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Sample records for buffer management algorithm

  1. Effect of AQM-Based RLC Buffer Management on the eNB Scheduling Algorithm in LTE Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Paul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of the Long-Term Evolution (LTE network and smart-phones, most of today’s internet content is delivered via cellular links. Due to the nature of wireless signal propagation, the capacity of the last hop link can vary within a short period of time. Unfortunately, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP does not perform well in such scenarios, potentially leading to poor Quality of Service (QoS (e.g., end-to-end throughput and delay for the end user. In this work, we have studied the effect of Active Queue Management (AQM based congestion control and intra LTE handover on the performance of different Medium Access Control (MAC schedulers with TCP traffic by ns3 simulation. A proper AQM design in the Radio Link Control (RLC buffer of eNB in the LTE network leads to the avoidance of forced drops and link under-utilization along with robustness to a variety of network traffic-loads. We first demonstrate that the original Random Early Detection (RED linear dropping function cannot cope well with different traffic-load scenarios. Then, we establish a heuristic approach in which different non-linear functions are proposed with one parameter free to define. In our simulations, we demonstrate that the performance of different schedulers can be enhanced via proper dropping function.

  2. Lucas Heights buffer zone: plan of management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This plan is being used by the Commission as a guide for its management of the Lucas Heights buffer zone, which is essentially a circular area having a 1-6 km radius around the HIFAR reactor. Aspects covered by this plan include past uses, current use, objectives for buffer zone land management, emergency evacuation, resource conservation, archaeology, fire, access, rehabilitation of disturbed areas, resource management and plan implementation

  3. Managing Multiuser Database Buffers Using Data Mining Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, L.; Lu, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a data-mining-based approach to public buffer management for a multiuser database system, where database buffers are organized into two areas – public and private. While the private buffer areas contain pages to be updated by particular users, the public

  4. A Buffer Management Issue in Designing SSDs for LFSs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaegeuk; Seol, Jinho; Maeng, Seungryoul

    This letter introduces a buffer management issue in designing SSDs for log-structured file systems (LFSs). We implemented a novel trace-driven SSD simulator in SystemC language, and simulated several SSD architectures with the NILFS2 trace. From the results, we give two major considerations related to the buffer management as follows. (1) The write buffer is used as a buffer not a cache, since all write requests are sequential in NILFS2. (2) For better performance, the main architectural factor is the bus bandwidth, but 332MHz is enough. Instead, the read buffer makes a key role in performance improvement while caching data. To enhance SSDs, accordingly, it is an effective way to make efficient read buffer management policies, and one of the examples is tracking the valid data zone in NILFS2, which can increase the data hit ratio in read buffers significantly.

  5. IMPACT OF BUFFER SIZE ON PQRS AND D-PQRS SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS

    OpenAIRE

    N. Narayanan Prasanth; Kannan Balasubramanian; R. Chithra Devi

    2016-01-01

    Most of the internet applications required high speed internet connectivity. Crosspoint Buffered Switches are widely used switching architectures and designing a scheduling algorithm is a major challenge. PQRS and D-PQRS are the two most successful schedulers used in Crosspoint Buffered Switches under unicast traffic. In this paper, we analysed the performance of PQRS and DPQRS algorithms by varying the crosspoint buffer size. Simulation result shows the delay performance of the switch increa...

  6. Buffer management in wireless full-duplex systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouacida, Nader; Showail, Ahmad; Shihada, Basem

    2015-01-01

    , we address the problem of buffer management in full-duplex networks by using Wireless Queue Management (WQM), which is an active queue management technique for wireless networks. Our solution is based on Relay Full-Duplex MAC (RFD

  7. Riparian ecosystems and buffers - multiscale structure, function, and management: introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Richard R. Lowrance

    2006-01-01

    Given the importance of issues related to improved understanding and management of riparian ecosystems and buffers, the American Water Resources Association (AWRA) sponsored a Summer Specialty Conference in June 2004 at Olympic Valley, California, entitled 'Riparian Ecosystems and Buffers: Multiscale Structure, Function, and Management.' The primary objective...

  8. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  9. Buffer Management of Multi-Queue QoS Switches with Class Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Toshiya; Yoshimoto, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on buffer management of multi-queue QoS switches in which packets of different values are segregated in different queues. Our model consists of $m$ queues and $m$ packet values $0 < v_{1} < v_{2} < ... < v_{m}$. Recently, Al-Bawani and Souza [IPL 113(4), pp.145-150, 2013] presented an online algorithm GREEDY for buffer management of multi-queue QoS switches with class segregation and showed thatif $m$ queues have the same size, then the competitive ratio of GREEDY is $...

  10. Application of Classification Algorithm of Machine Learning and Buffer Analysis in Torism Regional Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. H.; Ji, H. W.; Hu, Y.; Ye, Q.; Lin, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Remote Sensing (RS) and Geography Information System (GIS) technologies are widely used in ecological analysis and regional planning. With the advantages of large scale monitoring, combination of point and area, multiple time-phases and repeated observation, they are suitable for monitoring and analysis of environmental information in a large range. In this study, support vector machine (SVM) classification algorithm is used to monitor the land use and land cover change (LUCC), and then to perform the ecological evaluation for Chaohu lake tourism area quantitatively. The automatic classification and the quantitative spatial-temporal analysis for the Chaohu Lake basin are realized by the analysis of multi-temporal and multispectral satellite images, DEM data and slope information data. Furthermore, the ecological buffer zone analysis is also studied to set up the buffer width for each catchment area surrounding Chaohu Lake. The results of LUCC monitoring from 1992 to 2015 has shown obvious affections by human activities. Since the construction of the Chaohu Lake basin is in the crucial stage of the rapid development of urbanization, the application of RS and GIS technique can effectively provide scientific basis for land use planning, ecological management, environmental protection and tourism resources development in the Chaohu Lake Basin.

  11. Optimization approaches to mpi and area merging-based parallel buffer algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfu Fan

    Full Text Available On buffer zone construction, the rasterization-based dilation method inevitably introduces errors, and the double-sided parallel line method involves a series of complex operations. In this paper, we proposed a parallel buffer algorithm based on area merging and MPI (Message Passing Interface to improve the performances of buffer analyses on processing large datasets. Experimental results reveal that there are three major performance bottlenecks which significantly impact the serial and parallel buffer construction efficiencies, including the area merging strategy, the task load balance method and the MPI inter-process results merging strategy. Corresponding optimization approaches involving tree-like area merging strategy, the vertex number oriented parallel task partition method and the inter-process results merging strategy were suggested to overcome these bottlenecks. Experiments were carried out to examine the performance efficiency of the optimized parallel algorithm. The estimation results suggested that the optimization approaches could provide high performance and processing ability for buffer construction in a cluster parallel environment. Our method could provide insights into the parallelization of spatial analysis algorithm.

  12. From Cooperative Scans to Predictive Buffer Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Switakowski; P.A. Boncz (Peter); M. Zukowski (Marcin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn analytical applications, database systems often need to sustain workloads with multiple concurrent scans hitting the same table. The Cooperative Scans (CScans) framework, which introduces an Active Buer Manager (ABM) component into the database architecture, has been the most

  13. Runtime buffer management to improve the performance in irregular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S¯adhan¯a Vol. 40, Part 4, June 2015, pp. 1117–1137. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Runtime buffer management to improve the performance in irregular Network-on-Chip architecture. UMAMAHESWARI S1,∗, MEGANATHAN D2 and. RAJA PAUL PERINBAM J3. 1Department of Information Technology, Anna University, ...

  14. Challenges of Buffer Zone Management in Cross River National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These developments might be adduced to the low level of awareness of Park laws and buffer zone management policies by these communities. It is therefore recommended that public enlightenment campaigns should be stepped up to educate the populace on the need to abide by the laws and policies governing the Park ...

  15. A dynamic programming algorithm for the buffer allocation problem in homogeneous asymptotically reliable serial production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantidis A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the buffer allocation problem (BAP in homogeneous, asymptotically reliable serial production lines is considered. A known aggregation method, given by Lim, Meerkov, and Top (1990, for the performance evaluation (i.e., estimation of throughput of this type of production lines when the buffer allocation is known, is used as an evaluative method in conjunction with a newly developed dynamic programming (DP algorithm for the BAP. The proposed algorithm is applied to production lines where the number of machines is varying from four up to a hundred machines. The proposed algorithm is fast because it reduces the volume of computations by rejecting allocations that do not lead to maximization of the line's throughput. Numerical results are also given for large production lines.

  16. Buffer management in wireless full-duplex systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouacida, Nader

    2015-10-19

    Wireless full-duplex radios can simultaneously transmit and receive using the same frequency. In theory, this can double the throughput. In fact, there is only little work addressing aspects other than throughput gains in full-duplex systems. Over-buffering in today\\'s networks or the so-called “bufferbloat” phenomenon creates excessive end-to-end delays resulting in network performance degradation. Our analysis shows that full-duplex systems may suffer from high latency caused by bloated buffers. In this paper, we address the problem of buffer management in full-duplex networks by using Wireless Queue Management (WQM), which is an active queue management technique for wireless networks. Our solution is based on Relay Full-Duplex MAC (RFD-MAC), an asynchronous media access control protocol designed for relay full-duplexing. We compare the performance of WQM in full-duplex environment to Drop Tail mechanism over various scenarios. Our solution reduces the end-to-end delay by two orders of magnitude while achieving similar throughput in most of the cases.

  17. Surface runoff water quality in a managed three zone riparian buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, Richard; Sheridan, Joseph M

    2005-01-01

    Managed riparian forest buffers are an important conservation practice but there are little data on the water quality effects of buffer management. We measured surface runoff volumes and nutrient concentrations and loads in a riparian buffer system consisting of (moving down slope from the field) a grass strip, a managed forest, and an unmanaged forest. The managed forest consisted of sections of clear-cut, thinned, and mature forest. The mature forest had significantly lower flow-weighted concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl N (TKN), sediment TKN, total N (nitrate + TKN), dissolved molybdate reactive P (DMRP), total P, and chloride. The average buffer represented the conditions along a stream reach with a buffer system in different stages of growth. Compared with the field output, flow-weighted concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, DMRP, and total P decreased significantly within the buffer and flow-weighted concentrations of TKN, total N, and chloride increased significantly within the buffer. All loads decreased significantly from the field to the middle of the buffer, but most loads increased from the middle of the buffer to the sampling point nearest the stream because surface runoff volume increased near the stream. The largest percentage reduction of the incoming nutrient load (at least 65% for all nutrient forms) took place in the grass buffer zone because of the large decrease (68%) in flow. The average buffer reduced loadings for all nutrient species, from 27% for TKN to 63% for sediment P. The managed forest and grass buffer combined was an effective buffer system.

  18. A Low-Jitter Wireless Transmission Based on Buffer Management in Coding-Aware Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunbo Lu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is significant to reduce packet jitter for real-time applications in a wireless network. Existing coding-aware routing algorithms use the opportunistic network coding (ONC scheme in a packet coding algorithm. The ONC scheme never delays packets to wait for the arrival of a future coding opportunity. The loss of some potential coding opportunities may degrade the contribution of network coding to jitter performance. In addition, most of the existing coding-aware routing algorithms assume that all flows participating in the network have equal rate. This is unrealistic, since multi-rate environments often appear. To overcome the above problem and expand coding-aware routing to multi-rate scenarios, from the view of data transmission, we present a low-jitter wireless transmission algorithm based on buffer management (BLJCAR, which decides packets in coding node according to the queue-length based threshold policy instead of the regular ONC policy as used in existing coding-aware routing algorithms. BLJCAR is a unified framework to merge the single rate case and multiple rate case. Simulations results show that the BLJCAR algorithm embedded in coding-aware routing outperforms the traditional ONC policy in terms of jitter, packet delivery delay, packet loss ratio and network throughput in network congestion in any traffic rates.

  19. Genital pain: algorithm for management

    OpenAIRE

    Calixte, Nahomy; Brahmbhatt, Jamin; Parekattil, Sijo

    2017-01-01

    Chronic testicular pain although becoming very common in our patient population poses a challenge to the physician, the patient and his family. The pathogenesis of chronic orchialgia (CO) is not well understood. The objective of this paper is to review the current literature on chronic testicular pain and its management and to propose an algorithm for its treatment. Abstracts, original papers and review articles were reviewed during a literature search using words such as testicular pain, CO,...

  20. A Novel Buffer Management Architecture for Epidemic Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs)

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed; Ho, Pin-Han; Naik, K.; Shihada, Basem

    2010-01-01

    Delay tolerant networks (DTNs) are wireless networks in which an end-to-end path for a given node pair can never exist for an extended period. It has been reported as a viable approach in launching multiple message replicas in order to increase message delivery ratio and reduce message delivery delay. This advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node. The combination of custody and replication entails high buffer and bandwidth overhead. This paper investigates a new buffer management architecture for epidemic routing in DTNs, which helps each node to make a decision on which message should be forwarded or dropped. The proposed buffer management architecture is characterized by a suite of novel functional modules, including Summary Vector Exchange Module (SVEM), Networks State Estimation Module (NSEM), and Utility Calculation Module (UCM). Extensive simulation results show that the proposed buffer management architecture can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery ratio and delivery delay.

  1. A Novel Buffer Management Architecture for Epidemic Routing in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs)

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2010-11-17

    Delay tolerant networks (DTNs) are wireless networks in which an end-to-end path for a given node pair can never exist for an extended period. It has been reported as a viable approach in launching multiple message replicas in order to increase message delivery ratio and reduce message delivery delay. This advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node. The combination of custody and replication entails high buffer and bandwidth overhead. This paper investigates a new buffer management architecture for epidemic routing in DTNs, which helps each node to make a decision on which message should be forwarded or dropped. The proposed buffer management architecture is characterized by a suite of novel functional modules, including Summary Vector Exchange Module (SVEM), Networks State Estimation Module (NSEM), and Utility Calculation Module (UCM). Extensive simulation results show that the proposed buffer management architecture can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery ratio and delivery delay.

  2. Effects of grazing management and buffer strips on metal runoff from pastures fertilized with poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter may pose a threat to aquatic systems. Buffer strips have been added to fields to reduce nutrients and solids runoff. However, scant information exists on the effects of buffer strips combined with grazing management strategies on metal runoff f...

  3. Runtime buffer management to improve the performance in irregular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network-on-Chip; latency; power; dynamic buffer allocation; RTBM router ..... The design operates at a supply voltage of 1.8 V, and the power results were ..... Morris R, Kodi A K, Sarathy A and Louri A 2012 Extending the energy efficiency and.

  4. The buffer management scheme for the new Triumf VAX-based data acquisition and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludgate, G.A.; Haley, B.; Lee, L.

    1987-01-01

    The new TRIUMF VAX-based DAAS requires data to be exchanged between acquisition, monitoring and analysis processes executing on a VAX. Data records are passed via a set of buffers contained in a region of memory shared by all processes. The responsibility for buffer management is distributed among the processes and synchronized access to the region is achieved by using the VAX self-relative queue instructions and common event flags

  5. Solid Waste and Water Quality Management Models for Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredi, Emanuela Chiara; Flury, Bastian; Viviano, Gaetano; Thakuri, Sudeep; Khanal, Sanjay Nath; Jha, Pramod Kumar; Maskey, Ramesh Kumar; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Kafle, Kumud Raj; Bhochhibhoya, Silu; Ghimire, Narayan Prasad; Shrestha, Bharat Babu; Chaudhary, Gyanendra; Giannino, Francesco; Carteni, Fabrizio; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Salerno, Franco

    2010-01-01

    The problem of supporting decision- and policy-makers in managing issues related to solid waste and water quality was addressed within the context of a participatory modeling framework in the Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone in Nepal. We present the main findings of management-oriented

  6. Long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    High grazing pressure can lead to soil erosion in pastures by compacting soil and increasing runoff and sediment delivery to waterways. Limited information exists on the effects of grazing management and best management practices (BMPs), such as buffer strips, on soil erosion from pastures. The obje...

  7. Soil quality indicator responses to row crop, grazed pasture, and agroforestry buffer management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of grass buffers within agroecosystems are management practices shown to enhance soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates (WSA) have been identified as sensitive soil quality indicators to evaluate early responses to soil management. ...

  8. DROP TAIL AND RED QUEUE MANAGEMENT WITH SMALL BUFFERS:STABILITY AND HOPF BIFURCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Patil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that are important in the design of queue management schemes for routers in the Internet: for example, queuing delay, link utilization, packet loss, energy consumption and the impact of router buffer size. By considering a fluid model for the congestion avoidance phase of Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD TCP, in a small buffer regime, we argue that stability should also be a desirable feature for network performance. The queue management schemes we study are Drop Tail and Random Early Detection (RED. For Drop Tail, the analytical arguments are based on local stability and bifurcation theory. As the buffer size acts as a bifurcation parameter, variations in it can readily lead to the emergence of limit cycles. We then present NS2 simulations to study the effect of changing buffer size on queue dynamics, utilization, window size and packet loss for three different flow scenarios. The simulations corroborate the analysis which highlights that performance is coupled with the notion of stability. Our work suggests that, in a small buffer regime, a simple Drop Tail queue management serves to enhance stability and appears preferable to the much studied RED scheme.

  9. Buffer Management and Hybrid Probability Choice Routing for Packet Delivery in Opportunistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daru Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the features of long connection delays, frequent network partitions, and topology unsteadiness, the design of opportunistic networks faces the challenge of how to effectively deliver data based only on occasional encountering of nodes, where the conventional routing schemes do not work properly. This paper proposes a hybrid probability choice routing protocol with buffer management for opportunistic networks. A delivery probability function is set up based on continuous encounter duration time, which is used for selecting a better node to relay packets. By combining the buffer management utility and the delivery probability, a total utility is used to decide whether the packet should be kept in the buffer or be directly transmitted to the encountering node. Simulation results show that the proposed routing outperforms the existing one in terms of the delivery rate and the average delay.

  10. Effects of buffer strips and grazing management on soil loss from pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive grazing pressure can cause soil erosion from pastures causing increased sediment loading to aquatic systems. The objectives of this work were to determine the long-term effects of grazing management and buffer strips on soil erosion from pastures fertilized with broiler litter. Field stud...

  11. Primavera Ring. Management perspectives on La Primavera forest buffer zone, from the cultural landscapes approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alcocer Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current article intends to high light the need to implement a buffer zone for La Primavera Forest,  Biosphere reserve MaB UNESCO in Guadalajara, Jalisco. The criteria to develop this transition zone is based on understanding this territory as a Cultural Landscape. Seeking common ground between Biosphere Reserves and Cultural Landscapes criteria to organize the management and development of the buffer zone. To understand the opponents of city development and forest preservation as complementary elements, a paradigm shift is needed. This is an applied research from the ITESO, and it is structured as a Think Tank that involves society, government and academy.

  12. An Experimental Test of Buffer Utility as a Technique for Managing Pool-Breeding Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jessica S Veysey; Babbitt, Kimberly J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetated buffers are used extensively to manage wetland-dependent wildlife. Despite widespread application, buffer utility has not been experimentally validated for most species. To address this gap, we conducted a six-year, landscape-scale experiment, testing how buffers of different widths affect the demographic structure of two amphibian species at 11 ephemeral pools in a working forest of the northeastern U.S. We randomly assigned each pool to one of three treatments (i.e., reference, 100m buffer, 30m buffer) and clearcut to create buffers. We captured all spotted salamanders and wood frogs breeding in each pool and examined the impacts of treatment and hydroperiod on breeding-population abundance, sex ratio, and recapture rate. The negative effects of clearcutting tended to increase as forest-buffer width decreased and be strongest for salamanders and when other stressors were present (e.g., at short-hydroperiod pools). Recapture rates were reduced in the 30m, but not 100m, treatment. Throughout the experiment for frogs, and during the first year post-cut for salamanders, the predicted mean proportion of recaptured adults in the 30m treatment was only 62% and 40%, respectively, of that in the reference treatment. Frog sex ratio and abundance did not differ across treatments, but salamander sex ratios were increasingly male-biased in both cut treatments. By the final year, there were on average, only about 40% and 65% as many females predicted in the 100m and 30m treatments, respectively, compared to the first year. Breeding salamanders at short-hydroperiod pools were about 10% as abundant in the 100m versus reference treatment. Our study demonstrates that buffers partially mitigate the impacts of habitat disturbance on wetland-dependent amphibians, but buffer width and hydroperiod critically mediate that process. We provide the first experimental evidence showing that 30-m-wide buffers may be insufficient for maintaining resilient breeding populations of pool

  13. An Experimental Test of Buffer Utility as a Technique for Managing Pool-Breeding Amphibians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Veysey Powell

    Full Text Available Vegetated buffers are used extensively to manage wetland-dependent wildlife. Despite widespread application, buffer utility has not been experimentally validated for most species. To address this gap, we conducted a six-year, landscape-scale experiment, testing how buffers of different widths affect the demographic structure of two amphibian species at 11 ephemeral pools in a working forest of the northeastern U.S. We randomly assigned each pool to one of three treatments (i.e., reference, 100m buffer, 30m buffer and clearcut to create buffers. We captured all spotted salamanders and wood frogs breeding in each pool and examined the impacts of treatment and hydroperiod on breeding-population abundance, sex ratio, and recapture rate. The negative effects of clearcutting tended to increase as forest-buffer width decreased and be strongest for salamanders and when other stressors were present (e.g., at short-hydroperiod pools. Recapture rates were reduced in the 30m, but not 100m, treatment. Throughout the experiment for frogs, and during the first year post-cut for salamanders, the predicted mean proportion of recaptured adults in the 30m treatment was only 62% and 40%, respectively, of that in the reference treatment. Frog sex ratio and abundance did not differ across treatments, but salamander sex ratios were increasingly male-biased in both cut treatments. By the final year, there were on average, only about 40% and 65% as many females predicted in the 100m and 30m treatments, respectively, compared to the first year. Breeding salamanders at short-hydroperiod pools were about 10% as abundant in the 100m versus reference treatment. Our study demonstrates that buffers partially mitigate the impacts of habitat disturbance on wetland-dependent amphibians, but buffer width and hydroperiod critically mediate that process. We provide the first experimental evidence showing that 30-m-wide buffers may be insufficient for maintaining resilient breeding

  14. KINETIC ALGORITHMS FOR HARBOUR MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Gold

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern harbour management for a busy port needs to resolve a variety of simultaneous problems. Harbour traffic may be busy and the waterways congested, both by the major shipping and by the attendant harbour tugs. The harbour channel may be narrow and tortuous, and rapidly changing tides may require frequent course adjustments. Navigation aids must be clearly specified and immediately identifiable, in order to permit safe passage for the vessels. This requires a GIS with attributes not easily available with traditional products. The GeoVS system is a kinetic GIS with full three-dimensional visualisation, so that ships, bathymetry and landscape may be viewed in a form that is immediately understandable to both harbour pilots and the harbour authority. The system is kinetic because the data structures used to preserve the topological relationships between ships, seafloor and coastline are able to be maintained on a real-time basis, taking account of ship movement recorded on the compulsory AIS (Automatic Information System beacons. Maintenance of this real-time topology allows for easy detection of potential collisions, as well as real-time bathymetric estimations, necessary to prevent ship grounding in highly tidal environments. The system, based on previous research into kinetic Voronoi diagrams, as well as development of a completely new graphical engine, is now in commercial production, where its advantages over simpler twodimensional models without automatic collision and grounding detection are becoming evident. Other applications are readily envisaged, and will be addressed in the near future.

  15. Multiqubit teleportation algorithm and teleportation manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinova, I.V.; Popov, I.Yu.

    2011-01-01

    A variant of teleportation algorithm is suggested. It is based on using multiqubit states. Particularly, it allows the teleportation manager to create a proper entangled state between A and B and, consequently, to control the result of the teleportation between A and B. The problem of quantum secret sharing is considered in the framework of the suggested approach

  16. Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy for Delay Tolerant Network under City Based Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Ayub

    Full Text Available Delay Tolerant Network (DTN multi-copy routing protocols are privileged to create and transmit multiple copies of each message that causes congestion and some messages are dropped. This process is known as reactive drop because messages were dropped re-actively to overcome buffer overflows. The existing reactive buffer management policies apply a single metric to drop source, relay and destine messages. Hereby, selection to drop a message is dubious because each message as source, relay or destine may have consumed dissimilar magnitude of network resources. Similarly, DTN has included time to live (ttl parameter which defines lifetime of message. Hence, when ttl expires then message is automatically destroyed from relay nodes. However, time-to-live (ttl is not applicable on messages reached at their destinations. Moreover, nodes keep replicating messages till ttl expires even-though large number of messages has already been dispersed. In this paper, we have proposed Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy (PQB-R for DTN under City Based Environments. The PQB-R classifies buffered messages into source, relay and destine queues. Moreover, separate drop metric has been applied on individual queue. The experiment results prove that proposed PQB-R has reduced number of messages transmissions, message drop and increases delivery ratio.

  17. Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy for Delay Tolerant Network under City Based Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Qaisar; Ngadi, Asri; Rashid, Sulma; Habib, Hafiz Adnan

    2018-01-01

    Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) multi-copy routing protocols are privileged to create and transmit multiple copies of each message that causes congestion and some messages are dropped. This process is known as reactive drop because messages were dropped re-actively to overcome buffer overflows. The existing reactive buffer management policies apply a single metric to drop source, relay and destine messages. Hereby, selection to drop a message is dubious because each message as source, relay or destine may have consumed dissimilar magnitude of network resources. Similarly, DTN has included time to live (ttl) parameter which defines lifetime of message. Hence, when ttl expires then message is automatically destroyed from relay nodes. However, time-to-live (ttl) is not applicable on messages reached at their destinations. Moreover, nodes keep replicating messages till ttl expires even-though large number of messages has already been dispersed. In this paper, we have proposed Priority Queue Based Reactive Buffer Management Policy (PQB-R) for DTN under City Based Environments. The PQB-R classifies buffered messages into source, relay and destine queues. Moreover, separate drop metric has been applied on individual queue. The experiment results prove that proposed PQB-R has reduced number of messages transmissions, message drop and increases delivery ratio.

  18. New management algorithms in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Per Soelberg

    2014-01-01

    complex. The purpose of the review has been to work out new management algorithms for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis including new oral therapies and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent large placebo-controlled trials in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our current treatment algorithms include only IFN-β and glatiramer as available first-line disease-modifying drugs and natalizumab and fingolimod as second-line therapies. Today, 10 drugs have been approved in Europe and nine in the United States making the choice of therapy more...

  19. The Taskload-Efficiency-Safety-Buffer Triangle--development and validation with air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, K Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Peter; Winkler, Hildegard; Vormayr, Elisabeth M

    2010-02-01

    The Taskload-Efficiency-Safety-Buffer Triangle (TEST) was developed as a new computerised scaling tool for quickly visualising changes in and trade-offs between the three critical factors that determine the work situation of air traffic management (ATM), i.e. taskload, efficiency and safety-buffers. Based on a task analysis of ATM and backed up by the stress-strain model, an easy-to-interpret triangle was constructed and validated both in simulated and real ATM workplaces. Results from the validation studies show that TEST does not only reflect the most relevant task characteristics, but also provides additional insights in the controllers' working styles. The TEST tool can make ATM safety surveys more efficient and help supervisors to decide about optimal times for opening or closing additional sectors. Statement of Relevance: TEST is a new tool to assess taskload, efficiency and safety-buffers in a joint scaling. It reflects increases in taskload and effects of taskload on safety-buffers and efficiency, as well as trade-offs in opposite directions. This tool might be very useful to check sector capacity in ATM and other high risk environments.

  20. Lymphatic malformations: a proposed management algorithm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oosthuizen, J C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a management algorithm for cervicofacial lymphatic malformations, based on the authors\\' experience in managing these lesions as well as current literature on the subject. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective medical record review of all the patients treated for lymphatic malformations at our institution during a 10-year period (1998-2008) was performed. DATA COLLECTED: age at diagnosis, location and type of lesion, radiologic investigation performed, presenting symptoms, treatment modality used, complications and results achieved. RESULTS: 14 patients were identified. Eight (57%) male and six (43%) female. There was an equal distribution between the left and right sides. The majority (71%) of cases were diagnosed within the first year of life. The majority of lesions were located in the suprahyoid region. The predominant reason for referral was an asymptomatic mass in 7 cases (50%) followed by airway compromise (36%) and dysphagia (14%). Management options employed included: observation, OK-432 injection, surgical excision and laser therapy. In 5 cases (36%) a combination of these were used. CONCLUSION: Historically surgical excision has been the management option of choice for lymphatic malformations. However due to the morbidity and high complication rate associated this is increasingly being questioned. Recent advances in sclerotherapy e.g. OK-432 injection have also shown significant promise. Based on experience in managing these lesions as well as current literature the authors of this paper have developed an algorithm for the management of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations.

  1. A Markov chain analysis of the effectiveness of drum-buffer-rope material flow management in job shop environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of constraints is an approach for production planning and control, which emphasizes on the constraints in the system to increase throughput. The theory of constraints is often referred to as Drum-Buffer-Rope developed originally by Goldratt. Drum-Buffer-Rope uses the drum or constraint to create a schedule based on the finite capacity of the first bottleneck. Because of complexity of the job shop environment, Drum-Buffer-Rope material flow management has very little attention to job shop environment. The objective of this paper is to apply the Drum-Buffer-Rope technique in the job shop environment using a Markov chain analysis to compare traditional method with Drum-Buffer-Rope. Four measurement parameters were considered and the result showed the advantage of Drum-Buffer-Rope approach compared with traditional one.

