa were identified belonging to families Hynobiidae, Cryptobranchidae, Salamandridae, Palaeobatrachidae, Bombinatoridae, Pelobatidae, Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, and Emydidae. Palaeobiogeographic analyses were performed for these groups and palaeoprecipitation values were estimated for 12 localities, using the bioclimatic analysis of herpetofaunal assemblages. The Neogene assemblage of Western Siberia was found to be dominated by groups of European affinities, such as Palaeobatrachidae, Bombina, Hyla , Bufo bufo , and a small part of this assemblage

  18. β-adrenergic relaxation of smooth muscle: differences between cells and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheid, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were carried out in an attempt to resolve the controversy about the Na + dependence of β-adrenergic relaxation in smooth muscle. Previous studies on isolated smooth muscle cells from the toad stomach had suggested that at least some of the actions of β-adrenergic agents, including a stimulatory effect on 45 Ca efflux, were dependent on the presence of a normal transmembrane Na + gradient. Studies by other investigators using tissues derived from mammalian sources had suggested that the relaxing effect of β-adrenergic agents was Na + independent. Uncertainty remained as to whether these discrepancies reflected differences between cells and tissues or differences between species. Thus, in the present studies, the authors utilized both tissues and cells from the same source, the stomach muscle of the toad Bufo marinus, and assessed the Na + dependence of β-adrenergic relaxation. They found that elimination of a normal Na + gradient abolished β-adrenergic relaxation of isolated cells. In tissues, however, similar manipulations had no effect on relaxation. The reasons for this discrepancy are unclear but do not appear to be attributable to changes in smooth muscle function following enzymatic dispersion. Thus the controversy concerning the mechanisms of β-adrenergic relaxation may reflect inherent differences between tissues and cells

  19. Reacción de Galli Mainini para el diagnóstico precoz del embarazo

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    Gilberto Angel Mejía

    1949-11-01

    el diagnóstico precoz del embarazo, se deriva del conjunto de trabajos realizados por Houssay y su escuela, quienes desde el año de 1922 venían trabajando en forma intensa e ininterrumpida, sobre anatomía histología y fisiología gonadales, observando las relaciones entre éstas y las gonadotrofinas en diversos batracios. En el año de 1929 hallaron la liberación de los espermatozoides en el testículo del Bufo arenarum Hensel, por la estimulación de las gonadotrofinas hipofisiarias y aunque numerosos trabajos se publicaron al respecto en los años posteriores, sólo en marzo de 1947 Carlos Galli Mainini publicó su primer trabajo, realizado sobre 19 casos, marcando el primer eslabón en esta reacción que ha sustituído a cuantas se han aplicado para el diagnóstico precoz del embarazo, por su exactitud y rapidez.

  20. Phylogenic aspects of the amphibian dual olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kazumi; Saito, Shouichiro; Oikawa, Toshihiro; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenic significance of the subdivision of dual olfactory system is reviewed mainly on the basis of our findings by electron microscopy and lectin histochemistry in the three amphibian species. The dual olfactory system is present in common in these species and consists of the projection from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and that from the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE) to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The phylogenic significance of subdivisions in the dual olfactory system in the amphibian must differently be interpreted. The subdivision of the MOB into its dorsal region (D-MOB) and ventral region (V-MOB) in Xenopus laevis must be attributed to the primitive features in their olfactory receptors. The middle cavity epithelium lining the middle cavity of this frog possesses both ciliated sensory cells and microvillous sensory cells, reminding the OE in fish. The subdivision of the AOB into the rostral (R-AOB) and caudal part (C-AOB) in Bufo japonicus formosus must be regarded as an advanced characteristic. The lack of subdivisions in both MOB and AOB in Cynops pyrrhogaster may reflect their phylogenic primitiveness. Since our lectin histochemistry to detect glycoconjugates expressed in the olfactory pathway reveals the subdivisions in the dual olfactory system in the amphibian, the glycoconjugates may deeply participate in the organization and function of olfactory pathways in phylogeny.

  1. Wildlife use of back channels associated with islands on the Ohio River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadnik, A.K.; Anderson, James T.; Wood, P.B.; Bledsoe, K.

    2009-01-01

    The back channels of islands on the Ohio River are assumed to provide habitat critical for several wildlife species. However, quantitative information on the wildlife value of back channels is needed by natural resource managers for the conservation of these forested islands and embayments in the face of increasing shoreline development and recreational boating. We compared the relative abundance of waterbirds, turtles, anurans, and riparian furbearing mammals during 2001 and 2002 in back and main channels of the Ohio River in West Virginia. Wood ducks (Aix sponsa), snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina), beavers (Castor canadensis), and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) were more abundant in back than main channels. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and American toads (Bufo americanus) occurred more frequently on back than main channels. These results provide quantitative evidence that back channels are important for several wildlife species. The narrowness of the back channels, the protection they provide from the main current of the river, and their ability to support vegetated shorelines and woody debris, are characteristics that appear to benefit these species. As a conservation measure for important riparian wildlife habitat, we suggest limiting building of piers and development of the shoreline in back channel areas. ?? 2009, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  2. The activity of superoxide dismutase in animal liver and erythrocyte at Sea Area nearby Dayawan Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ge; Cai, Yana; Chen, Huizhen

    1995-01-01

    Many tests, the effect of ionizing radiation on SOD in vivo and vitro, had proved that the irradiation can cause the SOD activity to decrease with the increase of irradiation dose, change some physicochemical properties and structure. This artical was to study the activity of SOD in Fish (Thearpon jorbua) and Toad(Bufo melanostictus) liver erythrocyte at sea area nearby Dayawan Nuclear Power Station (Nps). We found that the SOD activity in fish liver, after NPS revolved one year, was higher than that of before revoling (7.30 ± 1.35U/mg protein, 5.49 ±1.56 U/mg protein respectively). The SOD activity in the toad liver at NPS revolving one year after was decreased (4.54 ± 0.75 U/mg protein 5.68± 1.49U/mg protein P < 0.001) but in erythrocyte increased (2.32 ± 0.75 U/mg Hb, 0.70 ± 0.33 U/mg Hb P < 0.001). These results indicated that the SOD activity was changed in different with the animal variety. The effect of irradiation on fish at present was absent, on toad need to research in the future

  3. The dual rod system of amphibians supports colour discrimination at the absolute visual threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovanovich, Carola A M; Koskela, Sanna M; Nevala, Noora; Kondrashev, Sergei L; Kelber, Almut; Donner, Kristian

    2017-04-05

    The presence of two spectrally different kinds of rod photoreceptors in amphibians has been hypothesized to enable purely rod-based colour vision at very low light levels. The hypothesis has never been properly tested, so we performed three behavioural experiments at different light intensities with toads ( Bufo ) and frogs ( Rana ) to determine the thresholds for colour discrimination. The thresholds of toads were different in mate choice and prey-catching tasks, suggesting that the differential sensitivities of different spectral cone types as well as task-specific factors set limits for the use of colour in these behavioural contexts. In neither task was there any indication of rod-based colour discrimination. By contrast, frogs performing phototactic jumping were able to distinguish blue from green light down to the absolute visual threshold, where vision relies only on rod signals. The remarkable sensitivity of this mechanism comparing signals from the two spectrally different rod types approaches theoretical limits set by photon fluctuations and intrinsic noise. Together, the results indicate that different pathways are involved in processing colour cues depending on the ecological relevance of this information for each task.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. Seasonal migrations, body temperature fluctuations, and infection dynamics in adult amphibians

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    David R. Daversa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Risks of parasitism vary over time, with infection prevalence often fluctuating with seasonal changes in the annual cycle. Identifying the biological mechanisms underlying seasonality in infection can enable better prediction and prevention of future infection peaks. Obtaining longitudinal data on individual infections and traits across seasons throughout the annual cycle is perhaps the most effective means of achieving this aim, yet few studies have obtained such information for wildlife. Here, we tracked spiny common toads (Bufo spinosus within and across annual cycles to assess seasonal variation in movement, body temperatures and infection from the fungal parasite, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Across annual cycles, toads did not consistently sustain infections but instead gained and lost infections from year to year. Radio-tracking showed that infected toads lose infections during post-breeding migrations, and no toads contracted infection following migration, which may be one explanation for the inter-annual variability in Bd infections. We also found pronounced seasonal variation in toad body temperatures. Body temperatures approached 0 °C during winter hibernation but remained largely within the thermal tolerance range of Bd. These findings provide direct documentation of migratory recovery (i.e., loss of infection during migration and escape in a wild population. The body temperature reductions that we observed during hibernation warrant further consideration into the role that this period plays in seasonal Bd dynamics.

  5. Fatal attraction: adaptations to prey on native frogs imperil snakes after invasion of toxic toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Mattias; Phillips, Benjamin L; Shine, Richard

    2009-08-07

    Adaptations that enhance fitness in one situation can become liabilities if circumstances change. In tropical Australia, native snake species are vulnerable to the invasion of toxic cane toads. Death adders (Acanthophis praelongus) are ambush foragers that (i) attract vertebrate prey by caudal luring and (ii) handle anuran prey by killing the frog then waiting until the frog's chemical defences degrade before ingesting it. These tactics render death adders vulnerable to toxic cane toads (Bufo marinus), because toads elicit caudal luring more effectively than do native frogs, and are more readily attracted to the lure. Moreover, the strategy of delaying ingestion of a toad after the strike does not prevent fatal poisoning, because toad toxins (unlike those of native frogs) do not degrade shortly after the prey dies. In our laboratory and field trials, half of the death adders died after ingesting a toad, showing that the specialized predatory behaviours death adders use to capture and process prey render them vulnerable to this novel prey type. The toads' strong response to caudal luring also renders them less fit than native anurans (which largely ignored the lure): all toads bitten by adders died. Together, these results illustrate the dissonance in behavioural adaptations that can arise following the arrival of invasive species, and reveal the strong selection that occurs when mutually naive species first interact.

  6. Effects of an invasive plant on population dynamics in toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Daniel A; Green, David M

    2013-10-01

    When populations decline in response to unfavorable environmental change, the dynamics of their population growth shift. In populations that normally exhibit high levels of variation in recruitment and abundance, as do many amphibians, declines may be difficult to identify from natural fluctuations in abundance. However, the onset of declines may be evident from changes in population growth rate in sufficiently long time series of population data. With data from 23 years of study of a population of Fowler's toad (Anaxyrus [ = Bufo] fowleri) at Long Point, Ontario (1989-2011), we sought to identify such a shift in dynamics. We tested for trends in abundance to detect a change point in population dynamics and then tested among competing population models to identify associated intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The most informative models of population growth included terms for toad abundance and the extent of an invasive marsh plant, the common reed (Phragmites australis), throughout the toads' marshland breeding areas. Our results showed density-dependent growth in the toad population from 1989 through 2002. After 2002, however, we found progressive population decline in the toads associated with the spread of common reeds and consequent loss of toad breeding habitat. This resulted in reduced recruitment and population growth despite the lack of significant loss of adult habitat. Our results underscore the value of using long-term time series to identify shifts in population dynamics coincident with the advent of population decline. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Sara J.; Russell, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    The deposition of chemical pollutants into roadside wetlands from runoff is a current environmental concern. In northern latitudes, a major pollutant in runoff water is salt (NaCl), used as de-icing agents. In this study, 26 roadside ponds were surveyed for amphibian species richness and chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests (LC 50 ) were performed on five locally common amphibian species using a range of environmentally significant NaCl concentrations. Field surveys indicated that spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) did not occupy high chloride ponds. American toads (Bufo americanus) showed no pond preference based on chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests showed spotted salamanders and wood frogs were most sensitive to chloride, and American toads were the least. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) showed intermediate sensitivities. We concluded that chloride concentrations in ponds due to application of de-icing salts, influenced community structure by excluding salt intolerant species. - Salt toxicity is presented as a mechanism affecting the distribution of amphibians and structure of amphibian communities in roadside wetlands

  8. Effects of atrazine on embryos, larvae, and adults of anuran amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allran, J W; Karasov, W H

    2001-04-01

    We examined the effects of atrazine (0-20 mg/L) on embryos, larvae, and adult anuran amphibian species in the laboratory. Atrazine treatments did not affect hatchability of embryos or 96-h posthatch mortality of larvae of Rana pipiens, Rana sylvatica, or Bufo americanus. Furthermore, atrazine had no effect on swimming speed (measured for R. pipiens only). However, there was a dose-dependent increase in deformed larvae of all three species with increasing atrazine concentration. In adult R. pipiens, atrazine increased buccal and thoracic ventilation, indicating respiratory distress. However, because atrazine had no affect on hemoglobin, this respiratory distress was probably not indicative of reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Frogs exposed to the highest atrazine concentration stopped eating immediately after treatment began and did not eat during the 14-d experiment. However, no decreases in mass were measured even for frogs that were not eating, probably because of compensatory fluid gain from edema. Atrazine concentrations found to be deleterious to amphibian embryos and adults are considerably higher than concentrations currently found in surface waters in North America. Therefore, direct toxicity of atrazine is probably not a significant factor in recent amphibian declines.

  9. Amphibian embryo and parental defenses and a larval predator reduce egg mortality from water mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Touchon, Justin C; Warkentin, Karen M

    2006-10-01

    Water molds attack aquatic eggs worldwide and have been associated with major mortality events in some cases, but typically only in association with additional stressors. We combined field observations and laboratory experiments to study egg stage defenses against pathogenic water mold in three temperate amphibians. Spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) wrap their eggs in a protective jelly layer that prevents mold from reaching the embryos. Wood frog (Rana sylvatica) egg masses have less jelly but are laid while ponds are still cold and mold growth is slow. American toad (Bufo americanus) eggs experience the highest infection levels. They are surrounded by thin jelly and are laid when ponds have warmed and mold grows rapidly. Eggs of all three species hatched early when infected, yielding smaller and less developed hatchlings. This response was strongest in B. americanus. Precocious hatching increased vulnerability of wood frog hatchlings to invertebrate predators. Finally, despite being potential toad hatchling predators, R. sylvatica tadpoles can have a positive effect on B. americanus eggs. They eat water mold off infected toad clutches, increasing their hatching success.

