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Sample records for bufo gargarizans amphibia

  1. Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura

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    Ning Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin α-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two α-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

  2. Kinematics of Chinese toad Bufo gargarizans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional motion force tester for animal was used to measure the reaction forces of the feet of a Chinese toad (B. gargarizans) against a horizontal solid surface on which it crawled. The motion behavior of the Chinese toad was recorded by a high-speed camera on line. The motor function of every foot was analyzed. It was found that the lateral force represents the control ability of side-to-side locomotion, controls the lateral movement, and maintains a stable state for the sustainable creeping gesture. The forefeet play the assistant role and the hind feet play the main role in driving. The normal force of the forefeet is significantly greater than that of the hind feet, so the forefeet play the main role in supporting the body and the hind feet play the assistant role. The normal force is significantly greater than the lateral force and the driving force as well. There is little change for the friction force and the support angle of the all four feet. The average value of the support angle is 70°–80°. The Chinese toad’s vola friction coefficient of the forefeet is less than that of the hind feet. The above results indicate that the difference in kinematics and the material characteristic of the contact skin of the Chinese toad. The results could be useful to the structure design and gait optimization of some robots.

  3. Spontaneous firing in olfactory bulb neurons of Bufo bufo gargarizans in and after hibernation

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    Chuancheng Liang; Shaokang Bian; Xia Peng; Liwen Wang

    2011-01-01

    Microelectrode technique was used to record the spontaneous electrical activities of the neurons in olfactory bulb of the Bufo bufo gargarizans, both in hibernation and after hibernation. This study investigated the electrophysiological characteristics of amphibian olfactory bulb in the period of hibernation and after hibernation and its effects on the start of hibernation and spontaneous awakening. The research showed four forms of spontaneous firings: single spontaneous firing, burst spontaneous firing, irregular spontaneous firing and consecutive single spontaneous firing. The single spontaneous firing includes slow depolarized spontaneous firing and fast depolarized spontaneous firing, and the slow depolarized spontaneous firing occurs only during the hibernation period. In hibernation, the low amplitude and low frequency firing with a longer duration may be relevant to maintaining the tonicity of the central nervous system in toads that are in hibernation, and this kind of firing may also provide an excited basis for their arousal from hibernation. After hibernation, the amplitude and frequency of firing increase, but the firing duration gets shorter. This form of short-term firing, which may be a phenomenon of sensory neurons fast adapting, is one of the neuronal mechanisms for the arousal of hibernating animals.

  4. Effects of copper on growth, metamorphosis and endocrine disruption of Bufo gargarizans larvae.

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    Wang, Chao; Liang, Gang; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles were exposed to copper (1, 6.4, 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper) from the beginning of larval period through completion of metamorphosis. We examined the effects of chronic copper exposure on mortality, growth, time to metamorphosis, tail resorption time, body size at the metamorphic climax (Gs 42) and completion of metamorphosis (Gs 46) and thyroid gland histology. In addition, type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. Our result showed that 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper concentration increased the mortality and inhibited the growth of B. gargarizans tadpoles. In addition, significant reduction in size at Gs 42 and a time delay to Gs 42 were observed at 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper treatments. Moreover, histological examinations have clearly revealed that 64μgL(-1) copper caused follicular cell hyperplasia in thyroid gland. According to real-time PCR results, exposure to 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of Dio3, but down-regulated mRNA expression of TRα and TRβ mRNA level. We concluded that copper delayed amphibian metamorphosis through changing mRNA expression of Dio3, TRα and TRβ, which suggests that copper might have the endocrine-disrupting effect.

  5. Genotoxicity of the Herbicide Butachlor on Bufo gargarizans gargarizans Tadpoles%丁草胺对中华大蟾蜍蝌蚪的遗传毒性

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    林玲; 姚丹; 钟碧瑾; 房振华; 王楠楠; 耿艳; 耿宝荣

    2009-01-01

    以中华大蟾蜍(Bufo gargarizans gargarizans)蝌蚪为研究对象,采用微核实验和碱性单细胞凝胶电泳法(又称彗星实验,SCGE)检测不同质量浓度(0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4 mg/L)的丁草胺溶液对中华大蟾蜍蝌蚪红细胞的遗传毒性.结果表明:在实验室条件下,丁草胺质量浓度越高,蝌蚪红细胞的微核率和核异常率越显著.经丁草胺溶液处理24 h,蝌蚪红细胞的细胞损伤率及DNA损伤程度(彗星DNA长宽比)出现极显著的提高,并与丁草胺质量浓度呈显著的线性关系.研究表明丁草胺对两栖动物具有遗传毒性作用,同时也说明微核实验和碱性单细胞凝胶电泳法是检测环境污染对两栖动物遗传毒性的合适方法.%Micro-nuclear test and the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCGE) or comet assay was performed to examine the genotoxicity of butachlor on erythro-cytes of Bufo gargarizans gargarizans tadpoles exposed to increasing concentration of the tested substance (0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4 mg/L). The results showed that both micro-nuclear frequency and nuclear abnormity frequency were significantly increased with the increasing concentration of butachlor in laboratory condition. Tadpoles treated for 24 h had significant, dose-responsive increases in the levels of DNA damage, as measured by the mean DNA length: width ratio. There were strong linear correlations between cells damage frequency, the mean DNA damage (length-to-width ratios) and the concentrations of butachlor. The results of this study indicate that butachlor produce genotoxicity in amphibians, and that using micro-nuclear test and SCGE may be useful for measuring DNA damage in tadpoles exposed in the field.

  6. The supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor blocks hepatitis B virus antigen secretion in HepG2.2.15 cells.

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    Cui, Xiaoyan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Wang, Dongliang; Gao, Jianjun; Qi, Fanghua; Gao, Bo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fang, Dingzhi; Tang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor has long been used for the treatment of hepatitis B in China and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO₂) is widely used in extracting active ingredients from natural products. The aim of present study was to assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of the supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (SCE-BC). Cytotoxicity of SCE-BC was analyzed using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay in HepG2.2.15 cells. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. HBV mRNA in cells was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. SCE-BC concentrations below 10(-2) μg/mL had no significant toxicity to HepG2.2.15 cells. SCE-BC at 10(-4) μg/mL effectively inhibited the secretion of HBeAg by 23.36% on day 6. It was more potent than the positive control lamivudine (100 μg/mL) in terms of the inhibition of HBeAg and HBcrAg secretion on day 6. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, HBV mRNA expression was markedly inhibited in comparison to the control when HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with SCE-BC. Moreover, SCE-BC had greater inhibitory activity with respect to HBeAg than to HBsAg. Since HBeAg promotes immune tolerance and persistent infection during HBV infection, the present results suggest that immune tolerance induced by HBeAg might be overcome by SCE-BC. Therefore, SCE-BC warrants further investigation.

  7. Different morphologic formation patterns of dark patches in the black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans).

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    Guangming, Gan; Tao, Zhao; Chao, Li; Moyan, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    The black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata) and Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans), two relatively distantly related species, live in different habitats with different adaptive dark patches. To explain the formation of dark patches, the distribution patterns of melanin granules were examined with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Melanin granules were produced and gathered into the "cap" structures on top of the nuclei in most epidermal cells. The "cap" structures may play a role in forming the dorsal dark patches coupled with three-layer melanophores, which can give rise to three layers of interconnected melanin networks in the dorsal dermis in P. nigromaculata. Epidermal melanocytes are rare and do not have a definitive role in forming dorsal dark patches in either P. nigromaculata or B. gargarizans. In B. gargarizans, the dermal melanophores only give rise to a single-layered melanin network, which hardly results in dark patches in the dorsal skin. However, the dermal melanophores migrate twice and form into pseudostratified networks, leading to dark patch formation in the ventral skin in B. gargarizans. The melanin granules precisely coregulate dark patches in the dermis and/or epidermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans. The dark patch formation depends on melanin granules in the epidermis or/and dermis in P. nigromaculata and B. gargarizans.

  8. 中华蟾蜍指名亚种蝌蚪和花姬蛙蝌蚪捕食藻类的效应%Predatory Effect of Tadpoles of Bufo gargarizans gargarizans and Microhyla pulchra on Algae

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    魏刚; 夏品华; 成刚; 王帅; 张景涿; 吕敬才; 徐宁

    2011-01-01

    Predatory effect of tadpoles of Bufo gargarizans gargarizans and Microhyla pulchra on algae was studied in laboratory to know the control effect of tadpoles on algae. The result showed that the predation number of tadpoles on Cyanophyta increased evidently, but the average predation number of individual tadpole decreased with the increase of their population density. The tadpoles of B. gargarizans gargarizans disliked preying on Chlorophyta, therefore Chlorophyta had high population density due to nutrient uptake and propagation with reduction of Cyanophyta. The paper also prospected some future study fields of tadpoles in water resources protection.%为摸清蝌蚪控制藻类生长的效果,用中华蟾蜍指名亚种蝌蚪和花姬蛙蝌蚪在实验室内用红枫湖水进行塑料盆养殖试验.结果表明,随着蝌蚪密度的增加,对蓝藻的总捕食量明显增加,但每只蝌蚪的平均捕食量随蝌蚪密度的增加而下降.中华蟾蜍指名亚种蝌蚪不喜食绿藻,蓝藻密度降低使绿藻获得较多的营养源而大量繁殖,导致绿藻密度增加.同时展望了蝌蚪在水资源环境保护中的研究方向.

  9. 除草剂丁草胺对蟾蜍肝脏形态学和组织学的毒性作用%Toxicity effect of herbicide butachlor on hepatic morphologic and histology of bufo bufo gargarizans

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    王勇; 边邵康; 梁传成; 王丽文

    2012-01-01

    Objective :To observe influence of the herbicide butachlor on hepatic morphologic and histology of Bufo bufo gargarizans. To study toxicity of herbicide butachlor on liver of Bufo bufo. Method: The Bufo bufo gargarizans were randomly divided into control group, paddy goup, S times paddy group, 10 times paddy group ( n = 15 ), the control groups and experimental groups were placed apart in aerated water and in experimental barrels containing butachlor( 5, 10, 30 ml/L) , 1/2 of the body of Bufo bufo gargarizans was immersed in the sulotion. After 3,6, and 9 days, five Bufo bufo were randomly selected from each group and they were dissected to observe the modality and to measure the coefficient of liver. The paraffin slice and HE dyeing were used to observe the structure of liver. Result: The time and concentration of dyeing poison can affect the hepatic modality and structure of Bufo bufo. As concentration of herbicide butachlor and time of dyeing poison increase, the coefficient of liver becomes augmented, and hepatic structure becomes augmented and autolyzed. Conclusion: Herbicide butachlor can change the hepatic modality and structure of Bufo bufo, suggesting environmental protection should be considered when herbicide is used.%观察除草剂丁草胺对蟾蜍肝脏形态学和组织学的影响,探讨除草剂丁草胺对蟾蜍肝脏的毒性作用.将中华大蟾蜍随机分为对照组、稻田组、稻田5倍组和稻田10倍组,染毒剂量分别为5、10、30 ml/L,每组15只,分别放入盛有经曝气的自来水和试验用液的实验桶内,溶液的量为浸没1/2蟾蜍体积,分别在染毒后3、6、9d,从各组随机取蟾蜍5只,解剖观察其肝脏的形态,测量肝系数;应用石蜡切片,HE染色,观察除草剂丁草胺对蟾蜍肝脏组织结构的影响.结果:除草剂丁草胺的染毒时间和浓度均可影响蟾蜍肝脏的组织结构.随着除草剂丁草胺浓度的增加和染毒时间的递增,肝系

  10. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

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    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  11. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura and an intermediate form in sympatry

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    Azevedo MFC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR. The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also analyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

  12. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia and associated algae are altered by temperature

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    Fabian Baier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1 on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C. Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%, induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails and reduced algae diversity (−6%. Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl +66%, length-to-width ratio +4% and decreased algae diversity (−21%. No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological

  13. The influences of the herbicide glyphosate on nerve impulse generation and conduction of Bufo gargarizans%草甘膦胁迫对中华大蟾蜍(Bufo gargarizans)神经冲动产生和传导的影响

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    肖永红; 龙婉婉; 罗斯成; 尹彩萍; 龙进

    2007-01-01

    应用电生理方法研究了除草剂草甘膦对中华大蟾蜍 (Bufo gargarizans Cantor) 坐骨神经干冲动产生和传导的影响.用不同浓度的草甘膦溶液对中华大蟾蜍进行胁迫处理,草甘膦有效成分经由皮肤进入蟾蜍体内而作用于神经系统,利用生物信号采集处理系统测定草甘膦胁迫下中华大蟾蜍离体坐骨神经干的应激反应时间、动作电位幅度和冲动传导速度,结果表明:随着草甘膦溶液浓度的升高,中华大蟾蜍坐骨神经干接受刺激后产生冲动所需的时间逐渐延长,动作电位峰值降低,神经冲动传导速度亦逐渐减慢.草甘膦施用后,中华大蟾蜍7d内的平均应激反应时间与草甘膦浓度呈正相关,而动作电位幅度及传导速度均与草甘膦浓度呈负相关.草甘膦溶液浓度达到推荐农田使用浓度1.64~2.87ml/L时,各处理组蟾蜍的应激反应时间、动作电位幅度和冲动传导速度均与对照组差异极显著(P<0.01).同时,随着试验处理时间的延长,中华大蟾蜍神经干对刺激的反应变得更为迟钝,神经冲动的传导速度也进一步减慢.回归分析可知,中华大蟾蜍坐骨神经干的应激反应时间与草甘膦施用后天数呈正相关,而神经传导速度与药后天数呈负相关.由此可以说明,草甘膦胁迫条件下,中华大蟾蜍神经细胞对刺激反应的灵敏性降低,动作电位的产生及传导受到一定程度的抑制和阻碍.

  14. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

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    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  15. 中华大蟾蜍Mest基因的cDNA克隆和表达分析%cDNA Cloning and Expression Analysis of Mest Gene in the Bufo gargarizans

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    王晶晶; 聂刘旺; 贾瑞; 汪宁

    2009-01-01

    The Mest (mesoderm-specific transcript) gene has been considered an imprinting gene in human and mouse, and was also confirmed in other mammals and flowering plants. To investigate the function and evolution of this gene, the cDNA of full length Mest gene was obtained using 5'- and 3'-RACE from the Chinese Large Toad (Bufo gargarizans). The transcript is 1325bp in length which contains a complete open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 326 amino acids (GenBank accession number: ABQ10905). There is a typical α/β hydrolase fold domain in the putative gene product, and it shows high similarity to sequence of homologous protein of Xenopus tropicali (86%), mammlian (70% - 80%). RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) analysis demonstrated that the Bufo gargarizans Mest (BgMest) gene is expressed widely in testis, ovary, liver, kidney, spleen, brain, stomach and lung. The conservation of the BgMest gene sequences, protein secondary structure of the BgMest protein, in addition to the expression pattern of the BgMest gene, suggested that the function of BgMest was conserved in amphibians. However, the phylogenetic tree of the imprinting gene of the mammals and other vertebrates examined in this study indicated their divergent origins.%Mest基因是一种印记基因,在人、小鼠以及其他的哺乳动物和有花植物中都有研究报道.为了更好地研究该基因的功能和进化特点,利用RACE法获得了中华大蟾蜍Mest基因(BgMest)的cDNA全长序列(1325bp),它包含一个完整的ORF,可编码326个氨基酸的多肽(GenBank登陆号:ABQ10905).多肽链中包含一个典型的α/β水解酶折叠结构域,其在氨基酸水平上与热带爪蟾和一些哺乳动物分别存在86%和70%~80%的相似性.进化树分析显示Mest基因为单系起源.RT-PCR显示,BgMest基因在精巢、卵巢、肝、肾、脑、胃和肺中部有表达,并且该基因在序列、表达模式以及蛋白产物的高级结构的高度保

  16. A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura from Bulgaria

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    Petar Boyadzhiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%, followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%, as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

  17. 中华蟾蜍蝌蚪变态过程中甲状腺的组织学变化%Changes of thyroid gland histological structures during the metamorphosis of Bufo gargarizans tadpole

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    刘静; 柴丽红; 吴民耀; 王宏元

    2012-01-01

    【目的】研究中华蟾蜍(Bufogargarizans)蝌蚪在不同发育阶段甲状腺的组织学变化。【方法】以处于变态高峰前后5期(28,33,38,42,46期)的中华蟾蜍蝌蚪为试验材料,用MoticBA300光学显微镜对各个发育时期蝌蚪的甲状腺进行组织学观察,测定蝌蚪的全长、体质量和肝质量等形态指标,并分析这些形态指标与甲状腺直径、滤泡平均直径及最大直径的线性相关性。【结果】在28期时,中华蟾蜍蝌蚪甲状腺出现但无分泌甲状腺激素的功能;33期时,甲状腺具备了分泌甲状腺激素的能力;此后甲状腺进一步发育,在蝌蚪前肢展开期甲状腺活性达到最强;至尾完全吸收期,甲状腺机能减弱。蝌蚪全长、体质量及肝质量与甲状腺直径及滤泡直径呈正线性相关。【结论】具有分泌机能的甲状腺出现的发育时期,与两栖动物变态类型相关;分泌高峰期出现的发育时期与幼体持续时间密切相关。中华蟾蜍蝌蚪的全长可以直观地反映其甲状腺的机能活性。%[Objective] The research was to study the changes of thyroid gland histological structures in tadpole of Bufo gargarizans during development. [Method] Tadpoles were taken from every five stages before and after metamorphosis(stage 28,stage 33,stage 38,stage 42 and stage 46),and histological struc- tures of thyroid glands in tadpoles were observed by Motic BA300 microscope. In addition, total length, body weight and liver weight of the tadpoles were measured. Then, the relationship was analyzed between total length, body weight, liver weight and thyroid gland, follicle diameter and follicle number. [Result] The thyroid gland was first present at the stage 28, but it lacked function. Thyroid gland possessed the abil- ity of secreting hormone at the stage 33. The activity of thyroid gland reached peak when forelimbs unfol- ded. The activity of thyroid gland declined

  18. Temperature seems to be an important factor when assessing effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on egg and tadpole growth of Common toads (Bufo bufo; Amphibia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Baier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate-based herbicide formulations are broadly used in agriculture, silviculture, horticulture as well as in private gardens all over the world, thus posing the risk of potential contamination of nearby aquatic bodies inhabited by amphibians. Concurrently, climate change can be expected to alter the temperature of amphibian breeding sites. However, while either glyphosate-based herbicides or temperature have been shown to separately affect the development of amphibians, very little is known on possible interactive effects. We studied the impact of herbicide concentrations and temperature on growth and development of eggs and tadpoles of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L.. We hypothesized that (i eggs would be better protected against herbicides than tadpoles because of their jelly coating, (ii that higher temperatures would reduce potential herbicide effects because of an accelerated growth and a lower sensitivity of larger specimens. We conducted one experiment starting with eggs (Gosner stage, GS 9 and another experiment starting with tadpoles (GS 21-24 using a full factorial design with 5 concentrations of the herbicide formulation Roundup® LB Plus (0 mg acid equivalent L-1, 0.5 mg a.e. L-1, 1.0 mg a.e. L-1 or 1.5 mg a.e. L-1 and a pulse treatment with 3-4 times addition of 0.5 a.e. mg L-1 over the course of several weeks and two temperature levels (15°C and 20°C. Contrary to our expectation, our results showed that toad eggs are more sensitive to herbicides than tadpoles leading to an averaged 31% increase in total length, tail length and body length compared to the herbicide-free control. Tadpole morphology, development or mortality was not influenced by herbicides. Higher temperature accelerated growth of both eggs and tadpoles. This is among the first study showing interactive effects between herbicides and temperature especially for egg development resulting in more pronounced herbicide effects at lower temperatures than at higher

  19. Biosíntesis de aldosterona y su regulación en Bufo arenarum (Amphibia, anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Nora Raquel

    1999-01-01

    En la presente Tesis Doctoral se realizaron estudios sobre la biosíntesis de aldosterona, en la glándula interrenal de Bufo arenarum, a partir de distintos sustratos tales como corticosterona, 18-hidroxicorticosterona (18-OH-B) y el compuesto "N" que se biosintetiza a partir de pregnenolona pero no de progesterona. A diferencia de lo que ocurre con la 18-OH-B comercial o de rata, la proveniente de interrenales de sapo presenta una forma menos polar única y distinta de las conocidas hasta el m...

  20. Genetic structure and origin of a tetraploid toad species Bufo danatensis Pisanetz, 1978 (Amphibia, Bufonidae) from central Asia: Description of biochemical polymorphism and comparison of heterozygosity levels in diploid and tetraploid species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezhzherin, S.V.; Pisanets, E.M. [Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of individual variation at 24 biochemical loci in members of the species complex of Palearctic green toads showed that the heterozygosity of the tetraploid species Bufo danatensis (H{sub obs} = 0.45) was significantly higher than that of the diploid species B. viridis, B. sp., and B. raddei (H{sub obs} = 0.009 - 0.103). Such difference can be explained only by a hybrid origin of the tetraploid species. Individual electrophoretic variability of the polyploid toad species is associated with an allelic variation that is manifested in constantly heterozygous spectra as the gene dosage effect. At the population level, this phenomenon found in Pamir toads is caused by irregular meiosis in founders of the population or by directional changes in gene regulation. Genotypic distributions in zones of contact of the diploid and tetraploid taxons demonstrate the possibility of restricted introgressive hybridization.

  1. The Amphibia of Trinidad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenny, Julian S.

    1969-01-01

    Compared with the other vertebrate groups the Amphibia of the island of Trinidad are relatively poorly known. There have been four surveys of the group, one in the last century and the others in the earlier part of the present. The earliest is that of MOLE & URICH (1894) in which twelve species are

  2. Evolution of erythrocyte morphology in amphibians (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We compared the morphology of the erythrocytes of five anurans, two toad species - Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799 and three frog species - Fejervarya limnocharis (Gravenhorst, 1829, Microhyla ornata (Duméril & Bibron, 1841, and Rana zhenhaiensis (Ye, Fei & Matsui, 1995. We then reconstructed the ancestral state of erythrocyte size (ES and nuclear size (NS in amphibians based on a molecular tree. Nine morphological traits of erythrocytes were all significantly different among the five species. The results of principal component analysis showed that the first component (49.1% of variance explained had a high positive loading for erythrocyte length, nuclear length, NS and ratio of erythrocyte length/erythrocyte width; the second axis (28.5% of variance explained mainly represented erythrocyte width and ES. Phylogenetic generalized least squares analysis showed that the relationship between NS and ES was not affected by phylogenetic relationships although there was a significant linear relationship between these two variables. These results suggested that (1 the nine morphological traits of erythrocytes in the five anuran species were species-specific; (2 in amphibians, larger erythrocytes generally had larger nuclei.

  3. Mechanisms of ion transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of Bufo bufo as revealed by microelectrode recordings in isolated perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad......amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad...

  4. Changes to the generic names of extinct east European species described as Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993 and Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnikov, V. Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The generic assignment of three fossil forms described as Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993 and Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993 is discussed. The author justifies why their original generic names should not be changed to Pseudepidalea, as recently proposed, but should be maintained until more convincing evidence is discovered.Se discute la atribución genérica de tres formas fósiles descritas como Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993, y Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993. El autor justifica las razones por las cuales las adscripciones genéricas originales no deberían cambiarse a Pseudepidalea, como recientemente se ha propuesto, sino mantenerse hasta que se descubra nueva evidencia más convincente.

  5. [Helminth fauna of Bufo raddei in Transbaikalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepina, N A; Baldanova, D R

    2010-01-01

    Helminth fauna of Bufo raddei from Transbaikalia has been studied in 2003-2007. Eleven species of parasites Nematoda were found in this host, namely Rhabdias bufonis (Schrank, 1788), Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782), Oswaldocruzia yezoensis Morishita, 1926, Contracaecum osculatum (Rudolphi, 1802), Raphidascaris acus, larvae, Aplectana acuminata (Schrank, 1788), Aplectana multipapillosa Ivanitzky, 1940, Cosmocerca commutata (Diesing, 1851), Cosmocerca ornata (Dujardin, 1845), Cosmocercoids pulcher (Wilkie, 1930), and Spiroxis contortus (Rudolphi, 1819). Morhometric characters of the helminthes are given. Parasites belonging to Monogenea, Cestoda, Trematoda, and Acanthocephala were not found in 382 examined specimens of Bufo raddei.

  6. Embryotoxicity of lead on Bufo arenarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Coll, C.S.; Herkovits, J.; Salibian, A.

    1988-08-01

    Lead, one of the oldest and more widely distributed pollutants, produces serious toxicological effects. From an ecotoxicological point of view, amphibians are useful as indicators of environmental contamination because they are sensitive to a great variety of toxic agents. Considering that Bufo arenarum is one of the most widely distributed toads in South America, in the present work the authors study the LC50 and teratogenical effects of lead on Bufo arenarum embryos obtained from different couples of parents exposing them from the 2-cell stage onwards. A differential susceptibility to this heavy metal in embryos obtained from five different couples of parents is described.

  7. Intoxicación aguda en perro por toxinas de sapo (Bufo bufo) - Acute intoxication in a dog by toxins of a toad (Bufo bufo)

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    ResumenLas intoxicaciones por toxinas de sapo no son frecuentes en España y su incidencia es mayor en primavera y verano. En este trabajo describimos un caso de intoxicación aguda de una perra de 4 años de edad tras la aprehensión de un sapo (Bufo bufo) en la zona de Huelva. Los signos de una intoxicación comenzaron a los 15 minutos de entrar en contacto con el sapo muriendo a las 3 horas sin responder al tratamiento suministrado (corticoides, atropina, fluidoterapia y acepromazina). Aunque e...

  8. Biological activities of skin and parotoid gland secretions of bufonid toads (Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karış, Mert; Yalcin, Husniye Tansel; Göçmen, Bayram

    2016-05-01

    Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain numerous natural agents which may provide unique resources for novel drug development. Especially the skin-parotoid gland secretions of toads from genus Bufo contain as many as 86 different types of active compounds, each with the potential of becoming a potent drug. In the present study, crude skin-parotoid gland secretions from Bufo bufo, Bufo verrucosissimus and Bufotes variabilis from Turkey were screened against various cancer cells together with normal cells using MTT assay. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of skin secretions were tested on selected bacterial and fungal species for assessing the possible medical applications. Antimicrobial activity of skin secretions was studied by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity of each skin-secretion was also estimated for evaluating pharmaceutical potential. Both skin-parotoid gland secretions showed high cytotoxic effect on all cancerous and non-cancerous cell lines with IC50 values varying between skin-parotoid secretions of bufonid toads might be remarkable candidates for anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents without hemolytic activities.

  9. Intoxicación aguda en perro por toxinas de sapo (Bufo bufo - Acute intoxication in a dog by toxins of a toad (Bufo bufo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Palacios, O´Connor, Rocío

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLas intoxicaciones por toxinas de sapo no son frecuentes en España y su incidencia es mayor en primavera y verano. En este trabajo describimos un caso de intoxicación aguda de una perra de 4 años de edad tras la aprehensión de un sapo (Bufo bufo en la zona de Huelva. Los signos de una intoxicación comenzaron a los 15 minutos de entrar en contacto con el sapo muriendo a las 3 horas sin responder al tratamiento suministrado (corticoides, atropina, fluidoterapia y acepromazina. Aunque el diagnóstico fue precoz, a pesar del tratamiento se produjo la muerte en 3 horas.SummaryIntoxications by toad toxins are not frequent in Spain, and its incidence is greater in spring and summer. In this work it is described a case of an acute intoxication of a dog of 4 years old by toad toxins (Bufo bufo in the area of Huelva. The animal began to show signs of intoxication 15 minutes after the contact with the toad, dying 3 hours later without any response to the provided treatment (corticoids, atropine, fluidotherapy and acepromazine. Although the diagnosis was precocious and the treatment was administrated, after 3 hours the animal died.

  10. Bufo arenarum Hensel, 1867 (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae para el Noroeste del Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmos, Alejandro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Uruguay, Departamento de Paysandú. Paysandú. Puente Internacional, Comisión Administradora del Río Uruguay. 17 de mayo de 1995. Col: C. Ríos. Colección Zoología Vertebrados de la Facultad de Ciencias (Montevideo, Uruguay ZVCB 2758 (macho.Departamento de Salto. Salto. Club de Remeros. 27 de febrero de 1997. Col: A. Olmos ZVCB 3459 (hembra.

  11. Morphological re-evaluation of the parotoid glands of Bufo ictericus (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, de P.G.; Felsemburgh, F.A.; Azevedo, R.A.; Brito-Gitirana, de L.

    2007-01-01

    Multicellular glands in the amphibian integument represent a signifi cant evolutionary advance over those of fi shes. Bufonids have parotoid glands, symmetrically disposed in a post-orbital position. Their secretion may contribute to protection against predators and parasites. This study provides a

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenya; Zhang, Xingjie; Guo, Rui; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Bufo raddei is carried out in the present research using Illumina Hiseq 2500. The mitogenome is 17 602 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a D-loop region. The overall base composition of the H-strand is 29.15% for A, 26.09% for C, 15.16% for G, and 29.60% for T. The G + C content is 41.25%. Phylogenetic analyses of B. raddei and other 12 amphibian were carried out using Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The sequences of B. raddei were clustered in genus Bufo.

  13. 乐果对中华大蟾蜍受精及胚胎发育的影响%Effects of dimethoate on fertilization and embryo development of bufo bufo gargarizans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易薇; 梁姝(廴壬页); 白帆; 孙一娜; 彭安

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨乐果对中华大蟾蜍受精及胚胎发育的影响.方法 以不同浓度的乐果分别作用于中华大蟾蜍的受精和早期胚胎过程,检测受精率和胚胎发育过程.结果 1.浓度为0.12 mg/ml的乐果明显降低受精率.2.对卵受精和胚胎发育过程持续用药处理,1.2×10-4mg/ml的乐果可明显降低出膜胚胎率和出尾率;浓度为1.2×10-2mg/ml的乐果可完全抑制胚胎出膜.3.在受精后0.5 h加入0.12 mg/ml的乐果处理对胚胎发育抑制明显.结论 乐果对中华大蟾蜍胚胎发育的具有毒性作用.

  14. Final Critical Habitat for the Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis) based on the description provided in the Federal...

  15. Lankesterella alencari n. sp., a toxoplasma-like organism in the central nervous system of Amphibia (Protozoa, Sporozoa Lankesterella alencari n. sp., um toxoplasma-like no sistema nervoso central de Amphibia (Protozoa, Sporozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio Celso Gonçalves da Costa

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella alencari n. sp. a Sporozoa that occur in the blood and CNS of the South American frog Leptodactylus acellatus is described. Since the tissue forms of this parasite have been previously reported as belonging to the genus Toxoplasma, we attempted in fection of 2 species of amphibia (Bufo marinus an dLeptodactylus ocellatus with a Toxoplasma strain of human origen; inoculation was by intraperitoneal injection of parasite-containing ascitic fluid from infected mice. Attempt of experimental inoculation of the parasite found in the CNS of L. ocellatus in a highly susceptible host (mice was unsuccessful. These results suggest that Toxoplasma does not occur naturally in the amphibia; be related to Toxoplasma is excluded. The following genera of haematozoa found in brazilian amphibia have been considered briedfly: Haemobartonella, Cytamoeba, Dactylosoma, Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma.Os autores descrevem uma espécie do gênero Lankesterella considerada nova para a ciência, que ocorre com certa freqüência parasitando a rã Leptodactylus ocellatus no Brasil. Como os cistos dêste parasito, encontrados no SNC, foram anteriormente relacionados ao gênero Toxoplasma por outro autor, realizamos uma série de inoculações experimentais para eliminar a hipótese. Tanto as inoculações com amostra de Toxoplasma gondii de origem humana em anfíbios, como as de mascerados de SNC de rã contendo cistos em camundongos, foram negativas. As inoculações de T. gondii em anfíbios foram realizadas em temperatura ambiente que no Rio de Janeiro, na época era 30º-39ºC. Não encontramos, por outro lado, cistos no SNC de anfíbios do gênero Bufo, fato assinalado por outros autores. Realizamos algumas técnicas citoquímicas para melhor caracterização do parasito. Tendo em vista o grande número de hemoparasitos encontrados nas rãs brasileiras e as infecções múltiplas ocorrerem com freqüência, apresentamos também a incidência dêstes parasitos

  16. Anomalías oculares en híbridos Bufo paranecmis ♂ x Bufo arenarum ♀ (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengel, Dora

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Los híbridos entre Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum se encuadran en los llamados "híbridos vitales". Los resultados han evidenciado relevantes anomalías oculares que se manifiestan en un 90% de los casos. En algunas larvas falta el cristalino tanto en uno como en ambos ojos (20%; en otras larvas el cristalino se encuentra ubicado en posición opuesta al normal (25% o bien puede ocurrir que se forme un ojo normal y el otro de forma distinta (20%. El análisis histológico mostró anomalías en la zona retiniana, evidenciándose a partir de los estratos pigmentarios, repliegues y movimientos flexuosos (5%. También existen ojos replegados sobre sí mismos (5%. Las alteraciones más severas llevaron a procesos de anoftalmia (10%. En ocasiones (5% en lugar del ojo se evidencian grumos de pigmento. Se obtuvo un 10% con ojos normales. Los otros órganos presentan analogía con los de las larvas de Bufo paracnemis, inclusive la librea dorsal. The hybrids between Bufo paracnemis x Bufo arenarum are counted among tbe so called "vital hybrids". Our results have revealed relevant ocular anomalies in 90% of cases. In some larvae the lens is lacking in either one or both eyes (20%; in others the lens it is found in an opposite position to normal (25% or else one normal and one different eye is formed (20%. Histological analysis reveals anomalies in the retinal area, observing flexuous movements in the pigmentary strata (5%. Eyes folded over themselves were also observed (5%. The most severe alterations produced cases of anophtalmia (10%. On occasions (5%, groupings of pigments were found instead of the eyes. l0% of the larvae were normal. The other organs show analogies to those of the larvae of Bufo paracnemis, including the dorsal pattem.

  17. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Tripepi, Manuela [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, 201 Leidy Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brunelli, Elvira, E-mail: brunelli@unical.it [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was

  18. Determinants of Instrumental Extinction in Terrestrial Toads ("Bufo arenarum")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Ruben N.; Ruetti, Eliana; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research in a water-reinforced instrumental training situation with toads ("Bufo arenarum") has shown that performance in both acquisition and extinction is poorer after partial, rather than continuous reinforcement training. In Experiment 1, the performance of a group receiving 24 trials on a 50% partial reinforcement schedule was poorer…

  19. The influence of ambient salinity and temperature on lipid metabolism in toad (Bufo bufo) skin. Is phosphatidylethanolamine an endogenous regulator of ion channels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.J.M.; Olsen, Allan Gylling; Willumsen, Niels J.

    1994-01-01

    Incorporation of (32P) phosphate and (14C) acetate into frog (Rana temporaria) skin phospholipids in vitro was positively correlated to skin MR cell density. Transport across toad (Bufo bufo) skin and incorporation into skin phospholipids of the radioactive tracers were independent of transepithe...

  20. 不同能量激光照射后中华大蟾蜍早期胚胎发育及其蛋白质谱变化的研究%A Study on Early Stage Embryonic Development and Variation of Protein Patterns of Bufo bufo gargarizens after Different Energic Laser Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时永香; 白预弘; 白增亮; 吴克良; 张少军; 李丽莉

    2005-01-01

    Appling YAG double-frequency laser microbeam of different energy irradiated four cell stage embryos of Bufo bufo gargarizans. The early stage embryos' development was observed and the results show that low energic saser could make hatching speed rise and less abnormal embryos, while high energic laser could hold back embryos' development and make more embryos abnormal. The patterns of protein expression of early blastula were investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis 0.5 hour after irradiation with different energic saser microbeam and PDQuest software was used to examine protein spots' distribution during different pI and molecular weight in protein gel after scanned by GS-800 protein densitometers of Bio-Rad. The results show that protein exdpression was influenced by laser irradiation and total protein spots were related to energy densities of laser microbeam.%应用YAG倍频激光器选择不同能量密度激光微束对中华大蟾蜍4细胞期胚胎进行照射,观察胚胎的生长、发育状况,统计出膜率、畸胎率和死亡率.实验结果表明:低能量激光照射明显地提高了胚胎的孵化速度,且使畸变率降低;而高能量激光对胚胎发育有明显抑制作用,而且使畸变率增高.不同能量密度激光微束照射中华大蟾蜍早囊胚,0.5 h后制备样品进行双向电泳,凝胶成像后用PDQuest软件进行分析.结果显示激光照射对蛋白质点数及其分布有影响,影响程度与照射激光密度有关.结论:激光照射可以影响胚胎发育和蛋白质的合成.

  1. Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Isioma Tongo; Lawrence Ezemonye; Uche Ochei

    2012-01-01

    The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE), corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxida...

  2. Nuevo registro de Bufo variegatus Gunther para la República Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Biolé, Fernando; Williams, Jorge Daniel

    1985-01-01

    Bufo variegatus es un anuro de tamaño mediano, descripto originalmente por Günther (1870) para Puerto Bueno, Chile, creando para ella el género Nannophryne. Posteriormente Boulenger (1882) lo considera perteneciente al género Bufo. Esta especie tiene una distribución restringida al sur de Argentina y de Chile.

  3. Bufo toxin: A new testing prospect for the screening of anti-convulsant agents. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with diverse aetiology, affecting approximately 1 % of the entire population. Epilepsy present wide range of clinical manifestations, that affect the way a person feels and acts for a short time. Previous scientific investigations have indicated bufo toxin as a potential convulsant candidate that produced similar effects as other known convulsant agents. Bufo toxin has been shown to mimic or exhibit similar action as other known convulsant agent. Its biochemical components are formed as a result of the binding of bufo-fagin and a molecule arginina. There exist wide array of convulsant agents used in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The commonly used one are: bicuculline, picrotoxin, pentylene tetrazole, isonizid etc. However, these agents are expensive, not easily available and affordable. This challenge prompted the search of other alternative convulsant agents that is easily accessible for use in the screening of anti-convulsant agents. The principal objective of this review paper is to suggest the possible use of bufo toxin which mimics the action of existing convulsant agents. This new testing convulsant agent (bufo toxin is inexpensive, affordable and easy to use when compared to other known convulsant agents. The experimental procedure is easy and it gives a broad spectrum in comparing the action of bufo toxin to other chemical convulsant agents. It also offers researchers broader view or options in exploring the anti-convulsant activity of test agents and the understanding of their possible mechanism of action.

  4. Ion transport mechanisms in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo: microelectrode recordings from isolated and perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    It is not clear how and whether terrestrial amphibians handle NaCl transport in the distal nephron. Therefore, we studied ion transport in isolated perfused collecting tubules and ducts from toad, Bufo bufo, by means of microelectrodes. No qualitative difference in basolateral cell membrane...... and amiloride application showed a small apical Na+ conductance. Arginine vasotocin depolarized Vbl. The small apical Na+ conductance indicates that the collecting duct system contributes little to NaCl reabsorption when compared to aquatic amphibians. In contrast, Vbl rapidly depolarized upon lowering of [Na...

  5. Stereological analysis of mitochondria in embryos of Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo during cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Krzysztofowicz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Total numbers of mitochondria and their morphology have been quantitatively determined in mature oocytes and in cleaving embryos of two anuran species Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo using stereological methods. Surface densities of inner mitochondrial membranes for both studied species during cleavage ranged from 5.43 m2/cm3 to 7.53 m2/cm3, whereas volume densities of mitochondria did not exceed 1.65%. Since values of these parameters were low, thus embryos during cleavage may be considered as metabolically "silent". Transition of ultrastructural morphology of mitochondria towards that characterising actively respiring organelles occurs at stage 9 for R. temporaria and at stage 8 for B. bufo, correlated with blastula-gastrula and mid-blastula transition, respectively. The total numbers of mitochondria N(c in mature oocytes are as high as 114.8 and 107.2 millions for R. temporaria and B. bufo, respectively, and during cleavage at late blastula stages they increase to 300 millions for both species under study. We suggest that an undefined mechanism might eliminate during cleavage those amphibian embryos which contain small number of mitochondria and low levels of nutrient substances.

  6. Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isioma Tongo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE, corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxidative stress. Toads were exposed to 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 g/L for 28 days. Brain AChE activity reduced by 96% in the highest concentration (0.04 g/L compared to the control brain. Similarly, AChE activities in serum, liver, lungs and GIT tissues (88%, 88%, 87, 87% umg-1 protein respectively were also inhibited in the toads. Corticosterone and total protein levels in the tissues decreased compared to the control. The accumulation results obtained showed accumulation in the tissues (liver>serum>brain> lung>GIT, with a direct relationship between tissue concentration and changes in the biochemical indices. The alterations in all the indices were significantly concentration dependent. The biomarkers described in this study could be useful complementary indices in the risk assessment of diazinon pesticide.

  7. The authorships and dates of the specific nomina Megophrys shuichengensis and Pseudohynobius shuichengensis (Amphibia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Annemarie; Frétey, Thierry; Dubois, Alain

    2015-05-28

    Two amphibian species from China are designated by the specific nomen shuichengensis, which refers to the Shuicheng County (26°34'N, 104°51'E), south of the city of Liupanshui in the province of Guizhou: Megophrys shuichengensis (Amphibia, Anura) and Pseudohynobius shuichengensis (Amphibia, Urodela). The holotypes (holophoronts) of both species were deposited in Department of Biology of the Liupanshui Teachers Higher College (LTHC below). Both species share the particularity of having been described as new twice, at different dates, in different journals and with different authorships. Although this has been acknowledged for the salamander, it has not yet been so for the frog.

  8. [Lectin histochemistry of the Bufo marinus L. toad tongue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Elorriaga, M; Jaloveckas, D; Salazar de Candelle, M

    1995-01-01

    Lectin histochemistry at light microscope level was used in the tongue of the cane toad Bufo marinus to determine the distribution of sugar residues in glycoconjugates (GCs) previously localized and characterized by conventional histochemical techniques. Five horseradish-peroxidase (HRP) labeled-lectins, namely Con A, PNA, SBA, UEA-1 and WGS were used. Additionally, neuraminidase (N) treated sections before the staining procedures were used in order to dilucidate the presence of terminal sialic acid (SA). Sugar residues in GCs of the taste organ (TO) associated mucous cells stained more intensely with WGA than with Con A and UEA-1. All the sensory cells reacted with Con A and WGA but one type of them were characteristically labeled by UEA-1. The glycocalix (gc) of the TOs resulted intensely stained with Con A and with WGA and UEA-1 before and after N treatment. The GCs in the mucous-supporting cells of dorsal mucosae filiform papillae and folds reacted intensely with WGA and weakly with Con A. The ciliated cells (cic) were intense and characteristically stained with UEA-1 and WGA and moderately with Con A. The gc reacted more intensely with WGA than with Con A. Dorsal mucosae glands secretory cells mucins were characteristically stained with PNA, SBA and WGA besides Con A, while glandular ciliated cells showed the same staining pattern as in the filiform papillae. In the ventral mucosa all epithelium cells resulted stained with WGA and Con A, while differentiated goblet cells only reacted as well with UEA-1 and PNA before and after neuraminidase treatment. Unexpectedly, ciliated ventral mucosae cells did not react with UEA-1 but only with WGA and Con A. The results have shown that lectin histochemistry is an interesting tool to characterize similarities and differences in the lingual GCs sugar residues composition and distribution, particularly those located in epithelial cells.

  9. The envelopes of amphibian oocytes: physiological modifications in Bufo arenarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Mercedes

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A characterization of the Amphibian Bufo arenarum oocyte envelope is presented. It was made in different functional conditions of the oocyte: 1 when it has been released into the coelomic cavity during ovulation (surrounded by the coelomic envelope, (CE, 2 after it has passed through the oviduct and is deposed (surrounded by the viteline envelope, (VE, and 3 after oocyte activation (surrounded by the fertilization envelope, (FE. The characterization was made by SDS-PAGE followed by staining for protein and glycoproteins. Labeled lectins were used to identify glycosidic residues both in separated components on nitrocellulose membranes or in intact oocytes and embryos. Proteolytic properties of the content of the cortical granules were also analyzed. After SDS-PAGE of CE and VE, a different protein pattern was observed. This is probably due to the activity of a protease present in the pars recta of the oviduct. Comparison of the SDS-PAGE pattern of VE and FE showed a different mobility for one of the glycoproteins, gp75. VE and FE proved to have different sugar residues in their oligosaccharide chains. Mannose residues are only present in gp120 of the three envelopes. N-acetyl-galactosamine residues are present in all of the components, except for gp69 in the FE. Galactose residues are present mainly in gp120 of FE. Lectin-binding assays indicate the presence of glucosamine, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine residues and the absence (or non-availability of N-acetyl-glucosamine or fucose residues on the envelopes surface. The cortical granule product (CGP shows proteolytic activity on gp75 of the VE.

  10. On The Identity Of Some Toads Of The Genus Bufo From Ecuador, With Additional Remarks On Andinophryne Colomai Hoogmoed, 1985 (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Study of the type specimens of B. caeruleostictus Günther, 1859 and B. chanchanensis Fowler, 1913, and of fresh material showed that B. chanchanensis is a junior subjective synonym of B. caeruleostictus. Probably it is a member of the B. guttatus group. B. caeruleocellatus Fowler, 1913 is a junior s

  11. Experimental studies in inmature stages of Bufo fernandezae, Gallardo. Length growth and its relation to food, oxygen concentration and density (Amphibia, Anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Kehr, Arturo Ignacio

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze individual and combined effects of biotic and abiotic factors of the length growth of inmature stages of B. fernandezae Gallardo. The research was carried on under specified and constant laboratory conditions. The obtained results showed that the density was the main controlling factor upon the individual growth, being less important, in this sense, the alimentary offer arranged during the temporal extension of the experiments. Besides, no differences...

  12. Determination of impacts on the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge from ammonium nitrate concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) is found only as a reintroduced population at Mortenson NWR in the Laramie Plains of southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the...

  13. The different meanings of the nomen Amphibia: a correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Alain

    2015-07-17

    I recently published a survey of the different meanings of the nomen Amphibia in taxonomic publications since 1758 (Dubois 2015). The 'meaning' of a nomen in zoological nomenclature depends on the system used for the allocation of nomina to taxa, and several such systems can be used (see e.g. Dubois 2006a-b). In the paper at stake, I used the 'orostensional nomenclatural system' (OONS) for class-series nomenclature. In this system, a class-series nomen-i.e., a nomen above the rank superfamily, therefore one whose taxonomic allocation is not regulated by the Code (Anonymous 1999)-applies, in a given classification, to the most inclusive class-series taxon that includes all its originally expressly included nominal genera (conucleogenera) and excludes all its originally expressly excluded nominal genera (alienogenera)-if such a taxon indeed exists in this classification. However, if one a least of the alienogenera is now part of the most inclusive taxon including all the conucleogenera, the nomen cannot be taxonomically allocated and qualifies as an anaptonym in the classification used as reference (Dubois 2006a-b, 2011), although it may not be so under another taxonomic frame.

  14. Population and habitat viability assessment for the Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri): Final workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Wyoming toad was discovered by Dr. George Baxter in 1946 and was originally known as Bufo hemiophrys baxteri until 1998 when it was given full species status as Bufo baxteri. The toad is thought to be a glacial relic always found only in the Laramie Basin. It was originally known from many breeding sites in the floodplains of the Big and Little Laramie Rivers. Later, after irrigation practices changed the nature of the floodpains, it was found along margins of ponds and small seepage lakes between 7,000 and 7,500 feet. Baxter and others monitored breeding sites for more than 30 years, with few toads seen or heard from 1975 to 1979. An extensive survey of the Laramie Basin in 1980 found only one population.

  15. How fast do amphibians disperse? Introductions, distribution and dispersal of the common frog Rana temporaria and the common toad Bufo bufo on a coastal island in Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Dolmen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common frog (Rana temporaria and the common toad (Bufo bufo were introduced successfully to the coastal island of Frøya in Central Norway several times during 1960–2012. There is still a very high degree of conformity between sites where they were introduced and the present distribution of the two species. However, in western Frøya, a release of frogs about 1996 was followed by a quick expansion of their distribution area; in 2012 and 2013, breeding was registered close to 7 km westwards and eastwards, respectively, i.e. a population dispersal speed of approximately 0.4 km/yr. On eastern Frøya and some small islands in the archipelago, area expansions at another four frog localities have been prevented by ecological barriers like unfavourable limnetic or terrestrial habitats or salty water. Two local common toad populations on eastern Frøya do not show any expansion either. However, an apparently isolated record of the species on western Frøya in 2011 can possibly be explained by the expansion westwards of a population in northern central Frøya, where toads were introduced around 1995. This stretch is about 9.9 km, i.e. an average population dispersal speed of 0.6 km/yr.

  16. [Helminth fauna of amphibians (Vertebrata: Amphibia) in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Historical review of the investigations of helminth fauna in amphibians from Belarus is presented. In 12 amphibian species examined by different authors 46 helminth species were found, including 29 Trematoda, 13 Nematoda, 1 Monogenea, 2 Cestoda, and 1 Acanthocephala. Original data on helminths parasitizing Amphibia in Byelorussian Polesie, by the results of long-term investigations in 1986-2004 are given. Distribution of 40 helminth species by hosts and respective infestation rates are reported.

  17. REGULATION OF SERUM CORTISOL BY SOMATOSTATIN: EVIDENCE OF NEUROENDOCRINE CONTROL OF ADRENAL GLAND IN AMPHIBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAMSHUN NEHAR

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of somatostatin in plasma cortisol level in Rana tigrina (amphibia,anura has beeninvestigated. An inhibitory impact on both, intact (16.32% as well as pharmacologically annuledfrogs(23.27% has been recorded. It is concluded that in both the conditions, it act as a preventiveagent to counteract any excess secretion of cortisol due to the failure of classical regulatorymechanism.

  18. Tissue kinetics, ion transport, and recruitment of mitochondria-rich cells in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo) in response to exposure to distilled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz, Poul Egede; Christoffersen, Betina C.; Johansen, Jesper S.;

    1995-01-01

    studied in toads (Bufo bufo) immediately before, and after 2,7, and 14 days exposure to distilled water. General epidermal structure was not affected. However, the numbers of MRCs per mm2 (DMRC) increased throughout the experiment as revealed by staining of epidermal sheets with AgNO3 (Ag) or methylene...... blue (MB). Part of the increased DMRC was accounted for by an increase in MRC subpopulation(s) that stained neither with Ag nor MB. The cell birth rate (Kb) decreased and cell loss by moulting (Kd) increased without any significant change in epidermal cell pool size, indicating a reduced apoptotic rate...

  19. Volunteer Conservation Action Data Reveals Large-Scale and Long-Term Negative Population Trends of a Widespread Amphibian, the Common Toad (Bufo bufo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovan, Silviu O.

    2016-01-01

    Rare and threatened species are the most frequent focus of conservation science and action. With the ongoing shift from single-species conservation towards the preservation of ecosystem services, there is a greater need to understand abundance trends of common species because declines in common species can disproportionately impact ecosystems function. We used volunteer-collected data in two European countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Switzerland, since the 1970s to assess national and regional trends for one of Europe’s most abundant amphibian species, the common toad (Bufo bufo). Millions of toads were moved by volunteers across roads during this period in an effort to protect them from road traffic. For Switzerland, we additionally estimated trends for the common frog (Rana temporaria), a similarly widespread and common amphibian species. We used state-space models to account for variability in detection and effort and included only populations with at least 5 years of data; 153 populations for the UK and 141 for Switzerland. Common toads declined continuously in each decade in both countries since the 1980s. Given the declines, this common species almost qualifies for International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red-listing over this period despite volunteer conservation efforts. Reasons for the declines and wider impacts remain unknown. By contrast, common frog populations were stable or increasing in Switzerland, although there was evidence of declines after 2003. “Toads on Roads” schemes are vital citizen conservation action projects, and the data from such projects can be used for large scale trend estimations of widespread amphibians. We highlight the need for increased research into the status of common amphibian species in addition to conservation efforts focusing on rare and threatened species. PMID:27706154

  20. Exposure and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles: morpho-histological and ultrastructural study on epidermis and iNOS localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Guardia, Antonello; La Russa, Daniele; Madeo, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Sandro; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-10-15

    Endosulfan is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that has lethal and sublethal effects on non-target organisms, including amphibians. In a laboratory study, we investigated direct and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles. For this purpose we exposed the tadpoles to a single short-term contamination event (96 h) at an environmentally-realistic concentration (200 μg endosulfan/L). This was followed by a recovery period of 10 days when the experimental animals were kept in pesticide-free water. The endpoints were assessed in terms of mortality, incidence of deformity, effects on behavior, and the morpho-functional features of the epidermis. We found that a short-term exposure to the tested concentration of endosulfan did not cause mortality but induced severe sublethal effects, such as hyperactivity, convulsions, and axis malformations. Following relocation to a pesticide-free environment, we noted two types of response within the experimental sample, in terms of morphological and behavioral traits. Moreover, by using both ultrastructural and a morpho-functional approach, we found that a short-term exposure to endosulfan negatively affected the amphibian epidermis. We also observed several histo-pathological alterations: increased mucous secretion, an increase in intercellular spaces and extensive cell degeneration, together with the induction of an inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Following the post-exposure period, we found large areas of epidermis in which degeneration phenomena were moderate or absent, as well as a further increase in iNOS immunoreactivity. Thus, after 10 days in a free-pesticide environment, the larval epidermis was able to partially replace elements that had been compromised due to a physiological and/or a pathological response to the pesticide. These results highlight the need for both exposure and post-exposure experiments, when attempting to assess pollutant effects.

  1. The induction of neoplastic lesions by aflatoxin-B1 in the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Mofty, M M; Sakr, S A

    1988-01-01

    The carcinogenic activity of aflatoxin-B1, the metabolic product of the mold Aspergillus flavus (a commonly occurring contaminant of groundnuts and other foodstuffs), was tested using the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis). Injecting the toads with aflatoxin-B1 at a dose level of 0.01 mg/50 g body wt in 1 ml corn oil once a week for 15 weeks induced hepatocellular carcinomas in 19% of the experimental toads. Four toads developed tumors in the kidney due to metastases from the primary hepatocellular carcinomas.

  2. El ciclo evolutivo experimental de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei en Paracyclops fimbriatus, larvas de Bufo arenarum y caninos

    OpenAIRE

    Venturini,Lucila

    1989-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue lograr la reproducción experimental del ciclo evolutivo de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea) con la intervención de Paracyclops fimbriatus y larvas de Bufo arenarum como hospedadores intermediarios y caninos como hospedadores definitivos. Los huevos del parásito se obtuvieron de heces de caninos infectados naturalmente y se conservaron refrigerados en agua. Se incubaron 7 días a 25°C para que desarrollaran los coracidios y se...

  3. Inducement of Sechenov inhibition by EtOH and NA in the Bufo toad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI RuXin; JIA ShanShan; LI YingZi; CAO Yin; CHENG XiuZhen; XIE ZuoPing

    2008-01-01

    Central inhibition, discovered by Sechenov in 1862, suggests that electrically stimulating the forebrain or medulla oblongata in frog generally suppresses reflexes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Using ethanol (EtOH), noradrenalin (NA), and other neurotransmitters in thalamic preparations, Sechenov inhibition was stimulated in Bufo toads in this study. The result showed that, similar to Sechenov inhibition, the acute application of EtOH or NA excited the thalamus and prolonged the latency of withdrawal reflex. Our study evidences the involvement of α-adrenoceptors in such central inhibition, and explains the role of acute EtOH application in the in-duction of reflex inhibition.

  4. Haematological changes in Bufo maculatus treated with sublethal concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ikechukwu Ezemonye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult Bufo maculatus was exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00 and 2.00 mg/L. The toxicant from which the cadmium concentrations were prepared was cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O. There were three replicate tanks per treatment and three individuals per tank including control groups. The hematologic alterations based on the examination of blood indices during the 28 days of exposure showed that total erythrocyte count (TEC, hematocrit (Hct and hemoglobin (Hb concentration decreased (P<0.05 relative to controls. The decline was concentration- dependent as concentration of cadmium increased. The decline in hemoglobin and hematocrit in the experimental organism could be due to a decrease in the synthesis or release of erythrocytes into the circulation or an increase in the rate of erythrocyte destruction inflicted by cadmium toxicity. There was significant (P<0.05 elevation in total leuko- leukocyte count (TLC with increase in the concen- cyte concentration of cadmium. The increase in total leukocyte count observed in this study could be attributed to a stimulation of the immune system in response to tissue damage caused by cadmium toxicity. The study has shown that the exposure of the Bufo maculatus toad to cadmium can inflict alterations in the hematologic indices, which could induce unfavorable physiological changes in the amphibian, which may lead to death. There is, therefore, the need to protect amphibians in order to sustain the biodiversity in the Nigerian Niger Delta ecological zone.

  5. Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Lankesterellidae from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Paperna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. is described from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru. Merogony and oogony occur in the capillary endothelium and the macrophages in the liver, spleen and kidneys. Meronts are oval, 25,2–29,4 x 15,7–16,8 μm in size and yield 35–46 merozoites. Oocysts are 26,3–29,4 x 15,1–17,6 μm in size; sporozoites 9,2-9,8 x 4,2–5,0 μm in size, assemble in macrophages. Released 8,7–9,8 x 2,8–3,1 μm sporozoites enter erythrocytes. L. poeppigii is compared with Lankesterella petiti Lainson & Paperna, 1995 infecting Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil. The above mentioned specific characters, added to differences in hosts and geographical location warrant the description of Lankesterella poeppigii from B. poeppigii as a new species.

  6. New Karyological and Morphometric Data on Poorly Known Bufo surdus and Bufo luristanicus in Comparison with Data of Diploid Green Toads of the Bufo viridis Complex from South of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh FAKHARZAEH; Jamshid DARVISH; Haji Gholi KAMI; Fereshteh GHASEMZADEH; Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the Bufo viridis complex, which is distributed broadly across Iran, are incomplete and restricted to a few regions or a few samples. In this paper a new detailed study on the B. viridis complex in southern of Iran (from West to East) is presented. The analysis of 18 morphometric characters with univariate and multivariate methods reveals significant differences between three members of the B. viridis complex namely B. variabilis, B. luristanicus, and B. surdus distributed in southern part of Iran. Our result help to resolve an old taxonomic problem about B. surdus subgroup (taxa closely related to B. surdus) conifrming that B. luristanicus and B. surdus are distinct species. Moreover, for the ifrst time we report and describe karyotype details of B. luristanicus and B. surdus which conifrmed that they are diploid. Karyological studies demonstrate that all toads from three mentioned species have 2n=22 chromosomes. These chromosomes are arranged into two groups. First group has six large chromosomes and the second group is composed of five small chromosomes. These chromosomes are metacentric or submetacentric. The number of submetacentric chromosomes is different in three mentioned species of B. viridis complex. Neither sexual heteromorphism, nor secondary constriction was observed in any pairs of chromosomes.

  7. Variación ontogenética en la palatibilidad de los renacuajos de Bufo spinulosus papillosus Philippi, 1902 (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara, Fabián Gastón

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la variación ontogenética de la palatabilidad en Bufo spinulosus papillosus expuestos a larvas del odonato Rhionaeshna variegata (Odonata, Aeshnidae. Los renacuajos fueron agrupados en cuatro categorías de desarrollo y fueron expuestos a la depredación directa determinándose el número de renacuajos consumidos al finalizar los experimentos. Bufo spinulosus papillosus no fue palatable en los primeros estadios del desarrollo (categorías I, estadios 24-26 y categoría II, estadios 32-34, mientras que los estadios de las categoría III (estadios 38-40 y categoría IV (estadios 42-45 fueron progresivamente palatables. Se observó un comportamiento de rechazo por parte de los depredadores luego de la captura de renacuajos de las categorías I y II. El patrón de palatabilidad encontrado en Bufo spinulosus papillosus difiere del observado en otras especies relacionadas del género Bufo (Brodie y Formanowicz, 1987; Kehr y Schnack, 1991; Lawler y Hero, 1997. We evaluated the ontogenetic variation in the palatability of Bufo spinulosus papillosus tadpoles exposed to odonate larvae of Rhionaeshna variegata (Odonata, Aeshnidae. We exposed tadpoles to direct predation and determined the number of consumed tadpoles in four developmental categories. Bufo spinulosus papillosus tadpoles of categories I (stages 24-26 and II (stages 32-34 were unpalatable, while categories III (stages 38-40 and IV (stages 42-45 were progressively palatable. We observed a post-capture rejection behavior when they caught unpalatable tadpoles in categories I and II. The palatability pattern observed in Bufo spinulosus papillosus was different from related Bufo species (Brodie and Formanowicz, 1987; Kehr and Schnack, 1991; Lawler and Hero, 1997.

  8. 蟾皮提取物抑菌活性与稳定性研究%Study on antibacterial activity and stability of extracts from skin of bufo bufo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元清; 严建业; 罗堃; 师白梅; 王璐

    2011-01-01

    采用滤纸片法测定蟾皮不同溶剂提取物抑菌性能,平皿二倍稀释法测定最小抑菌浓度(MIC),并进一步考察其抑菌活性部位的量效关系与耐热耐压稳定性.结果表明,蟾皮水提物、30%乙醇提取物、水提醇沉物对供试菌没有抑菌作用,而60%乙醇提取物与90%乙醇提取物对供试菌有不同程度的抑制作用,并且90%乙醇提取物的抑菌效果强于60%乙醇提取物;90%乙醇提取物对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、黑曲霉的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)分别为1 000,500,500,500 mg/mL;抑菌活性与总生物碱的提取量存在一定的量效关系;抑菌活性部位具有一定的耐热耐压稳定性.%Paper disc method was used to observe the antibacterial activity of extracts from the skin of bufo bufo with different solvents on tested strains. The minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC)was tested by plate two-fold dilution method. And the dose effect relationship and the heat-pressure stability of the antimicrobial active fraction of the skin of bufo bufo were also studied. The results showed that the water extracts, 30% alcohol extracts and ethanol sediments from the skin of bufo bufo had no bacteriostasis activities on the tested strains. The 60% ethanol extracts and the 90% ethanol extracts had bacteriostasis activities on the tested strains inordinately and the 90% ethanol extracts was better than the 60% ethanol extracts . The MIC of 90% ethanol extracts to Eschrichia coli,Staphyl -ococcus au-reus, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were 1 000 mg/ml., 500 rag/mL, 500 mg/mL. 500 rag/ml., respectively. There were dose-effects relationship between the inhibitory effect and total alkaloid,and the antimicrobial active fraction had heat-pressure stability.

  9. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative......, and apparent leakage conductance was reduced. Application of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to skin of fully salt-adapted toads increased the transepithelial Cl- conductance, and the time courses of voltage clamp currents became more like those of water-adapted toads. Apparent...... leakage conductance was increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of cystatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor, from bufo melanostictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wa; Ji, Senlin; Zhang, A-Mei; Han, Qinqin; Feng, Yue; Song, Yuzhu

    2013-01-01

    Cystatins are efficient inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteinases, and they serve various important physiological functions. In this study, a novel cystatin, Cystatin-X, was cloned from a cDNA library of the skin of Bufo melanostictus. The single nonglycosylated polypeptide chain of Cystatin-X consisted of 102 amino acid residues, including seven cysteines. Evolutionary analysis indicated that Cystatin-X can be grouped with family 1 cystatins. It contains cystatin-conserved motifs known to interact with the active site of cysteine proteinases. Recombinant Cystatin-X expressed and purified from Escherichia coli exhibited obvious inhibitory activity against cathepsin B. rCystatin-X at a concentration of 8 µM inhibited nearly 80% of cathepsin B activity within 15 s, and about 90% of cathepsin B activity within 15 min. The Cystatin-X identified in this study can play an important role in host immunity and in the medical effect of B. melanostictus.