  2. Fit-for-purpose phosphorus management: do riparian buffers qualify in catchments with sandy soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, David; Summers, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Hillslope runoff and leaching studies, catchment-scale water quality measurements and P retention and release characteristics of stream bank and catchment soils were used to better understand reasons behind the reported ineffectiveness of riparian buffers for phosphorus (P) management in catchments with sandy soils from south-west Western Australia (WA). Catchment-scale water quality measurements of 60 % particulate P (PP) suggest that riparian buffers should improve water quality; however, runoff and leaching studies show 20 times more water and 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more P are transported through leaching than runoff processes. The ratio of filterable reactive P (FRP) to total P (TP) in surface runoff from the plots was 60 %, and when combined with leachate, 96 to 99 % of P lost from hillslopes was FRP, in contrast with 40 % measured as FRP at the large catchment scale. Measurements of the P retention and release characteristics of catchment soils (bank soil (bank soils suggest that catchment soils contain more P, are more P saturated and are significantly more likely to deliver FRP and TP in excess of water quality targets than stream bank soils. Stream bank soils are much more likely to retain P than contribute P to streams, and the in-stream mixing of FRP from the landscape with particulates from stream banks or stream beds is a potential mechanism to explain the change in P form from hillslopes (96 to 99 % FRP) to large catchments (40 % FRP). When considered in the context of previous work reporting that riparian buffers were ineffective for P management in this environment, these studies reinforce the notion that (1) riparian buffers are unlikely to provide fit-for-purpose P management in catchments with sandy soils, (2) most P delivered to streams in sandy soil catchments is FRP and travels via subsurface and leaching pathways and (3) large catchment-scale water quality measurements are not good indicators of hillslope P mobilisation and transport

  3. An Enhanced Discrete Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm to Minimize the Total Flow Time in Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling with Limited Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanlong Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an enhanced discrete artificial bee colony algorithm for minimizing the total flow time in the flow shop scheduling problem with buffer capacity. First, the solution in the algorithm is represented as discrete job permutation to directly convert to active schedule. Then, we present a simple and effective scheme called best insertion for the employed bee and onlooker bee and introduce a combined local search exploring both insertion and swap neighborhood. To validate the performance of the presented algorithm, a computational campaign is carried out on the Taillard benchmark instances, and computations and comparisons show that the proposed algorithm is not only capable of solving the benchmark set better than the existing discrete differential evolution algorithm and iterated greedy algorithm, but also capable of performing better than two recently proposed discrete artificial bee colony algorithms.

  4. Management of vascular anomalies: Review of institutional management algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit K Makhija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vascular anomalies are congenital lesions broadly categorised into vascular tumour (haemangiomas and vascular dysmorphogenesis (vascular malformation. The management of these difficult problems has lately been simplified by the biological classification and multidisciplinary approach. To standardise the treatment protocol, an algorithm has been devised. The study aims to validate the algorithm in terms of its utility and presents our experience in managing vascular anomalies. Materials and Methods: The biological classification of Mulliken and Glowacki was followed. A detailed algorithm for management of vascular anomalies has been devised in the department. The protocol is being practiced by us since the past two decades. The data regarding the types of lesions and treatment modality used were maintained. Results and Conclusion: This study was conducted from 2002 to 2012. A total of 784 cases of vascular anomalies were included in the study of which 196 were haemangiomas and 588 were vascular malformations. The algorithmic approach has brought an element of much-needed objectivity in the management of vascular anomalies. This has helped us to define the management of particular lesion considering its pathology, extent and aesthetic and functional consequences of ablation to a certain extent.

  5. Dynamic Airspace Managment - Models and Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Peng; Geng, Rui

    2010-01-01

    This chapter investigates the models and algorithms for implementing the concept of Dynamic Airspace Management. Three models are discussed. First two models are about how to use or adjust air route dynamically in order to speed up air traffic flow and reduce delay. The third model gives a way to dynamically generate the optimal sector configuration for an air traffic control center to both balance the controller’s workload and save control resources. The first model, called the Dynami...

  6. Applying critical chain buffer management theory in location-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchmann-Slorup, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    that time estimates become self-fulfilling prophecies, as practitioners tend to procrastinate, and the buffers are often wasted. In addition, excess time rarely benefits the project if activities do finish early, because succeeding activities are unlikely to begin before the planned date. Although...

  7. Riparian buffer zones on selected rivers in Lower Silesia - an important conservation practice and the management strategy in urban planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Maryna

    2013-09-01

    Buffer zones are narrow strips of land lying along the surface water, covered with appropriately selected vegetation. They separate aquatic ecosystems from the direct impact of agricultural land and reduce the movement of nutrients in the environment. In 2008 the European Commission established requirements for the implementation of buffer strips along water courses. Poland committed to the enforcement of these requirements until 1 January 2012. This was one of the reasons of this study. The subject of the analysis included the following rivers in Lower Silesia: Smortawa, Krynka, Czarna Woda and the selected transects of Ślęza and Nysa Łużycka. Detailed studies were designed to estimate the buffer zones occurring on these watercourses and assess these zones’ structure. This will be used to develop clear criteria for the selection of the width of these zones based on land use land management. It can be used in the implementation of executive acts at different levels of space management. Field research consisted of inventory the extent of riparian buffer strips on selected water courses and photographic documentation. Species composition of the vegetation forming a buffer zone was identified by using Braun-Blanquet method. There was lack of continuity of the riparian buffer zones on investigated rivers. Buffer zones should have carefully formulated definition and width because they are element of the significant ecological value, they perform important environmental protective functions and they are also the subject of Community law.

  8. Safety management in NPPs using evolutionary algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.; Patwardhan, A.; Chauhan, A.; Verma, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Technical specification and maintenance (TS and M) activities in a plant are associated with controlling risk or with satisfying requirements, and are candidates to be evaluated for their resource effectiveness in risk-informed applications. The general goal of safety management in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is to make requirements and activities more risk effective and less costly. Accordingly, the risk-based analysis of Technical Specification (RBTS) is being considered in evaluating current TS. The multi objective optimization of the TS and M requirements of a NPP based on risk and cost, gives the pareto-optimal solutions, from which the utility can pick its decision variables suiting its interest. In this paper a multi objective Evolutionary Algorithm technique has been used to make a trade-off between risk and cost both at the system level and at the plant level for Loss of coolant Accident (LOCA) and Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) as initiating events. (authors)

  9. A controllable sensor management algorithm capable of learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.; Veeramacheneni, Kalyan K.

    2005-03-01

    Sensor management technology progress is challenged by the geographic space it spans, the heterogeneity of the sensors, and the real-time timeframes within which plans controlling the assets are executed. This paper presents a new sensor management paradigm and demonstrates its application in a sensor management algorithm designed for a biometric access control system. This approach consists of an artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm focused on uncertainty measures, which makes the high level decisions to reduce uncertainties and interfaces with the user, integrated cohesively with a bottom up evolutionary algorithm, which optimizes the sensor network"s operation as determined by the AI algorithm. The sensor management algorithm presented is composed of a Bayesian network, the AI algorithm component, and a swarm optimization algorithm, the evolutionary algorithm. Thus, the algorithm can change its own performance goals in real-time and will modify its own decisions based on observed measures within the sensor network. The definition of the measures as well as the Bayesian network determine the robustness of the algorithm and its utility in reacting dynamically to changes in the global system.

  10. Density management and riparian buffer study in Western Oregon: Phase 1 results, launch of phase 2 [brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2009-01-01

    Can we expedite the development of late-successional forest conditions by applying thinning treatments to young forest stands? What effect will these thinning treatments have on headwater ecosystems? These broad questions lie at the foundation of the Density Management and Riparian Buffer Study (DMS) of western Oregon.

  11. Potential role of phosphate buffering capacity of soils in fertilizer management strategies fitted to environmental goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Morel, C.; Fotyma, M.; Destain, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Sorption behavior and buffering of phosphorus (P) are important, both from an agricultural and an environmental point of view. The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) the kinetics of the transfer of P from soil to soil solution and assessing P buffering capacity of soils (PBC), as a

  12. Modelling the effectiveness of grass buffer strips in managing muddy floods under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Donal; Vandaele, Karel; Boardman, John; Meneely, John; Crossley, Laura H.

    2016-10-01

    Muddy floods occur when rainfall generates runoff on agricultural land, detaching and transporting sediment into the surrounding natural and built environment. In the Belgian Loess Belt, muddy floods occur regularly and lead to considerable economic costs associated with damage to property and infrastructure. Mitigation measures designed to manage the problem have been tested in a pilot area within Flanders and were found to be cost-effective within three years. This study assesses whether these mitigation measures will remain effective under a changing climate. To test this, the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was used to examine muddy flooding diagnostics (precipitation, runoff, soil loss and sediment yield) for a case study hillslope in Flanders where grass buffer strips are currently used as a mitigation measure. The model was run for present day conditions and then under 33 future site-specific climate scenarios. These future scenarios were generated from three earth system models driven by four representative concentration pathways and downscaled using quantile mapping and the weather generator CLIGEN. Results reveal that under the majority of future scenarios, muddy flooding diagnostics are projected to increase, mostly as a consequence of large scale precipitation events rather than mean changes. The magnitude of muddy flood events for a given return period is also generally projected to increase. These findings indicate that present day mitigation measures may have a reduced capacity to manage muddy flooding given the changes imposed by a warming climate with an enhanced hydrological cycle. Revisions to the design of existing mitigation measures within existing policy frameworks are considered the most effective way to account for the impacts of climate change in future mitigation planning.

  13. BIBLIO: A Reprint File Management Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnio, Robert N.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The development of a simple computer algorithm designed for use by the individual educator or researcher in maintaining and searching reprint files is reported. Called BIBLIO, the system is inexpensive and easy to operate and maintain without sacrificing flexibility and utility. (LBH)

  14. Insertion algorithms for network model database management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadolimov, Abdurashid; Khikmat, Saburov

    2017-12-01

    The network model is a database model conceived as a flexible way of representing objects and their relationships. Its distinguishing feature is that the schema, viewed as a graph in which object types are nodes and relationship types are arcs, forms partial order. When a database is large and a query comparison is expensive then the efficiency requirement of managing algorithms is minimizing the number of query comparisons. We consider updating operation for network model database management systems. We develop a new sequantial algorithm for updating operation. Also we suggest a distributed version of the algorithm.

  15. A Unified Buffering Management with Set Divisible Cache for PCM Main Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Ying Bian; Su-Kyung Yoon; Jeong-Geun Kim; Sangjae Nam; Shin-Dug Kim

    2016-01-01

    This research proposes a phase-change memory (PCM) based main memory system with an effective combi-nation of a superblock-based adaptive buffering structure and its associated set divisible last-level cache (LLC). To achieve high performance similar to that of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) based main memory, the superblock-based adaptive buffer (SABU) is comprised of dual DRAM buffers, i.e., an aggressive superblock-based pre-fetching buffer (SBPB) and an adaptive sub-block reusing buffer (SBRB), and a set divisible LLC based on a cache space optimization scheme. According to our experiment, the longer PCM access latency can typically be hidden using our proposed SABU, which can significantly reduce the number of writes over the PCM main memory by 26.44%. The SABU approach can reduce PCM access latency up to 0.43 times, compared with conventional DRAM main memory. Meanwhile, the average memory energy consumption can be reduced by 19.7%.

  16. Dynamic Sensor Management Algorithm Based on Improved Efficacy Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic sensor management algorithm based on improved efficacy function is proposed to solve the multi-target and multi-sensory management problem. The tracking task precision requirements (TPR, target priority and sensor use cost were considered to establish the efficacy function by weighted sum the normalized value of the three factors. The dynamic sensor management algorithm was accomplished through control the diversities of the desired covariance matrix (DCM and the filtering covariance matrix (FCM. The DCM was preassigned in terms of TPR and the FCM was obtained by the centralized sequential Kalman filtering algorithm. The simulation results prove that the proposed method could meet the requirements of desired tracking precision and adjust sensor selection according to target priority and cost of sensor source usage. This makes sensor management scheme more reasonable and effective.

  17. Quantitative Methods in Supply Chain Management Models and Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, Ioannis T

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Methods in Supply Chain Management presents some of the most important methods and tools available for modeling and solving problems arising in the context of supply chain management. In the context of this book, “solving problems” usually means designing efficient algorithms for obtaining high-quality solutions. The first chapter is an extensive optimization review covering continuous unconstrained and constrained linear and nonlinear optimization algorithms, as well as dynamic programming and discrete optimization exact methods and heuristics. The second chapter presents time-series forecasting methods together with prediction market techniques for demand forecasting of new products and services. The third chapter details models and algorithms for planning and scheduling with an emphasis on production planning and personnel scheduling. The fourth chapter presents deterministic and stochastic models for inventory control with a detailed analysis on periodic review systems and algorithmic dev...

  18. Riparian buffer strips as a multifunctional management tool in agricultural landscapes: Introduction to the special collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutter, M.I.; Chardon, W.J.; Kronvang, B.

    2012-01-01

    Catchment riparian areas are considered key zones to target mitigation measures aimed at interrupting the movement of diffuse substances from agricultural land to surface waters. Hence, unfertilized buffer strips have become a widely studied and implemented “edge of field” mitigation measure assumed

  19. Riparian buffer and density management influences on microclimate of young headwater forests of Western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson; David J. Larson; Samuel S. Chan

    2007-01-01

    Thinning of 30- to 70-year-old Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) stands is a common silvicultural activity on federal forest lands of the Pacific Northwest, United States. Empirical relationships among riparian functions, silvicultural treatments, and different riparian buffer widths are not well documented for small headwater...

  20. A novel fair active queue management algorithm based on traffic delay jitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Shun; Yu, Shao-Hua; Dai, Jin-You; Luo, Ting

    2009-11-01

    In order to guarantee the quantity of data traffic delivered in the network, congestion control strategy is adopted. According to the study of many active queue management (AQM) algorithms, this paper proposes a novel active queue management algorithm named JFED. JFED can stabilize queue length at a desirable level by adjusting output traffic rate and adopting a reasonable calculation of packet drop probability based on buffer queue length and traffic jitter; and it support burst packet traffic through the packet delay jitter, so that it can traffic flow medium data. JFED impose effective punishment upon non-responsible flow with a full stateless method. To verify the performance of JFED, it is implemented in NS2 and is compared with RED and CHOKe with respect to different performance metrics. Simulation results show that the proposed JFED algorithm outperforms RED and CHOKe in stabilizing instantaneous queue length and in fairness. It is also shown that JFED enables the link capacity to be fully utilized by stabilizing the queue length at a desirable level, while not incurring excessive packet loss ratio.

  1. Algorithm of the managing systems state estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skubilin M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of an electronic estimation of automatic and automated managing systems state is analyzed. An estimation of a current state (functional readiness of technical equipment and person-operator as integrated system allows to take operatively adequate measures on an exception and-or minimisation of consequences of system’s transition in a supernumerary state. The offered method is universal enough and can be recommended for normalisation of situations on transport, mainly in aircraft.

  2. Rapid Change Detection Algorithm for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, U.; Thunig, H.; Ehlers, M.; Reinartz, P.

    2012-07-01

    This paper focuses on change detection applications in areas where catastrophic events took place which resulted in rapid destruction especially of manmade objects. Standard methods for automated change detection prove not to be sufficient; therefore a new method was developed and tested. The presented method allows a fast detection and visualization of change in areas of crisis or catastrophes. While often new methods of remote sensing are developed without user oriented aspects, organizations and authorities are not able to use these methods because of absence of remote sensing know how. Therefore a semi-automated procedure was developed. Within a transferable framework, the developed algorithm can be implemented for a set of remote sensing data among different investigation areas. Several case studies are the base for the retrieved results. Within a coarse dividing into statistical parts and the segmentation in meaningful objects, the framework is able to deal with different types of change. By means of an elaborated Temporal Change Index (TCI) only panchromatic datasets are used to extract areas which are destroyed, areas which were not affected and in addition areas where rebuilding has already started.

  3. ALGORITHMS FOR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT IN THE INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic jams interfere with the drivers and cost billions of dollars per year and lead to a substantial increase in fuel consumption. In order to avoid such problems the paper describes the algorithms for traffic management in intelligent transportation system, which collects traffic information in real time and is able to detect and manage congestion on the basis of this information. The results show that the proposed algorithms reduce the average travel time, emissions and fuel consumption. In particular, travel time has decreased by about 23%, the average fuel consumption of 9%, and the average emission of 10%.

  4. An Algorithm for Neuropathic Pain Management in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Gisèle; Marcoux, Margaux; Chapiro, Sylvie; David, Laurence; Rat, Patrice; Michel, Micheline; Bertrand, Isabelle; Voute, Marion; Wary, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    Neuropathic pain frequently affects older people, who generally also have several comorbidities. Elderly patients are often poly-medicated, which increases the risk of drug-drug interactions. These patients, especially those with cognitive problems, may also have restricted communication skills, making pain evaluation difficult and pain treatment challenging. Clinicians and other healthcare providers need a decisional algorithm to optimize the recognition and management of neuropathic pain. We present a decisional algorithm developed by a multidisciplinary group of experts, which focuses on pain assessment and therapeutic options for the management of neuropathic pain, particularly in the elderly. The algorithm involves four main steps: (1) detection, (2) evaluation, (3) treatment, and (4) re-evaluation. The detection of neuropathic pain is an essential step in ensuring successful management. The extent of the impact of the neuropathic pain is then assessed, generally with self-report scales, except in patients with communication difficulties who can be assessed using behavioral scales. The management of neuropathic pain frequently requires combination treatments, and recommended treatments should be prescribed with caution in these elderly patients, taking into consideration their comorbidities and potential drug-drug interactions and adverse events. This algorithm can be used in the management of neuropathic pain in the elderly to ensure timely and adequate treatment by a multidisciplinary team.

  5. Intelligent Shuttle Management and Routing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Toshen M.; Subashanthini, S.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, most of the big Universities and campuses have Shuttle cabs running in them to cater the transportational needs of the students and faculties. While some shuttle services ask for a meagre sum to be paid for the usage, no digital payment system is onboard these vehicles to go truly cashless. Even more troublesome is the fact that sometimes during the day, some of these cabs run with bare number of passengers, which can result in unwanted budget loss to the shuttle operator. The main purpose of this paper is to create a system with two types of applications: A web portal and an Android app, to digitize the Shuttle cab industry. This system can be used for digital cashless payment feature, tracking passengers, tracking cabs and more importantly, manage the number of shuttle cabs in every route to maximize profit. This project is built upon an ASP.NET website connected to a cloud service along with an Android app that tracks and reads the passengers ID using an attached barcode reader along with the current GPS coordinates, and sends these data to the cloud for processing using the phone’s internet connectivity.

  6. Algorithms for the process management of sealed source brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, M.J.; Ulin, K.; Sternick, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Incidents and misadministrations suggest that brachytherapy may benefit form clarification of the quality management program and other mandates of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To that end, flowcharts of step by step subprocesses were developed and formatted with dedicated software. The overall process was similarly organized in a complex flowchart termed a general process map. Procedural and structural indicators associated with each flowchart and map were critiqued and pre-existing documentation was revised. open-quotes Step-regulation tablesclose quotes were created to refer steps and subprocesses to Nuclear Regulatory Commission rules and recommendations in their sequences of applicability. Brachytherapy algorithms were specified as programmable, recursive processes, including therapeutic dose determination and monitoring doses to the public. These algorithms are embodied in flowcharts and step-regulation tables. A general algorithm is suggested as a template form which other facilities may derive tools to facilitate process management of sealed source brachytherapy. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  7. ALGORITHMIC support for THE System Wide Information Management concept

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The theoretical problems of computer support for the "System Wide Information Management" concept, which was proposed by experts of the International Civil Aviation Organization, are discussed. Within the framework of its provisions certain new requirements for all initial stages of air traffic management preceding the direct aircrafts control are formulated. Algorithmic instruments for ensuring a conflictlessness of a summary plan for the use of airspace during the plan’s implementation are ...

  8. Application of genetic algorithm in reactor fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Gang

    2002-01-01

    The genetic algorithm (GA) has been used in reactor fuel management of core arrangement optimal calculation. The chromosome coding method has been selected, and the parameters in GA operators have been improved, so the quality and efficiency of calculation in GA program have been greatly improved. According to the result, better core fuel position arrangement can be obtained from the GA calculation

  9. Assessing Movements of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in Relation to Depopulated Buffer Zones for the Management of Wildlife Tuberculosis in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrom, Andrea E; Anderson, Dean P; Coleman, Morgan; Thomson, Caroline; Cross, Martin L; Pech, Roger P

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand, managing the threat of bovine tuberculosis (TB) to livestock includes population reduction of potentially infectious wildlife, primarily the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Population control is often targeted on forested buffer zones adjacent to farmland, in order to limit movements of possums across the buffer and reduce the risk of disease transmission to livestock. To assess the effectiveness of buffers in protecting livestock we analysed GPS telemetry data from possums located in untreated forest adjacent to buffers, and used these data to characterise patterns of movement that could lead to possums reaching farmland during the season when most dispersal occurs. Analyses of movement data showed that the direction of dispersal by sub-adult and adult possums and the extent of long exploratory movements were not biased toward forest buffers, even though these provided vacant habitat as suitable for possums as untreated forest. Instead, dispersal and exploratory movements were uncommon even for sub-adult possums and such events typically lasted buffer to reach farmland. Our results indicate short-term reduction in the risk of TB transmission from possums to livestock in New Zealand by the use of depopulated buffer zones, while acknowledging that the threat of disease spread from untreated forest is likely to increase over time as possum population density and, potentially, TB prevalence among those possums, increase in the buffer zone.

  10. The congestion control algorithm based on queue management of each node in mobile ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifei; Chang, Lin; Wang, Yali; Wang, Gaoping

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes an active queue management mechanism, considering the node's own ability and its importance in the network to set the queue threshold. As the network load increases, local congestion of mobile ad hoc network may lead to network performance degradation, hot node's energy consumption increase even failure. If small energy nodes congested because of forwarding data packets, then when it is used as the source node will cause a lot of packet loss. This paper proposes an active queue management mechanism, considering the node's own ability and its importance in the network to set the queue threshold. Controlling nodes buffer queue in different levels of congestion area probability by adjusting the upper limits and lower limits, thus nodes can adjust responsibility of forwarding data packets according to their own situation. The proposed algorithm will slow down the send rate hop by hop along the data package transmission direction from congestion node to source node so that to prevent further congestion from the source node. The simulation results show that, the algorithm can better play the data forwarding ability of strong nodes, protect the weak nodes, can effectively alleviate the network congestion situation.

  11. Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Grid Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the key issues for wireless sensor network trust model and describes a method to build a wireless sensor network, such as the definition of trust for wireless sensor networks, computing and credibility of trust model application. And for the problem that nodes are vulnerable to attack, this paper proposed a grid-based trust algorithm by deep exploration trust model within the framework of credit management. Algorithm for node reliability screening and rotation schedule to cover parallel manner based on the implementation of the nodes within the area covered by trust. And analyze the results of the size of trust threshold has great influence on the safety and quality of coverage throughout the coverage area. The simulation tests the validity and correctness of the algorithm.

  12. Analysis of the algorithms for congestion management in computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Szilágyi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one of the features of DS (Differentiated Services architecture, namely the queuing or congestion management. Packets can be placed into separate buffer queues, on the basis of the DS value. Several forwarding policies can be used to favor high priority packets in different ways. The major reason for queuing is that the router must hold the packet in its memory while the outgoing interface is busy with sending another packet. Our main goal is to compare the performance of the following queuing mechanisms: FIFO (First- In First-Out, CQ (Custom Queuing, PQ (Priority Queuing, WFQ (Weighted Fair Queuing, CBWFQ (Class Based Weighted Fair Queuing and LLQ (Low Latency Queuing.

  13. Generator scheduling under competitive environment using Memory Management Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amudha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for Real-Time Application of Profit Based Unit Commitment using Memory Management Algorithm. The main objective of the restructured system is to maximize its own profit without the responsibility of satisfying the forecasted demand. The Profit Based Unit Commitment (PBUC is solved by Memory Management Algorithm (MMA in Real-Time Application. MMA approach is introduced in this paper considering power and reserve generation. The proposed method MMA uses Best Fit and Worst Fit allocation for generator scheduling in order to receive the maximum profit by considering the softer demand. Also, this method gives an idea regarding how much power and reserve should be sold in markets. The proposed approach has been tested on a power system with 2, 3, and 10 generating units. Simulation results of the proposed approach have been compared with the existing methods.

  14. An Algorithm for Neuropathic Pain Management in Older People

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Gis?le; Marcoux, Margaux; Chapiro, Sylvie; David, Laurence; Rat, Patrice; Michel, Micheline; Bertrand, Isabelle; Voute, Marion; Wary, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain frequently affects older people, who generally also have several comorbidities. Elderly patients are often poly-medicated, which increases the risk of drug?drug interactions. These patients, especially those with cognitive problems, may also have restricted communication skills, making pain evaluation difficult and pain treatment challenging. Clinicians and other healthcare providers need a decisional algorithm to optimize the recognition and management of neuropathic pain. W...

  15. Asset management using genetic algorithm: Evidence from Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Sarijaloo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effect of market management using Markowitz theorem. The study uses the information of 50 best performers on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2006-2009 and, using Markowitz theorem, the efficient asset allocation are determined and the result are analyzed. The proposed model of this paper has been solved using genetic algorithm. The results indicate that Tehran Stock Exchange has managed to perform much better than average world market in most years of studies especially on year 2009. The results of our investigation have also indicated that one could reach outstanding results using GA and forming efficient portfolio.

  16. The role of mechanisms of buffering anxiety in HIV carriers. A study within the terror management theory paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kwiatkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The paper concerns definition of the level of posttraumatic growth (PTG, the psychological adaptation mechanism occurring after extreme experiences in life, such as being informed of having HIV infection.Aim:The study is experimental, aiming to assess whether correlations between exposure to thoughts of stressful experiences and their psychological consequences are mediated by an efficient mechanism of buffering anxiety.Material/Methods:Fifty-four men and 26 women infected with HIV who underwent manipulated exposure to mortality according to the hypotheses of the terror management theory (TMT were included. Subjects were randomly assigned to the control group (dental anxiety or the experimental group (fear of dying.Results:The results confirmed the assumptions of the terror management theory. The subjects had an efficient mechanism of alleviating the fear of dying, the so-called “anxiety buffer.” The analysis revealed a high level of posttraumatic growth and advantages derived from the disease. The paper additionally characterizes the specific group of HIV-positive people, their functioning in society and the family. It touches on such issues as professional work, relations with relatives and friends, social life, and adherence.Conclusions:The study has shown that the specific group of people infected with HIV managed very well to adapt to the circumstances. One may say that as a consequence of acquiring the infection, the subjects have experienced significant changes of personality, which have ultimately led to an improvement of their lives and offered new possibilities for personal and social development to them. All the recorded changes fit into the TMT paradigm.

  17. Intra-abdominal solid organ injuries: an enhanced management algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabi, Nima; Shuaib, Waqas; Xing, Minzhi; Harmouche, Elie; Wilson, Kenneth; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-11-01

    The organ injury scale grading system proposed by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma provides guidelines for operative versus nonoperative management in solid organ injuries; however, major shortcomings of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma injury scale may become apparent with low-grade injuries, in which conservative management may fail. Nonoperative management of common intra-abdominal solid organ injuries relies increasingly on computed tomographic findings and other clinical factors, including patient age, presence of concurrent injuries, and serial clinical assessments. Familiarity with characteristic imaging features is essential for the prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of blunt abdominal trauma. In this pictorial essay, the spectrum of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma organ injury scale grading system is illustrated, and a multidisciplinary management algorithm for common intra-abdominal solid organ injuries is proposed. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The intertwining paths of the density managment and riparian buffer study and the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Ruzicka; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Initiated simultaneously, the Density Management and Riparian Buff er Study of western Oregon and the Northwest Forest Plan have had intertwining paths related to federal forest management and policy changes in the Pacifi c Northwest over the last 15 to 20 years. We briefl y discuss the development of the Northwest Forest Plan and how it changed the way forest policy...

  19. An Algorithm for Managing Aircraft Movement on an Airport Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maresca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the development of an algorithm for safely and optimally managing the routing of aircraft on an airport surface in future airport operations. This tool is intended to support air traffic controllers’ decision-making in selecting the paths of all aircraft and the engine startup approval time for departing ones. Optimal routes are sought for minimizing the time both arriving and departing aircraft spend on an airport surface with engines on, with benefits in terms of safety, efficiency and costs. The proposed algorithm first computes a standalone, shortest path solution from runway to apron or vice versa, depending on the aircraft being inbound or outbound, respectively. For taking into account the constraints due to other traffic on an airport surface, this solution is amended by a conflict detection and resolution task that attempts to reduce and possibly nullify the number of conflicts generated in the first phase. An example application on a simple Italian airport exemplifies how the algorithm can be applied to true-world applications. Emphasis is given on how to model an airport surface as a weighted and directed graph with non-negative weights, as required for the input to the algorithm.