  10. Hallucinogenic drugs in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    2015-01-01

    The American continent is very rich in psychoactive plants and fungi, and many pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures used them for magical, therapeutic and religious purposes. The archaeological, ethno-historical and ethnographic evidence of the use of hallucinogenic substances in Mesoamerica is reviewed. Hallucinogenic cactus, plants and mushrooms were used to induce altered states of consciousness in healing rituals and religious ceremonies. The Maya drank balché (a mixture of honey and extracts of Lonchocarpus) in group ceremonies to achieve intoxication. Ritual enemas and other psychoactive substances were also used to induce states of trance. Olmec, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec used peyote, hallucinogenic mushrooms (teonanacatl: Psilocybe spp) and the seeds of ololiuhqui (Turbina corymbosa), that contain mescaline, psilocybin and lysergic acid amide, respectively. The skin of the toad Bufo spp contains bufotoxins with hallucinogenic properties, and was used since the Olmec period. Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), wild tobacco (Nicotiana rustica), water lily (Nymphaea ampla) and Salvia divinorum were used for their psychoactive effects. Mushroom stones dating from 3000 BC have been found in ritual contexts in Mesoamerica. Archaeological evidence of peyote use dates back to over 5000 years. Several chroniclers, mainly Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, described their effects in the sixteenth century. The use of psychoactive substances was common in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican societies. Today, local shamans and healers still use them in ritual ceremonies in Mesoamerica. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Adjustment of web-building initiation to high humidity: a constraint by humidity-dependent thread stickiness in the spider Cyrtarachne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yuki G; Kusahara, Miki; Maezono, Yasunori; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2014-07-01

    Cyrtarachne is an orb-weaving spider belonging to the subfamily Cyrtarachninae (Araneidae) which includes triangular-web-building Pasilobus and bolas spiders. The Cyrtarachninae is a group of spiders specialized in catching moths, which is thought to have evolved from ordinary orb-weaving araneids. Although the web-building time of nocturnal spiders is in general related to the time of sunset, anecdotal evidence has suggested variability of web-building time in Cyrtarachne and its closely related genera. This study has examined the effects of temperature, humidity, moonlight intensity, and prey (moths) availability on web-building time of Cyrtarachne bufo, Cyrtarachne akirai, and Cyrtarachne nagasakiensis. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) have revealed that humidity, and not prey availability, was the essential variable that explained the daily variability of web-building time. Experiments measuring thread stickiness under different humidities showed that, although the thread of Cyrtarachne was found to have strong stickiness under high humidity, low humidity caused a marked decrease of thread stickiness. By contrast, no obvious change in stickiness was seen in an ordinary orb-weaving spider, Larinia argiopiformis. These findings suggest that Cyrtarachne adjusts its web-building time to favorable conditions of high humidity maintaining strong stickiness, which enables the threads to work efficiently for capturing prey.

  12. Differences and Similarities among Parotoid Macrogland Secretions in South American Toads: A Preliminary Biochemical Delineation

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    Juliana Mozer Sciani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians are known by cutaneous glands, spread over the skin, containing toxins (proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, steroidal bufadienolides, and alkaloids used as chemical defense against predators and microbial infection. Toads are characterized by the presence of parotoid macroglands. The common toads have lately been divided into two genera: Bufo (Europe, Asia, and Africa and Rhinella (South America. Basal Rhaebo genus is exclusively of Central America and Amazon region. Although Rhinella and Rhaebo are related, species may share differences due to the diversity of environments that they live in. In this work, we have performed a biochemical characterization of the components of the poison of eight Rhinella species and one Rhaebo by means of RP-HPLC with either UV or MS detection and by SDS-PAGE, in order to verify whether phylogenetic and biological differences, such as habitat, diet, and defensive strategies, between them may also be reflected in poison composition. Although some components were common among the secretions, we were able to identify exclusive molecules to some species. The fact that closely related animals living in different habitats secrete different molecules into the skin is an indication that biological features, and not only evolution, seem to directly influence the skin secretion composition.

  13. Counterbalancing effects of maternal mercury exposure during different stages of early ontogeny in American toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Christine M; Hopkins, William A; Bodinof, Catherine M; Budischak, Sarah A; Wada, Haruka; Unrine, Jason M

    2011-10-15

    Maternal transfer of environmental contaminants is a disadvantageous parental effect which can have long-lasting implications for offspring fitness. We investigated the effects of mercury (Hg) on the reproductive success of female amphibians and the subsequent effects of maternal transfer on the development of their offspring. American toads (Bufo americanus) maternally transferred Hg to their eggs, and there was a negative relationship between Hg concentrations and the percentage of viable hatchlings produced in clutches. However, when we continued to monitor larvae that successfully hatched, we found 21% greater metamorphic success in larvae from Hg-exposed mothers compared to reference larvae. The negative effect in the embryonic stage and positive effect in the larval stage counterbalanced one another, ultimately resulting in no difference in predicted terrestrial recruitment, regardless of maternal Hg exposure. Our findings demonstrate that maternal effects on survival manifesting at different stages in ontogeny have the potential to produce complicated outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of isolates within species of anuran trypanosomes using random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Z R; Desser, S S

    1996-01-01

    A total of 20 decamer primers were used to generate random applied polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers from 5 isolates of Trypanosoma fallisi, 3 isolates of T. ranarum, 2 isolates of T. rotatorium, and 2 isolates of T. rotatorium-like trypanosomes in addition to 2 species from the American Type Culture Collection, T. chattoni (ATCC 50294) and Trypanosoma sp. (ATCC 50295). A slight polymorphism was observed among the four isolates of T. fallisi obtained form American toads, Bufo americanus, collected in Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada, and an isolate obtained from the same species of host collected in Marquette, Michigan, United States, and produced similarity coefficients ranging from 80.7% to 96.9%. Pronounced polymorphism was recorded among the three isolates of T. ranarum from bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, collected in Ontario, Canada, and in Maryland, United States, and from a Northern leopard frog, R. pipiens, collected in Minnesota (USA). The similarity coefficients ranged from 54.7% to 59.5%, suggesting that alleles of these isolates were conserved over a wide geographic range. The high degree of polymorphism observed in two isolates of T. rotatorium from a bullfrog collected in Ontario and two isolates of a T. rotatorium-like parasite from the green frog R. clamitans, collected in Louisiana (USA) suggests that they are different species. These results reflect the high similarity among isolates from the same geographic location and the pronounced polymorphism apparent among isolates from distant geographic locations.

  15. Hemoparasites of the genus Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) and hemogregarines in Anurans of the São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul States - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Denise D M; O'dwyer, Lucia H; Ribeiro, Vitor C; Silva, Reinaldo J; Ferreira, Vanda L; Rodrigues, Rozangela B

    2009-06-01

    Wild animals are exposed to numerous pathogens, including hemoparasites. The Trypanosoma and hemogregarinegroup are frequently reported as parasites in anurans (frogs, tree frogs and toads). The identification of these hemoparasites is usually made through stage observation of their morphology in the peripheral blood of the host. There areno studies, however, based on the biological cycle of these hemoparasites. The objective of the present study was toevaluate the presence of hemogregarines and Trypanosoma spp. in anurans captured in the States of São Paulo andMato Grosso do Sul- Brazil and to perform the morphological and morphometric characterization of these hemoparasites. The species of anurans examined were: Dendropsophus nanus, D. minutus, Leptodactylus chaquensis L. podicipinus, L. labyrinthicus, L. fuscus, Bufo granulosus, B. schneideri, Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis, Trachicephalus venulosus, Scinax fuscovarius and Hypsiboas albopunctatus. Of the total of 40 animals studied, four (10%)were positive for hemogregarines and eight (20%) were positive for Trypanosoma spp. Hemogregarine gamontsshowed variable morphology and, in addition to intraerythrocytic forms, extraerythrocytic forms were also observed.Extremely different forms of Trypanosoma were observed, as described in the literature, with the broad and oval forms being the most common.

  16. Factors contributing to amphibian road mortality in a wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun GU, Qiang DAI, Qian WANG, Yuezhao WANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand road characteristics and landscape features associated with high road mortality of amphibians in Zoige Wetland National Nature Reserve, we surveyed road mortality along four major roads after rainfall in May and September 2007. Road mortality of three species, Rana kukunoris, Nanorana pleskei and Bufo minshanicus, was surveyed across 225 transects (115 in May and 110 in September. Transects were 100 m long and repeated every two kilometers along the four major roads. We used model averaging to assess factors that might determine amphibian road mortality. We recorded an average of 24.6 amphibian road mortalities per kilometer in May and 19.2 in September. Among road characteristics, road width was positively associated with road morality for R. kukunori and B. minshanicus. Traffic volume also increased the road mortality of B. minshanicus in September. Of the landscape features measured, area proportions of three types of grassland (wet, mesic and dry within 1 km of the roads, particularly that of wet grassland, significantly increased road mortality for R. kukunori and total mortality across all three species. To most effectively reduce road mortality of amphibians in the Zoige wetlands, we suggest better road design such as avoiding wet grasslands, minimizing road width, underground passes and traffic control measures. The implementation of public transit in the area would reduce traffic volume, and hence mortality [Current Zoology 57 (6: 768–774, 2011].

  17. Tracking the spring migration of a bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) across the Himalaya with satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Sàlim; Takekawa, John Y.; Douglas, David C.; Rahmani, Asad R.; Kanai, Yutaka; Nagendran, Meenakshi; Choudhury, Binod C.; Sharma, Shruti

    2000-01-01

    Soil-food-chain-pesticide wildlife relationships were investigated to learn the concentration of pesticide residues present in soils, macro-invertebrates, vertebrates, and seeds as a result of annual applications of aldrin at recommended rates for pest control. Two central Missouri cornfields treated witb aldrin at 1 lb/acre, for 16 and 15 of the past 17 years, were selected for study during 1965-67. Primary samples collected for residue analyses included soils, earthworms (Lumbricidae), crickets (GryIlidae), and two kinds of ground beetles (Carabidae) obtained during early April, June, August, and October. Vertebrates and plant seeds collected during 1967 included white-footed mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), toads (Bufo americanus), snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and Pituophis sayi), corn (Zea Mays), foxtail (Setaria Faberii), and annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Pesticide residues consisted primarily of dieldrin, the degradation product of aldrin. Combined aldrin and dieldrin residues, as two field all-season averages, wet weight basis, were: soils, 0.31 ppm; earthworms, 1.49 ppm; crickets, 0.23 ppm; Harpalus ground beetles, 1.10 ppm; Poecilus ground beetles, 9.67 ppm; white-footed mice, 0.98 ppm; toads, 3.53 ppm; garter snakes, 12.35 ppm; and corn, foxtail, and sunflower seeds less than 0.02 ppm each. Unusually high average residues (37.48 ppm) in Poecilus beetles during June, 1967, were attributed to abnormally high soil moisture and predacious feeding habits of these insects.

  18. Soil-food chain-pesticide wildlife relationships in aldrin-treated fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, L.J.

    1970-01-01

    Soil-food-chain-pesticide wildlife relationships were investigated to learn the concentration of pesticide residues present in soils, macro-invertebrates, vertebrates, and seeds as a result of annual applications of aldrin at recommended rates for pest control. Two central Missouri cornfields treated witb aldrin at 1 lb/acre, for 16 and 15 of the past 17 years, were selected for study during 1965-67. Primary samples collected for residue analyses included soils, earthworms (Lumbricidae), crickets (GryIlidae), and two kinds of ground beetles (Carabidae) obtained during early April, June, August, and October. Vertebrates and plant seeds collected during 1967 included white-footed mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), toads (Bufo americanus), snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis and Pituophis sayi), corn (Zea Mays), foxtail (Setaria Faberii), and annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Pesticide residues consisted primarily of dieldrin, the degradation product of aldrin. Combined aldrin and dieldrin residues, as two field all-season averages, wet weight basis, were: soils, 0.31 ppm; earthworms, 1.49 ppm; crickets, 0.23 ppm; Harpalus ground beetles, 1.10 ppm; Poecilus ground beetles, 9.67 ppm; white-footed mice, 0.98 ppm; toads, 3.53 ppm; garter snakes, 12.35 ppm; and corn, foxtail, and sunflower seeds less than 0.02 ppm each. Unusually high average residues (37.48 ppm) in Poecilus beetles during June, 1967, were attributed to abnormally high soil moisture and predacious feeding habits of these insects.

  19. Living in fast-flowing water: morphology of the gastromyzophorous tadpole of the bufonid Rhinella quechua (R. veraguensis group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, R; Lavilla, E O; Vera Candioti, M F; Camacho, T

    2009-12-01

    We describe the bufonid gastromyzophorous tadpoles of Rhinella quechua from montane forest streams in Bolivia. Specimens were cleared and stained, and the external morphology, buccopharyngeal structures, and the musculoskeletal system were studied. These tadpoles show a combination of some traits common in Rhinella larvae (e.g., emarginate oral disc with large ventral gap in the marginal papillae, labial tooth row formula 2/3, prenarial ridge, two infralabial papillae, quadratoorbital commissure present, larval otic process absent, mm. mandibulolabialis superior, interhyoideus posterior, and diaphragmatopraecordialis absent, m. subarcualis rectus I composed of three slips), some traits apparently exclusive for the described species of the R. veraguensis group (e.g., second anterior labial tooth row complete, lingual papillae absent, adrostral cartilages present), and some traits that are shared with other gastromyzophorous tadpoles (e.g., enlarged oral disc, short and wide articular process of the palatoquadrate, several muscles inserting on the abdominal sucker). In the context of the substantial taxonomic and nomenclatural changes that the former genus Bufo has undergone, and despite the conspicuous morphological differences related to the presence of an abdominal sucker, the larval morphology of R. quechua supports including it in the genus Rhinella and placing it close to species of the R. veraguensis assemblage. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Giardia agilis: Ultrastructure of the Trophozoites in the Frog Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês L Sogayar

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Intestine samples of Bufo sp. tadpoles with parasitism confirmed for Giardia agilis were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The G. agilis trophozoites were long and thin. The plasma membrane was sometimes undulated and the cytoplasm, adjacent to the dorsal and ventral regions, showed numerous vacuoles. The two nuclei presented prominent nucleoli. The cytoplasm was electron-dense with free ribosomes, glycogen and rough endoplasmic reticulum-like structures. Polyhedral inclusions were observed in the cytoplasm and outside the protozoan; some of these inclusions exhibited membrane disruption. The flagella ultrastructure is typical, with the caudal pair accompanied by the funis. Next to the anterior pair, osmiophilic material was noticed. The ventro-lateral flange was short and thick, supported by the marginal plates that penetrated into its distal extremity; only its distal portion had adjacent osmiophilic filament. The G. agilis trophozoites showed the general subcellular feature of the genus. However, the ventro-lateral flange ultrastructure was an intermediate type between G. muris and G. duodenalis.