  11. Effects of age, weight, hormones, and hibernation on breeding success in boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Szymanski, D C; Keyster, E D

    2010-03-01

    The goals of this study were to test the effects of exogenous hormones and hibernation on breeding behavior and gamete release by boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas). Each year, a subset of 77 toads was hibernated and then paired with hibernated or nonhibernated mates and treated with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or left untreated. Amplexus and egg and sperm production were recorded. At 1 yr of age, only 19% of pairs exhibited amplexus, and no sperm or eggs were produced. At 2 and 3 yr of age, most male toads treated with LHRHa exhibited amplexus (56.9% and 100%, respectively). Among 2-yr-old males, amplexus was more prevalent (Pbreeding success, males should be hibernated and treated with LHRHa. In contrast, female productivity was enhanced by improving their body condition instead of subjecting them to hibernation prior to LHRHa treatment.

  12. Alimentación y fecundidad de Bufo variegatus (Anura: Bufonidae en Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappi, Guillermina E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la alimentación de una población de Bufo variegatus procedente de la región de Lago del Desierto, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. De los 11 ítems presa identificados, los más consumidos por los adultos (tanto machos como hembras fueron los coleópteros. En los machos la segunda categoría presa mas importante en la contribución a la dieta fueron los ácaros, mientras que en las hembras las hormigas y las larvas de insectos siguieron en importancia al consumo de coleópteros. En los especímenes juveniles, los ácaros fueron las presas más consumidas, quedando los coleópteros en segundo lugar en importancia relativa. Se demuestra la existencia de una correlación positiva significativa entre el volumen de las presas y el tamaño del depredador. Se aportan datos referentes a la fecundidad de B. variegatus y se comprueba la ausencia de correlación entre el tamaño de las hembras grávidas y el número de óvulos maduros. The diet of a population of Bufo variegatus from the region of Lago del Desierto, Santa Cruz province, Argentina, is described. Of the 11 prey items identified, Coleoptera was the most consumed prey both for males and females. In males, the second most important prey was Acarii, while in females they were the ants and insect larvae. Acarii was the most consumed prey for juveniles, followed by Coleoptera. A significant positive correlation was found between prey volume and predator body size. Fecundity information for B. variegwus is given, and a lack of correlation between snout-vent length of mature females and ovarian egg complement is demonstrated.

  13. EFFECTS OF AMINO ACIDS ON THE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL OF TOAD OOCYTES AND THE MECHANISMS INVOLVED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYu-Feng; CHENGJiun; CHENGZhi-Ping

    1989-01-01

    The etTects of 23 amino acids on the membrane potential of toad ( Bufo bufo gargarizans ) oocytes and the mechanisms involved were investigated in vitro by means of microelectrode. At a concentration of I mmol/L-alanine, leucine and lyaine induced signfiant depolarization, and tryptophan provoked a marked hyperpolarization during

  14. Absence of the trade-off between the size and number of offspring in the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita)

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    A trade-off between size and number of offspring was not found for females of similar sizes of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita). Moreover, for large females, clutches with higher number of eggs had larger eggs as well. This suggests that larger females produce more numerous and larger eggs because they potentially have more energy available for reproduction. Egg size diminished allometrically with clutch size. Egg size, however, did not increase offspring fitness. Therefore, this allometri...

  15. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).

    OpenAIRE

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B

    1980-01-01

    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and sm...

  16. TREMATODOFAUNA COMPLEXULUI PELOPHYLAX ESCULENTA (AMPHIBIA, ANURA DIN CODRII CENTRALI AI REPUBLICII MOLDOVA. 1. FAMILIILE PLAGIORCHIIDAE, CEPHALOGONIMIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru ERHAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lucrarea conţine date cu privire la infestarea cu trematode a amfibienilor din familia Ranidae (Amphibia, Anura care populează ecosistemele naturale şi antropizate ale Codrilor centrali din Republica Moldova. Cercetări helmintologice ale amfibienilor au fost efectuate pentru prima dată în Republica Moldova. Rezultatele obţinute atestă infestarea ranidelor verzi (Rana ridibunda, R. lessonae, R. esculenta cu trematode din familiile Gorgoderidae (Gorgodera varsoviensis Sinitzin, 1905, Diplodiscidae (Diplodiscus subclavatus Pallas, 1760, Plagiorchiidae (Opisthioglyphe ranae Frohlich, 1791, Haematoloechus variegatus Rudolphi, 1819, Cephalogonimidae (Cephalogonimus retusus Dujardin, 1845 şi Lecithodendriidae (Pleurogenes claviger Rudolphi, 1819, Pleurogenoides medians,Olsson, 1876, Prosotocus confusus Looss, 1894, Candidotrema loossi, Africa, 1930. În lucrare sunt expuse rezultatele ce atestă nivelul de infestare a complexului Pelophylax esculenta cu specii de trematode din familiile Plagiorchiidae şi Cephalogonimidae. Pentru fiecare specie au fost stabilite: încadrarea sistema-tică, sinonimele, gazdele, localizarea organică, răspândirea geografică, etiologia şi ciclul biologic. De asemenea, este specificat volumul materialului colectat, este dată descrierea morfologică a speciilor, indicat nivelul de infestare în funcţie de vârstă, gen şi ecosistem, acestea fiind însoţite de fotografii şi figuri originale. FAUNA OF TREMATODES OF COMPLEX PELOPHYLAX ESCULENTA (AMPHIBIA, ANURA FROM CENTRAL CODRI FOREST OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA. 1. FAMILIES PLAGIORCHIIDAE, CEPHALOGONIMIDAEThe paper presents data on trematodes infestation in amphibians from family Ranidae (Amphibia, Anura in natural and anthropized ecosystems of Central Codri forest from the Republic of Moldova. The helminthological researches of amphibians were accomplished for the first time in the Republic of Moldova. As result the infestation of Ranidae family species

  17. A new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophry-idae from the northwestern Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang MO, Youhui SHEN, Honghui LI, Xiushan WU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Megophrys (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae, Megophrys tuberogranulatus Shen, Mo et Li, sp. nov. (Holotype HNUL 03080902, adult male, SVL: 38.2 mm, from Sangzhi County, Hunan Province, is described. Megophrys tuberogranulatus is closely related to both Megophrys kuatunensis and Megophrys minor. Characters of the new species that differentiate this species from close relatives are skin granulated with big tubercles on the dorsal sides of both thigh and tibia, the bigger inner metacarpal tubercle, upper eyelid wider than the interorbital space, hind limbs longer, overlapping of the left and right calcaneal parts. The type specimens are deposited in the Animal Museum of Life Sciences College of Hunan Normal University [Current Zoology 56 (4: 432–436, 2010].

  18. Bibliographic Studies on the Bufonis Venenum

    OpenAIRE

    Kye-Sung Kang; Gi-Rok Kwon

    2001-01-01

    Objectives : Through the literatures on the effets of Bufonis Venenum, we are finding out the clinical possibility and revealing the more effective to intractable diseases. Methods : We investigated the literatures of Oriental Medicine and experimental reports about Bufonis Venenum. Results : 1. Bufonis Venenum is made of bufonidae bufo bufo gargarizans cantor or bufo melanostictus schneider of white serum which secreted from parotid gland or dermato gland, and it is dried for using. ...

  19. Efficacy of fenbendazole and levamisole treatments in captive Houston toads (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Catherine M; Johnson, Cassidy B; Howard, Lauren L; Crump, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Effective disease monitoring and prevention is critical to the success of captive amphibian care. Nematodes, including the genera Rhabdias and Strongyloides, are known to contribute to mortality in captive amphibians and have been identified in the Houston Zoo's endangered Houston toad (Bufo [Anaxyrus] houstonensis) captive assurance colony. Five years of fecal data for the toad colony were compiled and analyzed in order to investigate the efficacy of two anthelminthic medications, fenbendazole (FBZ) and levamisole (LMS), which were used to control nematode infections. Both FBZ (dusted onto food items) and topical LMS (6.5 to 13.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of nematode eggs, larvae, and adults observed by fecal parasitologic examination. There were no significant differences between treatments, and egg reappearance periods were difficult to compare as a result of low sample size. No adverse effects from either anthelminthic treatment were observed. Both topical LMS and oral FBZ appear to be safe and efficacious treatments for the reduction of the internal nematode burden in captive Houston toads.

  20. Comparative study on the tongue of Bufo regularis and Chalcides ocellatus in relation to their habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H. Elsheikh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the structure of the tongue of the toad, Bufo regularis and the lizard, Chalcides ocellatus. They have different feeding habits and live in different habitats. The tongue of the toad contains two types of lingual papillae; fungiform papillae and filiform papillae. The fungiform papillae are usually scattered among the filiform papillae and are believed to function in gustation and in the secretion of salivary fluid. Scanning electron microscopical studies revealed that no ciliated cells were observed on the surface of the filiform papillae or in the surrounding area of the sensory disc. In C. ocellatus the tip of the tongue is bifurcated and keratinized. The dorsal surface of the tongue is covered with several types of papillae; irregular, scale and ridge-shaped. Taste buds were present in the epithelium of the tongue. The lingual glands consist of mucous cells that form crypt-like invaginations between papillae. The present study revealed that there is a marked correlation between the structure of the tongue of both B. regularis and C. ocellatus and habitats and feeding mechanism of the two species.

  1. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sakr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55 and postmetamorphic (66 stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63 displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled.

  2. The role of hind limb flexor muscles during swimming in the toad, Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Gary B

    2007-01-01

    Most work examining muscle function during anuran locomotion has focused largely on the roles of major hind limb extensors during jumping and swimming. Nevertheless, the recovery phase of anuran locomotion likely plays a critical role in locomotor performance, especially in the aquatic environment, where flexing limbs can increase drag on the swimming animal. In this study, I use kinematic and electromyographic analyses to explore the roles of four anatomical flexor muscles in the hind limb of Bufo marinus during swimming: m. iliacus externus, a hip flexor; mm. iliofibularis and semitendinosus, knee flexors; and m. tibialis anticus longus, an ankle flexor. Two general questions are addressed: (1) What role, if any, do these flexors play during limb extension? and (2) How do limb flexors control limb flexion? Musculus iliacus externus exhibits a large burst of EMG activity early in limb extension and shows low levels of activity during recovery. Both m. iliofibularis and m. semitendinosus are biphasically active, with relatively short but intense bursts during limb extension followed by longer and typically weaker secondary bursts during recovery. Musculus tibialis anticus longus becomes active mid way through recovery and remains active through the start of extension in the next stroke. In conclusion, flexors at all three joints exhibit some activity during limb extension, indicating that they play a role in mediating limb movements during propulsion. Further, recovery is controlled by a complex pattern of flexor activation timing, but muscle intensities are generally lower, suggesting relatively low force requirements during this phase of swimming.

  3. An electrophoretic study of myosin heavy chain expression in skeletal muscles of the toad Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L T; Stephenson, G M

    1999-10-01

    In this study we developed an SDS-PAGE protocol which for the first time separates effectively all myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms expected to be expressed in iliofibularis (IF), pyriformis (PYR), cruralis (CRU) and sartorius (SAR) muscles of the toad Bufo marinus on the basis of previously reported fibre type composition. The main feature of the method is the use of alanine instead of glycine both in the separating gel and in the running buffer. The correlation between the MHC isoform composition of IF, SAR and PYR muscles determined in this study and the previously reported fibre type composition of IF and SAR muscles in the toad and of PYR muscle in the frog was used to tentatively identify the MHC isoforms expressed by twitch fibre types 1, 2 and 3 and by tonic fibres. The alanine-SDS electrophoretic method was employed to examine changes in the MHC composition of IF, PYR, CRU and SAR muscles with the ontogenetic growth of the toad from post-natal life (body weight muscle observed in this study are in very good agreement with those in the fibre type composition of the developing IF muscle reported in the literature.

  4. Association preference and mechanism of kin recognition in tadpoles of the toad Bufo melanostictus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lilly Margaret Eluvathingal; Bhagyashri A Shanbhag; Srinivas K Saidapur

    2009-09-01

    In experiments with specially designed choice tanks, tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus spend significantly greater amounts of time near kin than near non-kin. However, in the absence of kin members, they prefer to spend more time near non-kin rather than stay away in isolation in the opposite blank zone with no company. This implies that association of toad tadpoles with their kin is due to attraction rather than repulsion from non-kin. Experiments designed to elucidate the sensory basis of kin recognition showed that toad tadpoles recognize their kin based on chemical cues rather than visual cues. They can also discriminate between homospecific non-kin and heterospecific (Sphaerotheca breviceps) tadpoles since the tadpoles spent significantly greater amounts of time near the former than near the latter. These findings suggest that where kin members are unavailable, selection may have favoured living with non-kin so as to derive benefits from group living and that a phenotype-matching mechanism may operate for both kin and species discrimination in B. melanostictus.

  5. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorchin, A., E-mail: adorchin@campus.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Shanas, U., E-mail: shanas@research.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural sciences, University of Haifa - Oranim, Tiv' on 36006 (Israel)

    2010-12-15

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  6. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. Descripción de dos renacuajos y una clave para las larvas conocidas del grupo Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae de Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Aguilar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los renacuajos de Bufo arequipensis y Bufo cophotis. Ningún carácter externo examinado permite distinguir la larva de las especies nominales B. arequipensis, B. flavolineatus y B. trifolium. La larva de Bufo limensis se diferencia de las de B. flavolineatus y B. trifolium por presentar un espacio menor en la segunda fila anterior de dentículos labiales y una fórmula de dentículos labiales (LTRF igual a 2(2/3[1]. B. cophotis difiere de B. limensis, B. flavolineatus y B. trifolium por presentar la altura máxima de la cola en su extremo posterior, una coloración marrón oscura en el cuerpo y cola, y un LTRF igual a 2(2/3(1. Se proporciona una clave de identificación para las larvas conocidas del grupo spinulosus presentes en Perú.

  8. El ciclo evolutivo experimental de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei en Paracyclops fimbriatus, larvas de Bufo arenarum y caninos Experimental life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei in Paracyclops fimbriatus, tadpoles of Bufo arenarum and dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Lucila Venturini

    1989-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue lograr la reproducción experimental del ciclo evolutivo de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea) con la intervención de Paracyclops fimbriatus y larvas de Bufo arenarum como hospedadores intermediarios y caninos como hospedadores definitivos. Los huevos del parásito se obtuvieron de heces de caninos infectados naturalmente y se conservaron refrigerados en agua. Se incubaron 7 días a 25°C para que desarrollaran los coracidios y se...

  9. Ultrastructure of the renal juxtaglomerular complex and peripolar cells in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and toad (Bufo marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, R H; Ryan, G B

    1980-05-01

    Renal juxtaglomerular regions were examined in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum and toad (Bufo marinus). Prominent granulated peripolar epithelial cells were found surrounding the origin of the glomerular tuft in the axolotl. These cells resembled the peripolar cells recently discovered in mammalian species. They contained multiple electron-dense cytoplasmic granules, some of which showed a paracrystalline substructure and signs of exocytoxic activity. Such cells were difficult to find and smaller in the toad. In contrast, granulated juxtaglomerular arteriolar myoephithelial cells were much more readily found and larger in the toad than in the axolotl. No consistent differences were noted in juxtaglomerular cells or their granules in response to changes in environmental chloride concentration.

  10. Radiography atlas of domestic animals. Small mammals, birds, reptilia, and amphibia. Atlas der Roentgendiagnostik bei Heimtieren. Kleinsaeuger, Voegel, Reptilien und Amphibien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebel, G.A.; Isenbuegel, E.; Wolvekamp, P. (eds.); Gabrisch, K.; Grimm, F.; Koblik, P.; Paul-Murphy, J.; Oschwald, C.P.; Schildger, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 370 radiographs presented in the atlas together with notes and explanations give information on normal roentgenographic findings, physiological variations, and important pathological findings observed in small mammals, birds, reptilia and amphibia. Introductory notes to each chapter explain the principles of exposure techniques and the handling of the animals. (VHE).

  11. Estudios exprimentales en larvas de Bufo fernandezae Gallardo. Crecimiento longitudinal y su relación con el alimento, concentración de oxígeno y densidad (Amphibia: Anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Kehr, Arturo Ignacio

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze individual and combined effects of biotic and abiotic factors of the length growth of inmature stages of B. fernandezae Gallardo. The research was carried on under specified and constant laboratory conditions. The obtained results showed that the density was the main controlling factor upon the individual growth, being less important, in this sense, the alimentary offer arranged during the temporal extension of the experiments. Besides, no differences ...

  12. Estudios exprimentales en larvas de Bufo fernandezae Gallardo. Crecimiento longitudinal y su relación con el alimento, concentración de oxígeno y densidad (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehr, Arturo Ignacio

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze individual and combined effects of biotic and abiotic factors of the length growth of inmature stages of B. fernandezae Gallardo. The research was carried on under specified and constant laboratory conditions. The obtained results showed that the density was the main controlling factor upon the individual growth, being less important, in this sense, the alimentary offer arranged during the temporal extension of the experiments. Besides, no differences were detected between the reared spawns, under different disolved oxygen registered values. Furthermore, it is remarkable food abundance and accesibility influence on the successful development of the studied individuals.

  13. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Stark

    Full Text Available Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later, to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  14. Vasculature of the parotoid glands of four species of toads (bufonidae: bufo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah A; Savitzky, Alan H

    2004-05-01

    The parotoid glands of toads (Bufonidae) consist of large aggregations of granular glands located between the otic region of the skull and the scapular region. To determine the circulatory pattern of these glands, we perfused the vascular systems of Bufo alvarius, B. marinus, B. terrestris, and B. valliceps with either India ink or Microfil, a fine latex. The perfused glands were studied by gross dissection, microscopic examination, and histology. The vascular patterns of the parotoid glands were compared to the arrangement of vessels in the dorsal skin of Rana sphenocephala (Ranidae), a frog that lacks parotoid glands. The parotoid glands of the four species of toads are supplied with blood by the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries and are drained by one or more branches of the internal jugular vein. The dorsal cutaneous artery supplies most of the blood to the parotoid glands in B. terrestris and B. valliceps. In B. alvarius and B. marinus, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries serve major roles in the blood supply of the glands. These patterns of blood flow have not been described previously for parotoid glands and conflict with earlier accounts for B. alvarius and B. marinus. The arteries and veins associated with the parotoid glands of toads are present in R. sphenocephala, but are arranged differently. In R. sphenocephala, the lateral cutaneous artery supplies the dorsal and lateral skin posterior to the shoulder region, whereas the dorsal cutaneous artery supplies the skin of the shoulder region. In toads, both the lateral and dorsal cutaneous arteries supply the skin of the shoulder region and ramify into subcutaneous capillaries that surround the secretory units of the parotoid glands. Extensive vasculature presumably is important for delivering cholesterol and other precursor molecules to the parotoid glands, where those compounds are converted into toxins.

  15. Modelling the extinction risk of isolated populations of natterjack toad Bufo calamita

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    F. Meyer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Many local populations of the natterjack toad Bufo calamita in Germany are endangered. Due to the fragmentation and destruction of natural habitats by man, toads have often been forced to switch to secondary habitats. The permanent existence of these habitats is uncertain. Habitat and area requirements have been investigated in various parts of Germany in recent years. Our study uses field observations from sites in Halle (Saxony-Anhalt and List (Schleswig-Holstein as a basis for analyses of the population dynamics under different environmental conditions. Deterministic trends of these populations are calculated with the help of a Leslie matrix consisting of average parameters for mortality and reproduction. For a more thorough analysis we use a stochastic simulation model in order to assess survival probabilities of local toad populations. This model also takes into account environmental fluctuations affecting mortality and reproduction. Using scenarios from different locations, a sensitivity analysis of the parameters indicates which management options are the most promising to preserve a population. Our results indicate that the mortality rates of juveniles and the availability of spawning ground have the greatest influence on a population’s survival. Consequently, habitat management should focus on these aspects. In addition, we investigate the risk of extinction for different reproductive strategies. Natterjack toad populations observed in the field actually follow a strategy with three breeding periods. We find that this strategy supports the survival of the population better than strategies with less periods, which are more likely to result in a complete breeding failure during one season.

  16. Electrophysiological properties of the tongue epithelium of the toad Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Timothy K; Rios, Karina; Hillyard, Stanley D

    2002-07-01

    The dorsal lingual epithelium from the tongue of the toad Bufo marinus was mounted in an Ussing-type chamber, and the short-circuit current (I(sc)) was measured using a low-noise voltage clamp. With NaCl Ringer bathing the mucosal and serosal surfaces of the isolated tissue, an outwardly directed (mucosa-positive) I(sc) was measured that averaged -10.71+/-0.82 microA cm(-2) (mean +/- S.E.M., N=24) with a resistance of 615+/-152 Omega cm(2) (mean +/- S.E.M., N=10). Substitution of chloride with sulfate as the anion produced no significant change in I(sc). Fluctuation analysis with either NaCl or Na(2)SO(4) Ringer bathing both sides of the tissue revealed a spontaneous Lorentzian component, suggesting that the I(sc) was the result of K(+) secretion through spontaneously fluctuating channels in the apical membrane of the epithelium. This hypothesis was supported by the reversible inhibition of I(sc) by Ba(2+) added to the mucosal Ringer. Analysis of the kinetics of Ba(2+) inhibition of I(sc) indicates that there might be more than one type of K(+) channel carrying the I(sc). This hypothesis was supported by power spectra obtained with a serosa-to-mucosa K(+) gradient, which could be fitted to two Lorentzian components. At present, the K(+) secretory current cannot be localized to taste cells or other cells that might be associated with the secretion of saliva or mucus. Nonetheless, the resulting increase in [K(+)] in fluid bathing the mucosal surface of the tongue could presumably affect the sensitivity of the taste cells. These results contrast with those from the mammalian tongue, in which a mucosa-negative I(sc) results from amiloride-sensitive Na(+) transport.

  17. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

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    O. Fridman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300-310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A, 820(B, 1368(C and 1915(D Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure.

  18. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Robin J; Glinski, Donna A; Henderson, W Matthew; Purucker, S Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide availability and bioconcentration across soil types is not well understood. The present study was designed to compare uptake of 5 current-use pesticides (imidacloprid, atrazine, triadimefon, fipronil, and pendimethalin) in American toads (Bufo americanus) from exposure on soils with significant organic matter content differences (14.1% = high organic matter and 3.1% = low organic matter). We placed toads on high- or low-organic matter soil after applying individual current-use pesticides on the soil surface for an 8-h exposure duration. Whole body tissue homogenates and soils were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine pesticide tissue and soil concentration, as well as bioconcentration factor in toads. Tissue concentrations were greater on the low-organic matter soil than the high-organic matter soil across all pesticides (average ± standard error; 1.23 ± 0.35 ppm and 0.78 ± 0.23 ppm, respectively), and bioconcentration was significantly higher for toads on the low-organic matter soil (analysis of covariance p = 0.002). Soil organic matter is known to play a significant role in the mobility of pesticides and bioavailability to living organisms. Agricultural soils typically have relatively lower organic matter content and serve as a functional habitat for amphibians. The potential for pesticide accumulation in amphibians moving throughout agricultural landscapes may be greater and should be considered in conservation and policy efforts. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2734-2741. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Microsatellite analysis of the natterjack toad ( Bufo calamita ) in Denmark: populations are islands in a fragmented landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allentoft, Morten E.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Briggs, Lars;

    2009-01-01

    The European natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) has declined rapidly in recent years, primarily due to loss of habitat, and in Denmark it is estimated that 50% of the isolated populations are lost each decade. To efficiently manage and conserve this species and its genetic diversity, knowledge...

  20. Helmintos parásitos de anfibios: Dos Especies de Nemátodos parásitos de Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi

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    Asucena Naupay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo sobre los helmintos que parasitan a Bufo spinulosus trifolium (Tschudi de la localidad de Huánuco, se presentan dos especies conocidas para la ciencia pero una de ellas nueva para el Perú.

  1. On the presence of Bufo nasicus Werner in Guiana, with a redescription of the species on the basis of recently collected material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    During research on material recently collected in Guyana and in Venezuelan Guiana, several specimens of the rare toad Bufo nasicus Werner, thus far only known from the holotype without known origin, were discovered. On the basis of this material the species is redescribed and some notes on its natur

  2. The effects of low-dose irradiation on the development of amphibia. Auswirkungen schwacher Strahlendosen auf die Entwicklung von Amphibien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloft, W.J.; Giannetti, M.; Gruschwitz, M.; Strick, H.; Urmetz, S.

    1990-01-01

    During the first phase of the study, which lasted from 1983 until 1985, attention was focused on changes in the the general development of Bufo bufo and, to permit more detailed appraisal, those in the formation of the visual and nervous systems that occurred as a result of exposure to cobalt-60. Starting out from the observations and experiences made during the initial study period further research work was carried out between 1986 and 1989 to develop a bioindicator model in Xenopus laevis that leads to reliable, rapid and specific results in the detection of harmful radioactive substances. These are obtained on the basis of biochemical, haematologic and serologic methods of investigation. (orig./MG).

  3. Effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the specific dynamic action of the marine toad, Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Faulkner, Angela C

    2002-01-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the accumulated energy expended on all physiological processes associated with meal digestion, is strongly influenced by features of both the meal and the organism. We assessed the effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the postprandial metabolic response and calculated SDA of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. Peak postprandial rates of O(2) consumption (.V(O2)) and CO(2) production (.V(CO2)) and SDA increased with meal size (5%-20% of body mass). Postprandial metabolism was impacted by meal type; the digestion of hard-bodied superworms (Zophobas larva) and crickets was more costly than the digestion of soft-bodied earthworms and juvenile rats. An increase in body temperature (from 20 degrees to 35 degrees C) altered the postprandial metabolic profile, decreasing its duration and increasing its magnitude, but did not effect SDA, with the cost of meal digestion remaining constant across body temperatures. Allometric mass exponents were 0.69 for standard metabolic rate, 0.85 for peak postprandial .V(O2), and 1.02 for SDA; therefore, the factorial scope of peak postprandial .V(O2) increased with body mass. The mass of nutritive organs (stomach, liver, intestines, and kidneys) accounted for 38% and 20% of the variation in peak postprandial .V(O2) and SDA, respectively. Toads forced to exercise experienced 25-fold increases in .V(O2) much greater than the 5.5-fold increase experience during digestion. Controlling for meal size, meal type, and body temperature, the specific dynamic responses of B. marinus are similar to those of the congeneric Bufo alvarius, Bufo boreas, Bufo terrestris, and Bufo woodhouseii.

  4. Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Parameters of Pelophylax Esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broshko Ye. O.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Variability of Structural and Biomechanical Prameters of Pelophylax esculentus (Amphibia, Anura Limb Bones. Broshko Ye. O. — Structural and biomechanical parameters of Edible Frog, Pelophylax esculentus (Linnaeus, 1758, limb bones, namely, mass, linear dimensions, parameters of the shaft’s cross-sectional shape (cross-sectional area, moments of inertia, radiuses of inertia were investigated. Some coefficients were also estimated: diameters ratio (df/ds, cross-sectional index (ik, principal moments of inertia ratio (Imax/Imin.. Coefficients of variation of linear dimensions (11.9-20.0 % anrelative bone mass (22-35 % were established. Moments of inertia of various bones are more variable (CV = 41.67-56.35 % in relation to radii of inertia (CV = 9.68-14.67 %. Shaft’s cross-sectional shape is invariable in all cases. However, there is high individual variability of structural and biomechanical parameters of P. esculentus limb bones. Variability of parameters was limited by the certain range. We suggest the presence of stable norm in bone structure. Stylopodium bones have the primary biomechanical function among the elements of limb skeleton, because their parameters most clearly responsive to changes in body mass.

  5. Prostaglandins as mediators of acidification in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, L.W.; Yorio, T. (Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether prostaglandins (PG) play a role in H+ and NH4+ excretion in the urinary bladder of Bufo marinus. Ten paired hemibladders from normal toads were mounted in chambers. One was control and the other hemibladder received PGE2 in the serosal medium (10(-5) M). H+ excretion was measured by change in pH in the mucosal fluid and reported in units of nmol (100 mg tissue)-1 (min)-1. NH4+ excretion was measured colorimetrically and reported in the same units. The control group H+ excretion was 8.4 +/- 1.67, while the experimental group was 16.3 +/- 2.64 (P less than 0.01). The NH4+ excretion in the experimental and control group was not significantly different. Bladders from toads in a 48-hr NH4+Cl acidosis (metabolic) did not demonstrate this response to PGE2 (P greater than 0.30). Toads were put in metabolic acidosis by gavaging with 10 ml of 120 mM NH4+Cl 3 x day for 2 days. In another experiment, we measured levels of PG in bladders from control (N) and animals placed in metabolic acidosis (MA). Bladders were removed from the respective toad, homogenized, extracted, and PG separated using high-pressure liquid chromatography and quantified against PG standards. The results are reported in ng (mg tissue)-1. PGE2 fraction in N was 1.09 +/- 0.14 and in MA was 3.21 +/- 0.63 (P less than 0.01). PGF1 alpha, F2 alpha and I2 were not significantly different in N and MA toads. Bladders were also removed from N and MA toads, and incubated in Ringer's solution containing (3H)arachidonic acid (0.2 microCi/ml) at 25 degrees C for 2 hr. Bladders were then extracted for PG and the extracts separated by thin layer chromatography. PG were identified using standards and autoradiography, scraped from plates, and counted in a scintillation detector. The results are reported in cpm/mg tissue x hr +/- SEM.

  6. El ciclo evolutivo experimental de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei en Paracyclops fimbriatus, larvas de Bufo arenarum y caninos Experimental life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei in Paracyclops fimbriatus, tadpoles of Bufo arenarum and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Venturini

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue lograr la reproducción experimental del ciclo evolutivo de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea con la intervención de Paracyclops fimbriatus y larvas de Bufo arenarum como hospedadores intermediarios y caninos como hospedadores definitivos. Los huevos del parásito se obtuvieron de heces de caninos infectados naturalmente y se conservaron refrigerados en agua. Se incubaron 7 días a 25°C para que desarrollaran los coracidios y se pusieron en recipientes que contenían a los copépodos mencionados. Al cabo de 12 días a 22,6°C (promedio se hallaron procercoides maduros en ellos y se agregaron 10 renacuajos de Bufo arenarum. Estos se examinaron por disección 22, 23, 61 y 107 días después, hallándose en todos 1 o más plerocercoides (Temperatura promedio: 24,9°C. El día 23, de 6 renacuajos se obtuvieron 49 plerocercoides, de los cuales se administraron 28, por vía oral, a una perra. El día 107, 3 de 11 plerocercoides obtenidos de un renacuajo se le dieron a otra perra por la misma vía. Se hallaron huevos del cestode en las heces del primer canino a partir del día 22 posterior a la infección (p.i. y a los 30 días p.i., segmentos de estróbila. En el segundo canino se hallaron huevos a los 30 días p.i..Experiments were performed in order to develop the life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea in Paracyclops fimbriatus and Bufo arenarum as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The eggs of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei from faeces of naturally infected dogs were kept refrigered, in water. In order to obtain coracidiums they were incubated at 25°C, and then were placed in a flask which contained Paracyclops fimbriatus. The copepods were observed to be infected with procercoids 12 days after, (mean temperature 22.6°C and then, ten tadpoles of Bufo arenarum were put into the same flask. The tadpoles were examined

  7. Adaptation or exaptation? An experimental test of hypotheses on the origin of salinity tolerance in Bufo calamita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Mestre, I; Tejedo, M

    2005-07-01

    The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) shows variation in embryonic and larval salinity tolerance across populations in southern Spain. However, its aquatic/terrestrial biphasic life cycle, together with remarkable differences in salinity tolerance between Spanish and UK freshwater populations suggest an alternative hypothesis to local adaptation. Drought resistance during the terrestrial phase and salinity tolerance during the aquatic phase are both related to osmotic stress tolerance, and if there were an association between them, one could have evolved as an exaptation from the other. To test such an association, we reared B. calamita juveniles from three populations known to differ genetically in their salinity tolerance, under either dry or humid conditions. Drought decreased growth rate, enhanced burying behaviour, and decreased foraging activity and efficiency. No significant population x treatment interaction was found for any variable, i.e. populations were equally affected by drought. These results do not support the hypothesis of a genetic association between salinity and drought tolerance.

  8. Estudio preliminar de la fauna Amphibia del valle de Sibundoy, Alto Putumayo, Colombia

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    Mueses-Cisneros Jonh Jairo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza el estudio preliminar de la fauna Amphibia del Valle de Sibundoy, Alto Putumayo, Colombia; mediante la construcción del inventario de la fauna Amphibia, el mejoramiento en el conocimiento
    de la distribución en los Andes norecuatorianos y surcolombianos de las especies involucradas y la relación en cuanto a la composición de esta fauna con la de los estudios realizados en el transecto Napo en Ecuador y transecto Montañita-Alto Gabinete en Caquetá. El estudio se basó en: 1 tres salidas de campo al Valle de Sibundoy (localizado al suroccidente de Colombia, entre 1º 05’ y 1º 12’ N y 76º 53’ y 77º 00’ O entre 2.000-2.750 msnm, realizadas en diciembre 2000-enero 2001, julio 2002 y diciembre 2003-febrero 2004, con un esfuerzo de muestreo de 198 horas/hombre; 2 revisión bibliográfica; 3 revisión de especímenes depositados en la colección de anfibios del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá (ICN y en la revisión de la base de datos de la colección de Herpetología del Instituto de Investigaciones Alexander von Humboldt (IAvH de los anfibios colectados en los departamentos de Caquetá, Nariño, Putumayo y en Ecuador. La fauna consta de 32 especies (313 especímenes agrupadas en dos órdenes, cinco familias y siete géneros; para cada especie se presenta información
    sobre su historial taxonómico, reconocimiento, distribución geográfica (mapas de distribución y rangos altitudinales, coloración en vivo y en preservativo, abundancia y algunos aspectos relacionados con su historia natural; se realiza un análisis regional de esta fauna a nivel general
    (Valle de Sibundoy y por localidades muestreadas, se hace una comparación con las faunas realizadas en el transecto Napo en Ecuador y en el transecto Montañita-Alto Gabinete en Caquetá y se presenta una clave taxonómica y una serie de fotografías para facilitar su  reconocimiento. El estudio adem

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae): comparison of R. chosenica and R. plancyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2011-06-01

    Here, we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the Seoul frog Rana chosenica (Amphibia, Ranidae), which is known as a Korean endemic species. It is listed as a vulnerable species by IUCN Red List and also an endangered species in South Korea. The complete mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica consists of 18,357 bp. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with those of other Rana frogs. We compared the mitochondrial genome of R. chosenica with that of the Peking frog Rana plancyi that has been known closely related to R. chosenica. Nucleotide sequence similarity between the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 95.7%, and the relatively low similarity seems to indicate that the two species are distinctly separated on the species level. The information of mitochondrial genome comparison of the two species was discussed in detail.

  10. Immunohistochemical localization of insulin-like growth factor I and II in the endocrine pancreas of birds, reptiles, and amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, M; Broger, I; Brun, R; Zapf, J; Maake, C

    1995-12-01

    Immunoreactive insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I, IGF-II) were sought in the endocrine pancreas of representative birds, reptiles, and amphibia using antisera specific for mammalian IGF-I and IGF-II and the classical islet hormones insulin (INS), glucagon (GLUC), somatostatin (SOM), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in double immunofluorescence. Both IGF-I and IGF-II immunoreactivities were present in the endocrine pancreas of all species. IGF-II immunoreactivity was exclusively found in INS-immunoreactive (-IR) cells, indicating evolutionary conservation of the islet IGF-II system. In contrast, IGF-I immunoreactivity was distributed differently among the species and never occurred in INS-IR cells. In the anuran Xenopus laevis, IGF-I immunoreactivity was present in islet cells showing coexistence of GLUC and PP immunoreactivities. In reptiles, the lizards (Lacerta viridis, Scincus officinalis) exhibited IGF-I immunoreactivity in PP-IR and SOM-IR cells and the snakes (Psamophis leniolatum, Coluber ravergieri) in SOM-IR and GLUC-IR cells. In birds, IGF-I immunoreactivity was located either in SOM-IR cells only (Gallus g. domesticus, Streptopelia roseogrisea) or in PP-IR and SOM-IR cells (Coturnix c. japonica). Thus, the distribution patterns of islet IGF-I immunoreactivities in birds, reptiles, and amphibia are equivalent to those in mammals and most bony fish. They differ, however, from those found in cartilaginous fish, cyclostomes, and protochordates, where a total or partial coexistence of IGF-I and INS immunoreactivities has been obtained. Therefore, the divergence of IGF-I and INS seems to have occurred early in vertebrate phylogeny. Furthermore, the existence of IGF-I immunoreactivity likely is common in the islets of all vertebrates. Finally, no phylogenetic trend to concentrate IGF-I immunoreactivity in a particular islet cell type is apparent.

  11. catalogue of the type specimens of amphibians and reptiles in the herpetological museum of chengdu institute of biology,chinese academy of sciences:i.rhacophoridae (anura,amphibia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    in order to facilitate herpetological research for all the herpetologists both in and outside of china,we will report all the type specimens of amphibia and reptilia deposited in the herpetological museum of chengdu institute of biology (cib),chinese academy of sciences in series.this report focuses on the family rhacophoridae of anura in amphibia,including 13 species.the contents of the report include synonym lists and generic transfer of type species,measurements of type specimens,particularly for those with no previously published measurement data,and chromosomal data for each species.

  12. Diets of tadpoles from a temporary pond in southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura

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    Denise de C. Rossa-Feres

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of tadpoles of 13 anuran species was determined to verify whether food resource partitioning occurs and whether the degree of diet similarity is related to taxonomic affinity. Tadpoles of all species studied were mainly herbivorous, except for these of Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 which were mycophagous. Although some species had exclusive items in their diet, most tadpole species ingested the same items, but differed in the amount of each item consumed. Two guilds were found: tadpoles that feed on diatoms on the pond bottom, and tadpoles that feed on Oedogonium Link, 1820 algae in midwater. Diet similarity was related to the taxonomic relationship, microhabitat and feeding behavior of tadpoles indicating that the community organization is complex and resulting from the interaction of several parameters.Dieta dos girinos de um açude temporário no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura. Determinou-se a dieta dos girinos de 13 espécies de anuros, com o objetivo de verificar se ocorre partilha de recursos alimentares e se o grau de similaridade na dieta é relacionado ao parentesco, inferido pela proximidade taxonômica. Os girinos de todas as espécies estudadas foram preponderantemente herbívoros, exceto os de Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 que foram micófagos. Embora algumas espécies tenham apresentado itens exclusivos em sua dieta, os girinos da maioria das espécies ingeriram os mesmos itens, diferindo na quantidade consumida de cada item. Duas guildas foram encontradas: girinos que se alimentam de diatomáceas no fundo do corpo d'água e girinos que se alimentam de algas do gênero Oedogonium Link, 1820 à meia-água. A similaridade na dieta foi relacionada à proximidade taxonômica, ao microhabitat e ao comportamento de alimentação, indicando que a organização desta comunidade é complexa e resultante da interação entre vários fatores.

  13. Contrasting patterns of quantitative and neutral genetic variation in locally adapted populations of the natterjack toad, Bufo calamita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Tejedo, Miguel

    2004-10-01

    The relative importance of natural selection and genetic drift in determining patterns of phenotypic diversity observed in nature is still unclear. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) is one of a few amphibian species capable of breeding in saline ponds, even though water salinity represents a considerable stress for them. Results from two common-garden experiments showed a pattern of geographic variation in embryonic salinity tolerance among populations from either fresh or brackish environments, consistent with the hypothesis of local adaptation. Full-sib analysis showed increased variation in survival among sibships within population for all populations as osmotic stress was increased (broad-sense heritability increased as salinity raised). Nevertheless, toads native to the brackish water environment had the highest overall survival under brackish conditions. Levels of population genetic differentiation for salinity tolerance were higher than those of neutral genetic differentiation, the latter obtained through the analysis of eight microsatellite loci. Microsatellite markers also revealed little population differentiation, lack of an isolation-by-distance pattern, and moderate gene flow connecting the populations. Therefore, environmental stress tolerance appears to have evolved in absence of geographic isolation, and consequently we reject the null hypothesis of neutral differentiation.

  14. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  15. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Grenada, West Indies, and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M; Amadi, V; Zieger, U; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2013-09-01

    Cloacal swabs and caecal contents sampled from 58 cane toads (Bufo marinus) in St George's parish, Grenada, during a 7-month period in 2011 were examined by an enrichment and selective culture method for presence of Salmonella spp. Twenty-four (41%) toads were positive for Salmonella spp. of which eight were Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana, and eight were S. enterica serovar Rubislaw. The other serovars were as follows: Montevideo, 6; Arechavaleta, 1; and serovar: IV:43:-:-, 1. The high frequency of isolation of serovar Javiana, an emerging human pathogen associated with several outbreaks in the recent years in the eastern United States, suggests a possible role for cane toads in transmission of this serovar. Although S. Rubislaw has been isolated from lizards, bats and cases of some human infections, there is no report of its carriage by cane toads, and in such high frequency. The rate of carriage of S. Montevideo, a cause for human foodborne outbreaks around the world was also over 10% in the 58 toads sampled in this study. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal and is of little concern. Antimicrobial resistance was limited to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in one isolate of S. Javiana and one isolate of S. Rubislaw. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars not identified previously in cane toads in Grenada, West Indies.

  16. Post-breeding habitat use by adult Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) after wildfire in Glacier National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guscio, C.G.; Hossack, B.R.; Eby, L.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of wildfire on amphibians are complex, and some species may benefit from the severe disturbance of stand-replacing fire. Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA increased in occurrence after fires in 2001 and 2003. We used radio telemetry to track adult B. boreas in a mosaic of terrestrial habitats with different burn severities to better understand factors related to the post-fire pulse in breeding activity. Toads used severely burned habitats more than expected and partially burned habitats less than expected. No toads were relocated in unburned habitat, but little of the study area was unburned and the expected number of observations in unburned habitat was < 3. High vagility of B. boreas and preference for open habitats may predispose this species to exploit recently disturbed landscapes. The long-term consequences of fire suppression likely have had different effects in different parts of the range of B. boreas. More information is needed, particularly in the northern Rocky Mountains, where toads are more likely to occupy habitats that have diverged from historic fire return intervals. Copyright ?? 2008. C. Gregory Guscio. All rights reserved.

  17. Morphological and genetic differentiation among Chilean populations of Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae Diferenciación morfológica y genética entre poblaciones chilenas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Marco A. Méndez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Bufo spinulosus has a wide and fragmented range distribution in Chile (18° to 33° S along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. Genetic variation was estimated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers in 10 populations from northern and central Chile. Morphometric and genetic information was analyzed as a function of geographical origin. The correlation between genetic and morphometric differentiation was analyzed by the Mantel test. An increase in body size as a function of latitude was observed. Specimens from El Tatio had the smallest body size and the greatest morphometric divergence. The AMOVA applied to genetic data indicated that 57.85 % of the variance is explained by interregional differences and that 30.12 % of the variance is found within populations. Low levels of within-regions genetic differentiation was observed in northern populations while higher levels of genetic differentiation was found in populations from central Chile. Mantel tests revealed a significant, positive correlation between genetic variation and geographic distance. When we excluded El Tatio population, Mantel test analyses showed significant correlations between morphological distance and genetic and geographic distances. We discuss whether water temperature could explain the morphological divergence observed in individuals from El TatioBufo spinulosus presenta una amplia y fragmentada distribución en Chile (18º a 33º S a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales y latitudinales. La variación genética fue estimada utilizando marcadores RAPD ("Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA" en diez poblaciones del norte y centro de Chile. La información morfométrica y genética fue analizada en función de la procedencia geográfica. La correlación entre diferenciación genética y morfométrica fue analizada utilizando la prueba de Mantel. Se observó un incremento en el tamaño corporal en función de la latitud. Los individuos de El Tatio mostraron el tama

  18. Effects of inhibition gastric acid secretion on arterial acid-base status during digestion in the toad Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Johnnie B; Andrade, Denis V; Wang, Tobias

    2003-07-01

    Digestion affects acid-base status, because the net transfer of HCl from the blood to the stomach lumen leads to an increase in HCO3(-) levels in both extra- and intracellular compartments. The increase in plasma [HCO3(-)], the alkaline tide, is particularly pronounced in amphibians and reptiles, but is not associated with an increased arterial pH, because of a concomitant rise in arterial PCO2 caused by a relative hypoventilation. In this study, we investigate whether the postprandial increase in PaCO2 of the toad Bufo marinus represents a compensatory response to the increased plasma [HCO3(-)] or a state-dependent change in the control of pulmonary ventilation. To this end, we successfully prevented the alkaline tide, by inhibiting gastric acid secretion with omeprazole, and compared the response to that of untreated toads determined in our laboratory during the same period. In addition, we used vascular infusions of bicarbonate to mimic the alkaline tide in fasting animals. Omeprazole did not affect blood gases, acid-base and haematological parameters in fasting toads, but abolished the postprandial increase in plasma [HCO3(-)] and the rise in arterial PCO2 that normally peaks 48 h into the digestive period. Vascular infusion of HCO3(-), that mimicked the postprandial rise in plasma [HCO3(-)], led to a progressive respiratory compensation of arterial pH through increased arterial PCO2. Thus, irrespective of whether the metabolic alkalosis is caused by gastric acid secretion in response to a meal or experimental infusion of bicarbonate, arterial pH is being maintained by an increased arterial PCO2. It seems, therefore, that the elevated PCO2, occuring during the postprandial period, constitutes of a regulated response to maintain pH rather than a state-dependent change in ventilatory control.

  19. Expression pattern of glycoconjugates in the Bidderian and ovarian follicles of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus analyzed by lectin histochemistry

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    C. F. Farias

    Full Text Available The Bidder's organ and ovary of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus were studied by light microscopy, using hematoxylin-eosin (HE and periodic acid Schiff (PAS staining. The expression and distribution of carbohydrate moieties was analyzed by lectin histochemistry, using 8 lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: Ulex europaeus (UEA I, Lens culinaris (LCA, Erythrina cristagalli (ECA, Arachis hypogaea (PNA, Ricinus communis (RCA I, Aleuria aurantia (AAA, Triticum vulgaris (WGA, and Glycine maximum (SBA. The results showed that the Bidderian zona pellucida presented alpha-mannose, alpha-L-fucose, beta-D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. The Bidderian follicular cells showed the presence of beta-D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. In the extracellular matrix, alpha-mannose and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues were detected. The ovarian zona pellucida showed alpha-L-fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues, and alpha-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues were detected in the follicular cells. Thus, the zona pellucida in both organs contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. alpha-L-fucose residues were detected in the zona pellucida of both organs, using different lectins. Considering that beta-D-galactose residue was absent from ovary but present in the Bidder's organ, this sugar residue may play an important role in follicle development, blocking the Bidderian follicles and preventing further development of the Bidder's organ into a functional ovary.

  20. Effects of copper, zinc and dragonfly kairomone on growth rate and induced morphology of Bufo arabicus tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    It is well documented that many amphibian species can detect chemical signals from predatory invertebrates and subsequently develop alternate phenotypes that are protective against predation. The effects of metallic pollutants on the development of predator-induced morphology have not previously been reported. Tadpoles of the Arabian toad Bufo arabicus were exposed for 20 days to copper (0, 10 or 100 μg/L), zinc (0, 10 or 100 μg/L) and kairomones of larval dragonflies (Crocothemis erythrea 1 dragonfly/12 L) in a fully crossed design. The effects of these treatments of growth and body shape were measured. Measured copper concentrations after 24 h were 4.25 μg/L±1.30 (10 μg/L nominal) and 34.9 μg/L±2.15 (100 μg/L nominal). Measured zinc concentrations were 3.04 μg/L±0.1 (10 μg/L nominal) and 26.3 μg/L±12.3 (100 μg/L nominal). Tadpoles exposed to 34.9 μg/L copper were significantly lighter and had a shorter body length than other groups. There was no direct effect of zinc on growth or tadpole shape. Tadpoles exposed to dragonfly kairomones were heavier, wider and had deeper bodies when viewed laterally and had longer tails but overall length was not affected. At 4.25 μg/L copper differences between the control and predator-exposed phenotypes increased but at 34.9 μg/L the phenotypes converged, indicating that copper may inhibit the induced response.

  1. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  2. Testicular Morphohistology of Hypsiboas pulchellus (Amphibia, Hylidae During the Breeding Season

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    Fernando José CAREZZANO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, data concerning to the morphological testicular features of Hypsiboas pulchel-lus during the breeding season is provided, in order to know aspects of their reproductive biology. The testis, ovoid and yellowish with 4.64 ± 0.48 mm length and 2.05 ± 0.23 mm wide, are surrounded by the tunica albuginea which measures 5.60 ± 0.82 µm. The seminif-erous locules, placed internally, measure 257.47 ± 58.25 µm in diameter, and cysts with spermatogenic cells associated with Sertoli cells are distinguished in them. The interstitial tissue is scarce. The biggest cells of the germinal series are the spermatogonia I (14.34 ± 1.74 µm, from which spermatogonia II (10.14 ± 1.33 µm originate. Spermatocytes I measure 9.34 ± 0.32 µm and have slightly condensed chromatin. The spermatocytes II are 8.12 ± 1.07 µm long. The spermatids I are spherical, grouped in rounded cysts, and measure 7.61 ± 1.45 µm. On the other hand, spermatids II are elongated (4.09 ± 0.51 µm and not within the cysts. Towards the center of the loculus, the free, lengthened and flagellated spermatozoids are located. The morphohistology of the analyzed testicles show similarities with those observed in other neotropical amphibians, being all the cells of the spermatogenic lineage in the same loculeMORFOHISTOLOGÍA TESTICULAR DE Hypsiboas pulchellus (AMPHIBIA, HYLIDAE.En este estudio se aportan datos sobre la morfohistología testicular de Hypsiboas pulchellus para conocer aspectos de su biología reproductiva. Las gónadas se procesaron empleando técnicas histológicas básicas, cortándose a 8 µm y tiñéndose con hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico de Masson. Los testículos, ovoides y amarillentos de 4,64 ± 0,48 mm de largo por 2,05 ± 0,23 mm de ancho, están rodeados por la túnica albugínea que mide 5,60 ± 0,82 µm. Internamente presentan lóculos seminíferos de 257,47 ± 58,25 µm de diámetro, distinguiéndose en ellos cistos con células espermatog

  3. 两种无尾类发声器官的初步观察%Preliminary observation of vocal organs of two anurans (Rana chensinensis and Bufo raddei)(Anura)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 赵梓伊; 陆宇燕; 李丕鹏; 宋阳; 周正彦; 周兵; 杨宝田; 董丙君

    2012-01-01

    Vocal organs in Rana chensinensis were preliminarily compared with Bufo raddei with anatomic and histological methods. The results shown that Rana chensinensis had cartilago prearytenoedeas and pulvinaria vocalias, but Bufo raddei did not have. The lateral portions of vocal cords in Bufo raddei were a pair of membranes composed of dense regular connective tissues, and in the mid of medial portion of vocal cords in Bufo raddei there are a pair of fibrious masses. At the end of laryngeal chambers Bufo raddei there are also a pair of posterior membrances. But the lateral portions of vocal cords in Rana chensinensis were composed of dense irregular connective tissues and had no posterior membrances. The difference of areas in medial portions of vocal cords were apparent in Rana chensinensis but in Bufo raddei no this character. The type of vocal sacs in Rana chensinensis was inner vocal sacs lateral to pharynx, but in Bufo raddei it was inner vocal sacs under pharynx. Compared with the two(Rana chensinensis and Bufo raddei) relative length and width of medial portions of vocal cords and laryngeal chambers, the results have statistics significance. In discussion, we analysized the influence of both vocal organs on sound production and it would supply basic information to understand the sounds difference in Bufonids and Ranids.%应用大体解剖和组织学方法对中国林蛙(Rana chensinensis)和花背蟾蜍(Bufo raddei)的发声器官进行了初步观察和比较.结果表明:中国林蛙有独立的前杓状软骨和枕声带,而花背蟾蜍则没有上述结构.花背蟾蜍的声带侧部为规则致密结缔组织构成的膜状结构,并且前端有一对肉质化的纤维小球,喉室末端有一对后膜,而中国林蛙的声带侧部由无规则致密结缔组织构成的肉质化纤维柱状结构,喉室的末端无后膜结构.前者的声带中部为一对厚度均匀的膜系结构.而后者声带中部在不同区域也存在明显的差异,中国林

  4. Revisión taxonómica de Alytes grandis Brunner (Amphibia, Anura

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    Sanchiz, B.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The holotype and only existing remain referred to Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, presumably a discoglossid frog from the German Pleistocene, is examined and compared with other living and fossil Palaearctic anurans. The analysis rejects its validity as an independent extinct species, as The material is clearly within the known variability of living Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, of which it should be considered merely a sinonym.

    Se examina el holotipo y único resto atribuido de Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, un supuesto discoglósido del Pleistoceno alemán, comparándose con otros anuros actuales y fósiles del Paleártico. El análisis permite desechar su pertenencia a una especie extinta independiente, siendo en cambio atribuible con toda claridad a la viviente Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, de la que debe considerarse sinónimo.
    Zum systematischen Status von Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957 (Amphibia, Anura. Der bislang einzig bekannte und von Brunner (1957 beschriebene Rest zu Alytes grandis aus pleistozänen Ablagerungen der Breitenberghöhle bei Gössweinstein (Fränk, Alb wird beschrieben und aufgrund ausführlicher Vergleichsuntersuchungen der rezenten Art Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758, zugeordnet, Alytes grandis Brunner, 1957, ist somit als synonyrn zu Rana temporaria zu betrachten.

  5. Participation of the 39-kDa glycoprotein (gp39) of the vitelline envelope of Bufo arenarum eggs in sperm-egg interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Daniel; Llanos, Ricardo J; Miceli, Dora C

    2012-05-01

    The acquisition of egg fertilizability in Bufo arenarum takes place during the oviductal transit and during this process the extracellular coelomic envelope (CE) of the eggs is converted into the vitelline envelope (VE). It has been stated that one of the necessary events leading to a fertilizable state is the proteolytic cleavage of CE glycoproteins in the oviductal pars recta by oviductin, a serine protease. Consequently, there is a marked increase in the relative quantity of glycoproteins with 39 (gp39) and 42 kDa (gp42) in the VE. In the present study, sperm-VE binding assays using heat-solubilized biotin-conjugated VE glycoproteins revealed that both gp39 and gp42 have sperm binding capacity. According to this result, our study was focused on gp39, a glycoprotein that we have previously reported as a homologue of mammalian ZPC. For this purpose, rabbit polyclonal antibodies against gp39 were generated at our laboratory. The specificity of the antibodies was confirmed with western blot of VE glycoproteins separated on SDS-PAGE. Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron studies showed gp39 distributed throughout the width of the VE. In addition, immunofluorescence assays probed that gp39 bound to the sperm head. Finally, as an approach to elucidate the possible involvement of gp39 in fertilization, inhibition assays showed that pretreatment of eggs with antibodies against gp39 generated a significant decrease in the fertilization rate. Therefore, our findings suggest that gp39, which is modified by oviductal action, participates as a VE glycoprotein ligand for sperm in Bufo arenarum fertilization.

  6. A new linearly-combined bi-exponential model for kinetic analysis of the isometric relaxation process of Bufo gastrocnemius under electric stimulation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There was a slow-relaxing tail of skeletal muscles in vitro upon the inhibition of Ca2+-pump by cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Herein, a new linearly-combined bi-exponential model to resolve this slow-relaxing tail from the fast-relaxing phase was investigated for kinetic analysis of the isometric relaxation process of Bufo gastrocnemius in vitro, in comparison to the single exponential model and the classical bi-exponential model. During repetitive stimulations at a 2-s interval by square pulses of a 2-ms duration at 12 V direct currency (DC), the isometric tension of Bufo gastrocnemius was recorded at 100 Hz. The relaxation curve with tensions falling from 90% of the peak to the 15th datum before next stimulation was analyzed by three exponential models using a program in MATLAB 6.5. Both the goodness of fit and the distribution of the residuals for the best fitting supported the comparable validity of this new bi-exponential model for kinetic analysis of the relaxation process of the control muscles. After CPA treatment, however, this new bi-exponential model showed an obvious statistical superiority for kinetic analysis of the muscle relaxation process, and it gave the estimated rest tension consistent to that by experimentation, whereas both the classical bi-exponential model and the single exponential model gave biased rest tensions. Moreover, after the treatment of muscles by CPA, both the single exponential model and the classical bi-exponential model yielded lowered relaxation rates,nevertheless, this new bi-exponential model had relaxation rates of negligible changes except much higher rest tensions. These results suggest that this novel linearly-combined bi-exponential model is desirable for kinetic analysis of the relaxation process of muscles with altered Ca2+-pumping activity.

  7. Estudio morfométrico sobre el desarrollo y evolución de las glándulas tiroides durante la metamorfosis de Bufo arenarum

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    Miranda, Leandro Andrés

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el desarrollo y la evolución de las glándulas tiroideas durante la morfogénesis de Bufo arenarum. Usando diferentes parámetros morfométricos, hemos relacionado el crecimiento y desarrollo larval con el desarrollo de las glándulas tiroideas. Se observó que la longitud total, el peso de las larvas, el volumen glandular tiroideo y el diámetro folicular, aumentan hasta el estadio XV (fin de la prometamorfosis, mientras que el número de folículos y la altura de las células foliculares tiroideas se incrementan hasta el estadio XVII (mitad del clímax metamórfico. Todos estos parámetros disminuyeron considerablemente durante el clímax metamórfico mientras que en animales postmetamórficos se observó un incremento en los valores registrados. En base a los resultados obtenidos concluimos que hay un período de síntesis y almacenamiento de hormonas tiroideas durante el crecimiento larval y un segundo período caracterizado por la liberación de hormonas tiroideas hacia el final de la prometamorfosis y durante el clímax metamórfico. We studied the development and evolution of thyroid glands during Bufo arenarum morphogenesis. Using different morphometric parameters we related larval growth and metamorphosis with thyroid glands development We observed that total length, larval weight, thyroid gland volume and follicle diameter increased until stage XV (end of prometamorphosis, meanwhile the number of follicles and follicle cell height increased until stage XVII (midclimax. All these parameters decreased during metamorphic climax and an increase was observed in postmetamorphic animals. Our results lead us to conclude that during larval growth there is a period of synthesis and store of thyroid hormones. There is a second period characterized by thyroid hormones release during the end of prometamorphosis and metamorphic climax.

  8. ENVENENAMENTO DE CÃES POR BUFADIENOLÍDEOS (Substâncias encontradas na secreção das glândulas paratóides dos sapos do gênero Bufo POISONING OF DOGS BY BUFADIENOLIDES (SUBSTANCES FOUND IN THE PARATOID GLAND SECRETION OF FROGS OF THE GENUS Bufo

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    Lourival Pereira Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Os autores estudaram o efeito da aplicação na mucosa bucal de cães, do produto secretado pelas glândulas paratóides de sapos do gênero Bufo. Os cães apresentaram sinais de graves intoxicações, imediatamente após a aplicação do referido produto.

    In the present paper, the authors report the effects of toad’s poison in dogs. This is the first case describe in Goiás.

  9. Effects of temperature on embryonic and larval development and growth in the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita in a semi-arid zone

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    Sanuy, D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects the duration of embryonic and larval periods in amphibians. Plasticity in time to metamorphosis is especially important in amphibian populations of Mediterranean semi-arid zones where temperatures are high and precipitation is low, increasing the rate of pond desiccation. In order to test the influence of water temperature on the larval development and growth of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita, we collected two spawns in a semi¿arid zone at Balaguer (Lleida, NE Iberian peninsula. Approximately 50 (+/-10 eggs (stage 14-16 were raised in the lab at different temperature conditions: 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25ºC with 12:12 photoperiod. The results show a lengthening of development time with decreasing temperatures and a better survival performance of B. calamita to high temperatures. However, mean size at metamorphosis was not different across treatments, thus, suggesting that this population of B. calamita requires a minimum size to complete the metamorphosis. This study is the first approach to examine the effects that climatic factors have on the growth and development of B. calamita in semi-arid zones.

  10. Sublethal effects of endosulfan and diazinon pesticides on glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in various tissues of adult amphibians (Bufo regularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezemonye, Lawrence; Tongo, Isioma

    2010-09-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) plays a key role in cellular detoxification of various xenobiotic chemical, especially pesticides. The study was carried out to assess the effects of the organochlorine pesticide, endosulfan and the organophosphate pesticide, diazinon on the activity of GST of different tissues in the African common toad, Bufo regularis. Toads were exposed for 28 days to varying levels of the pesticides: 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 microg L(-1) for the sublethal test. Activity of GST of toads exposed to the pesticides differentially increased significantly with increasing concentrations. The highest enhancement in GST activity was recorded in the liver followed by the brain, serum, GIT and lungs for both pesticide exposures. The differential increase in GST activity was tissue and pesticide specific. Liver GST increased up to 366% in endosulfan exposed toads and 393% in diazinon exposed toads in the highest concentration (0.04 microg L(-1)). Diazinon pesticide from this study proved to be more toxic than endosulfan pesticide.

  11. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus

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    Anup Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.

  12. A vertebrate reproductive system involving three ploidy levels: hybrid origin of triploids in a contact zone of diploid and tetraploid palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöck, Matthias; Ustinova, Jana; Lamatsch, Dunja K; Schartl, Manfred; Perrin, Nicolas; Moritz, Craig

    2010-04-01

    The rise and consequences of polyploidy in vertebrates, whose origin was associated with genome duplications, may be best studied in natural diploid and polyploid populations. In a diploid/tetraploid (2n/4n) geographic contact zone of Palearctic green toads in northern Kyrgyzstan, we examine 4ns and triploids (3n) of unknown genetic composition and origins. Using mitochondrial and nuclear sequence, and nuclear microsatellite markers in 84 individuals, we show that 4n (Bufo pewzowi) are allopolyploids, with a geographically proximate 2n species (B. turanensis) being their maternal ancestor and their paternal ancestor as yet unidentified. Local 3n forms arise through hybridization. Adult 3n mature males (B. turanensis mtDNA) have 2n mothers and 4n fathers, but seem distinguishable by nuclear profiles from partly aneuploid 3n tadpoles (with B. pewzowi mtDNA). These observations suggest multiple pathways to the formation of triploids in the contact zone, involving both reciprocal origins. To explain the phenomena in the system, we favor a hypothesis where 3n males (with B. turanensis mtDNA) backcross with 4n and 2n females. Together with previous studies of a separately evolved, sexually reproducing 3n lineage, these observations reveal complex reproductive interactions among toads of different ploidy levels and multiple pathways to the evolution of polyploid lineages.

  13. 中国两栖纲和爬行纲动物校正名录%REVISED CHECKLIST OF CHINESE AMPHIBIA & REPTILIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵尔宓; 张学文; 赵蕙; 王鹰岩

    2000-01-01

    @@ 本名录摘自2000年在台湾出版的之十一:Zhao Ermi(赵尔宓), Chang Hsueh-Wen(张学文), and Zhao Hui(赵蕙)编著"Taxonomic Bibliography of Chinese Amphibia and Reptilia, including Karyological Literature"(中国两栖纲和爬行纲动物分类学文献,包括核学文献) 一书215~238页.该书中此名录部分有美国康乃尔大学鹰岩(Kraig Adler)教授参与合作完成.由于原书印数有限,成本较高(其中一部分从台湾航空寄来,寄费高过印刷费),加以原书名录没有阶元的中文名称,对于一些不熟悉拉丁学名的业余爱好者使用困难,因此目前将该书名录部分重印,并加入中文名称,发表于杂志.