  20. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polynomial) division have been found in Vedic Mathematics which are dated much before Euclid's algorithm. A programming language Is used to describe an algorithm for execution on a computer. An algorithm expressed using a programming.

  1. Velocity of climate change algorithms for guiding conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Andreas; Roberts, David R; Barber, Quinn E; Carroll, Carlos; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-02-01

    The velocity of climate change is an elegant analytical concept that can be used to evaluate the exposure of organisms to climate change. In essence, one divides the rate of climate change by the rate of spatial climate variability to obtain a speed at which species must migrate over the surface of the earth to maintain constant climate conditions. However, to apply the algorithm for conservation and management purposes, additional information is needed to improve realism at local scales. For example, destination information is needed to ensure that vectors describing speed and direction of required migration do not point toward a climatic cul-de-sac by pointing beyond mountain tops. Here, we present an analytical approach that conforms to standard velocity algorithms if climate equivalents are nearby. Otherwise, the algorithm extends the search for climate refugia, which can be expanded to search for multivariate climate matches. With source and destination information available, forward and backward velocities can be calculated allowing useful inferences about conservation of species (present-to-future velocities) and management of species populations (future-to-present velocities). © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Trust in management as a buffer of the relationships between overload and strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Steve; Kelloway, E Kevin; Duncan-Leiper, Leslie

    2003-10-01

    This study examined the role of trust in management as a moderating factor in work overload's impact on personal strain (i.e., burnout, psychological strain, and work's interference with family). Participants were 94 employees of an accounting firm responding to a survey. The results were supportive of all study propositions. Both work overload and trust in management had the expected negative and positive main effects on the outcomes variables, respectively. The impact of work overload on the outcome variables was moderated by employees' trust in management. The significance of these results and areas of future research are discussed. 2003 APA

  3. Assessing Movements of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula in Relation to Depopulated Buffer Zones for the Management of Wildlife Tuberculosis in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Byrom

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, managing the threat of bovine tuberculosis (TB to livestock includes population reduction of potentially infectious wildlife, primarily the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula. Population control is often targeted on forested buffer zones adjacent to farmland, in order to limit movements of possums across the buffer and reduce the risk of disease transmission to livestock. To assess the effectiveness of buffers in protecting livestock we analysed GPS telemetry data from possums located in untreated forest adjacent to buffers, and used these data to characterise patterns of movement that could lead to possums reaching farmland during the season when most dispersal occurs. Analyses of movement data showed that the direction of dispersal by sub-adult and adult possums and the extent of long exploratory movements were not biased toward forest buffers, even though these provided vacant habitat as suitable for possums as untreated forest. Instead, dispersal and exploratory movements were uncommon even for sub-adult possums and such events typically lasted <10 days. Dispersing possums settled predominantly in river valleys. A simulation model was developed for the 3-6-month dispersal season; it demonstrated a probability of <0.001 that an infected possum, originating from a low-density population with low disease prevalence in untreated forest, would move across 3 km of recently controlled forest buffer to reach farmland. Our results indicate short-term reduction in the risk of TB transmission from possums to livestock in New Zealand by the use of depopulated buffer zones, while acknowledging that the threat of disease spread from untreated forest is likely to increase over time as possum population density and, potentially, TB prevalence among those possums, increase in the buffer zone.

  4. Real-Time Demand Side Management Algorithm Using Stochastic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Amoasi Acquah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A demand side management technique is deployed along with battery energy-storage systems (BESS to lower the electricity cost by mitigating the peak load of a building. Most of the existing methods rely on manual operation of the BESS, or even an elaborate building energy-management system resorting to a deterministic method that is susceptible to unforeseen growth in demand. In this study, we propose a real-time optimal operating strategy for BESS based on density demand forecast and stochastic optimization. This method takes into consideration uncertainties in demand when accounting for an optimal BESS schedule, making it robust compared to the deterministic case. The proposed method is verified and tested against existing algorithms. Data obtained from a real site in South Korea is used for verification and testing. The results show that the proposed method is effective, even for the cases where the forecasted demand deviates from the observed demand.

  5. Algorithms for synthesizing management solutions based on OLAP-technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishchukhin, A. M.; Akhmedyanova, G. F.

    2018-05-01

    OLAP technologies are a convenient means of analyzing large amounts of information. An attempt was made in their work to improve the synthesis of optimal management decisions. The developed algorithms allow forecasting the needs and accepted management decisions on the main types of the enterprise resources. Their advantage is the efficiency, based on the simplicity of quadratic functions and differential equations of only the first order. At the same time, the optimal redistribution of resources between different types of products from the assortment of the enterprise is carried out, and the optimal allocation of allocated resources in time. The proposed solutions can be placed on additional specially entered coordinates of the hypercube representing the data warehouse.

  6. Critical chain project management and drum-buffer-rope tools integration in construction industry - case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Cyplik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of integrating the theory of constraints tools in reorganizing management system in a mechanical engineering company was presented in this article. The main aim of the concept is to enable the enterprise to satisfy the customers' expectations at reasonable costs, which allows for making a profit and creating an agile enterprise in the long run. Methods: Due to the individual character of the production process and service process in analyzed company, the described concept using theory of constraints project management (CCPM and manufacturing (DBR tools. The authors use performance levels conception to build an integration tool focused on the interaction and collaboration between different departments. The integration tool has been developed and verified in Polish manufacturing company. Results: In described model a tool compatible with CCPM operates on the level of the customer service process. Shop floor is controlled based on the DBR method. The authors hold that the integration of between TOC tools is of key importance. The integration of TOC tools dedicated to managing customer service and shop floor scheduling and controlling requires developing a mechanism for repeated transmitting the information between them. This mechanism has been developed. Conclusions: The conducted research showed that the developed tool integrating CCPM and DBR had a positive impact on the enterprise performance. It enables improving the company performance in meeting target group requirements by focusing on enhancing the efficiency of processes running in the company and tasks processed at particular work stations. The described model has been successfully implemented in one of the Polish mechanical engineering companies.

  7. Buffers Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramette, Richard W.

    1998-11-01

    In 1989 JCE Software published The Acid-Base Package: A Collection of Useful Programs for Proton Transfer Systems (Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. Software 1989, 2B No. 2). This DOS program has been fully upgraded by the same author to the world of Windows 95. Buffers Plus takes advantage of a modern user interface and offers many new options not possible in the original version.

  8. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M

    1979-08-30

    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  9. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to as 'divide-and-conquer'. Although there has been a large effort in realizing efficient algorithms, there are not many universally accepted algorithm design paradigms. In this article, we illustrate algorithm design techniques such as balancing, greedy strategy, dynamic programming strategy, and backtracking or traversal of ...

  10. An international consensus report on a new algorithm for the management of infant diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo Vecchio, Andrea; Vandenplas, Yvan; Benninga, Marc; Broekaert, Ilse; Falconer, Jackie; Gottrand, Frederic; Lifschitz, Carlos; Lionetti, Paolo; Orel, Rok; Papadopoulou, Alexandra; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Schäppi, Michela; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Thapar, Nikhil; Wilschanski, Michael; Guarino, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Implementing international guidelines guarantees high standards of clinical care. A group of experts developed an algorithm to drive the management of common gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy by paediatricians and general practitioners. The algorithm started from the evidence-based

  11. Safety management in NPPs using an evolutionary algorithm technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Alok; Patwardhan, Anand; Verma, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The general goal of safety management in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is to make requirements and activities more risk effective and less costly. The technical specification and maintenance (TS and M) activities in a plant are associated with controlling risk or with satisfying requirements, and are candidates to be evaluated for their resource effectiveness in risk-informed applications. Accordingly, the risk-based analysis of technical specification (RBTS) is being considered in evaluating current TS. The multi-objective optimization of the TS and M requirements of a NPP based on risk and cost, gives the pareto-optimal solutions, from which the utility can pick its decision variables suiting its interest. In this paper, a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm technique has been used to make a trade-off between risk and cost both at the system level and at the plant level for loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and main steam line break (MSLB) as initiating events

  12. Fuzzy Dynamic Discrimination Algorithms for Distributed Knowledge Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MAZILESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A reduction of the algorithmic complexity of the fuzzy inference engine has the following property: the inputs (the fuzzy rules and the fuzzy facts can be divided in two parts, one being relatively constant for a long a time (the fuzzy rule or the knowledge model when it is compared to the second part (the fuzzy facts for every inference cycle. The occurrence of certain transformations over the constant part makes sense, in order to decrease the solution procurement time, in the case that the second part varies, but it is known at certain moments in time. The transformations attained in advance are called pre-processing or knowledge compilation. The use of variables in a Business Rule Management System knowledge representation allows factorising knowledge, like in classical knowledge based systems. The language of the first-degree predicates facilitates the formulation of complex knowledge in a rigorous way, imposing appropriate reasoning techniques. It is, thus, necessary to define the description method of fuzzy knowledge, to justify the knowledge exploiting efficiency when the compiling technique is used, to present the inference engine and highlight the functional features of the pattern matching and the state space processes. This paper presents the main results of our project PR356 for designing a compiler for fuzzy knowledge, like Rete compiler, that comprises two main components: a static fuzzy discrimination structure (Fuzzy Unification Tree and the Fuzzy Variables Linking Network. There are also presented the features of the elementary pattern matching process that is based on the compiled structure of fuzzy knowledge. We developed fuzzy discrimination algorithms for Distributed Knowledge Management Systems (DKMSs. The implementations have been elaborated in a prototype system FRCOM (Fuzzy Rule COMpiler.

  13. Buffered Communication Analysis in Distributed Multiparty Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniélou, Pierre-Malo; Yoshida, Nobuko

    Many communication-centred systems today rely on asynchronous messaging among distributed peers to make efficient use of parallel execution and resource access. With such asynchrony, the communication buffers can happen to grow inconsiderately over time. This paper proposes a static verification methodology based on multiparty session types which can efficiently compute the upper bounds on buffer sizes. Our analysis relies on a uniform causality audit of the entire collaboration pattern - an examination that is not always possible from each end-point type. We extend this method to design algorithms that allocate communication channels in order to optimise the memory requirements of session executions. From these analyses, we propose two refinements methods which respect buffer bounds: a global protocol refinement that automatically inserts confirmation messages to guarantee stipulated buffer sizes and a local protocol refinement to optimise asynchronous messaging without buffer overflow. Finally our work is applied to overcome a buffer overflow problem of the multi-buffering algorithm.

  14. Effects of Buffering Key Habitat for Terrestrial Salamanders: Implications for the Management of the Federally Threatened Red Hills Salamander (Phaeognathus hubrichti and Other Imperiled Plethodontids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Apodaca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Forestry practices are placing ever increasing emphasis on sustainability and the maintenance of ecological processes, biodiversity, and endangered species or populations. Balancing timber harvest and the management of imperiled species presents a particularly difficult challenge during this shift, as we often know very little about these species’ natural history and how and why silviculture practices affect their populations. Accordingly, investigation of and improvement on current management practices for threatened species is imperative. We investigated the effectiveness of habitat buffers as a management technique for the imperiled Red Hills salamander (Phaeognathus hubrichti by combining genetic, transect, and body-condition data. We found that populations where habitat buffers have been employed have higher genetic diversity and higher population densities, and individuals have better overall body condition. These results indicate that buffering the habitat of imperiled species can be an effective management tool for terrestrial salamanders. Additionally, they provide further evidence that leaving the habitat of imperiled salamanders unbuffered can have both immediate and long-term negative impacts on populations.

  15. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ticians but also forms the foundation of computer science. Two ... with methods of developing algorithms for solving a variety of problems but ... applications of computers in science and engineer- ... numerical calculus are as important. We will ...

  16. Palmer Midcarpal Instability: An Algorithm of Diagnosis and Surgical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pak-Cheong; Tse, Wing-Lim; Wong, Clara Wing-Yee

    2017-11-01

    Background  Palmar midcarpal instability (PMCI) is an uncommon form of nondissociative carpal instability. However, it is an important cause of chronic ulnar wrist pain. Diagnosis can be difficult and high index of suspicion is mandatory. Pathomechanics and optimal treatment of PMCI remain uncertain. We propose an algorithm of clinical diagnosis and evaluate the outcome of our management. Materials and Methods  Between 2000 and 2011, 16 patients, including 7 males and 9 females, of a mean age of 33.9 diagnosed with PMCI were reviewed for their clinical, radiologic, and arthroscopic features. All patients presented with ulnar wrist pain in their dominant hands except in one. Initial management included a disease-specific anticarpal supination splint. Refractory cases were evaluated by arthroscopy and treated by arthroscopic thermal shrinkage using radiofrequency appliance as an interim or definite surgical intervention. Shrinkage was targeted at the ulnocarpal ligament at the radiocarpal joint and triquetrohamate ligament at the midcarpal joint. Nonresponsive or recurrent cases were managed by a novel technique of dorsal radiocarpal ligament reconstruction procedure using a pisiform-based split flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) tendon graft. Results  In all cases, the midcarpal clunk test was positive with pain. Other common clinical features included lax ulnar column, carpal supination, volar sagging of the wrist, increased pisostyloid distance, wrist pain aggravated by passive hand supination and not by passive forearm supination, and increased wrist pain upon resisted pronation, which could be partially alleviated by manually supporting the pisostyloid interval. Common arthroscopic findings were excessive joint space at triquetrohamate interval and reactive synovitis over the ulnar compartments. Nine patients (56.3%) responded well to splinting alone at an average follow-up of 3.3 years. Arthroscopic thermal shrinkage was performed in five patients with recurrence

  17. Algorithmic Management for Improving Collective Productivity in Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Miao, Chunyan; Chen, Yiqiang; Fauvel, Simon; Li, Xiaoming; Lesser, Victor R

    2017-10-02

    Crowdsourcing systems are complex not only because of the huge number of potential strategies for assigning workers to tasks, but also due to the dynamic characteristics associated with workers. Maximizing social welfare in such situations is known to be NP-hard. To address these fundamental challenges, we propose the surprise-minimization-value-maximization (SMVM) approach. By analysing typical crowdsourcing system dynamics, we established a simple and novel worker desirability index (WDI) jointly considering the effect of each worker's reputation, workload and motivation to work on collective productivity. Through evaluating workers' WDI values, SMVM influences individual workers in real time about courses of action which can benefit the workers and lead to high collective productivity. Solutions can be produced in polynomial time and are proven to be asymptotically bounded by a theoretical optimal solution. High resolution simulations based on a real-world dataset demonstrate that SMVM significantly outperforms state-of-the-art approaches. A large-scale 3-year empirical study involving 1,144 participants in over 9,000 sessions shows that SMVM outperforms human task delegation decisions over 80% of the time under common workload conditions. The approach and results can help engineer highly scalable data-driven algorithmic management decision support systems for crowdsourcing.

  18. An Effective Algorithm for Management of Noses with Thick Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyuron, Bahman; Lee, Michelle

    2017-04-01

    Thicker nasal skin blunts the definition of the underlying osseocartilaginous frame and the delicate topography of the nose posing additional challenges in producing desirable tip definition. Despite the recognized challenge in this patient population, there is a paucity of literature on how to overcome this problem. The goal of this article is to provide a systematic algorithm to manage patients with thick nasal skin. Approach to the thick nasal skin patient begins with an evaluation of the etiology of their skin thickness. Skin thickness secondary to sebaceous overactivity is diminished with the use of retinoic acid derivatives, lasers or isotretinoin (Accutane), commonly under the advice of the dermatologist. Rhinoplasty maneuvers include open technique, raising a healthy and reasonably thick skin flap overlying the tip, removing the remaining fat overlying and between the domes, creating a firm cartilaginous frame and eliminating dead space using the supratip suture reported by the senior author, and trimming redundant nasal skin envelope when indicated. This systematic approach has been greatly effective in achieving often predictable and aesthetically pleasing rhinoplasty results. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  19. RESEARCH NEEDS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts; moreover, the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  20. Reliability Based Spare Parts Management Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Upadhyay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Effective and efficient inventory management is the key to the economic sustainability of capital intensive modern industries. Inventory grows exponentially with complexity and size of the equipment fleet. Substantial amount of capital is required for maintaining an inventory and therefore its optimization is beneficial for smooth operation of the project at minimum cost of inventory. The size and hence the cost of the inventory is influenced by a large no of factors. This makes the optimization problem complex. This work presents a model to solve the problem of optimization of spare parts inventory. The novelty of this study lies with the fact that the developed method could tackle not only the artificial test case but also a real-world industrial problem. Various investigators developed several methods and semi-analytical tools for obtaining optimum solutions for this problem. In this study non-traditional optimization tool namely genetic algorithms GA are utilized. Apart from this Coxs regression analysis is also used to incorporate the effect of some environmental factors on the demand of spares. It shows the efficacy of the applicability of non-traditional optimization tool like GA to solve these problems. This research illustrates the proposed model with the analysis of data taken from a fleet of dumper operated in a large surface coal mine. The optimum time schedules so suggested by this GA-based model are found to be cost effective. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted for this industrial problem. Objective function is developed and the factors like the effect of season and production pressure overloading towards financial year-ending is included in the equations. Statistical analysis of the collected operational and performance data were carried out with the help of Easy-Fit Ver-5.5.The analysis gives the shape and scale parameter of theoretical Weibull distribution. The Coxs regression coefficient corresponding to excessive loading

  1. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithm design technique called 'divide-and-conquer'. One of ... Turtle graphics, September. 1996. 5. ... whole list named 'PO' is a pointer to the first element of the list; ..... Program for computing matrices X and Y and placing the result in C *).

  2. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithm that it is implicitly understood that we know how to generate the next natural ..... Explicit comparisons are made in line (1) where maximum and minimum is ... It can be shown that the function T(n) = 3/2n -2 is the solution to the above ...

  3. Comparison of Controller and Flight Deck Algorithm Performance During Interval Management with Dynamic Arrival Trees (STARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiste, Vernol; Lawton, George; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the interval between arrival aircraft is a major part of the en route and TRACON controller s job. In an effort to reduce controller workload and low altitude vectoring, algorithms have been developed to allow pilots to take responsibility for, achieve and maintain proper spacing. Additionally, algorithms have been developed to create dynamic weather-free arrival routes in the presence of convective weather. In a recent study we examined an algorithm to handle dynamic re-routing in the presence of convective weather and two distinct spacing algorithms. The spacing algorithms originated from different core algorithms; both were enhanced with trajectory intent data for the study. These two algorithms were used simultaneously in a human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation where pilots performed weather-impacted arrival operations into Louisville International Airport while also performing interval management (IM) on some trials. The controllers retained responsibility for separation and for managing the en route airspace and some trials managing IM. The goal was a stress test of dynamic arrival algorithms with ground and airborne spacing concepts. The flight deck spacing algorithms or controller managed spacing not only had to be robust to the dynamic nature of aircraft re-routing around weather but also had to be compatible with two alternative algorithms for achieving the spacing goal. Flight deck interval management spacing in this simulation provided a clear reduction in controller workload relative to when controllers were responsible for spacing the aircraft. At the same time, spacing was much less variable with the flight deck automated spacing. Even though the approaches taken by the two spacing algorithms to achieve the interval management goals were slightly different they seem to be simpatico in achieving the interval management goal of 130 sec by the TRACON boundary.

  4. ALGORITHM FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS UNDERWENT UROLOGY INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Davydova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the efficacy of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and pre-operative preparation in hypertensive patients needed in surgical treatment of urology dis- eases.Material and methods. Males (n=883, aged 40 to 80 years were included into the study. The main group consisted of patients that underwent laparotomic nephrectomy (LTN group; n=96 and patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy (LSN group; n=53. Dynamics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM data was analyzed in these groups in the immediate postoperative period. The efficacy of a package of non-invasive methods for cardiovascular system assessment was studied. ABPM was performed after nephrectomy (2-nd and 10-th days after surgery in patients with complaints of vertigo episodes or intense general weakness to correct treatment.Results. In LTN group hypotension episodes or blood pressure (BP elevations were observed in 20 (20.8% and 22 (22.9% patients, respectively, on the 2-nd day after the operation. These complications required antihypertensive treatment correction. Patients with hypotension episodes were significantly older than patients with BP elevation and had significantly lower levels of 24-hour systolic BP, night diastolic BP and minimal night systolic BP. Re-adjustment of antihypertensive treatment on the 10-th postoperative day was required to 2 (10% patients with hypotension episodes and to 1 (4.5% patient with BP elevation. Correction of antihypertensive therapy was required to all patients in LSN group on the day 2, and to 32 (60.4% patients on the 10-th day after the operation. Reduction in the incidence of complications (from 1.2% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2011, p<0.001 was observed during the application of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and preoperative preparation in hypertensive patients.Conclusion. The elaborated management algorithm for patients with concomitant hypertension is recommended to reduce the cardiovascular

  5. ALGORITHM FOR MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS UNDERWENT UROLOGY INTERVENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Davydova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the efficacy of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and pre-operative preparation in hypertensive patients needed in surgical treatment of urology dis- eases.Material and methods. Males (n=883, aged 40 to 80 years were included into the study. The main group consisted of patients that underwent laparotomic nephrectomy (LTN group; n=96 and patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy (LSN group; n=53. Dynamics of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM data was analyzed in these groups in the immediate postoperative period. The efficacy of a package of non-invasive methods for cardiovascular system assessment was studied. ABPM was performed after nephrectomy (2-nd and 10-th days after surgery in patients with complaints of vertigo episodes or intense general weakness to correct treatment.Results. In LTN group hypotension episodes or blood pressure (BP elevations were observed in 20 (20.8% and 22 (22.9% patients, respectively, on the 2-nd day after the operation. These complications required antihypertensive treatment correction. Patients with hypotension episodes were significantly older than patients with BP elevation and had significantly lower levels of 24-hour systolic BP, night diastolic BP and minimal night systolic BP. Re-adjustment of antihypertensive treatment on the 10-th postoperative day was required to 2 (10% patients with hypotension episodes and to 1 (4.5% patient with BP elevation. Correction of antihypertensive therapy was required to all patients in LSN group on the day 2, and to 32 (60.4% patients on the 10-th day after the operation. Reduction in the incidence of complications (from 1.2% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2011, p<0.001 was observed during the application of cardiovascular non-invasive complex assessment and preoperative preparation in hypertensive patients.Conclusion. The elaborated management algorithm for patients with concomitant hypertension is recommended to reduce the cardiovascular

  6. A Novel Algorithm in the Management of Hypoglycemia in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Naveen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective. To evaluate the safety of a new protocol in comparison to the standard protocol for managing hypoglycemia in neonates. Methods. Open label RCT-pilot study. Neonates admitted to NICU with hypoglycemia and requiring intravenous fluids were included. Fifty-seven eligible neonates were randomly allocated to either intervention group (starting fluids with 10% dextrose and increments of 1.5% or standard protocol group (GIR of 6 mg/kg/min with increments of 2 mg/kg/min till control of hypoglycemia. Primary outcome of the study was to know proportion of infants with subsequent hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia after enrolment. Results. The initial GIR (6 ± 0 mg/kg/min versus 4.8 ± 1.4 mg/kg/min, P < 0.001, the mean maximum GIR (6.7 ± 1.6 mg/kg/min versus 5.6 ± 2 mg/kg/min, P = 0.03, the maximum concentration of glucose infused (13.8 ± 2.9% versus 10.9 ± 1.9%, P < 0.001, and the total amount of glucose infused were significantly lower in the intervention group. The mean maximum blood sugar was significantly higher (129 ± 57 mg/dL versus 87 ± 30 mg/dL, P = 0.001 and there was a trend towards high proportion of infants with Hyperglycemia in the standard protocol group (n = 10, 39% versus n = 5, 16%, P = 0.07. The median difference between the highest and the lowest recorded sugar for any infant was significantly higher in the standard protocol group (median 93 mg/dL, IQR 52 to 147 mg/dL versus median 50 mg/dL, IQR 38 to 62.5 mg/dL, P = 0.03. Conclusion. A new and novel algorithm in the management of hypoglycemia in neonates is as safe as the standard protocol and requires further testing before routine implementation.

  7. Buffer mass test - Buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.

    1982-08-01

    Commercial Na bentonite (MX-80) is the clay component of the buffer material in the heater holes as well of the tunnel backfill. Important characteristics are the clay content, liquid limit, X-ray diffraction pattern, water content, and degree of granulation. The ballast material consists of quartz-rich sand and feldspar-rich filler. The preparation of highly compacted bentonite for the near-field isolation of the canister was made by using isostatic compaction technique. The resulting dense bentonite core was cut into regularly shaped blocks which were arranged around each heater and lowered as one unit - heavily instrumented - in the respective deposition holes. For three of the six holes a narrow slot was left open between the bentonite stack and the rock; for the remaining ones a wider slot was chosen with a fill of soft bentonite powder. Both arrangements are expected to yield an ultimate bulk density which is sufficiently high to fulfil the requirement of a negligible permeability and a sufficient swelling pressure as well as heat conductivity, which are the essential parameters. The tunnel backfill, which consists of a mixture of suitably graded ballast material and MX-80 powder, has a considerably lower swelling pressure and heat conductivity, and a higher permeability, all these parameters still within the requirements of the KBS 2 concept. The various zones with different bentonite/sand ratios and the technique to apply them are described in the final part of the report. (Author)

  8. Guidelines and algorithms for managing the difficult airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ríos, M A; Gaitini, L; Matter, I; Somri, M

    2018-01-01

    The difficult airway constitutes a continuous challenge for anesthesiologists. Guidelines and algorithms are key to preserving patient safety, by recommending specific plans and strategies that address predicted or unexpected difficult airway. However, there are currently no "gold standard" algorithms or universally accepted standards. The aim of this article is to present a synthesis of the recommendations of the main guidelines and difficult airway algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    will become clear in the next article when we discuss a simple logo like programming language. ... Rod B may be used as an auxiliary store. The problem is to find an algorithm which performs this task. ... No disks are moved from A to Busing C as auxiliary rod. • move _disk (A, C);. (No + l)th disk is moved from A to C directly ...

  10. A Hybrid Genetic Wind Driven Heuristic Optimization Algorithm for Demand Side Management in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, demand side management (DSM techniques have been designed for residential, industrial and commercial sectors. These techniques are very effective in flattening the load profile of customers in grid area networks. In this paper, a heuristic algorithms-based energy management controller is designed for a residential area in a smart grid. In essence, five heuristic algorithms (the genetic algorithm (GA, the binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO algorithm, the bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA, the wind-driven optimization (WDO algorithm and our proposed hybrid genetic wind-driven (GWD algorithm are evaluated. These algorithms are used for scheduling residential loads between peak hours (PHs and off-peak hours (OPHs in a real-time pricing (RTP environment while maximizing user comfort (UC and minimizing both electricity cost and the peak to average ratio (PAR. Moreover, these algorithms are tested in two scenarios: (i scheduling the load of a single home and (ii scheduling the load of multiple homes. Simulation results show that our proposed hybrid GWD algorithm performs better than the other heuristic algorithms in terms of the selected performance metrics.

  11. Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithm Based Schedule Risk Management of IT Outsourcing Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IT outsourcing is an effective way to enhance the core competitiveness for many enterprises. But the schedule risk of IT outsourcing project may cause enormous economic loss to enterprise. In this paper, the Distributed Decision Making (DDM theory and the principal-agent theory are used to build a model for schedule risk management of IT outsourcing project. In addition, a hybrid algorithm combining simulated annealing (SA and genetic algorithm (GA is designed, namely, simulated annealing genetic algorithm (SAGA. The effect of the proposed model on the schedule risk management problem is analyzed in the simulation experiment. Meanwhile, the simulation results of the three algorithms GA, SA, and SAGA show that SAGA is the most superior one to the other two algorithms in terms of stability and convergence. Consequently, this paper provides the scientific quantitative proposal for the decision maker who needs to manage the schedule risk of IT outsourcing project.

  12. A pragmatic evidence-based clinical management algorithm for burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yohanan; Yoo, Timothy; Han, Peter; Liu, Yuan; Inman, Jared C

    2018-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a poorly understood disease process with no current standard of treatment. The goal of this article is to provide an evidence-based, practical, clinical algorithm as a guideline for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Using available evidence and clinical experience, a multi-step management algorithm was developed. A retrospective cohort study was then performed, following STROBE statement guidelines, comparing outcomes of patients who were managed using the algorithm and those who were managed without. Forty-seven patients were included in the study, with 21 (45%) managed using the algorithm and 26 (55%) managed without. The mean age overall was 60.4 ±16.5 years, and most patients (39, 83%) were female. Cohorts showed no statistical difference in age, sex, overall follow-up time, dysgeusia, geographic tongue, or psychiatric disorder; xerostomia, however, was significantly different, skewed toward the algorithm group. Significantly more non-algorithm patients did not continue care (69% vs. 29%, p =0.001). The odds ratio of not continuing care for the non-algorithm group compared to the algorithm group was 5.6 [1.6, 19.8]. Improvement in pain was significantly more likely in the algorithm group ( p =0.001), with an odds ratio of 27.5 [3.1, 242.0]. We present a basic clinical management algorithm for burning mouth syndrome which may increase the likelihood of pain improvement and patient follow-up. Key words: Burning mouth syndrome, burning tongue, glossodynia, oral pain, oral burning, therapy, treatment.