  1. Distribution and pathogenicity of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in boreal toads from the grand teton area of western wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P.J.; St-Hilaire, S.; Bruer, S.; Corn, P.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the skin disease chytridiomycosis, has been linked to amphibian population declines and extinctions worldwide. Bd has been implicated in recent declines of boreal toads, Bufo boreas boreas, in Colorado but populations of boreal toads in western Wyoming have high prevalence of Bd without suffering catastrophic mortality. In a field and laboratory study, we investigated the prevalence of Bd in boreal toads from the Grand Teton ecosystem (GRTE) in Wyoming and tested the pathogenicity of Bd to these toads in several environments. The pathogen was present in breeding adults at all 10 sites sampled, with a mean prevalence of 67%. In an experiment with juvenile toadlets housed individually in wet environments, 106 zoospores of Bd isolated from GRTE caused lethal disease in all Wyoming and Colorado animals within 35 days. Survival time was longer in toadlets from Wyoming than Colorado and in toadlets spending more time in dry sites. In a second trial involving Colorado toadlets exposed to 35% fewer Bd zoospores, infection peaked and subsided over 68 days with no lethal chytridiomycosis in any treatment. However, compared with drier aquaria with dry refuges, Bd infection intensity was 41% higher in more humid aquaria and 81% higher without dry refuges available. Our findings suggest that although widely infected in nature, Wyoming toads may escape chytridiomycosis due to a slight advantage in innate resistance or because their native habitat hinders Bd growth or provides more opportunities to reduce pathogen loads behaviorally than in Colorado. ?? 2009 International Association for Ecology and Health.

  2. Radiation-induced changes of the developing nervous system of amphibians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    1986-01-01

    The nervous system of amphibians (Xenopus laevis and Bufo) is of an outstanding sensitivity against irradiation in the early periods of its tissue induction and development. This is descriptively shown by various pathological disturbances. Irradiated series showed a protracted course of development. The brains obtains lower relative weights and diminished absolute lengths although the body weight remained nearly constant. The distribution of pigmentation in the brains of treated animals was changed. This indicated radiation-induced disturbances. Further, the significance of pigmentation pattern for a distinct evaluation of histological effects is also confirmed by a coincidence between the gross visible anomalies of the brain and the number of pigment-sites. Examples of malformation are given by aplasias, hypoplasias, hyperplasias up to cases of cyclopia. In the peripheral nervous system of Xenopus the neuromuscular junctions of the musculus interhyoideus were examined. The majority of neural endplates in the irradiated cases showed a loss of Schwann cells. As a consequence a diffusion of the transmitter acetylcholine in the endplate-region must be suggested. Accordingly, the morphological compensation reaction was seen in a thickening and sprouting. (orig.)

  3. Do parasitic trematode cercariae demonstrate a preference for susceptible host species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany F Sears

    Full Text Available Many parasites are motile and exhibit behavioural preferences for certain host species. Because hosts can vary in their susceptibility to infections, parasites might benefit from preferentially detecting and infecting the most susceptible host, but this mechanistic hypothesis for host-choice has rarely been tested. We evaluated whether cercariae (larval trematode parasites prefer the most susceptible host species by simultaneously presenting cercariae with four species of tadpole hosts. Cercariae consistently preferred hosts in the following order: Anaxyrus ( = Bufo terrestris (southern toad, Hyla squirella (squirrel tree frog, Lithobates ( = Rana sphenocephala (southern leopard frog, and Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban tree frog. These host species varied in susceptibility to cercariae in an order similar to their attractiveness with a correlation that approached significance. Host attractiveness to parasites also varied consistently and significantly among individuals within a host species. If heritable, this individual-level host variation would represent the raw material upon which selection could act, which could promote a Red Queen "arms race" between host cues and parasite detection of those cues. If, in general, motile parasites prefer to infect the most susceptible host species, this phenomenon could explain aggregated distributions of parasites among hosts and contribute to parasite transmission rates and the evolution of virulence. Parasite preferences for hosts belie the common assumption of disease models that parasites seek and infect hosts at random.

  4. Influence of land use on metal concentrations in playa sediments and amphibians in the Southern High Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venne, Louise S. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, MS 1163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)]. E-mail: louise.venne@tiehh.ttu.edu; Cobb, George P. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, MS 1163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Coimbatore, Gopal [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, MS 1163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Smith, Loren M. [Wildlife and Fisheries Management Institute, Texas Tech University, MS 2125, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); McMurry, Scott T. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, MS 1163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The Southern High Plains (SHP) is a semi-arid region in which playa wetlands are the focal points of biodiversity. Playas are highly influenced by surrounding land use. Most of the SHP is in agricultural production (primarily cotton) with a history of arsenic-containing herbicide use. Metals influence reproduction and development in amphibians. We analyzed metal residues in playa sediment and whole body tissue of Spea spp. and Bufo cognatus metamorphs from two land uses: cropland and native grassland. Cd and Ni concentrations in B. cognatus tissues differed between land uses. Metal concentrations in Spea spp. tissues did not differ between land uses. Ba was higher in Spea spp. than B. cognatus collected from the same grassland playas, indicating differential habitat use. No correlations between sediment and tissue concentrations were found. Land use appeared to have little influence on metal concentrations and levels were below those known to cause effects in amphibians. - Land use surrounding playas has little effect on metal concentrations in sediments.

  5. Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Fred; Campbell, Earl W.; Allison, Allen; Pratt, Thane K.

    1999-01-01

    As an oceanic archipelago isolated from continental source areas, Hawaii lacks native terrestrial reptiles and amphibians, Polynesians apparently introduced seven gecko and skink species after discovering the islands approximately 1500 years ago, and another 15 reptiles and five frogs have been introduced in the last century and a half (McKeown 1996). The Polynesian introductions are probably inadvertent because the species involved are known stowaway dispersers (Gibbons 1985; Dye and Steadman 1990), In contrast, most of the herpetological introductions since European contact with Hawaii have been intentional. Several frog species were released for biocontrol of insects (e.g., Dendrobates auratus, Bufo marinus, Rana rugosa, Bryan 1932; Oliver and Shaw 1953), and most of the remaining species are released or escaped pets (e.g., Phelsuma spp., Chamaeleo jacksonii, Iguana iguana, McKeown 1996), Government-approved releases have not occurred for many years, but the rate of establishment of new species has increased in the past few decades because of the importation and subsequent release of pets.

  6. Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

    2012-02-01

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 μg/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 μg/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant.

  7. Within- and among-population level differences in response to chronic copper exposure in southern toads, Anaxyrus terrestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, Stacey L.; Flynn, R. Wesley; Erickson, Matthew R.; Scott, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental contaminants are implicated in the global decline of amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is a widespread contaminant that can be toxic at concentrations just above the normal physiological range. In the present study we examined the effects of chronic Cu aqueous exposure on embryos and larvae of southern toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) terrestris. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae, with tissue concentrations up to 27.5 μg Cu/g dry mass. Aqueous concentrations of Cu as low as 10 μg/L significantly reduced survival to the free-swimming stage and no larvae reached metamorphosis at concentrations above 15 μg/L. Clutches from populations with prior Cu exposure had the lowest survivorship. Among several populations there was significant variation in survivorship at different levels of Cu. More data are needed to understand the underlying causes of within- and among-population resilience to anthropogenic stressors. -- Highlights: ► Southern toad, Anaxyrus terrestris, embryos and larvae are highly sensitive to Cu. ► Significant variation in survivorship exists among clutches and populations. ► Clutches with prior Cu exposure had the lowest survivorship. ► Body burdens in larvae were up to 27.5 μg Cu/g dry mass. -- Capsule: Southern toad aquatic survival is significantly reduced at 15 μg Cu/L with variation in survivorship across clutches and populations

  8. Within- and among-population level differences in response to chronic copper exposure in southern toads, Anaxyrus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Stacey L; Flynn, R Wesley; Erickson, Matthew R; Scott, David E

    2013-06-01

    Environmental contaminants are implicated in the global decline of amphibian populations. Copper (Cu) is a widespread contaminant that can be toxic at concentrations just above the normal physiological range. In the present study we examined the effects of chronic Cu aqueous exposure on embryos and larvae of southern toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) terrestris. Measurable levels of Cu were found in larvae, with tissue concentrations up to 27.5 μg Cu/g dry mass. Aqueous concentrations of Cu as low as 10 μg/L significantly reduced survival to the free-swimming stage and no larvae reached metamorphosis at concentrations above 15 μg/L. Clutches from populations with prior Cu exposure had the lowest survivorship. Among several populations there was significant variation in survivorship at different levels of Cu. More data are needed to understand the underlying causes of within- and among-population resilience to anthropogenic stressors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxicity of a glufosinate- and several glyphosate-based herbicides to juvenile amphibians from the Southern High Plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinehart, Simon K; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Philip N; Haukos, David A

    2009-01-15

    Pesticide toxicity is often proposed as a contributing factor to the world-wide decline of amphibian populations. We assessed acute toxicity (48 h) of a glufosinate-based herbicide (Ignite 280 SL) and several glyphosate-based herbicide formulations (Roundup WeatherMAX, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Super Concentrate, Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Ready-To-Use Plus on two species of amphibians housed on soil or moist paper towels. Survival of juvenile Great Plains toads (Bufo cognatus) and New Mexico spadefoots (Spea multiplicata) was reduced by exposure to Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Ready-To-Use Plus on both substrates. Great Plains toad survival was also reduced by exposure to Roundup Weed and Grass Killer Super Concentrate on paper towels. New Mexico spadefoot and Great Plains toad survival was not affected by exposure to the two agricultural herbicides (Roundup WeatherMAX and Ignite 280 SL) on either substrate, suggesting that these herbicides likely do not pose an immediate risk to these species under field conditions.

  10. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on life-history stages of anurans from Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, K.P.; Licht, L.E. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation on life-history stages of anurans Bufo americanus, Hyla versicolor, Rana clamitans, and Rana sylvatica were tested. Eggs and larvae were not affected by uv-a at double normal outdoor levels. R. sylvatica embryos exposed to 30 minutes or more of artificially high intensity uv-b levels died. There was no effect on hatching levels for artificially high exposures of uv-b radiation for less than 15 minutes. A greater proportion of abnormal embryos occurred after exposure to 10 or 15 minutes of artificially high intensity treatment at 12 degree Celsius than at 20 degrees Celsius. Only larval R. clamitans showed some level of tolerance of artificially high uv-b levels. Ecologically relevant doses of uv-b had no effect on the developmental period of B. americanus, H. versicolor, and R. sylvatica. Older B. americanus exposed for the same length of time had higher survivorship than younger animals. The role of uv radiation in the presumed decline of amphibian populations was also discussed. 7 tabs., 43 refs.

  11. Amphibians at risk? Susceptibility of terrestrial amphibian life stages to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühl, Carsten A; Pieper, Silvia; Weber, Brigitte

    2011-11-01

    Current pesticide risk assessment does not specifically consider amphibians. Amphibians in the aquatic environment (aquatic life stages or postmetamorphic aquatic amphibians) and terrestrial living juvenile or adult amphibians are assumed to be covered by the risk assessment for aquatic invertebrates and fish, or mammals and birds, respectively. This procedure has been evaluated as being sufficiently protective regarding the acute risk posed by a number of pesticides to aquatic amphibian life stages (eggs, larvae). However, it is unknown whether the exposure and sensitivity of terrestrial living amphibians are comparable to mammalian and avian exposure and sensitivity. We reviewed the literature on dermal pesticide absorption and toxicity studies for terrestrial life stages of amphibians, focusing on the dermal exposure pathway, that is, through treated soil or direct overspray. In vitro studies demonstrated that cutaneous absorption of chemicals is significant and that chemical percutaneous passage, P (cm/h), is higher in amphibians than in mammals. In vivo, the rapid and substantial uptake of the herbicide atrazine from treated soil by toads (Bufo americanus) has been described. Severe toxic effects on various amphibian species have been reported for field-relevant application rates of different pesticides. In general, exposure and toxicity studies for terrestrial amphibian life stages are scarce, and the reported data indicate the need for further research, especially in light of the global amphibian decline. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  12. Species-and stage-specific differences in trace element tissue concentrations in amphibians: implications for the disposal of coal-combustion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, John H.; Hopkins, William A.; Jackson, Brian P.

    2005-01-01

    Information on species-and stage-specific patterns of contaminant accumulation is generally lacking for amphibians, yet such information could provide valuable knowledge on how amphibians interact with contaminants. We assessed concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in whole bodies of larval, recently metamorphosed, and adult life stages in Bufo terrestris and Rana sphenocephala from a site that currently receives coal combustion waste (CCW) discharge, a site where CCW was formerly discharged that has undergone natural attenuation for 30 years, and a nearby reference site. For the majority of elements (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), concentrations were highest in larvae, but Se and Sr concentrations remained elevated in later life stages, likely because these elements are S and Ca analogs, respectively, and are thus retained throughout structural changes during metamorphosis. Element concentrations were generally higher in B. terrestris than in R. sphenocephala. Concentrations of As, Se, and Sr were up to 11-35 times higher in metamorphs emigrating from CCW-polluted wetlands compared to unpolluted wetlands, suggesting metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to nearby uncontaminated terrestrial habitats. In addition, anurans utilizing naturally revegetated sites up to 30 years after CCW disposal ceases are exposed to trace elements, although to a lesser degree than sites where CCW is currently discharged. - Results suggest that metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to non-contaminated habitats

  13. Metamorphosis of two amphibian species after chronic cadmium exposure in outdoor aquatic mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian larvae at contaminated sites may experience an alteration of metamorphic traits and survival compared to amphibians in uncontaminated conditions. Effects of chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure on the metamorphosis of American toads (Bufo americanus) and southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) were determined. The two species were reared separately from shortly after hatching through metamorphosis in outdoor mesocosms (1,325-L polyethylene cattle tanks) that simulated natural ponds and enhanced environmental realism relative to the laboratory. Both species exhibited a decrease in survival with increasing initial nominal aqueous Cd concentration. Cadmium treatment did not influence mass at metamorphosis for either species when survival was included as a covariate, but increased the age at metamorphosis for the American toads. The whole body Cd content of metamorphs increased with aqueous Cd treatment level for both species, and the American toads tended to possess more elevated residues. Cadmium quickly partitioned out of the water column and accumulated in and altered the abundance of the tadpoles' diet. Cadmium-contaminated sites may produce fewer metamorphs, and those that survive will metamorphose later and contain Cd. Interspecific differences in the response variables illustrate the importance of testing multiple species when assessing risk.