  14. Strong reproductive barriers in a narrow hybrid zone of West-Mediterranean green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup with Plio-Pleistocene divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrin Nicolas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One key question in evolutionary biology deals with the mode and rate at which reproductive isolation accumulates during allopatric speciation. Little is known about secondary contacts of recently diverged anuran species. Here we conduct a multi-locus field study to investigate a contact zone between two lineages of green toads with an estimated divergence time of 2.7 My, and report results from preliminary experimental crosses. Results The Sicilian endemic Bufo siculus and the Italian mainland-origin B. balearicus form a narrow hybrid zone east of Mt. Etna. Despite bidirectional mtDNA introgression over a ca. 40 km North-South cline, no F1 hybrids could be found, and nuclear genomes display almost no admixture. Populations from each side of the contact zone showed depressed genetic diversity and very strong differentiation (FST = 0.52. Preliminary experimental crosses point to a slightly reduced fitness in F1 hybrids, a strong hybrid breakdown in backcrossed offspring (F1 x parental, with very few reaching metamorphosis and a complete and early mortality in F2 (F1 x F1. Conclusion Genetic patterns at the contact zone are molded by drift and selection. Local effective sizes are reduced by the geography and history of the contact zone, B. balearicus populations being at the front wave of a recent expansion (late Pleistocene. Selection against hybrids likely results from intrinsic genomic causes (disruption of coadapted sets of genes in backcrosses and F2-hybrids, possibly reinforced by local adaptation (the ranges of the two taxa roughly coincide with the borders of semiarid and arid climates. The absence of F1 in the field might be due to premating isolation mechanisms. Our results, show that these lineages have evolved almost complete reproductive isolation after some 2.7 My of divergence, contrasting sharply with evidence from laboratory experiments that some anuran species may still produce viable F1 offspring after > 20

  15. The effect of detergents pollution on growth of Bufo melanostictus embryo and tadpoles%生活污水对黑眶蟾蜍胚胎及蝌蚪发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立; 徐剑

    2012-01-01

    两栖类蝌蚪发育对环境污染比较敏感,可用于对环境污染的生物监测.观察了黑眶蟾蜍胚胎及蝌蚪在生活污水中的发育情况,可以看出随着污染浓度增大,表现为胚胎及蝌蚪死亡率增加,发育时期延长,蝌蚪的体重增加延迟,体长发育延迟,尾部萎缩过程延迟.结果表明:黑眶蟾蜍胚胎在生活污水浓度达到10%为致死量,8%为半致死量.蝌蚪在生活污水中浓度达到80%为致死量,60%为半致死量,50%对发育明显影响,甚至致畸,50%对体长和尾长的影响最为明显.%The growth of amphibian tadpoles are sensitive to environmental pollution, which can be used for the biological monitoring of environmental pollution. Observing embryos and Bufo melanostictus tadpoles in a detergent-based domestic wastewater, with the increasing concentration, showing an increase in mortality, there are three aspects of development which is growth of the extension period, tadpole weight, body length and tail length affected. The results showed that the lethal dose of Bufo melanostictus embryos in sewage concentration is 10%, the semi-lethal dose of Bufo melauostictus embryos is 8%. The lethal dose to Tadpoles in the concentration of domestic sewage for up to 80%, the semi-lethal dose is 60%, 50% of sewage affected obviously, and even teratogenic, 50% of sewage is the most obvious of body length and tail length.

  16. Low temperature induces oocytes p34cdc2 synthesis and accumulation—the acquisition of competence to resume meiosis in toad oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUJINING; ZHENGGU; 等

    1996-01-01

    Full grown oocytes derived from Bufo Bufo gargarizans rearing at high temperature environment (24℃), never underwent GVBD after progesterone treatment.No p34cdc2 Hl kinase activity was detected in the oocytes after progesterone stimulation or OA microinjection;Western blotting analysis showed that the level of p34cdc2 and p33 in the oocytes are significantly lower than those in the oocytes derived from the hibernating toads (below 10℃).35S-Met incorporation analysis showed that when the oocytes were incubated at 6℃,synthesis of about thirty defferent polypeptides was promoted or induced,including p34cdc2 and some other p13suc1-binding proteins.All these results indicated that a low temperature environment is essential for the oocytes of Bufo Bufo gargarizans to express and stord some cell cycle drivers and its regulators,and to gain the maturation competence.These results will also provide a nwe clue for explaining the molecular mechanisms why gametogenesis of some organisms depends on a relative low temperature and how to maintain the geographical distribution of some animals.

  17. Behavior of toads, Bufo bufo, in a dynamic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, D V

    2009-01-01

    Susceptibility to motion sickness was tested by exposing free moving toads to rotation of a stimulator modeled after an amusement park Ferris Wheel. The stimulator provided a gentle stimulation of frequency 0.25 Hz and centrifugal acceleration 0.143 g during 120 min or more without external visual cues. No emetic or prodromal behavioral response was elicited during or after rotation. During rotation the amount of motor activity in most toads increased evidently. The most active toads attempted to climb out of the test chamber. It was inferred that experimental rotation was rather a stressful stimulus which initiated an escape response. In addition, during rotation the number of eye retractions and urination incidences increased, but appetite after rotation was inhibited. During rotation the motionless toads performed small regular head movements with period equal to rotation period of stimulator. These oscillations were probably vestibular (otolith) reaction to oscillating acceleration. The proposed resonance hypothesis gives a general idea of why lower vertebrates are immune to motion sickness.

  18. 长波紫外线照射对花背蟾蜍肾脏结构损伤%Impacts of long-wave ultraviolet radiation on kidney structure of Bufo Raddei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈婷婷; 李丕鹏; 聂颖; 陆宇燕

    2012-01-01

    为研究长波紫外线对花背蟾蜍(Bufo raddei)肾脏的损伤,用波长为365 nm的长波紫外线(UVA)以352 μW·cm-2的辐射量对花背蟾蜍亚成体进行150、300和450 min的连续照射,分别在照射后立即、3、6、9、12和15 d取材,常规石蜡切片.结果表明:UVA照射后,3组不同照射时间的花背蟾蜍肾脏整体结构基本完整,但均出现肾小管管壁破裂,管径显著缩小,肾小囊消失,而300 min照射组的损伤则极为明显,其后依次为450 min照射组与150 min照射组,300与450 min照射组的肾小体塌陷程度较150 min照射组更为严重;经15 d的恢复,虽出现明显好转,但大多指标仍与对照组间存在极显著性差异;UVA对花背蟾蜍肾脏有着不可忽视的损伤,虽然具有一定的自我修复的能力,但在野外,紫外辐射的增强和植被的减少可导致两栖类遭受过度的紫外辐射,进而引起两栖类种群的衰减.%In order to study the damage of long-wave ultraviolet (UVA) on Bufo raddei kidney, three groups of Bufo raddeis juveniles were irradiated continuously by 365 nm UVA with a dosage of 352 μW · cm-2 for 150, 300, and 450 min, respectively, and the kidney after the irradiation was dissected immediately and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days later, with its histological changes observed by general histological method. After the UVA radiation, the kidney structure was basically in integrity, except the fracture and visible constriction of renal tubule and the disappearance of renal capsule, which were most obvious in the 300 min group, followed by in 450 min group and in 150 min group. The damage to Malpigkian bodies was more serious in 300 and 450 min groups than in 150 min group. After 15 days recovery, though the damage was somewhat mitigated , most of the histological indices of the three experimental groups were significantly different from the control group. This study showed that the damage of UVA to B. raddei kidney could not be ignored in spite of

  19. 花背蟾蜍皮肤结构及其抗氧化和免疫功能的研究%Microstructure of toad (Bufo raddei) andits antioxidant and immune function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凤娟; 李丕鹏; 陆宇燕

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the skin structure and function of the toad (Bufo raddei),the conventional paraffin section technique and ELISA were adopted to observe the microstructural characteristics of its dorsal skin,ventral skin and skin glands;and determine the contents of SOD,CAT,MDA,TLR4 andβD-1 of the dorsal skin and ventral skin, respectively.The results show that the toad skin structures are similar to other amphibians.That is the ventral cuticle thicker than the dorsal,the dorsal epidermis and dermis thicker than the ventral,granular glands mainly in the dorsal skin,and mucous glands in the ventral skin.SOD and TLR4 examined in the ventral skin are higher than in the dorsal skin,CAT containing in the dorsal skin is higher than in the ventral skin,but MDA andβD-1 are similar in these two areas.In conclusion,the structures and related protein levels of the toad skin closely adapt to the living environment,and have the antioxidant capacities and natural immune functions.%为了深入了解花背蟾蜍(Bufo raddei Strauch)皮肤显微结构及其相关功能,利用石蜡切片及酶联免疫吸附反应技术,观察了花背蟾蜍背腹侧皮肤及其皮肤腺的显微结构特点,分别测定了背、腹侧皮肤中 SOD、CAT、MDA、TLR4和βD-1含量。结果:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构与其他两栖类皮肤结构基本相同,其角质层腹侧较背侧厚,表皮和真皮背侧较腹侧厚;颗粒腺主要存在于背侧,而黏液腺主要存在于腹侧。SOD和TLR4含量腹侧皮肤高于背侧皮肤;CAT含量背侧皮肤较腹侧高;MDA和βD-1含量在背腹皮肤中相近。结论:花背蟾蜍皮肤结构和相关蛋白水平能够较好的适应其生境,并具有一定的抗氧化能力和天然免疫功能。

  20. The genetics of amphibian decline: population substructure and molecular differentiation in the Yosemite toad, Bufo canorus (Anura, Bufonidae) based on single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, H. Bradley; Fellers, Gary M.; Magee, Allison; Voss, S. Randal

    2000-01-01

    We present a comprehensive survey of genetic variation across the range of the narrowly distributed endemic Yosemite toad Bufo canorus, a declining amphibian restricted to the Sierra Nevada of California. Based on 322 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data, we found limited support for the monophyly of B. canorus and its closely related congener B. exsul to the exclusion of the widespread western toad B. boreas. However, B. exsul was always phylogenetically nested within B. canorus, suggesting that the latter may not be monophyletic. SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) analysis of 372 individual B. canorus from 28 localities in Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks revealed no shared haplotypes among these two regions and lead us to interpret these two parks as distinct management units for B. canorus. Within Yosemite, we found significant genetic substructure both at the level of major drainages and among breeding ponds. Kings Canyon samples show a different pattern, with substantial variation among breeding sites, but no substructure among drainages. Across the range of B. canorus as well as among Yosemite ponds, we found an isolation-by-distance pattern suggestive of a stepping stone model of migration. However, in Kings Canyon we found no hint of such a pattern, suggesting that movement patterns of toads may be quite different in these nearby parklands. Our data imply that management for B. canorus should focus at the individual pond level, and effective management may necessitate reintroductions if local extirpations occur. A brief review of other pond-breeding anurans suggests that highly structured populations are often the case, and thus that our results for B. canorus may be general for other species of frogs and toads.

  1. Small frogs get their worms first: the role of nonodonate arthropods in the recruitment of Haematoloechus coloradensis and Haematoloechus complexus in newly metamorphosed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens, and woodhouse's toads, Bufo woodhousii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolek, Matthew G; Janovy, John

    2007-04-01

    Studies on the life cycles and epizootiology of North American frog lung flukes indicate that most species utilize odonates as second intermediate hosts; adult frogs become infected by ingesting odonate intermediate hosts. Newly metamorphosed frogs are rarely infected with these parasites, predominantly because they are gape-limited predators that cannot feed on large intermediate hosts such as dragonflies. We examined the role of the frog diet and potential intermediate hosts in the recruitment of the frog lung fluke, Haematoloechus coloradensis, to metamorphosed northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens), Woodhouse's toads (Bufo woodhousii), and bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from western Nebraska. Because of the uncertain validity of H. coloradensis as a distinct species from Haematoloechus complexus, morphological characters of both species were reevaluated and the life cycles of both species were completed in the laboratory. The morphological data on H. coloradensis and H. coimplexus indicate that they differ in their oral sucker to pharynx ratio, uterine loop distribution, and placement of vitelline follicles. However, in terms of their life cycles, both species are quite similar in their use of physid snails as first intermediate hosts, a wide range of nonodonate and odonate arthropods as second intermediate hosts, and leopard frogs and toads as definitive hosts. These results indicate that H. coloradensis and H. complexus are generalists at the second intermediate host level and might be able to infect newly metamorphosed leopard frogs and toads by using small nonodonate arthropods more commonly than other frog lung fluke species. Comparisons of population structure of adult flukes in newly metamorphosed leopard frogs indicate that the generalist nature of H. coloradensis metacercariae enables it to colonize young of the year leopard frogs more commonly than other Haematoloechus spp. that only use odonates as second intermediate hosts. In this respect, the

  2. Demonstration of melatonin in amphibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerdonk, F.C.G. van de

    1967-01-01

    The presence of melatonin in the amphibian epiphysis has been ascertained earlier by several indirect methods, demonstrating the synthesizing enzyme or precursors of the compound. This communication describes the presence of melatonin in amphibian brain in a direct way, using dextran gel chromatogra

  3. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography for preparative isolation of toad venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Fu; Fang, Hua; Yan, Xia; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Zhen; Wu, Yun-Long; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2016-07-22

    An on-line comprehensive preparative two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography×reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC×RPLC) system was constructed with a newly developed vacuum evaporation assisted adsorption (VEAA) interface, allowing fast removal of NPLC solvent in the vacuum condition and successfully solving the solvent incompatibility problem between NPLC and RPLC. The system achieved on-line solvent exchange within the two dimensions and its performance was illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude extract from the venom of Bufo bufo gargarizans. Within separation time of ∼20h, 19 compounds were obtained with high purity in a single run. With the VEAA interface, the 2D system exhibited apparent advantages in separation efficiency and automation compared with conventional methods, indicating its promising application in the routine separation process for complicated natural products.

  4. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of inorganic phosphate handling in the toad Bufo bufo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Werner, Andreas; Hansen, Sofie M;

    2006-01-01

    (i) absorption across skin and intestine. An initial fragment of a NaPi-II type transporter was amplified from kidney, and the full-length sequence was obtained. The protein showed the molecular hallmarks of NaPi-IIb transporters. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes the clone showed unusual pH dependence......, but apparent affinity constants for P(i) and Na(+) were in the range of other NaPi-II transporters. Expression profiling showed that the transporter was present in skin, intestine and kidney. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays on dissected renal tubules indicated expression...... in the collecting duct system. Collecting tubules and ducts were isolated, perfused and microelectrode recordings showed electrogenic P(i) transport in apical and basolateral membranes. Taken together, our results show that P(i) is handled by intestine, kidney and skin. The presently cloned NaPi-IIb is a likely...

  5. Properties of a conductive cellular chloride pathway in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, P

    1978-01-01

    of the steady-state conductance and the steady-state chloride current reveal that the chloride pathway has maximum conductance for V approximately -80 mV (outside of the skin being negative) and approaches a non-conducting safe for V greater than 0 mV. This strong outward going rectification is a steady......-compartment model indicate that the strong steady-state chloride current rectification cannot be obtained if only the intracellular chloride concentration and the membrane potentials are allowed to vary ("Goldman-rectification"). It is suggested, therefore, that the premeability of the chloride pathway varies...

  6. 中华蟾蜍中脑视叶白介素1α、干扰素γ和肿瘤坏死因子α阳性细胞的分布%Distribution of IL-1α-, IFN-γ-and TNF-α-like immunoreactive cells in the optic lobe of Bufo gargariizans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乐乐; 刘再群

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution of IL-lα-, IFN-y- and TNF-α-like immunoreactive cells in the optic lobe of Bufo gargariizans, and get much more knowledge of cytokines expressed in the brain in amphibians to aim at providing basic information of the study on cytokines acting on the central nervous system. Methods: The immunohistochemical SABC method and Nissl staining were used to observe the distribution of cells in the optic lobe under a light microscope, and statistic analysis was also used. Results: There were many IL-lcr and IFN-y- like immunoreactive cells in the whole optic lobe. They were large, middle or small sized cells, but most of them were middle and small sized cells. Their bodies were round and cone like in shape. Also, two sub-layers imunoreactive fibres were observed in the stratum zonale. TNF-α-like immunoreactive cells with middle or small size were only distributed in the dorsal tegmentum. Their bodies were round in shape. ' Conclusion: IL-1α and IFN-y-like immunoreactive cells were widely present in the whole optic lobe of Bufo gargariizans, but TNF-crlike immunoreactive cells were only observed in the dorsal tegmentum. do%目的:研究中华蟾蜍中脑视叶白介素1α (IL-1α),干扰素γ(IFN-γ)和肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)免疫阳性细胞的形态和分布特点,以丰富细胞因子在两栖类神经系统表达的情况,为进一步研究细胞因子对中枢神经系统的作用积累材料.方法:采用免疫组织化学SABC法和Nissl法对中华蟾蜍中脑视叶切片进行显色,光镜观察并进行统计分析处理.结果:IL-1α和IFN-γ阳性细胞在中脑视叶顶盖和被盖都有很多分布,为大、中和小型细胞,而且以中、小型细胞为主,胞体为圆形和似锥形,另外顶盖带状层出现2亚层的阳性纤维;TNF-α阳性细胞只分布在中脑视叶被盖背侧区,都为中、小型细胞,胞体圆形. 结论:IL-1α和IFN-γ阳性细胞广泛分布中华蟾蜍中脑视叶各区,

  7. Cranial kinesis in the amphibia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanskiĭ, N N

    2000-01-01

    All extant orders of amphibians are characterized by kinetic skulls. Main type of intracranial movability in amphibians is pleurokinetism, that is supplemented in different amphibian groups by various types of rhyncho- and prokinetism. The most primitive pattern of cranial kinesis is revealed in the stegocrotaphic gymnophions. More paedomorphic species retain general cranial flexibility that is characteristic of larval skull. That is unfavourable for evolution of well-regulated (adult) cranial kinesis and related feeding adaptations. Kinetism is also reduced in the species with heavily ossified skulls. Adaptive role and evolution of cranial kinesis in amphibians are discussed.

  8. Levels of sparganum infections and phylogenetic analysis of the tapeworm Spirometra erinaceieuropaei sparganum in wild frogs from Henan Province in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, T; Zhang, X; Cui, J; Liu, L N; Jiang, P; Wang, Z Q

    2015-07-01

    Sparganosis is a serious food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with Spirometra spargana. The prevalence of sparganum infection in wild frogs (Rana nigromaculata, R. limmochari, R. temporaria and Bufo gargarizans) was investigated in Henan Province of central China during 2008-2012. Of 3482 caught wild frogs, 565 (16.23%) were found to be infected with plerocercoids (spargana) of the genus Spirometra. Spargana were found in 14.85% (320/2155) of R. nigromaculata, 20.82% (233/1119) of R. limmochari and 10.91% (12/110) of R. temporaria frogs. However, no sparganum was found in B. gargarizans. To investigate the phylogenetic position of collected spargana, three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1 and 3 (cox1 and cox3), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (nad4), were amplified, sequenced and analysed. Sequences of cox1, cox3 and pnad4 were 417, 390 and 578 bp in length, respectively. The base composition of cox1, cox3 and pnad4 were generally AT rich with a mean of 63.5%, 68.3% and 67% AT, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the sparganum isolates in Henan Province represented Spirometra erinaceieuropaei and were a well-supported clade. These findings demonstrated clearly the usefulness of the three mtDNA sequences for molecular identification and population genetics studies of S. erinaceieuropaei spargana of human and animal health significance.

  9. In situ monitoring of animal micronuclei before the operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.N. Cai; H.Y. He; L.M. Qian; G.C. Sun; J.Y. Zhao [Guangzhou College of Education, Guangzhou (China)

    1994-12-31

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, a newly-built nuclear power station in southern mainland China, started its operation in 1993. We examined micro-nucleated cells of Invertibrate (Bivalves) and Vertibrate (Fish and Amphibia) in different spots within the 50km surroundings of the Power Station during 1986-1993. This paper reports the results of the investigation carried out in Dong Shan, a place 4.7km to the Power Station:Bivalves; Pteria martensil 5.1(1986),4.8(1988),4.8(1991),5,0(1993),Mytilus smardinus 4.7(1987),4.6(1988); Chamys nobilis 4.9(1987);4.9(1991),4.5(1992),4.5(1993). Fish; Therapon jarbua 0.48(1991),0.67(1992),0.47(1993). Amphibia; Bufo melanostictus 0.29 (1987), 0.34(1988),0.39(1992),0.39(1993). These results showed that the environmental situation, estimated by using the frequencies of micronucleated cells, was stable-there was no obvious chromosome damage in the animals studied. It was found that the incidence of micronucleated cells of Bivalves was higher than that of Fish and Amphibia, suggesting the epithelial cells to be more sensitive than peripheral erythrocytes to environmental genotoxic effects. The results of our studies for other spots will be reported afterward. These data can be used as the original background information to monitor the environment when the Nuclear Power Station is in operation.

  10. Body size affects the predatory interactions between introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and native anurans in China: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Guo, Z.; Pearl, C.A.; Li, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have established breeding populations in several provinces in China since their introduction in 1959. Although Bullfrogs are viewed as a potentially important predator of Chinese native anurans, their impacts in the field are difficult to quantify. We used two experiments to examine factors likely to mediate Bullfrog predation on native anurans. First, we examined effects of Bullfrog size and sex on daily consumption of a common Chinese native (Rana limnocharis). Second, we examined whether Bullfrogs consumed similar proportions of four Chinese natives: Black-Spotted Pond Frog (Rana nigromaculata), Green Pond Frog (Rana plancyi plancyi), Rice Frog (R. limnocharis), and Zhoushan Toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans). We found that larger Rana catesbeiana consumed more R. limnocharis per day than did smaller R. catesbeiana, and that daily consumption of R. limnocharis was positively related to R. catesbeiana body size. When provided with adults of four anurans that differed significantly in body size, R. catesbeiana consumed more individuals of the smallest species (R. limnocharis). However, when provided with similarly sized juveniles of the same four species, R. catesbeiana did not consume any species more than expected by chance. Our results suggest that body size plays an important role in the predatory interactions between R. catesbeiana and Chinese native anurans and that, other things being equal, smaller species and individuals are at greater risk of predation by R. catesbeiana. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  11. A novel ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase is involved in toad oocyte maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    p28, a 28kD protein from toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans) oocytes, was identified by using p13suc1-agaroseaffinity chromatography. Sequence homology analysis of the full-length cDNA of p28 (Gene Bank accessionnumber: AF 314091) indicated that it encodes a protein containing 224 amino-acids with about 55% iden-tities and more than 70% positives to human, rat or mouse UCH-L1, and contains homological functionaldomains of UCH family. Anti-p28 monoclonal antibody, on injecting into the oocytes, could inhibit theprogesterone-induced resumption of meiotic division in a dose-dependent manner. The recombinant proteinp28 showed similar SDS/PAGE behaviors to the native one, and promoted ubiquitin ethyl ester hydrolysis,a classical catalytic reaction for ubiquitin carboxyl terminai hydrolases (UCHs). The results in this paperreveal that a novel protein, p28, exists in the toad oocytes, is a UCH L1 homolog, was engaged in theprocess of progesterone-induced oocyte maturation possibly through an involvement in protein turnover anddegradation.

  12. Toad Glandular Secretions and Skin Extractions as Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad glandular secretions and skin extractions contain many natural agents which may provide a unique resource for novel drug development. The dried secretion from the auricular and skin glands of Chinese toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans is named Chansu, which has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM for treating infection and inflammation for hundreds of years. The sterilized hot water extraction of dried toad skin is named Huachansu (Cinobufacini which was developed for treating hepatitis B virus (HBV and several types of cancers. However, the mechanisms of action of Chansu, Huachansu, and their constituents within are not well reported. Existing studies have suggested that their anti-inflammation and anticancer potential were via targeting Nuclear Factor (NF-κB and its signalling pathways which are crucial hallmarks of inflammation and cancer in various experimental models. Here, we review some current studies of Chansu, Huachansu, and their compounds in terms of their use as both anti-inflammatory and anticancer agents. We also explored the potential use of toad glandular secretions and skin extractions as alternate resources for treating human cancers in combinational therapies.

  13. Is Huachansu Beneficial in Treating Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of Its Efficacy Combined with Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingduo Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Huachansu, the sterilized water extract of Bufo bufo gargarizans toad skin, is used in China to alleviate the side-effects and enhance the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess Huachansu’s efficacy. Methods. We extensively searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CBM, Cochrane Library, CNKI, CEBM, WFDP, CSCD, CSTD, and IPA for randomized controlled trials containing Huachansu plus chemotherapy as the test group and chemotherapy as the control group. Seventeen trials were selected based on the selection criteria. The pooled relative ratio (RR of indicators with 95% confidence interval (95% CI was calculated for efficacy evaluation. Results. The meta-analysis demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in objective tumor response, one-year survival, Karnofsky performance status, pain relief, and alleviation of severe side-effects (nausea and vomiting, leukocytopenia in the test group as compared to the control group, but no significant difference in thrombocytopenia. Conclusions. This study demonstrated the efficacy of Huachansu combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. However, limitations exist and high-quality trials are needed for further verification.

  14. Studies on the physiological function of spermine in the process of progesterone induced toad oocyte maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIRUNSHENG; JIAKETSO

    1992-01-01

    Spermidine or spermine but not putrescine inhibited progesterone induced Bufo bufo gargarizans oocyte maturation.The ID50 for spermine inhibition via intra -oocyte microinjection on maturation induced by progesterone was 6.8mM(100nl).Spermine could inhibit MPF induced toad oocyte maturation with a much higher ID50.A 55 kD protein was dephosphorylated during the process of progesterone induced oocyte maturation .Spermine selectively promoted the level of phosphorylation of this protein in both progesterone-stimulated and hormone-untreated oocytes.The extent of its dephosphorylation was fairly Correlated with the percentage of GVBD in the hormone stimulated oocytes.The level of endogenous spermine was reduced by 28% between the perod of 0.40 GVBD50 and 0.60 GVBD50,at which 55 kD protein was dephosphorylated.Spermine inhibited progesterone-stimulated protein synthesis in almost the same dose dependent manner as its inhititory effect on the hormone-induced maturation,The endogenous spermine regulated 55 kD protein dephosphorylation which may trigger the increase of protein dephosphorylation which may trigger the increase of protein synthesis and in turn promote the activation of MPF,It is possible that 55 kD protein may be one of the components of messenger ribonucleoprotein(mRNP) particles.

  15. Comprehensive two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography for analysis of toad skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Fu; Yan, Xia; Wu, Yun-Long; Fang, Mei-Juan; Wu, Zhen; Qiu, Ying-Kun

    2017-04-15

    An analytical two-dimensional normal-phase liquid chromatography × reversed-phase liquid chromatography (2D NPLC × RPLC) system was constructed with a newly developed thermal evaporation assisted adsorption (TEAA) interface. This novel TEAA interface with heating temperature above solvent boiling point allowed fast removal of organic NPLC solvent and successfully solved the solvent incompatibility problem between NPLC and RPLC. The system achieved rapid on-line solvent exchange between the two dimensions within a short modulation time of 190 s and was applied in the analysis of an extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans. This is the first time to realize the on-line comprehensive analysis of a moderate polar natural product by coupling NPLC with reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). To be highlighted, with the TEAA interface, the 2D NPLC × RPLC system provided excellent resolution and orthogonality (75.2%), when compared with that of 2D RPLC × RPLC.

  16. Casein kinase G may be the target of spermine during progesterone-induced oocyte maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIRUNSHENG; JIAKETSO

    1993-01-01

    Casein kinase G (CKG) with more than 2500-fold enrichraent was purified from Bufo bufo gargarizans ovaries. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was found to be associated with its 42 kD subunit, and its 26 kD subunit was found to be the major tsrget for the enzyme autophos phorylation. Each fuU-grown oocyte contained 1.9 units of CKG corresponding to an intracellular concentration of 93 nM. After injecting an amount of 0,38 units of the enzyme into the oocyte, approximately 50% of the progesterone-induoed maturation was inhibited. The inhibitory effect was enhanced in oocytes pretreated with spermine, which was consistent with the results that the enzyme was activated in vitro in the presence of spermine, The MPF-induced oocyte maturation was delayed and even prohibited in the kinase-microinjected oocytes. A 55 kD oocyte protein was identified as an suhstrate of CKG both in vivo and in vitro, and the enhancement of the 55 kD protein phosphory[ation was associated with kinase inhibition on maturation and on protein synthesis in kinase-microinjected oocytes. As the endogenous spermine level decreased in the course of progesteroneinduced oocyte maturation. 55 kD protein was dephosphorylated, Heparin, a specific inhibitor of CKG, potentiated the progesterone-induced oocyte maturation. Altogether the experimental reSults indicated Strongly that CKG may be the physiological target of spermine.

  17. Bufalin inhibits migration and invasion in human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep1 cells through the inhibitions of NF-kB and matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9-signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Yin; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Chang, Shu-Jen; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Wu, Ping-Ping; Liu, Jia-You; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Chung, Jing-Gung; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis plays an important role in mortality of cancer patients. Migration and invasion are the major characteristics of tumor metastasis. The induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-2 and -9 are particularly important for the invasiveness of various cancer cells. Bufalin, a class of toxic steroids, was purified from the skin glands of Bufo gargarizans or Bufo melanostictus; it is known to inhibit proliferation of human cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the antiinvasive mechanisms of bufalin in the human hepatocellular cancer cell line SK-Hep1. Bufalin significantly reduced serum-induced cell invasion and migration. Furthermore, bufalin markedly inhibited MMP-2 and -9 activity, mRNA expression and protein levels in SK-Hep1 cells. Bufalin attenuated phosphoinisitide-3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylation of AKT which was associated with reduced levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Bufalin also suppressed protein levels of FAK and Rho A, VEGF, MEKK3, MKK7, and uPA and it diminished NF-κB translocation. Based on these observations, we propose that bufalin is acts as an antiinvasive agent by inhibiting MMP-2 and -9 and involving PI3K/AKT and NF-κB pathways. Bufalin is a potential therapeutic agent that may have efficacy in preventing the invasion and metastasis of malignant liver tumors.

  18. Buforins: histone H2A-derived antimicrobial peptides from toad stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ju Hyun; Sung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sun Chang

    2009-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute an important component of the innate immune system in a variety of organisms. Buforin I is a 39-amino acid AMP that was first isolated from the stomach tissue of the Asian toad Bufo bufo gargarizans. Buforin II is a 21-amino acid peptide that is derived from buforin I and displays an even more potent antimicrobial activity than its parent AMP. Both peptides share complete sequence identity with the N-terminal region of histone H2A that interacts directly with nucleic acids. Buforin I is generated from histone H2A by pepsin-directed proteolysis in the cytoplasm of gastric gland cells. After secretion into the gastric lumen, buforin I remains adhered to the mucous biofilm that lines the stomach, thus providing a protective antimicrobial coat. Buforins, which house a helix-hinge-helix domain, kill a microorganism by entering the cell without membrane permeabilization and thus binding to nucleic acids. The proline hinge is crucial for the cell penetrating activity of buforins. Buforins also are known to possess anti-endotoxin and anticancer activities, thus making these peptides attractive reagents for pharmaceutical applications. This review describes the role of buforins in innate host defense; future research paradigms; and use of these agents as human therapeutics.

  19. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series of...

  20. Bibliographic Studies on the Bufonis Venenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kye-Sung Kang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Through the literatures on the effets of Bufonis Venenum, we are finding out the clinical possibility and revealing the more effective to intractable diseases. Methods : We investigated the literatures of Oriental Medicine and experimental reports about Bufonis Venenum. Results : 1. Bufonis Venenum is made of bufonidae bufo bufo gargarizans cantor or bufo melanostictus schneider of white serum which secreted from parotid gland or dermato gland, and it is dried for using. 2. In oriental medicine, Bufonis Venenum has been mainly used on the tumors, cacanthrax and dermatic disease, and then it has been clinically used on infantile athrepsia, tetanus, sore throat, toothache, and so on. 3. The pharmacological effects of Bufonis Venenum are cardiotonic, respiration stimulation, depressor or vasopressor, topical anesthcsia, hallucination, striped muscle stimulation, antiasthmatic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, anticancer, diuretic, immuno effects, etc. 4. Bufonis Venenum is largely divided in ether binding steroid compound, hydroxyl steroid compound, carboxyl or aldehyde steroid compound, indole compound, and adrenaline, cholesterole, etc. 5. Symptoms of Bufonis Venenum poisoning in digestive system are vommitig, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dehydration, in circulatory system are palpitation, shock, bradycardia, in nervous system are vertigo, somnolentia, muscle-tendon reflex weakness, and critical conditions to tissue necrosis and heart attack. 6. Ways to treat Bufonis Venenum poisoning include gastric irrigation with 0.20.5% potassium permanganate fluid and atropine 0.5~1.0mg subcutaneous injection. From the chinese book of Bon Cho Gang Moke(本草綱目, if white serum of Bufonis Venenum enter the eyes, it happens the edema and pain. And then washed the eyes by juice of Lithospermi Radix(紫草 that the edema is removed. Conclusions and Discussion : The results from above literary studies show that prescriptions and Aqua-acupuncture of

  1. An enkephalin degrading aminopeptidase of human brain preserved during the vertebrate phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, A N; Bruno, J A; Carvalho, K M

    1991-01-01

    1. A soluble human brain aminopeptidase which hydrolyses the Tyr-Gly bond of Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin was identified in the brains of the following vertebrates: mammals (Callithrix jacchus and Rattus norvegicus), bird (Gallus domesticus), reptile (Tupinambis teguixin), amphibia (Bufo paracnemis), fish (Sarotherdon niloticus) and elasmobranchy (Galeocerdo cuvieri). 2. The properties of this enzyme are: molecular weight near 100,000 Da, isoelectric point near 4.9, optimum pH near 7.5, activation by dithiothreitol, strong inhibition by Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, puromycin and bacitracin, hydrolysis of enkephalins and basic and neutral aminoacid-beta-naphythylamide substrates. 3. The results indicate the preservation of this human brain aminopeptidase during the course of vertebrate phylogeny.

  2. O girino de Scinax nebulosus (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia dos Reis Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available É descrito e ilustrado o girino de Scinax nebulosus (Spix, 1824, proveniente do estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil. O girino apresenta braço labial no disco oral. A presença dessa estrutura associa claramente essa espécie ao grupo de Scinax rostratus. A identificação do girino anteriormente atribuído a Scinax nebulosus é considerada errônea e com base na literatura é feita a comparação com os demais girinos conhecidos do grupo.

  3. Introduction of Eleutherodactylus planirostris (Amphibia, Anura, Eleutherodactylidae to Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Ho Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An unidentified small frog species was first encountered in Hong Kong Special Administration Region (SAR, China, in 2000, where the local amphibian diversity is well-studied. We herein identified this unknown frog as Eleutherodactylus planirostris (greenhouse frog using DNA barcoding. We found that its distribution in Hong Kong is widespread (>18 localities, and breeding has been observed in multiple occasions. The populations in at least four localities persisted for over seven years. We discuss its potential negative impacts to terrestrial ecosystems in Hong Kong, with particular concern of its potential competition with the endemic Liuixalus romeri. We call for studies to investigate the impacts of the introduced E. planirostris on the local ecosystem. Screening for E. planirostris in exported plants from Hong Kong should be carried out.

  4. Diet and trophic niche of Lithobates catesbeianus (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson T. Leivas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802 is an invasive anuran introduced in Brazil that is associated with the displacement and the decline of populations of native species worldwide. There is evidence that biological invasions are facilitated by certain attributes of the invading species, for instance niche breath, and that invasive species have a broader ecological niche with respect to native ones. We designed a study to ascertain the temporal, ontogenetic, and sex differences in the niche dynamics of the American bullfrog. We sampled monthly from June 2008 to May 2009 in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. For each individual, we gathered biometric and stomach content data. We then estimated the niche breath of the juveniles and adults, and compared it between the sexes. A total of 104 females and 77 males were sampled. Lithobates catesbeianus has a generalist diet, preying upon invertebrates and vertebrates. Even though the diet of the studied population varied seasonally, it did not differ between the sexes nor did it respond to biometric variables. Niche breadth was more restricted in the winter than in the autumn. The trophic niche of juveniles and adults did not overlap much when compared with the trophic niche overlap between males and females. Adult males and females had a considerable niche overlap, but females had a broader trophic niche than males in the winter and in the spring. These niche characteristics point to an opportunistic predation strategy that may have facilitated the process of invasion and establishment of this species in the study area.

  5. Advertisement calls of Bolivian species of Scinax (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, de la, Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime

    1994-01-01

    The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the calls. Two phenograms based on the characteristics of the mating calls are constructed, the first one using a traditional multivariate technique (UPGMA) and the second one using audiospectrogram c...

  6. Comparative skull osteology of Karsenia koreana (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David; Wake, Marvalee H; Wake, David B

    2010-05-01

    The recent discovery of a plethodontid salamander, Karsenia koreana, in Korea challenged our understanding of the biogeographic history of the family Plethodontidae, by far the largest family of salamanders, which otherwise is distributed in the New World with a few European species. Molecular studies suggest that Karsenia forms a clade with Hydromantes (sensu lato), which includes among its species the only other Old World plethodontids. We studied the skull of K. koreana and compared it with that of other plethodontid genera, especially members of the subfamily Plethodontinae, which it resembles most closely in general anatomy. The anatomy of its skull corresponds to the most generalized and apparently ancestral condition for plethodontids. No clearly autapomorphic states were detected, and no synapomorphies can be found that would link it to other genera. The Karsenia skull is cylindrical and well ossified, giving an impression of strength. In contrast, the skull of Hydromantes is highly derived; the skull is flattened and the bones are weakly ossified and articulated. Hydromantes and Karsenia share no unique anatomical features; differences between them are especially evident in the hyobranchial skeleton, which is generalized in Karsenia but highly modified in Hydromantes, which is well known for its highly projectile tongue. Plethodon and Plethodon-like species, including Karsenia and to a lesser degree Ensatina, represent the more generalized and apparently ancestral plethodontid morphology. Specialized morphologies have evolved along only a few morphological axes within the Plethodontidae, resulting in a pattern of rampant homoplasy. Our analysis of the anatomy of the new Asiatic lineage illuminates some potential mechanisms underlying adaptive morphological evolution within the Plethodontidae.

  7. Genetic diversity in diploid vs. tetraploid Rorippa amphibia (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, P.C.; Stift, M.; Kuperus, P.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of polyploidy increases with latitude in the Northern Hemisphere, especially in deglaciated, recently colonized areas. The cause or causes of this pattern are largely unknown, but a greater genetic diversity of individual polyploid plants due to a doubled genome and/or a hybrid origin

  8. Water wave communication in the genus Bombina (amphibia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, B.; Yamashita, M.; Choi, I.-H.; Dittami, J.

    2001-01-01

    Amphibians were phylogenetically the first vertebrates to leave the aquatic environment and cope with terrestrial conditions including effects of gravity and substrate on movement and communication. Studies of extant primitive amphibians, which have conserved ancestral morphology and behavior, may help us to understand how gravitational adaptation from aquatic to terrestrial environments occurred. The anuran genus Bombina is a candidate for this type of investigation. In particular, a member of this genus, B. orientalis, is known for its low reaction threshold to minor changes of angular acceleration. We hypothesize that a heightened sensitivity to angular and mechanical accelerations evolved with wave communication. Comparisons of such behavior among B. variegata, B. bombina and B. orientalis may shed light on the evolution of reproductive systems based on water wave communication and relevant vestibular sensitivity. This may represent a transition to derived vocalization modes, which is seen in B. bombina to a certain degree.

  9. Advertisement calls of Bolivian species of Scinax (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, de la Ignacio; Márquez, Rafael; Bosch, Jaime

    1994-01-01

    The advertisement calls of eight Bolivian species of Scinax are described including information on the calling behaviour of each species. A characteristic audiospectrogram and oscillogram are presented for each species, as well as numerical information about the spectral and temporal features of the

  10. Lifelong testicular differentiation in Pleurodeles waltl (Amphibia, Caudata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chesnel Amand

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In numerous Caudata, the testis is known to differentiate new lobes at adulthood, leading to a multiple testis. The Iberian ribbed newt Pleurodeles waltl has been studied extensively as a model for sex determination and differentiation. However, the evolution of its testis after metamorphosis is poorly documented. Methods Testes were obtained from Pleurodeles waltl of different ages reared in our laboratory. Testis evolution was studied by several approaches: morphology, histology, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Surgery was also employed to study testis regeneration. Results In this species, the testis is linked to the lung. This association consists of connective tissue derived from the mesorchium and the coelomic epithelium surrounding the lung and takes place at the end of larval life. This tissue contains lobules including primordial germ cells with a typical large and polylobular nucleus. The anterior part of the testis remains thin and undifferentiated while the posterior part differentiates in a large first testis lobe where spermatogenesis occurs during the first year of life. The undifferentiated status of the anterior part is attested by the lack of expression of the testis marker Dmrt1 and the meiosis entry marker Dmc1. Three-year-old Pleurodeles waltl possess multiple testes made up of two lobes. The second lobe appears at the caudal extremity of the first one from residual primordial germ cells located near or even inside efferent ducts in the glandular tissue that usually appears following spermatozoa extrusion. Surprisingly, in the case of surgical elimination of the anterior part of the testis, de novo spermatogenesis is stopped in the first lobe which becomes restricted to the glandular tissue. Following first testis lobe removal, the anterior part of the testis regenerates a new testis lobe, a process stimulated in the presence of DHT. Conclusion Pleurodeles waltl constitute an original gonochoristic vertebrate model in which testis differentiation is observed up to adulthood.

  11. Proton pump-driven cutaneous chloride uptake in anuran amphibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Willumsen, Niels J.; Amstrup, Jan

    2003-01-01

    is saturating, voltage independent, and sensitive to DIDS and carbonic-anhydrase inhibitors. Depending on anuran species and probably on acid/base balance of the animal, apical exit of protons is coupled to an exchange of Cl(-) with base (HCO(3)(-)) either in the apical membrane (gamma-type of MR cell......) or in the basolateral membrane (alpha-type MR cell). The gamma-cell model accounts for the rheogenic active uptake of Cl(-) observed in several anuran species. There is indirect evidence also for non-rheogenic active uptake accomplished by a beta-type MR cell with apical base secretion and basolateral proton pumping...... with serosa-negative V(t). In diluted freshwater, exchange of cellular HCO(3)(-) with external Cl(-) seems to be possible only if the proton pump has the additional function of keeping the external concentration of HCO(3)(-) low. Quantitative considerations also lead to the conclusion that with the above...

  12. Cranial features of dendrobatid larvae (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, A

    1995-06-01

    The larval neurocranium and visceral arches of seven dendrobatid species representing four genera are described, based on cleared-and-stained and serially sectioned specimens. A variety of characters is shared by all seven species. Larval features do not substantiate the assumption of close ranoid affinities of the Dendrobatidae. Instead dendrobatid larvae share features such as the special quadripartite cartilago suprarostralis, the lack of the larval processus oticus, the presence of three foramina acustica, and the lack of a foramen perilymphaticum accessorius with many bufonoid larvae. The first of these characters is unique to bufonids, hylids, dendrobatids, and some New World leptodactylids; the other characters also occur in pelobatids and are presumably plesiomorphic for the Neobatrachia. The free proximal ends of Ceratobranchialia II and III are an autapomorphy of the Dendrobatidae supporting the monophyly of the family. Some features of the cranium are paedomorphic: low cartilago orbitalis, lack of connection between cartilage orbitalis and otic capsule (most species), and vestigal taeniae tecti. New anatomical terms are introduced.

  13. Cuidado parental em Leptodactylus natalensis (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae Parental care behaviour in Leptodactylus natalensis (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednilza Maranhão dos Santos

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho registra mais uma espécie pertencente à família Leptodactylidae apresentando cuidado parental, Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930. Fêmeas foram observadas em assistência a ovos e cardumes de girinos em duas poças temporárias na mata Atlântica do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil.The present paper reports one more species of the family Leptodactylidae presenting parental care behaviour, Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930, in which females were observed attending eggs and schools of tadpoles in two temporary ponds in the Atlantic forest of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

  14. Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of cinobufacini and its active components bufalin and cinobufagin in HepG2.2.15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Xu, Huanli; Wang, Dongliang; Qi, Fanghua; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fang, Dingzhi; Tang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Cinobufacini (Huachansu) is a Chinese medicine prepared from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (Bufonidae), which has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The aim of present study was to examine the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities of cinobufacini and its active components bufalin and cinobufagin in the human HBV-transfected cell line HepG2.2.15. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay after HepG2.2.15 cells were respectively treated with different concentrations of cinobufacini, bufalin, and cinobufagin for 3 or 6 d. HBV DNA and mRNA were determined using transcription-mediated amplification and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. On d 3, cinobufacini at a concentration of 1 µg/ml had no activity against HBV virological markers. However, on d 6, cinobufacini at 1 µg/ml effectively inhibited the secretion of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBcrAg by 29.58, 32.87, and 42.52%. It was more potent than the positive control lamivudine (100 µg/ml). Bufalin and cinobufagin slightly inhibited HBV antigen secretion. Treatment with cinobufacini, bufalin, or cinobufagin had no anti-HBV effect on DNA in cell culture medium. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, HBV mRNA expression was markedly inhibited in comparison to the control when HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with cinobufacini, bufalin, or cinobufagin. Results suggested that cinobufacini had more potent activity against HBV antigen secretion than its components bufalin and cinobufagin and this inhibitory role was attributed to the specific inhibition of HBV mRNA expression.

  15. 长白山路域两栖动物调查与保护%The investigation and protection of roadside amphibian in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉梅; 王超; 朴正吉; 王卓聪; 睢亚橙; 李卓; 邰志娟

    2015-01-01

    The investigation result of roadside amphibian in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve of different season showed that roadside amphibian in Changbai Mountain was Rana chensinensis, Hynobius keyserlingii, Bombina orientalis and Bufo gargarizans.The biological characteristics of roadside amphibian in Changbai Mountain had changed to some extent that the post-hibernation and spawning period had advance tendency and the species and quantity descended sharply.The reason was analyzed aimed at this change.Furthermore, the protection measure was raised.%不同季节长白山自然保护区路域两栖动物的调查结果表明:长白山路域两栖动物种类主要有中国林蛙、极北鲵、东方铃蟾和中华大蟾蜍。长白山地区的两栖动物生物学特性有所改变,出蛰和产卵期有提前趋势;种类和数量急剧下降。针对产生这一变化的原因进行了分析,并提出了保护措施。

  16. First detection of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in free-ranging populations of amphibians on mainland Asia: survey in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, HyoJin; Baek, HaeJun; Speare, Richard; Webb, Rebecca; Park, SunKyung; Kim, TaeHo; Lasater, Kelly C; Shin, SangPhil; Son, SangHo; Park, JaeHak; Min, MiSook; Kim, YoungJun; Na, Kijeong; Lee, Hang; Park, SeChang

    2009-09-01

    Chytridiomycosis, a disease that has caused amphibian population declines globally and elevated many species of anurans to endangered or threatened status, has recently been declared an internationally notifiable disease. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the amphibian chytrid fungus causing this disease, has not been previously reported in Korea or on mainland Asia. Thirty-six frog specimens representing 7 species were collected from the wild in South Korea and examined for Bd using standard PCR. Bd was detected in 14 (38.8%) samples from 3 species (Bufo gargarizans, Hyla japonica, and Rana catesbiana). Skin sections from all 14 PCR-positive frogs were examined using 2 staining techniques: haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Bd immunoperoxidase (IPX). In histological sections, zoosporangia were found in 6 frogs, with lower sensitivity for H&E (21%) than for IPX (46%). Intensity of infection, based on histopathology, was low in all frogs. These results confirm that Bd is present in South Korea and, hence, on the Asian mainland. Studies are urgently required to determine the impact of chytridiomycosis on Korean amphibians, and to map the distribution of Bd in Korea and other Asian mainland countries.

  17. Reversal of P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance in colon cancer by cinobufagin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zeting; Shi, Xiaojing; Qiu, Yanyan; Jia, Tingting; Yuan, Xia; Zou, Yu; Liu, Cheng; Yu, Hui; Yuan, Yuxia; He, Xue; Xu, Ke; Yin, Peihao

    2017-03-01

    Cinobufagin (CBF) is isolated from the skin and posterior auricular glands of the Asiatic toad (Bufo gargarizans). This study investigated the reversal effect of CBF on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in colon cancer. The effect of CBF on the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs in P-gp overexpressing LoVo/ADR, HCT116/L, Cao-2/ADR cells and their parental cells was determined using CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis of anti-cancer drugs and accumulation of doxorubicin (DOX) and Rhodamine 123 (Rho123) in P-gp overexpressing cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results indicated that CBF significantly enhanced the sensitivity of P-gp substrate drugs on P-gp overexpressing cells, but had no effect on their parental cells. CBF enhanced the effect of DOX against P-gp-overexpressing LoVo/ADR cell xenografts in nude mice. Moreover, CBF also increased cell apoptosis of chemotherapy agents and intracellular accumulation of DOX and Rho123 in the MDR cells. Further research on the mechanisms revealed non-competitive inhibition of P-gp ATPase activity, but without altering the expression of P-gp. These findings demonstrated that CBF could be further developed into a safe and potent P-gp modulator for combination use with anticancer drugs in cancer chemotherapy.

  18. [Early stages of development of Trypanosoma rotatorium (Mayer, 1843) from peripheral blood and internal organs of Anurans Bufo bufo (Linnaeus) and Rana sp. (Anura)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysheva, M N

    2014-01-01

    The data on the fauna of trypanosomes of Anura of the Leningrad Province are given. The initial development stages of Trypanosoma rotatorium in peripheral blood and internal organs of the frog are described for the first time.

  19. Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT: We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n _ 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May–September. Adult captures during June–August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May–September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10- yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw little evidence of local extinction or ‘‘rescue,’’ but were unable to determine whether juveniles returned to natal ponds or colonized new ponds for breeding as adults. Oak toad conservation can best be ensured by maintaining multiple ponds within a landscape to increase the probability of recruitment within the landscape neighborhood during at least some years and at some ponds, and to increase the likelihood of interpond movement.

  20. Large male mating advantage in natterjack toads, Bufo calamita: Sexual selection or energetic constraints?

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Variation in the effect of male body size on mating success was studied in natterjack toads during two breeding seasons with different temporal patterns of reproductive activity. Larger males were more likely to mate than small males in the season with a single peak and continuous breeding activity, whereas random mating by size was found when reproduction occurred during several peaks separated by periods of inactivity. Playback tests did not reveal any consistent preference by females for c...

  1. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide a...

  2. Ventilatory behaviors of the toad Bufo marinus revealed by coherence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Coelho

    Full Text Available Breathing in amphibians is a remarkably complex behavior consisting of irregular breaths that may be taken singly or in bouts that are used to deflate and inflate the lungs. The valves at the two outlets of the buccal cavity (nares and glottis need to be finely controlled throughout the bout for the expression of these complex respiratory behaviors. In this study, we use a technique based on the calculation of the coherence spectra between respiratory variables (buccal pressure; narial airflow; and lung pressure. Coherence was also used to quantify the effects of chemoreceptor and pulmonary mechanoreceptor input on narial and glottal valve behavior on normoxic, hypoxic, and hypercapnic toads with both intact and bilaterally sectioned pulmonary vagi. We found a significant reduction in narial coherence in hypoxic vagotomized toads indicating that pulmonary mechanoreceptor feedback modulates narial opening duration. An unexpectedly high coherence between Pl and Pb during non-respiratory buccal oscillations in hypercapnic toads indicated more forceful use of the buccal pump. We concluded that the coherence function reveals behaviors that are not apparent through visual inspection of ventilatory time series.

  3. Determining the effects of cattle grazing treatments on Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus [=Bufo] canorus in montane meadows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K McIlroy

    Full Text Available Amphibians are experiencing a precipitous global decline, and population stability on public lands with multiple uses is a key concern for managers. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains (California, USA, managers have specifically identified livestock grazing as an activity that may negatively affect Yosemite toads due to the potential overlap of grazing with toad habitat. Grazing exclusion from Yosemite toad breeding and rearing areas and/or entire meadows have been proposed as possible management actions to alleviate the possible impact of cattle on this species. The primary objective of this study was to determine if different fencing treatments affect Yosemite toad populations. We specifically examined the effect of three fencing treatments on Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy, tadpoles, and young of the year (YOY. Our hypothesis was that over the course of treatment implementation (2006 through 2010, Yosemite toad breeding pool occupancy and early life stage densities would increase within two fencing treatments relative to actively grazed meadows due to beneficial changes to habitat quality in the absence of grazing. Our results did not support our hypothesis, and showed no benefit to Yosemite toad presence or early life stages in fenced or partially fenced meadows compared to standard USDA Forest Service grazing levels. We found substantial Yosemite toad variation by both meadow and year. This variation was influenced by meadow wetness, with water table depth significant in both the tadpole and YOY models.

  4. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV inhibitory activity of parotid exudate of Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allenki Venkatesham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes arises as a result of β-cell failure combined with concomitant insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a gastrointestinal hormone that is released postprandially from the L cells of the gut and exerts a glucose- dependent and direct insulinotropic effect on the pancreatic β cell. Which activate adenylate cyclase and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by DPP-IV to GLP-1(9-37 amide following release from gut L cells. GLP-1 directly enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion via an increase in β-cell cAMP. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a plasma membrane glycoprotein ectopeptidase. In mammals, DPP-IV was widely expressed on the surface of endothelial and epithelial cells and highest levels in humans have been reported to occur in the intestine, bone marrow and kidney. Inhibiting DPP-IV reduces its rapid degradation of GLP-1, increasing circulating levels of the active hormone in vivo and prolonging its beneficial effects. The IC 50 value of parotid exudate was found to be 9.4 μg/ml. The maximum % inhibition (61.8 was showed at a concentration of 12μg/ml. Parotid exudate through inhibition of DPP-IV, improves glucose tolerance and enhances insulin secretion. DPP-IV inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents with a potential to improve pancreatic beta cell function and the clinical course of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Soil Organic Matter Content Effects on Dermal Pesticide Bioconcentration in American Toads (Bufo Americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural landscapes serve as active amphibian breeding grounds despite their seemingly poor habitat value. Activity of adults and dispersal of metamorphs to and from agricultural ponds occurs in most species from spring through late summer or early fall, a time that coincides...

  6. Pentastomídeos de répteis do Brasil: revisão dos cephalobaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arandas Rêgo

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os Cephalobaenidae (Pentastomida, depositados na coleção helmintológica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz e na coleção de parasitologia do Instituto Butantan. São redescritas e discutidas as espécies, Cephalobaena tetrapoda, C. freitasi, C. giglioli, Raillietiella furcocerca e Mahafaliella venteli. Esses parasitas foram coletados dos répteis: Lachesis sp., Drymarchon c. corais, Xenodon merremii, Crotatus terrificus, Amphisbaena sp., Tropidurus torquatus, Bothrops atrox, Mabuya punctata e de Bufo paracnemis (anfíbio.In this work the author studies Cephalobaenidae parasites using specimens from the helminthological collection of the Oswaldo Cruz and Butantan Institutes. This material was collected from Lachesis sp., Drymarchon corais, Xenodon merremii, Crotalus terrificus, Amphisbaena sp., Tropidurus torquatus, Bothrops atrox, Mabuya punctata (Reptilia and Bufo paracnemis (Amphibia. The species studied are Cephalobaena tetrapoda Heymons, 1922, Cephalobaena giglioli (Hett, 1924 comb. n., Cephalobaena freitasi (Motta & Gomes, 1968 comb. n., Raillietiella furcocerca (Diesing, 1836 and Mahafaliella venteli (Motta, 1965. C. recurvocauda becomes a synonym of C. tetrapoda and as do the specimens that Motta called erronously R. furcocerca. Raillietiella giglioli is changed to Cephalobaena giglioli (Hett, 1924 comb. n. The author describes here the male of C. giglioli for the first time. Travassostulida freitasi and T. acutiacanthus enter in synonymy with C. freitasi, and T. acutiacanthus is considered to be a subspecies of C. freitasi. Raillietiella gomesi becomes a synonym of R. furcocerca. The author discusses Mahafaliella venteli, and also questions the validity of the genus Gretillaria proposed by Motta for some species of Raillietiella. The latter is considered a synonym of Raillietiella.

  7. Expresión de canales de potasio voltaje dependientes en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis (Amphibia Voltage gated potassium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis(AMPHIBIA oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavijo Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La expresión en sistemas heterólogos ha sido una herramienta ampliamente utilizada enlos últimos años para el estudio funcional y estructural de proteínas. Para la carac-terización de las propiedades biofísicas de canales, bombas y transportadores engeneral su expresión en ovocitos de Xenopus laevis, ha sido fundamental. Este estudioreporta la expresión de dos canales de potasio voltaje dependientes, Kv1.1y Shakerenovocitos de X. laevisusando un protocolo ajustado a las condiciones de latitud y altitudde Bogotá para la extracción, aislamiento, cultivo y microinyección de éstas células.Heterologous expression has been an important tool for structural and functionalcharacterization of proteins. The study of biophysical properties of ion channels,pumps and transporters has been possible thanks to their expression in Xenopuslaevisoocytes. Here we report the expression of two voltage gated channels, Kv1.1and Shaker, in X. laevisoocytes using a method for oocyte extraction, isolation, cul-ture, and microinjection adapted to the latitude and altitude conditions of Bogotá,Colombia.

  8. Maintenance media for the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum juveniles (Amphibia: Caudata Soluciones de mantenimiento de juveniles del ajolote Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Caudata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Robles Mendoza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Physiological condition and organisms' health which are grown in culture systems depends on several factors including water quality, feeding and density among others. In Mexico, the colonies of the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum (Shaw, an indigenous amphibian under extinction risk, are maintained under different culture conditions according to the objectives of the colony and the available resources. Particularly, water electrolytic characteristic and ionic and osmotic conditions are the factors with greater variation in the axolotl culture systems. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the best maintenance conditions to store the germoplasm of the axolotl and to ensure healthy organisms with researching purposes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the development and growth of Ambystoma mexicanum larvae reared under different maintenance media, usually used in Mexico for the culture of the species: 1 dechlorinated tap water; 2 dechlorinated tap water enriched with sodium chloride and commercial colloidal solution and 3 Holtfreter's solution reconstructed with dechlorinated tap water. In each experimental condition, 15 larvae on stage 44 (immediately after hatching were maintained during 21 days and development and growth were weekly recorded. Ionic and osmotic conditions of the external media were routinely registered. The obtained results suggested a better physiological condition of the axolotls maintained on Holtfreter's solution, where the highest growth rate (13 g WW d-1 and the greatest condition factor (0.79 were registered. The use of this solution is recommended due it guarantees the suitable development of early stages of A. mexicanum on culture systems.La condición fisiológica y por lo tanto la salud de los organismos acuáticos depende de varios factores como la calidad del agua de mantenimiento, la alimentación, la densidad, entre otros. En México, las colonias del ajolote Ambystoma mexicanum (Shaw, anfibio endémico y en riesgo de extinción en su hábitat, son mantenidas bajo diferentes condiciones de cultivo de acuerdo con los objetivos de la colonia y los recursos disponibles. Particularmente, las características electrolíticas del agua de mantenimiento y las condiciones iónicas y osmóticas, son los factores que presentan mayor variación entre los diferentes sistemas de cultivo. Por lo tanto, se considera necesario estandarizar las condiciones adecuadas de mantenimiento de los ajolotes para mantener el germoplasma de la especie y para garantizar organismos sanos con fines de investigación. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el desarrollo y el crecimiento de larvas del ajolote en tres diferentes medios usualmente utilizados en México en el mantenimiento de las colonias del ajolote: agua de la llave libre de cloro, agua de la llave con solución comercial salina y de coloides y solución Holtfreter. Los resultados obtenidos denotan una mejor condición fisiológica de los ajolotes mantenidos en la solución Holtfreter, medio en el cuál registraron la mayor tasa de crecimiento (13 g WW d-1 y un mayor índice de condición (0.79. De acuerdo con estos resultados se propone el uso de la solución Holtfreter para garantizar el adecuado desarrollo de los estadios tempranos de A. mexicanum bajo condiciones de mantenimiento y/o cultivo controlado.

  9. 蟾蜍Caveolin-1的生物信息学分析及其在肌肉组织中的表达%Bioinformatics analysis of Caveolin-1 in toad and its expression in muscle tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张叶军; 解文放; 李洪艳; 崔玉影; 邹伟

    2015-01-01

    The Caveolin-1 protein sequence of Xenopus laevis in GenBank was obtained and its struc-ture and function were predicted through various bioinformatics analysis softwares . The results showed that Caveolin-1 of toad and mammals have similar structures and functions .Total protein from muscle tissues of Bufo gargarizans was extracted and the Caveolin-1 had been detected through Western Blot by mouse anti-human Caveolin-1 polyclonal antibody .It was suggested that Caveolin-1 is highly conserved in the long biological evolution process ,and maintains its function as a signal transduction center .%在GenBank中获得非洲爪蟾Caveolin-1蛋白序列,通过多种生物信息学分析软件对其进行分析,预测其结构和功能。以成年中华大蟾蜍为实验材料,提取蟾蜍不同肌肉组织的总蛋白,通过Western Blot技术检测Caveolin-1在肌肉组织中的表达。结果表明:蟾蜍的Caveolin-1与哺乳动物Caveolin-1有着相似的结构和功能;利用本实验室已有的抗人Caveolin-1多克隆抗体在中华大蟾蜍的不同肌肉组织中检测到了Caveolin-1的表达,从另一个角度验证了Caveolin-1的保守性。

  10. Arenobufagin activates p53 to trigger esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Junhong Lv,1 Shaohuan Lin,1 Panli Peng,2 Changqing Cai,2 Jianming Deng,1 Mingzhi Wang,1 Xuejun Li,1 Rongsheng Lin,3 Yu Lin,4 Ailing Fang,5 Qiling Li5 1Thoracic Surgeons Department, 2Oncology No 2 Department, Guangdong No 2 Provincial People’s Hospital, Guangzhou, 3Department of Oncology, Shunde Longjiang Hospital, Foshan, 4Department of Gastroenterology, Puning Overseas Chinese Hospital, 5Galactophore Department, Puning Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Puning, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is often diagnosed at late incurable stage and lacks effective treatment strategy. Bufadienolides are cardiotonic steroids isolated from the skin and parotid venom glands of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor with novel anticancer activity. However, there is little information about the effects and action mechanisms of bufadienolides on ESCC cells. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-ESCC activities of bufadienolides, including bufalin (Bu and arenobufagin (ArBu, were examined and the underlying molecular mechanisms were elucidated. The results showed that ArBu exhibited higher anticancer efficacy than Bu against a panel of five ESCC cells, with IC50 values ranging from 0.8 µM to 3.6 µM. However, ArBu showed lower toxicity toward Het-1A human normal esophageal squamous cells, indicating its great selectivity between cancer and normal cells. Moreover, ArBu effectively induced ESCC cell apoptosis mainly by triggering caspase activation through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Treatment of ESCC cells also significantly activated p53 signaling by enhancing its phosphorylation. Interestingly, transfection of cells with p53 small interfering RNA significantly inhibited the ArBu-induced p53 phosphorylation and the overall apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, ArBu also demonstrated novel in vivo anticancer efficacy by inhibiting the tumor growth through activation of p53 pathway. Taken together

  11. 蟾皮提取物固体脂质纳米粒的质量评价%Quality Evaluation of Solid Lipid Nanoparticle of the Skin Extract of Bufobufo gargarizans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 严子平; 张莉

    2016-01-01

    目的:对蟾皮提取物固体脂质纳米粒进行质量评价.方法:采用透射电子显微镜观察蟾皮提取物固体脂质纳米粒的形态,激光散射粒度分析仪测定其粒径,高效液相色谱法测定其中有效成分华蟾酥毒基和酯蟾毒配基的含量、包封率、载药量及华蟾酥毒基的累积释放率,另对纳米粒进行60、25、4℃3个温度下放置24 d内的稳定性考察.结果:蟾皮提取物固体脂质纳米粒大小均匀,呈球形或椭球形,平均粒径为(138.5±4.2)nm;华蟾酥毒基与酯蟾毒配基的包封率分别为90.60%、91.51%,载药量分别为35.82%、44.15%;蟾皮提取物固体脂质纳米粒中华蟾酥毒基在体外释放4 h时累积释放率约为50%,48 h时约为88%,符合Weibull方程模型(r=0.9438);在3种考察温度下,纳米粒随放置时间的延长包封率逐渐下降,但以4℃时降低程度最小.结论:制备的蟾皮提取物固体脂质纳米粒质量评价结果均符合要求,并具有缓释性能,但建议在低温下保存.%OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the quality of solid lipid nanoparticle of the skin extract of Bufobufo gargarzans. METH-ODS:The morphology of solid lipid nanoparticle of the skin extract of B. gargarzans was observed by TEM. The particle size was determined by laser scattering particle size analyzer. The contents of cinobufagin and resibufogenin, encapsulation efficiency, drug-loading amount and accumulative release rate of cinobufagin were determined by HPLC. The stability of nanoparticle was in-vestigated within 24 h at 60,25 and 4 ℃. RESULTS:The solid lipid nanoparticle of the skin extract of B. gargarzans were uni-form in particle size and showed round and spheroidicity shape;average particle size was(138.5±4.2)nm,The encapsulation effi-ciency of cinobufagin and resibufogenin were 90.60% and 91.51%,and drug-loading amount were 35.82% and 44.15%. The accu-mulative release rate of cinobufagin was 50%at 4 h and reached 88%at 48 h,which was in line with Weibull equation(r=0.9438). Under 3 kinds of temperature conditions,encapsulation efficiency decreased gradually as the holding time of nanoparticle pro-longed;the decrease degree was the smallest at 4 ℃.CONCLUSIONS:The quality evaluation results of solid lipid nanoparticle of the skin extract of B. gargarzans are in line with the standard,and prepared nanoparticles show sustained-release effects and should be kept under low temperature.