  13. A Framework To Support Management Of HIVAIDS Using K-Means And Random Forest Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Iseu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare industry generates large amounts of complex data about patients hospital resources disease management electronic patient records and medical devices among others. The availability of these huge amounts of medical data creates a need for powerful mining tools to support health care professionals in diagnosis treatment and management of HIVAIDS. Several data mining techniques have been used in management of different data sets. Data mining techniques have been categorized into regression algorithms segmentation algorithms association algorithms sequence analysis algorithms and classification algorithms. In the medical field there has not been a specific study that has incorporated two or more data mining algorithms hence limiting decision making levels by medical practitioners. This study identified the extent to which K-means algorithm cluster patient characteristics it has also evaluated the extent to which random forest algorithm can classify the data for informed decision making as well as design a framework to support medical decision making in the treatment of HIVAIDS related diseases in Kenya. The paper further used random forest classification algorithm to compute proximities between pairs of cases that can be used in clustering locating outliers or by scaling to give interesting views of the data.

  14. Accuracy and conservatism of vapour intrusion algorithms for contaminated land management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Provoost, J.; Reijnders, L.; Bonders, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a view on the suitability of screening-level vapour intrusion (VI) algorithms for contaminated land management. It focuses on the accuracy and level of conservatism for a number of screening-level algorithms used for VI into buildings. The paper discusses the published evidence

  15. Tools for Analyzing Computing Resource Management Strategies and Algorithms for SDR Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marojevic, Vuk; Gomez-Miguelez, Ismael; Gelonch, Antoni

    2012-09-01

    Software defined radio (SDR) clouds centralize the computing resources of base stations. The computing resource pool is shared between radio operators and dynamically loads and unloads digital signal processing chains for providing wireless communications services on demand. Each new user session request particularly requires the allocation of computing resources for executing the corresponding SDR transceivers. The huge amount of computing resources of SDR cloud data centers and the numerous session requests at certain hours of a day require an efficient computing resource management. We propose a hierarchical approach, where the data center is divided in clusters that are managed in a distributed way. This paper presents a set of computing resource management tools for analyzing computing resource management strategies and algorithms for SDR clouds. We use the tools for evaluating a different strategies and algorithms. The results show that more sophisticated algorithms can achieve higher resource occupations and that a tradeoff exists between cluster size and algorithm complexity.

  16. STUDY ON ALGORITHM OF SENSOR MANAGEMENT BASED ON FUNCTIONS OF EFFICIENCY AND WASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Sensor management plays an important role in data fusion system, and this paper presents an algorithm of sensor management that can be used in target detection, identification and tracking. First, the basic concept, rule, range and function of sensor management are introduced. Then, the quantifying problems of target priority and sensor (or combination)-target pairing in multisensor management are discussed and the efficiency and waste functions are established based on the functions of target priority and sensor-target pairing. On this basis, a distribution algorithm of multisensor resources is given, which is optimized by the principle of maximum synthesis efficiency in the multisensor system and constrained by sensor maximum tracking power and what target must be scanned. In addition, the waste measure of sensor resources is introduced to improve the algorithm. Finally, a tactical task that includes three sensors and ten targets is set, and the simulation results show that the algorithm is feasible and effective.

  17. ALGORITHM OF WORK OF SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT BY AUTOMATED GEAR-BOXES CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Smirnov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of algorithms of management system’s work by the automated gear-boxes vehicles is considered and the results of their practical use on the example of the KamAZ truck are considered.

  18. The Role of Diagnostic Algorithms in the Management of Blunt Splenic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Yu Chen

    2005-08-01

    Conclusion: Diagnostic algorithms using sonograms for screening provide an initial means of selecting patients for NOM. Patients with higher grades of splenic injury can then be managed non-operatively.

  19. Algorithms for in-season nutrient management in cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for improved decision making products for cereal production systems has placed added emphasis on using plant sensors in-season, and that incorporate real-time, site specific, growing environments. The objective of this work was to describe validated in-season sensor based algorithms prese...

  20. Further improvements in competitive guarantees for QoS buffering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Fleischer, L.K.; Kimbrel, T.; Mahdian, M.; Schieber, B.; Sviridenko, M.; Diaz, J.; Karhumäki, J.; Lepistö, A.; Sannella, D.

    2004-01-01

    We study the behavior of algorithms for buffering packets weighted by different levels of Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees in a single queue. Buffer space is limited, and packet loss occurs when the buffer overflows. We describe a modification of the previously proposed ``preemptive greedy{''}

  1. Penalty Algorithm Based on Conjugate Gradient Method for Solving Portfolio Management Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YaLin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach was proposed to reformulate the biobjectives optimization model of portfolio management into an unconstrained minimization problem, where the objective function is a piecewise quadratic polynomial. We presented some properties of such an objective function. Then, a class of penalty algorithms based on the well-known conjugate gradient methods was developed to find the solution of portfolio management problem. By implementing the proposed algorithm to solve the real problems from the stock market in China, it was shown that this algorithm is promising.

  2. Nuclear fuel management optimization using adaptive evolutionary algorithms with heuristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axmann, J.K.; Van de Velde, A.

    1996-01-01

    Adaptive Evolutionary Algorithms in combination with expert knowledge encoded in heuristics have proved to be a robust and powerful optimization method for the design of optimized PWR fuel loading pattern. Simple parallel algorithmic structures coupled with a low amount of communications between computer processor units in use makes it possible for workstation clusters to be employed efficiently. The extension of classic evolution strategies not only by new and alternative methods but also by the inclusion of heuristics with effects on the exchange probabilities of the fuel assemblies at specific core positions leads to the RELOPAT optimization code of the Technical University of Braunschweig. In combination with the new, neutron-physical 3D nodal core simulator PRISM developed by SIEMENS the PRIMO loading pattern optimization system has been designed. Highly promising results in the recalculation of known reload plans for German PWR's new lead to a commercially usable program. (author)

  3. Imaging for dismantlement verification: Information management and analysis algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Jarman, K.D.; Pitts, W.K.; Seifert, A.; Misner, A.C.; Woodring, M.L.; Myjak, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The level of detail discernible in imaging techniques has generally excluded them from consideration as verification tools in inspection regimes. An image will almost certainly contain highly sensitive information, and storing a comparison image will almost certainly violate a cardinal principle of information barriers: that no sensitive information be stored in the system. To overcome this problem, some features of the image might be reduced to a few parameters suitable for definition as an attribute, which must be non-sensitive to be acceptable in an Information Barrier regime. However, this process must be performed with care. Features like the perimeter, area, and intensity of an object, for example, might reveal sensitive information. Any data-reduction technique must provide sufficient information to discriminate a real object from a spoofed or incorrect one, while avoiding disclosure (or storage) of any sensitive object qualities. Ultimately, algorithms are intended to provide only a yes/no response verifying the presence of features in the image. We discuss the utility of imaging for arms control applications and present three image-based verification algorithms in this context. The algorithms reduce full image information to non-sensitive feature information, in a process that is intended to enable verification while eliminating the possibility of image reconstruction. The underlying images can be highly detailed, since they are dynamically generated behind an information barrier. We consider the use of active (conventional) radiography alone and in tandem with passive (auto) radiography. We study these algorithms in terms of technical performance in image analysis and application to an information barrier scheme.

  4. Use of genetic algorithms in operations management. Part II - Results.

    OpenAIRE

    Stockton, David; Quinn, L. (Liam); Khalil, R. A. (Riham A.)

    2004-01-01

    The insight gained into the relationship between genetic algorithm (GA) structure and optimisation performance, through the research reported in this paper, provided the knowledge to integrate GAs with discrete event simulation which formed the output from IMI EPSRC Project GR/N05871 ‘Responsive Design and Operation of Flexible Machining Lines’ rated by EPSRC as “Tending to Internationally Leading” where industrial partners included , Unipart Group Ltd and Nigel.Shir...

  5. [Managment of acute low back pain without trauma - an algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Carolin; Wegener, Bernd; Jansson, Volkmar; Mutschler, Wolf; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Birkenmaier, Christof

    2018-05-14

    Low back pain is a common problem for primary care providers, outpatient clinics and A&E departments. The predominant symptoms are those of so-called "unspecific back pain", but serious pathologies can be concealed by the clinical signs. Especially less experienced colleagues have problems in treating these patients, as - despite the multitude of recommendations and guidelines - there is no generally accepted algorithm. After a literature search (Medline/Cochrane), 158 articles were selected from 15,000 papers and classified according to their level of evidence. These were attuned to the clinical guidelines of the orthopaedic and pain-physician associations in Europe, North America and overseas and the experience of specialists at LMU Munich, in order to achieve consistency with literature recommendations, as well as feasibility in everyday clinical work and optimised with practical relevance. An algorithm was formed to provide the crucial differential diagnosis of lumbar back pain according to its clinical relevance and to provide a plan of action offering reasonable diagnostic and therapeutic steps. As a consequence of distinct binary decisions, low back patients should be treated at any given time according to the guidelines, with emergencies detected, unnecessary diagnostic testing and interventions averted and reasonable treatment initiated pursuant to the underlying pathology. In the context of the available evidence, a clinical algorithm has been developed that translates the complex diagnostic testing of acute low back pain into a transparent, structured and systematic guideline. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Burst abdomen in pregnancy: A proposed management algorithm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of the burst abdomen is complex due to the co-morbidities associated with it. When coupled with intraabdominal sepsis and pregnancy, it becomes even more difficult due to the ethical issues that have to be considered when managing both mother and child. Due to the paucity of literature on this subject, ...

  7. Design principles and algorithms for automated air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents design principles and algorithm for building a real time scheduler. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high altitude airspace far from the airport and low altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time.

  8. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  9. A novel symbiotic organisms search algorithm for congestion management in deregulated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sumit; Saha, Subhodip; Mukherjee, V.

    2017-01-01

    In today's competitive electricity market, managing transmission congestion in deregulated power system has created challenges for independent system operators to operate the transmission lines reliably within the limits. This paper proposes a new meta-heuristic algorithm, called as symbiotic organisms search (SOS) algorithm, for congestion management (CM) problem in pool based electricity market by real power rescheduling of generators. Inspired by interactions among organisms in ecosystem, SOS algorithm is a recent population based algorithm which does not require any algorithm specific control parameters unlike other algorithms. Various security constraints such as load bus voltage and line loading are taken into account while dealing with the CM problem. In this paper, the proposed SOS algorithm is applied on modified IEEE 30- and 57-bus test power system for the solution of CM problem. The results, thus, obtained are compared to those reported in the recent state-of-the-art literature. The efficacy of the proposed SOS algorithm for obtaining the higher quality solution is also established.

  10. Online management genetic algorithms of microgrid for residential application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Faisal A.; Koivo, Heikki N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We determine the optimal Generation optimization scheme of Microgrid. ► We employ Genetic Algorithm to the environmental/economic problem of the MG. ► We captured the optimal behavior of the MG with high accuracy even with new six different cases. - Abstract: This paper proposes a generalized formulation to determine the optimal operating strategy and cost optimization scheme for a MicroGrid (MG) for residential application. Genetic Algorithm is applied to the environmental/economic problem of the MG. The proposed problem is formulated as a nonlinear constrained MO optimization problem. Prior to the optimization of the microgrid itself, models for the system components are determined using real data. The proposed cost function takes into consideration the costs of the emissions, NOx, SO 2 , and CO 2 , start up costs, as well as the operation and maintenance costs. The MG considered in this paper consists of a wind turbine, a microturbine, a diesel generator, a photovoltaic array, a fuel cell, and a battery storage. The optimization is aimed at minimizing the cost function of the system while constraining it to meet the costumer demand and safety of the system. We also add a daily income and outgo from sale or purchased power. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach to satisfy the load and to reduce the cost and the emissions. The comparison with other techniques demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approach and confirms its potential to solve the problem.

  11. Chronic wrist pain: diagnosis and management. Development and use of a new algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, R. M.; Bijlsma, J. W.; van Vugt, A. C.

    1999-01-01

    Chronic wrist pain can be difficult to manage and the differential diagnosis is extensive. To provide guidelines for assessment of the painful wrist an algorithm was developed to encourage a structured approach to the diagnosis and management of these patients. A review of the literature on causes

  12. An international consensus algorithm for management of chronic postoperative inguinal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, J F M; Kaufmann, R; Wijsmuller, A R; Pierie, J P E N; Ploeg, R J; Chen, D C; Amid, P K

    2015-02-01

    Tension-free mesh repair of inguinal hernia has led to uniformly low recurrence rates. Morbidity associated with this operation is mainly related to chronic pain. No consensus guidelines exist for the management of this condition. The goal of this study is to design an expert-based algorithm for diagnostic and therapeutic management of chronic inguinal postoperative pain (CPIP). A group of surgeons considered experts on inguinal hernia surgery was solicited to develop the algorithm. Consensus regarding each step of an algorithm proposed by the authors was sought by means of the Delphi method leading to a revised expert-based algorithm. With the input of 28 international experts, an algorithm for a stepwise approach for management of CPIP was created. 26 participants accepted the final algorithm as a consensus model. One participant could not agree with the final concept. One expert did not respond during the final phase. There is a need for guidelines with regard to management of CPIP. This algorithm can serve as a guide with regard to the diagnosis, management, and treatment of these patients and improve clinical outcomes. If an expectative phase of a few months has passed without any amelioration of CPIP, a multidisciplinary approach is indicated and a pain management team should be consulted. Pharmacologic, behavioral, and interventional modalities including nerve blocks are essential. If conservative measures fail and surgery is considered, triple neurectomy, correction for recurrence with or without neurectomy, and meshoma removal if indicated should be performed. Surgeons less experienced with remedial operations for CPIP should not hesitate to refer their patients to dedicated hernia surgeons.

  13. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  14. Algorithm of first-aid management of dental trauma for medics and corpsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadik, Yehuda

    2008-12-01

    In order to fill the discrepancy between the necessity of providing prompt and proper treatment to dental trauma patients, and the inadequate knowledge among medics and corpsmen, as well as the lack of instructions in first-aid textbook and manuals, and after reviewing the dental literature, a simple algorithm for non-professional first-aid management for various injuries to hard (teeth) and soft oral tissues, is presented. The recommended management of tooth avulsion, subluxation and luxation, crown fracture and lip, tongue or gingival laceration included in the algorithm. Along with a list of after-hour dental clinics, this symptoms- and clinical-appearance-based algorithm is suited to tuck easily into a pocket for quick utilization by medics/corpsmen in an emergency situation. Although the algorithm was developed for the usage of military non-dental health-care providers, this method could be adjusted and employed in the civilian environment as well.

  15. An Improved Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm for the Implementation of Demand Side Management Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Panapakidis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Load profiling refers to a procedure that leads to the formulation of daily load curves and consumer classes regarding the similarity of the curve shapes. This procedure incorporates a set of unsupervised machine learning algorithms. While many crisp clustering algorithms have been proposed for grouping load curves into clusters, only one soft clustering algorithm is utilized for the aforementioned purpose, namely the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM algorithm. Since the benefits of soft clustering are demonstrated in a variety of applications, the potential of introducing a novel modification of the FCM in the electricity consumer clustering process is examined. Additionally, this paper proposes a novel Demand Side Management (DSM strategy for load management of consumers that are eligible for the implementation of Real-Time Pricing (RTP schemes. The DSM strategy is formulated as a constrained optimization problem that can be easily solved and therefore, making it a useful tool for retailers’ decision-making framework in competitive electricity markets.

  16. Burst abdomen in pregnancy: A proposed management algorithm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... E-mail: drmaluski@yahoo.com. Conflict of interest: None declared. SUMMARY. Management ..... J Wom- ens Health Issues Care 2014; 3:3. 10. Asukai K, Kashiwazaki M, Koizumi K, Nobunaga. T, Yano H. A case report of a 19-week gravid pa- tient with a dehisced abdominal wound and treated with V.A.C. ...

  17. Evolutionary algorithms and metaheuristics in civil engineering and Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, David

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on civil and structural engineering and construction management applications. The contributions constitute modified, extended and improved versions of research presented at the  minisymposium organized by the editors at the ECCOMAS conference on this topic in Barcelona 2014.

  18. Risk Management of the Natural Gas Consumption using Genetic Algorithms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelikán, Emil; Šimůnek, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2005), s. 425-436 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300513 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : forecasting * risk-management * energy consumption Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  19. Practice Oriented Algorithmic Disruption Management in Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractHow to deal with a disruption is a question railway companies face on a daily basis. This thesis focusses on the subject how to handle a disruption such that the passenger service is upheld as much as possible. The current mathematical models for disruption management can not yet be

  20. Application of genetic algorithm in the fuel management optimization for the high flux engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xueming; Wu Hongchun; Sun Shouhua; Liu Shuiqing

    2003-01-01

    The in-core fuel management optimization model based on the genetic algorithm has been established. An encode/decode technique based on the assemblies position is presented according to the characteristics of HFETR. Different reproduction strategies have been studied. The expert knowledge and the adaptive genetic algorithms are incorporated into the code to get the optimized loading patterns that can be used in HFETR

  1. Heed the head: buffer benefits along headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Deanna (Dede) Olson

    2015-01-01

    Since the Northwest Forest Plan implemented riparian buffers along non-fish bearing streams in 1994, there have been questions about how wide those buffers need to be to protect aquatic and riparian resources from upland forest management activities. The Density Management and Riparian Buffer Study of western Oregon, also initiated in 1994, examines the effects of...

  2. Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources: Models, Algorithms and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Ana Raquel Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Sistemas Sustentáveis de Energia, apresentada ao Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra The gradual development of electricity networks into smart(er) grids is expected to provide the technological infrastructure allowing the deployment of new tariff structures and creating the enabling environment for the integrated management of energy resources. The suitable stimuli, for example induced by dynamic tari...

  3. Buffer management to solve bed-blocking in the Netherlands, 2000-2010. Cooperation from an integrated care chain perspective as a key success factor for managing patient flows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Mur

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bed-blocking problems in hospitals reflect how difficult and complex it is to move patients smoothly through the chain of care. In the Netherlands, during the first decade of the 21st century, some hospitals attempted to tackle this problem by using an Intermediate Care Department (ICD as a buffer for bed-blockers. However, research has shown that ICDs do not sufficiently solve the bed-blocking problem and that bed-blocking is often caused by a lack of buffer management.Tool: Buffer management (BM is a tool that endeavors to balance patient flow in the hospital to nursing home chain of care. Results: Additional research has indicated that the absence of BM is not the result of providers' thinking that BM is unnecessary, unethical or impossible because of unpredictable patient flows. Instead, BM is hampered by a lack of cooperation between care providers.Conclusion: Although stakeholders recognize that cooperation is imperative, they often fail to take the actions necessary to realize cooperation. Our assumption is that this lack of willingness and ability to cooperate is the result of several impeding conditions as well as stakeholders' perceptions of these conditions and the persistence of their current routines, principles and beliefs (RPBs.Discussion: We recommend simultaneously working on improving the conditions and changing stakeholders' perceptions and RPBs.

  4. Genetic algorithm for the optimization of the loading pattern for reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Sheng; Hu Yongming; zheng Wenxiang

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of a genetic algorithm to the optimization of the loading pattern for in-core fuel management with the NP characteristics. The algorithm develops a matrix model for the fuel assembly loading pattern. The burnable poisons matrix was assigned randomly considering the distributed nature of the poisons. A method based on the traveling salesman problem was used to solve the problem. A integrated code for in-core fuel management was formed by combining this code with a reactor physics code

  5. Self-adaptive global best harmony search algorithm applied to reactor core fuel management optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursalehi, N.; Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A.; Valavi, K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • SGHS enhanced the convergence rate of LPO using some improvements in comparison to basic HS and GHS. • SGHS optimization algorithm obtained averagely better fitness relative to basic HS and GHS algorithms. • Upshot of the SGHS implementation in the LPO reveals its flexibility, efficiency and reliability. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to apply the new developed optimization algorithm, Self-adaptive Global best Harmony Search (SGHS), for PWRs fuel management optimization. SGHS algorithm has some modifications in comparison with basic Harmony Search (HS) and Global-best Harmony Search (GHS) algorithms such as dynamically change of parameters. For the demonstration of SGHS ability to find an optimal configuration of fuel assemblies, basic Harmony Search (HS) and Global-best Harmony Search (GHS) algorithms also have been developed and investigated. For this purpose, Self-adaptive Global best Harmony Search Nodal Expansion package (SGHSNE) has been developed implementing HS, GHS and SGHS optimization algorithms for the fuel management operation of nuclear reactor cores. This package uses developed average current nodal expansion code which solves the multi group diffusion equation by employment of first and second orders of Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) for two dimensional, hexagonal and rectangular geometries, respectively, by one node per a FA. Loading pattern optimization was performed using SGHSNE package for some test cases to present the SGHS algorithm capability in converging to near optimal loading pattern. Results indicate that the convergence rate and reliability of the SGHS method are quite promising and practically, SGHS improves the quality of loading pattern optimization results relative to HS and GHS algorithms. As a result, it has the potential to be used in the other nuclear engineering optimization problems

  6. Semi-definite Programming: methods and algorithms for energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorge, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis aims at exploring the potentialities of a powerful optimization technique, namely Semi-definite Programming, for addressing some difficult problems of energy management. We pursue two main objectives. The first one consists of using SDP to provide tight relaxations of combinatorial and quadratic problems. A first relaxation, called 'standard' can be derived in a generic way but it is generally desirable to reinforce them, by means of tailor-made tools or in a systematic fashion. These two approaches are implemented on different models of the Nuclear Outages Scheduling Problem, a famous combinatorial problem. We conclude this topic by experimenting the Lasserre's hierarchy on this problem, leading to a sequence of semi-definite relaxations whose optimal values tends to the optimal value of the initial problem. The second objective deals with the use of SDP for the treatment of uncertainty. We investigate an original approach called 'distributionally robust optimization', that can be seen as a compromise between stochastic and robust optimization and admits approximations under the form of a SDP. We compare the benefits of this method w.r.t classical approaches on a demand/supply equilibrium problem. Finally, we propose a scheme for deriving SDP relaxations of MISOCP and we report promising computational results indicating that the semi-definite relaxation improves significantly the continuous relaxation, while requiring a reasonable computational effort. SDP therefore proves to be a promising optimization method that offers great opportunities for innovation in energy management. (author)

  7. A new home energy management algorithm with voltage control in a smart home environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elma, Onur; Selamogullari, Ugur Savas

    2015-01-01

    Energy management in electrical systems is one of the important issues for energy efficiency and future grid systems. Energy management is defined as a HEM (home energy management) on the residential consumer side. The HEM system plays a key role in residential demand response applications. In this study, a new HEM algorithm is proposed for smart home environments to reduce peak demand and increase the energy efficiency. The proposed algorithm includes VC (voltage control) methodology to reduce the power consumption of residential appliances so that the shifting of appliances is minimized. The results of the survey are used to produce representative load profiles for a weekday and for a weekend. Then, case studies are completed to test the proposed HEM algorithm in reducing the peak demand in the house. The main aim of the proposed HEM algorithm is to minimize the number of turned-off appliances to decrease demand so that the customer comfort is maximized. The smart home laboratory at Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey is used in case studies. Experimental results show that the proposed HEM algorithm reduces the peak demand by 17.5% with the voltage control and by 38% with both the voltage control and the appliance shifting. - Highlights: • A new HEM (home energy management) algorithm is proposed. • Voltage control in the HEM is introduced as a solution for peak load reduction. • Customer comfort is maximized by minimizing the number of turned-off appliances. • The proposed HEM algorithm is experimentally validated at a smart home laboratory. • A survey is completed to produce typical load profiles of a Turkish family.

  8. Concepts and algorithms for terminal-area traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, H.; Chapel, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The nation's air-traffic-control system is the subject of an extensive modernization program, including the planned introduction of advanced automation techniques. This paper gives an overview of a concept for automating terminal-area traffic management. Four-dimensional (4D) guidance techniques, which play an essential role in the automated system, are reviewed. One technique, intended for on-board computer implementation, is based on application of optimal control theory. The second technique is a simplified approach to 4D guidance intended for ground computer implementation. It generates advisory messages to help the controller maintain scheduled landing times of aircraft not equipped with on-board 4D guidance systems. An operational system for the second technique, recently evaluated in a simulation, is also described.

  9. A Reasoning Algorithm Embedded in a Knowledge Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Mazilescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this paper consists of demonstrating the possibility of employing an expert Knowledge Management System (KMS in problems of process control and planning, using imprecise knowledge. It was necessary to continuously adapt known models (e.g. theory of possibilities, discrete event systems to synthesize a control structure based on fuzzy knowledge. We also tried to conceptually develop a multi-agent real control structure, which is a solution to meet a series of demands on the complexity of the process control. Such systems, especially those based on communication between agents by sharing memory, bring up features well suited for real-time applications, such as: integration of heterogeneous agents, interaction between activities of acquisition, reasoning and action on the external environment, fusion of data coming from sensors of different nature and operation, flexibility and efficiency in the integration of new data needed for reasoning, by simply writing them in the common memory.

  10. 2010 International consensus algorithm for the diagnosis, therapy and management of hereditary angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Tom

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We published the Canadian 2003 International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy, and Management of Hereditary Angioedema (HAE; C1 inhibitor [C1-INH] deficiency and updated this as Hereditary angioedema: a current state-of-the-art review: Canadian Hungarian 2007 International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy, and Management of Hereditary Angioedema. Objective To update the International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy and Management of Hereditary Angioedema (circa 2010. Methods The Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Network (CHAEN/Réseau Canadien d'angioédème héréditaire (RCAH http://www.haecanada.com and cosponsors University of Calgary and the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (with an unrestricted educational grant from CSL Behring held our third Conference May 15th to 16th, 2010 in Toronto Canada to update our consensus approach. The Consensus document was reviewed at the meeting and then circulated for review. Results This manuscript is the 2010 International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy and Management of Hereditary Angioedema that resulted from that conference. Conclusions Consensus approach is only an interim guide to a complex disorder such as HAE and should be replaced as soon as possible with large phase III and IV clinical trials, meta analyses, and using data base registry validation of approaches including quality of life and cost benefit analyses, followed by large head-to-head clinical trials and then evidence-based guidelines and standards for HAE disease management.

  11. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension: A Review and Introduction of an Algorithm For Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Benjamin; Nassiri, Farshad; Mansouri, Alireza; Badhiwala, Jetan H; Witiw, Christopher D; Shamji, Mohammed F; Peng, Philip W; Farb, Richard I; Bernstein, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a condition of low cerebrospinal fluid volume and pressure caused by a leak of cerebrospinal fluid through a dural defect. Diagnosis and management can be difficult, often requiring coordination between multiple disciplines for myelography, blood patching, and possible surgical repair. Patients should be monitored closely, because they can deteriorate into a coma or even death. There are no widely accepted guidelines for the management of SIH. We review the existing SIH literature, illustrate management challenges via a case review, and propose an algorithm developed by neurosurgeons, radiologists, and anesthesiologists intended to simplify and streamline the management of SIH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An Agent-Based Framework for E-Commerce Information Retrieval Management Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea NASTASE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of improving retrieval performance management for retrieval from document collections that exist on the Internet. It also comes with a solution that uses the benefits of the agent technology and genetic algorithms in the process of the information retrieving management. The most important paradigms of information retrieval are mentioned having the goal to make more evident the advantages of using the genetic algorithms based one. Within the paper, also a genetic algorithm that can be use for the proposed solution is detailed and a comparative description between the dynamic and static proposed solution is made. In the end, new future directions are shown based on elements presented in this paper. The future results look very encouraging.

  13. Risk Assessment for Bridges Safety Management during Operation Based on Fuzzy Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Hanyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, large span and large sea-crossing bridges are built, bridges accidents caused by improper operational management occur frequently. In order to explore the better methods for risk assessment of the bridges operation departments, the method based on fuzzy clustering algorithm is selected. Then, the implementation steps of fuzzy clustering algorithm are described, the risk evaluation system is built, and Taizhou Bridge is selected as an example, the quantitation of risk factors is described. After that, the clustering algorithm based on fuzzy equivalence is calculated on MATLAB 2010a. In the last, Taizhou Bridge operation management departments are classified and sorted according to the degree of risk, and the safety situation of operation departments is analyzed.

  14. Determination of soil erosion and sedimentation affected by buffer zones and biochar amendment as best management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khademalrasoul, Ataalah

    Sustainable management is one of the main challenges in modern agriculture. Soil erosion as one form of soil degradation is a threat against the soil sustainability. The main objective of my PhD study was to investigate the effectiveness of biochar as a non-structural best management practice (BMP...... bodies. Biochar as an organic amendment was in general able to improve soil quality by increasing soil aggregate stability, tensile strength (TS), and specific rupture energy (SRE) and on the other hand by decreasing clay dispersibility and the friability index (FI) of the soil aggregates. The results...... of rainfall-runoff simulations using round flumes in the laboratory indicated the positive effects of biochar amendment to mitigate runoff and soil erosion. Moreover laser scanning technique confirmed the positive effects of biochar lumps to enhance the soil surface roughness thereby reduce the runoff...