  14. Species-and stage-specific differences in trace element tissue concentrations in amphibians: implications for the disposal of coal-combustion wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, John H. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P.O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States); Hopkins, William A. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P.O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)]. E-mail: hopkins@srel.edu; Jackson, Brian P. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, P.O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2005-07-15

    Information on species-and stage-specific patterns of contaminant accumulation is generally lacking for amphibians, yet such information could provide valuable knowledge on how amphibians interact with contaminants. We assessed concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in whole bodies of larval, recently metamorphosed, and adult life stages in Bufo terrestris and Rana sphenocephala from a site that currently receives coal combustion waste (CCW) discharge, a site where CCW was formerly discharged that has undergone natural attenuation for 30 years, and a nearby reference site. For the majority of elements (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), concentrations were highest in larvae, but Se and Sr concentrations remained elevated in later life stages, likely because these elements are S and Ca analogs, respectively, and are thus retained throughout structural changes during metamorphosis. Element concentrations were generally higher in B. terrestris than in R. sphenocephala. Concentrations of As, Se, and Sr were up to 11-35 times higher in metamorphs emigrating from CCW-polluted wetlands compared to unpolluted wetlands, suggesting metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to nearby uncontaminated terrestrial habitats. In addition, anurans utilizing naturally revegetated sites up to 30 years after CCW disposal ceases are exposed to trace elements, although to a lesser degree than sites where CCW is currently discharged. - Results suggest that metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to non-contaminated habitats.

  15. Species- and stage-specific differences in trace element tissue concentrations in amphibians: implications for the disposal of coal-combustion wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe, J.H.; Hopkins, W.A.; Jackson, B.P. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (US)

    2005-07-01

    Information on species- and stage-specific patterns of contaminant accumulation is generally lacking for amphibians, yet such information could provide valuable knowledge on how amphibians interact with contaminants. We assessed concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, and Zn in whole bodies of larval, recently metamorphosed, and adult life stages in Bufo terrestris and Rana sphenocephala from a site that currently receives coal combustion waste (CCW) discharge, a site where CCW was formerly discharged that has undergone natural attenuation for 30 years, and a nearby reference site. For the majority of elements (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), concentrations were highest in larvae, but Se and Sr concentrations remained elevated in later life stages, likely because these elements are S and Ca analogs, respectively, and are thus retained throughout structural changes during metamorphosis. Element concentrations were generally higher in B. terrestris than in R. sphenocephala. Concentrations of As, Se, and Sr were up to 11-35 times higher in metamorphs emigrating from CCW-polluted wetlands compared to unpolluted wetlands, suggesting metamorphosed amphibians can transport trace elements from aquatic disposal basins to nearby uncontaminated terrestrial habitats. In addition, anurans utilizing naturally revegetated sites up to 30 years after CCW disposal ceases are exposed to trace elements, although to a lesser degree than sites where CCW is currently discharged.

  16. Microcosm investigations of stormwater pond sediment toxicity to embryonic and larval amphibians: Variation in sensitivity among species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snodgrass, Joel W. [Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD 21252 (United States)], E-mail: jsnodgrass@towson.edu; Casey, Ryan E. [Department of Chemistry, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD 21252 (United States); Joseph, Debra; Simon, Judith A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, 8000 York Road, Towson, MD 21252 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Stormwater ponds have become common features of modern development and often represent significant amounts of open space in urbanized areas. Although stormwater ponds may provide habitat for wildlife, factors responsible for producing variation in wildlife use of ponds have received limited attention. To investigate the role of variation in species tolerances of pollutants in structuring pond-breeding amphibian assemblages, we exposed species tolerant (Bufo americanus) and not tolerant (Rana sylvatica) of urbanization to pond sediments in laboratory microcosms. Pond microcosms had elevated sediment metal levels and chloride water concentrations. Among R. sylvatica embryos, exposure to pond sediments resulted in 100% mortality. In contrast, B. americanus embryos and larvae experienced only sublethal effects (i.e., reduced size at metamorphosis) due to pond sediment exposure. Our results suggest variation in pollutant tolerance among early developmental stages of amphibians may act in concert with terrestrial habitat availability to structure amphibian assemblages associated with stormwater ponds. - Variation among species in sensitivity to pollutants can influence stormwater pond amphibian assemblages.

  17. New and already known acanthocephalans from amphibians and reptiles in Vietnam, with keys to species of Pseudoacanthocephalus Petrochenko, 1956 (Echinorhynchidae) and Sphaerechinorhynchus Johnston and Deland, 1929 (Plagiorhynchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Omar M; Ha, Ngyuen Van; Heckmann, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    Adults of 2 new species in 2 orders of acanthocephalans obtained from the intestines of terrestrial amphibians and reptiles collected between 1998 and 2004 in Vietnam are described here. Pseudoacanthocephalus nguyenthileae n. sp. (Palaeacnthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) was collected from 5 species of terrestrial amphibians: (1) the common Sunda toad Bufo melanostictus Schneider (Bufonidae); (2) Paa verucospinosa (Bourret); (3) Gunther's Amoy frog Rana guentheri Boulenger; (4) Taipei frog R. taipehensis Denburgh (Ranidae), and (5) the Burmese whipping frog Polypedates mutus (Smith) (Racophoridae); as well as from the Chinese cobra Naja atra Cantor (Reptilia: Elapidae) and house gecko Hemidactylus frenatus Dumeril and Bibron (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Sphaerechinorhynchus maximesospinus n. sp. (Plagiorhynchidae: Sphaerechinorhynchinae) was isolated from a king cobra Ophiophagus hannah (cantor) (Reptilia: Elapidae). Cystacanths of Porrorchis houdemeri (Joyeux and Baer, 1935) Schmidt and Kuntz, 1967 (Plagiorhynchidae: Porrorchinae) obtained from the mesenteries of banded krait Bungarus fasciatus (Schneider) (Reptilia: Elapidae), a paratenic host, are reported for the first time. Keys to the species of Pseudoacanthocephalus and Sphaerechinorhynchus are included. Characteristic features distinguishing the new species from related taxa include: P. nguyenthileae has 15-19 (usually 16-18) proboscis hook rows, each with 5-6 hooks that progressively increase in length and size posteriorly. The largest, intermediate, and smallest proboscis hooks of S. maximesospinus are the middle, anterior, and posterior hooks, respectively; the proboscis and neck are enclosed in a membrane. Morphometric characteristics of P. nguyenthileae show host-related variability.

  18. Neurosteroids in Adult Hippocampus of Male and Female Rodents: Biosynthesis and Actions of Sex Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Hojo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain is not only the target of steroid hormones but also is able to locally synthesize steroids de novo. Evidence of the local production of steroids in the brain has been accumulating in various vertebrates, including teleost fish, amphibia, birds, rodents, non-human primates, and humans. In this review, we mainly focus on the local production of sex steroids in the hippocampal neurons of adult rodents (rats and mice, a center for learning and memory. From the data of the hippocampus of adult male rats, hippocampal principal neurons [pyramidal cells in CA1–CA3 and granule cells in dentate gyrus (DG] have a complete system for biosynthesis of sex steroids. Liquid chromatography with tandem-mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS enabled us to accurately determine the levels of hippocampal sex steroids including 17β-estradiol (17β-E2, testosterone (T, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which are much higher than those in blood. Next, we review the steroid synthesis in the hippocampus of female rats, since previous knowledge had been biased toward the data from males. Recently, we clarified that the levels of hippocampal steroids fluctuate in adult female rats across the estrous cycle. Accurate determination of hippocampal steroids at each stage of the estrous cycle is of importance for providing the account for the fluctuation of female hippocampal functions, including spine density, long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD, and learning and memory. These functional fluctuations in female had been attributed to the level of circulation-derived steroids. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that the dendritic spine density in CA1 of adult female hippocampus correlates with the levels of hippocampal progesterone and 17β-E2. Finally, we introduce the direct evidence of the role of hippocampus-synthesized steroids in hippocampal function including neurogenesis, LTP, and memory consolidation. Mild exercise (2 week of treadmill running elevated

  19. Uptake of propranolol, a cardiovascular pharmaceutical, from water into fish plasma and its effects on growth and organ biometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Stewart F. [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Global Safety Health and Environment, AstraZeneca, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham, Devon, TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Huggett, Duane B. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton Laboratories, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Hetheridge, Malcolm J. [Global Safety Health and Environment, AstraZeneca, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham, Devon, TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Kinter, Lewis B. [AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals US, 1800 Concord Pike, Wilmington, DE 19850 (United States); Ericson, Jon. F. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton Laboratories, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Sumpter, John P., E-mail: john.sumpter@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-26

    Pharmaceuticals in the environment (PIE) are of importance since these compounds are designed to affect biological receptors/enzymes that are often conserved across vertebrate families. Across-species extrapolation of these therapeutic targets suggests potential for impacting amphibia and fish in the aquatic environment. Due to the scarcity of relevant ecotoxicological data, the long-tem impact of PIE remains a research question. Efficient use of mammalian data has been proposed to better understand and predict the potential for a given pharmaceutical to impact the environment. Using a model cardiovascular pharmaceutical (propranolol, a non-specific {beta}{sub 1}/{beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic antagonist), the hypothesis that mammalian data can be used to predict toxicity in fish was tested. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)) have {beta}-adrenergic signalling mechanisms analogous to human cardiovascular receptors that respond to pharmacological doses of agonists and antagonists. Trout absorbed propranolol from water such that after 40 days of exposure, the linear relationship was [plasma] = 0.59[water] (n = 31, r = 0.96). Growth rate was affected only at very high aqueous concentrations (10-day {sup growth}NOEC = 1.0 and {sup growth}LOEC = 10 mg/l). Growth recovered with time (40-day {sup growth}NOEC = 10 mg/l), suggesting possible adaptation to the pharmaceutical, although the internal plasma concentration in trout exposed to 10 mg propranolol/l of water was higher than the mammalian therapeutic plasma concentration. Additional endpoints suggested subtle changes of liver and heart size at much lower concentrations may have occurred, although these were not concentration-related. There was, however, a dose-dependent effect upon overall body condition. The trout plasma concentrations at these effective aqueous concentrations fell within the range of mammalian effective plasma concentrations, supporting the potential for developing 'read-across' from

  20. Gene structure, transcripts and calciotropic effects of the PTH family of peptides in Xenopus and chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Power Deborah M

    2010-12-01

    have 2 genes and lack PTH-L. It is hypothesized that genes of the PTH family appeared at approximately the same time during the vertebrate radiation and evolved via gene duplication/deletion events. PTH-L was lost from the genome of eutherian mammals and PTH, which has a paracrine distribution in lower vertebrates, became the product of a specific endocrine tissue in Amphibia, the parathyroid gland. The PTHrP gene organisation diverged and became more complex in vertebrates and retained its widespread tissue distribution which is congruent with its paracrine nature.

  1. Recent and subrecent diet of the barn owl (Tyto alba in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuch Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We completed data on the diet of the barn owl (Tyto alba predominately from pellets for the period of the last 50 years from Slovakia. We analyzed material from 251 locations and 16 territorial units. The aggregate represents 119,231 pieces of prey from 47 species of mammals (Mammalia, 95.7% and 58 species of birds (Aves, 3.9%, with a small representation of amphibians, reptiles (Amphibia and Reptilia, 0.2% and invertebrates (Invertebrata, 0.2%. The obtaining of food among the owls is limited to synanthropic environments and the surrounding agricultural landscape, and the centre of its distribution in the recent period (i.e. the past 50 years: 1965-201 5 has been concentrated mainly on the southern parts of Slovakia. In this environment the common vole (Microtus arvalis, 59.6% is the primary prey. Additional prey are rodents of the family Muridae: Mus musculus (5.6%, Micromys minutus (2.2%, Apodemus microps (2.2%, A. flavicollis (2.0%, A. sylvaticus (1 .6% and A. agrarius (1 .5%; insectivores of the family Soricidae: Sorex araneus (6.2%, S. minutus (2.4%, Crocidura leucodon (4.8% and C. suaveolens (2.8%; and the house sparrow Passer domesticus (2.9%. In the higher situated Turcianska kotlina Basin the species M. arvalis (74.3% has higher domination, and instead of the white-toothed shrews the water shrews Neomys anomalus (2.8% and N. fodiens (1 .3% are more abundantly represented. In 3 localities owls focused on hunting bats; for example, in the church in Ratková the order Chiroptera made up 35.2% of prey. From the subrecent period (i.e. from before more than 50 years ago we evaluate 4 samples from the territory of Slovakia with 15,601 pieces of prey ofT. alba. Before more than 50 years ago owls were also more abundantly represented at higher elevations in Slovakia, evidence of which is Weisz’s collection of pellets from 1 6 localities in the Ondavská vrchovina Upland in the years 1945 to 1963, but also a registry of data from the 19th and

  2. Trouble in the aquatic world: How wildlife professionals are battling amphibian declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Deanna H.; Chestnut, Tara E.