  12. Morphology, Ecology and Biogeography of the South American Caecilian Chthonerpeton Indistinctum (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Typhlonectidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gudynas, E.; Williams, J.D.; Mercedes Azpelicueta, de las M.

    1988-01-01

    This study of Chthonerpeton indistinctum (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1861) considers 25 morphometric characters, teeth-counts and sex, based on 96 specimens. A multivariate analysis of characters and comparisons of geographically arranged samples is carried out by graphic and statistical methods. No trends

  13. A preparation of perfused small intestine for the study of absorption in amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D S; Prichard, J S

    1968-09-01

    1. A preparation of amphibian small intestine perfused through its vascular system is described. Vascular perfusion with a bicarbonate Ringer solution containing a colloid is used to control the composition of the environment of the submucosal faces of the absorbing cells and to carry away for collection any material extruded from these cells. Oxygenation of the mucosal cells is derived primarily from fluid circulated through the intestinal lumen. The preparation exhibits physiological properties of transport for periods of up to 5 hr. After 5 hr perfusion the epithelial cells show no signs of gross cellular damage when examined either by light or by electron microscopy.2. The relationship between the hydrostatic pressure at the mesenteric artery and the rate of perfusion through the vascular bed is substantially linear. The pressure-flow relationships in the mesenteric bed, including an apparent ;critical closing pressure', are primarily determined by the hydrostatic pressure in the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the hydrostatic pressure in the intestinal lumen also change the relative proportions of the vascular infusate which appear in the portal venous effluent and in the fluid exuded from the serosal surface of the preparation (;sweat'). Hydrostatic distension pressures above about 10 cm H(2)O reduce the rate of collection of fluid from the portal vein and increase the rate of collection of ;sweat'.3. An increase in the rate of vascular perfusion increases the total rate of glucose appearance although the glucose concentrations in both the portal effluent and the ;sweat' are reduced.4. The glucose translocation rate is related in an alinear saturable fashion to the luminal concentration of glucose. By making a correction for metabolic loss of glucose during its passage through the intestinal cell, the relationship existing between the lumen concentration and the uptake of the sugar by the mucosal cells has been calculated. This relationship is found to fit Michaelis-Menten type kinetics. The K(m) of the intestinal translocation process for glucose in Rana pipiens was 0.45 +/- 0.13 (4) muM. The mean V(max) was 137.5 +/- 35.3 (4) muM/hr/g fat-free dry wt.5. When phlorrhizin (10(-5)M) is added to the vascular perfusate, no inhibition of glucose transport is seen for at least 60 min. When strophanthin is added to the vascular perfusate (5 x 10(-5)M), a markedly greater inhibition of glucose transport is observed than when it is introduced to the luminal circulation.6. Earlier studies of the vascular perfusion of isolated small intestine are tabulated. The experimental findings are discussed in relation to a model of the mode of action of the epithelial cell for glucose transport.

  14. Food composition of some low altitude Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia, Caudata populations from North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covaciu-Marcov S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of some populations of Lissotriton montandoni from north-western Romania is composed of prey belonging to 20 categories. The food components of the Carpathian newts are similar to those of other species of newts. Most of the prey are aquatic animals, but terrestrial prey also has a high percentage abundance. The consumed prey categories are common in the newts' habitats as well, but in natural ponds the prey item with the highest abundance in the diet is not the most frequent one in the habitat. Thus, although the Carpathian newts are basically opportunistic predators, they still display a certain trophic selectivity.

  15. The karyotype of three Brazilian Terrarana frogs (Amphibia, Anura with evidence of a new Barycholos species

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    Sérgio Siqueira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent substantial rearrangement of the 882 described eleutherodactyline frog species has considerably improved the understanding of their systematics. Nevertheless, many taxonomic aspects of the South American eleutherodactyline species remain unknown and require further investigation using morphological, cytogenetic and molecular approaches. In this work, the karyotypes of the Brazilian species Ischnocnema juipoca (Atibaia and Campos do Jordão, SP, Barycholos cf. ternetzi (Uberlândia, MG, and Porto Nacional, TO, and Pristimantis crepitans (Chapada dos Guimarães and São Vicente, MT were analyzed using Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR labeling, and C-banding techniques. All individuals had a diploid number of 22 chromosomes, but the Fundamental Numbers were different among species. The herein described low chromosome number of Pristimantis crepitans is unique within this genus, suggesting that cytogenetically this species is not closely related either to its congeneric species or to Ischnocnema. In addition, karyotype differences, mainly in the NOR position, clearly distinguished the two Barycholos populations, besides indicating the existence of a so far undescribed species in this genus. A taxonomic review could clarify the systematic position of P. crepitans and verify the hypothetic new Barycholos species.

  16. Morphological evolution from aquatic to terrestrial in the genus Oreolalax (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wei; Bin Wang; Ning Xu; Zizhong Li; Jianping Jiang

    2009-01-01

    A phylogeny of 17 species in the genus Oreolalax is reconstructed based on 21 morphological characters from adult specimens, skeleton specimens, tadpoles and eggs. Four species groups are recognized, of which the O. rugosus species group is the most primitive, the O. weigoldi species group is the second, the O. omeimontis species group is the third and the O. pingii species group is the most recently diversified. Based on the evolutional tendency of the morphological characters on the phylogenetic tree, it is proposed that the evolution of tympanum, tympanic annulus, columella, spoon-like cartilage and the web between toes reflect the habit changes from aquatic to terrestrial. Thus, Oreolalax is regarded as one important representative genus to study further the evolution of morphological characters from aquatic to terrestrial.

  17. Caracterización de Hyla guentheri Boulenger 1886 (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

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    Langone, José A.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Del análisis del holotipo de H. guentheri se concluye que esta es una especie válida y diferente de Hyla pulchella. Se verifica la identidad del holotipo y se descartan otros ejemplares asignados a la serie tipo de esta especie. Del estudio se deduce que H. guentheri es conocida de unas pocas localidades de los estados brasileños de Rio Grande do Sul y Santa Catarina. Sus relaciones filogenéticas no son claras y dependen de una definición formal de los grupos polytaenia y pulchella. Analysis of the holotype of H. guentheri indicates that it is a valid species and different from Hyla pulchella. The identity of the holotype is verified and other specimens incorrectly assigned to the type series of this species are rejected as syntypes. At present H. guentheri is known from the Brazilian States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catharina. The phylogenetic relationships of this species are not clear and depend on a formal definition of the polytaenia and pulchella groups.

  18. Distribution, vocalization and taxonomic status of hypsiboas roraima and h. angelicus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae

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    César L. Barrio-Amorós

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the poorly known hylid frog Hypsiboas roraima Duellman & Hoogmoed, on the Guiana Shield is redefined, including new records from Venezuela. The advertisement call of this species is analyzed and Hypsiboas angelicus Myers & Donnelly is associated as a junior synonym of H. roraima.

  19. Chromosomal homology of Uraeotyphlus oxyurus group of species (Amphibia, Gymnophiona, Ichthyophiidae

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    Venu Govindappa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Uraeotyphlus oxyurus (Dumeril et Bibron, 1841, U. interruptus Pillai et Ravichandran, 1999, U. narayani Seshachar, 1939 and U. menoni Annandale, 1913 were cytogenetically analysed following conventional and differential staining techniques. These species show similar karyotypes with 2n=36 (FN=58. There were no traces of species-specific features in regard to C-banding and NOR staining. The comparative study of karyotypes shows chromosomal homologies among the four species. Chromosomal data seem to support the concept that two species groups exist in the genus Uraeotyphlus.

  20. MORFOHISTOLOGÍA TESTICULAR DE Hypsiboas pulchellus (AMPHIBIA, HYLIDAE DURANTE LA ESTACIÓN REPRODUCTIVA

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    Fernando José CAREZZANO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se aportan datos sobre la morfohistología testicular de Hypsiboas pulchellus durante el período reproductivo con el fin de conocer aspectos de su biología reproductiva. Los testículos, ovoides y amarillentos de 4,64 ± 0,48 mm de largo por 2,05 ± 0,23 mm de ancho, están rodeados por la túnica albugínea que mide 5,60 ± 0,82 μm. Internamente presentan lóculos seminíferos de 257,47 ± 58,25 μm de diámetro, distinguiéndose en ellos cistos con células espermatogénicas asociadas a células de Sertoli. Existe escaso tejido intersticial. Las espermatogonias I son las células más grandes de la serie germinal (14,34 ± 1,74 μm, estas originan a las espermatogonias II (10,14 ± 1,33 μm. Los espermatocitos I presentan la cromatina levemente condensada midiendo 9,34 ± 0,32 μm. Los espermatocitos II miden 8,12 ± 1,07 μm. Las espermátidas I son esféricas, miden 7,61 ± 1,45 μm, y se agrupan en cistos redondeados. Las espermátidas II, en cambio, son alargadas, no hallándoselas dentro de cistos (4,09 ± 0,51 μm. Los espermatozoides, alargados y flagelados, se hallan libres en el centro del lóculo. La morfohistología de los testículos analizados muestra características similares a las observadas en otros anfibios neotropicales, y presentan todas las células del linaje espermatogénico en un mismo lóculo.

  1. a new species of the genus tylototriton (amphibia, salamandridae) from hunan, china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    a new species of the genus tylototriton is described in this article based on morphological and genetic evidence.the new species is identified belonging to the t.asperrimus group and is similar to t.wenxianensis.the diagnostic characters of the new species are as follows:dorsal ridge broad and thick,its width approximately equal to eye diameter (p < 0.001); tail height greater than width at base of tail (p < 0.001); no villous genital papilla found inside the male anal fissure; nodule-like warts,along lateral margin of the trunk,bulge and forming tubercles,and thin and transverse striae present between the tubercles.

  2. Notes on the taxonomy of some Glassfrogs from the Andes of Peru and Ecuador (Amphibia: Centrolenidae

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    Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new information on several species of centrolenid frogs from Ecuador and Peru that justify the placement of Centrolene fernandoi Duellman and Schulte as a junior synonym of Centrolenella audax Lynch and Duellman; Centrolenella puyoensis Flores & McDiarmid as a synonym of Centrolenella mariae Duellman & Toft; and Cochranella tangarana Duellman & Schulte as a synonym of Cochranella saxiscandens Duellman & Schulte.

  3. Morphology of the Kidney in the West African Caecilian, Geotrypetes seraphini (Amphibia, Gymnophiona, Caeciliidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Jespersen, Åse; Wilkinson, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study deals with the morphology and ultrastructure of the mesonephros in adult caecilians of the species Geotrypetes seraphini. Based on serial sections in paraffin and araldite, nephrons are reconstructed and the cellular characteristics of different nephron segments described. The long and...

  4. Food Habits of the Endemic Long Legged Wood Frog, Rana Pseudodalmatina (Amphibia, Ranidae, in Northern Iran

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    Najibzadeh M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Iranian long legged wood frog, Rana pseudodalmatina Eiselt & Schmidtler, 1971 is a brown frog species endemic to the Hyrcanian forest. The objective of the present study is to collect detailed information on the feeding habits of 44 specimens of this species (24 ♂, 20 ♀ by analyzing the stomach contents of individuals from 10 populations inhabiting range. The food habit of R. pseudodalmatina generally varies by the availability of surrounding prey items, and it is a foraging predator, the food of which consists largely of Coleoptera (mainly Carabidae, Dytiscidae and Haliplidae, Diptera (Muscidae and Hymenoptera (Formicidae, and no difference was found between females and males in the stomach content.

  5. Aspects of gene regulation in the diploid and tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae

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    Cianciarullo Aurora M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietic and hemoglobin DNA transcriptional activities were analyzed in the diploid and the tetraploid Odontophrynus americanus. Flow cytometric analyses of DNA, RNA and mitochondrial contents showed increased genic activity in both diploid and tetraploid animals during erythropoiesis in vivo elicited by pretreatment phenylhydrazine. Generally, higher values were seen in immature tetraploid erythroid cells. On the 10th day of recovery from anemia, large amounts of messenger RNA were found in both specimens. Based on the mitochondrial content, the tetraploid cells had more intense energy metabolism than the diploid cells. Diploid O. americanus had about three times more erythroid cells than tetraploid specimens, indicating that there were differences in the regulatory mechanisms of erythroid cells. Hematological parameters showed that tetraploid cells had 30% more hemoglobin than the diploid, suggesting a regulatory mechanism of hemoglobin synthesis at the transcriptional level. Cytoplasmic inclusions resembling Heinz bodies were found in both types of cells. In the tetraploid cells they were previously found associated with RNA or RNP, suggesting that other regulatory system which controls the accumulation of nontranslated RNA transcribed in excess must be present. These differences at the physiological and molecular levels during erythropoiesis reinforce the hypothesis that speciation is occurring between diploid and tetraploid O. americanus.

  6. Light shines through the spindrift--phylogeny of African torrent frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Petropedetidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barej, Michael F; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Loader, Simon P; Menegon, Michele; Gonwouo, Nono L; Penner, Johannes; Gvoždík, Václav; Günther, Rainer; Bell, Rayna C; Nagel, Peter; Schmitz, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Torrent frogs of the genus Petropedetes Reichenow, 1874 as currently understood have a disjunct distribution with species endemic to West, Central or East Africa. We herein present a phylogenetic analysis including all but one of the currently described 12 species of the genus. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of combined nuclear (rag1, SIA, BDNF) and mitochondrial (16S, 12S, cytb) genes of more than 3500 base pairs, revealed clades corresponding to the three sub-Saharan regions. Molecular results are confirmed by morphological differences. Surprisingly, the three geographic clades do not form a monophyletic group with respect to closely related families Pyxicephalidae and Conrauidae and therefore require taxonomic changes. We resurrect Arthroleptides Nieden, 1911 for the East African taxa. The Central African taxa remain in the genus Petropedetes. The West African members are placed in the new genus Odontobatrachus gen. nov. The taxonomic position of the new genus remains incertae sedis as it was not assigned to any of the four families included in our analyses. Potential new species have been detected within all three major clades, pointing to a still not fully clarified diversity within African torrent frogs.

  7. Plasma retinoids concentration in Leptodactylus chaquensis (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) from rice agroecosystems, Santa Fe province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglia, Carla M; Attademo, Andrés M; Peltzer, Paola M; Goicoechea, Héctor C; Lajmanovich, Rafael C

    2015-09-01

    Retinoids are known to regulate important processes such as differentiation, development, and embryogenesis of vertebrates: Alteration in endogenous retinoids concentration is linked with teratogenic effects. Retinol (ROH), retinoid acid (RA), and isoform 13-Cis-retinoic acid (13-Cis-RA), in plasma of a native adults frog, Leptodactylus chaquensis from a rice field (RF) and a forest (reference site; RS) were measured. ROH did not vary between treatment sites. RA and 13-Cis-RA activities were higher (93.7±8.6 μg mL(-1) and 131.7±11.4 μg mL(-1), respectively) in individuals collected from RF than in those from RS (65.5±8.6 μg mL(-1) and 92.2±10.2 μg mL(-1), respectively). The ratios retinoic acid-retinol (RA/ROH) and 13-Cis-RA/ROH revealed significantly higher values in RF than in RS. RA and 13-Cis-RA concentrations in plasma on wild amphibian's species such as L. chaquensis would be suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure in field monitoring. Finally, the mechanism of alteration in retinoid metabolites alteration should be further explored both in larvae and adult, considering that the potential exposition and uptake contaminants vary between the double lives of these vertebrates.

  8. A new Stumpffia (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from the Ranomafana region, south-eastern Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndriantsoa, Serge H; Riemann, Jana C; Vences, Miguel; Klages, Johannes; Raminosoa, Noromalala R; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Glos, Julian

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of small-sized frogs from degraded rainforest patches in the southern central east of Madagascar. Stumpffia miery sp. nov. has a snout-vent length of 13-15 mm and can be distinguished from all other nominal species of Stumpffia by its body size and absence of toe reduction combined with length reduction of fingers I, II and IV in external view. The advertisement call is a single tonal chirping note that ranges in duration between 51-88 ms and is emitted after relatively regular inter-note intervals (duration of 2679-4247 ms, call repetition rate 0.3/sec, frequency range 7700-8300 Hz, dominant frequency 7751-8225 Hz). Its type locality is the Ambolo forest fragment close to Ranomafana village in southeastern Madagascar. Molecular data from DNA sequences of one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene indicate a high divergence from all nominal species of Stumpffia, suggesting that it represents a strongly differentiated independent evolutionary unit. Stumnpffia miery sp. nov. is apparently able to tolerate some degree of habitat degradation and therefore is probably not threatened with extinction.

  9. Leech presence on Iberian Brown Frog, Rana iberica, (Amphibia: Anura: Ranidae from north-western Spain

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    César Ayres

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of parasitism on Rana iberica by two species of leeches, Batracobdella sp. and Hirudo medicinalis, in a mountainous area of north-western Spain. Conservation implications of high parasite load on small and isolated populations are discussed.

  10. Temporal selectivity by single neurons in the torus semicircularis of Batrachyla antartandica (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, M; Lin, W Y; Feng, A S

    2001-12-01

    We investigated the response selectivities of single auditory neurons in the torus semicircularis of Batrachyla antartandica (a leptodactylid from southern Chile) to synthetic stimuli having diverse temporal structures. The advertisement call for this species is characterized by a long sequence of brief sound pulses having a dominant frequency of about 2000 Hz. We constructed five different series of synthetic stimuli in which the following acoustic parameters were systematically modified, one at a time: pulse rate, pulse duration, pulse rise time, pulse fall time, and train duration. The carrier frequency of these stimuli was fixed at the characteristic frequency of the units under study (n=44). Response patterns of TS units to these synthetic call variants revealed different degrees of selectivity for each of the temporal variables. A substantial number of neurons showed preference for pulse rates below 2 pulses s(-1), approximating the values found in natural advertisement calls. Tonic neurons generally showed preferences for long pulse durations, long rise and fall times, and long train durations. In contrast, phasic and phasic-burst neurons preferred stimuli with short duration, short rise and fall times and short train durations.

  11. Chronic Exposure to Cadmium Disrupts the Adrenal Gland Activity of the Newt Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela

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    Flaminia Gay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We intended to verify the safety of the freshwater values established for cadmium by the European Community and the Italian Ministry of Health in drinking water (5 μg/L and sewage waters (20 μg/L. Therefore, we chronically exposed the newt Triturus carnifex to 5 μg/L and 20 μg/L doses of cadmium, respectively, during 3 and 9 months and verified the effects on the adrenal gland. We evaluated the serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, corticosterone, aldosterone, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. During the 3-month exposure, both doses of cadmium decreased ACTH and corticosterone serum levels and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels. During the 9-month exposure, the 5 μg/L dose decreased ACTH and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels; the 20 μg/L dose decreased norepinephrine and epinephrine serum levels, without affecting the other hormones. It was concluded that (1 chronic exposure to the safety values established for cadmium disrupted the adrenal gland activity and (2 the effects of cadmium were related both to the length of exposure and the dose administered. Moreover, our results suggest probable risks to human health, due to the use of water contaminated by cadmium.

  12. Chronic Exposure to Cadmium Disrupts the Adrenal Gland Activity of the Newt Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Flaminia; Laforgia, Vincenza; Caputo, Ivana; Esposito, Carla; Lepretti, Marilena

    2013-01-01

    We intended to verify the safety of the freshwater values established for cadmium by the European Community and the Italian Ministry of Health in drinking water (5 μg/L) and sewage waters (20 μg/L). Therefore, we chronically exposed the newt Triturus carnifex to 5 μg/L and 20 μg/L doses of cadmium, respectively, during 3 and 9 months and verified the effects on the adrenal gland. We evaluated the serum concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone, aldosterone, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. During the 3-month exposure, both doses of cadmium decreased ACTH and corticosterone serum levels and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels. During the 9-month exposure, the 5 μg/L dose decreased ACTH and increased aldosterone and epinephrine serum levels; the 20 μg/L dose decreased norepinephrine and epinephrine serum levels, without affecting the other hormones. It was concluded that (1) chronic exposure to the safety values established for cadmium disrupted the adrenal gland activity and (2) the effects of cadmium were related both to the length of exposure and the dose administered. Moreover, our results suggest probable risks to human health, due to the use of water contaminated by cadmium. PMID:23971036

  13. Natural history and distribution of Agalychnis craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957) (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Cadle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Aspects of reproductive behaviour, calls, clutch sizes, and larval morphology are described for Agalychnis craspedopus (Funkhouser, 1957). New distributional records extend the range of this species to southern Amazonian Peru. In most respects reproductive behaviour of A. craspedopus is similar to t

  14. Description of a new species of the genus Adenomera (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae from French Guiana

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    Renaud Boistel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of the genus Adenomera from French Guiana. Collecting conditions, details about the localities and microhabitats are given. The advertisement call was recorded and is herein analyzed and described. Morphological and bioacoustic comparisons are drawn with other species of the genus. The new species is readily distinguished from other taxa by its distinctive coloration pattern, the occurrence of dorsolateral ridges and inguinal glands, and by the longer duration of the notes of its advertisement call. The taxonomy of Adenomera is evaluated with regard to current available knowledge.

  15. Amphibia, Anura, Cycloramphidae, Odontophrynus carvalhoi Savage and Cei, 1965: Distribution extension and geographic distribution map

    OpenAIRE

    Lisboa, Barnagleison Silva; da Silva, Ubiratan Gonçalves; Haddad, Célio Fernando Baptista

    2010-01-01

    We present the first record of Odontophrynus carvalhoi for the state of Alagoas, Brazil, and a distribution map for this species. This new record represents the nearest location to the Brazilian coast known for this species. © 2010 Check List and Authors.

  16. A new species of Noblella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Uscapi, Vanessa; von May, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Noblella is described from the humid montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2330-2370 m elevation in Madre Selva, near Santa Ana, in the province of La Convención. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Noblella by having a broad, irregularly shaped, white mark on black background on chest and belly. The new species further differs from known Peruvian species of Noblella by the combination of the following characters: tympanic membrane absent, small tubercles on the upper eyelid and on dorsum, tarsal tubercles or folds absent, tips of digits not expanded, no circumferential grooves on digits, dark brown facial mask and lateral band extending from the tip of the snout to the inguinal region. The new species has a snout-to-vent length of 15.6 mm in one adult male and 17.6 mm in one adult female. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Noblella inhabits high-elevation forests in the Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanorana pleskei (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae) and evolutionary characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiying CHEN; Bin WANG; Jiongyu LIU; Feng XIE; Jianping JIANG

    2011-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Nanorana pleskei from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was sequenced.It includes 17,660 base pairs,containing 13 protein-coding genes,two rRNAs and 23 tRNAs.A tandem duplication of tRNAMet gene was found in this mitochondrial genome,and the similarity between the two tRNAMet genes is 85.8%,being the highest in amphibian mitochondrial genomes sequenced thus far.Based on gene organization,24 types were found from 145 amphibian mitochondrial genomes.Type 1 was present in 108 species,type 11 in 11 species,types 5,16,17,and 20 each in two species,and the others each present in one species.Fifteen types were found in Anura,being the most diversity in three orders of the Lissamphibia.Our phylogenetic results using 11 protein-coding gene sequences of 145 amphibian mitochondrial genomes strongly support the monophyly of the Lissamphibia,as well as its three orders,the Gymnophiona,Caudata,and Anura,among which the relationships were ((Gymnophiona (Caudata,Anura)).Based on the phylogenetic trees,type 1 was recognized as the ancestral type for amphibians,and type 11 was the synapomorphic type for the Neobatrachia.Gene rearrangements among lineages provide meaningful phylogenetic information.The rearrangement of the LTPF tRNA gene cluster and the translocation of the ND5 gene only found in the Neobatrachia support the monophyly of this group; similarly,the tandem duplication of the tRNAMet genes only found in the Dicroglossidae support the monophyly of this family [Current Zoology 57 (6):785-805,2011].

  18. A New Record of Kaloula (Amphibia:Anura:Microhylidae) in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHANG; Ben LI; Xiaoxiao SHU; Hanbin XIE; Enle PEI; Xiao YUAN; Yujie SUN; Tianhou WANG; Zhenghuan WANG

    2015-01-01

    We discovered a medium-sized species of narrow-mouthed frog of the genus Kaloula in June and September 2014 during municipal surveys of amphibians in Shanghai. Three narrow-mouthed frogs were collected in city drains of the Binjiang Forest Park, Shanghai. Based on subsequent examination and morphological characters, these specimens were identiifed as Kaloula borealis (Barbour, 1908). The species was mainly distributed in Northern China and Korea. It is a new amphibian record for Shanghai. We found the visible differences in male secondary sexual characteristics between our specimens and Beijing specimens. K. borealis was ifrst described inhabiting urban greenlands which could beneift amphibian conservation in urban and urbanizing areas.

  19. Updated distribution of hybrids between Lissotriton vulgaris and Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia: Caudata: Salamandridae in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Gherghel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lissotriton montandoni is an endemic newt species found only in the Carpathian Mountains and lives in sympatry with Lissotriton vulgaris in many aquatic habitats from the entire range of the former species in the Carpathian and Sudetes Mountains or in the hilly areas from the Subcarpathians. These two species usually generate hybrids where their parapatric ranges meet, especially along rivers that flow from the inside of the Carpathians, where valleys are used as ecological corridors by L. vulgaris. We surveyed several regions of the Eastern Carpathian Mountains between 2008 and 2011 and found 11 new populations of newts where hybrids between the two mentioned species were present. All new records of L. montandoni x L. vulgaris were described in the eastern part of the Eastern Carpathians, in Neamț County, a region known also from previous literature to be a ‘hot spot’ for hybrids between these two species. The present paper also presents an updated review of the distribution of Lissotriton hybrids in Romania.

  20. Mitochondrial cytochrome B phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Tohoku salamander, Hynobius lichenatus (Amphibia, Caudata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Gen; Matsui, Masafumi; Nishikawa, Kanto

    2013-03-01

    The Tohoku salamander, Hynobius lichenatus Boulenger, 1883, is a lentic breeding species widespread throughout montane regions of northeastern Japan. To explore intraspecific genetic variation and infer evolutionary history of H. lichenatus, we performed mitochondrial DNA analysis (complete 1141 bp sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene) using 215 adult and larval individuals collected from 75 localities, encompassing known distributional range of the species. Hynobius lichenatus proved to be monophyletic, including three well-supported and geographically structured clades (Clade I from northern Kanto, Clade II from southern Tohoku, and Clade III from northern Tohoku). These clades, respectively, comprise several subclades, and show genetic distances as large as those seen between different species of Hynobius. Results of population statistic analyses indicate that all clades and most subclades have maintained high genetic diversity and demographic stability over long periods. Molecular dating indicates divergence in H. lichenatus concords with topographic evolution of northeastern Japan from late Miocene to early Pleistocene, suggesting that paleogeographic events in this region, such as orogenesis, sea level change, and volcanic activity, have been crucial for shaping genetic patterns and diversity in this species. Hynobius lichenatus greatly differs from many other animal species from northeastern Japan in its much older periods and the pattern of genetic differentiation, and is suggested as an old faunal element in this region.

  1. The tadpole of Scinax melanodactylus (Lourenço, Luna & Pombal Jr, 2014) (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Rafael Oliveira De; Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; Trevisan, Camila Costa; Camardelli, Milena; Dória, Thais Andrade Ferreira; Silva, Lucas Menezes

    2015-07-06

    Scinax melanodactylus is a small treefrog distributed within the Tropical Atlantic morphoclimatic domain (see Ab'Sáber 1977 for South American morphoclimatic domains), from northern Espírito Santo state to Sergipe state in Brazil (Lourenço et al. 2014). The species is usually found inhabiting herbaceous and shrubby xerophytic vegetation (e.g. terrestrial tank-bromeliads) from sandy plains of beach ridges known in Brazil as Restingas (see Rocha et al. 2007 for a Restinga definition), and also the edge of forest areas with temporary ponds and/or permanent lakes and streams near these environments (Bastazini et al. 2007, as Scinax agilis; Lourenço et al. 2014). Scinax melanodactylus is currently placed in the S. catharinae species group (Lourenço et al. 2014), which in turn is included in the S. catharinae clade (sensu Faivovich et al. 2005). The S. catharinae clade is currently comprised of 46 species, 33 placed in the catharinae group and 13 in the perpusillus group (Faivovich et al. 2010, Silva & Alves-da-Silva 2011, Lourenço et al. 2014, Frost 2015). From these, 32 species have tadpoles with external morphology and oral disc formerly described. Here, we describe the external morphology, oral disc and color patterns of the previously unknown tadpole of S. melanodactylus.

  2. New material of Beelzebufo, a hyperossified frog (Amphibia: Anura from the late cretaceous of Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Evans

    Full Text Available The extant anuran fauna of Madagascar is exceptionally rich and almost completely endemic. In recent years, many new species have been described and understanding of the history and relationships of this fauna has been greatly advanced by molecular studies, but very little is known of the fossil history of frogs on the island. Beelzebufo ampinga, the first named pre-Holocene frog from Madagascar, was described in 2008 on the basis of numerous disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements from the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian Maevarano Formation of Madagascar. These specimens documented the presence of a hyperossified taxon that differed strikingly from extant Malagasy frogs in its large size and heavy coarse cranial exostosis. Here we describe and analyse new, articulated, and more complete material of the skull, vertebral column, and hind limb, as well as additional isolated elements discovered since 2008. μCT scans allow a detailed understanding of both internal and external morphology and permit a more accurate reconstruction. The new material shows Beelzebufo to have been even more bizarre than originally interpreted, with large posterolateral skull flanges and sculptured vertebral spine tables. The apparent absence of a tympanic membrane, the strong cranial exostosis, and vertebral morphology suggest it may have burrowed during seasonally arid conditions, which have been interpreted for the Maevarano Formation from independent sedimentological and taphonomic evidence. New phylogenetic analyses, incorporating both morphological and molecular data, continue to place Beelzebufo with hyloid rather than ranoid frogs. Within Hyloidea, Beelzebufo still groups with the South American Ceratophryidae thus continuing to pose difficulties with both biogeographic interpretations and prior molecular divergence dates.

  3. A new species of tree frog genus Rhacophorus from Sumatra, Indonesia Amphibia, Anura).

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    Hamidy, Amir; Kurniati, Hellen

    2015-04-14

    A small-sized tree frog of the genus Rhacophorus is described on the basis of 18 specimens collected from three different localities on Sumatra Island, Indonesia. Rhacophorus indonesiensis sp. nov. is divergent from all other Rhacophorus species genetically and morphologically. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of: the presence of black spots on the ventral surfaces of the hand and foot webbing, an absence of vomerine teeth, a venter with a white kite-shaped marking, raised white spots on the dorsum or on the head, and a reddish brown dorsum with irregular dark brown blotches and distinct black dots. With the addition of this new species, fifteen species of Rhacophorus are now known from Sumatra, the highest number of species of this genus in the Sundaland region. However, with the increasing conversion of forest to oil palm cultivation or mining, the possibility of the extinction of newly described or as yet undiscovered species is of great concern.

  4. Helminth parasites of the leopard frog Lithobates sp. Colima (Amphibia: Ranidae) from Colima, Mexico.

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    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Garrido-Olvera, Lorena; León-Règagnon, Virginia

    2010-08-01

    The helminth fauna inhabiting Lithobates sp. Colima from Ticuizitán, Colima, Mexico, comprises 10 species: 4 digeneans ( Clinostomum sp., Glypthelmins quieta , Haematoloechus sp., and Langeronia macrocirra ), 5 nematodes ( Aplectana itzocanensis , Cosmocerca podicipinus , Foleyellides striatus , Oswaldocruzia subauricularis , and Rhabdias sp.), and 1 cestode (Cyclophyllidea). Glypthelmins quieta , L. macrocirra , and A. itzocanensis represent new host records. These observations, added to previous records from Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, indicate that the helminth fauna of Lithobates sp. from Colima comprises 25 taxa. Frogs are being parasitized by 3 infection routes: ingestion of intermediate host, skin penetration by larval forms, and transmission by vectors. Species of Aplectana , Cosmocerca , Foleyellides , and Oswaldocruzia occurred in high prevalence in Colima, similar to a previous study on the same frog species from Guerrero. In Colima, Glypthelmins , Haematoloechus , and Rhabdias also occurred in high prevalence. Haematoloechus species reached the highest mean intensity in both localities. The semiaquatic habits of this species of frog and the availability of particular feeding resources appear to determine the helminth composition and infection levels; however, co-speciation events also play an important role structuring these helminth communities.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Dark-spotted frog Pelophylax nigromaculatus (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

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    Jiang, Lichun; Zhao, Li; Liu, Yabin; Leng, Zheng; Zhao, Liping; Ruan, Qiping

    2017-03-01

    The dark-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) belongs to Ranidae. This species is known from the Russian Far East, central, northern and north-eastern China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, and Japan. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of P. nigromaculatus was sequenced. The mitogenome was 17 567 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and a non-coding control region. As in other vertebrates, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition of the P. nigromaculatus is 29.2% A, 27.4% T, 28.4% C, and 15.0% G. Phylogenetic analysis showed P. nigromaculatus was closely related to P. plancyi and P. chosenicus. The complete mitogenome of P. nigromaculatus can provide important data for the studies on phylogenetic relationship and population genetics to further explore the taxonomic status of this species.

  6. Hydrophylax bahuvistara, a new species of fungoid frog (Amphibia: Ranidae from peninsular India

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    Anand D. Padhye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophylax bahuvistara, a new species of fungoid frog, is described from peninsular India. It can be separated from its congeners based on a combination of characters including wider head, outline of snout in dorsal view truncated, finger and toe tips without lateroventral groove, foot moderately webbed, metatarsals of 4th and 5th toes closely set, outer metatarsal tubercle small, foot length less than or equal to half of snout vent length, dorsal parts of shank without glandular folds and sparse horny spinules, and heels touch each other when the legs are folded at right angles to the body.  Genetically, H. bahuvistara forms a monophyletic group with H. malabaricus as a sister clade separated by a raw distance of 4.0 to 4.5% in the 16s rRNA gene.  Morphometrically, H. bahuvistara forms a significantly different cluster from H. malabaricus and H. gracilis in Discriminant Analysis.  

  7. A Molecular Assessment of Phylogenetic Relationships and LineageDiversification Within the Family Salamandridae (Amphibia, Caudata)

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    Weisrock, David W.; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Macey, J. Robert; Litvinchuk, Spartak N.; Polymeni, Rosa; Ugurtas, Ismail H.; Zhao, Ermi; Larson, Allan

    2005-08-08

    Phylogenetic relationships among species of the salamanderfamily Salamandridae are investigated using nearly 3000 nucleotide basesof newly reported mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the mtDNA genicregion spanning the genes tRNALeu-COI. This study uses nearlycomprehensive species-level sampling to provide the first completephylogeny for the Salamandridae. Deep phylogenetic relationships amongthe three most divergent lineages in the family Salamandrina terdigitata,a clade comprising the "True" salamanders, and a clade comprising allnewts except S. terdigitata are difficult to resolve. However, mostrelationships within the latter two lineages are resolved with robustlevels of branch support. The genera Euproctus and Triturus arestatistically shown to be nonmonophyletic, instead each contains adiverse set of lineages positioned within the large newt clade. The genusParamesotriton is also resolve as a nonmonophyletic group, with the newlydescribed species P. laoensis constituting a divergent lineage placed ina sister position to clade containing all Pachytriton species and allremaining Paramesotriton species. Sequence divergences between P.laoensis and other Paramesotriton species are as great as those comparingP. laoensis and species of the genera Cynops and Pachytriton. Analyses oflineage diversification across the Salamandridae indicate that, despiteits exceptional diversity, lineage accumulation appears to have beenconstant across time, indicating that it does not represent a truespecies radiation.

  8. Oviduct modifications in foam-nesting frogs, with emphasis on the genus Leptodactylus (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae)

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    Furness, Andrew I.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Heyer, W. Ronald; Zug, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Various species of frogs produce foam nests that hold their eggs during development. We examined the external morphology and histology of structures associated with foam nest production in frogs of the genus Leptodactylus and a few other taxa. We found that the posterior convolutions of the oviducts in all mature female foam-nesting frogs that we examined were enlarged and compressed into globular structures. This organ-like portion of the oviduct has been called a "foam gland" and these structures almost certainly produce the secretion that is beaten by rhythmic limb movements into foam that forms the nest. However, the label "foam gland" is a misnomer because the structures are simply enlarged and tightly folded regions of the pars convoluta of the oviduct, rather than a separate structure; we suggest the name pars convoluta dilata (PCD) for this feature. Although all the foam-nesters we examined had a pars convoluta dilata, its size and shape showed considerable interspecific variation. Some of this variation likely reflects differences in the breeding behaviors among species and in the size, type, and placement of their foam nests. Other variation, particularly in size, may be associated with the physiological periodicity and reproductive state of the female, her age, and/or the number of times she has laid eggs.

  9. Use of lymphocyte cultures for BrdU replication banding patterns in anuran species (Amphibia

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    Kasahara Sanae

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the standardization of lymphocyte culture procedures in order to improve cytological preparations of anuran species. This methodology permits the use of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU treatment to obtain replication banding patterns in the chromosomes of these species.

  10. A new species of Andinobates (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae) from west central Panama.

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    Batista, Abel; Jaramillo, César A; Ponce, Marcos; Crawford, Andrew J

    2014-09-24

    Dendrobatid frogs are among the best known anurans in the world, mainly due to their toxicity and associated bright colors. A recently described dendrobatid genus, Andinobates, comprises frogs distributed among the Colombian Andes and Panama. During field work in the Distrito de Donoso, Colón province, Panama, we found a poison frog that we here describe as a new species. The new species belongs to the A. minutus species group and is described herein as Andinobates geminisae sp. nov. This new species differs from all other members of the group by having uniformly orange smooth skin over the entire body and a distinctive male advertisement call. The new species is smaller than other colorful dendrobatids present in the area, such as Oophaga pumilio and O. vicentei. We also provide molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences of dendrobatids and summarize genetic distances among Andinobates species. Andinobates geminisae occurs in Caribbean versant rainforest on the westernmost edge of the known distribution of A. minutus, and represents the fourth species within this genus in Panama. This is vulnerable to habitat loss and excessive harvesting and requires immediate conservation plans to preserve this species with a restricted geographic range.

  11. Fluctuating asymmetry in Pelophylax ridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae as a response to anthropogenic pollution in south Bulgaria

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    Zhelev Zhivko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the integral indicator for developmental stability, the fluctuating asymmetry (FA, in the marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus populations that inhabit biotopes of different types (running rivers and still, dam lakes, when exposed to different types of anthropogenic pollution (domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution in south Bulgaria. A total of 920 P. ridibundus individuals were used for FA analyses over three years (2009-2011. Fluctuating asymmetry was defined by 10 morphological traits, using the index frequency of asymmetric manifestation of an individual (FAMI. In closed water basins, regardless of the nature of toxicants, the FA values in P. ridibundus populations were statistically lower than those in river populations. The FA values were constantly the highest under conditions of sustained anthropogenic pollution, with high concentrations of toxicants in rivers with domestic sewage pollution and heavy-metal pollution. The results provide better opportunities to use FA in P. ridibundus populations for bioindication and biomonitoring, and for parallel and independent analyses of the physicochemical assessment of the environmental condition.

  12. Organophosphorus pesticides effect on early stages of the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Caudata).

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    Robles-Mendoza, C; García-Basilio, C; Cram-Heydrich, S; Hernández-Quiroz, M; Vanegas-Pérez, C

    2009-02-01

    Ambystoma mexicanum is an endemic salamander of Xochimilco, a wetland of the basin of Mexico valley. Nowadays, axolotl populations are decreasing due environmental stressors. Particularly, studies about organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs; i.e. chlorpyrifos and malathion) toxicity are of great importance due to their intensive use in agricultural activities in Xochimilco. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate under controlled conditions the toxicity of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and malathion (MLT) on embryos and larvae (stage 44 and 54) of A. mexicanum. Embryos and larvae were exposure 96h from 0.5 to 3mg CPFL(-1) and from 10 to 30mg MLTL(-1) in independent tests. Embryos at the end of this period were maintained 9d without pesticide in order to identify possible recuperation. Differences obtained in mortality, hatching success, development, morphological abnormalities, behaviour and activity, suggest that toxicity of CPF and MLT differs in embryos and larval stages. Embryos were less sensitive to OPPs acute exposure than axolotl larvae; additionally, toxicity of CPF in larval stages was greater than MLT. On the other hand, data obtained in axolotl embryos during the period of recuperation to CPF in particular as delay and inhibition of development, malformations and success of hatching, indicated that these responses turned out more sensitive than mortality. This study allowed to identify the toxicological potential of OPPs on early developmental stages of A. mexicanum and it is a valuable contribution for the future management of the axolotl wild population.

  13. The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura

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    Annemarie Ohler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The toad species Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 was erected for a single specimen from South Africa which has never been properly studied and allocated to a known species. A morphometrical and morphological analysis of this specimen and its comparison with 75 toad specimens referred to five South African toad species allowed to allocate this specimen to the species currently known as Amietophrynus rangeri. In consequence, the nomen Sclerophrys must replace Amietophrynus as the valid nomen of the genus, and capensis as the valid nomen of the species. This work stresses the usefulness of natural history collections for solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems.

  14. Species boundaries and taxonomy of the African river frogs (Amphibia: Pyxicephalidae: Amietia).

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    Channing, A; Dehling, J M; Lötters, S; Ernst, R

    2016-08-25

    A molecular phylogeny of the Afrotropical anuran genus Amietia based on 323 16S sequences indicates that there are 19 species, including four not yet described. No genetic material was available for the nominal A. inyangae. We consider them to represent full species, and define them based on 16S genetic distances, as well as differences in morphology, tadpoles and advertisement call where known. An analysis based on two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes (12S, 16S, 28S and tyrosinase exon 1), from 122 samples, confirmed the phylogenetic relationships suggested by the 16S tree. We recognise and (re-) describe the following species: Amietia angolensis (Bocage, 1866), A. chapini (Noble, 1924), A. delalandii (Duméril & Bibron, 1841), A. desaegeri (Laurent, 1972), A. fuscigula (Duméril & Bibron, 1841), A. hymenopus (Boulenger, 1920), A. inyangae (Poynton, 1966), A. johnstoni (Günther, 1893), A. moyerorum sp. nov., A. nutti (Boulenger, 1896), A. poyntoni Channing & Baptista, 2013, A. ruwenzorica (Laurent, 1972), A. tenuoplicata (Pickersgill, 2007), A. vandijki (Visser & Channing, 1997), A. vertebralis (Hewitt, 1927), and A. wittei (Angel, 1924). Three further candidate species of Larson et al. (2016) await formal naming. We provisionally regard A. amieti (Laurent, 1976) as a junior synonym of A. chapini (Noble, 1924). Amietia lubrica (Pickersgill, 2007) is shown to be a junior synonym of A. nutti, while A. quecketti (Boulenger, 1895) is shown to be a junior synonym of A. delalandii (Duméril & Bibron, 1841), and A. viridireticulata (Pickersgill, 2007) is placed as a junior synonym of A. tenuoplicata (Pickersgill, 2007). On the basis of similarity of 16S sequences, we assign A. sp. 1, A. sp. 3 and A. sp. 6 of Larson et al (2016) to the nomina A. chapini (Noble, 1924), A. desaegeri (Laurent, 1972), and A. nutti (Boulenger, 1896) respectively.

  15. Una nueva especie del grupo Hyloscirtus larinopygion (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae del suroccidente de Colombia

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    Jonh Jairo Mueses-Cisneros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie del grupo Hyloscirtus larinopygion del Nudo de los Pastos en el departamento de Nariño, Colombia. Hyloscirtus tigrinus sp. nov. puede ser distinguida fácilmente de sus especies similares por la presencia de un tubérculo calcar carnoso y prominente, además de su distintivo patrón de coloración. Se realizan algunos comentarios sobre la coloración de la garganta y coloración ventral en Hyloscirtus caucanus, H. larinopygion, H. lindae y H. tigrinus. La coloración de la garganta es altamente variable, por lo tanto no puede ser utilizada para diagnosticar a estas especies.A new species of the Hyloscirtus larinopygion group from Nudo de los Pastos, Nariño department, Colombia is described. Hyloscirtus tigrinus sp. nov. can be distinguished easily from similar species by the presence of a fleshy and prominent calcar tubercle and by its distinctive color pattern. Some remarks on throat and ventral coloration in Hyloscirtus caucanus, H. larinopygion, H. lindae and H. tigrinus are presented. The throat coloration is highly variable and cannot be used to diagnose any of these species.

  16. First report of satellite males during breeding in Leptodactylus latrans (Amphibia, Anura

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    Gabriel Laufer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of satellite males is a common behaviour across anuran taxa. Satellite males take peripheral positions to calling males and adopt tactics in an attempt to intercept females that are attracted to calling males to increase their own mating success. Satellite males could have an inexpensive form of mate-locating, avoiding predators, and saving energy. Furthermore, this strategy could play an important role in the genetic structure of populations. The genus Leptodactylus consists of approximately 70 described species that are widely distributed in South America. The literature on the biology of this genus is extensive; however, we found only two reports on the existence of multi-male mating behavior in the genus (L. chaquensis and L. podicipinus. Herein, we report intrasexual competition in the form of satellite behavior in Leptodactylus latrans, where multiple satellite males were observed in close vicinity to a calling male.

  17. Natural history of Holoaden luederwaldti (Amphibia: Strabomantidae: Holoadeninae in southeastern of Brazil

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    Itamar A. Martins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the rediscovery of Holoaden luederwaldti Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 and provides information on the distribution, sexual dimorphism, reproduction and vocalization of a population of this species in Campos do Jordão, São Paulo (southeastern Brazil. Sampling was carried out in the Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão (PECJ from October 2005 through December 2008. Collecting was conducted using pitfall traps with a drift-fence on different altitudinal gradients (1,540 m, 1,780 m and 2,000 m a.s.l.. Fifty-two specimens of H. luederwaldti were collected in the PECJ. The mean snout-vent length (SVL was 36.17 mm for males and 42.61 mm for females, indicating sexual dimorphism in body size. Holoaden luederwaldti occurred during the warm-rainy months. The population was distributed between 1500 and 2000 m, and the greater abundance was registered in well preserved forest areas. Mature females contained from 36 to 41 oocytes and the mean of oocyte diameter was 3.72 mm. The advertisement call of H. luederwaldti consists of simple notes composed of three harmonics. The record of the population of H. luederwaldti in the PECJ has reinforced the importance of investigating different areas of the forest when conducting faunal surveys.

  18. Redescription of the advertisement call of Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae).

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    Pederassi, Jonas; Lima, Mauro Sérgio Cruz Souza; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Souza, Patrícia Dos Santos; Santos, Mayra Caroliny De Oliveira; Silva, Islaíane Costa

    2015-08-03

    The genus Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 is composed by 46 species occurring from north to southern South America, east of the Andes (Frost 2015). Physalaemus albifrons is morphologically differentiated from the other species mainly due to the presence of a second tarsal tubercle located nearly the tibio-tarsal articulation (Bokermann 1966). Physalaemus albifrons occurs in Brazil from north of the State of Maranhão through the states of Piauí, Ceará, Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas, being its more austral occurrence in the State of Minas Gerais (Frost 2015). The advertisement call of P. albifrons was described by Bokermann (1966); however, the description needs improvement by applying new technologies, which we provide herein.

  19. Histological changes, apoptosis and metallothionein levels in Triturus carnifex (Amphibia, Urodela) exposed to environmental cadmium concentrations.

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    Capaldo, Anna; Gay, Flaminia; Scudiero, Rosaria; Trinchella, Francesca; Caputo, Ivana; Lepretti, Marilena; Marabotti, Anna; Esposito, Carla; Laforgia, Vincenza

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if the freshwater safety values established from the European Community (1998) and the Italian Ministry of Health (2001) for cadmium (44.5nM/L in drinking water and 178nM/L in sewage waters) were safe for amphibians, since at these same concentrations cadmium induced endocrine disruption in the newt Triturus carnifex. Adult male specimens of T. carnifex were exposed daily to cadmium (44.5nM/L and 178nM/L as CdCl2, nominal concentrations), respectively, during 3- and 9-months; at the same time, control newts were exposed to tap water only. The accumulation of cadmium in the skin, liver and kidney, the levels of metallothioneins in the skin and the liver, the expression of metallothionein mRNA in the liver, as well as the presence of histological alterations and of apoptosis in the target organs were evaluated. The 9-months exposure induced cadmium accumulation in all the tissues examined; moreover, histological changes were observed in all the tissues examined, irrespective of the dose or the time of exposure. Apoptosis was only detected in the kidney, whereas metallothioneins and metallothionein mRNA did not increase. This study demonstrates that the existing chronic water quality criterion established for cadmium induces in the newt T. carnifex cadmium accumulation and histological alterations in the target organs examined. Together with our previous results, showing that, at these same concentrations, cadmium induced endocrine disruption, the present results suggest that the existing chronic water quality criterion for cadmium appears to be not protective of amphibians.

  20. Isolation and sequencing of the HMG domain of ten Sox genes from Odorrana schmackeri (Amphibia: Anura

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    Ning Wang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sox (SRY-related HMG-box genes encode a family of transcriptional regulators, which are characterized by a conserved 79-amino acid domain known as HMG-box. They play essential roles in a diverse range of processes including sex determination and the development of the central nervous system (CNS, neural crest and endoderm. In this paper, the HMG domain of ten distinct Sox gene family members (os-Sox2, os-Sox3a, os-Sox3b, os-Sox4, os-Sox11a, os-Sox11b, os-Sox14a, os-Sox14b, os-Sox21a, os-Sox21b were isolated from both male and female Odorrana schmackeri (Boettger, 1892 using PCR, and no sexual differences were found. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the HMG domain suggested that these ten Sox genes are members of the SoxB and SoxC groups. In addition, sequence analysis suggested that four Sox genes (os-Sox3, os-Sox11, os-Sox14, os-Sox21 were duplicated. The duplication-degeneration-complementation model should be implied to explain the evolution and diversity of the Sox gene family in O. schmackeri.

  1. Molecular cloning and expression patterns of the Vasa gene from Rana nigromaculata (Amphibia: Anura

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    Rui Jia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Vasa protein is a member of the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Alu-Asp box family of ATP-dependent RNA helicases. The Vasa gene is specifically expressed in germ-line cells of many metazoans and is known to play a critical role in gametogenesis and reproductive regulation. In this paper, we isolate the full length cDNA sequence of the Vasa gene from the frog Rana nigromaculata Hallowell, 1861. The open reading frame (ORF encoding 398 amino acid residues has nine conserved motifs. According to the similarities at the amino acid sequenceythe phylogenetic analysis of Vasa gene was consistent with the evolution relationships from chordates to mammals. Furthermore, the expression pattern analysis of RnVasa mRNA, using the technique of Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR, showed a high level of transcripts in testis, ovary and kidney, whereas little to no signal was detected in other tissues, which suggests that it may play a role during gametogenesis.

  2. Morfohistología testicular de Ceratophrys ornata (Bell (Amphibia, Anura, Ceratophryidae

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    Fernando Carezzano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describen las características morfohistológicas del testículo de individuos adultos (n=5 de Ceratophrys ornata (Bell, 1843 provenientes de humedales del centro de Argentina. Los mismos se procesaron mediante técnicas histológicas de rutina, se cortaron a 8 µm y las láminas obtenidas se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina y tricrómico de Masson. Las gónadas son órganos pares, amarillentos, alargados y contorneados de 18,58 ± 0,23 mm de largo por 1,51 ± 0,13 mm de ancho. Histológicamente se observa una delgada túnica albugínea (6,29 ± 0,83 µm rodeando a los testículos. En su interior se hallan lóculos seminíferos que miden 240,64 ± 38,52 µm de diámetro, en ellos se distinguen cistos con células espermatogénicas en distintas etapas de desarrollo. El tejido intersticial es escaso y en él se destacan las células de Leydig y vasos sanguíneos. Las espermatogonias I son las células más grandes de la serie germinal (20,03 ± 2,27 µm; poseen la cromatina granular y de aspecto multilobular, hallándose comúnmente una por cisto, estas originan a las espermatogonias II, más pequeñas (12,06 ± 1,14 µm. Los espermatocitos I presentan la cromatina levemente condensada y son un poco más chicos que sus precedentes (11,64 ± 0,36 µm. Los espermatocitos II miden 8,85 ± 0,54 µm. Las espermátidas I son esféricas, miden 5,95 ± 0,42 µm y se agrupan en cistos redondeados. Las espermátidas II, en cambio son alargadas y no se hallan dentro de cistos, pero siguen organizadas en paquetes asociadas a células de Sertoli. Los espermatozoides son células libres hacia el centro del lóculo, alargadas, flageladas y con una notable compactación nuclear. La morfohistología de los testículos analizados muestran características macroscópicas e histológicas similares a las observadas en otras especies de anfibios anuros neotropicales, presentando todas las células del linaje espermatogénico en un mismo lóculo, lo que indicaría que presentan ciclos espermatogénicos continuos.

  3. Two new Salamanders of the genus Onychodactylus from Eastern Honshu, Japan (Amphibia, Caudata, Hynobiidae).

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    Yoshikawa, Natsuhiko; Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-09-22

    We describe two new species of hynobiid salamanders in the genus Onychodactylus from eastern Honshu, Japan, based on the morphological and genetic evidence. Onychodactylus intermedius sp. nov. is distributed in southern part of Tohoku District and northern Ibaraki and Niigata Prefectures, and was previously reported as S-Tohoku group. Onychodactylus intermedius belongs to the O. japonicus species complex, and differs from the other congeners in having relatively long tail, narrow head, short snout, 18 presacral vertebrae, and distinctly curved vomerine tooth series without gap. Onychodactylus fuscus sp. nov. is known from only four localities in Fukushima and Niigata Prefectures of Tohoku and Hokuriku Districts. It also belongs to the O. japonicus complex, but lacks the dorsal stripe, which is a diagnostic character of the species complex. In other characteristics, O. fuscus differs from the other congeners in having comparatively long tail, wide head and internarial space, shallowly curved vomerine tooth series with gap, and relatively few vomerine teeth. Both species described here breed in winter. Phylogenetically, the two new species are closely related to each other, forming a well-supported clade with O. tsukubaensis as their sister species. Onychodactylus intermedius sp. nov. is known to be parapatric with O. japonicus and O. nipponoborealis without hybridization, whereas O. fuscus sp. nov. is sympatric with O. japonicus at least in a single known locality, and analysis of microsatellite loci indicates they are reproductively isolated.

  4. The skull structure of six species of Mesoamerican plethodontid salamanders (Amphibia, Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmcke, Jens; Clemen, Günter

    2003-06-01

    The skulls of six species of plethodontid salamanders of the genus Bolitoglossa from Costa Rica and Panama, Bolitoglossa colonnea, B. dofleini, B. lignicolor, B. marmorea, B. schizodactyla and B. striatula are comparatively analysed. All species are terrestrial or slightly arboreal and show no life-mode-dependent skull characteristics. Heads cleared by transparent preparation and stained in toto were used for examination of the skull structure and paraffin sections of the gonads were prepared to confirm sexual maturity of each individual. Focussing on the size of the premaxillary pars dentalis, the degree of fusion of the processus dorsales praemaxillares and the presence or absence of the paired prefrontals we state that B. dofleini and B. striatula possess more ancestral characteristics, B. marmorea is situated in an intermediate position and B. colonnea, B. lignicolor and B. schizodactyla show more advanced characteristics.

  5. Gender-dependent dimorphic teeth in four species of Mesoamerican plethodontid salamanders (Urodela, Amphibia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmcke, Jens; Wistuba, Joachim; Clemen, Günter

    2004-06-01

    The tooth shapes of premaxillary and maxillary teeth of adults of four Mesoamerican salamander species (Urodela, Plethodontidae) were examined. Using scanning electron microscopy we determined whether the monocuspid teeth that are present only on the premaxillary of sexually mature males belong to the conical, unbladed, monocuspid tooth type found in urodele larvae or whether they represent morphological variations of the typical, bladed, bicuspid teeth of metamorphosed individuals. The teeth of some studied species are, in fact, unbladed and in some cases show one very reduced tip. But none of the studied teeth is per definitionem monocuspid and no tooth shows an enameloid layer between dentine shaft and enamel cap, which is always present in the teeth of early urodele larvae. The "monocuspid" teeth of adult males of Mesoamerican plethodontid salamanders have to be considered a morphological variation of the metamorphosed, bicuspid tooth type typical for metamorphosed urodeles.

  6. Three new species of the salamander genus Hynobius (Amphibia, Urodela, Hynobiidae) from Kyushu, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kanto; Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-08-14

    Three new species of lotic breeding Hynobius, formerly assigned to H. boulengeri, are described from the Kyushu region, southwestern Japan. They differ from all the known congeners by a unique combination of body size, character ratios, coloration, mtDNA, and allozymic characteristics. Together with H. stejnegeri they form a clade, which is not a sister group of H. boulengeri, and their speciation in Kyushu is surmised to have occurred at the end of Miocene, accompanied by differentiations in larval period and metamorphosing size. Measures of conservation of these new species are discussed briefly. 

  7. Two new species of Salamanders, Genus Bolitoglossa (Amphibia: Plethodontidae), from the Eastern Colombian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Aldemar A; Wake, David B; Márquez, Roberto; Silva, Karen; Franco, Rosmery; Amézquita, Adolfo

    2013-01-25

    The salamander fauna of Colombia is very poorly known, probably because most research efforts have been devoted to anurans during the last two decades. Here, we describe two new species of the genus Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) from the eastern flank of the Eastern Colombian Andes (Cordillera Oriental), near the border with Venezuela. Bolitoglossa tamaense sp. nov. is distributed between 2000 to 2700 m.a.s.l. and Bolitoglossa leandrae sp. nov. is distributed in the low-lands at about 600 m. The new species are diagnosed by a combination of molecular (16S rRNA sequences), coloration, body size, and morphometric (number of maxillary and vomerine teeth and differences in foot webbing) characters. Both species face threats such as chytridiomycosis infections and habitat fragmentation that have already affected other sala-manders in the country. Thus, intensive field and museum work is needed to better document and perhaps protect the local salamander diversity.

  8. Cytonuclear discordance and historical demography of two brown frogs, Rana tagoi and R. sakuraii (Amphibia: Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Koshiro; Matsui, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    Prior studies of mitochondrial genomic variation reveal that the Japanese brown frog Rana tagoi comprises a complex of cryptic species lineages, and that R. sakuraii arose from within this complex. Neither species forms a monophyletic group on the mitochondrial haplotype tree, precluding a simple explanation for the evolutionary origins of R. sakuraii. We present a more complete sampling of mitochondrial haplotypic variation (from the ND1 and 16S genes) plus DNA sequence variation for five nuclear loci (from the genes encoding NCX1, NFIA, POMC, SLC8A3, and TYR) to resolve the evolutionary histories of these species. We test hypotheses of population assignment (STRUCTURE) and isolation-with-migration (IM) using the more slowly evolving nuclear markers. These demographic analyses of nuclear genetic variation confirm species-level distinctness and integrity of R. sakuraii despite its apparent polyphyly on the mitochondrial haplotype tree. Divergence-time estimates from both the mitochondrial haplotypes and nuclear genomic markers suggest that R. sakuraii originated approximately one million years ago, and that incomplete sorting of mitochondrial haplotype lineages best explains non-monophyly of R. sakuraii mitochondrial haplotypes. Cytonuclear discordance elsewhere in R. tagoi reveals a case of mitochondrial introgression between two species lineages on Honshu. The earliest phylogenetic divergence within this species group occurred approximately four million years ago, followed by cladogenetic events in the Pliocene and early Pleistocene yielding 10-13 extant species lineages, including R. sakuraii as one of the youngest.

  9. Schellackia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae of the brazilian tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa (Amphibia: Anura from Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paperna

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous stages of a Schellackia species are described in histological sections of the intestine of the tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa, from North Brazil. Most oocysts sporulate within the epithelial cells of the gut, but a few were detected in the lamina propria.

  10. Histology of the kidney and urinary bladder of Siphonops annulatus (Amphibia-Gymnophiona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, E T; Junqueira, L C

    1999-03-01

    The histology of the kidney and urinary bladder of Siphonops annulatus was studied by light microscopy in semithin sections of tissue embedded in hydrophilic resin. The kidney's nephron comprises the renal corpuscle, neck segment, proximal tubule, intermediate segment, distal tubule and collecting tubule. Nephrostomes are present. This structure, the neck segment, and intermediate tubules present long cilia, and probably play important roles in the propulsion of the peritoneal fluid and glomerular filtrate. The proximal tubule cells possess loosely packed microvilli and contain abundant polymorphic granules and vesicles that assume the aspect of lysosomes in different stages of intracellular digestion. The distal tubules are characterized by large, vertically disposed mitochondria assuming the aspect of ions transporting cells. The urinary bladder is lined with a transitional epithelium, whose aspect varies according to the quantity of urine.

  11. Histology of the trachea and lung of Siphonops annulatus (Amphibia, Gymnophiona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, B; Junqueira, L C

    2000-02-01

    The structure of the trachea and lung of Siphonops annulatus was studied in ten specimens of routinely fed animals. The trachea is constituted mainly by incomplete cartilage rings lined by a respiratory epithelium (ciliated and mucous cells) with variable morphology according to the region observed. A rich vascularization of this organ suggests its participation in blood-air gas exchange. The right lung in this species is developed and the left one is atrophied. This organ is constituted mainly by longitudinal septa formed by connective tissue, smooth muscle cells and blood capillaries. These structures are covered by pneumocytes of one type only, which present cytoplasmic particles that have been related with surfactant activity described in the lung of Gymnophiona.

  12. Muscle development in the abdominal region of larval Hylidae (Amphibia: Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, A S; Perotti, M G

    1999-09-01

    Larval muscle development in the abdominal region of five species of hylid frogs (Scinax nasicum, S. fuscovarium, Hyla andina, Phyllomedusa boliviana, Gastrotheca gracilis) was studied using differential staining techniques. These five species represent three major hylid subfamilies. The development of the main abdominal muscles, the rectus abdominis, the two lateral muscles (obliquus externus and transversus), and the lateral pectoralis abdominalis is described. The number of myotomes of the rectus abdominis varies between five and six, and the abdominal muscles associated with the rectus abdominis (obliquus externus, pectoralis abdominalis, and rectus cervicis) vary interspecifically in time of appearance and configuration. The presence of gaps in the configuration of the rectus abdominis has been related to the lotic habits of the larvae. However, our observations indicate the presence of such gaps in larvae that inhabit lentic environments as well. These results suggest that the presence of these gaps is unrelated to larval habitat. There are relatively small differences in muscle morphology among these closely related species, which apparently cannot be explained by morphological adaptations related to their ecology. In the species studied, the number of elements that form the abdominal musculature in larvae is equal to that observed in adults. Likewise, the general morphology of the muscles is ontogenetically conserved. This suggests that both the axial skeleton and musculature are more ontogenetically conserved in relation to the substantial changes that are observed in the skull and head muscles of developing anurans.