  15. Portfolio management using value at risk: A comparison between genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.A.F. Dallagnol (V. A F); J.H. van den Berg (Jan); L. Mous (Lonneke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, it is shown a comparison of the application of particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithms to portfolio management, in a constrained portfolio optimization problem where no short sales are allowed. The objective function to be minimized is the value at risk

  16. Head injury management algorithm as described in Hippocrates' "peri ton en cephali traumaton".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Vassilios G; Machinis, Theofilos G; Fountas, Kostas N; Robinson, Joe S

    2005-12-01

    HIPPOCRATIC WORKS LEND themselves still today to the modern physician for further analysis of his approach to the diagnosis and treatment of various pathological conditions. We present an attempt to systematize his methodology regarding the management of head trauma and present it in the format of a modern-era algorithm.

  17. 2010 International consensus algorithm for the diagnosis, therapy and management of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Tom; Cicardi, Marco; Farkas, Henriette

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We published the Canadian 2003 International Consensus Algorithm for the Diagnosis, Therapy, and Management of Hereditary Angioedema (HAE; C1 inhibitor [C1-INH] deficiency) and updated this as Hereditary angioedema: a current state-of-the-art review: Canadian Hungarian 2007 ...

  18. The logic of logistics: theory, algorithms and applications for logistics management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Barbieri da Cunha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Nesse texto o autor apresenta uma resenha acerca do livro "The logic of logistics: theory, algorithms and applications for logistics management", de autoria de Julien Bramel e David Simchi-Levi, publicado pela Springer-Verlag, em 1997.

  19. Redox Buffer Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Levie, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. The ability of pH buffers to stabilize the pH is indicated by the buffer value b introduced in 1922 by van Slyke. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication we define the redox buffer strength by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.

  20. Organellar Calcium Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Daniel; Michalak, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Ca2+ is an important intracellular messenger affecting many diverse processes. In eukaryotic cells, Ca2+ storage is achieved within specific intracellular organelles, especially the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum, in which Ca2+ is buffered by specific proteins known as Ca2+ buffers. Ca2+ buffers are a diverse group of proteins, varying in their affinities and capacities for Ca2+, but they typically also carry out other functions within the cell. The wide range of organelles containing Ca2+ and the evidence supporting cross-talk between these organelles suggest the existence of a dynamic network of organellar Ca2+ signaling, mediated by a variety of organellar Ca2+ buffers. PMID:21421925

  1. Research on Improved NSGA-II Algorithm and Its Application in Emergency Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs a dynamic multiobjective location model; three objectives are considered: the first objective maximizes the total utility of relief supplies, the second objective minimizes the number of temporary facilities needed to operate, and the third objective maximizes the satisfaction for all demand points. We propose an improved NSGA-II to solve the optimization problem. The computational experiments are divided into two sections: In the first procedure, the numerical experiment is constructed by the classical functions ZDT1, ZDT2, and DTLZ2; the results show that the proposed algorithm generates the exact Pareto front, and the convergence and uniformity of the proposed algorithm are better than the NSGA-II and MOEA/D. In the second procedure, the simulation experiment is constructed by a case in emergency management; the results show that the proposed algorithm is more reasonable than the traditional algorithms NSGA-II and MOEA/D in terms of the three objectives. It is proved that the improved NSGA-II algorithm, which is proposed in this paper, has high precision application for the sudden disaster crisis and emergency management.

  2. A novel minimum cost maximum power algorithm for future smart home energy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Singaravelan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the latest development of smart grid technology, the energy management system can be efficiently implemented at consumer premises. In this paper, an energy management system with wireless communication and smart meter are designed for scheduling the electric home appliances efficiently with an aim of reducing the cost and peak demand. For an efficient scheduling scheme, the appliances are classified into two types: uninterruptible and interruptible appliances. The problem formulation was constructed based on the practical constraints that make the proposed algorithm cope up with the real-time situation. The formulated problem was identified as Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP problem, so this problem was solved by a step-wise approach. This paper proposes a novel Minimum Cost Maximum Power (MCMP algorithm to solve the formulated problem. The proposed algorithm was simulated with input data available in the existing method. For validating the proposed MCMP algorithm, results were compared with the existing method. The compared results prove that the proposed algorithm efficiently reduces the consumer electricity consumption cost and peak demand to optimum level with 100% task completion without sacrificing the consumer comfort.

  3. A novel minimum cost maximum power algorithm for future smart home energy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelan, A; Kowsalya, M

    2017-11-01

    With the latest development of smart grid technology, the energy management system can be efficiently implemented at consumer premises. In this paper, an energy management system with wireless communication and smart meter are designed for scheduling the electric home appliances efficiently with an aim of reducing the cost and peak demand. For an efficient scheduling scheme, the appliances are classified into two types: uninterruptible and interruptible appliances. The problem formulation was constructed based on the practical constraints that make the proposed algorithm cope up with the real-time situation. The formulated problem was identified as Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem, so this problem was solved by a step-wise approach. This paper proposes a novel Minimum Cost Maximum Power (MCMP) algorithm to solve the formulated problem. The proposed algorithm was simulated with input data available in the existing method. For validating the proposed MCMP algorithm, results were compared with the existing method. The compared results prove that the proposed algorithm efficiently reduces the consumer electricity consumption cost and peak demand to optimum level with 100% task completion without sacrificing the consumer comfort.

  4. New reference trajectory optimization algorithm for a flight management system inspired in beam search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro MURRIETA-MENDOZA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of reducing the flight cost and the amount of polluting emissions released in the atmosphere, a new optimization algorithm considering the climb, cruise and descent phases is presented for the reference vertical flight trajectory. The selection of the reference vertical navigation speeds and altitudes was solved as a discrete combinatory problem by means of a graph-tree passing through nodes using the beam search optimization technique. To achieve a compromise between the execution time and the algorithm’s ability to find the global optimal solution, a heuristic methodology introducing a parameter called “optimism coefficient was used in order to estimate the trajectory’s flight cost at every node. The optimal trajectory cost obtained with the developed algorithm was compared with the cost of the optimal trajectory provided by a commercial flight management system(FMS. The global optimal solution was validated against an exhaustive search algorithm(ESA, other than the proposed algorithm. The developed algorithm takes into account weather effects, step climbs during cruise and air traffic management constraints such as constant altitude segments, constant cruise Mach, and a pre-defined reference lateral navigation route. The aircraft fuel burn was computed using a numerical performance model which was created and validated using flight test experimental data.

  5. Modelling and Quantitative Analysis of LTRACK–A Novel Mobility Management Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedek Kovács

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the improvements and parameter optimization issues of LTRACK, a recently proposed mobility management algorithm. Mathematical modelling of the algorithm and the behavior of the Mobile Node (MN are used to optimize the parameters of LTRACK. A numerical method is given to determine the optimal values of the parameters. Markov chains are used to model both the base algorithm and the so-called loop removal effect. An extended qualitative and quantitative analysis is carried out to compare LTRACK to existing handover mechanisms such as MIP, Hierarchical Mobile IP (HMIP, Dynamic Hierarchical Mobility Management Strategy (DHMIP, Telecommunication Enhanced Mobile IP (TeleMIP, Cellular IP (CIP and HAWAII. LTRACK is sensitive to network topology and MN behavior so MN movement modelling is also introduced and discussed with different topologies. The techniques presented here can not only be used to model the LTRACK algorithm, but other algorithms too. There are many discussions and calculations to support our mathematical model to prove that it is adequate in many cases. The model is valid on various network levels, scalable vertically in the ISO-OSI layers and also scales well with the number of network elements.

  6. The Normalized-Rate Iterative Algorithm: A Practical Dynamic Spectrum Management Method for DSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Statovci Driton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a practical solution for dynamic spectrum management (DSM in digital subscriber line systems: the normalized-rate iterative algorithm (NRIA. Supported by a novel optimization problem formulation, the NRIA is the only DSM algorithm that jointly addresses spectrum balancing for frequency division duplexing systems and power allocation for the users sharing a common cable bundle. With a focus on being implementable rather than obtaining the highest possible theoretical performance, the NRIA is designed to efficiently solve the DSM optimization problem with the operators' business models in mind. This is achieved with the help of two types of parameters: the desired network asymmetry and the desired user priorities. The NRIA is a centralized DSM algorithm based on the iterative water-filling algorithm (IWFA for finding efficient power allocations, but extends the IWFA by finding the achievable bitrates and by optimizing the bandplan. It is compared with three other DSM proposals: the IWFA, the optimal spectrum balancing algorithm (OSBA, and the bidirectional IWFA (bi-IWFA. We show that the NRIA achieves better bitrate performance than the IWFA and the bi-IWFA. It can even achieve performance almost as good as the OSBA, but with dramatically lower requirements on complexity. Additionally, the NRIA can achieve bitrate combinations that cannot be supported by any other DSM algorithm.

  7. The Normalized-Rate Iterative Algorithm: A Practical Dynamic Spectrum Management Method for DSL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statovci, Driton; Nordström, Tomas; Nilsson, Rickard

    2006-12-01

    We present a practical solution for dynamic spectrum management (DSM) in digital subscriber line systems: the normalized-rate iterative algorithm (NRIA). Supported by a novel optimization problem formulation, the NRIA is the only DSM algorithm that jointly addresses spectrum balancing for frequency division duplexing systems and power allocation for the users sharing a common cable bundle. With a focus on being implementable rather than obtaining the highest possible theoretical performance, the NRIA is designed to efficiently solve the DSM optimization problem with the operators' business models in mind. This is achieved with the help of two types of parameters: the desired network asymmetry and the desired user priorities. The NRIA is a centralized DSM algorithm based on the iterative water-filling algorithm (IWFA) for finding efficient power allocations, but extends the IWFA by finding the achievable bitrates and by optimizing the bandplan. It is compared with three other DSM proposals: the IWFA, the optimal spectrum balancing algorithm (OSBA), and the bidirectional IWFA (bi-IWFA). We show that the NRIA achieves better bitrate performance than the IWFA and the bi-IWFA. It can even achieve performance almost as good as the OSBA, but with dramatically lower requirements on complexity. Additionally, the NRIA can achieve bitrate combinations that cannot be supported by any other DSM algorithm.

  8. An Algorithm-Based Approach for Behavior and Disease Management in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Beau D; Lee, Jessica Y; Thikkurissy, S; Casamassimo, Paul S; Vann, William F

    2018-03-15

    Pharmacologic behavior management for dental treatment is an approach to provide invasive yet compassionate care for young children; it can facilitate the treatment of children who otherwise may not cooperate for traditional in-office care. Some recent highly publicized procedural sedation-related tragedies have drawn attention to risks associated with pharmacologic management. However, it remains widely accepted that, by adhering to proper guidelines, procedural sedation can assist in the provision of high-quality dental care while minimizing morbidity and mortality from the procedure. The purpose of this paper was to propose an algorithm for clinicians to consider when selecting a behavior and disease management strategy for early childhood caries. This algorithm will not ensure a positive outcome but can assist clinicians when counseling caregivers about risks, benefits, and alternatives. It also emphasizes and underscores best-safety practices.

  9. An evaluation and implementation of rule-based Home Energy Management System using the Rete algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tomoya; Fujita, Naotaka; Yoshihisa, Tomoki; Tsukamoto, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, sensors become popular and Home Energy Management System (HEMS) takes an important role in saving energy without decrease in QoL (Quality of Life). Currently, many rule-based HEMSs have been proposed and almost all of them assume "IF-THEN" rules. The Rete algorithm is a typical pattern matching algorithm for IF-THEN rules. Currently, we have proposed a rule-based Home Energy Management System (HEMS) using the Rete algorithm. In the proposed system, rules for managing energy are processed by smart taps in network, and the loads for processing rules and collecting data are distributed to smart taps. In addition, the number of processes and collecting data are reduced by processing rules based on the Rete algorithm. In this paper, we evaluated the proposed system by simulation. In the simulation environment, rules are processed by a smart tap that relates to the action part of each rule. In addition, we implemented the proposed system as HEMS using smart taps.

  10. Is It Ethical for Patents to Be Issued for the Computer Algorithms that Affect Course Management Systems for Distance Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of patents for computer algorithms in course management systems. Referring to historical documents and court cases, the positive and negative aspects of software patents are presented. The key argument is the accessibility to algorithms comprising a course management software program such as Blackboard. The…

  11. Investigation of energy management strategies for photovoltaic systems - A predictive control algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, R. C.; Eltimsahy, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the formulation of energy management strategies for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems, taking into account a basic control algorithm for a possible predictive, (and adaptive) controller. The control system controls the flow of energy in the system according to the amount of energy available, and predicts the appropriate control set-points based on the energy (insolation) available by using an appropriate system model. Aspects of adaptation to the conditions of the system are also considered. Attention is given to a statistical analysis technique, the analysis inputs, the analysis procedure, and details regarding the basic control algorithm.

  12. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  13. Clinical effectiveness of a Bayesian algorithm for the diagnosis and management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, R A; Gallo, T; Curry, S C; Whiting, T; Padilla-Jones, A; Warkentin, T E; Puri, A

    2017-08-01

    algorithm incorporating 4Ts scoring and a stratified interpretation of the anti-PF4/H ELISA has good operating characteristics and the potential to improve management of suspected HIT patients. © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  14. Energy management algorithm for an optimum control of a photovoltaic water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallem, Souhir; Chaabene, Maher; Kamoun, M.B.A.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of photovoltaic water pumping systems depends on the adequacy between the generated energy and the volume of pumped water. This paper presents an intelligent algorithm which makes decision on the interconnection modes and instants of photovoltaic installation components: battery, water pump and photovoltaic panel. The decision is made by fuzzy rules on the basis of the Photovoltaic Panel Generation (PVPG) forecast during a considered day, on the load required power, and by considering the battery safety. The algorithm aims to extend operation time of the water pump by controlling a switching unit which links the system components with respect to multi objective management criteria. The algorithm implementation demonstrates that the approach extends the pumping period for more than 5 h a day which gives a mean daily improvement of 97% of the water pumped volume.

  15. Assessment of a new algorithm in the management of acute respiratory tract infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Tabatabaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the practicability of a new algorithm in decreasing the rate of incorrect diagnoses and inappropriate antibiotic usage in pediatric Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (ARTI. Materials and Methods: Children between 1 month to15 years brought to outpatient clinics of a children′s hospital with acute respiratory symptoms were managed according to the steps recommended in the algorithm. Results: Upper Respiratory Tract Infection, Lower Respiratory Tract Infection, and undifferentiated ARTI accounted for 82%, 14.5%, and 3.5% of 1 209 cases, respectively. Antibiotics were prescribed in 33%; for: Common cold, 4.1%; Sinusitis, 85.7%; Otitis media, 96.9%; Pharyngotonsillitis, 63.3%; Croup, 6.5%; Bronchitis, 15.6%; Pertussis-like syndrome, 82.1%; Bronchiolitis, 4.1%; and Pneumonia, 50%. Conclusion: Implementation of the ARTIs algorithm is practicable and can help to reduce diagnostic errors and rate of antibiotic prescription in children with ARTIs.

  16. A Hardware-Supported Algorithm for Self-Managed and Choreographed Task Execution in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Bordel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sensor networks are composed of a great number of tiny resource-constraint nodes, whose management is increasingly more complex. In fact, although collaborative or choreographic task execution schemes are which fit in the most perfect way with the nature of sensor networks, they are rarely implemented because of the high resource consumption of these algorithms (especially if networks include many resource-constrained devices. On the contrary, hierarchical networks are usually designed, in whose cusp it is included a heavy orchestrator with a remarkable processing power, being able to implement any necessary management solution. However, although this orchestration approach solves most practical management problems of sensor networks, a great amount of the operation time is wasted while nodes request the orchestrator to address a conflict and they obtain the required instructions to operate. Therefore, in this paper it is proposed a new mechanism for self-managed and choreographed task execution in sensor networks. The proposed solution considers only a lightweight gateway instead of traditional heavy orchestrators and a hardware-supported algorithm, which consume a negligible amount of resources in sensor nodes. The gateway avoids the congestion of the entire sensor network and the hardware-supported algorithm enables a choreographed task execution scheme, so no particular node is overloaded. The performance of the proposed solution is evaluated through numerical and electronic ModelSim-based simulations.

  17. Genetic algorithms used for PWRs refuel management automatic optimization: a new modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapot, Jorge Luiz C.; Schirru, Roberto; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da

    1996-01-01

    A Genetic Algorithms-based system, linking the computer codes GENESIS 5.0 and ANC through the interface ALGER, has been developed aiming the PWRs fuel management optimization. An innovative codification, the Lists Model, has been incorporated to the genetic system, which avoids the use of variants of the standard crossover operator and generates only valid loading patterns in the core. The GENESIS/ALGER/ANC system has been successfully tested in an optimization study for Angra-1 second cycle. (author)

  18. PTM Along Track Algorithm to Maintain Spacing During Same Direction Pair-Wise Trajectory Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, Victor A.

    2015-01-01

    Pair-wise Trajectory Management (PTM) is a cockpit based delegated responsibility separation standard. When an air traffic service provider gives a PTM clearance to an aircraft and the flight crew accepts the clearance, the flight crew will maintain spacing and separation from a designated aircraft. A PTM along track algorithm will receive state information from the designated aircraft and from the own ship to produce speed guidance for the flight crew to maintain spacing and separation

  19. Surface Water Protection by Productive Buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin

    Vegetated riparian buffer zones are a widely recommended best management practice in agriculture for protecting surface and coastal waters from diffuse nutrient pollution. On the background of the EU funded research project NitroEurope (NEU; www.NitroEurope.eu), this study concentrates...... on the mitigation of nitrogen pollution in surface and groundwater, using riparian buffer zones for biomass production. The objectives are to map suitable areas for buffer implementation across the six NEU study landscapes, model tentative N-loss mitigation, calculate biomass production potential and economic...... designed for local conditions could be a way of protecting water quality attractive to many stakeholders....

  20. An Event-Triggered Online Energy Management Algorithm of Smart Home: Lyapunov Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of the smart grid on the user side, a home energy management system is the core of optimal operation for a smart home. In this paper, the energy scheduling problem for a household equipped with photovoltaic devices was investigated. An online energy management algorithm based on event triggering was proposed. The Lyapunov optimization method was adopted to schedule controllable load in the household. Without forecasting related variables, real-time decisions were made based only on the current information. Energy could be rapidly regulated under the fluctuation of distributed generation, electricity demand and market price. The event-triggering mechanism was adopted to trigger the execution of the online algorithm, so as to cut down the execution frequency and unnecessary calculation. A comprehensive result obtained from simulation shows that the proposed algorithm could effectively decrease the electricity bills of users. Moreover, the required computational resource is small, which contributes to the low-cost energy management of a smart home.

  1. A Novel Multiobjective Optimization Algorithm for Home Energy Management System in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand response (DR is an effective method to lower peak-to-average ratio of demand, facilitate the integration of renewable resources (e.g., wind and solar and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and strengthen the reliability of power system. In smart grid, implementing DR through home energy management system (HEMS in residential sector has a great significance. However, an algorithm that only optimally controls parts of HEMS rather than the overall system cannot obtain the best results. In addition, single objective optimization algorithm that minimizes electricity cost cannot quantify user’s comfort level and cannot take a tradeoff between electricity cost and comfort level conveniently. To tackle these problems, this paper proposes a framework of HEMS that consists of grid, load, renewable resource (i.e., solar resource, and battery. In this framework, a user has the ability to sell electricity to utility grid for revenue. Different comfort level indicators are proposed for different home appliances according to their characteristics and user preferences. Based on these comfort level indicators, this paper proposes a multiobjective optimization algorithm for HEMS that minimizes electricity cost and maximizes user’s comfort level simultaneously. Simulation results indicate that the algorithm can reduce user’s electricity cost significantly, ensure user’s comfort level, and take a tradeoff between the cost and comfort level conveniently.

  2. Distributed Optimisation Algorithm for Demand Side Management in a Grid-Connected Smart Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omowunmi Mary Longe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of Distributed Energy Generation (DEG and Distributed Energy Storage (DES for Demand Side Management (DSM purposes in a smart macrogrid or microgrid cannot be over-emphasised. However, standalone DEG and DES can lead to under-utilisation of energy generation by consumers and financial investments; in grid-connection mode, though, DEG and DES can offer arbitrage opportunities for consumers and utility provider(s. A grid-connected smart microgrid comprising heterogeneous (active and passive smart consumers, electric vehicles and a large-scale centralised energy storage is considered in this paper. Efficient energy management by each smart entity is carried out by the proposed Microgrid Energy Management Distributed Optimisation Algorithm (MEM-DOA installed distributively within the network according to consumer type. Each smart consumer optimises its energy consumption and trading for comfort (demand satisfaction and profit. The proposed model was observed to yield better consumer satisfaction, higher financial savings, and reduced Peak-to-Average-Ratio (PAR demand on the utility grid. Other associated benefits of the model include reduced investment on peaker plants, grid reliability and environmental benefits. The MEM-DOA also offered participating smart consumers energy and tariff incentives so that passive smart consumers do not benefit more than active smart consumers, as was the case with some previous energy management algorithms.

  3. A low complexity based spectrum management algorithm for ‘Near–Far’ problem in VDSL environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In digital subscriber line (DSL system, crosstalk created by electromagnetic interference among twisted pairs degrades the system performance. Very high bit rate DSL (VDSL, utilizes higher bandwidth of copper cable for data transmission. During upstream transmission, a ‘Near–Far’ problem occurs in VDSL system. In this problem the far end crosstalk (FEXT is produced from near end user degrades the data rate achieved at the far end user. The effect of FEXT can be reduced by properly managing power spectral densities (PSD of transmitters of near and far users. This kind of power allocation is called dynamic spectrum management (DSM. In this paper, a new distributed DSM algorithm is proposed in which power from only those sub channels of near end user are reduced which create interference to far end user. This power back off strategy takes place with the help of power spectral density (PSD masks at interference creating sub channels of near end user. The simulation results of the proposed algorithm show an improvement in terms of data rate and approaches near to that of optimal spectrum balancing (OSB algorithm.

  4. Contemporary Management of Mandibular Fracture Nonunion-A Retrospective Review and Treatment Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Benjamin T; Wang, Howard D; Cusano, Alessandro; Manson, Paul N; Nam, Arthur J; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2018-02-06

    Nonunion is an uncommon complication after mandibular fractures. The purpose of this investigation was to compare outcomes of patients with mandibular fracture nonunion who were treated with a 1- versus 2-stage approach and propose a pragmatic treatment algorithm for surgical management based on preoperative characteristics. The authors conducted a retrospective study consisting of patients who presented to 2 level 1 trauma centers for the management of mandibular fracture nonunion over a 10-year period. The primary predictor variable was 1- versus 2-stage treatment. Outcomes were examined to propose a treatment algorithm. Eighteen patients were included in the study. The sample's mean age was 44.0 ± 19.3 years and most were men (88.9%). Mandibular angle and body accounted for 77.8% of cases. A single-stage approach was used in 13 patients (72.2%). Bone grafts or vascularized bone flaps were required in 13 patients (72.2%). Patients who required 2-stage treatments had intraoral soft tissue defects. Mean length of follow-up was 13.3 ± 20.4 months. All patients achieved bony union, with complications occurring in 5 patients (27.8%). The authors' 10-year experience was used to formulate a treatment algorithm based on bony defect size and soft tissue status, which can be used to inform optimal surgical management. Nonunion of mandibular fractures is an infrequent and complex condition requiring careful and deliberate surgical management. A single-stage approach is appropriate in most cases and does not negatively affect outcomes. Bony defect size and soft tissue status are essential parameters for determining the approach and timing of reconstruction. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The density management and riparian buffer study: a large-scale silviculture experiment informing riparian management in the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson; Nathan J. Poage

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) in the early 1990s signaled a new paradigm for management of 9.9 million ha of federal forest lands in western Washington and Oregon, USA. The emphasis shifted from commodity timber production to ensuring sustained ecological functioning to meet a broad array of ecosystem services including economic benefits. Under interim...

  6. Appropriate Combination of Artificial Intelligence and Algorithms for Increasing Predictive Accuracy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Gilani Nia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a simple and effective expert system to predict random data fluctuation in short-term period is established. Evaluation process includes introducing Fourier series, Markov chain model prediction and comparison (Gray combined with the model prediction Gray- Fourier- Markov that the mixed results, to create an expert system predicted with artificial intelligence, made this model to predict the effectiveness of random fluctuation in most data management programs to increase. The outcome of this study introduced artificial intelligence algorithms that help detect that the computer environment to create a system that experts predict the short-term and unstable situation happens correctly and accurately predict. To test the effectiveness of the algorithm presented studies (Chen Tzay len,2008, and predicted data of tourism demand for Iran model is used. Results for the two countries show output model has high accuracy.

  7. A Canadian Clinical Practice Algorithm for the Management of Patients with Non-Variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Barkun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To use current evidence-based recommendations to provide a user-friendly clinical algorithm for the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, adapted to the Canadian environment.

  8. Buffer design 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvankoski, M.

    2013-08-01

    Posiva's spent nuclear fuel disposal is based on the KBS-3V concept and on the characteristics of the Olkiluoto site. In this concept single canisters containing spent nuclear fuel surrounded by a bentonite buffer are emplaced in individual vertical boreholes drilled in the floor of deposition tunnels in bedrock at about 420 m depth below ground level. Disk type bentonite blocks are installed at the bottom of the hole and on the top of the disposal canister. Ring type bentonite blocks surround the canisters. This report describes the detailed design of the buffer for a KBS-3V repository. The report presents the design basis, the reference design, and summarises the performance analyses carried out for the design. This report addresses aspects concerning the manufacture, quality control, mechanical strength, chemical resistance, thermal dimensioning, handling of buffer components and material ageing phenomena including the effect of radiation. Interaction of buffer and other engineered barriers are included in the study. The long-term evolution of the repository and its effective drivers are considered if they have an impact on the buffer performance but operational safety aspects are also included because they may affect long-term safety. (orig.)

  9. A genetic-algorithm-aided stochastic optimization model for regional air quality management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaosheng; Huang, Guohe; Liu, Lei

    2010-01-01

    A genetic-algorithm-aided stochastic optimization (GASO) model was developed in this study for supporting regional air quality management under uncertainty. The model incorporated genetic algorithm (GA) and Monte Carlo simulation techniques into a general stochastic chance-constrained programming (CCP) framework and allowed uncertainties in simulation and optimization model parameters to be considered explicitly in the design of least-cost strategies. GA was used to seek the optimal solution of the management model by progressively evaluating the performances of individual solutions. Monte Carlo simulation was used to check the feasibility of each solution. A management problem in terms of regional air pollution control was studied to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method. Results of the case study indicated the proposed model could effectively communicate uncertainties into the optimization process and generate solutions that contained a spectrum of potential air pollutant treatment options with risk and cost information. Decision alternatives could be obtained by analyzing tradeoffs between the overall pollutant treatment cost and the system-failure risk due to inherent uncertainties.

  10. Merkel cell carcinoma: An algorithm for multidisciplinary management and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Isabel; Pérez de la Fuente, Teresa; Medina, Susana; Castelo, Beatriz; Sobrino, Beatriz; Fortes, Jose R; Esteban, David; Cassinello, Fernando; Jover, Raquel; Rodríguez, Nuria

    2016-02-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. Therapeutic approach is often unclear, and considerable controversy exists regarding MCC pathogenesis and optimal management. Due to its rising incidence and poor prognosis, it is imperative to establish the optimal therapy for both the tumor and the lymph node basin, and for treatment to include sentinel node biopsy. Sentinel node biopsy is currently the most consistent predictor of survival for MCC patients, although there are conflicting views and a lack of awareness regarding node management. Tumor and node management involve different specialists, and their respective decisions and interventions are interrelated. No effective systemic treatment has been made available to date, and therefore patients continue to experience distant failure, often without local failure. This review aims to improve multidisciplinary decision-making by presenting scientific evidence of the contributions of each team member implicated in MCC management. Following this review of previously published research, the authors conclude that multidisciplinary team management is beneficial for care, and propose a multidisciplinary decision algorithm for managing this tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of diffusive mass transport in a cracked buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.; Garisto, F.

    1989-11-01

    In the disposal vault design for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, cylindrical containers of used nuclear fuel would be placed in vertical boreholes in rock and surrounded with a bentonite-based buffer material. The buffer is expected to absorb and/or retard radionuclides leaching from the fuel after the containers fail. There is some evidence, however, that the buffer may be susceptible to cracking. In this report we investigate numerically the consequences of cracking on uranium diffusion through the buffer. The derivation of the mass-transport equations and the numerical solution method are presented for the solubility-limited diffusion of uranium in a cracked buffer system for both swept-away and semi-impermeable boundary conditions at the rock-buffer interface. The results indicate that for swept-away boundary conditions the total uranium flux through the cracked buffer system is, as expected, greater than through the uncracked buffer. The effect of the cracks is strongly dependent on the ratio D/D eff , where D and D eff are the pore-water and the effective buffer diffusion coefficient, respectively. However, although a decrease in D eff enhances the effect of cracks on the total cumulative flux (relative to the uncracked buffer), it also decreases the total cumulative flux through the cracked buffer system (relative to a cracked buffer with a larger D eff value). Finally, for semi-impermeable boundary conditions, the effect of cracks on the total radionuclide flux is relatively small

  12. The SVT Hit Buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belforte, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Hit Buffer is part of the Silicon Vertex Tracker, a trigger processor dedicated to the reconstruction of particle trajectories in the Silicon Vertex Detector and the Central Tracking Chamber of the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The Hit Buffer is a high speed data-traffic node, where thousands of words are received in arbitrary order and simultaneously organized in an internal structured data base, to be later promptly retrieved and delivered in response to specific requests. The Hit Buffer is capable of processing data at a rate of 25 MHz, thanks to the use of special fast devices like Cache-Tag RAMs and high performance Erasable Programmable Logic Devices from the XILINX XC7300 family

  13. Multi-objective Optimization Algorithms with the Island Metaheuristic for Effective Project Management Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brester Christina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In every organization, project management raises many different decision-making problems, a large proportion of which can be efficiently solved using specific decision-making support systems. Yet such kinds of problems are always a challenge since there is no time-efficient or computationally efficient algorithm to solve them as a result of their complexity. In this study, we consider the problem of optimal financial investment. In our solution, we take into account the following organizational resource and project characteristics: profits, costs and risks.