    2014-01-01

    A parasitic fungus, similar to the one that caused the extinction of numerous tropical frog and toad species, is killing salamanders in Europe. Scientists first identified the fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, in 2013 as the culprit behind the death of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) in the Netherlands (Martel et al. 2013) and are now exploring its potential impact to other species. Although the fungus, which kills the amphibians by infecting their skin, has not yet spread to the United States, researchers believe it’s only a matter of time before it does and, when that happens, the impact on salamander populations could be devastating (Martel et al. 2014).Reports of worldwide declines of amphibians began a quarter of a century ago (Blaustein & Wake 1990). Globally, some amphibian population declines occurred in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and declining trends continued in North America (Houlahan et al. 2000). In the earlier years, population declines were attributed primarily to overharvest due to unregulated supply of species such as the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) for educational use (Dodd 2013). In later years, however, causes of declines were less evident. In 1989, herpetologists at the First World Congress of Herpetology traded alarming stories of losses across continents and in seemingly protected landscapes, making it clear that amphibian population declines were a “global phenomenon.” In response to these reports, in 1991, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) established the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force to better understand the scale and scope of global amphibian declines. Unfortunately, the absence of long-term monitoring data and targeted studies made it difficult for the task force to compile information.Today, according to AmphibiaWeb.org, there are 7,342 amphibian species in the world — double the number since the first alerts of declines — making the situation

  3. Spray droplet size, drift potential, and risks to nontarget organisms from aerially applied glyphosate for coca control in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Andrew J; Solomon, Keith R; Marshall, E J P

    2009-01-01

    end of the spray boom as recorded electronically +/-5%) for protection of sensitive plants were 50-120 m for coca spray scenarios and considerably lower for poppy spray scenarios. The equivalent buffer zone for amphibia was 5 m. The low toxicity of glyphosate to humans suggests that these aerial applications are not a concern for human health.

  4. Dieta del Pirincho (Guira guira en el nordeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E Soave

    2008-12-01

    only on animals. The trophic spectrum was determined on the basis of the identification of 92 items, all of animal origin, principally insecta (98 %, Annelida, Mollusca, Arachnida, Crustacea, Amphibia, Reptilia and Aves. in conclusion, G. guira is a opportunistic species that consumes animal preys exclusively. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1883-1892. Epub 2008 December 12.

  5. MEMORIAS III Encuentro Científico de Estudiantes de Biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biológica Colombiana Acta

    2003-07-01

    experiencia como estudiante de práctica académica / Caracterización del llamado de advertencia de colostethus bocagei(amphibia: dendrobatidae en el municipio de Ibagué, Colombia / Caracterización del llamado de advertencia de colostethus bocagei(amphibia: dendrobatidae en el municipio de Ibagué, Colombia / Uso etnomédico de algunas especies vegetales del departamento del Chocó, Colombia / Morfología y herbivoría en las especies del género tococa(melastomataceae con mirmecomacios / Fauna Asociada a la Medicina Tradicional del Departamento Del Chocó, Colombia / Hongos alucinógenos: el desconocimiento cultural de su consumo / Relación insecto-hongo: desarrollo de dípteros en panaeolus foenisecii (basidiomycotina-agariclaes / Estudio preliminar de algunos aspectos biológicos de hoplias malabaricusbloch 1794 (Quicharo en la microcuenca de Cabí, Chocó, Colomba / Composición y estructura de la vegetación terrestre aledaña al Río Gaira (Departamento Del Magdalena, Colombia / Relaciones de herbivoría por insectos sobre Lantana sp. (Verbenacea, Piper sp.(Piperaceae y Miconia sp.(Asteraceae en Moniquirá (Boyacá, Colombia.

  6. Hemoparasites of the genus Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae and hemogregarines in Anurans of the São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul States - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise D.M. Leal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild animals are exposed to numerous pathogens, including hemoparasites. The Trypanosoma and hemogregarinegroup are frequently reported as parasites in anurans (frogs, tree frogs and toads. The identification of these hemoparasites is usually made through stage observation of their morphology in the peripheral blood of the host. There areno studies, however, based on the biological cycle of these hemoparasites. The objective of the present study was toevaluate the presence of hemogregarines and Trypanosoma spp. in anurans captured in the States of São Paulo andMato Grosso do Sul- Brazil and to perform the morphological and morphometric characterization of these hemoparasites. The species of anurans examined were: Dendropsophus nanus, D. minutus, Leptodactylus chaquensis L. podicipinus, L. labyrinthicus, L. fuscus, Bufo granulosus, B. schneideri, Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis, Trachicephalus venulosus, Scinax fuscovarius and Hypsiboas albopunctatus. Of the total of 40 animals studied, four (10%were positive for hemogregarines and eight (20% were positive for Trypanosoma spp. Hemogregarine gamontsshowed variable morphology and, in addition to intraerythrocytic forms, extraerythrocytic forms were also observed.Extremely different forms of Trypanosoma were observed, as described in the literature, with the broad and oval forms being the most common.Os animais silvestres estão expostos a inúmeros patógenos,dentre eles estão os hemoparasitas. Podem-se destacar espécies do gênero Trypanosoma e do grupo das hemogregarinas,que ocorrem com freqüência parasitando anuros (rãs, pererecas e sapos. Normalmente, a descrição destes hemoparasitas é feita através da morfologia dos estágios observados nosangue periférico do hospedeiro e as pesquisas sobre o ciclobiológico desses hemoparasitas são escassas. Os objetivos dopresente estudo foram avaliar a presença de hemogregarinas eTrypanosoma spp. em anuros capturados nos Estados de São Paulo e

  7. Humoral immune alterations caused by lead: studies on an adult toad model Alteraciones inmunes humorales causadas por plomo: estudios en un modelo de sapo adulto

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    Carolina E. Rosenberg

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that environmental metal levels affect the immune function. In the particular case of the impact of heavy metals, information available suggests that the immune system is a target for low-dose Pb exposure. Among vertebrates it was shown that amphibians are capable of forming antibodies against a variety of antigens, causing several responses such as anaphylactic response and rejecting grafts. In this study, the production of antibodies was assessed against sheep red blood cells (SRBC in the anuran Bufo arenarum after six weekly injections of sublethal doses of lead (50 mg.kg-1, as lead acetate. Natural antibodies (natural heteroagglutinins were also quantified against SRBC. Both assessments were carried out employing an ELISA method developed to this end, measuring absorbance (A. For natural anti-SRBC antibodies in both control (C and Pb treated (T toads, there was a non significant tendency to increase the initial absorbances (C initial: 0.69±0.39 A; T initial: 0.54±0.30 A, relative to those registered at the end of the experiments (C final: 0.89±0.49 A; T final: 0.76±0.31A; the T/C ratios also did not show changes. The only significant difference was found between initial and final samples from lead-treated toads (pExiste evidencia de que los niveles de metal ambientales afectan la función inmune. En el caso particular del impacto de metales pesados, la información disponible sugiere que el sistema inmune es un blanco para la exposición a bajas dosis de Pb. Entre los vertebrados, se ha mostrado que los anfibios son capaces de formar anticuerpos contra una variedad de antígenos, que causan diversas respuestas, tales como respuesta anafiláctica y rechazo de injertos. En este estudio, la producción de anticuerpos fue evaluada contra eritrocitos de oveja (EO en el anuro Bufo arenarum, luego de seis inyecciones semanales de dosis subletales de plomo (50 mg.kg-1, como acetato de Pb. Los anticuerpos naturales

  8. Bioacustical and etho-ecological features in amphibian communities of Southern Cordoba province (Argentina

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    Salas, Nancy E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de las características del canto de los anfibios constituye un importante elemento para la identificación de las especies que puede ser empleado como herramienta para prácticas estandarizadas de monitoreo. En el presente trabajo se resaltan las diferencias eto-ecológicas más notables (hábitat de reproducción, sitio de canto, actividad estacional y diaria de aquellas especies que integran las comunidades del sur de la Provincia Córdoba y se proporciona una clasificación de los cantos nupciales. La batracofauna del área de llanura del sur-este de la provincia de Córdoba está representada por 9 especies de leptodactílidos correspondientes a 5 géneros (Leptodactylus gracilis, L. mystacinus, L. latinasus latinasus, L. ocellatus, Pleurodema tucumanum, Physalaemus biligonigerus, Odontophrynus americanus, Ceratophrys cranwelli y C. ornata, 2 especies de bufónidos (Bufo arenarum y B. fernandezae y un hílido (Hyla pulchella pulchella. Los registros acústicos obtenidos en el campo durante el período reproductivo fueron analizados a través de programas de análisis digital de sonido, comparándose los siguientes parámetros: frecuencia dominante, duración del canto, intervalo entre cantos; se realizaron además descripciones respecto del tipo de canto y su modulación. Se reconocieron tres tipos de cantos básicos segun su duración, categoría que fue subdividida por la forma de la imagen oscilográfica. El resultado de este análisis establece que existen notables diferencias entre los cantos nupciales, principalmente a nivel de rangos de frecuencia dominante y duración de las emisiones. Esta partición del espacio sonoro representa un mecanismo de aislamiento reproductivo que minimiza la interacción entre especies simpátricas cuya reproducción muestra también un solapamiento temporal. Knowledge of the characteristics of amphibian calls is essential for species identification, and may be used as a tool in

  9. Spatial and temporal variation in radiation exposure of amphibians - Implications for environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, K. [Stockholm University (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Although amphibians are threatened world-wide, many amphibian species are protected in national legislation. Thus, amphibians need special attention in many environmental risk assessments for releases of contaminants such as radionuclides. In fact, amphibians' ecology and physiology (including, for example, a complex life-cycle with both aquatic and terrestrial life stages, and a thin skin) makes them sensitive to radiation exposure. In current dose models for wildlife, homogenous distribution of radionuclides in soil is assumed. However, soils are heterogeneous environments and radionuclide contamination can be very unevenly distributed. As a consequence, bioaccumulation of radionuclides in biota may vary on a local scale. Specifically, organisms' spatial location and movement within habitats may affect both their external and internal exposure pattern to radionuclides. Therefore, measuring the spatial location of individual amphibians within ecosystems and understanding why they use these different locations is essential for predicting potential effects of released radionuclides on these populations. The aim of this study was to investigate amphibians' spatial distribution in a {sup 137}Cs contaminated wetland area and their body content of {sup 137}Cs at the beginning and end of the summer period. The study site was a wetland nature reserve called Bladmyra near Gaevle in the central-eastern part of Sweden. This area received fallout of {sup 137}Cs after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study measured the spatial distributions of two amphibian species (Rana arvalis and Bufo bufo) with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags in a mark-and-recapture study during 2012-2014. In addition, {sup 137}Cs body content in the two species was measured by whole body counting in spring and autumn of 2013. The results showed differences between years in how marked animals used the study area: More individuals stayed in a small area during 2012 than in 2013

  10. Impacts of water development on aquatic macroinvertebrates, amphibians, and plants in wetlands of a semi-arid landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

    2004-01-01

    We compared the macroinvertebrate and amphibian communities of 12 excavated and 12 natural wetlands in western North Dakota, USA, to assess the effects of artificially lengthened hydroperiods on the biotic communities of wetlands in this semi-arid region. Excavated wetlands were much deeper and captured greater volumes of water than natural wetlands. Most excavated wetlands maintained water throughout the study period (May to October 1999), whereas most of the natural wetlands were dry by June. Excavated wetlands were largely unvegetated or contained submergent and deep-marsh plant species. The natural wetlands had two well-defined vegetative zones populated by plant species typical of wet meadows and shallow marshes. Excavated wetlands had a richer aquatic macroinvertebrate community that included several predatory taxa not found in natural wetlands. Taxa adapted to the short hydroperiods of seasonal wetlands were largely absent from excavated wetlands. The amphibian community of natural and excavated wetlands included the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata), northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens), plains spadefoot (Scaphiopus bombifrons), Woodhouse's toad (Bufo woodhousii woodhousii), and tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). The plains spadefoot occurred only in natural wetlands while tiger salamanders occurred in all 12 excavated wetlands and only one natural wetland. Boreal chorus frogs and northern leopard frogs were present in both wetland types; however, they successfully reproduced only in wetlands lacking tiger salamanders. Artificially extending the hydroperiod of wetlands by excavation has greatly influenced the composition of native biotic communities adapted to the naturally short hydroperiods of wetlands in this semi-arid region. The compositional change of the biotic communities can be related to hydrological changes and biotic interactions, especially predation related to excavation.

  11. What we know and don't know about amphibian declines in the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1994-01-01

    The problem of declining amphibian species is thought to be particularly acute in western North America, but there are many gaps in our knowledge. Although several declines have been well-documented, other declines are anecdotal or hypothesized. Most documented declines are of ranid frogs or toads (Bufo). Species from montane habitats and those occurring in California have been best studied. Status of many desert species is unknown. Habitat destruction and introduced predators are the most common threats to amphibian populations. Some declines may represent natural variation in population size. Causes have not been determined for several cases where common species have declined over large areas. There are important considerations for ecosystem management, whether changes in amphibian populations are natural or caused by human activities. Causes for declines must be known so that management can be prescribed (or proscribed) to eliminate or minimize these causes. The natural variability of amphibian population numbers and the complexity of metapopulation structure emphasize the necessity of considering multiple temporal and spatial scales in ecosystem management. The decline of amphibian species throughout the world has received considerable recent attention (e.g., Blaustein and Wake 1990, Griffiths and Beebee 1992, Yoffe 1992). Much of this attention derives from a workshop held in February, 1990 on declining amphibians sponsored by the National Research Council Board (NRC) on Biology in Irvine, California (Barinaga 1990, Borchelt 1990). Because of media attention in the aftermath of this conference, it is a popular perception that amphibian declines are a new phenomenon that herpetologists have been slow to recognize (Griffiths and Beebee 1992, Quammen 1993). However, concern about amphibian populations in the United States dates back over 20 years. Beginning in the 1960s, a large, well-documented decline of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) occurred in the

  12. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, Jackie A; Halliday, Damien C T; Robinson, Anthony J; Venables, Daryl; Voysey, Rhonda D; Boyle, Donna G; Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Hardy, Christopher M; Siddon, Nicole A; Hyatt, Alex D

    2011-01-25

    The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs), developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin) and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels) measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  13. Interactions of an insecticide with competition and pond drying in amphibian communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, M.D.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Amphibian populations are often imbedded in agricultural landscapes. Therefore the potential for contamination of their habitat is considerable. Our study examined the effects of an insecticide (carbaryl, a neurotoxin), on larval amphibian communities experiencing natural stresses of competition for resources, predation, and pond drying. In a set of experimental ponds, tadpoles of three anuran species (southern leopard frog [Rana sphenocephala], plains leopard frog [R. blairi], and the Woodhouse's toad [Bufo woodhousii]) were added to 1000-L ponds containing leaf litter, plankton, two newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), and four overwintered green frog (R. clamitans) tadpoles. We manipulated the overall tadpole density (low or high), pond hydroperiod (constant or drying), and chemical exposure (0, 3.5, 5.0, or 7.0 mg/L carbaryl) of the ponds. We measured mass, time, and survival to metamorphosis to determine treatment effects. Carbaryl positively affected Woodhouse's toad survival, although it had a negligible effect on both leopard frog species. Tadpole density interacted with the chemical treatment: Proportionately more Woodhouse's toads survived to metamorphosis in high-density environments than in low-density or control environments. Greater survival may be an indirect effect of increased algal food resources from carbaryl exposure. Most newts lost mass over the course of the experiment, although ponds with drying hydroperiods and high anuran density were the least favorable environments. Overwintered green frogs exposed to carbaryl had longer larval periods on average than did green frogs in control ponds. Our study demonstrated that even sublethal, short-lived contaminants can alter natural communities in ways that cannot be predicted from simple, one-factor studies.