  13. A new species of Noblella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from the humid montane forests of Cusco, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Noblella is described from the humid montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2330–2370 m elevation in Madre Selva, near Santa Ana, in the province of La Convención. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Noblella by having a broad, irregularly shaped, white mark on black background on chest and belly. The new species further differs from known Peruvian species of Noblella by the combination of the following characters: tympanic membrane absent, small tubercles on the upper eyelid and on dorsum, tarsal tubercles or folds absent, tips of digits not expanded, no circumferential grooves on digits, dark brown facial mask and lateral band extending from the tip of the snout to the inguinal region. The new species has a snout-to-vent length of 15.6 mm in one adult male and 17.6 mm in one adult female. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Noblella inhabits high-elevation forests in the Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  14. Population Genetic Structure of the Endangered Kaiser's Mountain Newt, Neurergus kaiseri (Amphibia: Salamandridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Farasat

    Full Text Available Species often exhibit different levels of genetic structuring correlated to their environment. However, understanding how environmental heterogeneity influences genetic variation is difficult because the effects of gene flow, drift and selection are confounded. We investigated the genetic variation and its ecological correlates in an endemic and critically endangered stream breeding mountain newt, Neurergus kaiseri, within its entire range in southwestern Iran. We identified two geographic regions based on phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood of 779 bp mtDNA (D-loop in 111 individuals from ten of twelve known breeding populations. This analysis revealed a clear divergence between northern populations, located in more humid habitats at higher elevation, and southern populations, from drier habitats at lower elevations regions. From seven haplotypes found in these populations none was shared between the two regions. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA of N. kaiseri indicates that 94.03% of sequence variation is distributed among newt populations and 5.97% within them. Moreover, a high degree of genetic subdivision, mainly attributable to the existence of significant variance among the two regions is shown (θCT = 0.94, P = 0.002. The positive and significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances (r = 0.61, P = 0.002 following controlling for environmental distance suggests an important influence of geographic divergence of the sites in shaping the genetic variation and may provide tools for a possible conservation based prioritization policy for the endangered species.

  15. A new species of the genus Amolops (Amphibia: Ranidae) from southeastern Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ke; Wang, Kai; Yan, Fang; Xie, Jiang; Zou, Da-Hu; Liu, Wu-Lin; Jiang, Jian-Ping; Li, Cheng; Che, Jing

    2016-01-18

    A new species of the genus Amolops Cope, 1865 is described from Nyingchi, southeastern Tibet, China, based on morphological and molecular data. The new species, Amolops nyingchiensis sp. nov. is assigned to the Amolops monticola group based on its skin smooth, dorsolateral fold distinct, lateral side of head black, upper lip stripe white extending to the shoulder. Amolops nyingchiensis sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of Amolops by the following combination of characters: (1) medium body size, SVL 48.5-58.3 mm in males, and 57.6-70.7 mm in females; (2) tympanum distinct, slightly larger than one third of the eye diameter; (3) a small tooth-like projection on anteromedial edge of mandible; (4) the absence of white spine on dorsal surface of body; (5) the presence of circummarginal groove on all fingers; (6) the presence of vomerine teeth; (7) background coloration of dorsal surface brown, lateral body gray with yellow; (8) the presence of transverse bands on the dorsal limbs; (9) the presence of nuptial pad on the first finger in males; (10) the absence of vocal sac in males. Taxonomic status of the populations that were previously identified to A. monticola from Tibet is also discussed.

  16. The Herpetofauna (Amphibia and Reptilia of Vrachanska Planina Mountains - Species Composition, Distribution and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORISLAV NAUMOV

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vrachanska Planina Mts. is located in northwestern Bulgaria and is a relatively well-defined part of Stara Planina Mts. So far, no comprehensive studies on the species composition and distribution of the herpetofauna of Vrachanska Planina Mts. have been published. The current study reports 8 new species of amphibians and reptiles, which are new for the region and confirms all previously known 19 species. All species localities have been mapped in the UTM-grid (1x1 km. The spatial distribution, as well as the vertical distribution and the species richness are analyzed. The importance of the existing protected areas in Vrachanska Planina Mts. and protected Natura2000 zones for the conservation of herpetofauna are discussed. Some potential threats to amphibians and reptiles in the research area (such as drying-up of water basins, fires and road mortality are reported.

  17. Cytological evidence for population-specific sex chromosome heteromorphism in Palaearctic green toads (Amphibia, Anura)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Odierna; G Aprea; T Capriglione; S Castellano; E Balletto

    2007-06-01

    A chromosome study was carried out on a number of European and Central Asiatic diploid green toad populations by means of standard and various other chromosome banding and staining methods (Ag-NOR-, Q-, CMA3-, late replicating [LR] banding pattern, C- and sequential C-banding + CMA3 + DAPI). This study revealed the remarkable karyological uniformity of specimens from all populations, with the only exception being specimens from a Moldavian population, where one chromosome pair was heteromorphic. Though similar in shape, size and with an identical heterochromatin distribution, the difference in the heteromorphic pair was due to a large inverted segment on its long arms. This heteromorphism was restricted to females, suggesting a female heterogametic sex chromosome system of ZZ/ZW type at a very early step of differentiation.

  18. ROLE OF THE EGG JELLY COAT IN PROTECTING HYLA REGILLA AND BUFO CANORUS EMBRYOS FROM ULTRAVIOLET B RADIATION DURING DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have suggested that Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may play a role in amphibian population declines. Some of these studies also indicate that egg hatching success is unaltered in some species of anurans as a result of UVB exposure. It has been proposed that the eg...

  19. JUVENILE WESTERN TOADS, BUFO BOREAS, AVOID CHEMICAL CUES OF SNAKES FED JUVENILE, BUT NOT LARVAL, CONSPECIFICS. (U915529)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. Wyoming toad, Bufo hemiophrys baxteri, habitat use and hibernaculum research project with the use of telemetry : Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report is on a two year study, started in 1998, to evaluate the daily and seasonal habitat use to determine the location of the hibemaculum of the...

  1. Additional Notes on Megophrys sangzhiensis Jiang, Ye et Fei, 2008 (Amphibia, Anura, Megophryidae)%桑植角蟾Megophrys sangzhiensis Jiang,Ye et Fei,2008形态特征补记(Amphibia,Anura,Megophryidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖春林; 梁茜茜; 王燕; 江建平

    2013-01-01

    基于新采集的桑植角蟾标本(1只雌性成体、6只雄性成体),本文对桑植角蟾的形态特征进行了补充.新采集到的雄性标本符合桑植角蟾的鉴别特征,在外形上与正模标本总体上一致.雌性个体与雄性差异明显:雌性个体(SVL 73.0 mm,n=1)明显比雄性个体大(SVL 53.0 ~ 60.8 mm,n=7);背面皮肤明显较雄性红;胸腹部花斑较雄性大而稀少,红色或暗红色;前肢较雄性弱,没有声囔及声囔孔,指无婚刺.卵团发现于溪流石块下,呈不完整的圆圈状,卵团卵粒数为483 ~542枚(n=2);卵粒乳白色,动植物极颜色差异不明显;卵径3.56 mm±0.13 mm(n=10).

  2. A New Record of RANIDAE From Henan Province (AMPHIBIA: ANURA)%河南省蛙科一新纪录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓虹; 梁俊波; 杨杰

    2003-01-01

    文章报道采自河南商城县的一种水蛙属(Hylarana)标本,与河南省已有记录的沼水蛙Hylarana (Hylarana) guentheri 明显不同,经鉴定为河南省新纪录阔褶水蛙Hylarana (Hylarana) latouchii.

  3. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea, a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphibia: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and three-dimensional (3D reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank.

  4. Patterns of Apoptosis and Proliferation throughout the Biennial Reproductive Cycle of Viviparous Female Typhlonectes compressicauda (Amphibia, Gymnophiona

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    Michel Raquet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Typhlonectes compressicauda is an aquatic gymnophionan amphibian living in South America. Its breeding cycle is linked to seasons, characterized by a regular alternation of rainy and dry seasons. During a complex biennial cycle, the female genital tract undergoes a series of alternations of increasing and decreasing, governed by equilibrium of proliferation and apoptotic phenomena. Immunohistochemical methods were used to visualize cell proliferation with the detection of Ki67 antibody, a protein present in proliferative cells; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL and Apostain were performed to detect apoptotic cells on sections of ovaries and oviducts. In ovaries, both phenomena affect the germinal nests and follicles according to the cycle period. In the oviduct, the balance was in favor of proliferation during preparation for reproduction, and in favor of apoptosis when genital ducts regress. Apoptosis and proliferation are narrowly implicated in the remodeling of the genital tract and they are accompanied by the differentiation of tissues according to the phase of the breeding cycle. These variations permit the capture of oocytes at ovulation, always at the same period, and the parturition after 6–7 months of gestation, at a period in which the newborns live with their mother, protected in burrows in the mud. During the intervening year of sexual inactivity, the female reconstitutes body reserves.

  5. A NEW BUFONID GENUS PARAPELOPHRYNE FROM CHINA (AMPHIBIA, ANURA)%中国蟾蜍科一新属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梁; 叶昌媛; 江建平

    2003-01-01

    对世界蟾蜍科动物的分类现状做了概述,并对我国原定名为鳞皮游蟾Nectophryne scalptus Liu and Hu(1973)及叶昌媛等(1978)将其改为鳞皮厚蹼蟾Pelophryne scalptus(Frost,1985订正种名为scalpta)的海南标本做了进一步研究,与现有蟾蜍科各属、特别是与东南亚地区的几个特有属的特征做了对比研究.结果表明:原定名为鳞皮游蟾Nectophryne scalptus的海南标本应代表一个新属即小蟾属Parapelophryne gen.nov,因此原定名为鳞皮游蟾(或鳞皮厚蹼蟾)的标本为新属的成员,即种名应改为鳞皮小蟾Parapelophryne scalpta(Liu and Hu).

  6. Features of the karyotypes of Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas, 1771 and Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 (Amphibia: Ranidae from Armenia

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    A Martirosyan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Сhromosomal complements of Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas, 1771 from 9 localities (Northern, Central and South Armenia and Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 from one locality (North-West Armenia have been analyzed. The chromosome sets of P. ridibundus collected from 8 localities showed 2n=26, (10m+12sm+4st; NF=52. A secondary constriction has been observed in all studied individuals on the 10-th chromosome pair showing NOR-positive reaction. C-positive heterochromatin blocks have been observed on long arms of the 2-nd and 10-th pairs of chromosomes (7 localities. In addition, C-heterochromatin blocks have been found on interstitial regions of short arms of the 12-th pairs, as well as in telomeric regions of long arms of the 9-th pairs and on short arms of the 5-th pair in the frogs from 2 localities. The karyotype of P. ridibundus from populations near Ejmiatsin differs from other populations (2n=26, 12m+10sm+4st. Diploid number of chromosomes of R. macrocnemis was also 26 (8m+12sm+6st, NF=52. Blocks of C-positive heterochromatin have been revealed in telomeric parts of the 1-st, 2-nd (p, 3-rd (q, 4-th (q, 6-th, 9-th (p, 10-th (p,q and 13-th (q pairs, as well as in interstitial regions of the 1-st and 2-nd pairs of chromosomes.  Intrapopulation and interpopulation geographic variations of karyotypes and C-heterochromatin banding patterns of P. ridibundus have been revealed. Karyotypically, morphotypes “macrocnemis” and “camerani” are closely related.

  7. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia): how to prioritize species and populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Caroline; Becker, Fernando Gertum; Abadie, Michelle; Baldo, Diego; Maneyro, Raúl; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2014-01-01

    We used species distribution modeling to investigate the potential effects of climate change on 24 species of Neotropical anurans of the genus Melanophryniscus. These toads are small, have limited mobility, and a high percentage are endangered or present restricted geographical distributions. We looked at the changes in the size of suitable climatic regions and in the numbers of known occurrence sites within the distribution limits of all species. We used the MaxEnt algorithm to project current and future suitable climatic areas (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a and B2a for 2020 and 2080) for each species. 40% of the species may lose over 50% of their potential distribution area by 2080, whereas 28% of species may lose less than 10%. Four species had over 40% of the currently known occurrence sites outside the predicted 2080 areas. The effect of climate change (decrease in climatic suitable areas) did not differ according to the present distribution area, major habitat type or phylogenetic group of the studied species. We used the estimated decrease in specific suitable climatic range to set a conservation priority rank for Melanophryniscus species. Four species were set to high conservation priority: M. montevidensis, (100% of its original suitable range and all known occurrence points potentially lost by 2080), M. sp.2, M. cambaraensis, and M. tumifrons. Three species (M. spectabilis, M. stelzneri, and M. sp.3) were set between high to intermediate priority (more than 60% decrease in area predicted by 2080); nine species were ranked as intermediate priority, while eight species were ranked as low conservation priority. We suggest that monitoring and conservation actions should be focused primarily on those species and populations that are likely to lose the largest area of suitable climate and the largest number of known populations in the short-term.

  8. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia: how to prioritize species and populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Zank

    Full Text Available We used species distribution modeling to investigate the potential effects of climate change on 24 species of Neotropical anurans of the genus Melanophryniscus. These toads are small, have limited mobility, and a high percentage are endangered or present restricted geographical distributions. We looked at the changes in the size of suitable climatic regions and in the numbers of known occurrence sites within the distribution limits of all species. We used the MaxEnt algorithm to project current and future suitable climatic areas (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a and B2a for 2020 and 2080 for each species. 40% of the species may lose over 50% of their potential distribution area by 2080, whereas 28% of species may lose less than 10%. Four species had over 40% of the currently known occurrence sites outside the predicted 2080 areas. The effect of climate change (decrease in climatic suitable areas did not differ according to the present distribution area, major habitat type or phylogenetic group of the studied species. We used the estimated decrease in specific suitable climatic range to set a conservation priority rank for Melanophryniscus species. Four species were set to high conservation priority: M. montevidensis, (100% of its original suitable range and all known occurrence points potentially lost by 2080, M. sp.2, M. cambaraensis, and M. tumifrons. Three species (M. spectabilis, M. stelzneri, and M. sp.3 were set between high to intermediate priority (more than 60% decrease in area predicted by 2080; nine species were ranked as intermediate priority, while eight species were ranked as low conservation priority. We suggest that monitoring and conservation actions should be focused primarily on those species and populations that are likely to lose the largest area of suitable climate and the largest number of known populations in the short-term.

  9. Phyllomedusa: Posição taxonômica, hábitos e biologia (Amphibia, anura, hylidae

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    Ulisses Caramaschi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis for the Hylidae family of tree-frogs, and diagnosis and included genera for the four subfamilies currently in this family, Hemiphractinae, Hylinae, Pelodryadinae, and Phyllomedusinae, are provided. The genera of the Phyllomedusinae subfamily, Agalychnis, Hylomantis, Pachymedusa, Phasmahyla, Phrynomedusa, and Phyllomedusa are diagnosed and the species included and their geographical distribution are referred. Notes on the habits and biology of members of the genus Phyllomedusa are presented.

  10. Temporal selectivity for complex signals by single neurons in the torus semicircularis of Pleurodema thaul (Amphibia:Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, M; Lin, W Y; Feng, A S

    1997-04-01

    Responses of auditory neurons in the torus semicircularis (TS) of Pleurodema thaul, a leptodactylid from Chile, to synthetic stimuli having diverse temporal patterns and to digitized advertisement calls of P. thaul and three sympatric species, were recorded to investigate their temporal response selectivities. The advertisement call of this species consists of a long sequence of sound pulses (a pulse-amplitude-modulated, or PAM, signal) having a dominant frequency of about 2000 Hz. Each of the sound pulses contains intra-pulse sinusoidal-amplitude-modulations (SAMs). Synthetic stimuli consisted of six series in which the following acoustic parameters were systematically modified, one at a time: PAM rate, pulse duration, number of pulses, and intra-pulse SAM rate. The carrier frequency of these stimuli was set at the characteristic frequency (CF) of the isolated units (n = 47). Response patterns of TS units to synthetic call variants reveal different degrees of selectivities for each of the temporal variables, with populations of neurons responding maximally to specific values found in the advertisement call of this species. These selectivities are mainly shaped by neuronal responsiveness to the overall sound energy of the stimulus and by the inability of neurons to discharge to short inter-pulse gaps.

  11. A new species of the genus Pristimantis (Amphibia, Craugastoridae) associated with the moderately elevated massifs of French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Martinez, Quentin; Courtois, Elodie A; Dewynter, Maël; Pineau, Kévin; Gaucher, Philippe; Blanc, Michel; Marty, Christian; Kok, Philippe J R

    2013-12-23

    We describe a new Pristimantis from French Guiana, northern South America, which is mainly distinguished from known phenotypically related congeners (i.e. species from the polyphyletic unistrigatus species group) occurring at low and middle elevations in the Guiana Shield by the combination of a distinct tympanum, a lower ratio of tibia vs. hand length, a reddish groin region, and a distinct advertisement call consisting of clusters of generally four short notes. The new species inhabits pristine primary forests on the slopes of isolated massifs reaching more than 400 m elevation, and seems not to occur below ca. 200 m above sea level. Such a sharp altitudinal limit suggests a strong influence of thermal variation on the distribution of the species, and therefore a potential sensitivity to climate change. With only nine isolated populations documented so far, the new species should be prioritized for conservation. Historical climate fluctuations during the Quaternary are likely responsible for the distribution pattern of the new species. 

  12. Amphibia, Anura, Centrolenidae, Hyalinobatrachium crurifasciatum Myers and Donnelly, 1997: First record from Brazil and geographic distribution map

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES,Domingos de Jesus; Lima, Marcelo de Morais; Morais, Drausio H. [UNESP; Kawashita-Ribeiro, Ricardo A.

    2010-01-01

    The current note reports the presence of Hyalinobatrachium crurifasciatum at municipality of Cotriguaçu, state of Mato Grosso, Central Brazil. This is the first occurrence of this species in Brazil. © 2010 Check List and Authors.

  13. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam : III. A new species of Dendrobates (Amphibia salientia, Dendrobatidae) from Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1969-01-01

    INTRODUCTION During a recent collecting trip, financed by grant W 956-2 from WOTRO (Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research), I spent 47 days (22 August-7 October 1968) on the Sipaliwini savannah in southern Surinam. The Sipaliwini savannah is part of an extensive savannah th

  14. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepack, Alexander; von May, Rudolf; Ttito, Alex; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristimantis lacrimosus and Pristimantis waoranii superficially most resemble the new species, but Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. differs from both species by having a rostral tubercle (absent in Pristimantis waoranii and variable in Pristimantis lacrimosus) and larger size, from Pristimantis lacrimosus by its call emitted at a lower frequency, and from Pristimantis waoranii for its dorsal coloration with dark markings. Two other species have partially overlapping distributions and resemble the new species, Pristimantis mendax and Pristimantis olivaceus, but they produce advertisement calls with much higher dominant frequencies than the advertisement call of the new species. Furthermore, Pristimantis mendax differs from the new species by lacking a rostral tubercle and by having a sigmoid inner tarsal fold, whereas Pristimantis olivaceus differs by being smaller and by having dorsal skin shagreen with scattered tubercles. The new species has snout-vent length of 21.8-26.9 mm in males (n = 12) and 28.8 mm in a single female.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanorana pleskei (Amphibia: Anura: Dicroglossidae and evolutionary characteristics of the amphibian mitochondrial genomes

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    Guiying CHEN, Bin WANG, Jiongyu LIU, Feng XIE, Jianping JIANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial genome of Nanorana pleskei from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was sequenced. It includes 17,660 base pairs, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNAs and 23 tRNAs. A tandem duplication of tRNAMet gene was found in this mitochondrial genome, and the similarity between the two tRNAMet genes is 85.8%, being the highest in amphibian mitochondrial genomes sequenced thus far. Based on gene organization, 24 types were found from 145 amphibian mitochondrial genomes. Type 1 was present in 108 species, type 11 in 11 species, types 5, 16, 17, and 20 each in two species, and the others each present in one species. Fifteen types were found in Anura, being the most diversity in three orders of the Lissamphibia. Our phylogenetic results using 11 protein-coding gene sequences of 145 amphibian mitochondrial genomes strongly support the monophyly of the Lissamphibia, as well as its three orders, the Gymnophiona, Caudata, and Anura, among which the relationships were ((Gymnophiona (Caudata, Anura. Based on the phylogenetic trees, type 1 was recognized as the ancestral type for amphibians, and type 11 was the synapomorphic type for the Neobatrachia. Gene rearrangements among lineages provide meaningful phylogenetic information. The rearrangement of the LTPF tRNA gene cluster and the translocation of the ND5 gene only found in the Neobatrachia support the monophyly of this group; similarly, the tandem duplication of the tRNAMet genes only found in the Dicroglossidae support the monophyly of this family [Current Zoology 57 (6: 785–805, 2011].

  16. Pseudophilautus dilmah, a new species of shrub frog (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae from a threatened habitat Loolkandura in Sri Lanka

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    L.J. Mendis Wickramasinghe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of shrub frog Pseudophilautus dilmah is described from the Central Hills of Sri Lanka.  This unique species is distinguished from all the other congeners from a combination of characters; snout rounded in lateral aspect, bluntly pointed in dorsal and ventral aspect, canthus rostralis rounded, vomerine teeth, lingual papilla and nuptial pads absent, dermal fringe distinct on inside of fingers III and IV, small blunt tubercles on metacarpal and ulnar folds, toes basally webbed, interorbital area smooth, upper eyelid prominent tubercles present, anterior and posterior dorsum without horny spinules but tubercles present, upper part of flank weakly granular, supratympanic fold distinct, prominent small calcar present at the distal end of the tibia, throat granular, chest and belly coarsely granular.  Based on comparison of 16s rRNA gene we also show that the species is genetically distinct from other members of Pseudophilautus for which gene sequences are available.  The high rate of deforestation and anthropogenic activities threaten this population in its natural habitat. 

  17. Observações anatômicas sôbre a larva de Thoropa miliaris (Amphibia, Leptodactylidae

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    Rudolf Barth

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available Die kaulquappe von Thoropa miliaris lebt in mittleren Lagen des Itatiáia-Gebirges (Staat Rio de Janeiro, in etwa 1650 m Hoebe, auf fast senkracht stehenden Felsplatten, ueber die staendig eine sehr duenne Schicht Wasser herablaeuft. Die Tiere haben keinen Flossensaum; der zwei- bis dreimal koerperlange Schwanz ist fast drehrund und besitzt an Stelle eines Flossensaumes nur einen ventralen Kiel, der die Schlaengelbewegung gegen den Wasserstrom unterstuetzt. Auch die juengsten Stadien haben keine aeusseren kiemen, sondern innere in einer Atemhoehle, deren Ausgang sich auf der linken Seite in der Mitte des Koerpers befindet. Die Tiere heften sich an den Steinen vermittels ihres sehr grossen Mundapparates fest. Die Lippen tragen zwei oder drei Reihen starker Keratin-Haken, die durch laufende Neubildung ersetzt werden. Die arbeitenden Spitzenzaehne des Hornschnabels in der Mundhoehle werden ebenfalls durch fortgesetztes Wachstum erneuert. Die Saugscheibenwirkung des Mundes wird durch ein Muskelpaar bedingt, das einerseits am Parasphenoid- und am Sphenethmoidknorpel, andererseits mit seinen unteren Buendeln am Prodentale (Spitze des Meckel'schen Knorpels, mit seinem oberen vermittels je zweier Sehnen am Promaxillare ansetzt. Durch die kontraktion dieser Muskeln wird das Prodentale nach oben und dann nach hinten, das Promaxillare (mit Gelenkstellen am Prointermaxillare und Pronasale nach oben und dann nach vorne gedreht. Hierdurch treten die beiden Kegel des Hornschnabels in die Mundhoehle, da sie den beiden Knorpeln fest aufsitzen. Bei starker Kontraktion werden die Knorpel auseinander gedrueckt und vergroessern die Mundhoehle. Wenn die Lippen, unterstuetzt von den Hakenreihen, fest dem Stein aufliegen, ergibt sich ein Unterdruck in der Mundhoehle, der genuegt, um die Larven auf der Unterlage festzuhalten. Das Loesen des Saugnapfes erfolgt durch die kontraktion einer Gruppe kleiner Muskelbuendel, die einerseits am Unterrand des Prodentale, andererseits an den falten der Unterlippe ansetzen.

  18. Highly complex mitochondrial DNA genealogy in an endemic Japanese subterranean breeding brown frog Rana tagoi (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Koshiro; Matsui, Masafumi; Sugahara, Takahiro; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko

    2012-10-01

    The endemic Japanese frog Rana tagoi is unique among Holarctic brown frogs in that it breeds in small subterranean streams. Using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes, we investigated genealogical relationships among geographic samples of this species together with its relative R. sakuraii, which is also a unique stream breeder. These two species together form a monophyletic group, within which both are reciprocally paraphyletic. Rana tagoi is divided into two major clades (Clade A and B) that are composed of 14 genetic groups. Rana sakuraii is included in Clade A and split into two genetic groups, one of which forms a clade (Subclade A-2) with sympatric R. tagoi. This species-level paraphyly appears to be caused by incomplete taxonomy, in addition to introgressive hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting. Rana tagoi strongly differs from other Japanese anurans in its geographic pattern of genetic differentiation, most probably in relation to its unique reproductive habits. Taxonomically, R. tagoi surely includes many cryptic species.

  19. Body size, reproduction and feeding ecology of Pleurodema diplolister (Amphibia: Anura: Leiuperidae from Caatinga, Pernambuco state, Northeastern Brazil

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    José Guilherme G. Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present data about body size, sexual dimorphism, reproductive traits and diet ecology of Pleurodoma diplolister. This species is sexually dimorphic with females larger than males, corroborating others Leiuperidae species. The number of eggs varied from 62 to 1241 and we found a positive relationship between SVL of females and number of mature ovarian eggs but there is no relationship between SVL and volume of eggs. The diet of P. diplolister was composed by 11 categories of which Formicidae, Coleoptera and Orthopterans were the most important items and showed generalist and oportunistic predator habits. Data presented here should be considered in the development of future conservation strategies of anurans from Caatinga biome and other semiarid/arid environments.

  20. Nueva especie de rana del género Pristimantis del grupo lacrimosus (Amphibia: Craugastoridae del Parque Nacional Sangay, Ecuador

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    Diego Batallas R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una nueva especie de rana terrestre del genero Pristimantis de tamaño mediano (LRC en machos desde 22.18 a 25.13 mm descubierta en los bosques nublados de las estribaciones orientales del Parque Nacional Sangay, al centro oriente de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 2750 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis latericius sp. nov., al grupo Pristimantis lacrimosus, el cual se diferencia del resto de miembros de este grupo por presentar tubérculos prominentes en el parpado superior y una coloración rojo anaranjado en el dorso. Las llamadas son cortas, conformadas por una sola nota y dos bandas armónicas. Importantes levantamientos de información faunística se han venido generando en los últimos años en el Parque Nacional Sangay, sin embargo es necesario incrementar estudios que ayuden a documentar la ecología e historia natural de los anfibios, ya que sin lugar a dudas ayudaran a comprender procesos ecológicos. El descubrimiento de esta y otras nuevas especies en este sector, demuestra su importancia biológica confortando al desarrollo de planes de conservación en este importante Patrimonio Natural de la Humanidad.

  1. Mollusca, Hirudinea, and Amphibia biogeography and paleobiology in Tule Valley and adjacent regions of Bonneville Basin, western USA [draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mollusk, leeches (Hirudinea), and amphibian distribution are described for Tule Valley and adjacent Snake Valley and Fish Springs Flat, Tule Valley aquatic resources...

  2. A new species of Pristimantis (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the foothills of the Andes in Manu National Park, southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepack, Alexander; von May, Rudolf; Ttito, Alex; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid sub-montane forest of the Región Cusco in Peru. Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. was collected in the Kosñipata and Entoro valleys at elevations from 740 to 1110 m a.s.l., near the borders of Manu National Park and within the Huachiperi Haramba Queros Conservation Concession. The new species can be distinguished from other members of the genus Pristimantis by its rostral tubercle, smooth dorsal skin, and by its advertisement call. Pristimantis lacrimosus and Pristimantis waoranii superficially most resemble the new species, but Pristimantis pluvialis sp. n. differs from both species by having a rostral tubercle (absent in Pristimantis waoranii and variable in Pristimantis lacrimosus) and larger size, from Pristimantis lacrimosus by its call emitted at a lower frequency, and from Pristimantis waoranii for its dorsal coloration with dark markings. Two other species have partially overlapping distributions and resemble the new species, Pristimantis mendax and Pristimantis olivaceus, but they produce advertisement calls with much higher dominant frequencies than the advertisement call of the new species. Furthermore, Pristimantis mendax differs from the new species by lacking a rostral tubercle and by having a sigmoid inner tarsal fold, whereas Pristimantis olivaceus differs by being smaller and by having dorsal skin shagreen with scattered tubercles. The new species has snout-vent length of 21.8–26.9 mm in males (n = 12) and 28.8 mm in a single female. PMID:27408563

  3. Lsh Is Essential for Maintaining Global DNA Methylation Levels in Amphibia and Fish and Interacts Directly with Dnmt1

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    Donncha S. Dunican

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genomes are methylated at cytosine bases in the context of CpG dinucleotides, a pattern which is maintained through cell division by the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1. Dramatic methylation losses are observed in plant and mouse cells lacking Lsh (lymphoid specific helicase, predominantly at repetitive sequences and gene promoters. However, the mechanism by which Lsh contributes to the maintenance of DNA methylation is unknown. Here we show that DNA methylation is lost in Lsh depleted frog and fish embryos, both of which exhibit developmental delay. Additionally, we show that both Lsh and Dnmt1 are associated with chromatin and that Lsh knockdown leads to a decreased Dnmt1-chromatin association. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal that Lsh and Dnmt1 are found in the same protein complex, and pulldowns show this interaction is direct. Our data indicate that Lsh is usually diffuse in the nucleus but can be recruited to heterochromatin in a HP1α-dependent manner. These data together (a show that the role of Lsh in DNA methylation is conserved in plants, amphibian, fish, and mice and (b support a model in which Lsh contributes to Dnmt1 binding to chromatin, explaining how its loss can potentially lead to perturbations in DNA methylation maintenance.

  4. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia

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    Prehn Lea R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three kidney systems appear during vertebrate development: the pronephroi, mesonephroi and metanephroi. The pronephric duct is the first or primary ureter of these kidney systems. Its role as a key player in the induction of nephrogenic mesenchyme is well established. Here we investigate whether the duct is involved in urine modification using larvae of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl as model. Results We investigated structural as well as physiological properties of the pronephric duct. The key elements of our methodology were: using histology, light and transmission electron microscopy as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy on fixed tissue and applying the microperfusion technique on isolated pronephric ducts in combination with single cell microelectrode impalements. Our data show that the fully differentiated pronephric duct is composed of a single layered epithelium consisting of one cell type comparable to the principal cell of the renal collecting duct system. The cells are characterized by a prominent basolateral labyrinth and a relatively smooth apical surface with one central cilium. Cellular impalements demonstrate the presence of apical Na+ and K+ conductances, as well as a large K+ conductance in the basolateral cell membrane. Immunolabeling experiments indicate heavy expression of Na+/K+-ATPase in the basolateral labyrinth. Conclusions We propose that the pronephric duct is important for the subsequent modification of urine produced by the pronephros. Our results indicate that it reabsorbs sodium and secretes potassium via channels present in the apical cell membrane with the driving force for ion movement provided by the Na+/K+ pump. This is to our knowledge the first characterization of the pronephric duct, the precursor of the collecting duct system, which provides a model of cell structure and basic mechanisms for ion transport. Such information may be important in understanding the evolution of vertebrate kidney systems and human diseases associated with congenital malformations.

  5. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Birgitte M; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jespersen, Åse

    2010-01-01

    whether the duct is involved in urine modification using larvae of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) as model. Results We investigated structural as well as physiological properties of the pronephric duct. The key elements of our methodology were: using histology, light...

  6. [Specific growth rate and the rate of energy metabolism in the ontogenesis of axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, I G; Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Alekseeva, T A; Radzinskaia, L I

    2003-01-01

    Concordant changes in the rate of energy metabolism and specific growth rate of axolotls have been revealed. Several periods of ontogeny are distinguished, which differ in the ratio of energy metabolism to body weight and, therefore, are described by different allometric equations. It is suggested that the specific growth rate of an animal determines the type of dependence of energy metabolism on body weight.

  7. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Birgitte M; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jespersen, Åse;

    2010-01-01

    whether the duct is involved in urine modification using larvae of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) as model. Results We investigated structural as well as physiological properties of the pronephric duct. The key elements of our methodology were: using histology, light...... duct system, which provides a model of cell structure and basic mechanisms for ion transport. Such information may be important in understanding the evolution of vertebrate kidney systems and human diseases associated with congenital malformations....

  8. Long bone histology of the stem salamander Kokartus honorarius (Amphibia: Caudata) from the Middle Jurassic of Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutschas, Pavel; Stein, Koen

    2015-04-01

    Kokartus honorarius from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Kyrgyzstan is one of the oldest salamanders in the fossil record, characterized by a mixture of plesiomorphic morphological features and characters shared with crown-group salamanders. Here we present a detailed histological analysis of its long bones. The analysis of a growth series demonstrates a significant histological maturation during ontogeny, expressed by the progressive appearance of longitudinally oriented primary vascular canals, primary osteons, growth marks, remodelling features in primary bone tissues, as well as progressive resorption of the calcified cartilage, formation of endochondral bone and development of cartilaginous to bony trabeculae in the epiphyses. Apart from the presence of secondary osteons, the long bone histology of Kokartus is very similar to that of miniaturized temnospondyls, other Jurassic stem salamanders, miniaturized seymouriamorphs and modern crown-group salamanders. We propose that the presence of secondary osteons in Kokartus honorarius is a plesiomorphic feature, and the loss of secondary osteons in the long bones of crown-group salamanders as well as in those of miniaturized temnospondyls is the result of miniaturization processes. Hitherto, all stem salamander long bong histology (Kokartus, Marmorerpeton and 'salamander A') has been generally described as having paedomorphic features (i.e. the presence of Katschenko's Line and a layer of calcified cartilage), these taxa were thus most likely neotenic forms. The absence of clear lines of arrested growth and annuli in long bones of Kokartus honorarius suggests that the animals lived in an environment with stable local conditions.

  9. Advertisement call of Scinax littoralis and S. angrensis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae, with notes on the reproductive activity of S. littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel V. Garey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Scinax littoralis and S. angrensis are poorly known Atlantic forest endemic species from the Scinax catharinae group, which is known from southern and southeastern Brazil. Herein, we describe the advertisement calls of these two species and compare them to other species within the S. catharinae group. Additionally, we provide information on breeding sites, and calling activity in S. littoralis. Advertisement calls of S. angrensis and S. littoralis are composed of multi-pulsed notes with multiple frequency bands and frequency modulation. Scinax littoralis has a higher minimum and maximum frequency, and lower dominant frequency than S. angrensis, while Scinax littoralis has a longer call. Scinax littoralis appears to be a habitat generalist, occurring from secondary to mature forests, and breeding both in temporary and in permanent ponds. Male S. littoralis were usually observed calling perched on shrub stems, and displayed satellite behavior when the male density was high.

  10. The prevalence of genome replacement in unisexual salamanders of the genus Ambystoma (Amphibia, Caudata revealed by nuclear gene genealogy

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    Bogart James P

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unisexual salamanders of the genus Ambystoma exemplify the most ancient lineage of unisexual vertebrates and demonstrate an extremely flexible reproductive system. Unisexual Ambystoma interact with and incorporate genomes from two to four sexual species (A. laterale, A. jeffersonianum,A. texanum, and A. tigrinum, to generate more than 20 genome compositions or biotypes. Unisexual ploidy levels range from diploid to pentaploid, but all contain at least one A. laterale (L genome. Replacement of nuclear genomes might be responsible for the evolutionary longevity of unisexual Ambystoma but direct evidence for the prevalence of genome replacement in natural populations is absent. Two major puzzling questions have remained unanswered over the last few decades: 1 is genome replacement a common reproductive method in various unisexual populations and, 2 is there an ancient "L" genome that persists in various unisexual genome compositions. Results We examined 194 unisexual and 89 A. laterale specimens from 97 localities throughout their range and constructed a genealogy of the "L" genomes using a nuclear DNA marker (L-G1C12 to answer the above questions. Six L-G1C12 haplotypes (A-F were shared by individuals in various A. laterale and unisexual populations. The general geographical distribution of the haplotypes in unisexual populations conformed to those found in A. laterale, indicating that "L" genomes in unisexuals are obtained from sympatric or nearby populations of A. laterale. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that genome replacement frequently occurs in unisexual Ambystoma across their range, and support previous speculations that genome replacement is an important reproductive mechanism that can enhance their evolutionary longevity. Our results show that there is no ancient "L" genome in the unisexual lineages, and no particular "L" genome is favored in any unisexual individual. The presence of an "L" genome in all unisexuals implies that it is important to the maintenance of unisexuals. Nuclear gene genealogy is a powerful tool to examine the historical interaction between sperm-dependent unisexuals and their sexual sperm donors. This methodology could be applicable to many other unisexual lineages to improve our understanding of their reproduction and their ability to persist.

  11. COI is better than 16S rRNA for DNA barcoding Asiatic salamanders (Amphibia: Caudata: Hynobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Gu, Hai-Feng; Peng, Rui; Chen, Qin; Zheng, Yu-Chi; Murphy, Robert W; Zeng, Xiao-Mao

    2012-01-01

    The 5' region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) is the standard marker for DNA barcoding. However, because COI tends to be highly variable in amphibians, sequencing is often challenging. Consequently, another mtDNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, is often advocated for amphibian barcoding. Herein, we directly compare the usefulness of COI and 16S in discriminating species of hynobiid salamanders using 130 individuals. Species identification and classification of these animals, which are endemic to Asia, are often based on morphology only. Analysis of Kimura 2-parameter genetic distances (K2P) documents the mean intraspecific variation for COI and 16S rRNA genes to be 1.4% and 0.3%, respectively. Whereas COI can always identify species, sometimes 16S cannot. Intra- and interspecific genetic divergences occasionally overlap in both markers, thus reducing the value of a barcoding gap to identify genera. Regardless, COI is the better DNA barcoding marker for hynobiids. In addition to the comparison of two potential markers, high levels of intraspecific divergence in COI (>5%) suggest that both Onychodactylus fischeri and Salamandrella keyserlingii might be composites of cryptic species.

  12. Morphological variation in two genetically distinct groups of the golden-striped salamander, Chioglossa lusitanica (Amphibia: Urodela)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrino, J.; Ferrand, N.; Arntzen, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Morphometric and colour pattern variation in the endemic Iberian salamander Chioglossa lusitanica is concordant with the genetic differentiation of two groups of populations separated by the Mondego river in Portugal. Salamanders from the south have shorter digits than those from the north. Clinal v

  13. [Ploidy and genetic structure of hybrid populations of water frogs Pelophylax esculentus (L., 1758) complex (Amphibia, Ranidae) of Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhzherin, S V; Morozov-Leonov, S Iu; Rostovskaia, O V; Shabanov, D A; Sobolenko, L Iu

    2010-01-01

    The present study of green frog hybrid populations of Ukraine, including analysis of allozyme variability and planimetric analysis oferythrocytes size has confirmed that the unique region in this area is the Severski Donets basin The allopolyploid individuals there are met very frequently (5.7% of all investigated frogs). In other areas of Ukraine only two polyploid hybrids have been recorded. Beside that, one frog was defined as triploid Rana ridibundus. According to our investigations, all triploid hybrids from the Severski Donets basin are identified as P. esculentu (=lessonae)--2 ridibundus males.

  14. Ultrastructure variation in the spermatozoa of Pseudopaludicola frogs (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae), with brief comments on its phylogenetic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Julio Sérgio; Introíni, Gisele Orlandi; Veiga-Menoncello, Ana Cristina Prado; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria

    2015-12-01

    The taxonomic history of the small frogs of the genus Pseudopaludicola from South America has been controversial. Phylogenetic inferences based on molecular data have identified four Pseudopaludicola clades, correlating with the known variation in karyotypes (2n = 22, 20, 18, and 16). In this study, the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa was analyzed in 12 species of the Pseudopaludicola, with the aim of describing their morphology and identifying characters that may contribute to a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships. The spermatozoa presented marked differences in tail structures. The tails of the spermatozoa of the species with 2n = 22 chromosomes (Pseudopaludicola sp. 1 [P. pusilla group], Pseudopaludicola falcipes, P. mineira, and Pseudopaludicola saltica), as well as Pseudopaludicola ameghini and Pseudopaludicola ternetzi (2n=20), have juxta-axonemal fibers, undulating membranes and axial fibers. In contrast, in the species with 2n = 18 (P. facureae, P. giarettai, Pseudopaludicola canga, P. atragula, and Pseudopaludicola sp. 2) and 2n = 16 (Pseudopaludicola mystacalis), there are no evident axial or juxta-axonemal fibers, but a paraxonemal rod with a thick undulating membrane, which is shorter than that found among Pseudopaludicola species. The ultrastructural morphological differences observed in the spermatozoa of these species may be phylogenetically informative, given that they coincide with the consensus phylogeny of the group and appear to represent a progressive simplification of the spermatozoon.

  15. Conservation genetics of evolutionary lineages of the endangered mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa (Amphibia: Ranidae), in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoville, Sean D.; Tustall, Tate S.; Vredenburg, Vance T.; Backlin, Adam R.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Wood, Dustin A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Severe population declines led to the listing of southern California Rana muscosa (Ranidae) as endangered in 2002. Nine small populations inhabit watersheds in three isolated mountain ranges, the San Gabriel, San Bernardino and San Jacinto. One population from the Dark Canyon tributary in the San Jacinto Mountains has been used to establish a captive breeding population at the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research. Because these populations may still be declining, it is critical to gather information on how genetic variation is structured in these populations and what historical inter-population connectivity existed between populations. Additionally, it is not clear whether these populations are rapidly losing genetic diversity due to population bottlenecks. Using mitochondrial and microsatellite data, we examine patterns of genetic variation in southern California and one of the last remaining populations of R. muscosa in the southern Sierra Nevada. We find low levels of genetic variation within each population and evidence of genetic bottlenecks. Additionally, substantial population structure is evident, suggesting a high degree of historical isolation within and between mountain ranges. Based on estimates from a multi-population isolation with migration analysis, these populations diversified during glacial episodes of the Pleistocene, with little gene flow during population divergence. Our data demonstrate that unique evolutionary lineages of R. muscosa occupy each mountain range in southern California and should be managed separately. The captive breeding program at Dark Canyon is promising, although mitigating the loss of neutral genetic diversity relative to the natural population might require additional breeding frogs.

  16. The pelvic kidney of male Ambystoma maculatum (Amphibia, urodela, ambystomatidae) with special reference to the sexual collecting ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Dustin S; Sever, David M; Aldridge, Robert D

    2010-12-01

    This study details the gross and microscopic anatomy of the pelvic kidney in male Ambystoma maculatum. The nephron of male Ambystoma maculatum is divided into six distinct regions leading sequentially away from a renal corpuscle: (1) neck segment, which communicates with the coelomic cavity via a ventrally positioned pleuroperitoneal funnel, (2) proximal tubule, (3) intermediate segment, (4) distal tubule, (5) collecting tubule, and (6) collecting duct. The proximal tubule is divided into a vacuolated proximal region and a distal lysosomic region. The basal plasma membrane is modified into intertwining microvillus lamellae. The epithelium of the distal tubule varies little along its length and is demarcated by columns of mitochondria with their long axes oriented perpendicular to the basal lamina. The distal tubule possesses highly interdigitating microvillus lamellae from the lateral membranes and pronounced foot processes of the basal membrane that are not intertwined, but perpendicular to the basal lamina. The collecting tubule is lined by an epithelium with dark and light cells. Light cells are similar to those observed in the distal tuble except with less mitochondria and microvillus lamellae of the lateral and basal plasma membrane. Dark cells possess dark euchromatic nuclei and are filled with numerous small mitochondria. The epithelium of the neck segment, pleuroperitoneal funnel, and intermediate segment is composed entirely of ciliated cells with cilia protruding from only the central portion of the apical plasma membrane. The collecting duct is lined by a highly secretory epithelium that produces numerous membrane bound granules that stain positively for neutral carbohydrates and proteins. Apically positioned ciliated cells are intercalated between secretory cells. The collecting ducts anastomose caudally and unite with the Wolffian duct via a common collecting duct. The Wolffian duct is secretory, but not to the extent of the collecting duct, synthesizes neutral carbohydrates and proteins, and is also lined by apical ciliated cells intercalated between secretory cells. Although functional aspects associated with the morphological variation along the length of the proximal portions of the nephron have been investigated, the role of a highly secretory collecting duct has not. Historical data that implicated secretory activity concordant with mating activity, and similarity of structure and chemistry to sexual segments of the kidneys in other vertebrates, lead us to believe that the collecting duct functions as a secondary sexual organ in Ambystoma maculatum.

  17. A skeletochronological study of growth, longevity, and age at sexual maturity in a population of Rana latastei (Amphibia, Anura)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabio M Guarino; Silvia Lunardi; Michela Carlomagno; Stefano Mazzotti

    2003-12-01

    Longevity and age at sexual maturity in an Italian population of Rana latastei were studied by skeletochronology performed on the phalanges. Frogs collected in 1998 and 1999 by drift fences and pitfall traps were marked by toe-clipping. After marking, individuals were released and the cut phalanges were processed for skeletochronological analysis. The maximum age so far recorded was 3 years in males and 4 years in females. The smallest male and female that were sexually mature on the basis of histological analysis of the gonads were 36 and 35 mm snout vent length (SVL), respectively. In both sexes, most individuals were estimated to breed shortly after emergence from their first overwintering. Among the European Brown Frogs, Rana latastei appears to be one of the shortest-lived and one of the first to reach sexual maturity.

  18. A new species of skin-feeding caecilian and the first report of reproductive mode in Microcaecilia (amphibia: Gymnophiona: Siphonopidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wilkinson

    Full Text Available A new species of siphonopid caecilian, Microcaecilia dermatophagasp. nov., is described based on nine specimens from French Guiana. The new species is the first new caecilian to be described from French Guiana for more than 150 years. It differs from all other Microcaecilia in having fewer secondary annular grooves and/or in lacking a transverse groove on the dorsum of the first collar. Observations of oviparity and of extended parental care in M. dermatophaga are the first reproductive mode data for any species of the genus. Microcaecilia dermatophaga is the third species, and represents the third genus, for which there has been direct observation of young animals feeding on the skin of their attending mother. The species is named for this maternal dermatophagy, which is hypothesised to be characteristic of the Siphonopidae.

  19. A new species of the Pristimantis orestes group (Amphibia: Strabomantidae) from the high Andes of Ecuador, Reserva Mazar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayasamin, Juan M; Arteaga, Alejandro F

    2013-02-21

    We describe a new Pristimantis from La Libertad and Rumiloma, Reserva Mazar, Andes of Southeastern Ecuador, at elevations between 2895-3415 m. This species is assigned to the P. orestes group, from whose members it differs by its small body size (adult males ≤ 18.1 mm; adult females ≤ 23.7 mm), usually reticulated ventral pattern, and visible tympanum. The vocalization of the new species consists of a series of calls; each call is composed by a pulsed, non-modulated note in frequency, and with a dominant frequency of 3122-3171 Hz. A molecular phylogeny based on a fragment of the mitochondrial gene 12S shows that the new species is sister to Pristimantis simonbolivari.

  20. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea) parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Melo, Caroline do Socorro Barros; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-06-07

    Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles) and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Distribution of tadpoles of Ollotis occidentalis (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae along the Río Salado, Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Woolrich-Piña

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined monthly variation in the characteristics of river sections along the Río Salado (Puebla, Mexico and how these factors were associated with the dis- tribution of the tadpoles of the toad Ollotis occidentalis. Tadpoles were observed in the river in March 2007, and from November 2007 through February 2008 and were only found in the main river channel. Sections of the Río Salado with tadpoles were deeper, wider, and longer than sections without tadpoles. Dissolved oxygen levels were higher and salinity was lower in river sections with tadpoles compared to the sections without tadpoles. There was no difference in temperature between sections with and without tadpoles. Tadpoles were found in river sections that contained more vegeta- tion than river section without tadpoles. Our results suggest that the distribution of tadpoles of O. occidentalis is related to the permanence of water, the chemical nature of the water, and the presence of vegetation.

  2. A new rainfrog of the Pristimantis myersi Group (Amphibia, Craugastoridae) from Volcán Pichincha, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; C, J Amanda Delgado; Guayasamin, Juan M

    2014-03-20

    A new frog of the Pristimantis myersi Group is described from a bamboo patch within the Reserva Ecológica Verdecocha (0°5'46.9"S, 78°36'15.3"W; 2851 m), located at northwestern flank of the Volcán Pichincha, in the vicinities of Quito, Ecuador. The new species is known from eight adult males, whereas the females remain unknown; it can be readily distinguished from all species of the P. myersi Group that inhabit the highlands of the Ecuadorian Andes by the unique combination of the following characters: body small (adult male SVL 14.9-19.7 mm; females unknown); dorsal skin shagreen, with a barely visible middorsal raphe, scapular and dorsolateral folds; tympanum small but well-defined; upper eyelid with one enlarged tubercle; males with prominent vocal slits, but without nuptial pads on thumbs; fold-like tarsal tubercles. With this new species, the number of Pristimantis assigned to the P. myersi Group raises to 16, of which, 12 are in Ecuador. We provide notes on morphology and color variation, advertisement call, and natural history of the new species.

  3. A new species of Bolitoglossa (Amphibia, Caudata) from the Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovito, Sean M; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Lee, Dana; Wake, David B

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new species of Bolitoglossa (Nanotriton) from the Sierra de Juárez and Sierra Mixe of Oaxaca, Mexico. Bolitoglossa chinantecasp. n. is distinguished from the three other species in the subgenus Nanotriton by its more robust body, by having substantial numbers of maxillary teeth and differences in relative head width, foot width, and limb length. The new species occurs in sympatry with Bolitoglossa (Nanotriton) rufescens at the type locality. The description of another species of salamander from the Sierra de Juárez is noteworthy, given the already high plethodontid salamander species richness of the region.

  4. The fossil vertebrates of Ksâr'akil, a palaeolithic rock shelter in the Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1961-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction................... 4 Systematic part.................. 5 Pisces.................... 5 Amphibia................... 6 Hyla arborea (L.) subsp............... 6 Reptilia................... 6 Testudo spec.................. 6 Ophisaurus apodus (Pallas).............. 8 Chamaeleo chama

  5. Análisis descriptivo y experimental de los procesos de diferenciación del área cardíaca de Bufo arenarum

    OpenAIRE

    Paz, Dante Agustín

    1987-01-01

    La diferenciación tisular, la constitución de la forma y la aparición de la función de los distintos órganos embrionarios, dependen de complicados procesos que involucran interacciones específicas entre las varias células y entre grupos celulares de distinto significado. No escapa de esta vasta problemática, la diferenciación del área cardíaca para la que intervienen interacciones celulares y más específicamente mecanismos de inducción embrionaria. Por lo tanto hemos considerado de interes re...

  6. Determination of pesticide aerial drift and associated effects to the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) at Mortenson and Hutton National Wildlife Refuges and potential reintroduction sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The endangered Wyoming toad is confined to Mortenson National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in southeast Wyoming. Reasons for the decline of the toad are unknown, but it is...

  7. Estructura y composición de la comunidad de Anuros (Amphibia en tres bosques en El Santuario De Fauna y Flora Otún Quimbaya, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez E. David

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la estructura y composición de la comunidad de anuros en tres bosques reforestados con roble, urapán y urapán-roble, en el SFF Otún Quimbaya. Un total de seis especies pertenecientes a dos familias (Leptodactylidae y Dendrobatidae fueron encontradas. A partir de tres parcelas ubicadas en cada uno de los bosques, se determinó que la riqueza y diversidad de especies fue mayor en el bosque de roble seguido por urapán-roble y por último urapán. Las
    especies registradas entre urapán y urapán-roble presentan alta similaridad. A partir de la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis se determinó que las variables microclimáticas y de hábitat no presentan
    diferencias significativas entre los tres bosques, a excepción de la altura del mantillo, la cual fue mayor para el bosque de roble, seguida por el de urapán-roble y de urapán. Los valores arrojados por los índices de Margalef y Shannon se  correlacionaron con la altura del mantillo, por lo cual se atribuye a esta variable el patrón de diversidad presentado por los tres bosques.

  8. Temporada e turno de vocalização de Leptodactylus natalensis Lutz, 1930 (Amphibia, Anura na mata atlântica de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Oliveira de Amorim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de vocalização de uma população de Leptodactylus natalensis foi monitorada em uma poça temporária entre novembro/2002 e outubro/2004. A poça está situada em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica conhecido como Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, município de Igarassu, Estado de Pernambuco. Os animais apresentaram-se ativos na maioria dos meses, apresentando picos na estação seca. A atividade de vocalização foi registrada durante o dia e a noite. Houve influência negativa e significativa entre a atividade vocal e a temperatura. O número de indivíduos vocalizando não foi significantemente afetado pela precipitação pluviométrica, mas o foi pelo número de fêmeas no ambiente. Verificou-se uma grande plasticidade na atividade de vocalização de L. natalensis durante a temporada e turno.Vocalizations of a population of Leptodactylus natalensis were monitored in a temporary pond from November 2002 to October 2004. This pond is located in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest belonging to the private Ecologic Refuge Charles Darwin, in the city of Igarassu, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Individuals were active during most of the studied months, with peaks of activity during dry season. Vocal activity was recorded both in day and nighttime. There was a significant negative effect of temperature on vocal activity. The number of individuals vocalizing was not affected significantly by rainfall, but it was by the number of females on the environment. A great plasticity of vocal activities of L. natalensis was verified, both in season and turn.

  9. Additional Record of Megophrys caudoprocta (Amphibia, Megophryidae)%尾突角蟾Megophrys caudoprocta(两栖纲,角蟾科)的进一步记述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈猷慧; 谷祺; 廖春林

    2013-01-01

    尾突角蟾(Megophrys caudoprocta Shen,1994)具有非常特殊的特征,它们的尾杆骨(urostyle)长,超过坐骨(ischium)后缘,支持着尾突(caudal projection);泄殖孔(cloacal pore)在股间后缘向腹面开口;上眼睑(upper eyelid)前部大,有一三角形突起向侧后突出.这些特征有别于角蟾属其他物种,有重要研究价值.近年来在模式标本产地又采到1雌2雄,先后共4号成体标本,本文对其形态特征,生物学资料和分布作了进一步记述,并拍摄到原色生态照片.%Megophrys caudoprocta Shen,1994 has several unique characteristics.Its urostyle is longer beyond the back fringe of ischium to support its caudal projection.The cloacal pore between the two posterior margins opens to the ventral.The anterior part of the upper eyelids is larger than posterior part and has a triangolar projection pointed posterolaterally.All these unique characteristics are different from any other congeneric species.Recently,three specimens including one female and two male were collected in Type locality.Here reported are the morphology,biological information and its distribution based on the further investigation on the Topospecimens.

  10. MORPHOMETRICAL STUDY ON POPULATIONS OF THE GENUS FEIRANA (AMPHIBIA,ANURA,RANIDAE)%隆肛蛙属种群形态量度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 江建平; 陈晓虹; 谢锋; 郑中华

    2007-01-01

    对隆肛蛙属Feirana中隆肛蛙F.quadrana和太行隆肛蛙F.taihangnicus的15个种群565只标本的28项形态性状进行了测量,并运用典型判别分析法对其进行分析,分析结果表明:1)太行隆肛蛙和隆肛蛙的形态差异明显,形态度量信息支持太行隆肛蛙与隆肛蛙是不同的物种;2)原隆肛蛙河南伏牛山种群和山西中条山种群均为太行隆肛蛙的地理种群;3)隆肛蛙的种群间形态差异明显,其中四川安县种群、陕西周至种群和湖北利川种群与模式产地重庆巫山种群的差异可能达到了亚种或亚种以上分化水平.

  11. 西藏聂拉木地区波留宁棘蛙的记述%DESCRIPTION OF PAA POLUNINI SMITH (AMPHIBIA: RANIDAE) FROM NYALAM OF XIZANG, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梁; 叶昌媛

    2001-01-01

    @@ 有关西藏聂拉木的亚东蛙Rana yadongensisWu的分类问题,曾在《西藏两栖爬行动物》(胡淑琴,1987)已有讨论,文中指出聂拉木的标本与亚东者有“变异”,并言:“Dubois(1979)根据地理分布将分布于亚东的亚东蛙作为布兰福棘蛙Rana(Paa) blanfordii Boulenger之异名;分布于聂拉木的标本可能属于波留宁棘蛙Rana(Paa)polunini Smith.”当时由于缺乏尼泊尔的标本对证,该书暂未采用Dubois上述意见.费梁等(1990)将亚东蛙改隶为亚东棘蛙Paa yadongensis.1994年11月和1996年4月我们与法国学者Dubois教授在互访成都和巴黎期间,先后两次共同核查了亚东、聂拉木和尼泊尔3地的标本.

  12. 西藏湍流蛙类一新种%A NEW SPECIES OF CASCADE FROG (AMPHIBIA, RANIDAE) FROM TIBET, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丕鹏; 陆宇燕; 饶定齐

    2008-01-01

    A new cascade frog, superficially resembling Odorrana graminea, O. chloronta and 0. k,k/a in having green color dorsally and ventral circummarginal grooves around the discs of the fingers, has been found in M&iog County of Tibet (Xizang Autonomous Region), China. The new species (Odorrana zhaoi) is characterized by a combination of the following main attributes: 1) a golden upper lip strip from tip of snout and along the upper jaws extending to insertion of arm; 2) tympanum circular, very distinct and depressed with rim, TD: ED 0.56 in male; 3) dorsolateral fold weak, dorsum smooth except granular in posterior part, venter smooth except for a granular region under the thighs; 4) limbs with transverse bands of disdnct blotches to tips of digits; 5) Tips of all fingers expanded with ventral circummarginal grooves, about 1.5 to two times the width of phalanges in figures Ⅲ and Ⅳ ; 6) inner metatarsal tubercle disdnct and ovoid, no outer metatarsal tubercle; 7) feet fully webbed to disks; 8) male with velvety nuptial pad on thumb, paired external subgular pouches but no hurneral glands, fine spinules in an ovoid duster on throat and chest.%在西藏墨脱采集到1种与Odorrana graminea、O.chloronota和O.livida体背绿色和指端膨大具沟的湍流蛙类相近的物种,经鉴定为新种,命名为墨脱臭蛙Odorrana zhaoi.新种具有以下主要特征:上唇缘具有金黄色条纹;鼓膜圆形,显著,TD:ED为0.56;背侧褶弱,背部皮肤除后部有小疣粒外光滑,体侧有疣粒和小刺;4肢背面有横斑纹;无外蹠突;雄性具1对外声囊和咽胸部椭圆形小刺团,无肱腺.

  13. Analysis on the Karyotype of 3 Species of Anura (Amphibia)%三种无尾两栖类核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊森; 柳劲松; 美亦省; 杨春江

    1989-01-01

    @@ 在六、七十年代,国外关于无尾两栖类组型的分析及比较研究进行了大量工作,国内吴政安(1981)杨慧一(1978)、李树深(1981)、陈文远等(1983)也相继报导了不少种蛙的染色体组型.本文以齐市地区性成熟的东北雨蛙(Hyla japonica)黑斑蛙(Rana nigromaculata)和黑龙江林蛙(Rana amuresis)为材料,采用改良的两栖类骨髓细胞染色体标片制作法,对以上三种无尾两栖类进行了初步的分析研究.

  14. 我国臭蛙属(两栖纲:蛙科)的系统发育%PHYLOGENY OF GENUS ODORRANA(AMPHIBIA: RANIDAE) IN CHINA*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶昌媛; 费梁

    2001-01-01

    为探讨臭蛙属的种间亲缘关系与其起源和分化,采用PAUP3.1软件对我国的16种臭蛙的29项分类性状进行系统发育关系的研究.结果表明,臭蛙属物种形成1个单系群,可以划分为4个种组;表明了臭蛙属中国物种间的亲缘关系;无指盘臭蛙和云南臭蛙是本属中最原始的物种,鸭嘴臭蛙等是较特化的物种;原始臭蛙可能起源于横断山区和云南西部高原,贵州高原可能是臭蛙的分化中心;各种组内相近种的地理替代呈南北方向更替,而种组间则呈东西方向更替;原始物种多分布于中国西南部,较进化或特化物种多分布于中国东部和东南部及海岛上;其种组亲缘关系与地理分布格局显示出一致性.

  15. Seasonal variation in the leaf-litter frog community (Amphibia: Anura from an Atlantic Forest Area in the Salto Morato Natural Reserve, southern Brazil

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    Manuela Santos-Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we provide the first data regarding community parameters of leaf-litter anurans inhabiting a forest floor in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, including information on community species richness, composition, specific density and biomass. Our study was conducted at Salto Morato Natural Reserve using forty plots of 4 x 4 m for each one of the four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn, totaling 2.560 m² of forest floor sampled. We sampled a total of 96 frogs inhabiting the forest floor, belonging to seven species: Brachycephalus hermogenesi (Giaretta & Sawaya, 1998, Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864, Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824, Leptodactylus gr. marmoratus, Physalaemus spiniger (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Proceratophrys boiei (Wied-Neuwied, 1824, and Rhinella abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004. The overall frog density in the forest floor was 3.73 ind/100m², with I. guentheri (1.37 ind/100 m² being the most common species and R. abei (0.19 ind/100 m², the rarest. The estimated overall frog mass in the community was 3.29 g. The abundance, richness and density varied consistently among the four seasons sampled, with the highest values occurring in the spring and summer seasons.

  16. Nueva especie de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, meseta de la Dordillera del Cóndor

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    Jorge Brito M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una especie nueva, de mediano tamaño (LRC en la hembra 21.7-24.9 mm; en machos 15.2-17.8 mm, de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis proveniente de la meseta de arenisca de la Cordillera del Cóndor, del sureste de Ecuador, con una elevacion de 2300 m. La nueva especie difiere de sus congéneres presentes en Ecuador por su patrón distintivo de coloración, superficie dorsal pardo ocráceo con numerosas manchas amarillentas, membrana timpánica presente, dedos pediales y manuales cortos y microhábitat exclusivo en bromelias terrestres. Las llamadas son largas, de frecuencia modulada, conformada por 6-8 notas y un armónico. La descripción de Pristimantis paquishae sp. nov., es el resultado de un levantamiento de información de la herpetofauna, en una de las mesetas de arenisca remotas y menos conocidas, en la Cordillera del Cóndor.

  17. 中国角蟾属一新种(两栖纲:锄足蟾科)%A NEW SPECIES OF MEGOPHRYS IN CHINA(AMPHIBIA: PELOBATIDAE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田应洲; 谷晓明; 孙爱群

    2000-01-01

    采自贵州省水城县凤凰乡的一种大形角蟾,因其外部形态与角蟾属Megophrys已知种有一些特异之处,尤其是鼓膜显露;上颌内缘无栉齿状突;头后部有由痣粒组成的" "形棕褐色斑;背部痣纹呈" "形;有犁骨棱;雄性无声囊等特征与大花角蟾M. Gigantica明显不同.据此认为该角蟾为一新种,定名水城角蟾Megophrys shuichengensis Tian,Gu et Sun,sp.nov..