  14. Energy Management of Dual-Source Propelled Electric Vehicle using Fuzzy Controller Optimized via Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoobi, Saeed; Halvaei, Abolfazl; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Energy and power distribution between multiple energy sources of electric vehicles (EVs) is the main challenge to achieve optimum performance from EV. Fuzzy inference systems are powerful tools due to nonlinearity and uncertainties of EV system. Design of fuzzy controllers for energy management...... of EV relies too much on the expert experience and it may lead to sub-optimal performance. This paper develops an optimized fuzzy controller using genetic algorithm (GA) for an electric vehicle equipped with two power bank including battery and super-capacitor. The model of EV and optimized fuzzy...

  15. Proposed algorithm for the management of athletes with athletic pubalgia (sports hernia): a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachingwe, Aimie F; Grech, Steven

    2008-12-01

    A case series of 6 athletes with a suspected sports hernia. Groin pain in athletes is common, and 1 source of groin pain is athletic pubalgia, or a sports hernia. Description of this condition and its management is scarce in the physical therapy literature. The purpose of this case series is to describe a conservative approach to treating athletes with a likely sports hernia and to provide physical therapists with an algorithm for managing athletes with this dysfunction. Six collegiate athletes (age range, 19-22 years; 4 males, 2 females) with a physician diagnosis of groin pain secondary to possible/probable sports hernia were referred to physical therapy. A method of evaluation was constructed and a cluster of 5 key findings indicative of a sports hernia is presented. The athletes were managed according to a proposed algorithm and received physical therapy consisting of soft tissue and joint mobilization/manipulation, neuromuscular re-education, manual stretching, and therapeutic exercise. Three of the athletes received conservative intervention and were able to fully return to sport after a mean of 7.7 sessions of physical therapy. The other 3 athletes reached this outcome after surgical repair and a mean of 6.7 sessions of physical therapy. Conservative management including manual therapy appears to be a viable option in the management of athletes with a sports hernia. Follow-up randomized clinical trials should be performed to further investigate the effectiveness of conservative rehabilitation compared to a homogeneous group of patients undergoing surgical repair for this condition. Therapy, level 4.

  16. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number of...... in the optimal OhOf(psortN + K/PB) parallel I/O complexity, where K is the size of the output reported in the process and psortN is the parallel I/O complexity of sorting N elements using P processors....

  17. Russian guidelines for the management of COPD: algorithm of pharmacologic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisanov Z

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zaurbek Aisanov,1 Sergey Avdeev,2 Vladimir Arkhipov,3 Andrey Belevskiy,1 Alexander Chuchalin,1 Igor Leshchenko,4 Svetlana Ovcharenko,5 Evgeny Shmelev,6 Marc Miravitlles7 1Department of Pulmonology, N.I. Pirogov Russian State National Research Medical University, Healthcare Ministry of Russia, 2Clinical Department, Federal Pulmonology Research Institute, Federal Medical and Biological Agency of Russia, 3Clinical Pharmacology Department, RUDN University, 4Department of Phthisiology, Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery, Ural State Medical University, Healthcare Ministry of Russia, Ekaterinburg, 5Internal Medicine Department No.1, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Healthcare Ministry of Russia, 6Department of Differential Diagnostics, Federal Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Moscow, Russia; 7Pneumology Department, University Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: The high prevalence of COPD together with its high level of misdiagnosis and late diagnosis dictate the necessity for the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs in order to improve the management of this disease. High-quality, evidence-based international CPGs need to be adapted to the particular situation of each country or region. A new version of the Russian Respiratory Society guidelines released at the end of 2016 was based on the proposal by Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease but adapted to the characteristics of the Russian health system and included an algorithm of pharmacologic treatment of COPD. The proposed algorithm had to comply with the requirements of the Russian Ministry of Health to be included into the unified electronic rubricator, which required a balance between the level of information and the simplicity of the graphic design. This was achieved by: exclusion of the initial diagnostic process, grouping together the common pharmacologic and

  18. Consensus Conference: A reappraisal of Gaucher disease - diagnosis and disease management algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pramod K.; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Lukina, Elena; Özsan, Hayri; Pascual, Sara Mach; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Solano, Maria Helena; Spigelman, Zachary; Villarrubia, Jesús; Watman, Nora Patricia; Massenkeil, Gero

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 (non neuronopathic) Gaucher disease was the first lysosomal storage disorder for which an effective enzyme replacement therapy was developed and it has become a prototype for treatments for related orphan diseases. There are currently four treatment options available to patients with Gaucher disease, nevertheless, almost 25% of type 1 Gaucher patients do not gain timely access to therapy because of delays in diagnosis after the onset of symptoms. Diagnosis of Gaucher disease by enzyme testing is unequivocal, but the rarity of the disease and non-specific and heterogeneous nature of Gaucher disease symptoms may impede consideration of this disease in the differential diagnosis. To help promote timely diagnosis and optimal management of the protean presentations of Gaucher disease, a consensus meeting was convened to develop algorithms for diagnosis and disease management for Gaucher disease. PMID:21080341

  19. Multi-sources model and control algorithm of an energy management system for light electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, M.A.; Azidin, F.A.; Mohamed, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An energy management system (EMS) is developed for a scooter under normal and heavy power load conditions. ► The battery, FC, SC, EMS, DC machine and vehicle dynamics are modeled and designed for the system. ► State-based logic control algorithms provide an efficient and feasible multi-source EMS for light electric vehicles. ► Vehicle’s speed and power are closely matched with the ECE-47 driving cycle under normal and heavy load conditions. ► Sources of energy changeover occurred at 50% of the battery state of charge level in heavy load conditions. - Abstract: This paper presents the multi-sources energy models and ruled based feedback control algorithm of an energy management system (EMS) for light electric vehicle (LEV), i.e., scooters. The multiple sources of energy, such as a battery, fuel cell (FC) and super-capacitor (SC), EMS and power controller, DC machine and vehicle dynamics are designed and modeled using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The developed control strategies continuously support the EMS of the multiple sources of energy for a scooter under normal and heavy power load conditions. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed and compared with that of the ECE-47 test drive cycle in terms of vehicle speed and load power. The results show that the designed vehicle’s speed and load power closely match those of the ECE-47 test driving cycle under normal and heavy load conditions. This study’s results suggest that the proposed control algorithm provides an efficient and feasible EMS for LEV.

  20. Emergency Department Management of Suspected Calf-Vein Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Diagnostic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Kitchen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unilateral leg swelling with suspicion of deep venous thrombosis (DVT is a common emergency department (ED presentation. Proximal DVT (thrombus in the popliteal or femoral veins can usually be diagnosed and treated at the initial ED encounter. When proximal DVT has been ruled out, isolated calf-vein deep venous thrombosis (IC-DVT often remains a consideration. The current standard for the diagnosis of IC-DVT is whole-leg vascular duplex ultrasonography (WLUS, a test that is unavailable in many hospitals outside normal business hours. When WLUS is not available from the ED, recommendations for managing suspected IC-DVT vary. The objectives of the study is to use current evidence and recommendations to (1 propose a diagnostic algorithm for IC-DVT when definitive testing (WLUS is unavailable; and (2 summarize the controversy surrounding IC-DVT treatment. Discussion: The Figure combines D-dimer testing with serial CUS or a single deferred FLUS for the diagnosis of IC-DVT. Such an algorithm has the potential to safely direct the management of suspected IC-DVT when definitive testing is unavailable. Whether or not to treat diagnosed IC-DVT remains widely debated and awaiting further evidence. Conclusion: When IC-DVT is not ruled out in the ED, the suggested algorithm, although not prospectively validated by a controlled study, offers an approach to diagnosis that is consistent with current data and recommendations. When IC-DVT is diagnosed, current references suggest that a decision between anticoagulation and continued follow-up outpatient testing can be based on shared decision-making. The risks of proximal progression and life-threatening embolization should be balanced against the generally more benign natural history of such thrombi, and an individual patient’s risk factors for both thrombus propagation and complications of anticoagulation. [West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(4384-390.

  1. Emergency Department Management of Suspected Calf-Vein Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Diagnostic Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Levi; Lawrence, Matthew; Speicher, Matthew; Frumkin, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Unilateral leg swelling with suspicion of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common emergency department (ED) presentation. Proximal DVT (thrombus in the popliteal or femoral veins) can usually be diagnosed and treated at the initial ED encounter. When proximal DVT has been ruled out, isolated calf-vein deep venous thrombosis (IC-DVT) often remains a consideration. The current standard for the diagnosis of IC-DVT is whole-leg vascular duplex ultrasonography (WLUS), a test that is unavailable in many hospitals outside normal business hours. When WLUS is not available from the ED, recommendations for managing suspected IC-DVT vary. The objectives of the study is to use current evidence and recommendations to (1) propose a diagnostic algorithm for IC-DVT when definitive testing (WLUS) is unavailable; and (2) summarize the controversy surrounding IC-DVT treatment. The Figure combines D-dimer testing with serial CUS or a single deferred FLUS for the diagnosis of IC-DVT. Such an algorithm has the potential to safely direct the management of suspected IC-DVT when definitive testing is unavailable. Whether or not to treat diagnosed IC-DVT remains widely debated and awaiting further evidence. When IC-DVT is not ruled out in the ED, the suggested algorithm, although not prospectively validated by a controlled study, offers an approach to diagnosis that is consistent with current data and recommendations. When IC-DVT is diagnosed, current references suggest that a decision between anticoagulation and continued follow-up outpatient testing can be based on shared decision-making. The risks of proximal progression and life-threatening embolization should be balanced against the generally more benign natural history of such thrombi, and an individual patient's risk factors for both thrombus propagation and complications of anticoagulation.

  2. Toward "pain-free" statin prescribing: clinical algorithm for diagnosis and management of myalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Terry A

    2008-06-01

    Myalgia, which often manifests as pain or soreness in skeletal muscles, is among the most salient adverse events associated with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins). Clinical issues related to statin-associated myotoxicity include (1) incidence in randomized controlled trials and occurrence in postmarketing surveillance databases; (2) potential differences between statins in their associations with such adverse events; and (3) diagnostic and treatment strategies to prevent, recognize, and manage these events. Data from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, clinical and observational trials, and post-marketing surveillance indicate that statin-associated myalgia typically affects approximately 5.0% of patients, as myopathy in 0.1% and as rhabdomyolysis in 0.01%. However, studies also suggest that myalgia is among the leading reasons patients discontinue statins (particularly high-dose statin monotherapy) and that treatment with certain statins (eg, fluvastatin) is unlikely to result in such adverse events. This review presents a clinical algorithm for monitoring and managing statin-associated myotoxicity. The algorithm highlights risk factors for muscle toxicity and provides recommendations for (1) creatine kinase measurements and monitoring; (2) statin dosage reduction, discontinuation, and rechallenge; and (3) treatment alternatives, such as extended-release fluvastatin with or without ezetimibe, low-dose or alternate-day rosuvastatin, or ezetimibe with or without colesevelam. The algorithm should help to inform and enhance patient care and reduce the risk of myalgia and other potentially treatment-limiting muscle effects that might undermine patient adherence and compromise the overall cardioprotective benefits of statins.

  3. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  4. Buffer Zone, Nicosia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Marie Louise

    2010-01-01

    Images of the United Nations Buffer Zone or Green Line which has partitioned Cyprus since 1974 The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n° 217411.

  5. Head and neck paragangliomas: A two-decade institutional experience and algorithm for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua D; Harvey, Rachel N; Darr, Owen A; Prince, Mark E; Bradford, Carol R; Wolf, Gregory T; Else, Tobias; Basura, Gregory J

    2017-12-01

    Paragangliomas of the head and neck and cranial base are typically benign, slow-growing tumors arising within the jugular foramen, middle ear, carotid bifurcation, or vagus nerve proper. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of our institutional experience with clinical management of these tumors and posit an algorithm for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing treatment for paragangliomas of the head and neck and cranial base at our institution from 2000-2017. Data on tumor location, catecholamine levels, and specific imaging modalities employed in diagnostic work-up, pre-treatment cranial nerve palsy, treatment modality, utilization of preoperative angiographic embolization, complications of treatment, tumor control and recurrence, and hereditary status (ie, succinate dehydrogenase mutations) were collected and summarized. The mean (SD) age of our cohort was 51.8 (±16.1) years with 123 (63.4%) female patients and 71 (36.6%) male patients. Catecholamine-secreting lesions were found in nine (4.6%) patients. Fifty-one patients underwent genetic testing, with mutations identified in 43 (20 SDHD , 13 SDHB, 7 SDHD , 1 SDHA, SDHAF2, and NF1 ). Observation with serial imaging, surgical extirpation, radiation, and stereotactic radiosurgery were variably employed as treatment approaches across anatomic subsites. An algorithmic approach to clinical management of these tumors, derived from our longitudinal institutional experience and current empiric evidence, may assist otolaryngologists, radiation oncologists, and geneticists in the care of these complex neoplasms. 4.

  6. A practical algorithm for optimal operation management of distribution network including fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher; Meymand, Hamed Zeinoddini; Nayeripour, Majid [Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran)

    2010-08-15

    Fuel cell power plants (FCPPs) have been taken into a great deal of consideration in recent years. The continuing growth of the power demand together with environmental constraints is increasing interest to use FCPPs in power system. Since FCPPs are usually connected to distribution network, the effect of FCPPs on distribution network is more than other sections of power system. One of the most important issues in distribution networks is optimal operation management (OOM) which can be affected by FCPPs. This paper proposes a new approach for optimal operation management of distribution networks including FCCPs. In the article, we consider the total electrical energy losses, the total electrical energy cost and the total emission as the objective functions which should be minimized. Whereas the optimal operation in distribution networks has a nonlinear mixed integer optimization problem, the optimal solution could be obtained through an evolutionary method. We use a new evolutionary algorithm based on Fuzzy Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (FAPSO) to solve the optimal operation problem and compare this method with Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Tabu Search (TS) over two distribution test feeders. (author)

  7. Advanced order management in ERM systems: the tic-tac-toe algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badell, Mariana; Fernandez, Elena; Puigjaner, Luis

    2000-10-01

    The concept behind improved enterprise resource planning systems (ERP) systems is the overall integration of the whole enterprise functionality into the management systems through financial links. Converting current software into real management decision tools requires crucial changes in the current approach to ERP systems. This evolution must be able to incorporate the technological achievements both properly and in time. The exploitation phase of plants needs an open web-based environment for collaborative business-engineering with on-line schedulers. Today's short lifecycles of products and processes require sharp and finely tuned management actions that must be guided by scheduling tools. Additionally, such actions must be able to keep track of money movements related to supply chain events. Thus, the necessary outputs require financial-production integration at the scheduling level as proposed in the new approach of enterprise management systems (ERM). Within this framework, the economical analysis of the due date policy and its optimization become essential to manage dynamically realistic and optimal delivery dates with price-time trade-off during the marketing activities. In this work we propose a scheduling tool with web-based interface conducted by autonomous agents when precise economic information relative to plant and business actions and their effects are provided. It aims to attain a better arrangement of the marketing and production events in order to face the bid/bargain process during e-commerce. Additionally, management systems require real time execution and an efficient transaction-oriented approach capable to dynamically adopt realistic and optimal actions to support marketing management. To this end the TicTacToe algorithm provides sequence optimization with acceptable tolerances in realistic time.

  8. An environment-adaptive management algorithm for hearing-support devices incorporating listening situation and noise type classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Sunhyun; Nam, Kyoung Won; Kim, Heepyung; Hong, Sung Hwa; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, In Young

    2015-04-01

    In order to provide more consistent sound intelligibility for the hearing-impaired person, regardless of environment, it is necessary to adjust the setting of the hearing-support (HS) device to accommodate various environmental circumstances. In this study, a fully automatic HS device management algorithm that can adapt to various environmental situations is proposed; it is composed of a listening-situation classifier, a noise-type classifier, an adaptive noise-reduction algorithm, and a management algorithm that can selectively turn on/off one or more of the three basic algorithms-beamforming, noise-reduction, and feedback cancellation-and can also adjust internal gains and parameters of the wide-dynamic-range compression (WDRC) and noise-reduction (NR) algorithms in accordance with variations in environmental situations. Experimental results demonstrated that the implemented algorithms can classify both listening situation and ambient noise type situations with high accuracies (92.8-96.4% and 90.9-99.4%, respectively), and the gains and parameters of the WDRC and NR algorithms were successfully adjusted according to variations in environmental situation. The average values of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), frequency-weighted segmental SNR, Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality, and mean opinion test scores of 10 normal-hearing volunteers of the adaptive multiband spectral subtraction (MBSS) algorithm were improved by 1.74 dB, 2.11 dB, 0.49, and 0.68, respectively, compared to the conventional fixed-parameter MBSS algorithm. These results indicate that the proposed environment-adaptive management algorithm can be applied to HS devices to improve sound intelligibility for hearing-impaired individuals in various acoustic environments. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Combined Energy Management Algorithm for Wind Turbine/Battery Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altin, Necmi; Eyimaya, Süleyman Emre

    2018-03-01

    From an energy management standpoint, natural phenomena such as solar irradiation and wind speed are uncontrolled variables, so the correlation between the energy generated by renewable energy sources and energy demand cannot always be predicted. For this reason, energy storage systems are used to provide more efficient renewable energy systems. In these systems, energy management systems are used to control the energy storage system and establish a balance between the generated power and the power demand. In addition, especially in wind turbines, rapidly varying wind speeds cause wind power fluctuations, which threaten the power system stability, especially at high power levels. Energy storage systems are also used to mitigate the power fluctuations and sustain the power system's stability. In these systems, another controller which controls the energy storage system power to mitigate power fluctuations is required. These two controllers are different from each other. In this study, a combined energy management algorithm is proposed which can perform both as an energy control system and a power fluctuation mitigation system. The proposed controller is tested with wind energy conversion system modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the proposed controller acts as an energy management system while, at the same time, mitigating power fluctuations.

  10. Engineering application of in-core fuel management optimization code with CSA algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhihong; Hu, Yongming [INET, Tsinghua university, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-06-15

    PWR in-core loading (reloading) pattern optimization is a complex combined problem. An excellent fuel management optimization code can greatly improve the efficiency of core reloading design, and bring economic and safety benefits. Today many optimization codes with experiences or searching algorithms (such as SA, GA, ANN, ACO) have been developed, while how to improve their searching efficiency and engineering usability still needs further research. CSA (Characteristic Statistic Algorithm) is a global optimization algorithm with high efficiency developed by our team. The performance of CSA has been proved on many problems (such as Traveling Salesman Problems). The idea of CSA is to induce searching direction by the statistic distribution of characteristic values. This algorithm is quite suitable for fuel management optimization. Optimization code with CSA has been developed and was used on many core models. The research in this paper is to improve the engineering usability of CSA code according to all the actual engineering requirements. Many new improvements have been completed in this code, such as: 1. Considering the asymmetry of burn-up in one assembly, the rotation of each assembly is considered as new optimization variables in this code. 2. Worth of control rods must satisfy the given constraint, so some relative modifications are added into optimization code. 3. To deal with the combination of alternate cycles, multi-cycle optimization is considered in this code. 4. To confirm the accuracy of optimization results, many identifications of the physics calculation module in this code have been done, and the parameters of optimization schemes are checked by SCIENCE code. The improved optimization code with CSA has been used on Qinshan nuclear plant of China. The reloading of cycle 7, 8, 9 (12 months, no burnable poisons) and the 18 months equilibrium cycle (with burnable poisons) reloading are optimized. At last, many optimized schemes are found by CSA code

  11. Hybrid Genetic Algorithm - Local Search Method for Ground-Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y.; Nishikawa, T.; Martin, P.

    2008-12-01

    Ground-water management problems commonly are formulated as a mixed-integer, non-linear programming problem (MINLP). Relying only on conventional gradient-search methods to solve the management problem is computationally fast; however, the methods may become trapped in a local optimum. Global-optimization schemes can identify the global optimum, but the convergence is very slow when the optimal solution approaches the global optimum. In this study, we developed a hybrid optimization scheme, which includes a genetic algorithm and a gradient-search method, to solve the MINLP. The genetic algorithm identifies a near- optimal solution, and the gradient search uses the near optimum to identify the global optimum. Our methodology is applied to a conjunctive-use project in the Warren ground-water basin, California. Hi- Desert Water District (HDWD), the primary water-manager in the basin, plans to construct a wastewater treatment plant to reduce future septic-tank effluent from reaching the ground-water system. The treated wastewater instead will recharge the ground-water basin via percolation ponds as part of a larger conjunctive-use strategy, subject to State regulations (e.g. minimum distances and travel times). HDWD wishes to identify the least-cost conjunctive-use strategies that control ground-water levels, meet regulations, and identify new production-well locations. As formulated, the MINLP objective is to minimize water-delivery costs subject to constraints including pump capacities, available recharge water, water-supply demand, water-level constraints, and potential new-well locations. The methodology was demonstrated by an enumerative search of the entire feasible solution and comparing the optimum solution with results from the branch-and-bound algorithm. The results also indicate that the hybrid method identifies the global optimum within an affordable computation time. Sensitivity analyses, which include testing different recharge-rate scenarios, pond

  12. Creep in buffer clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Adey, R.

    1999-12-01

    The study involved characterization of the microstructural arrangement and molecular forcefields in the buffer clay for getting a basis for selecting suitable creep models. It is concluded that the number of particles and wide range of the particle bond spectrum require that stochastical mechanics and thermodynamics will be considered and they are basic to the creep model proposed for predicting creep settlement of the canisters. The influence of the stress level on creep strain of MX-80 clay is not well known but for the buffer creep is approximately proportional to stress. Theoretical considerations suggest a moderate impact for temperatures up to 90 deg C and this is supported by model experiments. It is believed that the assumption of strain being proportional to temperature is conservative. The general performance of the stochastic model can be illustrated in principle by use of visco-elastic rheological models implying a time-related increase in viscosity. The shear-induced creep settlement under constant volume conditions calculated by using the proposed creep model is on the order of 1 mm in ten thousand years and up to a couple of millimeters in one million years. It is much smaller than the consolidation settlement, which is believed to be on the order of 10 mm. The general conclusion is that creep settlement of the canisters is very small and of no significance to the integrity of the buffer itself or of the canisters

  13. Evaluation of a Cross Layer Scheduling Algorithm for LTE Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Popovska Avramova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The LTE standard is a leading standard in the wireless broadband market. The Radio Resource Management at the base station plays a major role in satisfying users demand for high data rates and quality of service. This paper evaluates a cross layer scheduling algorithm that aims at minimizing the resource utilization. The algorithm makes decisions based on channel conditions, the size of transmission buffers and different quality of service demands. Simulation results show that the new algorithm improves the resource utilization and provides better guarantees for service quality.

  14. Optimization of Key Parameters of Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using DIRECT Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Hao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rule-based logic threshold control strategy has been frequently used in energy management strategies for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs owing to its convenience in adjusting parameters, real-time performance, stability, and robustness. However, the logic threshold control parameters cannot usually ensure the best vehicle performance at different driving cycles and conditions. For this reason, the optimization of key parameters is important to improve the fuel economy, dynamic performance, and drivability. In principle, this is a multiparameter nonlinear optimization problem. The logic threshold energy management strategy for an all-wheel-drive HEV is comprehensively analyzed and developed in this study. Seven key parameters to be optimized are extracted. The optimization model of key parameters is proposed from the perspective of fuel economy. The global optimization method, DIRECT algorithm, which has good real-time performance, low computational burden, rapid convergence, is selected to optimize the extracted key parameters globally. The results show that with the optimized parameters, the engine operates more at the high efficiency range resulting into a fuel savings of 7% compared with non-optimized parameters. The proposed method can provide guidance for calibrating the parameters of the vehicle energy management strategy from the perspective of fuel economy.

  15. Ingestion of magnetic toys: report of serious complications requiring surgical intervention and a proposed management algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jerry; Shaul, Donald B; Sydorak, Roman M; Lau, Stanley T; Akmal, Yasir; Rodriguez, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Increasing popularity of strong magnets as toys has led to their ingestion by children, putting them at risk of potentially harmful gastrointestinal tract injuries. To heighten physician awareness of the potential complications of magnetic foreign body ingestion, and to provide an updated algorithm for management of a patient who is suspected to have ingested magnets. A retrospective review of magnet ingestions treated over a two-year period at our institutions in the Southern California Permanente Medical Group. Data including patient demographics, clinical information, radiologic images, and surgical records were used to propose a management strategy. Five patients, aged 15 months to 18 years, presented with abdominal symptoms after magnet ingestion. Four of the 5 patients suffered serious complications, including bowel necrosis, perforation, fistula formation, and obstruction. All patients were successfully treated with laparoscopic-assisted exploration with or without endoscopy. Total days in the hospital averaged 5.2 days (range = 3 to 9 days). Average time to discharge following surgery was 4 days (range = 2 to 7 days). Ex vivo experimentation with toy magnetic beads were performed to reveal characteristics of the magnetic toys. Physicians should have a heightened sense of caution when treating a patient in whom magnetic foreign body ingestion is suspected, because of the potential gastrointestinal complications. An updated management strategy is proposed that both prevents delays in surgical care and avoids unnecessary surgical exploration.

  16. Tomosynthesis-detected Architectural Distortion: Management Algorithm with Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Melissa A; Wang, Steven; Hooley, Regina J; Raghu, Madhavi; Philpotts, Liane E

    2016-01-01

    As use of digital breast tomosynthesis becomes increasingly widespread, new management challenges are inevitable because tomosynthesis may reveal suspicious lesions not visible at conventional two-dimensional (2D) full-field digital mammography. Architectural distortion is a mammographic finding associated with a high positive predictive value for malignancy. It is detected more frequently at tomosynthesis than at 2D digital mammography and may even be occult at conventional 2D imaging. Few studies have focused on tomosynthesis-detected architectural distortions to date, and optimal management of these distortions has yet to be well defined. Since implementing tomosynthesis at our institution in 2011, we have learned some practical ways to assess architectural distortion. Because distortions may be subtle, tomosynthesis localization tools plus improved visualization of adjacent landmarks are crucial elements in guiding mammographic identification of elusive distortions. These same tools can guide more focused ultrasonography (US) of the breast, which facilitates detection and permits US-guided tissue sampling. Some distortions may be sonographically occult, in which case magnetic resonance imaging may be a reasonable option, both to increase diagnostic confidence and to provide a means for image-guided biopsy. As an alternative, tomosynthesis-guided biopsy, conventional stereotactic biopsy (when possible), or tomosynthesis-guided needle localization may be used to achieve tissue diagnosis. Practical uses for tomosynthesis in evaluation of architectural distortion are highlighted, potential complications are identified, and a working algorithm for management of tomosynthesis-detected architectural distortion is proposed. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  17. THE ALGORITHM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RISK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ON THE MARKET OF TOURIST SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Agafonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the article the author conducted a comprehensive assessment of the factors and the level of operational risk, environmental risk, security risk, political risk, marketing risk, economic risk and infrastructure risk market of tourist services in Russia in 2015. As a result of the analysis of risks and measures for risk management, applied in Russian market of tourist services has now been found that the most serious risk is the risk of reducing the demand for travel companies for various reasons, the main of which is the reduction of incomes of the population and the preference of consumers to buy tourism services directly from the enterprises in the hospitality without the participation of tourist companies through the spread of information and communication technologies. It offers innovative risk manag ement tools in the field of tourism companies and the market of tourist services, such as: creating a site with reviews based on tourism and the provision of professional advice on tourism for their customers; collaboration with the insurance companies and the provision of a large insurance tourists from unsuccessful rest and bad experiences; sales booked, but hotel rooms sold abroad at an auction; creation of a network of hotels where you can pay in Russian rubles. An author algorithm implementation of the risk management system on the market of tourist services.

  18. Technical note: Efficient online source identification algorithm for integration within a contamination event management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuerlein, Jochen; Meyer-Harries, Lea; Guth, Nicolai

    2017-07-01

    Drinking water distribution networks are part of critical infrastructures and are exposed to a number of different risks. One of them is the risk of unintended or deliberate contamination of the drinking water within the pipe network. Over the past decade research has focused on the development of new sensors that are able to detect malicious substances in the network and early warning systems for contamination. In addition to the optimal placement of sensors, the automatic identification of the source of a contamination is an important component of an early warning and event management system for security enhancement of water supply networks. Many publications deal with the algorithmic development; however, only little information exists about the integration within a comprehensive real-time event detection and management system. In the following the analytical solution and the software implementation of a real-time source identification module and its integration within a web-based event management system are described. The development was part of the SAFEWATER project, which was funded under FP 7 of the European Commission.