  14. Do effects of mercury in larval amphibians persist after metamorphosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brian D; Willson, John D; Bergeron, Christine M; Hopkins, William A

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread concern about the role of environmental contaminants in global amphibian declines, and evidence that post-metamorphic life stages contribute disproportionately to amphibian population dynamics, most studies in amphibian ecotoxicology focus on larval life stages. Studies that focus solely on early life stages may miss important effects of contaminant exposure, such as latent effects that manifest some time after previous exposure. Moreover, it is often assumed that effects observed in amphibian larvae will persist to affect survival or reproduction later in life. We used terrestrial enclosures to determine whether exposure to mercury (Hg) through maternal transfer and/or larval diet had any adverse effects in post-metamorphic American toads (Bufo americanus). We found a 5% difference in size at metamorphosis that was attributed to maternal Hg exposure persisted for 1 year in the terrestrial environment, resulting in a 7% difference at the conclusion of the study. Although patterns of survival differed among treatments through time, we found no overall difference in survival after 1 year. We also found no evidence of emergent latent effects in the terrestrial toads that could be attributed to earlier exposure. Our results indicate that adverse effects of maternal Hg exposure that were observed in larval amphibians may persist to affect later terrestrial life stages but that no novel adverse effects developed when animals were raised in a semi-natural environment. Moreover, we found no evidence of persistent effects of dietary Hg exposure in larvae, highlighting a need for greater focus on maternal effects in amphibian ecotoxicology. Finally, we suggest an increase in the use of longitudinal studies to better understand contaminant impacts to amphibian populations via effects in both aquatic and terrestrial life stages.

  15. Effect of guaianolides in the meiosis reinitiation of amphibian oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Martínez, J; Sánchez-Toranzo, G; Chaín, F; Catalán, C A N; Bühler, M I

    2017-02-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) are a large and structurally diverse group of plant metabolites generally found in the Asteraceae family. STLs exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activities and it is generally accepted that their major mechanism of action is the alkylation of the thiol groups of biological molecules. The guaianolides is one of various groups of STLs. Anti-tumour and anti-migraine effects, an allergenic agent, an inhibitor of smooth muscle cells and of meristematic cell proliferation are only a few of the most commonly reported activities of STLs. In amphibians, fully grown ovarian oocytes are arrested at the beginning of meiosis I. Under stimulus with progesterone, this meiotic arrest is released and meiosis progresses to metaphase II, a process known as oocyte maturation. There are previous records of the inhibitory effect of dehydroleucodin (DhL), a guaianolide lactone, on the progression of meiosis. It has been also shown that DhL and its 11,13-dihydroderivative (2H-DhL; a mixture of epimers at C-11) act as blockers of the resumption of meiosis in fully grown ovarian oocytes from the amphibian Rhinella arenarum (formerly classified as Bufo arenarum). The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of four closely related guaianolides, i.e., DhL, achillin, desacetoxymatricarin and estafietin as possible inhibitors of meiosis in oocytes of amphibians in vitro and discuss some structure-activity relationships. It was found that the inhibitory effect on meiosis resumption is greater when the lactone has two potentially reactive centres, either a α,β-α',β'-diunsaturated cyclopentanone moiety or an epoxide group plus an exo-methylene-γ-lactone function.

  16. Aphrodisiacs past and present: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroni, P

    2001-10-01

    The drug Viagra (sildenafil) has drawn public attention to aphrodisiacs. The search for such substances dates back millennia. Aphrodisiacs can be classified by their mode of action into 3 types: those that increase (1) libido, (2) potency, or (3) sexual pleasure. Various substances of animal and plant origin have been used in folk medicines of different cultures; some have been identified pharmacologically, allowing for understanding of their mechanisms of action. For increasing libido, ambrein, a major constituent of Ambra grisea, is used in Arab countries. This tricyclic triterpene alcohol increases the concentration of several anterior pituitary hormones and serum testosterone. Bufo toad skin and glands contain bufotenine (and other bufadienolides), a putative hallucinogenic congener of serotonin. It is the active ingredient in West Indian "love stone" and the Chinese medication chan su. The aphrodisiac properties are likely of central origin, as are the other effects of the drug. For increasing potency, Panax ginseng used in traditional Chinese medicine, works as an antioxidant by enhancing nitric oxide synthesis in the endothelium of many organs, including the corpora cavernosa; ginsenosides also enhance acetylcholine-induced and transmural nerve stimulation-activated relaxation associated with increased tissue cyclic guanosine monophosphate, hence the aphrodisiac properties. For increasing sexual pleasure, cantharidin ("Spanish fly") is a chemical with vesicant properties derived from blister beetles, which have been used for millennia as a sexual stimulant. Its mode of action is by inhibition of phosphodiesterase and protein phosphatase activity and stimulation of beta-receptors, inducing vascular congestion and inflammation. Morbidity from its abuse is significant. The ingestion of live beetles (Palembus dermestoides) in Southeast Asia and triatomids in Mexico may have a basis similar to cantharidin. It is of paramount importance for the physician to be

  17. Relevance of multiple spatial scales in habitat models: A case study with amphibians and grasshoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmoos, Michael; Henle, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Habitat models for animal species are important tools in conservation planning. We assessed the need to consider several scales in a case study for three amphibian and two grasshopper species in the post-mining landscapes near Leipzig (Germany). The two species groups were selected because habitat analyses for grasshoppers are usually conducted on one scale only whereas amphibians are thought to depend on more than one spatial scale. First, we analysed how the preference to single habitat variables changed across nested scales. Most environmental variables were only significant for a habitat model on one or two scales, with the smallest scale being particularly important. On larger scales, other variables became significant, which cannot be recognized on lower scales. Similar preferences across scales occurred in only 13 out of 79 cases and in 3 out of 79 cases the preference and avoidance for the same variable were even reversed among scales. Second, we developed habitat models by using a logistic regression on every scale and for all combinations of scales and analysed how the quality of habitat models changed with the scales considered. To achieve a sufficient accuracy of the habitat models with a minimum number of variables, at least two scales were required for all species except for Bufo viridis, for which a single scale, the microscale, was sufficient. Only for the European tree frog ( Hyla arborea), at least three scales were required. The results indicate that the quality of habitat models increases with the number of surveyed variables and with the number of scales, but costs increase too. Searching for simplifications in multi-scaled habitat models, we suggest that 2 or 3 scales should be a suitable trade-off, when attempting to define a suitable microscale.

  18. A suspected parasite spill-back of two novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea causing disease in Australian endemic frogs found in the invasive Cane toad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlie Hartigan

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa, in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis. We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence.

  19. Interactions of an insecticide, herbicide, and natural stressors in amphibian community mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, M.D.; James, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians developing in wetlands embedded within or near agricultural lands may frequently encounter chemical mixtures. The objectives of our study were to determine the effects that post-application concentrations of an insecticide (carbaryl) and an herbicide (atrazine) have on body mass, development, and survival of two anuran species (southern leopard frog, Rana sphenocephala; American toad, Bufo americanus) and two caudate species (spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum; small-mouthed salamander, A. texanum) reared in outdoor cattle tank mesocosms. In one experiment, we manipulated tadpole density (low or high), carbaryl exposure (0, 3.5, 7.0 mg/L), and atrazine exposure (0 or 200 μg/L) to test for effects on development, mass, and survival of larvae. In a second experiment, we manipulated pond hydroperiod (constant or drying), carbaryl exposure (0 or 5 mg/L), and atrazine exposure (0 or 200 μg/L) to test for effects on mass, time, and survival to metamorphosis. Salamanders were virtually eliminated in carbaryl treatments, indicating that at realistic levels, this insecticide could cause population declines for salamanders in contaminated habitats. Carbaryl also had negative effects on toad survival. Exposure to atrazine had negative effects on body size, development, and time to metamorphosis in anuran species, which were associated with reduced chlorophyll levels. Both chemicals interacted significantly with density or hydroperiod, indicating that the environmental conditions could influence the impact of a contaminant. A significant atrazine-by-carbaryl interaction resulted in smaller and less developed spotted salamander larvae than in control ponds. Atrazine exposure, however, appeared to moderate negative effects of carbaryl for spotted salamanders. Our research suggests that important changes in the community's food web result from chemical exposure, which influence the susceptibility of amphibian species to contaminants.

  20. Pseudacris triseriata (western chorus frog) and Rana sylvatica (wood frog) chytridiomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittman, S.E.; Muths, E.; Green, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a known pathogen of anuran amphibians, and has been correlated with amphibian die-offs worldwide (Daszak et. al. 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5:735-748). In Colorado, B. dendrobatidis has infected Boreal toads (Bufo boreas) (Muths et. al., in review) and has been identified on museum specimens of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) (Carey et. al. 1999. Develop. Comp. Immunol. 23:459-472). We report the first verified case of chytrid fungus in chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) in the United States. We collected seven P. triseriata, and two adult and two juvenile R. sylvatica in the Kawuneeche Valley in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) during June 2001. These animals were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) as part of an amphibian health evaluation in RMNP. Chorus frogs were shipped in one container. Wood frog adults and juveniles were shipped in two separate containers. Histological examinations of all chorus frogs and 3 of 4 wood frogs were positive for chytrid fungus infection. The fourth (adult) wood frog was too decomposed for meaningful histology. Histological findings consisted of multifocally mild to diffusely severe infections of the epidermis of the ventrum and hindlimb digital skin. Chytrid thalli were confined to the thickened epidermis (hyperkeratosis), were spherical to oval, and occasional thalli contained characteristic discharge pores or zoospores (Green and Kagarise Sherman 1999. J. Herpetol 35:92-103; Fellers et al. 2001. Copeia 2001:945-953). We cannot confirm that all specimens carried the fungus at collection, because infection may have spread from one individual to all other individuals in each container during transport. Further sampling of amphibians in Kawuneeche Valley is warranted to determine the rate of infection and mortality in these populations.

  1. Genotypic analysis of Mucor from the platypus in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, J H; Stodart, B J; Ash, G J

    2010-01-01

    Mucor amphibiorum is the only pathogen known to cause significant morbidity and mortality in the free-living platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in Tasmania. Infection has also been reported in free-ranging cane toads (Bufo marinus) and green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) from mainland Australia but has not been confirmed in platypuses from the mainland. To date, there has been little genotyping specifically conducted on M. amphibiorum. A collection of 21 Mucor isolates representing isolates from the platypus, frogs and toads, and environmental samples were obtained for genotypic analysis. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing and GenBank comparison confirmed the identity of most of the isolates. Representative isolates from infected platypuses formed a clade containing the reference isolates of M. amphibiorum from the Centraal Bureau voor Schimmelcultures repository. The M. amphibiorum isolates showed a close sequence identity with Mucor indicus and consisted of two haplotypes, differentiated by single nucleotide polymorphisms within the ITS1 and ITS2 regions. With the exception of isolate 96-4049, all isolates from platypuses were in one haplotype. Multilocus fingerprinting via the use of intersimple sequence repeats polymerase chain reaction identified 19 genotypes. Two major clusters were evident: 1) M. amphibiorum and Mucor racemosus; and 2) Mucor circinelloides, Mucor ramosissimus, and Mucor fragilis. Seven M. amphibiorum isolates from platypuses were present in two subclusters, with isolate 96-4053 appearing genetically distinct from all other isolates. Isolates classified as M. circinelloides by sequence analysis formed a separate subcluster, distinct from other Mucor spp. The combination of sequencing and multilocus fingerprinting has the potential to provide the tools for rapid identification of M. amphibiorum. Data presented on the diversity of the pathogen and further work in linking genetic diversity to functional diversity will provide

  2. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

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    Jackie A Pallister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs, developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  3. Aerobic scope and cardiovascular oxygen transport is not compromised at high temperatures in the toad Rhinella marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Andersen, Jonas L; Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Pil B M; Hansen, Kasper; Ozolina, Karlina; Wang, Tobias

    2012-10-15

    Numerous recent studies convincingly correlate the upper thermal tolerance limit of aquatic ectothermic animals to reduced aerobic scope, and ascribe the decline in aerobic scope to failure of the cardiovascular system at high temperatures. In the present study we investigate whether this 'aerobic scope model' applies to an air-breathing and semi-terrestrial vertebrate Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus). To quantify aerobic scope, we measured resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. To include potential effects of acclimation, three groups of toads were acclimated chronically at 20, 25 and 30°C, respectively. The absolute difference between resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption increased progressively with temperature and there was no significant decrease in aerobic scope, even at temperature immediately below the lethal limit (41-42°C). Haematological and cardiorespiratory variables were measured at rest and immediately after maximal activity at benign (30°C) and critically high (40°C) temperatures. Within this temperature interval, both resting and active heart rate increased, and there was no indication of respiratory failure, judged from high arterial oxygen saturation, P(O2) and [Hb(O2)]. With the exception of elevated resting metabolic rate for cold-acclimated toads, we found few differences in the thermal responses between acclimation groups with regard to the cardiometabolic parameters. In conclusion, we found no evidence for temperature-induced cardiorespiratory failure in R. marina, indicating that maintenance of aerobic scope and oxygen transport is unrelated to the upper thermal limit of this air-breathing semi-terrestrial vertebrate.