  18. Riqueza e distribuição temporal de anuros (Amphibia: Anura em um fragmento de Floresta Ombrófila Mista

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    Eduardo J. Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do Brasil abrigar uma riqueza elevada de anfíbios anuros, muitas regiões ainda são consideradas subamostradas, incluindo ecossistemas que estão degradados e ameaçados. Esse é o caso da Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM, formação que possui apenas 3% de sua distribuição original, sendo que apenas uma porcentagem menor ainda constitui florestas em estágio primário ou avançado. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a estrutura de uma taxocenose de anuros em um remanescente de FOM, avaliar a variação de riqueza e abundância em função de variáveis climáticas, comparar a taxocenose com outras oito inseridas na mesma formação e verificar se a riqueza registrada nas localidades varia em função da área total, da quantidade ou dos tipos de ambientes presentes. Foram realizadas 12 campanhas entre setembro de 2008 e agosto de 2009, totalizando 72 horas de amostragem. Por meio dos métodos de amostragem em sítio de reprodução em sete corpos d'água e de busca aural em quatro transecções no interior da floresta, foi registrada a ocorrência de 24 espécies de sete famílias, correspondendo a 96% da riqueza estimada para a área. Tanto a riqueza quanto a abundância foram registradas no período com maior volume de chuva. O número de espécies nos ambientes amostrados variou de um a 15, e quase metade (41% delas foram exclusivas de ambientes florestais. Para os inventários de anuros em FOM, o que explica a maior riqueza de espécies é a quantidade de tipos de ambientes amostrados, indicando que amostragens em localidades mais heterogêneas, que podem satisfazer os requisitos reprodutivos de um maior número de espécies, aumentam o registro da riqueza local. Mesmo sendo um fragmento pequeno e alterado, a riqueza registrada foi alta se comparada com outras áreas cuja anurofauna foi inventariada, e que estão inseridas na FOM e apresentam esforço amostral semelhante. Devido à ocorrência de muitas espécies dependentes da integridade da floresta a minimização de atividades antrópicas e estudos mais detalhados devem ser as principais diretrizes para a manutenção e conservação local.

  19. 中国蔊菜属新记录-两栖蔊菜%A Newly Recorded Species Rorippa amphibia (L.) Besser from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑梅; 李增新; 王青; 陈辰; 姜学品; 孙洪奎

    2009-01-01

    两栖蔊菜(Rorippa amphbia(L.)Besser)原产欧洲,高加索地区、中亚、北非、北美、新西兰也有报道,但中国未见报道.2006年6月初,在旅顺南路七贤岭路段绿化带附近首次发现该种;2007年5月,在甘井子区一居民小区的草坪上又发现该种.两地相距较远,约12 km,但生境均为人工草坪.该种是以草坪为分布中心,先是占领草坪草的生态位,然后逐步向周围扩大分布区,形成近于单一的两栖蔊菜小群落.该种出现于大连与草坪引种有关.对该种的潜在危害进行了分析,并对其分类学特征进行描述.凭证标本保存在大连自然博物馆(DNHM).

  20. 中国云南树蛙科一新种(两栖纲,无尾目)%A NEW SPECIES OF RHACOPHORIDAE FROM YUNNAN, CHINA (AMPHIBIA,ANURA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梁; 叶昌媛; 江建平

    2010-01-01

    对中国云南屏边的白颊小树蛙"Philautus"palpebralis的标本形态特征进行了深入研究,并与白颊小树蛙的原始描述以及相关文献资料作了对比,结果认为两者的形态特征有明显不同,中国云南屏边的标本应为1新种,并命名为抚华费氏树蛙Feihyla fuhua sp.nov..

  1. New location of Alsodes tumultuosus Veloso, Iturra & Galleguillos, 1979 (Amphibia, Alsodidae in the Andes Mountains of the O’Higgins Region, Chile

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    Diego Ramírez Álvarez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alsodes tumultuosus Veloso, Iturra & Galleguillos, 1979 is an amphibian species endemic to Chile, described and known just from its type locality: the mountain streams in La Parva zone, Metropolitan region, central Chile. In this manuscript I report a new location for this species (the Andes Mountains of the O’Higgins Region, Chile, thus extending its current geographical range in about 100 kilometers southward. This finding suggests that we need to invest more efforts to clearly establish its conservation status in Chile.

  2. Taxonomy of the Genus Paramegophrys Liu, 1964(Megophryidae, Amphibia)%掌突蟾属Paramegophrys的分类(两栖纲:角蟾科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江建平; 叶昌媛; 费梁

    2008-01-01

    依据有关文献资料,讨论了掌突蟾属的学名有效性问题和亚属分类问题,结果表明掌突蟾属的有效学名为Paramegophrys Liu,1964;该属可分为2个亚属,即掌突蟾亚属Paramegophrys(Paramegophrys)Liu,1964和拟掌突蟾亚属Paramegophrys(Leptolalax)Dubois,1980;目前,它们分别包含11种.

  3. 蛙科精子形态结构研究进展%Review on Morphology and Ultrastructure of Spermatozoa of Family Ranidae(Amphibia,Anura)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃丽梅; 郑中华; 江建平; 谢锋

    2007-01-01

    本文对已有的蛙科精子形态结构的研究进行总结,归纳了蛙科精子形态结构及量度的特征和类型,以及蛙科精子结构与其它两栖类精子结构的异同,探讨蛙科精子形态结构研究中存在和亟待解决的问题.

  4. Study on the Phylogeny of Kaloula (Microhylidae, Amphibia) Based on the Mitochondrial Gene%狭口蛙属分子系统发育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飚; 王继山; 袁思棋; 刘宁; 饶定齐; 梁华; 王晓仁

    2012-01-01

    基于线粒体基因序列(12S rRNA和16S rRNA)的联合分析,采用贝叶斯法和最大似然法分别构建了狭口蛙属9个物种的系统发育树,结果表明,(1)狭口蛙属为单系类群;(2)四川狭口蛙和多疣狭口蛙先聚为一支,后与北方狭口蛙聚为单系;(3)狭口蛙属分为印度-斯里兰卡支系,中国西南-东北支系和中国南部-东南亚支系等3个地理居群.%Based on the combined data of mitochondrial DNA sequences ( 165 rRNA and 125 rRNA; total 1962bp, including 524 variable sites and 320 parsimony informative sites) the research valued the molecular phy-logenetic relationships of the 29 samples of the Kaloula species with maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (BI) methods. The results show that: 1) the genus Kaloula is monophyletic with well support ratio in the molecular phy-logenetic tree; 2) Kaloula borealis is closer to the sister groups of Kaloula rugifera and Kaloula verrucosa; 3) the genus Kaloula can be divided into 3 geographical groups of india-Sri Lanka embranchment, southwest China-north China embranchment and south China-southeast Asia embranchment.

  5. Description of a New Species of the Genus Brachytarsophrys Tian and Hu, 1983 (Amphibia:Anura:Megophryidae) from Southern China Based on Molecular and Morphological Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHAO; Jianhuan YANG; Guoling CHEN; Chunquan CHEN; Yingyong WANG

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Brachytarsophrys popei sp. nov., is described based on a series of specimens collected from Mount Jinggang, Jiangxi Province, Taoyuandong Nature Reserve, Hunan Province and Nanling Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province, China. The new species can be easily distinguished from other known congeners by morphology, morphometrics and molecular data of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. It is characterized by its relatively small size with 86.2 mm in snout-vent length in adult female and 70.7 mm-83.5 mm in males;vomerine teeth bearing on two markedly elevated ridges, which projecting behind far beyond the posterior level of the choanae, widely separated by a distance nearly 1.5 times length of one;margin of tongue deeply notched behind;toes about one-third to two-thirds webbed in males, at most one-third webbed in female;the webs extending as a wide fringes along either side of toes;upper eyelid with tubercles, one of which is enlarged and becoming a remarkably prominent, bluntly conical light-yellow horn;black tiny nuptial spines on the dorsal surface of the ifrst ifnger and second ifnger base, single vocal sac in males;gravid females bear pure yellowish oocytes;tadpoles with a transverse white stripe on ventral surface and two longitudinal white stripes along the sides of body. The new species represents the iffth known Brachytarsophrys species.

  6. The role of phytophysiognomies and seasonality on the structure of ground-dwelling anuran (Amphibia in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil

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    FRANCIELE P. MARAGNO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Considering that habitat use by amphibians is related both with climate and environmental features, we tested the hypothesis that anuran assemblages found in different phytophysiognomies and in different seasons vary in structure. Additionally, we searched for species which can be indicators of habitat and seasons. The study was conducted in the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. Sampling was done through pitfall traps placed in three phytophysiognomies: grassland, ecotone grassland/forest; and forest. The seasonality factor was created by grouping months in warn and cold seasons. Sixteen species were found and the assemblages were influenced both by phytophysiognomies and climatic seasonality. In a paired comparison, the three phytophysiognomies differed in structure of assemblage from each other. Physalaemus henselii, P. riograndensis, Pseudopaludicola falcipes and Pseudis minuta were indicators of ecotone. Leptodactylus gracilis and Physalaemus biligonigerus were indicators of grassland. None species was indicator of forest. Most of the species were indicators of warm season: Elachistocleis bicolor, Leptodactylus fuscus, L. gracilis, L. latinasus, L. latrans, L. mystacinus, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuvieri and Pseudis minuta. None species was indicator of cold season. We found that even for species of open areas, as Pampa, heterogeneous phytophysiognomies are important for maintaining abundance and constancy of populations of anuran.

  7. B-esterase activities and blood cell morphology in the frog Leptodactylus chaquensis (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) on rice agroecosystems from Santa Fe Province (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Andrés M; Cabagna-Zenklusen, Mariana; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Peltzer, Paola M; Junges, Celina; Bassó, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    Activity of B-esterases (BChE: butyrylcholinesterase and CbE: carboxylesterase using two model substrates: α-naphthyl acetate and 4-nitrophenyl valerate) in a native frog, Leptodactylus chaquensis from rice fields (RF1: methamidophos and RF2: cypermethrin and endosulfan sprayed by aircraft) and non-contaminated area (pristine forest) was measured. The ability of pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM) to reactivate BChE levels was also explored. In addition, changes in blood cell morphology and parasite infection were determined. Mean values of plasma BChE activities were lower in samples from the two rice fields than in those from the reference site. CbE (4-nitrophenyl valerate) levels varied in the three sites studied, being highest in RF1. Frog plasma from RF1 showed positive reactivation of BChE activity after incubation with 2-PAM. Blood parameters of frogs from RF2 revealed morphological alterations (anisochromasia and immature erythrocytes frequency). Moreover, a major infection of protozoan Trypanosoma sp. in individuals from the two rice fields was detected. We suggest that integrated use of several biomarkers (BChE and CBEs, chemical reactivation of plasma with 2-PAM, and blood cell parameters) may be a promising procedure for use in biomonitoring programmes to diagnose pesticide exposure of wild populations of this frog and other native anuran species in Argentina.

  8. A new species of Psychrophrynella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from the humid montane forests of Cusco, eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Ttito, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of Psychrophrynella from the humid montane forest of the Department Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2,670-3,165 m elevation in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llakta, Japumayo valley, near Comunidad Campesina de Japu, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Psychrophrynella but P. bagrecito and P. usurpator by possessing a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and from these two species by its yellow ventral coloration on abdomen and limbs. Furthermore, the new species is like P. bagrecito and P. usurpator in having an advertisement call composed of multiple notes, whereas other species of Psychrophrynella whose calls are known have a pulsed call (P. teqta) or a short, tonal call composed of a single note. The new species has a snout-vent length of 16.1-24.1 mm in males and 23.3-27.7 mm in females. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Psychrophrynella inhabits high-elevation forests in the tropical Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  9. A new species of Psychrophrynella (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae from the humid montane forests of Cusco, eastern slopes of the Peruvian Andes

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    Alessandro Catenazzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Psychrophrynella from the humid montane forest of the Department Cusco in Peru. Specimens were collected at 2,670–3,165 m elevation in the Área de Conservación Privada Ukumari Llakta, Japumayo valley, near Comunidad Campesina de Japu, in the province of Paucartambo. The new species is readily distinguished from all other species of Psychrophrynella but P. bagrecito and P. usurpator by possessing a tubercle on the inner edge of the tarsus, and from these two species by its yellow ventral coloration on abdomen and limbs. Furthermore, the new species is like P. bagrecito and P. usurpator in having an advertisement call composed of multiple notes, whereas other species of Psychrophrynella whose calls are known have a pulsed call (P. teqta or a short, tonal call composed of a single note. The new species has a snout-vent length of 16.1–24.1 mm in males and 23.3–27.7 mm in females. Like other recently described species in the genus, this new Psychrophrynella inhabits high-elevation forests in the tropical Andes and likely has a restricted geographic distribution.

  10. Integrative phylogeography of Calotriton newts (Amphibia, Salamandridae, with special remarks on the conservation of the endangered Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi.

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    Emilio Valbuena-Ureña

    Full Text Available The genus Calotriton includes two species of newts highly adapted to live in cold and fast-flowing mountain springs. The Pyrenean brook newt (Calotriton asper, restricted to the Pyrenean region, and the Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi, endemic to the Montseny massif and one of the most endangered amphibian species in Europe. In the present manuscript, we use an integrative approach including species distribution modeling (SDM, molecular analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data and morphology to unravel the historical processes that have contributed to shaping the biogeography and genetic structure of the genus Calotriton, with special emphasis on the conservation of C. arnoldi. The results of the molecular analyses confirm that, despite having originated recently, being ecologically similar and geographically very close, there is no signal of hybridization between C. asper and C. arnoldi. SDM results suggest that tough environmental conditions on mountains tops during glacial periods, together with subsequent warmer periods could have prevented the contact between the two species. Within the critically endangered C. arnoldi, a high genetic structure is revealed despite its extremely small distribution range compared to C. asper. Haplotype networks, AMOVA and SAMOVA analyses suggest that two distinct groups of populations can be clearly differentiated with absence of gene flow. This is in concordance with morphological differentiation and correlates with its geographical distribution, as the two groups are situated on the eastern and western sides of a river valley that acts as a barrier. The genetic and morphological results are highly important for the ongoing conservation program of C. arnoldi and strongly justify the management of this species into at least two independent evolutionary significant units (eastern and western sectors to guarantee the long-term population viability.

  11. Ultraestructura e histoquímica de dos tipos de glándulas mucosas de la piel de cryptobatrachus (amphibia, anura)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The skin of the middorsal region of the trunk of  Cryptobatrachus is studied here. The skin is characterized by light microscopy electron microscopy (TEM), and by histochemical test. These, means support a conclusion that two types of mucous glands are present. These are termed here Gland G2. The former is common among frogs but the latter (G2) is described for the first time. G2 mucous glands possibly contribute secretions used in holding the eggs and developing embryos on the skin of the do...

  12. Phyllomedusa ecuatoriana Cannatella (Amphibia: Hylidae: variación, descripción del renacuajo, vocalización y anotaciones sobre la historia natural

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    Jorge Brito M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta información sobre la variación morfológica de la rana Phyllomedusa ecuatoriana, con la descripción del renacuajo, vocalizaciones, anotaciones sobre la historia natural y distribución, basada en material recientemente recolectado en la Cordillera del Cóndor, Provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador. Phyllomedusa ecuatoriana es de tamaño mediano (LRC en machos desde 46.1 hasta 55.4 y en la hembra 72.2 mm. El renacuajo (estadio 26 Gosner presenta la fórmula dentaria 2 (2/3(1, la fila de dientes P3 es menor que P1 y P2; los renacuajos se desarrollan en pozas de diferente tamaño, con aguas oscuras similares a un "te" debido a la presencia de taninos. Las vocalizaciones son de frecuencia modulada, con frecuencia dominante promedio de 1.53 kHz; las llamadas se componen de una nota y de 2-3 pulsos. La dieta de las ranas adultas se basa principalmente en arañas (20% de la familia Argiopidae.

  13. Una nueva especie de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, de la Cordillera de Kutukú, Ecuador

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    Jorge Brito M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos una especie nueva de mediano tamaño (LRC en la hembra 38.7 mm; en machos de 23.8 a 26.4 mm de rana terrestre del género Pristimantis de los bosques sub-tropicales de la Cordillera de Kutukú, del sureste de Ecuador, a elevaciones de 1581-1820 m. Asignamos a Pristimantis almendariz sp. nov., al subgénero Hypodictyon, serie de especies ridens. La nueva especie difiere de otros miembros de la serie ridens por su patrón distintivo con manchas dorsales, membrana timpánica ausente, presencia de tubérculos cónicos agrandados en el párpado, tubérculo inter-orbital prominente, e iris plateado con reticulaciones negras.

  14. A new species of limestone karst inhabiting forest frog, genus Platymantis (Amphibia: Anura: Ceratobatrachidae: subgenus Lupacolus) from southern Luzon Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; De Layola, Louise Abigail; Lorenzo, Antonio; Diesmos, Mae Lowe L; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2015-11-25

    We describe a new species of limestone karst dwelling forest frog of the genus Platymantis from the Quezon Protected Landscape in southeastern Luzon Island, Philippines. We assign Platymantis quezoni, sp. nov., to the diverse assemblage of terrestrial species in the Platymantis dorsalis Group, subgenus Lupacolus on the basis of its body size and proportions, only slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, and its terrestrial microhabitat. The new species is distinguished from these and all other Philippine congeners by features of its external morphology, its restriction to a distinctive limestone karst microhabitat, and its advertisement call, which is unique among frogs of the family Ceratobatrachidae. Several distinguishing morphological characters include its moderate body size (22.1-33.9 mm SVL for 16 adult males and 32.4-39.7 mm SVL for five adult females), slightly expanded terminal discs of the fingers and toes, smooth skin with limited dermal tuberculation, and a dorsal color pattern of mottled tan to dark brown with black blotches. The new species is the sixth Philippine Platymantis known to occur exclusively on limestone karst substrates (previously known karst-obligate species include: P. bayani, P. biak, P. insulatus, P. paengi, and P. speleaus). Recently accelerated discovery of limestone karst anurans across the Philippines suggests that numerous additional species may await discovery on the hundreds of scattered karst formations throughout the archipelago. This possibility suggests that a major conservation priority in coming years will be to study, characterize, describe, and preserve the endemic species supported by this patchy, unique and imperiled type of forest ecosystem in the Philippines.

  15. High genetic diversity but low population structure in the frog Pseudopaludicola falcipes (Hensel, 1867) (Amphibia, Anura) from the Pampas of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, José A; Camargo, Arley; de Sá, Rafael O

    2016-02-01

    Relative to South America's ecoregions, the temperate grasslands of the Pampas have been poorly studied from a phylogeographic perspective. Based on an intermediate biogeographic setting between subtropical forest (Atlantic Forest) and arid ecosystems (Chaco and Patagonia), Pampean species are expected to show unstable demographic histories due to the Quaternary climatic oscillations. Herein, we investigate the phylogenetic relatedness and phylogeographic history of Pseudopaludicola falcipes, a small and common frog that is widely distributed across the Pampean grasslands. First, we use molecular data to assess if P. falcipes represents a single or multiple, separately evolving cryptic lineages. Because P. falcipes is a small-size species (<20mm) with extensive coloration and morphological variation, we suspected that it might represent a complex of cryptic species. In addition, we expected strong genetic and geographic structuring within Pseudopaludicola falcipes due to its large geographic distribution, potentially short dispersal distances, and multiple riverine barriers. We found that P. falcipes is a single evolutionary lineage with poor geographic structuring. Furthermore, current populations of P. falcipes have a large effective population size, maintain ancestral polymorphisms, and have a complex network of gene flow. We conclude that the demographic history of P. falcipes, combined with its ecological attributes and the landscape features of the Pampas, favored a unique combination among anurans of small body size, large population size, high genetic variability, but high cohesiveness of populations over a wide geographic distribution.

  16. Evolutionary history and population genetic structure of the endemic tree frog Hyla tsinlingensis (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae) inferred from mitochondrial gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Yu; Li, Xue-Ying; Li, Xiao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    The influence of topography and Pleistocenic climatic fluctuations on the population genetic structure of amphibians in the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains of China is poorly investigated. Hyla tsinlingensis is a tree frog endemic to the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains, with a restricted and patchy distribution that is currently shrinking. We speculated on the evolutionary history of amphibians in this region by studying the population genetic structure of H. tsinlingensis. Using a total of 212 samples, 32 haplotypes and four haplogroups were found in the present study. Population genetic structure showed significant differentiation (F(ST)) between most populations of H. tsinlingensis in the Tsinling-Dabieshan Mountains. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that most of the observed genetic variation occurs between the two regions (the Tsinling and Dabieshan Mountains). Mantel tests indicated that the genetic divergence was induced through isolation by distance. Using Monmonier's maximum difference algorithm to predict the genetic barrier, two putative barriers in gene flow that separate lineages of H. tsinlingensis were identified. Mismatch distribution and neutrality tests found a sudden population expansion in all haplogroups except the Tsinling population and total population. This population expansion was identified between 0.5 Myr to 0.1 Myr (Quaternary) by Bayesian skyline plot (BSP). Divergence dating indicated the divergence time between the Tsinling population and Dabieshan population to be 3.26 MYA (Pliocene). In conclusion, the topography of the Tsinling and Dabieshan Mountains exerts a significant impact on the population genetic structure of H. tsinlingensis, and climatic oscillations during glacial periods in the Quaternary affected the distribution of H. tsinlingensis.

  17. Mud-packing frog: a novel breeding behaviour and parental care in a stream dwelling new species of Nyctibatrachus (Amphibia, Anura, Nyctibatrachidae).

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    Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva; Dinesh, K P; Priti, H; Ravikanth, G

    2014-05-16

    Reproductive modes are diverse and unique in anurans. Selective pressures of evolution, ecology and environment are attributed to such diverse reproductive modes. Globally forty different reproductive modes in anurans have been described to date. The genus Nyctibatrachus has been recently revised and belongs to an ancient lineage of frog families in the Western Ghats of India. Species of this genus are known to exhibit mountain associated clade endemism and novel breeding behaviours. The purpose of this study is to present unique reproductive behaviour, oviposition and parental care in a new species Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. which is described in the paper. Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. is a medium sized stream dwelling frog. It is distinct from the congeners based on a suite of morphological characters and substantially divergent in DNA sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. Males exhibit parental care by mud packing the egg clutch. Such parental care has so far not been described from any other frog species worldwide. Besides this, we emphasize that three co-occurring congeneric species of Nyctibatrachus, namely N. jog, N. kempholeyensis and Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. from the study site differ in breeding behaviour, which could represent a case of reproductive character displacement. These three species are distinct in their size, call pattern, reproductive behaviour, maximum number of eggs in a clutch, oviposition and parental care, which was evident from the statistical analysis. The study throws light on the reproductive behaviour of Nyctibatrachus kumbara sp. nov. and associated species to understand the evolution and adaptation of reproductive modes of anurans in general, and Nyctibatrachus in particular from the Western Ghats.

  18. [Analysis of helminthofauna of common spaedfoot Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768) and moor frog Rana arvalis Nilsson, 1842 (Amphibia: Anura) at their joint habitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchin, A B; Chikhliaev, I V; Lukiianov, S V

    2009-01-01

    The helminths fauna of common spaedfoot Pelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768) and moor frog Rana arvalis Nilsson, 1842 has been studied at their joint habitation. The stuff was collected in 1998-2002, 2004-2006 years in several regions (republic Mordovia, Samara and Saratov areas). The processing of a stuff is conducted by a method of full helmintologic dissecting. The fauna of helminths considerably differs. For common spaedfoot only 13 species of helminths was detected which also parasitized moor frog (for moor frog 23 species) are detected. The index Jaccar demonstrated mean resemblance structure of helminths and varied from 0.25 till 0.69, and the index Morisite--from 44.58 of % till 74.51 of %. The communities of parasites of common spaedfoot was characterized by low values of an index of Shannon, but the high indexes of an index Simpson, whereas for moor frog tracked the return tendence.

  19. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Paramphistomoidea, Diplodiscidae), an intestinal fluke of the pool frog Rana lessonae (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, A J S; Torres, J; Shimalov, V V; Bâ, C T; Miquel, J

    2011-01-01

    Spermiogenesis in Diplodiscus subclavatus begins with the formation of the zone of differentiation presenting two centrioles associated with striated roots and an intercentriolar body. The latter presents seven electron-dense layers with a fine central plate and three plates on both sides. The external pair of these electron-dense layers is formed by a granular row. Each centriole develops into a free flagellum, both of them growing orthogonally in relation to the median cytoplasmic process. After the flagellar rotation and before the proximodistal fusion of both flagella with the median cytoplasmic process four attachment zones were already observed in several cross-sections indicating the area of fusion. Spinelike bodies are also observed in the differentiation zone before the fusion of flagella. Finally, the constriction of the ring of arched membranes gives rise to the young spermatozoon that detaches from the residual cytoplasm. The mature spermatozoon of D. subclavatus shows all the classical characters observed in Digenea spermatozoa such as two axonemes of different length of the 9+"1" trepaxonematan pattern, nucleus, mitochondrion, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules and granules of glycogen. However, some peculiarities such as a well-developed lateral expansion associated with external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and spinelike bodies combined with their area of appearance distinguish the ultrastructural organization of the sperm cells of D. subclavatus from those of other digeneans.

  20. Microhyla laterite sp. nov., A New Species of Microhyla Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae from a Laterite Rock Formation in South West India.

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    K S Seshadri

    Full Text Available In recent times, several new species of amphibians have been described from India. Many of these discoveries are from biodiversity hotspots or from within protected areas. We undertook amphibian surveys in human dominated landscapes outside of protected areas in south western region of India between years 2013-2015. We encountered a new species of Microhyla which is described here as Microhyla laterite sp. nov. It was delimited using molecular, morphometric and bioacoustics comparisons. Microhyla laterite sp. nov. appears to be restricted to areas of the West coast of India dominated by laterite rock formations. The laterite rock formations date as far back as the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and are considered to be wastelands in-spite of their intriguing geological history. We identify knowledge gaps in our understanding of the genus Microhyla from the Indian subcontinent and suggest ways to bridge them.

  1. Cytogenetic analyses of eight species in the genus Leptodactylus Fitzinger, 1843 (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae, including a new diploid number and a karyotype with multiple translocations

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    Gazoni Thiago

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The karyotypes of Leptodactylus species usually consist of 22 bi-armed chromosomes, but morphological variations in some chromosomes and even differences in the 2n have been reported. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for these differences, eight species were analysed using classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including replication banding with BrdU incorporation. Results Distinct chromosome numbers were found: 2n = 22 in Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. labyrinthicus, L. pentadactylus, L. petersii, L. podicipinus, and L. rhodomystax; 2n = 20 in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus; and 2n = 24 in L. marmoratus. Among the species with 2n = 22, only three had the same basic karyotype. Leptodactylus pentadactylus presented multiple translocations, L. petersii displayed chromosome morphological discrepancy, and L. podicipinus had four pairs of telocentric chromosomes. Replication banding was crucial for characterising this variability and for explaining the reduced 2n in Leptodactylus sp. (aff. podicipinus. Leptodactylus marmoratus had few chromosomes with a similar banding patterns to the 2n = 22 karyotypes. The majority of the species presented a single NOR-bearing pair, which was confirmed using Ag-impregnation and FISH with an rDNA probe. In general, the NOR-bearing chromosomes corresponded to chromosome 8, but NORs were found on chromosome 3 or 4 in some species. Leptodactylus marmoratus had NORs on chromosome pairs 6 and 8. The data from C-banding, fluorochrome staining, and FISH using the telomeric probe helped in characterising the repetitive sequences. Even though hybridisation did occur on the chromosome ends, telomere-like repetitive sequences outside of the telomere region were identified. Metaphase I cells from L. pentadactylus confirmed its complex karyotype constitution because 12 chromosomes appeared as ring-shaped chain in addition to five bivalents. Conclusions Species of Leptodactylus exhibited both major and minor karyotypic differences which were identified by classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Replication banding, which is a unique procedure that has been used to obtain longitudinal multiple band patterns in amphibian chromosomes, allowed us to outline the general mechanisms responsible for these karyotype differences. The findings also suggested that L. marmoratus, which was formerly included in the genus Adenomera, may have undergone great chromosomal repatterning.

  2. Which frog's legs do froggies eat? The use of DNA barcoding for identification of deep frozen frog legs (Dicroglossidae, Amphibia commercialized in France

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    Annemarie Ohler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several millions frogs captured in the wild in Indonesia are sold for food yearly in French supermarkets, as deep frozen frog legs. They are commercialized as Rana macrodon, but up to 15 look-alike species might also be concerned by this trade. From December 2012 to May 2013, we bought 209 specimens of deep frozen frog legs, and identified them through a barcoding approach based on the 16S gene. Our results show that 206 out of the 209 specimens belong to Fejervarya cancrivora, two to Limnonectes macrodon and one to F. moodiei. Thus only 0.96 % of the frogs were correctly identified. Unless misclassification was intentional, it seems that Indonesian frog leg exporters are not able to discriminate between the species. The quasi absence of L. macrodon in our samples might be an indication of its rarity, confirming that its natural populations are declining rapidly, in agreement with its “vulnerable” status according to the IUCN Red List. Our results show that the genetic and morphological diversity of the frogs in trade is much higher than the genetic and morphological diversity measured so far by scientific studies. These results underline the need for large scale studies to assess the status of wild populations.

  3. Historia natural de Phyllomedusa distincta, na Mata Atlantica do Municipio de Sete Barras, Estado de São Paulo (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Mendes Castanho

    1994-01-01

    Resumo: o objetivo deste estudo foi obter o maior número de informações possível sobre os hábitos de P. distincta, no Parque Estadual de Carlos Botelho (24°12'S; 47°SS'W; 60 m acima do nível do mar), Sete Barras, SP, sudeste do Brasil. Realizei as observações numa lagoa com cerca de 20 m x 7 m. Ao redor da lagoa, há um gramado com algumas árvores e pequenos arbustos na beira da água. Há pouca vegetação aquática, concentrada nas margens. A vegetação circundante é de Mata Atlântica típica. O...

  4. The karyotypes of five species of the Scinax perpusillus group (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae) of southeastern Brazil show high levels of chromosomal stabilization in this taxon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Marco Antônio Amorim; Lacerda, João Victor Andrade; Coelho-Augusto, Carolina; Feio, Renato Neves; Dergam, Jorge Abdala

    2015-12-01

    Based on morphological, bioacoustics, and morphological traits, the genus Scinax has been subdivided into two major clades: S. catharinae and S. ruber. The first clade includes S. catharinae and S. perpusillus groups, whereas the second clade includes S. rostratus and S. uruguayus groups. Chromosome morphology, NOR and C-banding patterns of variation support these clades. This study aims the cytogenetic characterization of five species currently included in the S. perpusillus group: Scinax sp. (gr. perpusillus), S. arduous, S. belloni, S. cosenzai, and S. v-signatus, including standard cytogenetic techniques and repetitive DNA FISH probes. All species had 2n = 24 chromosomes. Nucleolar organizing regions occurred in chromosome pair 6 in all species, but differed in their locations among some species, suggesting a putative synaponomastic character for the clade. In S. belloni, the first chromosome pair was a metacentric, contrasting with the submetacentric first pair reported in all other species of the genus. Scinax sp. (gr. perpusillus) and S. v-signatus had similar karyotypic formulae, suggesting they are related species. Scinax cosenzai had a divergent C-banding pattern. Repetitive DNA probes hybridized more frequently in chromosomal subtelomeric regions in all species indicating recent cladogenesis in these species. Karyotypic evidence indicates unreported high levels of stabilization within S. perpusillus and in S. catharinae clade, resulting in a wealth of characters potentially informative for higher phylogenetic analyses.

  5. Una especie nueva de rana arbórea del género Hyloscirtus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae de la Cordillera del Cóndor

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    Ana Almendáriz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ranas ecuatorianas del género Hyloscirtus incluyen 16 especies descritas, de las cuales 11 pertenecen al grupo H. larinopygion. Su distribución se limita a los flancos de la Cordillera de los Andes, tanto al oriente como al occidente. Una evaluación de la herpetofauna en el sector meridional de la Cordillera del Cóndor (bosques montanos sobre mesetas de arenisca en la provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador, condujo al descubrimiento de una especie nueva del grupo que describimos aquí como Hyloscirtus condor sp. nov.; se analizan los renacuajos, las llamadas de anuncio y se estima las relaciones filogenéticas de la especie nueva y de las especies relacionadas en base a nuevas secuencias de los genes mitocondriales 12S, tRNA Val y 16S, con un total de hasta 2508 bp. Los resultados muestran que el grupo H. larinopygion está conformado por dos clados, uno distribuido en los Andes norte y centro de Ecuador y el otro al sur. La nueva especie pertenece al clado sur y es hermana de H. tapichalaca y de una especie aparentemente no descrita de la Provincia Morona Santiago. La especie nueva difiere de sus congéneres por su patrón de coloración dorsal, que consiste de puntos amarillo obscuro en un fondo canela. Es la especie más grande del grupo H. larinopygion y comparte con H. tapichalaca la presencia de una espina prepólica grande y curvada y brazos hipertrofiados. La especie nueva habita un área remota y bien conservada de la Cordillera del Cóndor. El descubrimiento de ésta y otras especies nuevas del mismo lugar denota la importancia biológica del área y motivan al desarrollo de planes de conservación.

  6. Seasonal changes of basic erythrocyte-metric parameters in Pelophylaxridibundus (Amphibia: Ranidae) from anthropogenically polluted biotopes in Southern Bulgaria and their role as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelev, Zhivko M; Mehterov, Nikolay H; Popgeorgiev, Georgi S

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research work is to present data that show the seasonal changes (spring-summer-autumn) of basic erythrocyte-metric parameters (ЕL: Erythrocyte length, ЕW: Erythrocyte width, ЕL/ЕW, ES: Erythrocyte size; NL: Nucleus length, NW: Nucleus width, NL/NW; NS: Nucleus size, NS/ES: Nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio) in Pelophylax ridibundus populations from three biotopes located on two rivers in Southern Bulgaria (less disrupted biotope, with domestic sewage pollution and heavy metal pollution). Differences of high statistical significance were found among the different populations. Within the population living in conditions of domestic sewage pollution, for the entire period of the investigation the erythrocytes and their nuclei had an elliptical shape (a slight elongation of ellipses in autumn) and the biggest sizes (EL, EW, ES, NL and NS were constantly higher than the less disrupted biotope), NS/ES, became significantly smaller in autumn. Throughout the period of investigation, the values of all nine cellular and nuclear parameters were statistically-significantly the lowest in the population from the biotope with heavy metal pollution. The parameters: EL, ЕW, NL, NW and ES became significantly lower, progressively and statistically, during seasonal transitions. Cells and nuclei grew ovular in shape in comparison to the populations from the other two biotopes (this process was most pronounced in autumn) and NS/ES numbers were significantly decreased in summer and autumn.

  7. Caecilita Wake & Donnelly, 2010 (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) is not lungless: implications for taxonomy and for understanding the evolution of lunglessness .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark; Kok, Philippe J R; Ahmed, Farah; Gower, David J

    2014-03-17

    According to current understanding, five lineages of amphibians, but no other tetrapods, are secondarily lungless and are believed to rely exclusively on cutaneous gas exchange. One explanation of the evolutionary loss of lungs interprets lunglessness as an adaptation to reduce buoyancy in fast-flowing aquatic environments, reasoning that excessive buoyancy in such an environment would cause organisms being swept away. While not uncontroversial, this hypothesis provides a plausible potential explanation of the evolution of lunglessness in four of the five lungless amphibian lineages. The exception is the most recently reported lungless lineage, the newly described Guyanan caecilian genus and species Caecilita iwokramae Wake & Donnelly, 2010, which is inconsistent with the reduced disadvantageous buoyancy hypothesis by virtue of it seemingly being terrestrial and having a terrestrial ancestry. Re-examination of the previously only known specimen of C. iwokramae and of recently collected additional material reveal that this species possesses a reasonably well-developed right lung and is a species of the pre-existing caecilian genus Microcaecilia Taylor, 1968. We therefore place Caecilita in the synonymy of Microcaecilia, and re-evaluate the plausibility of the reduced disadvantageous buoyancy hypothesis as a general explanation of the evolution of lunglessness.

  8. First evidence of the effects of agricultural activities on gonadal form and function in Rhinella fernandezae and Dendropsophus sanborni (Amphibia: Anura from Entre Ríos Province, Argentina

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    Laura C. Sanchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between male gonadal abnormalities and habitats with different degrees of agricultural activities was quantified in two anuran species, Rhinella fernandezae and Dendropsophus sanborni. The study sites were selected along a gradient of increasing agricultural land use in south-western Entre Ríos province (Argentina: an agroecosystem, a natural wetland (a non-agricultural site adjacent to monoculture zones, and a natural forest (not associated with agriculture. Rhinella fernandezae and D. sanborni were manually captured from each environment during field surveys. A scaled mass index (MI was evaluated for each animal. Specimens of R. fernandezae from the agroecosystem and the natural wetland site presented poorly developed seminiferous tubules, lower testicular volume, and a lower number of seminiferous tubules, primary spermatogonia, and spermatids than specimens from the natural forest site. Additionally, we observed fewer primary spermatocytes in the agroecosystem group than in the natural forest group. Individuals of D. sanborni from the agroecosystem and the natural wetland site presented poorly developed tubules, higher proportions of irregularly shaped testes, and a reduced number of primary and secondary spermatogonia compared with specimens from natural forest sites. Consequently, the affected anurans are likely to have reduced reproductive success. We suggest that agrochemical use may be associated with decreased testicular development and function in both R. fernandezae and D. sanborni occurring in agroecosystems and nearby environments. Buffer zones are needed to prevent contamination, preserve wildlife, and enhance the conservation value of pristine natural forests.

  9. REPARTICIÓN DE MICROHABITATS ENTRE ESPECIES DE BUFONIDAE Y LEIUPERIDAE (AMPHIBIA: ANURA EN ÁREAS CON BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL DE LA REGION CARIBE-COLOMBIA

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    Bonilla Gómez Maria Argenis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la repartición de microhabitats de cinco especies de anuros pertenecientes a las familias Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, y Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops y Pseudopaludicola pusilla en seis localidades del Caribe Colombiano con fragmentos de bosque seco tropical y diferentes usos de suelo. Se identificaron 29 microhabitats. Los más usado fueron charco de agua Permanente de potreros con arboles (CPPA y potreros inundables sin árboles (PISA. La especie que mayor cantidad de microhabitats usó fue E. pustulosus. No hubo especialistas en el uso de estos ambientes. Se presentaron diferencias en el uso de este recurso a escalas regional y local. La dinámica de uso de los microhabitats estuvo influenciada por las variaciones climáticas del bosque seco tropical. Existe repartición de microhabitats como mecanismo de coexistencia en estas especies para época seca. En el periodo de lluvias este mecanismo no se aplicó.

  10. A new synonym for Pristimantis luscombei (Duellman and Mendelson 1995) and the description of a new species of Pristimantis from the upper Amazon basin (Amphibia: Craugastoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Venegas, Pablo J

    2014-12-12

    We consider Pristimantis achuar as junior synonym of P. luscombei, based on morphological and genetic evidence. Paratype specimens of P. luscombei are part of a new species, which lead to taxonomic confusion regarding the identity of P. luscombei. We describe and name this new species as Pristimantis miktos sp. nov. from Juyuintza, Pastaza province, eastern lowlands of Ecuador. Morphological diagnostic characters used to distinguish the new species from other brownish Amazonian Pristimantis are: (1) skin of dorsum shagreen with scattered tubercles or pustules; (2) tympanum prominent; (3) a thick X-shaped scapular dermal ridge in males; and (4) an orange iris in life. Pristimantis miktos is an inhabitant of the lowlands forests of the Pastaza and Napo drainages in eastern Ecuador and northern Loreto in Peru, reaching elevations of up to 350 m; P. luscombei is widely distributed in the upper Amazon Basin of Ecuador, northern Peru and extreme western Brazil, up to 1000 m. Phylogenetic analyses reveals that P. luscombei and the new species are not closest relatives, as also deduced from morphological evidence.

  11. Acute toxicity of the synthetic pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin on the tadpoles of variable green toad, Bufotes variabilis (Amphibia:Anura

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    Mert Gürkan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, acute toxic effects of alpha-cypermethrin were investigated in the tadpoles of Bufotes variabilis (Pallas, 1769. Tadpoles at Gosner stage 19 were exposed to 0, 0.1, 5 and 10 µgl-1 of alpha-cypermethrin concentrations for 96 hours. Mortality, the changes in some morphological measurements (snout-vent length, body width, tail length, and wet weight, morphological anomalies and behavioral changes were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The 96 hours LC50 value was calculated as 15.62 µgl-1. Such morphological changes as axial anomaly, visceral edema, deformation of the mouth, and tail deformation were observed in 83% and 95% of the tadpoles in the groups treated with 5 and 10 µgl-1 of alpha-cypermethrin. Behavioral changes such as shortening of the swimming distance and immobility were recorded in all tadpoles exposed to alpha-cypermethrin. When all findings were evaluated totally, it was concluded that alpha-cypermethrin had negative effects on the development of the tadpoles of B. variabilis

  12. Observações sobre história natural de Zachaenus carvalhoi Izecksohn, 1983“1982” (Amphibia: Anura: Cycloramphidae

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    Cássio Zandomenico Zocca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos a densidade populacional, o comportamento parental e de defesa, aspectos da biologia reprodutiva e a estrutura do sítio de oviposição de Zachaenus carvalhoi. Amostramos 168 parcelas de 5x5 m, estabelecidas no interior florestal e nos três tipos de matrizes circundantes da Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi em Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo. A densidade populacional foi de 0,07 indivíduos/100 m2, representados por dois machos e uma fêmea, todos encontrados no interior da floresta. Um macho estava em repouso acima e o outro abaixo da camada de serrapilheira, enquanto a fêmea foi encontrada junto a 20 ovos em uma cavidade em meio a radículas e coberta por serrapilheira. A fêmea defendeu os ovos quando incomodada. Um macho encontrado inflou o corpo e exibiu reflexo parcial de Bombina como comportamentos defensivos. Essa espécie possui girinos endotróficos que completam o desenvolvimento dentro no ninho. Suspeitamos que Z. carvalhoi pode estar seriamente ameaçado em fragmentos florestais por possivelmente estar restrito às áreas florestais e pela baixa densidade populacional.

  13. A new hynobiid-like salamander (Amphibia, Urodela from Inner Mongolia, China, provides a rare case study of developmental features in an Early Cretaceous fossil urodele

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    Jia Jia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new fossil salamander, Nuominerpeton aquilonaris (gen. et sp. nov., is named and described based on specimens from the Lower Cretaceous Guanghua Formation of Inner Mongolia, China. The new discovery documents a far northern occurrence of Early Cretaceous salamanders in China, extending the geographic distribution for the Mesozoic fossil record of the group from the Jehol area (40th–45th parallel north to near the 49th parallel north. The new salamander is characterized by having the orbitosphenoid semicircular in shape; coracoid plate of the scapulocoracoid greatly expanded with a convex ventral and posterior border; ossification of two centralia in carpus and tarsus; and first digit being about half the length of the second digit in both manus and pes. The new salamander appears to be closely related to hynobiids, although this inferred relationship awaits confirmation by research in progress by us on a morphological and molecular combined analysis of cryptobranchoid relationships. Comparison of adult with larval and postmetamorphic juvenile specimens provides insights into developmental patterns of cranial and postcranial skeletons in this fossil species, especially resorption of the palatine and anterior portions of the palatopterygoid in the palate and the coronoid in the mandible during metamorphosis, and postmetamorphic ossification of the mesopodium in both manus and pes. Thus, this study provides a rare case study of developmental features in a Mesozoic salamander.

  14. 3D bite modeling and feeding mechanics of the largest living amphibian, the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus (Amphibia:Urodela.

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    Josep Fortuny

    Full Text Available Biting is an integral feature of the feeding mechanism for aquatic and terrestrial salamanders to capture, fix or immobilize elusive or struggling prey. However, little information is available on how it works and the functional implications of this biting system in amphibians although such approaches might be essential to understand feeding systems performed by early tetrapods. Herein, the skull biomechanics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus is investigated using 3D finite element analysis. The results reveal that the prey contact position is crucial for the structural performance of the skull, which is probably related to the lack of a bony bridge between the posterior end of the maxilla and the anterior quadrato-squamosal region. Giant salamanders perform asymmetrical strikes. These strikes are unusual and specialized behavior but might indeed be beneficial in such sit-and-wait or ambush-predators to capture laterally approaching prey. However, once captured by an asymmetrical strike, large, elusive and struggling prey have to be brought to the anterior jaw region to be subdued by a strong bite. Given their basal position within extant salamanders and their "conservative" morphology, cryptobranchids may be useful models to reconstruct the feeding ecology and biomechanics of different members of early tetrapods and amphibians, with similar osteological and myological constraints.

  15. 3D bite modeling and feeding mechanics of the largest living amphibian, the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus (Amphibia:Urodela).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuny, Josep; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Heiss, Egon; Sanchez, Montserrat; Gil, Lluis; Galobart, Àngel

    2015-01-01

    Biting is an integral feature of the feeding mechanism for aquatic and terrestrial salamanders to capture, fix or immobilize elusive or struggling prey. However, little information is available on how it works and the functional implications of this biting system in amphibians although such approaches might be essential to understand feeding systems performed by early tetrapods. Herein, the skull biomechanics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus is investigated using 3D finite element analysis. The results reveal that the prey contact position is crucial for the structural performance of the skull, which is probably related to the lack of a bony bridge between the posterior end of the maxilla and the anterior quadrato-squamosal region. Giant salamanders perform asymmetrical strikes. These strikes are unusual and specialized behavior but might indeed be beneficial in such sit-and-wait or ambush-predators to capture laterally approaching prey. However, once captured by an asymmetrical strike, large, elusive and struggling prey have to be brought to the anterior jaw region to be subdued by a strong bite. Given their basal position within extant salamanders and their "conservative" morphology, cryptobranchids may be useful models to reconstruct the feeding ecology and biomechanics of different members of early tetrapods and amphibians, with similar osteological and myological constraints.

  16. The taxonomic status of two West African Leptopelis species: L. macrotis Schiøtz, 1967 and L. spiritusnoctis Rödel, 2007 (Amphibia: Anura: Arthroleptidae

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    Mark-Oliver Roedel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We herein examine the taxonomic status of two West African forest-dwelling Leptopelis species. The small L. spiritusnoctis, described from the Upper Guinean forests of West Africa, was recently synonymized with L. aubryi, described from Gabon. The large L. macrotis, known from Ghana to Sierra Leone, was downgraded to a subspecies of L. millsoni, ranging from the Niger Delta to eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. These taxonomic decisions are in contrast to the general biogeographic pattern of African forest anurans and we consequently tested if the morphologically similar taxon pairs are indeed conspecifics by applying acoustic and molecular techniques. Both techniques confirmed that populations from West Africa differ significantly from their Central African morphological equivalents. Consequently, we herein resurrect L. spiritusnoctis as a valid species. The acoustic data indicate that L. aubryi may comprise a complex of cryptic species. We further advocate using the name L. macrotis for West African and L. millsoni for Central African populations of these larger arboreal frogs. However, we had neither genetic nor acoustic data from the type locality of L. millsoni available and could not clarify if these frogs belong to the more western or eastern taxon or even represent a Nigerian endemic. Thus, it is possible that West African populations need to be termed L. millsoni in the future. For populations east of the Cross River, Nigeria, the name L. guineensis would be available.

  17. Three new species of horned frogs, Megophrys (Amphibia: Megophryidae), from northeast India, with a resolution to the identity of Megophrys boettgeri populations reported from the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Stephen; Teeling, Emma C; Biju, S D

    2013-01-01

    Northeast India is a well-established region of biological importance but remains poorly understood with regards to the species level identifications of many of its extant amphibians. In this study we examined small sized frogs from the genus Megophrys recently collected from remote and suburban forests in the northeast Indian states of Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh, from which we have identified three new species. Megophrys vegrandis sp. nov., Megophrys ancrae sp. nov. and Megophrys oropedion sp. nov. are compared with all known congeners from India and surrounding regions from which they differ based primarily on a combination of morphological characters. Megophrys boettgeri is removed, and Megophrys minor added to the Indian amphibian checklist, through critical review of all literature pertaining to the former species, and the discovery of an overlooked historical report of the latter species. Two of the new species, Megophrys ancrae sp. nov. and Megophrys vegrandis sp. nov. are known from low and mid elevations within two large protected forests in Arunachal Pradesh, both with poorly studied amphibian fauna. Contrastingly, Megophrys oropedion sp. nov. is currently known only from small forested areas on the upper reaches of the Shillong Plateau. The importance of the Shillong Plateau as an area of known high amphibian endemicity is highlighted in the light of the miniscule proportion of its land area afforded government protection, raising concerns about the future conservation of its still poorly known species.

  18. Molecular phylogeny and genetic identification of populations of two species of Feirana frogs (Amphibia: Anura, Ranidae, Dicroglossinae, Paini) endemic to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jiang, Jianping; Xie, Feng; Chen, Xiaohong; Dubois, Alain; Liang, Gang; Wagner, Steven

    2009-07-01

    Using mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and ND2 sequences, we investigated phylogenetic relationships among populations of two frog species endemic to China, both referred to the genus Feirana. A sister-group relationship between the two species was supported moderately in a maximum likelihood analysis and significantly in a Bayesian analysis, but not in a maximum parsimony analysis, of combined data for the three genes. Pending resolution of this incongruence, we provisionally maintain these species in the genus Feirana. Two major clades with a deep divergence are concordant with the species F. quadranus and "F." taihangnica. In the present work, some populations from the Qinling Mountains and all those from the Funiu and the Zhongtiao-southern Taihang Mountains are referred to "F." taihangnica rather than F. quadranus, whereas others are referred to F. quadranus. Consequently, the main body of the Qinling Mountains was identified as a large contact zone between these two species. On the basis of phylogenetic relationships and the distribution pattern of populations, we propose a hypothesis for the divergence of "F." taihangnica: the ancestral species might have inhabited the westernmost Qinling Mountains and dispersed to the main Qinling Mountains, and then to the Zhongtiao-southern Taihang and Funiu Mountains. In contrast, two alternative hypotheses are suggested for F. quadranus: if the two species are confirmed as sister groups, F. quadranus might have dispersed from the westernmost Qinling to the Longmen, Qinling, Daba, and northern Wuling Mountains; alternatively, F. quadranus might have come from the northern Wuling Mountains and then dispersed to the Daba, Qinling, and Longmen mountains.

  19. A unique case of mating behaviour in a Malagasy tree frog, Gephyromantis liber (Peracca, 1893), with observations on the larval development (Amphibia, Ranidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommers-Schlösser, Rose M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The mating act in Gephyromantis liber and in other species of this genus differs from all other mating behaviour patterns known in Anura. The male settles with the ventral side of his thighs on the shoulders of the female, and oviposition starts without delay. The assumption is made that the femoral

  20. Effects of nonylphenol on early embryonic development, pigmentation and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-induced metamorphosis in Bombina orientalis (Amphibia: Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Jin; Kang, Han Seung; Gye, Myung Chan

    2010-11-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor in many aquatic species. In an effort to highlight the developmental toxicity of NP in amphibians, we examined the effects of NP on the embryonic survival, tadpole growth, melanophore development and metamorphosis of a native Korean amphibian species, Bombina orientalis (Anura). When treated to fertilized eggs, 1 μM NP significantly decreased embryonic survival at 48 h post fertilization (p.f.), suggesting that 1 μM NP can exert systemic toxicity in B. orientalis embryos. In the surviving embryos, there were no significant differences in malformation rates between NP-treated embryos and controls at 240 h p.f., suggesting no or low teratogenicity of NP in B. orientalis embryos. Below LC(50) NP significantly decreased body growth and development of melanophores at 0.1 μM, suggesting that NP far below the LC(50) targets multiple developmental events in tadpoles of this frog species. In metamorphosis assay using the premetamorphic tadpoles (corresponding to Nieuwkoop Faber stage 53 in Xenopus laevis) exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)-induced tail resorption was significantly decreased by 1 μM NP. However, NP (0.1 and 1 μM)-only treatment did not affected total body T3 and T4 levels, suggesting that NP at tested concentrations inhibits thyroid hormones action but not the synthesis of hormones during metamorphosis.

  1. New locality record of the Travancore Bush Frog Raorchestes travancoricus Boulenger, 1891 (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae from Periyar Tiger Reserve, Kerala, India

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    K. Pratap Rajkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raorchestes travancoricus is a rare and endemic rhacophorid from southern Western Ghats. The frog was listed in the Extinct category of the IUCN Red List until June 2015, even after its rediscovery in 2004.  In June 2015, the R. travancoricus was reassessed to Endangered category. All published reports of the species are restricted to disturbed habitats outside protected areas and the current study report the presence of the species from eight different localities from a protected area the Periyar Tiger Reserve. 

  2. The Structure of Stomach and Intestine of Triturus karelinii(Strauch, 1870) and Mertensiella luschani (Steindachner, 1891) (Amphibia: Urodela) - Histological and Histometical Study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the stomach and small intestine structures of M. luschani and T. karelinii were evaluated in terms of histologically and histometrically.Thestomach and small intestine tissues of M. luschani and T. karelinii have similar characteristics.Mucosa consists of lamina propria/submucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica serosa layers. Histometrical results shows that M. luschani’s fundus (t=0,003; p<0,05) and pylorus (t=0,000; p<0,05) epithelial thickness and mean lumen area (t=0,00...

  3. Notes on the herpetofauna of Surinam : VI. Resurrection of Hyla ornatissima Noble (Amphibia, Hylidae) and remarks on related species of green tree frogs from the Guiana area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    In the present paper Hyla ornatissima Noble is removed from the synonymy of Hyla granosa Boulenger, and resurrected as a separate species on the basis of morphological, ecological and acoustical differences. Another relative of this group occurring in Guiana is Hyla sibleszi Rivero. Because of its s

  4. Revision of the characters of Centrolenidae (Amphibia : Anura : Athesphatanura), with comments on its taxonomy and the description of new taxa of glassfrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Anurans of the family Centrolenidae are a diverse clade of arboreal frogs distributed across tropical America. Knowledge of their taxonomy, systematics, ecology, behavior, morphology, and other evolutionary aspects of their biology is deficient. Relationships among centrolenid species remain largely unresolved, with no satisfactory phylogenetic hypothesis, and none of the current genera has compelling evidence of monophyly. Further, understanding the phylogeny of glassfrogs is constrained by species-level taxonomic problems, including incorrect description of characters, incomplete analyses of intraspecific variation, and lack of appreciation of species diversity. Herein, we define and analyze the 23 characters that are useful, in combination, in diagnosing centrolenid species, and thereby provide a reference for the use of future workers. We propose revised classifications for the parietal and visceral peritoneal pigmentation, liver form and coloration of its associated hepatic peritoneum, nuptial excrescences, and hand ornamentation. We comment on the generic and species-level taxonomy of Centrolenidae, proposing the recognition of a new genus and describing a new species from Ecuador. We treat Hyla ocellifera Boulenger as a synonym of Centrolene prosoblepon (Boettger), Hyalinobatrachium cardiacalyptum McCranie & Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Taylor), and Hyalinobatrachium crybetes McCranie and Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum (Taylor). We also present an annotated list of the species of glassfrogs from the Republic of Ecuador with some distributional remarks.

  5. Taxonomy and distribution of the salamander genus Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcko, Isabela Carvalho; Hoogmoed, Marinus Steven; Neckel-Oliverira, Selvino

    2013-01-01

    For nearly 40 years Bolitoglossa paraensis has been synonymized with Bolitoglossa altamazonica. This fact has been mainly related to taxonomic ambiguities arising from the morphological similarities between these species and the scarcity of material deposited in collections. However, during the past 30 years new material of Bolitoglossa has been collected in many places throughout the Brazilian Amazonia, including the type locality of B. paraensis, Santa Isabel do Pará. In this article we designate the neotype of B. paraensis based on new material from the type locality, correct misinterpretations about this name. We determined how many species of the genus Bolitoglossa occur in Brazilian Amazonia, described three new species, B. caldwellae sp. nov., B. madeira sp. nov., and B. tapajonica sp. nov., provide a key for identifying Brazilian salamanders. Were analyzed two hundred and seventy eight specimens of Bolitoglossa from the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, and Rondonia; morphological data ofB. altamazonica from Colombia were used for comparison purposes. We confirm the presence of B. altamazonica in extreme western Brazil, and expand the number of species occurring in Brazilian Amazonia to five.

  6. Temporal variation and size class distribution in a hepertological assemblage from Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martori, Ricardo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista de la conservación, conocer la abundancia, la diversidad, y los patrones de actividad de un ensamble herpetológico son medulares para comprender la dinámica de la comunidad y el modo de cómo es utilizado el hábitat. En este proyecto propusimos cuatro hipótesis nulas: 1 La frecuencia de captura de cada una de las especies será similar en los dos años relevados. 2 La frecuencia de capturas de cada especie es similar durante los meses estudiados. 3 La actividad de cada especie es similar a la actividad del resto del ensamble. 4 Las proporciones de cada grupo etario de cada especie se mantienen constantes en el tiempo. Durante este estudio fueron colectadas diecinueve especies, diez especies de Amphibia distribuidas en cuatro familias y nueve especies de Squamata distribuidas en siete familias. En hábitats relativamente complicados que poseen una estructura vegetal compleja y presentan patrones de actividad herpetológica irregular, el uso de trampas de caída resulta uno de los pocos métodos eficientes para la evaluación de la actividad de animales terrestres. El uso de trampas de caída es un método efectivo para realizar inventarios herpetológicos pero los resultados deben ser tratados con precaución porque este método captura algunas especies más fácilmente que otras. Los principales resultados obtenidos por este estudio fueron: La hipótesis 1 fue rechazada, para todas las especies exceptuando a Mabuya dorsivittata, que mostró frecuencias de actividad similares en ambos años, la hipótesis 2 también fue rechazada porque todas las especies mostraron significativas diferencias de actividad temporal. Las especies más variables fueron Odontophrynus americanus y Bufo fernandezae; la más constante Pantodactylus schreibersi. La tercera hipótesis fue rechazada para todas las especies salvo Elachistocleis bicolor que presentó un patrón de actividad similar al ensamble. La hipótesis 4 fue rechazada, los

  7. PARTICIÓN DE MICROHÁBITATS ENTRE ESPECIES DE BUFONIDAE Y LEIUPERIDAE (AMPHIBIA: ANURA EN ÁREAS CON BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL DE LA REGIÓN CARIBE-COLOMBIA Microhábitat Partitioning Between Leiuperidae and Bufonidae Species (Amphibia: Anura in Tropical Dry Forest Areas in Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARGELINA BLANCO TORRES

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se analizó la partición de microhábitats de cinco especies de anuros pertenecientes a las familias Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, y Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops y Pseudopaludicola pusilla en seis localidades del Caribe colombiano con fragmentos de bosque seco tropical y diferentes usos de suelo. Se identificaron 29 microhábitats. Los más usados fueron charco de agua permanente de potreros con árboles (CPPA y potreros inundables sin árboles (PISA. La especie que mayor cantidad de microhábitats utilizó, fue E. pustulosus. No hubo especialistas en el uso de estos ambientes. Se presentaron diferencias en el uso de este recurso a escalas regional y local. La dinámica de uso de los microhábitats estuvo influenciada por las variaciones climáticas del bosque seco tropical. Existió partición de microhábitats como mecanismo de coexistencia en estas especies para época seca y no ocurre en época de lluvias.ABSTRACT We analyzed partitioning of microhábitats by five species of frogs in the families Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, and Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops and Pseudopaludicola pusilla in six different localities of the Colombian Caribean with tropical dry forest fragments and different land uses. We identified 29 types of microhábitats; permanent ponds in pastures with trees (CPPA and flooded pastures without trees (PISA were the most important environmental used. Engystomops pustulosus used the must microhábitats, and none are used by specialist species. Thus, differences in the use of resource on regional and local scales appeared. Dynamics of microhábitat uses was influenced by the climatic variations of the tropical dry forest. Microhábitats distribution as a mechanism of coexistence in these species is implemented for dry season but in rainfall season this mechanism not exists.

  8. Descrição da larva de Scinax similis (Cochran com notas comparativas sobre o grupo "ruber" no sudeste do Brasil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae Description of the larva of Scinax similis (Cochran with comparative notes on the Scinax ruber group in Southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

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    Ana C.R Alves

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Scinax similis (Cochran, 1952 is described from Ilha do Fundão (Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Comparisons with other species of the group that occur in Southeastern Brazil are added. The larva of S. similis can be distinguished by the following diagnostic features: (1 eyes large in relation to body length (17,3%, body height (26,8%, and body width (29,7%, interocular distance three times larger than eye diameter; (2 lower beak with two transverse stripes, proximal half white and distal half black.

  9. Efeitos da sucessão florestal sobre a anurofauna (Amphibia: Anura da Reserva Catuaba e seu entorno, Acre, Amazônia sul-ocidental Effect of the forest succession on the anurans (Amphibia: Anura of the Reserve Catuaba and its periphery, Acre, southwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. de Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a abundância, riqueza e a composição da anurofauna em diferentes estágios sucessionais em uma floresta do Acre (10º04'S, 67º37'W e seu entorno. Os dados foram obtidos entre agosto de 2005 a abril de 2006 em doze parcelas, localizadas em três áreas diferentes da floresta. Em cada área foram escolhidos quatro tipos de ambientes: floresta primária (mata, floresta secundária (capoeira, entorno (matriz e floresta secundária (sucessão. Observou-se a presença de 27 espécies distribuídas em sete famílias. Maior abundância foi constatada na matriz dois e capoeira três, e a menor na sucessão um. A maior riqueza foi constatada na matriz dois, com o maior número de espécies exclusivas. A abundância de anuros correlacionou-se significativamente com a circunferência das árvores e lianas. A riqueza de anuros correlacionou-se marginalmente com a circunferência das árvores. A maior riqueza em ambientes de capoeiras e matriz pode ser explicada em grande parte pela existência nesses locais de poças d'água, maior heterogeneidade estrutural e poderem constituir estágios intermediários de perturbação. Esses estágios têm sido apontados como fatores que promovem e mantêm níveis elevados de biodiversidade. Ambientes com níveis intermediários de perturbação são importantes para a conservação da anurofauna.The objective of this work it was verify the abundance, richness, and the anuran composition in plots of vegetation of different succession stages in a forest and the matrix that surrounds it, of Acre (10º04'S, 67º37'W. The sampling was carried out between August 2005 and April 2006 in twelve plots located in three different sites in the forest. In each site four kinds of environments were chosen: primary forest (wood, secondary forest (capoeira, periphery (matrix and secondary forest (succession. A total of twenty-seven species distributed in seven families was found. Greater abundance was registered in the plots of matrix two and capoeira three and the least in succession one. The richness was greater in matrix two, with the greater number of exclusive species. The abundance of anurans correlated significantly, with the average circumference at the breast height of the trees of the plots. The richness however correlated only marginally, with this structural feature. The larger richness in plots of capoeira and matrix can be explained partially by the existence of temporary ponds and more structural heterogeneity is able constitute intermediary stages in a gradient of perturbation and this can increase the biodiversity. Thus environments with intermediary levels of disturbance are important for the conservation of the diversity of anuran amphibians.

  10. Riqueza de espécies e distribuição espacial e temporal em comunidade de anuros (Amphibia, Anura) em uma localidade de Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brasil Species richness and spatial and temporal distributions of the anuran (Amphibia, Anura) community in a locality of Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS E. CONTE; Reginaldo A. Machado

    2005-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fornecer dados ecológicos sobre a anurofauna da localidade de Lagoa (25º55'S, 49º11'W), Município de Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brasil. Dentro da área de estudo a vegetação é expressa por diminutos relictos de Floresta Ombrófila Mista primária alterada e formações antrópicas, sobretudo áreas de reflorestamento com Pinus sp. e pequenas áreas de terra ocupadas pela agricultura. Durante os meses de março de 2000 a março de 2001, foram coligidos dados sobre a d...