  19. Optimal Management Of Renewable-Based Mgs An Intelligent Approach Through The Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nafar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- This article proposes a probabilistic frame built on Scenario fabrication to considerate the uncertainties in the finest action managing of Micro Grids MGs. The MG contains different recoverable energy resources such as Wind Turbine WT Micro Turbine MT Photovoltaic PV Fuel Cell FC and one battery as the storing device. The advised frame is based on scenario generation and Roulette wheel mechanism to produce different circumstances for handling the uncertainties of altered factors. It habits typical spreading role as a probability scattering function of random factors. The uncertainties which are measured in this paper are grid bid alterations cargo request calculating error and PV and WT yield power productions. It is well-intentioned to asset that solving the MG difficult for 24 hours of a day by considering diverse uncertainties and different constraints needs one powerful optimization method that can converge fast when it doesnt fall in local optimal topic. Simultaneously single Group Search Optimization GSO system is presented to vision the total search space globally. The GSO algorithm is instigated from group active of beasts. Also the GSO procedure one change is similarly planned for this algorithm. The planned context and way is applied o one test grid-connected MG as a typical grid.

  20. Food for thought: understanding the value, variety and usage of management algorithms for major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Martin A; Anand, Leena; Furtado, Melissa; Chokka, Pratap

    2014-12-01

    By 2020, depression is projected to be among the most important contributors to the global burden of disease. A plethora of data confirms that despite the availability of effective therapies, major depressive disorder continues to exact an enormous toll; this, in part, is due to difficulties reaching complete remission, as well as the specific associated costs of both the disorder's morbidity and mortality. The negative effects of depression include those on patients' occupational functioning, including absenteeism, presenteeism, and reduced opportunities for educational and work success. The use of management algorithms has been shown to improve treatment outcomes in major depressive disorder and may be less costly than "usual care" practices. Nevertheless, many patients with depression remain untreated. As well, even those who are treated often continue to experience suboptimal quality of life. As such, the treatment algorithms in this article may improve outcomes for patients suffering with depression. This paper introduces some of the principal reasons underlying these treatment gaps and examines measures or recommendations that might be changed or strengthened in future practice guidelines to bridge them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Supply chain management using fp-growth algorithm for medicine distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahana, A.; Maylawati, D. S.; Irfan, M.; Effendy, H.

    2018-03-01

    Distribution of drugs evenly in accordance with the needs of Public Health Center (Puskesmas) become one of the responsibilities by the Health Office in Indonesia. This study aims to provide recommendations for distribution of drugs from the Department of Health according to the needs of each Puskesmas. Because often the distribution of drugs is not in accordance with the needs of medicines stock of each Puskesmas. This causes the possibility of drug stock void in Puskesmas in need, while there is excess stock of drugs in Puskesmas that do not need. Supply Chain Management (SCM) is applied as a controlling drug stock at Puskesmas in order to avoid drug vacuum or excess drug that eventually unused. In addition, the Frequent Pattern Growth (FP-Growth) algorithm that generates frequent item sets is used to provide drug distribution recommendations by looking at the highest frequency of drug occurrences and frequent drug frequencies. Based on testing black box system conducted in Health Office Purwakarta regency of Indonesia which oversees 20 Puskesmas with 100 data of drug distribution transactions, it can be concluded that system functionality is running well and SCM successfully implemented to arrange distribution process of medicine well. Furthermore FP-Growth algorithm was able to provide recommendations for distribution of drugs with a high success rate. This is evidenced by the test results with various combinations of input parameters, FP-Growth is able to produce the right frequent item sets.

  2. Congestion Control Algorithm in Distribution Feeders: Integration in a Distribution Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine L. Vandoorn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing share of distributed energy resources poses a challenge to the distribution network operator (DNO to maintain the current availability of the system while limiting the investment costs. Related to this, there is a clear trend in DNOs trying to better monitor their grid by installing a distribution management system (DMS. This DMS enables the DNOs to remotely switch their network or better localize and solve faults. Moreover, the DMS can be used to centrally control the grid assets. Therefore, in this paper, a control strategy is discussed that can be implemented in the DMS for solving current congestion problems posed by the increasing share of renewables in the grid. This control strategy controls wind turbines in order to avoid congestion while mitigating the required investment costs in order to achieve a global cost-efficient solution. Next to the application and objective of the control, the parameter tuning of the control algorithm is discussed.

  3. Optimizing the availability of a buffered industrial process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Jr., Harry F.; Hamada, Michael S.; Koehler, Arthur J.; Berg, Eric C.

    2004-08-24

    A computer-implemented process determines optimum configuration parameters for a buffered industrial process. A population size is initialized by randomly selecting a first set of design and operation values associated with subsystems and buffers of the buffered industrial process to form a set of operating parameters for each member of the population. An availability discrete event simulation (ADES) is performed on each member of the population to determine the product-based availability of each member. A new population is formed having members with a second set of design and operation values related to the first set of design and operation values through a genetic algorithm and the product-based availability determined by the ADES. Subsequent population members are then determined by iterating the genetic algorithm with product-based availability determined by ADES to form improved design and operation values from which the configuration parameters are selected for the buffered industrial process.

  4. Hybrid-optimization algorithm for the management of a conjunctive-use project and well field design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yung-Chia; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Hi-Desert Water District (HDWD), the primary water-management agency in the Warren Groundwater Basin, California, plans to construct a waste water treatment plant to reduce future septic-tank effluent from reaching the groundwater system. The treated waste water will be reclaimed by recharging the groundwater basin via recharge ponds as part of a larger conjunctive-use strategy. HDWD wishes to identify the least-cost conjunctiveuse strategies for managing imported surface water, reclaimed water, and local groundwater. As formulated, the mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) groundwater-management problem seeks to minimize water delivery costs subject to constraints including potential locations of the new pumping wells, California State regulations, groundwater-level constraints, water-supply demand, available imported water, and pump/recharge capacities. In this study, a hybrid-optimization algorithm, which couples a genetic algorithm and successive-linear programming, is developed to solve the MINLP problem. The algorithm was tested by comparing results to the enumerative solution for a simplified version of the HDWD groundwater-management problem. The results indicate that the hybrid-optimization algorithm can identify the global optimum. The hybrid-optimization algorithm is then applied to solve a complex groundwater-management problem. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to assess the impact of varying the new recharge pond orientation, varying the mixing ratio of reclaimed water and pumped water, and varying the amount of imported water available. The developed conjunctive management model can provide HDWD water managers with information that will improve their ability to manage their surface water, reclaimed water, and groundwater resources.

  5. Hybrid-optimization algorithm for the management of a conjunctive-use project and well field design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yung-Chia; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Hi‐Desert Water District (HDWD), the primary water‐management agency in the Warren Groundwater Basin, California, plans to construct a waste water treatment plant to reduce future septic‐tank effluent from reaching the groundwater system. The treated waste water will be reclaimed by recharging the groundwater basin via recharge ponds as part of a larger conjunctive‐use strategy. HDWD wishes to identify the least‐cost conjunctive‐use strategies for managing imported surface water, reclaimed water, and local groundwater. As formulated, the mixed‐integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) groundwater‐management problem seeks to minimize water‐delivery costs subject to constraints including potential locations of the new pumping wells, California State regulations, groundwater‐level constraints, water‐supply demand, available imported water, and pump/recharge capacities. In this study, a hybrid‐optimization algorithm, which couples a genetic algorithm and successive‐linear programming, is developed to solve the MINLP problem. The algorithm was tested by comparing results to the enumerative solution for a simplified version of the HDWD groundwater‐management problem. The results indicate that the hybrid‐optimization algorithm can identify the global optimum. The hybrid‐optimization algorithm is then applied to solve a complex groundwater‐management problem. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to assess the impact of varying the new recharge pond orientation, varying the mixing ratio of reclaimed water and pumped water, and varying the amount of imported water available. The developed conjunctive management model can provide HDWD water managers with information that will improve their ability to manage their surface water, reclaimed water, and groundwater resources.

  6. Hybrid-optimization algorithm for the management of a conjunctive-use project and well field design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yung-Chia; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Hi-Desert Water District (HDWD), the primary water-management agency in the Warren Groundwater Basin, California, plans to construct a waste water treatment plant to reduce future septic-tank effluent from reaching the groundwater system. The treated waste water will be reclaimed by recharging the groundwater basin via recharge ponds as part of a larger conjunctive-use strategy. HDWD wishes to identify the least-cost conjunctive-use strategies for managing imported surface water, reclaimed water, and local groundwater. As formulated, the mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) groundwater-management problem seeks to minimize water-delivery costs subject to constraints including potential locations of the new pumping wells, California State regulations, groundwater-level constraints, water-supply demand, available imported water, and pump/recharge capacities. In this study, a hybrid-optimization algorithm, which couples a genetic algorithm and successive-linear programming, is developed to solve the MINLP problem. The algorithm was tested by comparing results to the enumerative solution for a simplified version of the HDWD groundwater-management problem. The results indicate that the hybrid-optimization algorithm can identify the global optimum. The hybrid-optimization algorithm is then applied to solve a complex groundwater-management problem. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to assess the impact of varying the new recharge pond orientation, varying the mixing ratio of reclaimed water and pumped water, and varying the amount of imported water available. The developed conjunctive management model can provide HDWD water managers with information that will improve their ability to manage their surface water, reclaimed water, and groundwater resources. Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell

    2011-01-01

    Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...

  8. Applicability of an established management algorithm for colon injuries following blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, John P; Magnotti, Louis J; Weinberg, Jordan A; Shahan, Charles P; Cullinan, Darren R; Fabian, Timothy C; Croce, Martin A

    2013-02-01

    Operative management at our institution for all colon injuries have followed a defined algorithm (ALG) based on risk factors originally identified for penetrating injuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the ALG to blunt colon injuries. Patients with blunt colon injuries during 13 years were identified. As per the ALG, nondestructive (ND) injuries are treated with primary repair. Patients with destructive wounds (serosal tear of ≥50% colon circumference, mesenteric devascularization, and perforations) and concomitant risk factors (transfusion of >6 U packed red blood cells and/or presence of significant comorbidities) are diverted, while patients with no risk factors undergo resection plus anastomosis (RA). Outcomes included suture line failure (SLF), abscess, and mortality. Stratification analysis was performed to determine additional risk factors in the management of blunt colon injuries. A total 151 patients were identified: 76 with destructive injuries and 75 with ND injuries. Of those with destructive injuries, 44 (59%) underwent RA and 29 (39%) underwent diversion. All ND injuries underwent primary repair. Adherence to the ALG was 95%: three patients with destructive injuries underwent primary repair, and five patients with risk factors underwent RA. There were three SLFs (2%) (one involved deviation from the ALG) and eight abscesses (5%). Colon-related mortality was 2.1%. Stratification analysis based on mesenteric involvement, degree of shock, and need for abbreviated laparotomy failed to identify additional risk factors for SLF following RA for blunt colon injuries. Adherence to an ALG, originally defined for penetrating colon injuries, simplified the management of blunt colon injuries. ND injuries should be primarily repaired. For destructive wounds, management based on a defined ALG achieves an acceptably low morbidity and mortality rate. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level III; therapeutic study, level IV.

  9. A phi-competitive algorithm for collecting items with increasing weights from a dynamic queue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bienkowski, M.; Chrobak, M.; Dürr, Ch.; Hurand, M.; Jeż, A.; Jeż, Łukasz; Stachowiak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 475, 4 March (2013), s. 92-102 ISSN 0304-3975 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : online algorithms * competitive analysis * buffer management Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.516, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397513000121

  10. Assessment of the perceived effects and management challenges of Mikania micrantha invasion in Chitwan National Park buffer zone community forest, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Akriti

    2017-04-01

    The effects of invasion by Mikania micrantha in the buffer zone of Chitwan National Park (CNP) of Nepal are well documented; however the studies were confined to appraising the perception of household and did not assess the changes in livelihood activities after the invasion. This study presents the effects of invasion of M. micrantha on the livelihood of buffer zone of the Chitwan National Park; hence addressing the gap in information and shows the complex effect of M. micrantha on rural livelihood. The study used a questionnaire survey to 170 households in the CNP of Nepal. The results indicate that the invasion of M. micrantha have negative effects on the community livelihood in the study area. Basic forest products such as fodder and fuel wood have become scarce as a result of reduction in the native plants. Also the spread of M. micrantha is creating impassable copse that destroy wildlife abode and jungle paths resulting into animals to shift their habitat to core area thereby reducing tourism revenues. Therefore, the study concludes that invasion of M. micrantha directly or indirectly is modifying the rural household livelihoods and a quick action is stipulated. Hence, a higher level body like the Ministry of Forestry or Department of National Park and Wildlife Conservation needs to take care of issues related to alien species. Correspondingly, it is also very important that people are aware and educated about alien species and their effects.

  11. The Scatter Search Based Algorithm to Revenue Management Problem in Broadcasting Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishdad, Arezoo; Sharifyazdi, Mehdi; Karimpour, Reza

    2009-09-01

    The problem under question in this paper which is faced by broadcasting companies is how to benefit from a limited advertising space. This problem is due to the stochastic behavior of customers (advertiser) in different fare classes. To address this issue we propose a mathematical constrained nonlinear multi period model which incorporates cancellation and overbooking. The objective function is to maximize the total expected revenue and our numerical method performs it by determining the sales limits for each class of customer to present the revenue management control policy. Scheduling the advertising spots in breaks is another area of concern and we consider it as a constraint in our model. In this paper an algorithm based on Scatter search is developed to acquire a good feasible solution. This method uses simulation over customer arrival and in a continuous finite time horizon [0, T]. Several sensitivity analyses are conducted in computational result for depicting the effectiveness of proposed method. It also provides insight into better results of considering revenue management (control policy) compared to "no sales limit" policy in which sooner demand will served first.

  12. Current review and a simplified "five-point management algorithm" for keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is a slowly progressive, noninflammatory ectatic corneal disease characterized by changes in corneal collagen structure and organization. Though the etiology remains unknown, novel techniques are continuously emerging for the diagnosis and management of the disease. Demographical parameters are known to affect the rate of progression of the disease. Common methods of vision correction for keratoconus range from spectacles and rigid gas-permeable contact lenses to other specialized lenses such as piggyback, Rose-K or Boston scleral lenses. Corneal collagen cross-linking is effective in stabilizing the progression of the disease. Intra-corneal ring segments can improve vision by flattening the cornea in patients with mild to moderate keratoconus. Topography-guided custom ablation treatment betters the quality of vision by correcting the refractive error and improving the contact lens fit. In advanced keratoconus with corneal scarring, lamellar or full thickness penetrating keratoplasty will be the treatment of choice. With such a wide spectrum of alternatives available, it is necessary to choose the best possible treatment option for each patient. Based on a brief review of the literature and our own studies we have designed a five-point management algorithm for the treatment of keratoconus.

  13. Multilevel Association Rule Mining for Bridge Resource Management Based on Immune Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of multilevel association rule mining for bridge resource management (BRM which is announced by IMO in 2010. The goal of this paper is to mine the association rules among the items of BRM and the vessel accidents. However, due to the indirect data that can be collected, which seems useless for the analysis of the relationship between items of BIM and the accidents, the cross level association rules need to be studied, which builds the relation between the indirect data and items of BRM. In this paper, firstly, a cross level coding scheme for mining the multilevel association rules is proposed. Secondly, we execute the immune genetic algorithm with the coding scheme for analyzing BRM. Thirdly, based on the basic maritime investigation reports, some important association rules of the items of BRM are mined and studied. Finally, according to the results of the analysis, we provide the suggestions for the work of seafarer training, assessment, and management.

  14. Algorithms for the assessment and management of insomnia in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Hilty

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Donald Hilty1, Julie S Young1, James A Bourgeois1, Sally Klein2, Kimberly A Hardin31Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; 2UC Davis Medical Center; 3Sleep Medicine Fellowship Training Program, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USAAbstract: Insomnia is a leading cause of sleep disturbance in primary care practice affecting >30% of people in the United States and can result in psychological and physiological consequences. We aim for a focused discussion of some of the underpinnings of insomnia and practical tips for management (eg, algorithms. A PubMed search was conducted using English language papers between 1997–2007, with the terms “sleep,” “insomnia”; “primary care” and “clinics”; “comorbid conditions”; “treatment” and “management.” Sleep, psychiatric and medical disorders significantly affect sleep, causing patient suffering, potentially worsening of other disorders and increasing the use of primary care services. We provide an outline for practical assessment and treatment of insomnia in primary care, including the strengths and weaknesses of medications.Keywords: insomnia, primary care, depression, anxiety, sleep, disorder

  15. Buffered or under Scrutiny?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klopf, Patricia; Nell, Phillip C.; Puck, Jonas

    – they are to a stronger extent buffered from the external environment than small firms. Thus, this paper adds to previous research by disentangling the complex effects of size on the use of political strategies – a strand of literature which has been characterized by inconsistent findings in the past.......This paper investigates political strategies of MNE subsidiaries operating in emerging markets. Our findings support previous findings of more intense political strategies in the presence of stronger institutional pressures from public and private stakeholders. Furthermore, we hypothesize...

  16. Mobility Management Algorithms for the Client-Driven Mobility Frame System–Mobility from a Brand New Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Fülöp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new mobility management is introduced. The main idea in this approach is that the mobil node should manage the mobility for itself not the network. The network nodes provide only basic services for mobile entities: connectivity and administration. We construct a framework called the Client-based Mobility Frame System (CMFS for this mobility environment. We developed the CMFS protocol as a solution over IPv4 and we show how to use Mobile IPv6 to realize our concept. We propose some basic mobility management solutions that can be implemented into the mobile clients and give details about a working simulation of a complete Mobility Management System. Example mobility management approaches such as the centralized- and hierarchical- or cellular-like ones are also defined and hints are given what kind of algorithms might be implemented upon the Client-based Mobility Frame System over IPv4 and IPv6 as well. We introduce some example algorithms that can work with the CMFS making mobility management efficient by minimizing signalling load on the network. In the present work modeling and detailed discussion on the parameters of the algorithms is given and comparison to existing mobility approaches and protocols is done. We prepared a simulation to test our protocol and to back up the proposals we provide the reader with simulation results. We stress that still one the most important benefit of our findings is that all the MNs can run different management strategies and can optimize mobility for themselves.

  17. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross compliance standards Rational management of set aside, Grass strips to control soil erosion and Vegetation buffers along watercourses on surface animal diversity and biological quality of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biaggini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Landscape simplification and loss of natural and semi-natural habitats are the major causes of biodiversity decrease in agricultural landscapes. In order to mitigate the effects of intensive agricultural management the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies in Italy has included the agronomic measures Rational management of set aside, Grass strips to control soil erosion and Vegetation buffers along watercourses in the decree on cross compliance. In this paper we review the results of a field research performed in Central Italy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the above mentioned GAEC standards for animal diversity enhancement. Using different animal groups as indicators, superficial Arthropod fauna and Herpetofauna, we found striking differences in the biodiversity levels of areas characterized by the application or by the lack of GAEC standards, with the latter being characterized by a significatively impoverished fauna. In particular, the set aside area and the buffer of riparian vegetation resulted of primary importance to allow higher biodiversity levels. Also the analysis of the biological quality of the soil, as assessed through the QBS-ar index based on edaphic micro-Arthropod fauna, indicated a higher quality of semi-natural habitats with respect to arable lands.

  18. A Survey of Recent Research on Optimization Models and Algorithms for Operations Management from the Process View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Fei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, optimization in operations management has grown ever more popular not only in the academic literature but also in practice. However, the problems have varied a lot, and few literature reviews have provided an overview of the models and algorithms that are applied to the optimization in operations management. In this paper, we first classify crucial optimization areas of operations management from the process point of view and then analyze the current status and trends of the studies in those areas. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of optimization modelling and resolution approaches, which are applied to operations management.

  19. A botulinum toxin A treatment algorithm for de novo management of torticollis and laterocollis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupsch, Andreas; Müngersdorf, Martina; Paus, Sebastian; Stenner, Andrea; Jost, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have investigated the injection patterns for botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of heterogeneous forms of cervical dystonia (CD). This large, prospective, open-label, multicentre study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of 500 U botulinum toxin A for the initial treatment according to a standardised algorithm of the two most frequent forms of CD, predominantly torticollis and laterocollis. Design Patients (aged ≥18 years) with CD not previously treated with botulinum neurotoxin therapy were given one treatment with 500 U Dysport, according to a defined intramuscular injection algorithm based on clinical assessment of direction of head deviation, occurrence of shoulder elevation, occurrence of tremor (all evaluated using the Tsui rating scale) and hypertrophy of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Results In this study, 516 patients were enrolled, the majority of whom (95.0%) completed treatment. Most patients had torticollis (78.1%). At week 4, mean Tsui scores had significantly decreased by −4.01, −3.76 and −4.09 points in the total, torticollis and laterocollis populations, respectively. Symptom improvement was equally effective between groups. Tsui scores remained significantly below baseline at week 12 in both groups. Treatment was well tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were muscular weakness (13.8%), dysphagia (9.9%) and neck pain (6.6%). Conclusions Dysport 500 U is effective and well tolerated for the de novo management of a range of heterogeneous forms of CD, when using a standardised regimen that allows tailored dosing based on individual symptom assessment. Clinical trials information (NCT00447772; clinicaltrials.gov) PMID:22021883

  20. System optimization for HVAC energy management using the robust evolutionary algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.F.; Hanby, V.I.; Chow, T.T.

    2009-01-01

    For an installed centralized heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system, appropriate energy management measures would achieve energy conservation targets through the optimal control and operation. The performance optimization of conventional HVAC systems may be handled by operation experience, but it may not cover different optimization scenarios and parameters in response to a variety of load and weather conditions. In this regard, it is common to apply the suitable simulation-optimization technique to model the system then determine the required operation parameters. The particular plant simulation models can be built up by either using the available simulation programs or a system of mathematical expressions. To handle the simulation models, iterations would be involved in the numerical solution methods. Since the gradient information is not easily available due to the complex nature of equations, the traditional gradient-based optimization methods are not applicable for this kind of system models. For the heuristic optimization methods, the continual search is commonly necessary, and the system function call is required for each search. The frequency of simulation function calls would then be a time-determining step, and an efficient optimization method is crucial, in order to find the solution through a number of function calls in a reasonable computational period. In this paper, the robust evolutionary algorithm (REA) is presented to tackle this nature of the HVAC simulation models. REA is based on one of the paradigms of evolutionary algorithm, evolution strategy, which is a stochastic population-based searching technique emphasized on mutation. The REA, which incorporates the Cauchy deterministic mutation, tournament selection and arithmetic recombination, would provide a synergetic effect for optimal search. The REA is effective to cope with the complex simulation models, as well as those represented by explicit mathematical expressions of

  1. Heuristic rules embedded genetic algorithm for in-core fuel management optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Fatih

    The objective of this study was to develop a unique methodology and a practical tool for designing loading pattern (LP) and burnable poison (BP) pattern for a given Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core. Because of the large number of possible combinations for the fuel assembly (FA) loading in the core, the design of the core configuration is a complex optimization problem. It requires finding an optimal FA arrangement and BP placement in order to achieve maximum cycle length while satisfying the safety constraints. Genetic Algorithms (GA) have been already used to solve this problem for LP optimization for both PWR and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The GA, which is a stochastic method works with a group of solutions and uses random variables to make decisions. Based on the theories of evaluation, the GA involves natural selection and reproduction of the individuals in the population for the next generation. The GA works by creating an initial population, evaluating it, and then improving the population by using the evaluation operators. To solve this optimization problem, a LP optimization package, GARCO (Genetic Algorithm Reactor Code Optimization) code is developed in the framework of this thesis. This code is applicable for all types of PWR cores having different geometries and structures with an unlimited number of FA types in the inventory. To reach this goal, an innovative GA is developed by modifying the classical representation of the genotype. To obtain the best result in a shorter time, not only the representation is changed but also the algorithm is changed to use in-core fuel management heuristics rules. The improved GA code was tested to demonstrate and verify the advantages of the new enhancements. The developed methodology is explained in this thesis and preliminary results are shown for the VVER-1000 reactor hexagonal geometry core and the TMI-1 PWR. The improved GA code was tested to verify the advantages of new enhancements. The core physics code

  2. Investigating the episodic buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Baddeley

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A brief account is presented of the three-component working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch. This is followed by an account of some of the problems it encountered in explaining how information from different subsystems with different codes could be combined, and how it was capable of communicating with long-term memory. In order to account for these, a fourth component was proposed, the episodic buffer. This was assumed to be a multidimensional store of limited capacity that can be accessed through conscious awareness. In an attempt to test and develop the concept, a series of experiments have explored the role of working memory in the binding of visual features into objects and verbal sequences into remembered sentences. The experiments use a dual task paradigm to investigate the role of the various subcomponents of working memory in binding. In contrast to our initial assumption, the episodic buffer appears to be a passive store, capable of storing bound features and making them available to conscious awareness, but not itself responsible for the process of binding.

  3. An adaptive algorithm for performance assessment of construction project management with respect to resilience engineering and job security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hashemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction sites are accident-prone locations and therefore safety management plays an im-portant role in these workplaces. This study presents an adaptive algorithm for performance as-sessment of project management with respect to resilience engineering and job security in a large construction site. The required data are collected using questionnaires in a large construction site. The presented algorithm is composed of radial basis function (RBF, artificial neural networks multi-layer perceptron (ANN-MLP, and statistical tests. The results indicate that preparedness, fault-tolerance, and flexibility are the most effective factors on overall efficiency. Moreover, job security and resilience engineering have similar statistical impacts on overall system efficiency. The results are verified and validated by the proposed algorithm.

  4. The indications and timing for operative management of spinal epidural abscess: literature review and treatment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Alexander; Pham, Martin; Hsieh, Patrick C

    2014-08-01

    Delayed or inappropriate treatment of spinal epidural abscess (SEA) can lead to serious morbidity or death. It is a rare event with significant variation in its causes, anatomical locations, and rate of progression. Traditionally the treatment of choice has involved emergency surgical evacuation and a prolonged course of antibiotics tailored to the offending pathogen. Recent publications have advocated antibiotic treatment without surgical decompression in select patient populations. Clearly defining those patients who can be safely treated in this manner remains in evolution. The authors review the current literature concerning the treatment and outcome of SEA to make recommendations concerning what population can be safely triaged to nonoperative management and the optimal timing of surgery. A PubMed database search was performed using a combination of search terms and Medical Subject Headings, to identify clinical studies reporting on the treatment and outcome of SEA. The literature review revealed 28 original case series containing at least 30 patients and reporting on treatment and outcome. All cohorts were deemed Class III evidence, and in all but two the data were obtained retrospectively. Based on the conclusions of these studies along with selected smaller studies and review articles, the authors present an evidence-based algorithm for selecting patients who may be safe candidates for nonoperative management. Patients who are unable to undergo an operation, have a complete spinal cord injury more than 48 hours with low clinical or radiographic concern for an ascending lesion, or who are neurologically stable and lack risk factors for failure of medical management may be initially treated with antibiotics alone and close clinical monitoring. If initial medical management is to be undertaken the patient should be made aware that delayed neurological deterioration may not fully resolve even after prompt surgical treatment. Patients deemed good surgical

  5. Buffer moisture protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J.

    2013-11-01

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  6. Buffer capacity of biologics--from buffer salts to buffering by antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, Anne R; Bahrenburg, Sven; Garidel, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Controlling pH is essential for a variety of biopharmaceutical process steps. The chemical stability of biologics such as monoclonal antibodies is pH-dependent and slightly acidic conditions are favorable for stability in a number of cases. Since control of pH is widely provided by added buffer salts, the current study summarizes the buffer characteristics of acetate, citrate, histidine, succinate, and phosphate buffers. Experimentally derived values largely coincide with values calculated from a model that had been proposed in 1922 by van Slyke. As high concentrated protein formulations become more and more prevalent for biologics, the self-buffering potential of proteins becomes of relevance. The current study provides information on buffer characteristics for pH ranges down to 4.0 and up to 8.0 and shows that a monoclonal antibody at 50 mg/mL exhibits similar buffer capacity as 6 mM citrate or 14 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). Buffer capacity of antibody solutions scales linearly with protein concentration up to more than 200 mg/mL. At a protein concentration of 220 mg/mL, the buffer capacity resembles the buffer capacity of 30 mM citrate or 50 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). The buffer capacity of monoclonal antibodies is practically identical at the process relevant temperatures 5, 25, and 40°C. Changes in ionic strength of ΔI=0.15, in contrast, can alter the buffer capacity up to 35%. In conclusion, due to efficient self-buffering by antibodies in the pH range of favored chemical stability, conventional buffer excipients could be dispensable for pH stabilization of high concentrated protein solutions. Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Data flow manager for DART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.; Black, D.; Slimmer, D.; Engelfried, J.; O'Dell, V.