  4. Habitat suitability of patch types: a case study of the Yosemite toad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christina T.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding patch variability is crucial in understanding the spatial population structure of wildlife species, especially for rare or threatened species. We used a well-tested maximum entropy species distribution model (Maxent) to map the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (= Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Twenty-six environmental variables were included in the model representing climate, topography, land cover type, and disturbance factors (e.g., distances to agricultural lands, fire perimeters, and timber harvest areas) throughout the historic range of the toad. We then took a novel approach to the study of spatially structured populations by applying the species-environmental matching model separately for 49 consistently occupied sites of the Yosemite toad compared to 27 intermittently occupied sites. We found that the distribution of the entire population was highly predictable (AUC = 0.95±0.03 SD), and associated with low slopes, specific vegetation types (wet meadow, alpine-dwarf shrub, montane chaparral, red fir, and subalpine conifer), and warm temperatures. The consistently occupied sites were also associated with these same factors, and they were also highly predictable (AUC = 0.95±0.05 SD). However, the intermittently occupied sites were associated with distance to fire perimeter, a slightly different response to vegetation types, distance to timber harvests, and a much broader set of aspect classes (AUC = 0.90±0.11 SD). We conclude that many studies of species distributions may benefit by modeling spatially structured populations separately. Modeling and monitoring consistently-occupied sites may provide a realistic snapshot of current species-environment relationships, important climatic and topographic patterns associated with species persistence patterns, and an understanding of the plasticity of the species to respond to varying climate regimes across its range. Meanwhile, modeling and monitoring of widely dispersing

  5. Terrestrial exposure and effects of Headline AMP(®) Fungicide on amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Mimbs, William H; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that a pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide (Headline(®) Fungicide--Headline(®) Fungicide and Headline AMP(®) Fungicide are registered trademarks of BASF) is toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, these studies were performed in a laboratory setting of a worst-case direct exposure in clean media. Interception of spray by the crop canopy and ground cover used by animals for security cover will influence exposure. Thus, risk to amphibians is unclear in an environmentally realistic field environment. We tested exposure and toxicity of Headline AMP(®) Fungicide to amphibians in multiple agricultural habitat scenarios (e.g., within treated crop vs. grassy areas adjacent to crop) and at two rates during routine aerial application. Specifically, we placed Woodhouse's toads (Bufo woodhousii) and Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) in enclosures located within treated and untreated corn (VT stage, approximate height = 3 m), and in the potential drift area (adjacent to treated corn) during aerial application of Headline AMP Fungicide at either 731 or 1052 ml/ha (70 and 100 % the maximum application rate in corn, respectively). Mean concentrations of pyraclostrobin measured at ground level were ≤19 % of nominal application rate in all areas. Overall, mean mortality of recovered individuals of both species was ≤15 %, and mortality within Headline AMP Fungicide-treated corn (where risk was anticipated to be highest) was <10 %. It is important to understand that application timing, interception by the crop canopy (which varies both within and between crop systems), and timing of amphibian presence in the crop field influences risk of exposure and effects; however, our results demonstrate that amphibians inhabiting VT stage corn during routine aerial application of Headline AMP Fungicide are at low risk for acute mortality, matching existing laboratory results from acute toxicity studies of

  6. Natural Aphrodisiacs-A Review of Selected Sexual Enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Elizabeth; Krychman, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The Food and Drug Administration defines an aphrodisiac drug product as "any product that bears labeling claims that it will arouse or increase sexual desire, or that it will improve sexual performance." Presently, there are no approved medications for the treatment of lowered desire for women, and many opt for "natural" products. The aim of this article was to review the most popular and currently used aphrodisiac products marketed in the United States. The safety and efficacy of animal- and plant-based aphrodisiacs, vitamins and minerals, and popular over-the-counter combination supplements have been reviewed. An English PubMed literature search was performed using the key words "sexuality," "sex," "aphrodisiac," and "sexual enhancer." Approximately 50 articles were reviewed by the authors. The authors used relevant case series, case-controlled, and randomized clinical trial data. Products were evaluated based on the quality of research, and their known efficacy and safety considerations. Products with low risk and potential benefit for sexual response based on prior research studies were highlighted. Research has demonstrated that the risks of yohimbine, Spanish fly, mad honey, and Bufo toad may outweigh any benefit, and these products should be avoided. Other products, such as Maca, Tribulus, Ginkgo, and ginseng, have limited but emerging data. Randomized clinical trial data are often lacking, but future research should be performed to further elucidate the efficacy and safety of these products. Future randomized clinical trials are warranted before health care practitioners can recommend most aphrodisiac products. There remain some medical concerns with drug interactions, purity, reliability, and safety. West E and Krychman M. Natural aphrodisiacs-A review of selected sexual enhancers.. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential metamorphosis alters the endocrine response in anuran larvae exposed to T3 and atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Jennifer L.; Beccue, Nathan; Rayburn, A. Lane

    2005-01-01

    Pesticide chemical contamination is one of the suspected contributors of the amphibian population decline. The herbicide atrazine is one of the major surface water contaminants in the U.S. A previous study has shown that atrazine at concentrations as low as 100 parts per billion (ppb) increased the time to metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. However, questions remain as to the applicability of a study of a non-native species to a native organism. The possible effects of atrazine on developing Bufo americanus were explored. Atrazine at potentially (albeit high) environmental concentrations was found not to delay the metamorphosis of developing B. americanus tadpoles as observed in X. laevis. Several studies have indicated that atrazine affects thyroid hormones. Since thyroid hormones are critical in amphibian metamorphosis, B. americanus and X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ). X. laevis were found to be more responsive to the effects of exogenous T 3 compared to B. americanus, indicating that X. laevis may be more sensitive to endocrine active chemicals than B. americanus. In X. laevis, nuclear heterogeneity has been associated with metamorphosis. Flow cytometric analysis of the nuclei of normal metamorphing B. americanus indicates a decrease in the amount of thyroid mediated chromatin alterations relative to the nuclei of metamorphing X. laevis. Indications are that the differential response to endocrine disruption is due to the differential role of chromatin associated gene expression during metamorphosis of B. americanus versus X. laevis. A second native species, Hyla versicolor, was observed to have the X. laevis nuclear pattern with respect to metamorphosis. As such, sensitivity to endocrine disruption is hypothesized not to be limited to laboratory non-native species

  8. Coincident mass extirpation of neotropical amphibians with the emergence of the infectious fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Rovito, Sean M; Wake, David B; Vredenburg, Vance T

    2011-06-07

    Amphibians highlight the global biodiversity crisis because ∼40% of all amphibian species are currently in decline. Species have disappeared even in protected habitats (e.g., the enigmatic extinction of the golden toad, Bufo periglenes, from Costa Rica). The emergence of a fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been implicated in a number of declines that have occurred in the last decade, but few studies have been able to test retroactively whether Bd emergence was linked to earlier declines and extinctions. We describe a noninvasive PCR sampling technique that detects Bd in formalin-preserved museum specimens. We detected Bd by PCR in 83-90% (n = 38) of samples that were identified as positive by histology. We examined specimens collected before, during, and after major amphibian decline events at established study sites in southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Costa Rica. A pattern of Bd emergence coincident with decline at these localities is revealed-the absence of Bd over multiple years at all localities followed by the concurrent emergence of Bd in various species at each locality during a period of population decline. The geographical and chronological emergence of Bd at these localities also indicates a southbound spread from southern Mexico in the early 1970s to western Guatemala in the 1980s/1990s and to Monteverde, Costa Rica by 1987. We find evidence of a historical "Bd epidemic wave" that began in Mexico and subsequently spread to Central America. We describe a technique that can be used to screen museum specimens from other amphibian decline sites around the world.

  9. Evaluating Amphibian Declines with Site Revisits and Occupancy Models: Status of Montane Anurans in the Pacific Northwest USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brome McCreary

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Amphibian declines have been reported in mountainous areas around the western USA. Few data quantify the extent of population losses in the Pacific Northwest, a region in which amphibian declines have received much attention. From 2001–2004, we resurveyed historical breeding sites of two species of conservation concern, the Western Toad (Bufo [=Anaxyrus] boreas and Cascades Frog (Rana cascadae. We detected B. boreas breeding at 75.9% and R. cascadae breeding at 66.6% of historical sites. When we analyzed the data using occupancy models that accounted for detection probability, we estimated the current use of historically occupied sites in our study area was 84.9% (SE = 4.9 for B. boreas and 72.4% (SE = 6.6 for R. cascadae. Our ability to detect B. boreas at sites where they were present was lower in the first year of surveys (a low snowpack year and higher at sites with introduced fish. Our ability to detect R. cascadae was lower at sites with fish. The probability that B. boreas still uses a historical site for breeding was related to the easting of the site (+ and the age of record (-. None of the variables we analyzed was strongly related to R. cascadae occupancy. Both species had increased odds of occupancy with higher latitude, but model support for this variable was modest. Our analysis suggests that while local losses are possible, these two amphibians have not experienced recent, broad population losses in the Oregon Cascades. Historical site revisitation studies such as ours cannot distinguish between population losses and site switching, and do not account for colonization of new habitats, so our analysis may overestimate declines in occupancy within our study area.

  10. Differential metamorphosis alters the endocrine response in anuran larvae exposed to T{sub 3} and atrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Jennifer L. [University of Illinois, Department of Crop Sciences, 1201 W. Gregory Drive, 320 ERML, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Beccue, Nathan [University of Illinois, Department of Crop Sciences, 1201 W. Gregory Drive, 320 ERML, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rayburn, A. Lane [University of Illinois, Department of Crop Sciences, 1201 W. Gregory Drive, 320 ERML, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)]. E-mail: arayburn@uiuc.edu

    2005-11-10

    Pesticide chemical contamination is one of the suspected contributors of the amphibian population decline. The herbicide atrazine is one of the major surface water contaminants in the U.S. A previous study has shown that atrazine at concentrations as low as 100 parts per billion (ppb) increased the time to metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. However, questions remain as to the applicability of a study of a non-native species to a native organism. The possible effects of atrazine on developing Bufo americanus were explored. Atrazine at potentially (albeit high) environmental concentrations was found not to delay the metamorphosis of developing B. americanus tadpoles as observed in X. laevis. Several studies have indicated that atrazine affects thyroid hormones. Since thyroid hormones are critical in amphibian metamorphosis, B. americanus and X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}). X. laevis were found to be more responsive to the effects of exogenous T{sub 3} compared to B. americanus, indicating that X. laevis may be more sensitive to endocrine active chemicals than B. americanus. In X. laevis, nuclear heterogeneity has been associated with metamorphosis. Flow cytometric analysis of the nuclei of normal metamorphing B. americanus indicates a decrease in the amount of thyroid mediated chromatin alterations relative to the nuclei of metamorphing X. laevis. Indications are that the differential response to endocrine disruption is due to the differential role of chromatin associated gene expression during metamorphosis of B. americanus versus X. laevis. A second native species, Hyla versicolor, was observed to have the X. laevis nuclear pattern with respect to metamorphosis. As such, sensitivity to endocrine disruption is hypothesized not to be limited to laboratory non-native species.

  11. Regeneración biológica: Secretos de la naturaleza Biological regeneration: Secrets of nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio Hernández Ramírez

    2006-12-01

    capacity, both in the field of botany and of zoology. Among the new methods to improve the characteristics and dissemination of plants we find the regeneration techniques of plants in vitro, including the organogenesis and the somatic embriogenesis that give the possibility to form the so-called “artificial seeds”. In zoology, it has been observed the regenerative capacity of some animals, such as planarians, hydras, starfish and crustacean. Many vertebrates have lost, at least in a significant way, the regenerative potentiality of most of their organs and tissues. However, some have retained a marked regenerative ability, among them, the Teleostei, the Urodela (salamanders and tritons and other types of amphibia. The Chelonia, crocodriles and snakes have lost in general the capacity to regenerate lost parts. Alligators have the possibility to regenerate their tails. Mammals have also limitations, since they cannot regenerate extremities, organs and tissues as some inferior animals do. There are exceptions, as those found in stags, dolphins and some type of mice as the MRL mice. The human being expresses only some physiological regenerative processes, or before some injuries that are mainly manifested in the epidermal cells of the oral mucosa and of the respiratory tract, the blood cells, the hair, the nails, the muscular tissue, the skin and the bone tissue. The new knowledge on the stem cell opens a new era that offers man the possibility to influence therapeutically on the regeneration of organs and tissues

  12. Dose rate estimation of the Tohoku hynobiid salamander, Hynobius lichenatus, in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuma, Shoichi; Ihara, Sadao; Kawaguchi, Isao; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Sato, Youji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Aono, Tatsuo; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Soeda, Haruhi; Matsui, Kumi; Une, Yumi; Minamiya, Yukio; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    The radiological risks to the Tohoku hynobiid salamanders (class Amphibia), Hynobius lichenatus due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were assessed in Fukushima Prefecture, including evacuation areas. Aquatic egg clutches (n = 1 for each sampling date and site; n = 4 in total), overwintering larvae (n = 1-5 for each sampling date and site; n = 17 in total), and terrestrial juveniles or adults (n = 1 or 3 for each sampling date and site; n = 12 in total) of H. lichenatus were collected from the end of April 2011 to April 2013. Environmental media such as litter (n = 1-5 for each sampling date and site; n = 30 in total), soil (n = 1-8 for each sampling date and site; n = 31 in total), water (n = 1 for each sampling date and site; n = 17 in total), and sediment (n = 1 for each sampling date and site; n = 17 in total) were also collected. Activity concentrations of (134)Cs + (137)Cs were 1.9-2800, 0.13-320, and 0.51-220 kBq (dry kg) (-1) in the litter, soil, and sediment samples, respectively, and were 0.31-220 and <0.29-40 kBq (wet kg)(-1) in the adult and larval salamanders, respectively. External and internal absorbed dose rates to H. lichenatus were calculated from these activity concentration data, using the ERICA Assessment Tool methodology. External dose rates were also measured in situ with glass dosimeters. There was agreement within a factor of 2 between the calculated and measured external dose rates. In the most severely contaminated habitat of this salamander, a northern part of Abukuma Mountains, the highest total dose rates were estimated to be 50 and 15 μGy h(-1) for the adults and overwintering larvae, respectively. Growth and survival of H. lichenatus was not affected at a dose rate of up to 490 μGy h(-1) in the previous laboratory chronic gamma-irradiation experiment, and thus growth and survival of this salamander would not be affected, even in the most severely contaminated habitat in Fukushima Prefecture. However, further