  11. Riqueza de espécies e distribuição espacial e temporal em comunidade de anuros (Amphibia, Anura em uma localidade de Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brasil Species richness and spatial and temporal distributions of the anuran (Amphibia, Anura community in a locality of Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Conte

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fornecer dados ecológicos sobre a anurofauna da localidade de Lagoa (25º55'S, 49º11'W, Município de Tijucas do Sul, Paraná, Brasil. Dentro da área de estudo a vegetação é expressa por diminutos relictos de Floresta Ombrófila Mista primária alterada e formações antrópicas, sobretudo áreas de reflorestamento com Pinus sp. e pequenas áreas de terra ocupadas pela agricultura. Durante os meses de março de 2000 a março de 2001, foram coligidos dados sobre a distribuição espacial e temporal das espécies, bem como informações quanto à utilização do ambiente como sítio de vocalização. Foram registradas 23 espécies de anfíbios anuros. Nenhum anfíbio foi encontrado vocalizando durante os meses mais secos (abril e maio, porém pela análise estatística a atividade de vocalização esteve mais correlacionada com a temperatura do que com a pluviosidade. Quase não houve sobreposição espacial entre as espécies nos sítios de vocalização, visto que as mesmas utilizam sítios de vocalização diferentes.In this study we have improved ecological data on the anuran fauna of Lagoa (25º55'S, 49º11'W, located in the Municipality of Tijucas do Sul, State of Paraná, Brazil. The local vegetation is composed by pieces of disturbed Araucaria forest, anthropic managed pine forest, and few areas with agricultural occupations. During 13 months, from March 2000 to March 2001, spatial and temporal distributions data of anurans species were collected; informations about the microhabitat use and vocalization site were also obtained. Twenty-three species were registered. No anuran called during the most dry months (April and May, but in the statistical analysis this activity was more correlated to temperature than to the rainfall. Few spatial overlap among the species on the vocalization sites was observed, as these species use different call sites.

  12. 78 FR 17224 - Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed South Puget Sound Prairie Habitat Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... marmorata affinus), western toad (Bufo boreas), mardon skipper (Polites mardon), Puget blue butterfly... curtus), rose checker mallow (Sidalcea malviflora virgata), small-flowered trillium (Trillium...

  13. Regulation of pigment migration in the amphibian melanophore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, A.C.J.; Oordt, G.J. van

    1962-01-01

    Among vertebrates rapid color changes in the skin are restricted to fishes, amphibia and reptiles. These reactions are based on the movements of pigment granules in special cells, the chromatophores which may be classified as leucophores, xanthophores, erythrophores and melanophores.

  14. Esparganose em alguns vertebrados do Brasil: dificuldades na identificaçao das espécies de Luheella (Spirometra Sparganum in some brazilian vertebrates: problems in the identification of species of Luheella (Spirometra

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    A. Arandas Rego

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species of Amphibia and Reptilia are listed as new hosts of spargana, from material deposited in the Helminthological Collection of Oswaldo Cruz Institute. It is discussed the difficulties in identifying the larvae (Sparganum and also the identification of adults of Luheella species from South America. The histopathology induced by spargana in the liver of a species of Amphibia is briefly described.

  15. 乐果和三唑磷对黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪的急性毒性研究%Acute toxicity of dimethoate and triazphos to bufo melanostictus tadpoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施利祥; 薛清清; 陈承华; 钟碧瑾; 林玲; 耿宝荣

    2008-01-01

    采用标准水生生物毒性检测法测定了不同浓度下有机磷农药乐果和三唑磷对黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪的急性毒性.结果表明,黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪的死亡率随着乐果和三唑磷浓度的升高而增加,并呈显著的相关关系;在水温21~25℃条件下,乐果对黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪48h、72h和96h的半致死浓度(LC50)分别为65.5mg/L、61.0mg/L和56.9 mg/L,三唑磷对黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪48h、72h和96h的半致死浓度(LC50)分别为3.07mg/L、2.34mg/L和1.70 mg/L.显示了乐果和三唑磷对黑眶蟾蜍蝌蚪具有一定的危害作用.

  16. Chloride channels in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E

    1982-01-01

    A study of the voltage and time dependence of a transepithelial Cl- current in toad skin (Bufo bufo) by the voltage-clamp method leads to the conclusion that potential has a dual role for Cl- transport. One is to control the permeability of an apical membrane Cl-pathway, the other is to drive Cl...

  17. 浙江丽水无尾两栖类非正常抱对现象4例%Four Cases of Abnormal Amplexus in Anurans (Amphibia: Anura)from Lishui, Zhejiang

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    赵丽华; 邵伟伟; 林植华

    2012-01-01

    报道浙江丽水三岩寺区域4个无尾两栖类物种(中华大蟾蜍、黑眶蟾蜍、虎纹蛙、镇海林蛙)的4例繁殖期非正常抱对现象,包括多重抱对(1只雌性和3只雄性,虎纹蛙)、从腹部抱对(镇海林蛙)、2只雄性抱对(虎纹蛙)、不同物种之间抱对(雄性黑眶蟾蜍和雌性中华大蟾蜍)等.影响非正常抱对的因素可能包括成年性别比例、种群密度、化学信号(性激素)和被抱对个体的行为反应等.无尾两栖类非正常抱对现象为我们研究无尾两栖类的繁殖行为提供有意义的参考.

  18. TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF ODORRANA VERSABILIS IN CHINA Ⅱ. DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO NEW SPECIES (AMPHIBIA: RANIDAE)%竹叶臭蛙的分类学研究Ⅱ.两新种记述(两栖纲:蛙科)

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    费梁; 叶昌媛; 李成

    2001-01-01

    据记载竹叶臭蛙Odorrana versabilis分布于广西、贵州、湖南、福建、浙江、安徽、广东、海南.作者对比研究了7个省的13个居群标本的形态特征,可分为3个形态型,这3个形态型标本的特征彼此差异明显,被确定为3个不同的种,其中包括2个新种,即小竹叶臭蛙O.exiliversabilis sp.nov和鸭嘴臭蛙O.nasuta sp.nov..为印证形态分类的结果,又采用形态数值性状标准差别分析和DNA指纹实验分析,其结果与形态特征分类研究结果一致.本文对2个新种的形态和生物学资料进行了记述.

  19. Utilização de habitats reprodutivos e micro-habitats de vocalização em uma taxocenose de anuros (Amphibia da Mata Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bertoluci

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a utilização de sítios reprodutivos e de vocalização em uma taxocenose de anuros do Parque Estadual Intervales, uma reserva de Mata Atlântica localizada no sudeste do Brasil (24°12' - 24°25' S, 48°03' - 48°30' W. Os trabalhos de campo foram desenvolvidos entre abril de 1990 e março de 1991. Na área de estudo, foram registradas 47 espécies pertencentes a quatro famílias: Bufonidae (4, Hylidae (24, Leptodactylidae (18 e Microhylidae (1. Foram obtidos dados sobre a distribuição dos hábitats reprodutivos e dos micro-habitats de vocalização para 26 espécies por meio do monitoramento mensal de seis corpos d'água ao longo de um ciclo anual. O número de espécies que utilizaram um determinado hábitat variou de 7 a 22. As espécies foram classificadas como generalistas ou especialistas. A maioria das espécies mostrou preferência por determinados sítios de vocalização. Para algumas espécies, a especificidade por sítios de vocalização pareceu depender da densidade de machos emitindo canto nupcial e não da composição de espécies das agregações reprodutivas.Breeding and calling site utilization were studied for an anuran community of the Parque Estadual Intervales, an Atlantic Rainforest reserve located in Southeastern Brazil (24°12'-24°25'S, 48°03'-48°30'W. Field work was carried out between April 1990 and March 1991. Forty-seven species from four families were recorded in the study site: Bufonidae (4, Hylidae (24, Leptodactylidae (18, and Microhylidae (1. We were able to obtain data on breeding habitat and microhabitat distribution for 26 species by monitoring six breeding sites year-round on a monthly basis. The number of species in the sites varied from 7 to 22. Species were classified as habitat generalists and specialists based on breeding site utilization. Most species showed preferences for certain calling sites. For some species calling site specificity seemed to depend on the density of the male aggregations rather than on the species composition of the assemblages.

  20. A NEW SALAMANDER (AMPHIBIA: CAUDATA) FROM THE EARLY CRETACEOUS JEHOL BIOTA%早白垩世热河生物群一新的有尾两栖类

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    王原

    2000-01-01

    描述了内蒙古宁城下白垩统义县组下部一新的有尾两栖类:奇异热河螈(新属、新种)Jeholotriton paradoxus gen. et sp. nov. .标本保存了完好的相关节的骨架印痕,头骨中的翼骨具有一个不与上颌骨相连,而与头骨中部相连的前内侧突,这使它区别于其他早期有尾类.

  1. Two New Records of Amphibia from Tibet, China, with Description of Rhacophorus burmanus%西藏两栖纲新纪录2种及缅甸树蛙描述

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    蒋珂; 王剀; 杨军校; 金洁琼; 邹大虎; 颜芳; 潘虎君; 车静

    2016-01-01

    本文报道西藏两栖纲叉舌蛙科Dicroglossidae新纪录2种,即采于喜马拉雅山中段吉隆沟内的罗斯坦棘蛙Nanorana rostandi(Dubois,1974)和西藏东部昌都地区江达县的倭蛙Nanorana pleskei Güther,1896,前者是中国新纪录,后者是西藏自治区新纪录.首次描述了采自西藏东南部墨脱县的树蛙科缅甸树蛙Rhacophorus burmanus (Andersson,1939).

  2. 广西元宝山自然保护区两栖动物资源调查及保护%Survey and Conservation of Amphibia Resources in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve of Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋才云; 曾小飚

    2011-01-01

    The amphibian resources in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve of Guangxi were investigated from March to August in 2009. The results showed that 27 species of amphibians, belonging to 18 genera, 8 families, 2 orders, were recorded in the reserve. The Shannon-Wienner diversity index and Pielou evenness index were 2.877 and 0.873 respectively. According to the zoogeographic division, this area belong to Western mountain and plateau subregion, Central China region, Oriental Realm. The fauna is mainly composed of species distributed in both Central and South China Region. The ecological categories of 27 amphibians are mainly running-water type and Terrestrial & Quiet-water type. Compared to Maoershan Nature Reserve and Guilin Lijiang scenic spots located in the north of Guangxi similarly, the similarity coefficient of amphibian communities in Yuanbao Mountain Nature Reserve is higher. On the contrary,it has smaller similarity coefficient than Cenwanglaoshan Nature Reserve, Longtan Nature Reserve, Diding Nature Reserve of west of Guangxi and Shiwandashan, Guabang mountain of South of Guangxi. Based on the status of the amphibian resources, some protective suggestions were provided in the paper.%2009年3~8月,对广西元宝山自然保护区的两栖动物资源进行了调查.结果表明,该保护区有两栖动物27种,隶属18属8科2目;物种多样性指数为2.877,均匀度指数为0.873.动物地理区划属东洋界华中区西部山地高原亚区黔桂湘低山丘陵省,区系组成以华中区与华南区共有种为主:生态类型以流水型和陆栖静水型种类占优势:保护区和同样地处桂北的猫儿山自然保护区、桂林漓江风景名胜区的两栖动物群落相似系数较高,而与桂西地区的岑王老山自然保护区、龙滩自然保护区、底定自然保护区和桂南地区的十万大山、挂榜山的相似系数较小.最后,根据资源现状提出了保护对策.

  3. Current Status and Conservation of Scutiger (Amphibia : Urodela) in China%我国齿突蟾属(两栖纲:无尾目)资源现状及保护对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万丽霞; 李宏伟; 孙立新; 窦静莉

    2014-01-01

    齿突蟾属物种已知19种左右,中国分布有16种.该属大多数物种为珍贵、稀有濒危物种.主要生活在高寒山区及高原地区,卵产于高寒缓流的山溪中.本文梳理了分布于我国齿突蟾物种的资源现状,分析了导致其种群下降的原因.并在此基础上提出了相应的保护对策,以期能对该属物种保护和资源利用起到参考作用.

  4. Phylogentic Relationship among Limnonectes (Ranidae: Amphibia found in West Sumatra with Other Species from South East Asia based on the based on the 16S rRNA Gen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko T. Iskandar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research to study the phylogenetic relationship among Limnonectes species found in West Sumatra and with other species from South East Asia based on the partial DNA sequences16S rRNA sequences. DNA sequences were aligned using ClustalX version 1.64b, and the phylogenetic relationship within samples were analyzed using PHYLIP version 3.5c program. The alignment showed that, from 805 sites, there are 250 parsimony informative polymorphism sites. The phylogenetic tree showed that all of the Limnonectes spesies were divided in two clusters, the L. blythii complex and L. kuhlii complex. L. kuhlii and L. sp1 clustered into L. kuhlii complex and L. shomponerum and L. macrodon were clustered to L. blythii complex.. This result showed that L. kuhlii and L. blythii are species complexes that are actually constituted of several species.

  5. A preliminary survey on Amphibia and Reptilia in Wanghu Wetland Nature Reserve in Hubei province%湖北网湖湿地自然保护区两栖爬行动物资源调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宗兴; 石道良; 吴少斌; 刘国跃; 石教法; 刘道锦; 孙道; 李儒生

    2006-01-01

    2004年对湖北省阳新县网湖湿地自然保护区的两栖类和爬行类进行了系统调查,分别记录到两栖类27种、爬行类38种.对它们的物种组成、地理区系特点和保护等级进行了研究,并提出了保护建议.

  6. A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS PAA FROM SOUTHEAST XIZANG, CHINA (AMPHIBIA: RANIDAE)%西藏东南部棘蛙属一新种记述(两栖纲:蛙科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梁; 叶昌媛

    2001-01-01

    Spiny frogs from Hengduan Mountains and Himalayas of China,i.e. types of Paa chayuensis from Chayu and Medog, southeast Xizang (Tibet) are studied. The results indicate that Paa chayuensis from Chayu is a valid species which differs from Paa arnoldi Dubois; Paa chayuensis from Medog differs from that one in Chayu and any of other described species of genus Paa. Therefore Paa chayuensis from Medog is considered as a new species, Paa medogensis sp.nov. Paa medogensis Fei and Ye, sp. nov.   Holotype: CIB8370106, adult male (SVL 79.0 mm), collected at Medog, Xizang (ca: 29°22′N,95°35′E),in China, alt. 1 100 m, on July 19, 1983, by LI Sheng\\|Quan.   Paratypes: Nine adult males (CIB73II0013,0018,8370105,8370134,8370139~141,8370147~148), 4 adult females (CIB73II0010~12,8370100), four subadults and some tadpoles collected at Maniweng, Medog, alt. 1?000~1?100 m, on July 16, 1973 and on July 19, 1983. One adult female (CIB7430080) from Hanmi, Medog, alt. 2 100 m, on August 23, 1974; three adult females CIB8370024~25, 8370149 collected at 62th km. from Medog to Bomi, on July 19, 1983.   Diagnosis: This new species Paa medogensis is closely similar to Paa chayuensis, but it is distinguished from the latter by the following characters: ①larger body size, snout-vent length(SVL) of adult males 62~79 mm (mean 71 mm), SVL of adult females 71~114 mm (mean 86 mm); ②anterior 2/3 part of body dorsum smoother although with a few elongated warts arranged in longitudinal rows, posterior 1/3 part rough, with many small spine warts; ③throat smooth, without granules; ④the space between two vomerine teeth patches nearly equal to the length of a vomerine teeth patch; ⑤tympanum hidden; ⑥the color of dorsum of living adults dark olive, or with four greenish longitudinal bands; ⑦male chest with two transverse spine groups, each group with about 20 spines. The latter with smaller body size, SVL of adult males 52~65 mm (mean 58.5 mm), that of adult females 59~80 mm (mean 69 mm); the upper sides of head and body densely covered with round spine warts; throat with round small warts; two vomerine teeth patches mostly touched each other; tympanum small and clear; body dorsum green olive, parts with wart dark olive; male chest with many spines, and appearing two oval patches, each patch with 33~56 spines.   The type specimens are kept in Chengdu Institute of Biology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences.%对产于西藏东南部察隅和墨脱的察隅棘蛙通过形态特征和数值分类作了进一步比较研究。结果认为:产于察隅的察隅棘蛙是一个有效种,而产于墨脱的标本应为一个新种,即墨脱棘蛙Paa medogensis sp. nov.。

  7. 恩施州两栖爬行动物多样性现状及保护对策的研究%Research on Situation of Diversity and Protection of Reptile and Amphibia in Enshi Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁胜平; 侯建军

    2003-01-01

    在分析恩施州自然地理条件基础上,对两栖、爬行动物资源种类、数量及分布进行了初步的调查分析,结果表明恩施州独特的生态环境造就了两爬动物资源的多样性,并针对其两爬动物的资源现状提出了拟继续研究的方向及保护建议.

  8. A New Record of Frogs from China: Paramegophrys (Paramegophrys) sungi (Megophryidae, Amphibia)%中国蛙类-新纪录——三岛掌突蟾(两栖纲:角蟾科)

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    莫运明; 江建平; 叶昌媛

    2008-01-01

    依据广西防城的掌突蟾标本记述了掌突蟾属一中国新纪录种,即三岛掌突蟾Paramegophrys(Paramegophrys) sungi(Lathrop, Murphy, Orlov et Ho,1998),它们分布于广西南部和越南北部.

  9. A new species of Cascade Frog from Tibet: China-Amolops chayuensis (AMPHIBIA, RANIDAE)%西藏湍蛙属一新种——察隅湍蛙(两栖纲:蛙科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国政; 罗伟雄; 孙鸿雁; 张光元

    2013-01-01

    描记采自西藏自治区察隅县的蛙科Ranidae湍蛙属Amolops一新种——察隅湍蛙Amolops chayuensissp.nov..新种与阿尼桥湍蛙Amolops aniqiaoensis Dong,Rao and Lü,2005相近,但新种颞褶和背侧褶明显且宽厚,颞部有小疣粒;体背为草绿色,沿吻棱、颞褶和背侧褶有棕褐色宽条斑,上唇缘为浅褐色,股和胫背面有褐色横纹;体侧下半部浅绿色镶嵌不规则黑色斑纹,与阿尼桥湍蛙明显区别.

  10. 中国小鲵科(两栖纲:有尾目)研究现状与资源保护%Present research situation and resource conservation of Hynobiidae (Amphibia: Urodela) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉; 龚大洁; 牟迈

    2008-01-01

    小鲵科(Hynobiidae)隶属于两栖纲、有尾目,是现存陆生脊椎动物中最低等的一个类群,它们在科学研究、经济应用和文化娱乐等方面都具有重要的价值.本文从物种的分类、繁殖生态学、精子形态与结构等方面总结了中国小鲵科的研究概况,分析了导致其种群下降的原因,在此基础上提出了一些保护对策,以期对中国小鲵科物种的资源利用以及相关部门制定物种保护政策提供一定的参考.

  11. 中国11种有尾两栖动物生存状况的统计评估%A statistical assessment of conservation status of 11 Chinese species of amphibia (caudata)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏元; 柴丽红; 李忻怡; 张育辉

    2010-01-01

    依据有尾两栖动物的年繁殖次数、产卵量、栖息地等自然生存特点和分布区域以及地理隔离等生物特征设定10个因子,将每个因子划分4个等级,该因子的等级越低对动物生存影响越小,等级越高对动物生存的影响越大.对中国常见的11种有尾两栖动物10个因子的统计结果表明,其平均值从1.2到1.9不等,73%的物种平均值都大于1.5.说明中国大多数有尾两栖类动物都面临着生存威胁,属于渐危物种.建议通过建立自然保护区等措施加强保护.

  12. A New Horn Toad Megophrys sangzhiensis from Hunan,China (Amphibia,Anura)%中国湖南角蟾科一新种——桑植角蟾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江建平; 叶昌媛; 费梁

    2008-01-01

    对采集于湖南桑植县天平山的角蟾标本(CIB200078)与同域分布的相近种尾突角蟾(Megophrys caudoprocta Shen,1994)标本及其他相近种标本比较后发现,该角蟾标本在形态上明显不同于其他物种.其形态特征与尾突角蟾相比:体形小,体长54.7mm;上眼脸外缘三角形突起小;体腹面后部有斑点;犁骨棱弱,末端不膨大,也无犁骨齿;雄性第一、二指背面黑婚刺相对较大,有声囊.与棘指角蟾相比:肛孔上方有一个向后突出的尾突,腹面观可见;雄性第一、二指背面黑婚刺相对较小而密.故将其订为新种:桑植角蟾Megophrys sangzhiensis sp.nov..

  13. 中国肥螈属(两栖纲:蝾螈科)一新种——弓斑肥螈Pachytriton archospotus sp. nov.%A new species of salamander Pachytriton archospotus from Hunan Province, China (Amphibia, Salamandridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈猷慧; 沈端文; 莫小阳

    2008-01-01

    本文记述两栖纲蝾螈目蝾螈科一新种,新种具肥螈属(Pachytriton)系列特征,与肥螈属已知2种比较有明显区别.如1)本新种与黑斑肥螈(Pachytriton brevipes)相似,体表具黑色小圆斑,但新种具额鳞弓、上鳃骨直而与后者不同;无斑肥螈(Pachytriti on labiatus)(地模标本)虽具额鳞弓,但上鳃骨明显弯曲,体表无黑色小圆斑;2) 新种吻短,吻长小于眼间距,黑斑肥螈吻长大于眼间距,无斑肥螈吻长大于或等于眼间距, 它们的头型明显不同,虽然三者头长均大于头宽,但头长、吻长、眼间距差异显著;3)繁 殖期新种雄体肛区不明显肿胀,肛裂周边中、后部生殖乳突长,而且多,十分醒目;黑斑肥 螈和无斑肥螈繁殖期肛区明显肿胀膨大,生殖乳突较短、且稀.经统计分析三种肥螈的头体长、头长、头宽、吻长和眼间距存在显著差异

  14. Inclusión de Physalaemus riograndensis Milstead, 1960 en la batracofauna de Misiones, Argentina, y otros aportes para el conocimiento de su distribución (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebez, Juan C.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Physalaemus riograndensis Milstead, 1960. Rep. ARGENTINA, PROV.DE MISIONES, Dpto. Candelaria, Campo San Juan, 27° 25' S, 55° 40' W. 1 ejemplar. MACN número 34.646. Colector: E. Krauczuck.

  15. A New Record of Amphibia(Paa verrucospinosa)--Again Confirmation in China%中国两栖动物新纪录--多疣棘蛙的再证实

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡健生; 陈明勇; 董永华

    2005-01-01

    @@ 多疣棘蛙(Paa verrucospinosa(Bourret),1939)是Bourret于1937年根据越南沙巴采集到的标本订为棘胸蛙一新亚种[1],1939年他改订为新种[2].寇治通等人1983年10月在云南省勐腊县景飘采到一只雌性成体蛙的标本,作为我国多疣棘蛙的新纪录发表[5].但一直未得到承认[3,4,6~9].

  16. Following passage through the oviduct, the coelomic envelope of Discoglossus pictus (amphibia) acquires fertilizability upon reorganization, conversion of gp 42 to gp 40, extensive glycosylation, and formation of a specific layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, M; Infante, V; Talevi, R; Vaccaro, M C; Carotenuto, R; Campanella, C

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the morphological and biochemical changes in Discoglossus pictus coelomic oocyte envelope (CE) following passage through the oviduct. As in other anurans, in this species, the transformation of the envelope into vitelline envelope (VE) leads to the acquisition of fertilizability and involves the cleavage of a glycoprotein. In addition, several features, typical of Discoglossus pictus, were observed. A new layer, VE-D, forms underneath the VE region facing the site of sperm entrance, the dimple. In the VE, arrowhead-like bundles of fibrils are perpendicularly oriented toward the dimple. Ultrastructural observations and staining with UEA-I suggested that VE-D might have a role in supporting sperm penetration into the dimple by orienting VE bundles and exposing sugar residues such as fucose. In 'in vitro' tests, VE binding of sperm occurs only if sperm are exposed to A23187, in agreement with previous data (Campanella et al., 1997: Mol Reprod Dev 47:323-333). Sperm binding occurs all over the VE. Accordingly, extracts of the VE covering the animal or the vegetal hemisphere have the same affinity to lectins (DBA, DSA, GNA, MAA, SBA, SNA, UEA-I, WGA). The CE contains six main glycoproteins. Peptide mapping indicated that during CE transformation into VE, gp 42 shifts to an apparent M(r) of 40 and gp 61 is converted to an apparent M(r) of 63 kDa. Lectin blot analyses showed extensive changes in cross-reactivity of most glycoproteins during the CE-->VE transition. The fact that DBA and UEA-I stain gp 63 rather than gp 61 and that this change is related only to gp 63, suggested that O-glycosylation and terminal fucose might be acquired by gp 63 in preparation of fertilization. Gp 63 has recently been cloned (Vaccaro et al., submitted) and shown to exhibit high homology to Xenopus gp 69/64, a VE sperm ligand (Tian et al., 1997a: J. Cell Biol. 136: 1099-1108; Tian et al., 1997b: Dev Biol 187:143-153), and to ZP2 of mammals.

  17. Connexins in the early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis (Amphibia: The role of the connexin43 carboxyl terminal tail in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Cofre

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Connexins are a family of related proteins identified in vertebrate forming gap junctions, which mediate cell-to-cell communication in early embryos, with an important role in establishing embryonic asymmetry and ‘communication compartments’. By in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and western blotting we show that a Cx43-like molecule is present in oocytes and embryos of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis, with specific localization in the animal-vegetal axis. This specific distribution is suggestive for an important role for this protein in the establishment of the dorso-ventral axis. Antisense RNA and antibodies directed against rat carboxyl terminal tail of the Cx43 (CT-Cx43 and injected in 1-cell stage Xenopus embryos, induced pronounced alterations in nervous system development, with a severe ventralization phenotype. Coherently, the overexpression of CT-Cx43 produced a dorsalization of the embryos. In antisense treated embryos, the expression of the beta-catenin gene is eliminated from the Nieuwkoop center, the pattern expression of the Chordin, Xnot and Xbra is modified, with no effect in expression of the Goosecoid gene. In CT-Cx43 mRNA treated embryos the pattern of expression of the beta-catenin, Chordin, Goosecoid, Xnot and engrailed-2 genes is modified. The expression of beta-catenin is increased in the Nieuwkoop center, the expression pattern of Chordin and Goosecoid is expanded to the posterior neural plate and engrailed-2 presents ectopic expression in the ventral region. Taken together our data suggest a role for CT-Cx43 as a maternal determinant with a critical function in the formation of the dorso-ventral axis in Xenopus laevis. The Cx43 may be one of the earliest markers of the dorso-ventral axis in these embryos and could possibly be acting through regionalization of factors responsible for the establishment of this axis.

  18. И ЭРИТРОЦИТОВ ПРЕДСТАВИТЕЛЕЙ AMPHIBIA, AVES  И MAMMALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Никольская, В.А.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Статья посвящена изучению влияния окислительного стресса, инициированного средой Фентона, на биохимические показатели cыворотки крови и эритроцитов Rana ridibunda, Gallus gallus domesticus и Sus scrofa domesticus. По сравнению с исходным состоянием при окислительном стрессе наблюдается увеличение суммарного содержания молекул средней массы в сыворотке крови всех трёх представителей, а также увеличение молекул средней массы и значительный расход АТФ в гемолизате эритроцитов Gallus gallus domesticus и Sus scrofa domesticus.

  19. Sentetik piretroit alfa-sipermetrinin değişken desenli gece kurbağası, Bufotes variabilis iribaşlarındaki akut toksisitesi (Amphibia: Anura)

    OpenAIRE

    Mert Gürkan; Seda Serbest; Sibel Hayretdağ

    2016-01-01

    In this study, acute toxic effects of alpha-cypermethrin were investigated in the tadpoles of Bufotes variabilis (Pallas, 1769). Tadpoles at Gosner stage 19 were exposed to 0, 0.1, 5 and 10 µgl-1 of alpha-cypermethrin concentrations for 96 hours. Mortality, the changes in some morphological measurements (snout-vent length, body width, tail length, and wet weight), morphological anomalies and behavioral changes were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The 96 hours LC50 value was calculate...

  20. Riqueza de espécies, ambientes de reproduçáo e temporada da vocalizaçao da anurofauna em Três Barras do Paraná, Brasil (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarde, Paulo Sérgio

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento de espécies de anuros na região do Parque Estadual do Rio Guarani (25º25'S; 53º15'W, Município de Três Barras do Paraná, sudoeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Os ambientes de reprodução e o período de vocalização foram registrados para a maioria das espécies. Foram encontradas 23 espécies pertencentes às seguintes famílias: Bufonidae (1, Centrolenidae (1, Hylidae (9, Leptodactylidae (10, Microhylidae (1 e Ranidae (1. A riqueza de espécies desta localidade foi mais similar com a anurofauna do Município de Londrina (Coeficiente de Semelhança Biogeográfica = 0,8, possivelmente porque ambas regiões apresentam o mesmo tipo de formação vegetal (Floresta Estacional Semidecídua e estão localizadas no terceiro planalto paranaense. A survey of anurans species were realized in the region of State Park Guarani River (25º25'S; 53º15'W, Municipality of Três Barras do Paraná, southwestern of Paraná State, Brazil. The breeding sites and vocalization period were registered from mostly of the species. Anuran fauna of the region is composed by 23 species, distributed in 6 families, namely: Bufonidae (1, Centrolenidae (1, Hylidae (9, Leptodactylidae (10, Microhylidae (1 and Ranidae (1. The species richness of this locality was more similar to the anuran fauna of Londrina Municipality (Coeficient of Biogeographic Resemblance = 0,8, possibly because both regions share the same vegetation composition (seasonal semi-deciduous forests and they are located in the third Paraná plateau.

  1. Amphibians of the Ausoni Mountains (Latium, Central Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Corsetti; Antonio Romano

    2007-01-01

    In this study we searched for amphibians in 89 potential breeding sites within the Ausoni Mounts, which are among the less investigated areas of Latium. Sixtynine spawning sites, and eight amphibian species (57.1% of the 14 amphibian species living in Latium region) were found. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandrina perspicillata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton vulgaris, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica and Pelophylax synklepton hispanica.

  2. Amphibians of the Ausoni Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corsetti

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we searched for amphibians in 89 potential breeding sites within the Ausoni Mounts, which are among the less investigated areas of Latium. Sixtynine spawning sites, and eight amphibian species (57.1% of the 14 amphibian species living in Latium region were found. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandrina perspicillata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton vulgaris, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica and Pelophylax synklepton hispanica.

  3. Epilithic and aerophilic diatoms in the artificial environment of Kungsträdgården metro station, Stockholm, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Magnus, Ivarsson; Lundberg, Johannes;

    2013-01-01

    found growing on the rock walls of Kungsträdgården metro station. The results show the diatom flora in Kungsträdgården to be dominated by e.g. Diadesmis contenta, Diadesmis perpusilla, Pinnularia appendiculata, Nitzschia amphibia, Nitzschia sinuata and Diploneis ovalis. One species, Caloneis cf...

  4. A diatom record of recent environmental change in Lake Duluti, northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öberg, Helena; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Westerberg, Lars-Ove;

    2012-01-01

    ) Simonsen, Gomphonema parvulum (Kützing) Grunow and Nitzschia amphibia Grunow. All three cores display similar stratigraphic succession, but the relative ratio of habitats represented by the diatoms varies substantially between cores. Diatoms indicate that the oldest part of the record is characterized...

  5. Predation of Pseudis minuta Günther 1858, by Lethocerus annulipes (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae

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    Mautone, José María

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to communicate a case of predation on an adult specimen of Pseudis minuta (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae by an aquatic water bug of the genus Lethocerus (Insecta: Heteroptera: Belostomatidae. Observations were made on May 27, 2012, 12: 40 am, at Aceguá, Departamento de Cerro Largo, in NE Uruguay.

  6. Developmental morphological diversity in caecilian amphibians : systematic and evolutionary implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    Caecilians, or Gymnophiona, constitute one of the three extant orders of the Recent Amphibia and are the least known, major living tetrapod clade. Compared to frogs and salamanders, caecilians have an unusual skull morphology. Earlier reports of an unusually high number of individual skull ossificat

  7. US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center Chemical Biological Agent Simulant Knowledgebase (ASK) (Information Workbench & Graphical User Interface)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-17

    Type of Data Collected: ~50 viruses/fevers identified. ~150 data fields Source of Data: Published reports, reference books (Virus Taxonomy : The...Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses), journal articles, other database efforts, some web sources (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses...toxins, mollusca toxins, insecta toxins, amphibia toxins, and reptilia venoms. Data Collected: ~180 toxins identified, 100 data fields Source of Data

  8. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akman, M.; Bhikharie, A.; Mustroph, A.; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that gro

  9. Nomenclatural notes on living and fossil amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín, C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of extinct and living amphibians known from fossils (Allocaudata, Anura and Caudata has revealed several cases that require nomenclatural changes in order to stabilize the taxonomy of the group. Nomenclatural changes include homonym replacements, corrections of spelling variants and authorships, name availabilities, and in particular, the proposal of new combinations. These changes will allow the incorporation of some palaeontological taxa to the current evolutionary models of relationship of modern forms based on molecular phylogenies. Rana cadurcorum for Rana plicata Filhol, 1877, Rana auscitana for Rana pygmaea Lartet, 1851, and Rana sendoa for Rana robusta Brunner, 1956. Anchylorana Taylor, 1942 is considered a new synonym of Lithobates Fitzinger, 1843. New combinations proposed are: Anaxyrus defensor for Bufo defensor Meylan, 2005; Anaxyrus hibbardi for Bufo hibbardi Taylor, 1937; Anaxyrus pliocompactilis for Bufo pliocompactilis Wilson, 1968; Anaxyrus repentinus for Bufo repentinus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus rexroadensis for Bufo rexroadensis Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus spongifrons for Bufo spongifrons Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus suspectus for Bufo suspectus Tihen, 1962; Anaxyrus tiheni for Bufo tiheni Auffenberg, 1957; Anaxyrus valentinensis for Bufo valentinensis Estes et Tihen, 1964; Ichthyosaura wintershofi for Triturus wintershofi Lunau, 1950; Incilius praevius for Bufo praevius Tihen, 1951; Lithobates bucella for Rana bucella Holman, 1965; Lithobates dubitus for Anchylorana dubita Taylor, 1942; Lithobates fayeae for Rana fayeae Taylor, 1942; Lithobates miocenicus for Rana miocenica Holman, 1965; Lithobates moorei for Anchylorana moorei Taylor, 1942; Lithobates parvissimus for Rana parvissima

  10. Amphibians of the Simbruini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the herpetological fauna of the Simbruini Mountains Regional Park, Latium (Central Italy. In this study, we surveyed 50 sites in the course of about ten years of field research, especially during the period 2005-2008. Nine amphibian species, four Caudata and five Anura, 60.0% out of the 15 amphibian species so far observed in Latium, were discovered in the protected area: Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus carnifex, Bombina pachypus, Bufo balearicus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina, Rana italica. Physiography of sites has been detailed together with potential threatening patterns. For each species the following topics have been discussed; ecology of sites, altitudinal distribution, phenology, sintopy. Salamandra salamandra and Bombina pachypus are at higher risk. The importance of the maintenance of artificial/natural water bodies for the conservation management of amphibian population of this territory is discussed.

  11. Detection of the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranavirus in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Andrey N.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Charles, Kaylene M.; Nebergall, Emily E.; Olson, Deanna H.

    2014-01-01

    In a population of the European common toad Bufo bufo from a rural pond in the region of Lake Glubokoe Regional Reserve in Moscow province, Russia, unexplained mass mortality events involving larvae and metamorphs have been observed over a monitoring period of >20 yr. We tested toads from this and a nearby site for the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranavirus (Rv). Both pathogens were detected, and at the rural pond site, with the above-noted losses and decline in toad breeding success, 40% of B. bufo metamorphs were Bd positive, 46% were Rv positive and 20% were co-infected with both pathogens. Toad metamorphs from a neighbouring water body were also Bd and Rv positive (25 and 55%, respectively). This is the first confirmation of these pathogens in Russia. Questions remain as to the origins of these pathogens in Russia and their roles in documented mass mortality events.

  12. Nematodes of amphibians from Java, Indonesia, with a description of new species, Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. (Nematoda : Heterakoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, Endang; Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2015-06-24

    During a survey on the parasites of amphibians of Indonesia, toads (30 Bufo melanostictus) and 246 frogs (213 Fejervarya cancrivora, 11 F. limnocharis, 22 Rana macrodon from West Java and 68 F. cancrivora from Central Java) were examined for parasitic nematodes. Three species of nematodes were found and described, i.e. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. from Fejervaria cancrivora; Meteterakis japonica from Bufo melanostictus, F. cancrivora and F. limnocharis; and Chabaudus sp. from F. cancrivora, F. limnocharis and Rana macrodon. Meteterakis wonosoboensis n. sp. is distinguished from other species of the genus by the length and shape of spicules, the number of caudal papillae, the presence of gubernaculum in male and the presence of vulval flap in female. Bufo melanostictus and Java are recorded as new host and locality for M. japonica, respectively.

  13. 鱼纲动物鲤鱼和两栖纲动物牛蛙血红蛋白自身不相互作用的研究及其进化意义%A Study of Self-interaction Absence of Hemoglobin in Pisces Cyprinu Carpio and Amphibia Rana Catesbeiana and Its Significance for Evolution of Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王程; 秦文斌; 雎天林

    2006-01-01

    目的:研究鱼纲动物鲤鱼和两栖纲动物牛蛙血红蛋白自身的相互作用.方法:淀粉-琼脂糖混合凝胶交叉电泳.结果:鲤鱼、牛蛙的血红蛋白自身在"直接交叉"、"穿过"、"兜过"实验电泳过程中均未出现扭曲现象.结论:鲤鱼、牛蛙的血红蛋白自身不相互作用.

  14. TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF ODORRANA VERSABILIS IN CHINA I . TAXONOMIC STATUS OF THE GEOGRAPHIC POPULATIONS(AMPHIBIA: RAN IDAE)%竹叶臭蛙的分类学研究I.各地理居群的分类探讨(两栖纲:蛙科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 叶昌媛; 费梁

    2001-01-01

    采用形态特征比较,对7省13个居群的竹叶臭蛙Odorrana ve,rsabilis的标本进行了研究,结果表明:它们的形态特征差异明显,可以分为3个形态型;同时经数值性状标准判别分析和DNA指纹分析印证其结果与形态学研究结果相吻合.据此将3个形态型标本确定为3个种,其中包括2新种.本文重新界定了3个种的分布范围.

  15. 中国蛙科二新种及黑带水蛙种组的系统关系(两栖纲,蛙科)%TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE RANIDAE FROM CHINA, WITH PHYLOGENETIC RFLATIONSHIPS OF HYLARANA(SYLVIRANA)NIGROVITTATA GROUP(AMPHIBIA, ANURA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费梁; 叶昌嫒; 江建平; 谢锋

    2008-01-01

    作者在云南南部的河口和勐腊等地先后采到与黑带水蛙局Hylarana(Sylvirana)nigrovittata(Blyth,1855)相近的两个不同类型的标本,它们曾被不同学者鉴定为黑带水蛙.经对比研究,它们应为两个不同的新种,即河口水蛙Hylarana(Sylvirana)hEKOUENSIS Fei,Ye et Jie,sp.nov.和勐腊水蛙Hylarana(Sylvirana)menglaensis Fei,Ye et Xie,sp.nov..

  16. 角蟾科三亚科蝌蚪角质颌的显微结构比较(两栖纲,无尾目)%Microstructure comparison of jaw sheaths between the Megophryid tadpoles (Amphibia, Anura) by the technology of electron microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 董兆雄; 王跃招

    2010-01-01

    采用扫描电镜技术研究了角蟾科8种蝌蚪角质颌的显微结构特征和形态特点,阐述了角质颌对蝌蚪觅?儋 食方式的影响.实验结果表明:角蟾科蝌蚪的角质颌属于两个不同的类型.拟髭蟾亚科和掌突蟾亚科的蝌蚪具有相似的显微结构特征:角质颌旱厚重的"U"犁,角质化程度高.颌鞘呈基部宽、顶端尖的圆锥形:角蟾亚科的蝌蚪角质颌呈纤弱的弓型,角质化程度低.颌鞘呈基部窄、长而顶端略弯曲的象牙型.进一步的分析发现,8种蝌蚪的颌鞘直径和密度呈显著负相关.这种显微结构的变化趋势也反映出蝌蚪对栖息环境和觅食方式的适应性.

  17. TAXONOMICAL STUDIES ON THE POPULATIONS OF RANA CHENSINENSIS IN NORTH-WESTERN CHINA(AMPHIBIA: RANIDAE)%中国西北地区中国林蛙各居群的分类学研究(两栖纲:蛙科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢锋; 叶昌媛; 费梁; 江建平; 松井正文

    2000-01-01

    采用形态学比较和数值分类相结合,对中国西北部分布的中国林蛙Rana chensinensis各居群间(包括分布于青藏高原地区的原定种或亚种)的差异水平进行了探讨.结果认为:分布于中国西北部高原地区的各居群其形态特征和数值分析之间非常相近[其中包括原定名为Rana amurensis kukunoris(Nikol′skii, 1918,青海湖), R. weigoldi(Vogt, 1924,四川甘孜和德格), R. chensinensis hongyuanensis(Hu et al., 1985,四川红原),R.c. kangdingensis (Wei et al., 1991b,四川康定)和R. c. lanzhouensis(Wei et al., 1991b,甘肃兰州)]而与中国林蛙Rana chensinensis的模式居群陕西户县标本有明显区别,建议将中国西北部青藏高原地区的林蛙各居群恢复为有效种,即高原林蛙R. kukunoris Nikol′skii, 1918.同时重新界定了高原林蛙和中国林蛙的分布区.

  18. Diversidade e ocorrência temporal da anurofauna (Amphibia, Anura em São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brasil Diversity and seasonal occurrence of anurans in São José dos Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Conte

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A Floresta Atlântica é o bioma com a maior diversidade e taxa de endemismo de anfíbios anuros do mundo. Entretanto, informações sobre a história natural e os padrões de ocorrência das espécies são, em grande parte, ainda desconhecidas para esse bioma. No presente estudo, a diversidade e a ocorrência temporal de espécies de anuros foram determinadas em área de ecótono entre Floresta Ombrófila Densa e Floresta Ombrófila Mista no estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. No levantamento, realizado entre janeiro de 2003 e maio de 2004, foram registradas 34 espécies de cinco famílias: Bufonidae (duas espécies, Hylidae (17 espécies, Leptodactylidae (13 espécies, Microhylidae (uma espécie e Ranidae (uma espécie. A riqueza registrada é uma das maiores do Paraná e oito, dos nove hábitats amostrados, apresentaram alta diversidade de espécies. Isso pode ser decorrente do fato da área estudada estar localizada em região de ecótono, o que favoreceu a ocorrência de espécies típicas de cada formação vegetal. Além disso, uma hipótese adicional é a do distúrbio intermediário, decorrente do desmatamento ocorrido até trinta anos atrás, que possibilitou a ocorrência de algumas espécies típicas de áreas abertas. Machos da maioria das espécies (48% vocalizaram no período chuvoso e quente do ano, mas a proporção de espécies anuais (25% foi grande, semelhante à encontrada em regiões com clima tropical úmido (30%. A similaridade na composição de espécies de nove localidades no Paraná foi associada à fisionomia vegetal das áreas amostradas.The Atlantic Forest is the biome with the largest biodiversity and endemism rate of anuran amphibians in the world. However, information on natural history and patterns of occurrence are still unknown for most of the species that occur in this biome. In this study the diversity and the seasonal occurrence of anuran amphibians were determined in an ecotone area between Atlantic Forest and Araucaria Forest, in the southeastern of Paraná state. In the survey, accomplished from January 2003 to May 2004, 34 species from five families were registered: Bufonidae (two species, Hylidae (17 species, Leptodactylidae (13 species, Microhylidae (one species and Ranidae (one species. The species richness is one of the largest of Paraná state and eight of the nine studied sites presented high diversity of species. The fact that the studied area is located in an ecotone supports the occurrence of typical species from two physiognomies. Besides, an additional hypothesis to explain this great diversity is the intermediate disturbance due to the deforestation that occurred until thirty years ago, which made the occurrence of some typical species from open areas possible. The largest number of species (48% occurred during the rainy season, however, the proportion of annual species was great (25%, similar to the one found in regions with wet tropical climate (30%. The similarity in species composition among nine localities in Atlantic Forest in Paraná State was associated to the vegetal physiognomy of the studied areas.

  19. Distribution and Ecology of the Western Ecuador Frog Leptodactylus labrosus (Amphibia: Anura: Leptodactylidae)%厄瓜多尔西部新热带蛙(两栖纲: 无尾目:细趾蟾科)的分布特征及生态习性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Leptodactylus labrosus is a terrestrial sit-and-wait predator; its diet includes ground-level, fossorial, and flying insects, and ants numerically predominate. Bothrops asper is recorded as a predator of L. labrosus. L. labrosus lives mainly in deciduous and semi-deciduous forests, where it is restricted to wet microhabitats, and occasionally in evergreen forests. L. labrosus inhabits northern, central, and southern regions of western coastal Ecuador and northern and central western coastal Peru up to 700 m, and into the dry interandean valleys of southern Ecuador and northern Peru up to 1 300 m. Its distribution encompasses moistly seasonally dry forest in coastal Ecuador and Peru. It also occupies moister areas towards the slopes of the Andes where it is sympatric with three other congeneric species, but at sites of sympatry the species show habitat segregation. The distribution pattern of L. labrosus is shared by several other range-restricted amphibians corresponding to the Tumbesian region, which should be recognized as an endemic Amphibian area. The zone between the Choco and Tumbesian regions, where L. labrosus gets in sympatry with other Leptodactylus species, possess ecological and climatic characteristics that have shaped a unique fauna, including several endemic taxa; and it should be recognized as the west Ecuadorian endemic region.%Leptodactylus labrosus属于陆地坐-等型的捕食者, 其食物包括地表的、掘地的及飞行昆虫, 其中蚂蚁数量最多. 曾有报道Bothrops asper是其天敌. L. labrosus主要栖息于落叶及半落叶林潮湿的环境中, 偶尔也栖息于常绿林中. L. labrosus分布于厄瓜多尔西海岸的北部、中部、南部; 秘鲁西海岸的北部、中部, 分布地海拔可达600 m; 及位于南厄瓜多尔和北秘鲁海拔高达1 300 m的干燥的安第斯山谷. 其分布地区包括了厄瓜多尔和秘鲁海岸的潮湿的、季节性干燥的森林. 在安第斯山脉斜坡的潮湿地带,L. labrosus与其他3种细趾蟾科的分布区重叠, 但表现为生境分离. 其分布特征与其他几种活动区域受限的两栖动物相似.Tumbesian地区应被认为是地方特有两栖动物的分布区. Choco和Tumbesian的中间区域是L.labrosus与其他细趾蟾科的生境分布重叠区, 其生态及气候特征使其形成了独特的动物区系, 包括几种地方特有物种. 因此该地区应被划为西厄瓜多尔地方种区域.

  20. Riqueza e densidade de vocalizações de anuros (Amphibia em uma área urbana de Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Richness of species and density of vocalization of anurans in an urban area of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Waldemar Ávila

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A riqueza e intensidade de vocalizações de anuros em uma área urbana de Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, foram estudadas de fevereiro de 2002 a Janeiro de 2003 em uma poça temporária. Foi utilizado um transecto com quatro pontos de escuta onde foram consideradas as espécies visualizadas e a intensidade das respectivas vocalizações. Foram registradas 16 espécies de quatro famílias: Bufonidae (2, Hylidae (7, Microhylidae (1 e Leptodactylidae (6. O período reprodutivo dessas espécies esteve correlacionado com a estação chuvosa, de dezembro a março (r² = 0,806, F(1,10 = 41,530 p = 0,002, n = 12. As espécies que apresentaram maior intensidade de vocalização foram Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862 e Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864, com picos em janeiro. A espécie que apresentou maior período de vocalização foi Leptodactylus fuscus, de setembro a fevereiro. O maior número de espécies e de indivíduos vocalizando ocorreu de 19:00 às 23:00 h.The richness and intensity of vocalization of anurans in urban areas of Corumbá, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were studied from February 2002 to January 2003 in a secondary forest and surroundings of a temporary pond. We used a transect with four stop sites on which the presence of species and the intensity of vocalization were recorded according to North American Amphibian Monitoring Population index. The turn when vocalization happened was also recorded. We registered 16 species of four families: Bufonidae (2, Hylidae (7, Microhylidae (1, and Leptodactylidae (6. The reproduction of these species was correlated to the rainy season, from December to March (r² = 0,806, F(1,10 = 41,530 p = 0,002, n = 12. The species that presented greater intensity of vocalization were Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862 and Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864, with peaks during January. The species that presented the greater period of vocalization was Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799, from September to February. The majority of species and individuals vocalized from 7:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m.

  1. Third cumulative index for Koedoe: volumes 35/2-44/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Rautenbach

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Index to Koedoe: volumes 35/2 - 44/1 Authors85 Subjects98 Botany 98 Ecology and behaviour 100 Wildlife conservation & techniques 100 Zoology102 Invertebrata 102 Pisces 103 Amphibia 103 Reptilia 103 Aves104 Mammalia 104 Archaeology and History 105 Bibliography 106 Climate 106 Geologyand Pedology 106 Environmental impact on rivers & water quality 106 Check list 107 Issues in conservation 107 Maps 108 Social Science 108 Parks

  2. Spatial patterns of carbon, biodiversity, deforestation threat, and REDD+ projects in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Josil P; Grenyer, Richard; Wunder, Sven; Raes, Niels; Jones, Julia PG

    2015-01-01

    There are concerns that Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) may fail to deliver potential biodiversity cobenefits if it is focused on high carbon areas. We explored the spatial overlaps between carbon stocks, biodiversity, projected deforestation threats, and the location of REDD+ projects in Indonesia, a tropical country at the forefront of REDD+ development. For biodiversity, we assembled data on the distribution of terrestrial vertebrates (ranges of amphibia...

  3. Drug: D00595 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available diabetics Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] A ALIMENTARY TRACT AND METABOLISM A10 DRUGS USED IN DIABE...TES A10B BLOOD GLUCOSE LOWERING DRUGS, EXCL. INSULINS A10BA Biguanides A10BA03 Bufo

  4. The status and relationships of some East African Earless Toads (Anura, Bufonidae) with a description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grandison, A.G.C.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In comparing some small Ethiopian Bufo with the descriptions, types and other examples of numerous forms from East and Central African countries I became very much aware of the confusion that exists in the taxonomy and of the need for a revision of this group of dwarf toads. Most of the

  5. On the parasitic fauna of two species of anurans collected from Sungai Pinang, Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, A R; Andy Tan, W A; Intan, S

    2008-08-01

    A total of fifty anurans, comprising of Rana limnocharis and Bufo melanostictus were collected from Sungai Pinang, Balik Pulau, Penang. The prevalence, mean intensity and distribution of parasite species along the digestive tract were reported. Seven species of parasites were recorded. Blood parasites recovered were trypansomes and microfilariae.

  6. 78 FR 20352 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Applicant: Bat Conservation International, Austin, Texas. Applicant requests a new permit for research and... (Dermochelys coriacea) Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) Permit TE-98704A Applicant: Dogs for Conservation... Houston toads (Bufo houstonensis) from the Houston Zoo for work with training dogs how to detect...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Western clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Xenopus_tropicalis_L.png Xenopus..._tropicalis_NL.png Xenopus_tropicalis_S.png Xenopus_tropicalis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+...tropicalis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropical...is&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+tropicalis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=137 ...

  8. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered.

  9. Amphibians of the “Cilento e Vallo di Diano” National Park (Campania, Southern Italy: updated check list, distribution and conservation notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the results of our field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park (Southern Italy. Two hundred and thirty three spawning sites (167 original and 66 derived from literature, and 11 amphibian species were found. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina terdigitata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica, Rana dalmatina and Pelophylax synkl. hispanica. The distribution record of many species is widely improved with respect to bibliographic data. Our results also suggested that preservation and restoration of small aquatic sites, in particular of the artificial ones, such as stony wells and drinking-troughs, are fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibians in the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park.

  10. CRAYFISH PREDATION ON TADPOLES : A COMPARISON BETWEEN A NATIVE (AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES AND AN ALIEN SPECIES (PROCAMBARUS CLARKII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHERARDI F.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In the laboratory, the motivation and/or ability to prey on anuran larvae (Bufo bufo, Rana kl. esculenta and R. italica were compared between a native European (Austropotamobius pallipes and an alien North American crayfish species (Procambarus clarkii. Both were skilled predators of tadpoles, adopting a sit-and-wait strategy. However, because P. clarkii displayed lower latency times in the presence of one of the three amphibians (Rana kl. esculenta here tested, the hypothesis is raised that invasive crayfish are more opportunistic predators and possibly faster in switching to different prey than those species they are displacing. From a conservation perspective, these preliminary results further emphasise the importance of studies centred on the invasion-displacement dichotomy.

  11. The role of common toads in the winter diet of recolonising Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García-Díaz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Importanza del rospo comune nella dieta invernale di una popolazione di lontra (Lutra lutra in espansione.
    Tramite analisi dei resti fecali, abbiamo evidenziato il ruolo fondamentale degli anfibi nella dieta invernale della lontra Lutra lutra in stagni artificiali della Spagna nord-occidentale. I numerosi “laghi di cava” presenti nell’area umida di Ribeiras do Louro e Gandaras de Budiño sono stati monitorati nel 2007-2009. Il rospo comune (Bufo bufo era la principale preda della lontra, costituendo l’88% della biomassa consumata, mentre il gambero americano Procambarus clarkii e i pesci erano prede secondarie. I nostri risultati contrastano con la ben nota preferenza della lontra per le rane rispetto al rospo. Il mantenimento della popolazione di lontra nel bacino del fiume Louro dipende strettamente dalla corretta gestione degli stagni artificiali.

  12. Amphibians of the Aurunci Mountains (Latium, Central Italy. Checklist and conservation guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aurunci Mounts are among the less investigated areas of Latium for herpetological researches. In this study we surveyed 72 potential breeding sites of amphibians within the Monti Aurunci Regional Park. Fifty-eight spawning sites, and nine amphibian species (64.3% out the 14 amphibian species living in Latium region have been found. Green toad and European tree frog were recorded for the first time for the Aurunci Mounts. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandrina perspicillata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton vulgaris, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Pseudopidalea viridis, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica and Rana synklepton hispanica. Unexpectedly, no amphibian species has been recorded within the Monte Redentore (pSIC IT6040027, despite this site was included within the Natura 2000 network also basing on the presence of Triturus carnifex.

  13. Climate change promotes hybridisation between deeply divergent species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiocchio, Andrea; Zampiglia, Mauro; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Rare hybridisations between deeply divergent animal species have been reported for decades in a wide range of taxa, but have often remained unexplained, mainly considered chance events and reported as anecdotal. Here, we combine field observations with long-term data concerning natural hybridisations, climate, land-use, and field-validated species distribution models for two deeply divergent and naturally sympatric toad species in Europe (Bufo bufo and Bufotes viridis species groups). We show that climate warming and seasonal extreme temperatures are conspiring to set the scene for these maladaptive hybridisations, by differentially affecting life-history traits of both species. Our results identify and provide evidence of an ultimate cause for such events, and reveal that the potential influence of climate change on interspecific hybridisations goes far beyond closely related species. Furthermore, climate projections suggest that the chances for these events will steadily increase in the near future. PMID:28348926

  14. Developmental alterations and osmoregulatory physiology of a larval anuran under osmotic stress

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Water salinity represents an environmental stress for many species. Amphibians are particularly sensitive because they are generally poor osmoregulators, and most species are completely absent from brackish and saline environments. We experimentally examined the effect of different salinity levels on larvae of the toad Bufo calamita L., a species that occupies freshwater ponds but can also breed in brackish ponds. Two independent experiments are reported here. In both experiments, tadpoles un...

  15. Studies on the Effects of Deltamethrin on Sodium Net Transport Through the in vivo Amphibian Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALFREDOSALIBIAN; JOSEL.MARAZZO

    1995-01-01

    The action of micromolar concentrations of Deltamethrin on sodium net transport through the in vivo skin of the South American toad Bufo arenarum was studied.The effect or pure ethanolic insecticide solutions and commercial formulations when applied on the mucosal surface was assayed.Deltamethrin provoked a concentration-independent inhibition;the highest inhibition was found at the lowest concentrations.At highest concentrations of the insecticide the Jn Na was not altered.

  16. Environmental Assessment of the Construction of the Joint Use Small Arms Range for the 934th Airlift Wing at Minneapolis-St. paul International Airport Air Reserve Station, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    design must preclude escape of both direct-fired projectiles and ricochets. “Blue sky ” should not be visible from any firing position or as one...travels downrange towards the target. Overhead baffles prevent “blue sky ” visibility. The bullet trap at the existing small arms range has exposed... starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Other species might include the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) and the American toad (Bufo americanus) (934 AW

  17. Environmental Assessment of Proposed Mixed-Use Business Park on an Enchanced Use Lease at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Although no formal survey has been conducted for amphibians and reptiles on the base, two reptiles and four amphibians have been observed at...are the American toad (Bufo americanus), and wood frog (Rana sylvatica). Reptiles observed on base include the common garter snake (Thamnophis...original peoples of North and South America (including Central America ) and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment;  Asian – A

  18. Sink or swim: a test of tadpole behavioral responses to predator cues and potential alarm pheromones from skin secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Nino; Gehrer, Lukas; Woodhams, Douglas C

    2012-11-01

    Chemical signaling is a vital mode of communication for most organisms, including larval amphibians. However, few studies have determined the identity or source of chemical compounds signaling amphibian defensive behaviors, in particular, whether alarm pheromones can be actively secreted from tadpoles signaling danger to conspecifics. Here we exposed tadpoles of the common toad Bufo bufo and common frog Rana temporaria to known cues signaling predation risk and to potential alarm pheromones. In both species, an immediate reduction in swimming activity extending over an hour was caused by chemical cues from the predator Aeshna cyanea (dragonfly larvae) that had been feeding on conspecific tadpoles. However, B. bufo tadpoles did not detectably alter their behavior upon exposure to potential alarm pheromones, neither to their own skin secretions, nor to the abundant predator-defense peptide bradykinin. Thus, chemicals signaling active predation had a stronger effect than general alarm secretions of other common toad tadpoles. This species may invest in a defensive strategy alternative to communication by alarm pheromones, given that Bufonidae are toxic to some predators and not known to produce defensive skin peptides. Comparative behavioral physiology of amphibian alarm responses may elucidate functional trade-offs in pheromone production and the evolution of chemical communication.

  19. Asociacion faunistica de vertebrados mesozoicos de la localidad de Galve (Teruel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Hemández, B.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Sediments of Tithonian-Barremian of Iberian Basin in the surroundings of Galve (Teniel, Spain have a high content of vertebrate's remains. These ones have been studied since s. XX until today by different scientists. More than ninety taxons have been mentioned in these papers, distributed in Hybodontiformes, Squalomorpha, Batoidea, Rajiforms, Amphibia, Reptilia (Chelonia, Sauria, Crocodylia, Pterosauria, Ornithischia, Saurischia and Marnmalia.Los sedimentos del Tithónico-Barremiense de la Cuenca Ibérica aflorantes en los alrededores de la localidad de Galve (Teniel, son particularmente ricos en restos de vertebrados mesozoicos. Estos han sido estudiados por diferentes autores, desde principios del siglo xx hasta la actualidad. El objetivo del presente artículo es recopilar los distintos taxones que han sido citados para esta área, a lo largo del tiempo, recogiéndose más de noventa taxones distribuidos entre Hybodontiformes, Squalomorpha, Batoidea, Rajiformes, Amphibia, Reptilia (Testudines, Sauria, Crocodilia, Pterosauria, Ornithischia, Saurischia y Mammalia.

  20. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (No. A-4 Kunbetsu-dake area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-30

    Of the FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey, the primary environmental effect survey in the Kunbetsu-dake area was conducted, and the results were arranged. In the well drilling survey, etc., the survey was made aiming at extracting areas to be preserved from an environmental aspect. The results of the survey were summarized as follows: As to the mammalia, 12 families 46 species were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery by literature survey. Out of them, the noticeable species which are considered important from an academic viewpoint are 10 families 19 species. As to the aves, 55 families 340 species were confirmed, of which 29 families 79 species are noticeable species. About the amphibia/reptilia, 3 families 3 species in the amphibia and 4 families 6 species in the reptilia were confirmed by literature and hearing survey. The noticeable species is 1 family 1 species in the amphilia. Concerning the terrestrial insecta, 135 families 873 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 11 families 20 species. As to the flora, 115 families 1055 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 46 families 126 species. Relating to the living vegetation, the one higher than 9 in nature reserves shows a substantial rate, and the periphery of Kaibetsu-dake is designated as the specified flora colony. (NEDO)

  1. Extreme flooding tolerance in Rorippa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Melis; Bhikharie, Amit; Mustroph, Angelika; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    Low oxygen stress imposed by floods creates a strong selection force shaping plant ecosystems in flood-prone areas. Plants inhabiting these environments adopt various adaptations and survival strategies to cope with increasing water depths. Two Rorippa species, R. sylvestris and R. amphibia that grow in naturally flooded areas, have high submergence tolerance achieved by the so-called quiescence and escape strategies, respectively. In order to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in these strategies, we investigated submergence-induced changes in gene expression in flooded roots of Rorippa species. There was a higher induction of glycolysis and fermentation genes and faster carbohydrate reduction in R. amphibia, indicating a higher demand for energy potentially leading to faster mortality by starvation. Moreover, R. sylvestris showed induction of genes improving submergence tolerance, potentially enhancing survival in prolonged floods. Additionally, we compared transcript profiles of these 2 tolerant species to relatively intolerant Arabidopsis and found that only Rorippa species induced various inorganic pyrophosphate dependent genes, alternatives to ATP demanding pathways, thereby conserving energy, and potentially explaining the difference in flooding survival between Rorippa and Arabidopsis.

  2. Incidencia de los atropellos sobre la fauna vertebrada en el Valle de El Paular. LIC "Cuenca del río Lozoya y Sierra Norte"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESPINOSA, A., SERRANO, J.A., MONTORI, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las carreteras son uno de los agentes antrópicos de cambio más importantes. Son uno de los más relevantes agentes de fragmentación de hábitat, transformación de los sistemas naturales y actúan como un depredador inespecífico sobre la fauna. Varios estudios han demostrado que son la principal causa de mortalidad de anfibios, como es el caso del sapo común Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758 en España. En un estudio previo realizado en la zona se puso de manifiesto que la mayor incidencia de los atropellos se producía sobre dos especies: Bufo calamita Laurenti, 1768 y Bufo bufo. Para analizar la situación actual y ampliar el área de estudio se seleccionaron 13 tramos de 1 km en las carreteras M-604 y M-611 localizadas en el LIC del Alto Lozoya (Sistema Central, Península Ibérica. Cada segmento prospectado se recorrió a pie en ambos sentidos tres veces al mes, durante dos años, desde marzo de 2009 (934 muestreos. Los transectos se caracterizaron considerando las variables: altitud de inicio y final, cobertura arbórea (para una franja de 20 m a ambos lados de la carretera, grado de humanización (muy bajo, bajo, medio y vegetación dominante. Las visitas a los tramos se realizaron con un intervalo promedio de 9 días, tiempo suficiente para que no existieran observaciones repetidas. Además, los ejemplares atropellados detectados eran retirados de la calzada cuando esto era posible. Se han registrado un total de 632 vertebrados muertos en la calzada que se distribuyen por grupos en 123 anfibios, 160 reptiles, 191 aves y 80 mamíferos de 4, 14, 26 y 12 especies distintas, respectivamente. No se han encontrado diferencias en el número de atropellos según el día de la semana, pero sí existen claras diferencias en la distribución de los atropellos a lo largo del año. Sólo dos variables ambientales muestran diferencias significativas según el grupo: el grado de humanización y el hábitat. Sin embargo, el test PostHoc de Bonferroni indica

  3. Primary Survey on Herpetofauna in Campus of Hechi University in Central Guangxi%河池学院校园两栖爬行动物初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋爱伍; 粟通萍; 于家捷; 梁晓凤

    2011-01-01

    A primary survey on herpetofauna was conducted by specimen collecting and interviewing in campus of Hechi University, central Guangxi, during July 2008 to December 2009. Totally 26 species were detected in this survey. Among them, 6 species of 4 families, 1 order belonged to the class Amphibia, and 20 species of 7 families, 2 orders belonged to the class Reptilia. The dominant Amphibia is Polypedates leucomystax, and the dominant Reptilia is Rhabdphis subminiatus,Naja atra and Eumeces chinensis. 6 species of 12 snakes are vipers in the campus, and Naja atra is the most dangerous. The Amphibia depend on running water have already disappeared along with urbanization, and the species breeding or preying on the building,such as Pol y pedates leucom ystax , Naja atra and Hem idact ylus bowrin gii , can adapt the habitat of urban.%2008年7月至2009年12月,利用标本采集和访问的方法对河池学院校园内两栖爬行动物资源进行了初步的调查,共记录到两栖爬行动物26种,其中两栖动物1目4科6种,爬行动物2目7科20种.在校园中最常见的两栖动物是斑腿泛树蛙(Polypedates leucomystax),最常见的爬行动物是红脖颈槽蛇(Rhabdphissubminiatus)、舟山眼镜蛇(Naja atra)和中国石龙子(Eumeces chinensis).在校园分布的12种蛇类中,6种为毒蛇,其中舟山眼镜蛇的危害最为严重.师生在工作和学习要特别注意防止咬伤.与周边地区相比,在城市化过程中,流水型的两栖动物最容易灭绝;能利用建筑物繁殖或捕食的种类,如斑腿泛树蛙、原尾蜥虎和舟山眼镜蛇等,在城市化过程中占有较大的优势.