  13. Distribución y conservación de especies amenazadas en Mesoamérica, Chocó y Andes tropicales Distribution and conservation of endangered species in Mesoamerica, Chocó and Tropical Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Londoño-Murcia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se modeló el nicho ecológico proyectado como distribución potencial de 313 especies amenazadas en Mesoamérica, Chocó y los Andes tropicales, según las listas de la UICN. De estas especies, 285 fueron plantas y 28 fueron vertebrados terrestres. La superposición de las distribuciones de las especies amenazadas cubrió prácticamente toda la región. Ecuador mostró cerca del 30% de su área con 50 especies. Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua y Panamá mostraron > 50, aunque en 50% de su área. El Salvador y Honduras, de 11 a 20 en > 50% de su área y México de 1 a 5 especies en > 50% de su área. La distribución de estas especies en áreas transformadas (agricultura y áreas urbanas varió del 11al 30%; El Salvador, Panamá y Guatemala mostraron > 50% de la distribución; Colombia, Honduras y México This study modeled ecological niches projected as potential distributions for 313 endangered species listed in the IUCN for Mesoamerica, Chocó and Tropical Andes, of which 285 were plants, and 28 terrestrial vertebrates. Overlapping of endangered species distributions covered most of the region. Ecuador showed close to 30% of its area with 50 endangered species. Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua y Panama showed more than 50 endangered species in 50% of its area with endangered species (21 to 50 species were Costa Rica, Ecuador, Nicaragua and Panama. El Salvador and Honduras showed > 50% of its area with 11 to 20 endangered species; Mexico showed 50% of endangered species in transformed areas; Colombia, Honduras and Mexico showed < 40%, and Belize and Ecuador showed < 25% of endangered species in transformed areas, respectively. El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Nicaragua and Mexico showed a high proportion of endangered species in transformed areas for the Classes Amphibia, Liliopsida, Polipodiopsida, and the Orders Asterales, Fabales, Laurales, Myrtales, Scrophulariales and Rubiales. Less than 35% of endangered

  14. Hematología y citoquímica de las células sanguíneas de Rhinella fernandezae (Anura: Bufonidae en Espinal y Delta-Islas del río Paraná, Argentina

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    Mariana C Cabagna Zenklusen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La descripción de la hematología de los anfibios anuros es escasa, habiéndose realizado la mayoría de los trabajos en especies de Norteamérica, Asia y Europa. Con el propósito de obtener datos hematológicos para Rhinella fernandezae, fueron estudiados 23 especímenes provenientes de zonas protegidas de las provincias de Santa Fe y Entre Ríos. Se les extrajo sangre por punción cardíaca y se realizaron hemogramas. En los extendidos sanguíneos, se efectuaron la descripción morfológica y citoquímica de las células sanguíneas y búsqueda de parásitos. Se observaron cinco tipos de leucocitos, donde predominaron los linfocitos pequeños. Heterófilos y eosinófilos resultaron positivos para PAS, Sudan B y peroxidasa; contrariamente, los eritrocitos y sus precursores fueron negativos. Los puntajes de las reacciones citoquímicas fueron variables para basófilos, linfocitos, monocitos y trombocitos. Las frecuencias de micronúcleos y de alteraciones nucleares fueron escasas. No se observaron diferencias significativas (p>0.05 entre sexos en el hemograma ni en la morfología sanguínea. Los únicos hemoparásitos encontrados fueron microfilarias (Nematoda: Filaroidea, cuya prevalencia e intensidad de infección fueron bajas. Las características hematológicas estudiadas fueron semejantes a los valores reportados para otros anfibios, pudiendo inferir que los individuos de R. fernandezae estudiados se encuentran en un buen estado nutricional e inmunológico.Hematology and blood cell cytochemistry of Rhinella fernandezae (Amphibia: Anura from Espinal and Delta-Islands of Paraná River, Argentina. The description of amphibian hematology is scarce and most of these studies have been done in species from North America, Asia and Europe. With the purpose to obtain basic hematological information of Rhinella fernandezae, 23 blood samples from Santa Fe and Entre Ríos natural reserves were studied. Blood of each individual was extracted by cardiac

  15. Phylogenetic signal in the acoustic parameters of the advertisement calls of four clades of anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Mohandesan, Elmira; Boko, Drasko; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2013-07-01

    Anuran vocalizations, especially their advertisement calls, are largely species-specific and can be used to identify taxonomic affiliations. Because anurans are not vocal learners, their vocalizations are generally assumed to have a strong genetic component. This suggests that the degree of similarity between advertisement calls may be related to large-scale phylogenetic relationships. To test this hypothesis, advertisement calls from 90 species belonging to four large clades (Bufo, Hylinae, Leptodactylus, and Rana) were analyzed. Phylogenetic distances were estimated based on the DNA sequences of the 12S mitochondrial ribosomal RNA gene, and, for a subset of 49 species, on the rhodopsin gene. Mean values for five acoustic parameters (coefficient of variation of root-mean-square amplitude, dominant frequency, spectral flux, spectral irregularity, and spectral flatness) were computed for each species. We then tested for phylogenetic signal on the body-size-corrected residuals of these five parameters, using three statistical tests (Moran's I, Mantel, and Blomberg's K) and three models of genetic distance (pairwise distances, Abouheif's proximities, and the variance-covariance matrix derived from the phylogenetic tree). A significant phylogenetic signal was detected for most acoustic parameters on the 12S dataset, across statistical tests and genetic distance models, both for the entire sample of 90 species and within clades in several cases. A further analysis on a subset of 49 species using genetic distances derived from rhodopsin and from 12S broadly confirmed the results obtained on the larger sample, indicating that the phylogenetic signals observed in these acoustic parameters can be detected using a variety of genetic distance models derived either from a variable mitochondrial sequence or from a conserved nuclear gene. We found a robust relationship, in a large number of species, between anuran phylogenetic relatedness and acoustic similarity in the

  16. Reptile and amphibian responses to large-scale wildfires in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, C.J.; Brehme, C.S.; Clark, D.R.; Stokes, D.C.; Hathaway, S.A.; Fisher, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, southern California experienced several large fires that burned thousands of hectares of wildlife habitats and conserved lands. To investigate the effects of these fires on the reptile and amphibian communities, we compared the results from prefire herpetofauna and vegetation sampling to two years of postfire sampling across 38 burned and 17 unburned plots. The sampling plots were spread over four vegetation types and four open space areas within San Diego County. Our capture results indicated that burned chaparral and coastal sage scrub plots lost herpetofaunal species diversity after the fires and displayed a significant shift in overall community structure. Shrub and tree cover at the burned plots, averaged across the second and third postfire years, had decreased by 53 in chaparral and 75 in coastal sage scrub. Additionally, postfire herpetofauna community structure at burned plots was more similar to that found in unburned grasslands. In grassland and woodland/riparian vegetation plots, where shrub and tree cover was not significantly affected by fires, we found no differences in the herpetofaunal species diversity or community composition. At the individual species level, Sceloporus occidentalis was the most abundant reptile in these areas both before and after the fires. We saw increases in the net capture rates for several lizard species, including Aspidoscelis tigris, Phrynosoma coronatum, and Uta stansburiana in burned chaparral plots and Aspidoscelis hyperythra and U. stansburiana in burned coastal sage scrub plots. The toad, Bufo boreas, was detected at significantly fewer burned plots in chaparral after the fires. Additionally, we documented decreases in the number of plots occupied by lizards (Elgaria multicarinata), salamanders (Batrachoseps major), and snakes (Coluber constrictor, Lampropeltis getula, Pituophis catenifer, and Masticophis lateralis) in coastal sage scrub and chaparral after the fires. We discuss the individual species

  17. Revealing of endogenous Marinobufagin by an ultra-specific and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS assay in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, Charline; Bond, Liz; Tuytten, Robin; Blankert, Bertrand

    2018-09-01

    Marinobufagenin (MBG) is a bufadienolide cardiac inotrope implicated in volume expansion-mediated hypertensive states including essential hypertension and preeclampsia (PE). Endogenous MBG is an inhibitor of the α1-isoform of Na + ,K + -ATPase with vasoconstrictive and cardiotonic properties, causing hypertension and natriuresis. Elevated endogenous MBG-like material levels have been described by immunoassays in salt-sensitive pregnant and preeclamptic rats as well as in preeclamptic human patients. The rise of endogenous MBG-like material appears prior the development of the main symptoms of PE, leading us to consider MBG as one of the potential biomarkers for PE. The weak specificity and the high variability of the published immunoassays gives no certification about endogenous MBG existence. This led us to set-up a highly specific and sensitive analytical method to detect MBG in plasma at low levels relying on liquid chromatography combined to mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with recording of 7 highly specific MRM transitions for MBG. Pure MBG standard used in the method development was obtained by purification from the Bufo marinus toad venom. d 3 -25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was used as internal standard. An increasing organic gradient with mobile phase A and B composed of 97:3 (v/v) H 2 O: MeOH and 50:45:5 (v/v/v) MeOH:IPA:H 2 O at pH 4.5 respectively was used on a Pursuit 3 PFP column (100 mm × 3 mm; 3 µm) to allow elution and separation of the plasmatic compounds. Chromatographic analyses of plasma samples were preceded by a precipitation of proteins pretreatment. The developed UHPLC-MS/MS assay has been applied to early-pregnant women plasma samples allowing us to investigate MBG plasma levels. Thanks to the high specificity of the assay we were able to authenticate and certify the presence of endogenous MBG in early-pregnant women plasma with the use of the 7 selected specific mass transitions. These pioneering preliminary results are giving a

  18. Nerve–muscle activation by rotating permanent magnet configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Graham M.

    2016-01-01

    (Bufo marinus). Activation was readily observed of the muscle directly, at frequencies as low as 180 Hz, and of nerves bent around insulators, at frequencies as low as 230 Hz. Nerve–muscles, with the muscle elevated to avoid its direct activation, were occasionally activated, possibly in the straight section of the nerve, but more likely in the nerve where it curved up to the muscle, at radius of curvature 10 mm or more, or at the nerve end. These positive first results suggest the opportunity for a new class of small, low‐cost devices for magnetic stimulation of nerves and/or muscles. PMID:26661902

  19. Nerve-muscle activation by rotating permanent magnet configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Peter A; Nicholson, Graham M

    2016-04-01

    The standard method of magnetic nerve activation using pulses of high current in coils has drawbacks of high cost, high electrical power (of order 1 kW), and limited repetition rate without liquid cooling. Here we report a new technique for nerve activation using high speed rotation of permanent magnet configurations, generating a sustained sinusoidal electric field using very low power (of order 10 W). A high ratio of the electric field gradient divided by frequency is shown to be the key indicator for nerve activation at high frequencies. Activation of the cane toad sciatic nerve and attached gastrocnemius muscle was observed at frequencies as low as 180 Hz for activation of the muscle directly and 230 Hz for curved nerves, but probably not in straight sections of nerve. These results, employing the first prototype device, suggest the opportunity for a new class of small low-cost magnetic nerve and/or muscle stimulators. Conventional pulsed current systems for magnetic neurostimulation are large and expensive and have limited repetition rate because of overheating. Here we report a new technique for nerve activation, namely high-speed rotation of a configuration of permanent magnets. Analytical solutions of the cable equation are derived for the oscillating electric field generated, which has amplitude proportional to the rotation speed. The prototype device built comprised a configuration of two cylindrical magnets with antiparallel magnetisations, made to rotate by interaction between the magnets' own magnetic field and three-phase currents in coils mounted on one side of the device. The electric field in a rectangular bath placed on top of the device was both numerically evaluated and measured. The ratio of the electric field gradient on frequency was approximately 1 V m(-2) Hz(-1) near the device. An exploratory series of physiological tests was conducted on the sciatic nerve and attached gastrocnemius muscle of the cane toad (Bufo marinus). Activation was

  20. The plasticizer bisphenol A affects somatic and sexual development, but differently in pipid, hylid and bufonid anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Kekenj, David; Gajewski, Franz; Krüger, Angela; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Due to their terrestrial habitats and aquatic reproduction, many amphibians are both very vulnerable and highly suitable bioindicators. The plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most produced chemical substances worldwide, and knowledge on its impacts on humans and animals is mounting. BPA is used for the industrial production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and found in a multitude of consumer products. Studies on BPA have involved mammals, fish and the fully aquatic anuran model Xenopus laevis. However, our knowledge about the sexual development of non-model, often semi-terrestrial anuran amphibians remains poor. Using a recently developed experimental design, we simultaneously applied BPA to two non-model species (Hyla arborea, Hylidae; Bufo viridis, Bufonidae) and the model X. laevis (Pipidae), compared their genetic and phenotypic sex for detection of sex reversals, and studied sexual development, focusing on anatomical and histological features of gonads. We compared three concentrations of BPA (0.023, 2.28 and 228 μg/L) to control groups in a high-standard flow-through-system, and tested whether conclusions, drawn from the model species, can be extrapolated to non-model anurans. In contrast to previous studies on fish and Xenopus, often involving dosages much higher than most environmental pollution data, we show that BPA causes neither the development of mixed sex nor of sex-reversed individuals (few, seemingly BPA-independent sex reversals) in all focal species. However, environmentally relevant concentrations, as low as 0.023 μg/L, were sufficient to provoke species-specific anatomically and histologically detectable impairments of gonads, and affected morphological traits of metamorphs. As the intensity of these effects differed between the three species, our data imply that BPA diversely affects amphibians with different evolutionary history, sex determination systems and larval ecologies. These results highlight the role of