  4. Combined exposure to ambient UVB radiation and nitrite negatively affects survival of amphibian early life stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, Guadalupe [Donana Biological Station, CSIC, Spanish Council for Scientific Research. P.O. Box 1056, Sevilla 41013 (Spain); Marco, Adolfo [Donana Biological Station, CSIC, Spanish Council for Scientific Research. P.O. Box 1056, Sevilla 41013 (Spain)], E-mail: amarco@ebd.csic.es; Blaustein, Andrew R. [Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 97331 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Many aquatic species are sensitive to ambient levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) and chemical fertilizers. However, recent studies indicate that the interaction among multiple stressors acting simultaneously could be contributing to the population declines of some animal species. Therefore, we tested the potential synergistic effects between ambient levels of UVB and a contaminant, sodium nitrite in the larvae of two amphibian species, the common European toad Bufo bufo and the Iberian green frog Rana perezi. We studied R. perezi from both mountain and coastal populations to examine if populations of the same species varied in their response to stressors in different habitats. Both species were sensitive to the two stressors acting alone, but the interaction between the two stressors caused a multiplicative impact on tadpole survival. For B. bufo, the combination of UVB and nitrite was up to seven times more lethal than mortality for each stressor alone. In a coastal wetland, the combination of UVB and nitrite was four times more toxic for R. perezi than the sum of the effect on mortality for each stressor alone. One mg/L of nitrite killed half the population of R. perezi at Gredos Mountains at day 10 in the absence of UVB. In the presence of UVB, 50% of the tadpoles from the same experiment died at day 7. Similar toxic response were found for R. perezi in two highly contrasted environments suggesting this synergistic interaction can be a widespread phenomenon. The interaction of excess chemical fertilizers and manure with ambient UVB radiation could be contributing to the global decline of some amphibian species. We suggest that potential exposure to UVB radiation be accounted for when assessing water quality criteria regarding nitrite pollution.

  5. Indirect evidence for elastic energy playing a role in limb recovery during toad hopping

    OpenAIRE

    Schnyer, Ariela; Gallardo, Mirialys; Cox, Suzanne; Gillis, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Elastic energy is critical for amplifying muscle power during the propulsive phase of anuran jumping. In this study, we use toads (Bufo marinus) to address whether elastic recoil is also involved after take-off to help flex the limbs before landing. The potential for such spring-like behaviour stems from the unusually flexed configuration of a toad's hindlimbs in a relaxed state. Manual extension of the knee beyond approximately 90° leads to the rapid development of passive tension in the lim...

  6. Amphibians and disease: Implications for conservation in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    The decline of amphibian populations is a world-wide phenomenon that has received increasing attention since about 1990. In 2004, the World Conservation Union’s global amphibian assessment concluded that 48% of the world’s 5,743 described amphibian species were in decline, with 32% considered threatened (Stuart et al. 2004). Amphibian declines are a significant issue in the western United States, where all native species of frogs in the genus Rana and many toads in the genus Bufo are at risk, particularly those that inhabit mountainous areas (Corn 2003a,b; Bradford 2005).

  7. Reacción de galli mainini para el diagnóstico precoz del embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Mejía, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    La reacción de Galli Mainini efectuada en batracios machos parael diagnóstico precoz del embarazo, se deriva del conjunto de trabajos realizados por Houssay y su escuela, quienes desde el año de 1922 venían trabajando en forma intensa e ininterrumpida, sobre anatomía histología y fisiología gonadales, observando las relaciones entre éstas y las gonadotrofinas en diversos batracios. En el año de 1929 hallaron la liberación de los espermatozoides en el testículo del Bufo arenarum Hensel, por la...

  8. Dynamic stability of communities of amphibians in short-term-flooded forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zhukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of stability of amphibian populations on the basis of data of population dynamics is given. The paper shows an attempt to estimate the direction of dynamic changes of amphibian populations, and defines the rate of the system deviation from the stationary state due to possible influence of the environmental factors by using concepts such as reactivity, degree of reactivity and flexibility of the system when using their indexes. It is found that populations of amphibians are quite stable with regard to quantifying these species. Characteristic feature is the elasticity of the system. It is confirmed by the elasticity of the system species Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758. TypePelobates fuscus (Laurenti, 1768 is defined as a factor of stability of the system in quantitative terms. Dependenceof dynamics of the population on its size is established using the regression equation. Dynamics of groups depends on the action of possible predictors in response to which the population of B. bufo is not changed. The ecosystem is characterized as a place of interaction between biotic factors and factors of abiotic origin, which are due to the external action. Internal factor of the ecosystem stability is the influence of some amphibian populations on the other ones. The system features sustainable and relatively stable number of B. bufo, which does not affect the level of its stability. Stationary state of the grouping is unstable due to dynamic matrix, which describes the behavior of the group in the vicinity of the first stationary state. The second steady state is stableone, and the system returns to the stationary state with the help of wave-like dynamics. On the basis of our study it is established that the number of groups of amphibians remains stable, the systems behave differently, and dynamics of their return to the stationary state is elastic or reactive one. Еcosystems within lime-ash oak forests in the Central floodplain of the Samarariver

  9. Environ: E00121 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00121 Toad venom (JP16) Crude drug Hellebrin [CPD:C08868], Resibufogenin [CPD:C170...58], Cinobufagin [CPD:C16931], Bufalin [CPD:C16922], Bufotalin [CPD:C16923], Cinobufotalin [CPD:C16932], Gamabufo...talin [CPD:C16962], Telocinobufagin [CPD:C17072], Hellebrigenin [CPD:C16969], Bufadienolides [CPD:C16921], Cardenolides, Bufo...tenine [CPD:C08299], Bufotenidine [CPD:C13664], Epirenamine...l, Marinobufagin, Resibufagin, Serotonine, Bufothionine, Dehydrobufotenine, Bufotoxin, Cholesterol [CPD:C001

  10. Excitabilidad iterativa y actividad rítmica de los músculos estriados: contracción prosténica

    OpenAIRE

    Ordoñez, Hernando

    2011-01-01

    Se hace un estudio sobre la historia de la excitabilidad iterativa. Se relaciona la excitabilidad iterativa con la contracción prosténica. Se describen los caracteres de esta variedad de contracción muscular, a saber: contracción rítmica que aparece en el músculo gastrocnemio de varias clases de ranas, hyla labialis, rana esculenta, bufo marinus; excitación directa; la excitación repetida puede ser choques de inducción, descargas de condensadores, estimulación electrónica; la frecuencia de lo...

  11. Homeotic regeneration of eye in amphibian tadpoles and its enhancement by vitamin A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O P Jangir; D V S Shekhawat; Acharya Prakash; K K Swami; Pawan Suthar

    2001-12-01

    After removal of both the lateral eyes of external gill stage tadpoles of the toad Bufo melanostictus, the pineal organ gets transformed into a median eye. This type of transformation occurrs in tadpoles of both control and vitamin A treated groups. However, vitamin A increases the likelihood of homeotic regeneration (57% in the control group and 71% in the vitamin A treated group). Histological studies showed that the newly transformed median eye developed from the pineal organ. The pineal eye so developed possessed all components of a normal eye such as a retina, sensory cells and lens.

  12. Differential expression of aquaporin 3 in Triturus italicus from larval to adult epidermal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Brunelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available By using immunohistochemical techniques applied to confocal microscopy, the presence of aquaporin 3 water channel in the epidermis of Triturus italicus (Amphibia, Urodela has been shown. We analysed the expression of aquaporin 3 (AQP3 during the larval, pre-metamorphic and adult phases; we also showed the localization of the water-channel protein AQP3 in free-swimming conditions and during aestivation in parallel with histological analysis of the skin, focusing on the possible relationship between protein expression and terrestrial habitats. Our results indicate that aquaporin is produced as the epidermis modifies during the functional maturation phase starting at the climax. Moreover, our data suggest an increase in enzyme expression in aestivating newts emphasizing the putative functional importance of differential expression related to a distinct phase of the biological cycle.

  13. 大鲵人工繁殖研究简报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳爱生; 刘国钧

    1978-01-01

    大鲵(Megalobatrachus daridianus]为我国珍贵动物之一,系属两栖纲(Amphibia)有尾目(Urodela)隐鳃鲵科(Cryptobranchjdae),地方名通称叫娃娃鱼。经济价值高,但由于天然繁殖率低,加之近年人工捕捉强度大,因而导致其资源衰退,为保护增殖大鲵这一珍贵动物,湖南省水产研究所与湖南桑植县娃娃鱼研究所协作,进行了大鲵人工繁殖的初步研究。

  14. 商城肥鲵的生态观察与资源保护%The ecological observation and resources protection of Pachyhynobius shangchengensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡三元

    2001-01-01

    记述了我国特有的珍稀有尾两栖动物商城肥鲵的分布范围、生态环境和生活习性;对其资源现状进行了分析,并就资源保护提出了具体措施和建议.%The Pachyhynobius shangchengcnsis is a valuable and rare species of Urodela amphibia which distributes exclusively in our country. In this article, its ecological environment and living characteristics and distribution are narrated and its resources status are analyzed based on the field observation for many years. Furthermore, This paper puts forward some practical measures and suggestions its resources protection.

  15. Cold-induced changes in amphibian oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelier, N.; Moreau, N.A.; N' Da, E.A.; Lautredou, N.F. (Centre de Biologie Cellulaire, Ivry-sur-Seine (France))

    1989-08-01

    Female Pleurodeles waltl newts (Amphibia, urodele), usually raised at 20 degrees C, were submitted to low temperatures; oocytes responded to this cold stress by drastic changes both in lampbrush chromosome structure and in protein pattern. Preexisting lateral loops of lampbrush chromosomes were reduced in size and number, while cold-induced loops which were tremendously developed, occurred on defined bivalents of the oocyte at constant, reproducible sites. A comparison of protein patterns in control and stressed oocytes showed two main differences: in stressed oocytes, overall protein synthesis was reduced, except for a set of polypeptides, the cold-stress proteins; second, there was a striking inversion of the relative amount of beta- and gamma-actin found in the oocyte nucleus before and after cold stress. Whereas beta-actin was the predominant form in control oocytes, gamma-actin became the major form in stressed oocytes.

  16. 池养大鲵人工繁殖试验%Experiment on the Artificial Propagation of Andrias davidianus in Pond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海文; 廖伏初; 王宇; 卓君华; 曾国生

    2004-01-01

    大鲵学名Andrias davidianus,俗称娃娃鱼。是中国特产,故又称中国大鲵,属两栖纲(Amphibia)有尾目(Caudata)隐鳃鲵科(Cryptobranchidae),属国家二类保护动物。大鲵在食用、药用、观赏用以及科研方面有极重要的价值。但大鲵在人工养殖条件下,雌雄性发育不完全同步,雄性发育差,“三率”(催产率、受精率、

  17. 重庆市两栖爬行动物分类分布名录%A Classification and Distribution of Herpetological Checklist in Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗键; 唐兰; 刘颖梅; 高红英; 罗颖; 黄静; 肖伟; 王宇; 周元媛; 罗书桃

    2012-01-01

    该文以《中国动物志·两栖纲》(三卷)和《中国动物志·爬行纲》(三卷)为蓝本,并按照新的分类系统对重庆市两栖爬行动物标本和记录进行了核实和厘定,确定重庆市已知两栖类57种,隶属2目9科26属;爬行类63种,隶属2目12科45属.增补18种,即2新种:金佛拟小鲵Pseudoh ynobius jinfo和黔江林蛙Rana qianjiang;重庆市新纪录16种:龙里瘰螈Paramesotriton longliensis、川南短腿蟾Brachytarsophrys chuannanensis、蛾眉髭蟾Vibrissaphora boringii、弹琴蛙Hylarana adenopleura、云南臭蛙Odorrana andersonii(?)、合江臭蛙Odorrana hejiangensis、合江棘蛙Paa robertingeri、黑点树蛙Rhacophorus nigropunctatus、峨眉树蛙Rhacophorus omeimontis、潘氏闭壳龟Cuora pani、白头蝰Azemiops eae、四川竹叶青蛇Trimeresurus sichuanensis、黄链蛇Dinodon flavozonatum、灰腹绿蛇Rhadinophis frenatum、龙胜小头蛇Oligodon lungshenensis和宁陕小头蛇Oligodon ningshaanensis.并根据标本采集情况和相关文献,对物种的区县分布进行了补充.另外,发现外来入侵两栖类和爬行类物种各1种,即牛蛙Lithobates catesbeianus和红耳龟Trachemys scripta elegans.%This paper deals with the study on herpediversity in evaluation of vertebrate biodiversity in the Chongqing Field Project of EU-China Biodiversity Programme (CQECBP). On the basis of "Fauna Sinica, Amphibia Vol. 1 - 3". "Fauna Sinica, Reptilia Vol. 1 - 3", and the new system of herpetological classification, the specimens and records of amphibia and reptilia in Chongqing have been verified and classified in this paper. It is determined that there are 57 species of amphibia belonging to 2 orders, 9 families and 26 genera; and 63 species of reptilia to 2 orders, 12 families and 45 genera in Chongqing. There supplement in this paper 18 species of amphibian and reptilia in Chongqing, including 2 new species: Pseudohynobius jinfo (published recently) and Rana qianjiang, and 16 new species

  18. [Biological experiments on "Kosmos-1887"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpatov, A M; I'lin, E A; Antipov, V V; Tairbekov, M G

    1989-01-01

    In the 13-ray space flight on Kosmos-1887 various experiments in the field of cell biology, genetics, biorhythm, developmental biology and regeneration were performed using bacteria, protozoa, plants, worms, insects, fish and amphibia. Paramecia showed enhanced cell proliferation, spheroidization and diminished protein content. Experiments on fruit-flies, newt oocytes and primate lymphocytes confirmed involvement of the cell genetic apparatus in responses to microgravity. Beetles exhibited a reduction of the length of the spontaneous period of freely running circadian rhythms. Carausius morosus developed latent changes in early embryogenesis which manifested at later stages of ontogenesis. Exposure to microgravity did not prevent recovery of injured tissues; moreover their regeneration may be accelerated after recovery. Biology research programs in future biosatellite flights are discussed.

  19. The Chemical and Evolutionary Ecology of Tetrodotoxin (TTX Toxicity in Terrestrial Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Hanifin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is widely distributed in marine taxa, however in terrestrial taxa it is limited to a single class of vertebrates (Amphibia. Tetrodotoxin present in the skin and eggs of TTX-bearing amphibians primarily serves as an antipredator defense and these taxa have provided excellent models for the study of the evolution and chemical ecology of TTX toxicity. The origin of TTX present in terrestrial vertebrates is controversial. In marine organisms the accepted hypothesis is that the TTX present in metazoans results from either dietary uptake of bacterially produced TTX or symbiosis with TTX producing bacteria, but this hypothesis may not be applicable to TTX-bearing amphibians. Here I review the taxonomic distribution and evolutionary ecology of TTX in amphibians with some attention to the origin of TTX present in these taxa.

  20. Composition and phylogenetic analysis of vitellogenin coding sequences in the Indonesian coelacanth Latimeria menadoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canapa, Adriana; Olmo, Ettore; Forconi, Mariko; Pallavicini, Alberto; Makapedua, Monica Daisy; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Barucca, Marco

    2012-07-01

    The coelacanth Latimeria menadoensis, a living fossil, occupies a key phylogenetic position to explore the changes that have affected the genomes of the aquatic vertebrates that colonized dry land. This is the first study to isolate and analyze L. menadoensis mRNA. Three different vitellogenin transcripts were identified and their inferred amino acid sequences compared to those of other known vertebrates. The phylogenetic data suggest that the evolutionary history of this gene family in coelacanths was characterized by a different duplication event than those which occurred in teleosts, amniotes, and amphibia. Comparison of the three sequences highlighted differences in functional sites. Moreover, despite the presence of conserved sites compared with the other oviparous vertebrates, some sites were seen to have changed, others to be similar only to those of teleosts, and others still to resemble only to those of tetrapods.

  1. First observation of a muscle spindle in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, N; Miyoshi, S; Toh, H

    1983-03-01

    In many groups of vertebrates, the muscle spindle is a specialized sensory organ for the detection of muscle stretching. The structure of the spindle varies among vertebrate classes. Moreover, Barker has asserted that Amphibia are the most primitive vertebrates to possess muscle spindles. Extensive studies, made mainly on the locomotor myotome, seem to show that the muscle receptors of fish are less specialized than those of more advanced animals, and that muscle spindles are absent. However, little attention has been paid to the jaw-closing muscle. We report here our finding of a very simple muscle spindle with a single intrafusal fibre in the well-developed jaw-closing muscle, adductor mandibulae, in a primitive teleostean, Oncorhynchus masou (Brevoort).

  2. Mapping the space of genomic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila Kari

    Full Text Available We propose a computational method to measure and visualize interrelationships among any number of DNA sequences allowing, for example, the examination of hundreds or thousands of complete mitochondrial genomes. An "image distance" is computed for each pair of graphical representations of DNA sequences, and the distances are visualized as a Molecular Distance Map: Each point on the map represents a DNA sequence, and the spatial proximity between any two points reflects the degree of structural similarity between the corresponding sequences. The graphical representation of DNA sequences utilized, Chaos Game Representation (CGR, is genome- and species-specific and can thus act as a genomic signature. Consequently, Molecular Distance Maps could inform species identification, taxonomic classifications and, to a certain extent, evolutionary history. The image distance employed, Structural Dissimilarity Index (DSSIM, implicitly compares the occurrences of oligomers of length up to k (herein k = 9 in DNA sequences. We computed DSSIM distances for more than 5 million pairs of complete mitochondrial genomes, and used Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS to obtain Molecular Distance Maps that visually display the sequence relatedness in various subsets, at different taxonomic levels. This general-purpose method does not require DNA sequence alignment and can thus be used to compare similar or vastly different DNA sequences, genomic or computer-generated, of the same or different lengths. We illustrate potential uses of this approach by applying it to several taxonomic subsets: phylum Vertebrata, (superkingdom Protista, classes Amphibia-Insecta-Mammalia, class Amphibia, and order Primates. This analysis of an extensive dataset confirms that the oligomer composition of full mtDNA sequences can be a source of taxonomic information. This method also correctly finds the mtDNA sequences most closely related to that of the anatomically modern human (the Neanderthal

  3. 应用GIS制作Coringa红树林物种分布图%Application of GIS in the Preparation of Species Distributional Maps for Coringa Mangroves Based on Ground Truth Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Satyanarayana; A.V.Raman; 张秀英; 冯学智; F.Dehairs

    2004-01-01

    Coringa野生保护区是印度东海岸第二大红树林保护区.采用PCQM(Point Centered Quarter Meth-od)方法获取了该区红树林树木底面积数据Arcinfo 8.1制作物种密度分布图,结果显示,该区红树林植物有15种,分属8个科10个属,动物则包括7个门(Arthropda,Mollusca,Pisces,Amphibia,Reptiles,Aves andMammals).在15种红树林植物中,Avicennia marina,A.officinalis和Excoecaria agallocha是保护区中分布最广泛的种类,他们的分布密度随盐度的变化而变化,Rhizophora apiculata和R.mucronata则被限制在该区沿海边缘地带.%Coringa wildlife sanctuary is the second largest mangrove formation on the east coast of India with its rich floral and faunal biodiversity.The total number of floral species is composed of 15(8 families and 10 genera)conile fauna represented by 7 diverse groups such as Arthropoda,Mollusca,Pisces,Amphibia,Reptiles,Aves and Mammals.Out of 15 mangrove plant species,Avicennia marina ,A.o fficinalis and Excoecaria agallocha are the most widely distributed species within the sanctuary representing their wide tolerance capacity towards varying salinity ranges.Rhizophora apiculata and R.mucronata are mostly confined to the seaward fringes in this region.During present study,an attempt was made to prepare the species level distributional maps for the above said plant communities with the help of Arc Map 8.1 based on basal area(m2 per 0.1 hm2)estimations derived from PCQM(Point Cen-tered Quarter Method).

  4. Developmental alterations and osmoregulatory physiology of a larval anuran under osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Mestre, I; Tejedo, M; Ramayo, E; Estepa, J

    2004-01-01

    Water salinity represents an environmental stress for many species. Amphibians are particularly sensitive because they are generally poor osmoregulators, and most species are completely absent from brackish and saline environments. We experimentally examined the effect of different salinity levels on larvae of the toad Bufo calamita L., a species that occupies freshwater ponds but can also breed in brackish ponds. Two independent experiments are reported here. In both experiments, tadpoles under saline conditions (ranging between 85 and 200 mOsm) showed a slower developmental rate, metamorphosing between 4 and 9 d later than the controls. Bufo calamita tadpoles reared in brackish water increased their osmolality and solute concentration (mainly sodium and chloride), decreased their levels of glucose, and decreased the total protein content, all measured from whole-animal extracts. Although most larval anurans are strictly ammoniotelic until the completion of metamorphosis, a few species exposed to dehydrating environments have evolved the ability to use urea as an osmolyte during the larval phase. The data presented here reveal that although B. calamita seems to be yet another exception to the rule of larval strict ammoniotelism, the tadpoles are not able to use urea as an osmolyte and rely on sodium-chloride balance instead. Preliminary immunoassays of thyroid hormone content suggest a possible decrease in hormone levels induced in water salinity conditions that correlate with a decreased developmental rate.

  5. Caracterización morfológica de larvas de anuros del Noroeste argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrezi, Marissa

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan caracteres morfológicos en larvas de catorce especies de anuros. Las especies analizadas son Bufo arenarum, B. paracnemis, Leptodadylus chaquensis, L. latinasus, Odontophrynus americanus, O. lavillai, Phrynohyas venulosa, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuqui, Pleurodema borellii, P. tucumana, Scinax fuscovaria y S. nasica. Estas especies se desarrollan en charcas temporarias del Noroeste de Argentina. Se caracterizan las larvas de cada especie por el análisis de la morfología externa e interna, caracteres de la cavidad oral, condrocráneo y arcos viscerales. Algunos de estos aspectos morfológicos se discuten con las hipótesis propuestas acerca de larvas generalizadas. We have analyzed morphological characters in tadpoles of fourteen anuran species. The species considered are Bufo arenaum, B. paracnemis, Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. latinasus, Odontopbynus americanus, O.lavillai, Phrynohyas venulosa, Phyllomedusa sauvagii, Physalaemus biligonigerus, P. cuqui, Pleurodema borellii, P. tucumana, Scinax fuscovaria and S. nasica. They develop in similar temporary ponds of Northwestern of Argentina. We characterized the larvae of each species by the analyses on external morphology, internal oral features, chondrocranium and visceral archs. Some of these morphological aspects have been discussed with proposal hypotheses about generalized tadpoles.

  6. Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üveges, Bálint; Mahr, Katharina; Szederkényi, Márk; Bókony, Veronika; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates today, experiencing worldwide declines. In recent years considerable effort was invested in exposing the causes of these declines. Climate change has been identified as such a cause; however, the expectable effects of predicted milder, shorter winters on hibernation success of temperate-zone Amphibians have remained controversial, mainly due to a lack of controlled experimental studies. Here we present a laboratory experiment, testing the effects of simulated climate change on hibernating juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo). We simulated hibernation conditions by exposing toadlets to current (1.5 °C) or elevated (4.5 °C) hibernation temperatures in combination with current (91 days) or shortened (61 days) hibernation length. We found that a shorter winter and milder hibernation temperature increased survival of toads during hibernation. Furthermore, the increase in temperature and shortening of the cold period had a synergistic positive effect on body mass change during hibernation. Consequently, while climate change may pose severe challenges for amphibians of the temperate zone during their activity period, the negative effects may be dampened by shorter and milder winters experienced during hibernation. PMID:27229882

  7. Linking global warming to amphibian declines through its effects on female body condition and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, C J

    2007-02-01

    There is general consensus that climate change has contributed to the observed decline, and extinction, of many amphibian species throughout the world. However, the mechanisms of its effects remain unclear. A laboratory study in 1980-1981 in which temperate zone amphibians that were prevented from hibernating had decreased growth rates, matured at a smaller size and had increased mortality compared with those that hibernated suggested one possible mechanism. I used data from a field study of common toads (Bufo bufo) in the UK, between 1983 and 2005, to determine whether this also occurs in the field. The results demonstrated two pathways by which global warming may cause amphibian declines. First, there was a clear relationship between a decline in the body condition of female common toads and the occurrence of warmer than average years since 1983. This was paralleled by a decline in their annual survival rates with the relationship between these two declines being highly correlated. Second, there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of mild winters and a reduction in female body size, resulting in fewer eggs being laid annually. Climate warming can, therefore, act on wild temperate zone amphibians by deleteriously affecting their physiology, during and after hibernation, causing increased female mortality rates and decreased fecundity in survivors.

  8. Tadpoles of Early Breeding Amphibians are Negatively Affected by Leaf Litter From Invasive Chinese Tallow Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, N. E.

    2005-05-01

    As wetlands are invaded by Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera), native trees are displaced and detrital inputs to amphibian breeding ponds are altered. I used a mesocosm experiment to examine the effect of Chinese tallow leaf litter on the survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis of amphibian larvae. Fifty 1000-L cattle watering tanks were treated with 1500 g dry weight of one of five leaf litter treatments: Chinese tallow, laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), or a 3:1:1:1 mixture. Each tank received 45 tadpoles of Pseudacris feriarum, Bufo terrestris, and Hyla cinerea in sequence according to their natural breeding phonologies. Every Pseudacris feriarum and Bufo terrestris tadpole exposed to Chinese tallow died prior to metamorphosis. Hyla cinerea survival in tanks with tallow-only was significantly lower than that observed for all other leaf treatments. Hyla cinerea tadpoles from tallow-only and mixed-leaf treatments were larger at metamorphosis and transformed faster than those in tanks with native leaves only. These results suggest that Chinese tallow leaf litter may negatively affect tadpoles of early breeding frogs and that Chinese tallow invasion may change the structure of amphibian communities in temporary ponds.

  9. [Effect of the heart electric stimulation on repolarization of fish and amphibian ventricular myocardium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Ia É; Kibler, N A; Vaĭshnoraĭte, M A; Tsvetkova, A S; Kharin, S N; Vitiazev, V A; Shmakov, D N

    2013-01-01

    By the method of synchronous multielectrode cartography (24-unipolar leads), distribution of durations and time of end of repolarization were studied on ventricular epicardium of pikes (Esox lucius) and frogs (Rana esculenta) and in ventricular intramural layers of toads (Bufo bufo) at the ectopic heart excitation. The time of arrival of the excitation wave and of the end of repolarization in each lead was determined from the minimum of time derivative of potential at the period of the QRS complex and by minimum of the T wave, respectively. It has been established that at the ventricle electrostimulation, alongside with deceleration and a change of sequence of the myocardium activation, there occurs redistribution of local repolarization durations: in areas of late activation the repolarization being longer than in zones of early activation (p < 0.05). At stimulation, the apicobasal gradient of repolarization is predominantly changed due to electrophysiological processes in the apical areas. In all studied species. at ectopical excitation of the heart ventricle the sequence of its repolarization repeats the depolarization sequence due to delay of activation (in fish) and redistribution of repolarization durations (in amphibians).

  10. Side-effects of weeding carbamide on non-target organisms in paddy fields%高效除草尿素(药肥)对稻区非目标生物影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少南; 顾晓军; 吴加伦; 樊德方; 李增增; 蒋建华

    2000-01-01

    研究了高效除草尿素(药肥)对稻区水生生物的影响.结果表明,药肥对蟾蜍Bufo bufo gargarizans蝌蚪、棘胸蛙Rana spinosa蝌蚪、食蚊鱼Gambusia affinis、虹鳟Salmo gairdneri、湖螺Ballamya sp和蚤状CF6DDaphnia pulex的96 h LC50分别为5436、1579、4073、568、4139和9781 mg/L.按照用量和目前国内外普遍采用的评价标准,药肥对蟾蜍、食蚊鱼、湖螺和蚤状CF6D低毒,对棘胸蛙和虹鳟具有中等毒性.生长潜力试验表明,小球藻Chlorella sp.和删藻Scenedesmus sp.对药肥敏感性不同,但是在mg/L的药肥模拟田间浓度下两种藻的生物量均有所增加.

  11. Four new species of Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea Parasitizing amphibians and lizards from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreddine Ben Slimane

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of four new species of Oswaldocruzia parasitizing Iguanidae and Leptodactylidae from Ecuador, demonstrate that they are morphologically close to each other. Like most of the other neotropical and holarctic Oswaldocruzia , they are characterized by spicules with three main branches: blade, shoe and fork; the division of the fork within the distal third of the spicule length appears to be characteristic of the neotropical species. - Oswaldocruzia bainae n. sp. parasitizing Anolis chrysolepis and Anolis fuscoauratus possesses a synlophe visible only on transversal sections of the body. It is composed of rounded and not pointed ridges. - Oswaldocruzia tcheprakovae n. sp. parasitizing Eleutherodactylus altamazonicus is closely related to O. bainae , but the synlophe is present only in the anterior and posterior extremities of the body. - Oswaldocruzia cassonei n. sp. parasitizing Eleutherodactylus lanthanites is closely related to O. taranchoni, Ben Slimane and Durette-Desset, 1995, a parasite of Bufo marinus from Brazil. It is differentiated by the synlophe and the measurements. - Oswaldocruzia petterae n. sp. parasitizing Leptodactylus pentadactylus is closely related to O. chambrieri, Ben Slimane and Durette-Desset, 1993, parasitizing Bufo and Eleutherodactylus in the same region. It is differentiated since, for an equivalent length of the body, the ridges are almost two times fewer and the spicules smaller.

  12. Applying fuzzy logic to comparative distribution modelling: a case study with two sympatric amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, A Márcia; Real, Raimundo

    2012-01-01

    We modelled the distributions of two toads (Bufo bufo and Epidalea calamita) in the Iberian Peninsula using the favourability function, which makes predictions directly comparable for different species and allows fuzzy logic operations to relate different models. The fuzzy intersection between individual models, representing favourability for the presence of both species simultaneously, was compared with another favourability model built on the presences shared by both species. The fuzzy union between individual models, representing favourability for the presence of any of the two species, was compared with another favourability model based on the presences of either or both of them. The fuzzy intersections between favourability for each species and the complementary of favourability for the other (corresponding to the logical operation "A and not B") were compared with models of exclusive presence of one species versus the exclusive presence of the other. The results of modelling combined species data were highly similar to those of fuzzy logic operations between individual models, proving fuzzy logic and the favourability function valuable for comparative distribution modelling. We highlight several advantages of fuzzy logic over other forms of combining distribution models, including the possibility to combine multiple species models for management and conservation planning.

  13. Evaluation of tadpole mouthpart depigmentation as a diagnostic test for infection by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis for four California anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett-Flohr, Gretchen E; Goble, Molly E

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of gross morphologic examination of larval mouthpart defects as a diagnostic screening test to detect Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in four California, USA, anuran species. We examined mouthparts of 2,034 tadpoles of Bufo boreas, Pseudacris regilla, and Rana catesbeiana collected in 2003 and 2004 and Bufo canorus collected in 2004. Data were recorded for three morphologic features: upper toothrows, lower toothrows, and combined jaw sheaths. Mouthpart defects were observed in all four species (n=757), but only two species were infected with B. dendrobatidis (n=84). Sensitivity and specificity of the mouthparts test were 76% and 58%, respectively. Forty-two percent of B. dendrobatidis-negative animals would have been designated positive based on mouthpart defects. Observed prevalence was 43%, and true prevalence was 3.0%. Tests of the null hypothesis using logistic regression analysis showed that anuran larval mouthpart defects were not associated with B. dendrobatidis infection whether mouthparts scores were tested by individual morphologic feature or in combination (P=0.37). We conclude that B. dendrobatidis infection and anuran larval mouthpart defects are two separate processes that may occur concurrently and that evaluation of tadpole oral morphology is neither an accurate nor a reliable diagnostic test for B. dendrobatidis infection for the four species tested.

  14. Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üveges, Bálint; Mahr, Katharina; Szederkényi, Márk; Bókony, Veronika; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-05-27

    Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates today, experiencing worldwide declines. In recent years considerable effort was invested in exposing the causes of these declines. Climate change has been identified as such a cause; however, the expectable effects of predicted milder, shorter winters on hibernation success of temperate-zone Amphibians have remained controversial, mainly due to a lack of controlled experimental studies. Here we present a laboratory experiment, testing the effects of simulated climate change on hibernating juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo). We simulated hibernation conditions by exposing toadlets to current (1.5 °C) or elevated (4.5 °C) hibernation temperatures in combination with current (91 days) or shortened (61 days) hibernation length. We found that a shorter winter and milder hibernation temperature increased survival of toads during hibernation. Furthermore, the increase in temperature and shortening of the cold period had a synergistic positive effect on body mass change during hibernation. Consequently, while climate change may pose severe challenges for amphibians of the temperate zone during their activity period, the negative effects may be dampened by shorter and milder winters experienced during hibernation.

  15. Beta-adrenergic activation of solute coupled water uptake by toad skin epithelium results in near-isosmotic transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2007-01-01

    (V) decreased to 0.50+/-0.15 nL cm(-2) x s(-1), which is significantly different from zero. Isoproterenol decreased the osmotic concentration of the transported fluid, C(osm) approximately 2 x I(SC)(Eqv)/J(V), from 351+/-72 to 227+/-28 mOsm (Ringer's solution: 252.8 mOsm). J(V) depicted a saturating function......(V) with a [Na+] of the transported fluid of 130+/-24 mM ([Na+]Ringer's solution = 117.4 mM). Addition of bumetanide to the inside solution reduced J(V). Water was transported uphill and J(V) reversed at an excess outside osmotic concentration, deltaC(S,rev) = 28.9+/-3.9 mOsm, amiloride decreased delta......Transepithelial potential (V(T)), conductance (G(T)), and water flow (J(V)) were measured simultaneously with good time resolution (min) in isolated toad (Bufo bufo) skin epithelium with Ringer on both sides. Inside application of 5 microM isoproterenol resulted in the fast increase in G(T) from 1...

  16. Proton pump activity is required for active uptake of chloride in isolated amphibian skin exposed to freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Willumsen, Niels J.; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2002-01-01

    Net proton secretion and unidirectional chloride fluxes were measured in isolated skin of toads (Bufo bufo) and frogs (Rana esculenta) mounted in an Ussing chamber and exposed to a Ringer's solution on the serosal side and a freshwater-like solution (1-3 mM Cl-) on the external side. Active proto...... active Cl- uptake in fresh water by creating a favourable gradient for an apical HCO3- exit in exchange for external Cl-. The data also suggest that a carbonic anhydrase activity provides H+ and HCO3- for apically co-expressed proton pumps and Cl-/HCO3- exchangers....... of a rheogenic proton pump. Cl- influx was 37.4-7.5 pmol·cm-2·s-1 (n=14) in frog skin and 19.5-3.5 pmol·cm-2·s-1 (n=11) in toad skin. In toad skin, the mean Cl- flux ratio was larger than expected for simple electro-diffusion. In 8 of 11 sets of paired skins, influx was greater than the efflux indicating active......-type proton pump (V-ATPase) inhibitor, significantly reduced proton secretion in frog skin. In addition, concanamycin A (1 µM) significantly reduced Cl- influx in frog skin. We suggest that the active proton secretion and Cl- influx are coupled. We hypothesise that an apical V-ATPase is capable of energising...

  17. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos Influenza in heterothermics

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva Assunção Portari Mancini; Rita Maria Zucatelli Mendonça; Aurora Marques Cianciarullo; Leonardo Setsuo Kobashi; Hermínio Gomes Trindade; Wilson Fernandes; José Ricardo Pinto

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino d...

  18. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari; Mendonça, Rita Maria Zucatelli; Cianciarullo, Aurora Marques; Kobashi,Leonardo Setsuo; Trindade,Hermínio Gomes; Fernandes, Wilson; Pinto,José Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino d...

  19. AMPHIBIAN COMMUNITIES IN BIOGEOCOENOSIS WITH DIFFERENT STAGES OF ANTHROPOGENIC CLYMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenkovskaya А. А.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the abundance of juvenile (fingerlings and yearlings and sexually mature (3-6 years of various anurans at various biotopes with different degrees of anthropogenic influence. Population analysis has revealed that the number of juveniles in all the habitats are depended on type and level of anthropogenic influence. In all the habitats the most numerous species was synanthropic bufo viridis. In biotopes with high contamination of pollutants, only one species of amphibians - the marsh frog has populations with juveniles migrating here in the early fall. The highest number of mature individuals registered for the population of Bombina bombina, pelobates fuscus and in one biotope for hyla arborea. The populations of pelophylax ridibundus could be considered as the most balanced by number of juvenile and mature individuals.

  20. Photobleaching correction in fluorescence microscopy images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, Nathalie B; Diaz Zamboni, Javier E; Adur, Javier F; Paravani, Enrique V; Casco, Victor H [Microscopy Laboratory, School of Engineering - Bioengineering, National University of Entre Rios (UNER), Ruta 11, Km 10 (3101), Oro Verde, Entre Rios (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Fluorophores are used to detect molecular expression by highly specific antigen-antibody reactions in fluorescence microscopy techniques. A portion of the fluorophore emits fluorescence when irradiated with electromagnetic waves of particular wavelengths, enabling its detection. Photobleaching irreversibly destroys fluorophores stimulated by radiation within the excitation spectrum, thus eliminating potentially useful information. Since this process may not be completely prevented, techniques have been developed to slow it down or to correct resulting alterations (mainly, the decrease in fluorescent signal). In the present work, the correction by photobleaching curve was studied using E-cadherin (a cell-cell adhesion molecule) expression in Bufo arenarum embryos. Significant improvements were observed when applying this simple, inexpensive and fast technique.

  1. Distribution of molluscan fauna in the Karangad estuarine mangroves, South East Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhanam Rajagopal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey has been made during February 2010 to know the pattern of molluscan fauna inthe mangroves located along the Karangad estuary. During the present investigation in the researcharea, 25 species of molluscs were recorded. They belong to 14 genera, 10 families and 5 orders. Inthe study area, 13 species of gastropods namely, Cerithidea fluviatilis, Terebralia palustris, Cerithiumcitrinum, C. scabridum, C. obeliscus, Littorina scabra, L. undulata, Planaxis sulcatus, Drupamargariticola, D. heptagonalis, Thais rudolphi, T. bufo, and T. tissoti and 12 species of bivalves –Gafrarium tumidum, G. pectinatum, Crassostrea madrasensis, Mactra cuneata, Tellina ala, T. bruguieri,Saccostrea cucculata, Modiolus metcalfei, M. tulipa, M. traillii, Meretrix meretrix and M. casta - wererecorded.

  2. Trends in anuran occupancy from northeastern states of the North American Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Linda; Fiske, Ian J.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We present the first multi-year occupancy trends from North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) data in 10 northeastern states using seven years of data (2001-2007). NAAMP uses a calling survey technique where observers listen for anuran vocalizations along assigned random roadside routes. We were able to assess occupancy trends in 10 northeastern states for 16 species and one species complex, for 94 species/state combinations. We found no significant trends for 64 species/state combinations. For the remaining 30 species/state combinations with significant trends, these split between declining and increasing trends. On a species-by-species basis, two species had declining trends, with significant trends in six states for Pseudacris crucifer and four states for Bufo americanus. The trends of Rana catesbeiana significantly increased in four states, but had no trend in the remaining states.

  3. Flavor aversion learning induced by lithium chloride in reptiles but not in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Sébastien; Cabanac, Michel

    2004-07-30

    Flavor aversion learning occurs when digestive illness follows ingestion of a novel food. Such learning has been shown to exist in mammals and birds. In this experiment, we looked for flavor aversion learning in amphibians (Bufo paracnemis, Pachytriton breviceps) and reptiles (Basiliscus vitattus, B. basiliscus, Eumeces schneideri, Mabuya multifasciata). After intake of the novel food, the animals received i.p. injection of either lithium chloride (LiCl), an effective illness inducer, or a saline solution. A week later, the LiCl injection had not affected the food intake of the amphibians whereas in the lizards it had produced a strong aversion to the flavor of the novel food. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that specific mental capacities emerged with reptiles.

  4. Studies of Annual and Seasonal Variations in Four Species of Reptiles and Amphibians at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D.C.; Nelson, E.I.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S.; Haarmann, T.K.

    1998-07-01

    Baseline studies of reptiles and amphibians of the Pajarito wetlands at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been conducted by the Ecology group since 1990. With the data gathered from 1990-1997 (excluding 1992), we examined the annual and seasonal population changes of four species of reptiles and amphibians over the past seven years. The four species studied are the Woodhouse toad (Bufo woodhousii), the western chorus frog (Pseudacris triseriata), the many-lined skink (Eunzeces nudtivirgatus), and the plateau striped whiptail lizard (Cnemidophorus velox). Statistical analyses indicate a significant change on a seasonal basis for the western chorus frog and the many-lined skink. Results indicate a significant difference in the annual population of the Woodhouse toad.

  5. THE KARYOTYPE OF SEVEN SPECIES OF AMPHIBIANS (ANURAN ORDER FROM SOUTH-EAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasaruddin -

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As chromosome of different species differs in the size, shape, and number, their caryotpes areexpected to provide a distinctive and characteristic feature of the organism. The caryotypes ofseven amphibian species : Limnonectes gruniens, L modestus, Rana (Hylarana chalconota,Fajervarya cancrivora, Polypedates celebensis, Bufo celebensis and B biporcatus of South EastSulawesi-origin were investigated. The result showed that the number of diploid chromosomes inthe seven anuran varied between 22-26. The highest diploid chromosomes were observed in Rchalconota, F cancrivora (26, followed by L gruniens, L modestus (24 and the lowest were observed22 in P celebensis, B celebensis and B biporcatus (22. In general, all the the seven anuran sharesfour metacentric chromosomes pairs which is in pairs No 5, 6, 9, and 10 respectively. Howeverdifferences were observed in other chromosomes pairs numbers among the seven species.

  6. Ground Water Chemistry Changes before Major Earthquakes and Possible Effects on Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel A.; Halliday, Tim; Balderer, Werner P.; Leuenberger, Fanny; Newcomer, Michelle; Cyr, Gary; Freund, Friedemann T.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to major earthquakes many changes in the environment have been documented. Though often subtle and fleeting, these changes are noticeable at the land surface, in water, in the air, and in the ionosphere. Key to understanding these diverse pre-earthquake phenomena has been the discovery that, when tectonic stresses build up in the Earth’s crust, highly mobile electronic charge carriers are activated. These charge carriers are defect electrons on the oxygen anion sublattice of silicate minerals, known as positive holes, chemically equivalent to O− in a matrix of O2−. They are remarkable inasmuch as they can flow out of the stressed rock volume and spread into the surrounding unstressed rocks. Travelling fast and far the positive holes cause a range of follow-on reactions when they arrive at the Earth’s surface, where they cause air ionization, injecting massive amounts of primarily positive air ions into the lower atmosphere. When they arrive at the rock-water interface, they act as •O radicals, oxidizing water to hydrogen peroxide. Other reactions at the rock-water interface include the oxidation or partial oxidation of dissolved organic compounds, leading to changes of their fluorescence spectra. Some compounds thus formed may be irritants or toxins to certain species of animals. Common toads, Bufo bufo, were observed to exhibit a highly unusual behavior prior to a M6.3 earthquake that hit L’Aquila, Italy, on April 06, 2009: a few days before the seismic event the toads suddenly disappeared from their breeding site in a small lake about 75 km from the epicenter and did not return until after the aftershock series. In this paper we discuss potential changes in groundwater chemistry prior to seismic events and their possible effects on animals. PMID:21776211

  7. Evolutionary mechanisms of rib loss in anurans: a comparative developmental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M J; Sanchiz, B

    2000-04-01

    ABSTRACT The presence of free ribs is presumed to be a primitive morphological character observed only in a few families of Recent anurans, whereas the absence of ribs has been considered to be a derived condition that is widespread within this order. A comparative study of rib development based on representatives of several anuran lineages (Alytes, Bombina, Bufo, Discoglossus, Hyla, Pelobates, Pelodytes, Rana, and Xenopus) reveals a previously undetected diversity of developmental features in the formation and interaction between neural arches and ribs. The absence of free ribs at premetamorphic or later stages is verified in some groups, but we present for the first time evidence of the existence of larval rib rudiments in others, both in the anterior (Rana, Hyla) and posterior (Bufo, Discoglossus, Pelobates) presacral regions. Heterochrony seems to have played a major role in the processes underlying rib reduction. The intracolumnar differences between anterior (V(2)-V(4)) and posterior (V(5)-V(8)) regions are based on perturbations in the timing of early differentiation. Furthermore, a clear shift in the relative timing of ossification among evolutionary lineages was detected. In this respect Xenopus has a highly derived condition. The use of the morphological character of "rib loss" in phylogenetic analyses must be reconsidered due to the different convergent developmental paths described here. The phylogenetic analysis of a "sequence units" matrix of rib development is compared with current anuran phylogenies. Some evolutionary information appears to be clearly present in the ontogenetic data of this "missing morphology," but its value for evolutionary inferences is rather limited.

  8. Mapping the Relative Probability of Common Toad Occurrence in Terrestrial Lowland Farm Habitat in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie D Salazar

    Full Text Available The common toad (Bufo bufo is of increasing conservation concern in the United Kingdom (UK due to dramatic population declines occurring in the past century. Many of these population declines coincided with reductions in both terrestrial and aquatic habitat availability and quality and have been primarily attributed to the effect of agricultural land conversion (of natural and semi-natural habitats to arable and pasture fields and pond drainage. However, there is little evidence available to link habitat availability with common toad population declines, especially when examined at a broad landscape scale. Assessing such patterns of population declines at the landscape scale, for instance, require an understanding of how this species uses terrestrial habitat.We intensively studied the terrestrial resource selection of a large population of common toads in Oxfordshire, England, UK. Adult common toads were fitted with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags to allow detection in the terrestrial environment using a portable PIT antenna once toads left the pond and before going into hibernation (April/May-October 2012 and 2013. We developed a population-level resource selection function (RSF to assess the relative probability of toad occurrence in the terrestrial environment by collecting location data for 90 recaptured toads.The predicted relative probability of toad occurrence for this population was greatest in wooded habitat near to water bodies; relative probability of occurrence declined dramatically > 50 m from these habitats. Toads also tended to select habitat near to their breeding pond and toad occurrence was negatively related to urban environments.

  9. Ground water chemistry changes before major earthquakes and possible effects on animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Rachel A; Halliday, Tim; Balderer, Werner P; Leuenberger, Fanny; Newcomer, Michelle; Cyr, Gary; Freund, Friedemann T

    2011-06-01

    Prior to major earthquakes many changes in the environment have been documented. Though often subtle and fleeting, these changes are noticeable at the land surface, in water, in the air, and in the ionosphere. Key to understanding these diverse pre-earthquake phenomena has been the discovery that, when tectonic stresses build up in the Earth's crust, highly mobile electronic charge carriers are activated. These charge carriers are defect electrons on the oxygen anion sublattice of silicate minerals, known as positive holes, chemically equivalent to O- in a matrix of O2-. They are remarkable inasmuch as they can flow out of the stressed rock volume and spread into the surrounding unstressed rocks. Travelling fast and far the positive holes cause a range of follow-on reactions when they arrive at the Earth's surface, where they cause air ionization, injecting massive amounts of primarily positive air ions into the lower atmosphere. When they arrive at the rock-water interface, they act as •O radicals, oxidizing water to hydrogen peroxide. Other reactions at the rock-water interface include the oxidation or partial oxidation of dissolved organic compounds, leading to changes of their fluorescence spectra. Some compounds thus formed may be irritants or toxins to certain species of animals. Common toads, Bufo bufo, were observed to exhibit a highly unusual behavior prior to a M6.3 earthquake that hit L'Aquila, Italy, on April 06, 2009: a few days before the seismic event the toads suddenly disappeared from their breeding site in a small lake about 75 km from the epicenter and did not return until after the aftershock series. In this paper we discuss potential changes in groundwater chemistry prior to seismic events and their possible effects on animals.

  10. Effects of amphibian chytrid fungus on individual survival probability in wild boreal toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, D.S.; Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Bartelt, P.E.; Corn, P.S.; Hossack, B.R.; Lambert, B.A.; Mccaffery, R.; Gaughan, C.

    2010-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis is linked to the worldwide decline of amphibians, yet little is known about the demographic effects of the disease. We collected capture-recapture data on three populations of boreal toads (Bufo boreas [Bufo = Anaxyrus]) in the Rocky Mountains (U.S.A.). Two of the populations were infected with chytridiomycosis and one was not. We examined the effect of the presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis [Bd]; the agent of chytridiomycosis) on survival probability and population growth rate. Toads that were infected with Bd had lower average annual survival probability than uninfected individuals at sites where Bd was detected, which suggests chytridiomycosis may reduce survival by 31-42% in wild boreal toads. Toads that were negative for Bd at infected sites had survival probabilities comparable to toads at the uninfected site. Evidence that environmental covariates (particularly cold temperatures during the breeding season) influenced toad survival was weak. The number of individuals in diseased populations declined by 5-7%/year over the 6 years of the study, whereas the uninfected population had comparatively stable population growth. Our data suggest that the presence of Bd in these toad populations is not causing rapid population declines. Rather, chytridiomycosis appears to be functioning as a low-level, chronic disease whereby some infected individuals survive but the overall population effects are still negative. Our results show that some amphibian populations may be coexisting with Bd and highlight the importance of quantitative assessments of survival in diseased animal populations. Journal compilation. ?? 2010 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original US government works.

  11. Aprendizaje instrumental en anfibios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén N. Muzio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una revisión de los estudios realizados acerca de los mecanismos de aprendizaje en anfibios. Se conoce muy poco acerca de los procesos de aprendizaje en anfibios, y aún menos respecto de las relaciones cerebro-aprendizaje. Recientemente hemos comenzado el estudio sistemático del aprendizaje instrumental en el sapo Bufo arenarum dentro de un marco comparativo. Se observaron diversos fenómenos de aprendizaje comunes a una amplia variedad de vertebrados, tales como la adquisición bajo condiciones de entrenamiento masivo y espaciado, la extinción, la recuperación espontánea, el efecto subsiguiente al refuerzo, y el efecto en al adquisición de la magnitud del reforzamiento. Además, comenzamos el análisis de los efectos sobre el aprendizaje de las lesiones del pallium medial (estructura postulada como homóloga al hipocampo de los mamíferos. La lesión del paIlium medial no tuvo efectos sobre el desempeño ni sobre la tasa de captación de agua durante la adquisición. Pero retardó significativamente la extinción de la respuesta instrumental en un corredor recto. Estos datos sugieren que el palli um medial de los sapos juega un papel en la inhibición de respuestas previamente aprendidas. Los resultados de nuestros estudios en el sapo Bufo arenarum aportan datos origi na1es a la limitada información disponible sobre aprendizaje en anfibios.

  12. Ground Water Chemistry Changes before Major Earthquakes and Possible Effects on Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedemann T. Freund

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior to major earthquakes many changes in the environment have been documented. Though often subtle and fleeting, these changes are noticeable at the land surface, in water, in the air, and in the ionosphere. Key to understanding these diverse pre-earthquake phenomena has been the discovery that, when tectonic stresses build up in the Earth’s crust, highly mobile electronic charge carriers are activated. These charge carriers are defect electrons on the oxygen anion sublattice of silicate minerals, known as positive holes, chemically equivalent to O– in a matrix of O2–. They are remarkable inasmuch as they can flow out of the stressed rock volume and spread into the surrounding unstressed rocks. Travelling fast and far the positive holes cause a range of follow-on reactions when they arrive at the Earth’s surface, where they cause air ionization, injecting massive amounts of primarily positive air ions into the lower atmosphere. When they arrive at the rock-water interface, they act as •O radicals, oxidizing water to hydrogen peroxide. Other reactions at the rock-water interface include the oxidation or partial oxidation of dissolved organic compounds, leading to changes of their fluorescence spectra. Some compounds thus formed may be irritants or toxins to certain species of animals. Common toads, Bufo bufo, were observed to exhibit a highly unusual behavior prior to a M6.3 earthquake that hit L’Aquila, Italy, on April 06, 2009: a few days before the seismic event the toads suddenly disappeared from their breeding site in a small lake about 75 km from the epicenter and did not return until after the aftershock series. In this paper we discuss potential changes in groundwater chemistry prior to seismic events and their possible effects on animals.

  13. Changes in DNA topology during spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, M S; Einheber, S; Bumcrot, D A

    1986-01-01

    DNA topology in histone- and protamine-depleted nuclei (nucleoids) from somatic cells, sperm, and spermatogenic cells was studied to determine if the superhelical configuration of DNA looped domains is altered during spermatogenesis. The expansion and contraction of nucleoid DNA was measured with a fluorescence microscope following exposure of nucleoids to different concentrations of ethidium bromide (EB). Nucleoids from Xenopus laevis erythrocytes, primary spermatocytes, and round spermatids, and from Rana catesbeiana sperm all exhibited a biphasic change (condensed-relaxed-condensed) in size as a function of exposure to increasing concentrations (0.5-100 micrograms/ml) of EB, indicating that they contain negatively supercoiled DNA. In contrast, DNA in sperm nucleoids from Xenopus laevis and Bufo fowleri was relaxed and expanded at low (0.5-6 micrograms/ml) EB concentrations, but became gradually condensed as the EB concentration was increased (6-100 micrograms/ml). Nucleoids prepared from all cell types retained the general shape of the nucleus regardless of the superhelical configuration of the nucleoid DNA. Sperm nucleoid DNA condensed by 100 micrograms/ml EB was relaxed by exposure to UV light, DNase I, proteinase K, or 4 M urea, but not by RNase A or 10 mM dithiothreitol. These results demonstrate that the DNA in sperm nucleoids is constrained in domains of supercoiling by nonbasic nuclear proteins. Negatively supercoiled DNA is present in nucleoids from cells with a full complement of histones, including Rana sperm, but not in nucleoids from Xenopus and Bufo sperm in which histones are replaced by "intermediate-type" protamines. Histone replacement in these species, therefore, is accompanied by unfolding of nucleosomal DNA and active removal of the negative supercoils. Results presented also suggest an important role for the nonbasic nuclear proteins of sperm in the morphogenesis of the nucleus and the arrangement of DNA.

  14. The role of the nervous system in fish evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Hofmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in the evolution and adaptation of animals. All sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive abilities are organized in the brain and spinal cord. Volumetric measurements of different brain regions were made in more than 150 species of ray finned fishes as well as in several outgroups. In Actanthopterygii, the hypothalamus shows greatest enlargement most likely due to an enormous visual input via the nucleus glomerulosos. The telencephalon is highly differentiated in many acanthopterygii, mostly coral reef species, but its relative size is not much effected. There is, however, a clear shift from olfactory to visual functions in ray finned fishes. In species with a highly differentiated telencephalon, the area where place memory may be located is very prominent. In basal ray finned fishes, lungfish, amphibia and elasmobranchs, the olfactory bulb is relatively large and the ratio of the olfactory bulb and telencephalon large as well. This holds also for elopomorpha and spiny eels, but in most other groups vision dominates. Apart from differences between larger clades, variation in brain architecture are also seen in closely related species and even between sexes of the same species. Profound differences are present in the cerebellum between male and female swordtails and in the telencephalon of sticklebacks. Morphometric analysis of brain architecture turned out to be an important tool to study the evolution and adaptations of the brain in fishes.

  15. 常用实验脊椎动物形态解剖结构比较%Comparison of Morphological and Anatomic Structure of Vertebrates Commonly Used in Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐虎; 梁小锦; 叶强; 赵芯芯; 杨芳; 张佩君

    2015-01-01

    脊椎动物常被选为科学研究动物材料,在鱼纲、两栖纲、爬行纲、鸟纲和哺乳纲动物中选择几种代表动物进行解剖学研究,针对外形特征、骨骼系统、呼吸系统、消化系统、循环系统、生殖系统中一般相同特征和部分特征的不同点进行排列比较,并对部分系统做简要描述。%Vertebrates are often selected as scientific research material. In this paper, several representative animals of Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia were anatomically studied. The common similar and different characteristics of the shape feature, the skeletal system, respiratory system, digestive system, circulatory system and reproductive system of the selected animals are compared, and some certain above systems were described briefly.

  16. 贵州省六盘水明湖国家湿地公园脊椎动物资源调查研究%An Iinvestigation of Vertebrate Resources in Minghu National Wetland Park of Liupanshui, Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红; 李松; 熊荣川; 田应洲

    2013-01-01

    六盘水明湖国家湿地公园脊椎动物资源共有263种,其中鱼类5目6科14种;两栖动物2目8科20种;爬行动物2目5科28种;鸟类17目45科181种;兽类6目10科20种。黑鹳为中华人民共和国Ⅰ级野生保护动物,贵州疣螈、白腹锦鸡等25种动物为国家Ⅱ级野生保护动物。%The present paper reports that there are 263 species vertebrate resources distributed in Minghu Na-tional Wetland Park of Liupanshui. Among them are 14 species fishes belonging to 6 families, 5 orders, There are 20 species amphibia belonging to 8 families, 2 orders. There are 28 species reptiles, belonging to 5 fami-lies, 2 orders. There are 181 species avifauna belonging to 45 families, 17 orders, And, there are 20 species beasts belonging to 10 families, 6 orders. Ciconia nigra is the national-level protection species of wild ani-mals of gradeⅠ. Moreover, Tylototriton kweichowensis, Chrysolophus amherstiae and other 25 kinds of ani-mal are the protectied species of wild animals of gradeⅡ.

  17. Light and transmission electron microscopy of Cepedea longa (Opalinidae from Fejervarya limnocharis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Can

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cepedea longa Bezzenberger, 1904, collected from Fejervarya limnocharis (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae from Honghu Lake, Hubei Province, China in May–July 2016, is described at both light and transmission electron microscope levels. This is the first electron microscopic study of this species. Cepedea longa possesses a developed fibrillar skeletal system, composed of longitudinal fibrillar bands and transversal fibrils as well as numerous thin microfibrils dispersed in the endoplasm, which may play an important role in morphogenesis and offer some resilience to deformations of the cell. Longitudinal microfibrils are polarizing elements of kineties, bordering the somatic kineties on the left side and possibly responsible for kinetosome alignment. Two types of vesicles exist in the somatic cortex: globular endocytotic vesicles and flattened exocytotic vesicles. As to the nuclei of C. longa, a thick microfibrillar layer was observed to attach to the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope. This fact suggests no necessary connection between the presence of this microfibrillar layer and the number of nuclei. In addition, some unknown tightly-packed microtubular structures in the nucleoplasm were observed for the first time in opalinids; neither their nature nor physiological significance is known. A detailed list of all reported Cepedea species is included.

  18. Identification, expression, and characterization of the highly conserved D-xylose isomerase in animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Ding; Yigang Teng; Qiuyu Yin; Wei Chen; Fukun Zhao

    2009-01-01

    D-xylose is a necessary sugar for animals. The xylanase from a mollusk, Ampullaria crossean, was previously reported by our laboratory. This xylanase can degrade the xylan into D-xylose. But there is still a gap in our knowledge on its metabolic pathway. The question is how does the xylose enter the pentose pathway? With the help of genomic databases and bioinformatic tools, we found that some animals, such as bacteria, have a highly conserved D-xylose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.5). The xylose isomerase from a sea squirt, Ciona intestinali, was heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to confirm its function. The recombinant enzyme had good thermal stability in the presence of Mg2+. At the optimum temperature and optimum pH environment, its specific activity on D-xylose was 0.331μmol/mg/min. This enzyme exists broadly in many animals, but it disappeared in the genome of Amphibia-like Xenopus laevis. Its sequence was highly conserved. The xylose isomerases from animals are very interesting proteins for the study of evolution.

  19. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (animals/plants, No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (doshokubutsu, No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey was conducted to estimate effects of drilling of geothermal exploration well on the environment, aiming at grasping the present state of environmental elements before the survey/development. As a result of the literature survey, the following distribution were confirmed in the fauna: 5 orders 10 families 19 species in the mammalia, 10 orders 25 families 73 species in the aves, 1 order 3 families 6 species in the reptilia, 2 orders 6 families 9 species in the amphibia, and 17 orders 179 families 719 species in the insecta. In the flora, a distribution of 132 families 670 species was confirmed. The results of studying the above indicated that in the fauna, there were 10 species such as antelope as valuable animal in the area surveyed and that it is necessary to pay much attention to the environmental preservation of the habitat for those animals in the well drilling associated with geothermal survey. In the flora, the 13 valuable animals selected as animal having a fear of extinction in the 'plant-version red list' were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery. Further, as to the plant colony, there are no important colonies in terms of preservation. In well drilling, important things are efforts exerted to restore to the original state of the area altered, prevention of the washed-away of mud water, etc., and efforts exerted to preserve the environment of vegetation. (NEDO)

  20. A microcosm system to evaluate the toxicity of the triazine herbicide simazine on aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervliet-Scheebaum, Marco, E-mail: marco.vervliet@biologie.uni-freiburg.d [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Straus, Alain [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Tremp, Horst [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau (Germany); Hamer, Mick [Ecological Sciences, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, Jealott' s Hill International Research Centre, Bracknell, Berkshire RG42 6EY (United Kingdom); Maund, Stephen J. [Ecological Sciences, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, 4002 Basel (Switzerland); Wagner, Edgar [Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Schaenzlestr. 1, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Schulz, Ralf [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    This study evaluates the effects of the triazine herbicide simazine in an outdoor pond microcosm test system that contained two submerged rooted species (Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea canadensis) and two emergent rooted species (Persicaria amphibia and Glyceria maxima) over a period of 84 days. Simazine was applied to the microcosms at nominal concentrations of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/L. General biological endpoints and physiological endpoints were used to evaluate herbicide toxicity on macrophytes and the algae developing naturally in the system. Concentration-related responses of macrophytes and algae were obtained for the endpoints selected, resulting in a no observed ecologically adverse effect concentration (NOEAEC) at simazine concentrations of 0.05 mg active ingredient/L after 84 days. E. canadensis was the most negatively affected species based on length increase, which was consistently a very sensitive parameter for all macrophytes. The experimental design presented might constitute a suitable alternative to conventional laboratory single-species testing. - Simazine at concentrations of 0.05 mg/L does not cause long-term negative effects to aquatic macrophytes or algae.