    1994-04-01

    The DART Data Flow Manager (dfm) integrates a buffer manager with a requester/provider model for scheduling work on buffers. Buffer lists, representing built events or other data, are queued by service requesters to service providers. Buffers may be either internal (reside on the local node), or external (located elsewhere, e.g., dual ported memory). Internal buffers are managed locally. Wherever possible, dfm moves only addresses of buffers rather than buffers themselves

  8. Evaluation of a fever-management algorithm in a pediatric cancer center in a low-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkada, Sheena; Smith, Cristel Kate; Aguilar, Delta; Sykes, April; Tang, Li; Dolendo, Mae; Caniza, Miguela A

    2018-02-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), inconsistent or delayed management of fever contributes to poor outcomes among pediatric patients with cancer. We hypothesized that standardizing practice with a clinical algorithm adapted to local resources would improve outcomes. Therefore, we developed a resource-specific algorithm for fever management in Davao City, Philippines. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate adherence to the algorithm. This was a prospective cohort study of algorithm adherence to assess the types of deviation, reasons for deviation, and pathogens isolated. All pediatric oncology patients who were admitted with fever (defined as an axillary temperature  >37.7°C on one occasion or ≥37.4°C on two occasions 1 hr apart) or who developed fever within 48 hr of admission were included. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the relation between clinical predictors and length of hospitalization. During the study, 93 patients had 141 qualifying febrile episodes. Even though the algorithm was designed locally, deviations occurred in 70 (50%) of 141 febrile episodes on day 0, reflecting implementation barriers at the patient, provider, and institutional levels. There were 259 deviations during the first 7 days of admission in 92 (65%) of 141 patient episodes. Failure to identify high-risk patients, missed antimicrobial doses, and pathogen isolation were associated with prolonged hospitalization. Monitoring algorithm adherence helps in assessing the quality of pediatric oncology care in LMICs and identifying opportunities for improvement. Measures that decrease high-frequency/high-impact algorithm deviations may shorten hospitalizations and improve healthcare use in LMICs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Two-Buffer Simulation Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Hutagalung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider simulation games played between Spoiler and Duplicator on two Büchi automata in which the choices made by Spoiler can be buffered by Duplicator in two different buffers before she executes them on her structure. Previous work on such games using a single buffer has shown that they are useful to approximate language inclusion problems. We study the decidability and complexity and show that games with two buffers can be used to approximate corresponding problems on finite transducers, i.e. the inclusion problem for rational relations over infinite words.

  10. Algorithmic Optimal Management of a Potable Water Distribution System: Application to the Primary Network of Bonaberi (Douala, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Simeu-Abazi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal management of a potable water distribution system requires the control of the reference (standard data, the control points, control of the drainage parameters (pressure, flow, etc. and maintenance parameters. The control of the mentioned data defines the network learning process [1]. Besides classic IT functions of acquisition, storage and data processing, a geographical information system (GIS can be used as the basis for an alarm system, allowing one to identify and to localize the presence of water leaks in the network [2]. In this article we propose an algorithm coupling the various drainage parameters for the management of the network. The algorithm leads to an optimal management of leaks. An application is in progress on the primary network in the region of Bonaberi in Douala, the largest city of Cameroon.

  11. Local flow management/profile descent algorithm. Fuel-efficient, time-controlled profiles for the NASA TSRV airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, J. L.; Izumi, K. H.; Markham, C. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Thompson, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Local Flow Management/Profile Descent (LFM/PD) algorithm designed for the NASA Transport System Research Vehicle program is described. The algorithm provides fuel-efficient altitude and airspeed profiles consistent with ATC restrictions in a time-based metering environment over a fixed ground track. The model design constraints include accommodation of both published profile descent procedures and unpublished profile descents, incorporation of fuel efficiency as a flight profile criterion, operation within the performance capabilities of the Boeing 737-100 airplane with JT8D-7 engines, and conformity to standard air traffic navigation and control procedures. Holding and path stretching capabilities are included for long delay situations.

  12. Emplacement of small and large buffer blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, H.; Nikula, M.; Suikki, M.

    2010-05-01

    The report describes emplacement of a buffer structure encircling a spent fuel canister to be deposited in a vertical hole. The report deals with installability of various size blocks and with an emplacement gear, as well as evaluates the achieved quality of emplacement and the time needed for installing the buffer. Two block assembly of unequal size were chosen for examination. A first option involved small blocks, the use of which resulted in a buffer structure consisting of small sector blocks 200 mm in height. A second option involved large blocks, resulting in a buffer structure which consists of eight blocks. In these tests, the material chosen for both block options was concrete instead of bentonite. The emplacement test was a three-phase process. A first phase included stacking a two meter high buffer structure with small blocks for ensuring the operation of test equipment and blocks. A second phase included installing buffer structures with both block options to a height matching that of a canister-encircling cylindrical component. A third phase included testing also the installability of blocks to be placed above the canister by using small blocks. In emplacement tests, special attention was paid to the installability of blocks as well as to the time required for emplacement. Lifters for both blocks worked well. Due to the mass to be lifted, the lifter for large blocks had a more heavy-duty frame structure (and other lifting gear). The employed lifters were suspended in the tests on a single steel wire rope. Stacking was managed with both block sizes at adequate precision and stacked-up towers were steady. The stacking of large blocks was considerably faster. Therefore it is probably that the overall handling of the large blocks will be more convenient at a final disposal site. From the standpoint of reliability in lifting, the small blocks were safer to install above the canister. In large blocks, there are strict shape-related requirements which are

  13. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large complex systems engineering challenge being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams composed of multiple development disciplines. NASA also has formed an M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle. This team has developed a dedicated Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) that integrates specific M&FM algorithms, specialized nominal and off-nominal test cases, and vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle subsystem models. The flexibility of VMET enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models. The intent is to validate the algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to flight software test processes. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts into software through requirements and test processes. Risk reduction is addressed by working with other organizations such as S

  14. Expert Opinion on the Management of Lennox–Gastaut Syndrome: Treatment Algorithms and Practical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Helen Cross

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS is a severe epileptic and developmental encephalopathy that is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. It is characterized by multiple seizure types, abnormal electroencephalographic features, and intellectual disability. Although intellectual disability and associated behavioral problems are characteristic of LGS, they are not necessarily present at its outset and are therefore not part of its diagnostic criteria. LGS is typically treated with a variety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies, often in combination. Management and treatment decisions can be challenging, due to the multiple seizure types and comorbidities associated with the condition. A panel of five epileptologists met to discuss consensus recommendations for LGS management, based on the latest available evidence from literature review and clinical experience. Treatment algorithms were formulated. Current evidence favors the continued use of sodium valproate (VPA as the first-line treatment for patients with newly diagnosed de novo LGS. If VPA is ineffective alone, evidence supports lamotrigine, or subsequently rufinamide, as adjunctive therapy. If seizure control remains inadequate, the choice of next adjunctive antiepileptic drug (AED should be discussed with the patient/parent/caregiver/clinical team, as current evidence is limited. Non-pharmacological therapies, including resective surgery, the ketogenic diet, vagus nerve stimulation, and callosotomy, should be considered for use alongside AED therapy from the outset of treatment. For patients with LGS that has evolved from another type of epilepsy who are already being treated with an AED other than VPA, VPA therapy should be considered if not trialed previously. Thereafter, the approach for a de novo patient should be followed. Where possible, no more than two AEDs should be used concomitantly. Patients with established LGS should undergo review by a neurologist

  15. Evolutionary algorithms for the optimal management of coastal groundwater: A comparative study toward future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabchi, Hamed; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys the literature associated with the application of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) in coastal groundwater management problems (CGMPs). This review demonstrates that previous studies were mostly relied on the application of limited and particular EAs, mainly genetic algorithm (GA) and its variants, to a number of specific problems. The exclusive investigation of these problems is often not the representation of the variety of feasible processes may be occurred in coastal aquifers. In this study, eight EAs are evaluated for CGMPs. The considered EAs are: GA, continuous ant colony optimization (CACO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE), artificial bee colony optimization (ABC), harmony search (HS), shuffled complex evolution (SCE), and simplex simulated annealing (SIMPSA). The first application of PSO, ABC, HS, and SCE in CGMPs is reported here. Moreover, the four benchmark problems with different degree of difficulty and variety are considered to address the important issues of groundwater resources in coastal regions. Hence, the wide ranges of popular objective functions and constraints with the number of decision variables ranging from 4 to 15 are included. These benchmark problems are applied in the combined simulation-optimization model to examine the optimization scenarios. Some preliminary experiments are performed to select the most efficient parameters values for EAs to set a fair comparison. The specific capabilities of each EA toward CGMPs in terms of results quality and required computational time are compared. The evaluation of the results highlights EA's applicability in CGMPs, besides the remarkable strengths and weaknesses of them. The comparisons show that SCE, CACO, and PSO yield superior solutions among the EAs according to the quality of solutions whereas ABC presents the poor performance. CACO provides the better solutions (up to 17%) than the worst EA (ABC) for the problem with the highest decision

  16. Flood risk reduction and flow buffering as ecosystem services - Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, Van Meine; Tanika, Lisa; Lusiana, Betha

    2017-01-01

    Watersheds buffer the temporal pattern of river flow relative to the temporal pattern of rainfall. This "ecosystem service" is inherent to geology and climate, but buffering also responds to human use and misuse of the landscape. Buffering can be part of management feedback loops if salient,

  17. Supporting Managers, Hearing the Public: A Decision Support Approach for Evaluating Ecosystem Services and Social Benefits from Urban Wetland and Stream-Buffer Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public officials and environmental managers face difficult decisions about how to allocate limited funds to the most beneficial restoration projects and how to define what a “beneficial” project is. Beneficial to what? Or to whom? And where? Traditionally, managers ha...

  18. Prognostic and health management for engineering systems: a review of the data-driven approach and algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamo Sutharssan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics and health management (PHM has become an important component of many engineering systems and products, where algorithms are used to detect anomalies, diagnose faults and predict remaining useful lifetime (RUL. PHM can provide many advantages to users and maintainers. Although primary goals are to ensure the safety, provide state of the health and estimate RUL of the components and systems, there are also financial benefits such as operational and maintenance cost reductions and extended lifetime. This study aims at reviewing the current status of algorithms and methods used to underpin different existing PHM approaches. The focus is on providing a structured and comprehensive classification of the existing state-of-the-art PHM approaches, data-driven approaches and algorithms.

  19. Using fractional order method to generalize strengthening generating operator buffer operator and weakening buffer operator

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, L.; Liu, S.; Yang, Yingjie

    2016-01-01

    Traditional integer order buffer operator is extended to fractional order buffer operator, the corresponding relationship between the weakening buffer operator and the strengthening buffer operator is revealed. Fractional order buffer operator not only can generalize the weakening buffer operator and the strengthening buffer operator, but also realize tiny adjustment of buffer effect. The effectiveness of GM(1,1) with the fractional order buffer operator is validated by six cases.

  20. Mechanisms of buffer therapy resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kate M; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Cornnell, Heather H; Ribeiro, Maria C; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Gillies, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    Many studies have shown that the acidity of solid tumors contributes to local invasion and metastasis. Oral pH buffers can specifically neutralize the acidic pH of tumors and reduce the incidence of local invasion and metastatic formation in multiple murine models. However, this effect is not universal as we have previously observed that metastasis is not inhibited by buffers in some tumor models, regardless of buffer used. B16-F10 (murine melanoma), LL/2 (murine lung) and HCT116 (human colon) tumors are resistant to treatment with lysine buffer therapy, whereas metastasis is potently inhibited by lysine buffers in MDA-MB-231 (human breast) and PC3M (human prostate) tumors. In the current work, we confirmed that sensitive cells utilized a pH-dependent mechanism for successful metastasis supported by a highly glycolytic phenotype that acidifies the local tumor microenvironment resulting in morphological changes. In contrast, buffer-resistant cell lines exhibited a pH-independent metastatic mechanism involving constitutive secretion of matrix degrading proteases without elevated glycolysis. These results have identified two distinct mechanisms of experimental metastasis, one of which is pH-dependent (buffer therapy sensitive cells) and one which is pH-independent (buffer therapy resistant cells). Further characterization of these models has potential for therapeutic benefit. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The buffer/container experiment: results, synthesis, issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.; Chandler, N.A.; Dixon, D.A.; Roach, P.J.; To, T.; Wan, A.W.L.

    1997-12-01

    A large in-ground experiment has examined how heat affects the performance of the dense sand bentonite 'buffer' that has been proposed for use in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The experiment was performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at its Underground Research Laboratory, Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba between 1991 and 1994. The experiment placed a full-size heater representing a container of nuclear fuel waste in a 1.24-m diameter borehole filled with buffer below the floor of a room excavated at 240-m depth in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The buffer and surrounding rock were extensively instrumented for temperatures, total pressures, water pressures, suctions, and rock displacements. Power was provided to the heater for almost 900 days. The experiment showed that good rock conditions can be pre-selected, a borehole can be drilled, and buffer can be placed at controlled densities and water contents. The instrumentation generally worked well, and an extensive data base was successfully organized. Drying was observed in buffer close to the heater. This caused some desiccation cracking. However the cracks only extended approximately one third of the distance to the buffer-rock interface and did not form an advective pathway. Following sampling at the time of decommissioning, cracked samples of buffer were transported to the laboratory and given access to water. The hydraulic conductivities and swelling pressures of these resaturated samples were very similar to those of uncracked buffer. A good balance was achieved between the mass of water flowing into the experiment from the surrounding rock and the increased mass of water in the buffer. A good understanding was developed of the relationships between suctions, water contents, and total pressures in buffer near the buffer-rock interface. Comparisons between measurements and predictions of measured parameters show that a good understanding has been developed of the processes operating

  2. The buffer/container experiment: results, synthesis, issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J. [Univ. of Manitoba, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Chandler, N.A.; Dixon, D.A.; Roach, P.J.; To, T.; Wan, A.W.L

    1997-12-01

    A large in-ground experiment has examined how heat affects the performance of the dense sand bentonite 'buffer' that has been proposed for use in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The experiment was performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at its Underground Research Laboratory, Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba between 1991 and 1994. The experiment placed a full-size heater representing a container of nuclear fuel waste in a 1.24-m diameter borehole filled with buffer below the floor of a room excavated at 240-m depth in granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The buffer and surrounding rock were extensively instrumented for temperatures, total pressures, water pressures, suctions, and rock displacements. Power was provided to the heater for almost 900 days. The experiment showed that good rock conditions can be pre-selected, a borehole can be drilled, and buffer can be placed at controlled densities and water contents. The instrumentation generally worked well, and an extensive data base was successfully organized. Drying was observed in buffer close to the heater. This caused some desiccation cracking. However the cracks only extended approximately one third of the distance to the buffer-rock interface and did not form an advective pathway. Following sampling at the time of decommissioning, cracked samples of buffer were transported to the laboratory and given access to water. The hydraulic conductivities and swelling pressures of these resaturated samples were very similar to those of uncracked buffer. A good balance was achieved between the mass of water flowing into the experiment from the surrounding rock and the increased mass of water in the buffer. A good understanding was developed of the relationships between suctions, water contents, and total pressures in buffer near the buffer-rock interface. Comparisons between measurements and predictions of measured parameters show that a good understanding has been developed of the processes

  3. Preliminary test results of a flight management algorithm for fuel conservative descents in a time based metered traffic environment. [flight tests of an algorithm to minimize fuel consumption of aircraft based on flight time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.; Cannon, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    A flight management algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering the airplane fuel efficiently to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control is discussed. The algorithm provides a 3-D path with time control (4-D) for a test B 737 airplane to make an idle thrust, clean configured descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path is calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithms and the results of the flight tests are discussed.

  4. The donor management algorithm in transplantation of a composite facial tissue allograft.. First experience in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Uyba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 2005 to December 2015, 37 transplantations of vascularized composite facial tissue allografts (VCAs were performed in the world. A vascularized composite tissue allotransplantation has been recognized as a solid organ transplantation rather than a special kind of tissue transplantation. The recent classification of composite tissue allografts into the category of donor organs gave rise to a number of organizational, ethical, legal, technical, and economic problems. In May 2015, the first successful transplantation of a composite facial tissue allograft was performed in Russia. The article describes our experience of multiple team interactions at donor management stage when involved in the identification, conditioning, harvesting, and delivering donor organs to various hospitals. A man, aged 51 years old, diagnosed with traumatic brain injury became a donor after the diagnosis of brain deathhad been made, his death had been ascertained, and the requested consent for organ donation had been obtained from relatives. At donor management stage, a tracheostomy was performed and a posthumous facial mask was molded. The "face first, concurrent completion" algorithm was chosen for organ harvesting and facial VCA procurement; meanwhile, the facial allograft was procured as the "full face" category. The total surgery duration from the incision to completing the procurement (including that of solid organs made 8 hours 20 minutes. Immediately after the procurement, the facial VCA complex was sent to the St. Petersburg clinic by medical aircraft transportation, and was there transplanted 9 hours later. Donor kidneys were transported to Moscow bycivil aviation and transplanted 17 and 20 hours later. The authors believe that this clinical case report demonstrates the feasibility and safety of multiple harvesting of solid organs and a vascularized composite facial tissue allograft. However, this kind of surgery requires an essential

  5. The Role of Device Diagnostic Algorithms in the Assessment and Management of Patients with Systolic Heart Failure: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. T. Ha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitalization due to heart failure (HF exacerbation represents a major burden in health care and portends a poor long-term prognosis for patients. As a result, there is considerable interest to develop novel tools and strategies to better detect onset of volume overload, as HF hospitalizations may be reduced if appropriate interventions can be promptly delivered. One such innovation is the use of device-based diagnostic parameters in HF patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD and/or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT devices. These diagnostic algorithms can effectively monitor and detect changes in patients' HF status, as well as predict one's risk of HF hospitalization. This paper will review the role of these device diagnostics parameters in the assessment and management of HF patients in ambulatory settings. In addition, the integration of these novel algorithms in existing HF disease management models will be discussed.

  6. Risk management algorithm for rear-side collision avoidance using a combined steering torque overlay and differential braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junyung; Yi, Kyongsu; Yoo, Hyunjae; Chong, Hyokjin; Ko, Bongchul

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a risk management algorithm for rear-side collision avoidance. The proposed risk management algorithm consists of a supervisor and a coordinator. The supervisor is designed to monitor collision risks between the subject vehicle and approaching vehicle in the adjacent lane. An appropriate criterion of intervention, which satisfies high acceptance to drivers through the consideration of a realistic traffic, has been determined based on the analysis of the kinematics of the vehicles in longitudinal and lateral directions. In order to assist the driver actively and increase driver's safety, a coordinator is designed to combine lateral control using a steering torque overlay by motor-driven power steering and differential braking by vehicle stability control. In order to prevent the collision while limiting actuator's control inputs and vehicle dynamics to safe values for the assurance of the driver's comfort, the Lyapunov theory and linear matrix inequalities based optimisation methods have been used. The proposed risk management algorithm has been evaluated via simulation using CarSim and MATLAB/Simulink.

  7. Management algorithm for images of hepatic incidentalomas, renal and adrenal detected by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Gonzalez, Allan

    2012-01-01

    A literature review has been carried out in the diagnostic and monitoring algorithms for image of incidentalomas of solid abdominal organs (liver, kidney and adrenal glands) detected by computed tomography (CT). The criteria have been unified and updated for a effective diagnosis. Posed algorithms have been made in simplified form. The imaging techniques have been specified for each pathology, showing the advantages and disadvantages of using it and justifying the application in daily practice [es

  8. Identification of Patients with Statin Intolerance in a Managed Care Plan: A Comparison of 2 Claims-Based Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Brandon K; Sainski-Nguyen, Amy M; Olsen, Cody J; Boklage, Susan H; Charland, Scott; Mitchell, Matthew P; Brixner, Diana I

    2017-09-01

    While statins are safe and efficacious, some patients may experience statin intolerance or treatment-limiting adverse events. Identifying patients with statin intolerance may allow optimal management of cardiovascular event risk through other strategies. Recently, an administrative claims data (ACD) algorithm was developed to identify patients with statin intolerance and validated against electronic medical records. However, how this algorithm compared with perceptions of statin intolerance by integrated delivery networks remains largely unknown. To determine the concurrent validity of an algorithm developed by a regional integrated delivery network multidisciplinary panel (MP) and a published ACD algorithm in identifying patients with statin intolerance. The MP consisted of 3 physicians and 2 pharmacists with expertise in cardiology, internal medicine, and formulary management. The MP algorithm used pharmacy and medical claims to identify patients with statin intolerance, classifying them as having statin intolerance if they met any of the following criteria: (a) medical claim for rhabdomyolysis, (b) medical claim for muscle weakness, (c) an outpatient medical claim for creatinine kinase assay, (d) fills for ≥ 2 different statins excluding dose increases, (e) decrease in statin dose, or (f) discontinuation of a statin with a subsequent fill for a nonstatin lipid-lowering therapy. The validated ACD algorithm identified statin intolerance as absolute intolerance with rhabdomyolysis; absolute intolerance without rhabdomyolysis (i.e., other adverse events); or as dose titration intolerance. Adult patients (aged ≥ 18 years) from the integrated delivery network with at least 1 prescription fill for a statin between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012 (first fill defined the index date) were identified. Patients with ≥ 1 year pre- and ≥ 2 years post-index continuous enrollment and no statin prescription fills in the pre-index period were included. The MP and

  9. Implementation of Tree and Butterfly Barriers with Optimistic Time Management Algorithms for Discrete Event Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed S.; Shah, Dipali; Riasat, Aasia

    The Time Wrap algorithm [3] offers a run time recovery mechanism that deals with the causality errors. These run time recovery mechanisms consists of rollback, anti-message, and Global Virtual Time (GVT) techniques. For rollback, there is a need to compute GVT which is used in discrete-event simulation to reclaim the memory, commit the output, detect the termination, and handle the errors. However, the computation of GVT requires dealing with transient message problem and the simultaneous reporting problem. These problems can be dealt in an efficient manner by the Samadi's algorithm [8] which works fine in the presence of causality errors. However, the performance of both Time Wrap and Samadi's algorithms depends on the latency involve in GVT computation. Both algorithms give poor latency for large simulation systems especially in the presence of causality errors. To improve the latency and reduce the processor ideal time, we implement tree and butterflies barriers with the optimistic algorithm. Our analysis shows that the use of synchronous barriers such as tree and butterfly with the optimistic algorithm not only minimizes the GVT latency but also minimizes the processor idle time.

  10. Routing and scheduling of hazardous materials shipments: algorithmic approaches to managing spent nuclear fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Much controversy surrounds government regulation of routing and scheduling of Hazardous Materials Transportation (HMT). Increases in operating costs must be balanced against expected benefits from local HMT bans and curfews when promulgating or preempting HMT regulations. Algorithmic approaches for evaluating HMT routing and scheduling regulatory policy are described. A review of current US HMT regulatory policy is presented to provide a context for the analysis. Next, a multiobjective shortest path algorithm to find the set of efficient routes under conflicting objectives is presented. This algorithm generates all efficient routes under any partial ordering in a single pass through the network. Also, scheduling algorithms are presented to estimate the travel time delay due to HMT curfews along a route. Algorithms are presented assuming either deterministic or stochastic travel times between curfew cities and also possible rerouting to avoid such cities. These algorithms are applied to the case study of US highway transport of spent nuclear fuel from reactors to permanent repositories. Two data sets were used. One data set included the US Interstate Highway System (IHS) network with reactor locations, possible repository sites, and 150 heavily populated areas (HPAs). The other data set contained estimates of the population residing with 0.5 miles of the IHS and the Eastern US. Curfew delay is dramatically reduced by optimally scheduling departure times unless inter-HPA travel times are highly uncertain. Rerouting shipments to avoid HPAs is a less efficient approach to reducing delay

  11. Lean buffering in serial production lines with Bernoulli machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Hu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean buffering is the smallest buffer capacity necessary to ensure the desired production rate of a manufacturing system. In this paper, analytical methods for selecting lean buffering in serial production lines are developed under the assumption that the machines obey the Bernoulli reliability model. Both closed-form expressions and recursive approaches are investigated. The cases of identical and nonidentical machines are analyzed. Results obtained can be useful for production line designers and production managers to maintain the required production rate with the smallest possible inventories.

  12. Electrodialysis operation with buffer solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryn, John N [Naperville, IL; Daniels, Edward J [Orland Park, IL; Krumdick, Greg K [Crete, IL

    2009-12-15

    A new method for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis (ED) cells and stacks, in particular those used in chemical synthesis. The process entails adding a buffer solution to the stack for subsequent depletion in the stack during electrolysis. The buffer solution is regenerated continuously after depletion. This buffer process serves to control the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration so as to protect the active sites of electrodialysis membranes. The process enables electrodialysis processing options for products that are sensitive to pH changes.

  13. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASAs Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS) requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The nominal and off-nominal characteristics of SLS's elements and subsystems must be understood and matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex systems engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model-based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model-based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through FSW certification are an important focus of SLS's development effort to further ensure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. To test and validate these M&FM algorithms a dedicated test-bed was developed for full Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing (VMET). For addressing fault management (FM

  14. BENTO buffer development program in Finland - Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Korkiala-Tanttu, L.; Vaehaenen, M.; Koskinen, K.; Korkeakoski, P.; Haapala, K.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Posiva launched a programme, BENTO, to develop technology of using bentonite in spent nuclear fuel repositories. The main purpose of the BENTO programme is to produce buffer designs and verify that they fulfil the requirements, especially safety requirements. To achieve this objective, resources and the level of expertise and know-how has to be increased. There are several uncertainties related to the functioning of the buffer components at present. An issue is defined as being significant if there is sufficient uncertainty that the buffer system might not fulfil the requirements because of the issue. These significant issues need to be resolved in order to develop a proper design and to verify the fulfilment of the requirements. The list of significant issues may change with time. Therefore it is crucial to develop adequate expertise, know-how and laboratory facilities to manage the changes. Moreover, there is confidence that by solving the open issues a defendable construction license application can be submitted in 2012. The basic nature of the programme is a combination of material and process research with the design and manufacturing of buffer components to produce feasible buffer design with proven long-term functional properties. The development work carried out under BENTO-programme has been initially divided into four different projects. During the course of work the number of projects and their content can be adjusted. The four BENTO projects are: 1. Manufacturing (MANU); 2. Design (DESI); 3. Modelling (MODE); 4. Material and Process Research (MARE). BENTO programme aims at producing feasible buffer designs which fulfil the requirements specified in Posiva's requirement management system. The designs are produced in DESI-project by following the design development scheme which starts from specification of design basis and ends in documented detailed designs and therefore DESIgn is specified as one

  15. A comparative study and validation of state estimation algorithms for Li-ion batteries in battery management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee Barillas, Joaquín; Li, Jiahao; Günther, Clemens; Danzer, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Description of state observers for estimating the battery’s SOC. • Implementation of four estimation algorithms in a BMS. • Reliability and performance study of BMS regarding the estimation algorithms. • Analysis of the robustness and code properties of the estimation approaches. • Guide to evaluate estimation algorithms to improve the BMS performance. - Abstract: To increase lifetime, safety, and energy usage battery management systems (BMS) for Li-ion batteries have to be capable of estimating the state of charge (SOC) of the battery cells with a very low estimation error. The accurate SOC estimation and the real time reliability are critical issues for a BMS. In general an increasing complexity of the estimation methods leads to higher accuracy. On the other hand it also leads to a higher computational load and may exceed the BMS limitations or increase its costs. An approach to evaluate and verify estimation algorithms is presented as a requisite prior the release of the battery system. The approach consists of an analysis concerning the SOC estimation accuracy, the code properties, complexity, the computation time, and the memory usage. Furthermore, a study for estimation methods is proposed for their evaluation and validation with respect to convergence behavior, parameter sensitivity, initialization error, and performance. In this work, the introduced analysis is demonstrated with four of the most published model-based estimation algorithms including Luenberger observer, sliding-mode observer, Extended Kalman Filter and Sigma-point Kalman Filter. The experiments under dynamic current conditions are used to verify the real time functionality of the BMS. The results show that a simple estimation method like the sliding-mode observer can compete with the Kalman-based methods presenting less computational time and memory usage. Depending on the battery system’s application the estimation algorithm has to be selected to fulfill the

  16. A dynamic routing strategy with limited buffer on scale-free network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufei; Liu, Feng

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an integrated routing strategy based on global static topology information and local dynamic data packet queue lengths to improve the transmission efficiency of scale-free networks. The proposed routing strategy is a combination of a global static routing strategy (based on the shortest path algorithm) and local dynamic queue length management, in which, instead of using an infinite buffer, the queue length of each node i in the proposed routing strategy is limited by a critical queue length Qic. When the network traffic is lower and the queue length of each node i is shorter than its critical queue length Qic, it forwards packets according to the global routing table. With increasing network traffic, when the buffers of the nodes with higher degree are full, they do not receive packets due to their limited buffers and the packets have to be delivered to the nodes with lower degree. The global static routing strategy can shorten the transmission time that it takes a packet to reach its destination, and the local limited queue length can balance the network traffic. The optimal critical queue lengths of nodes have been analysed. Simulation results show that the proposed routing strategy can get better performance than that of the global static strategy based on topology, and almost the same performance as that of the global dynamic routing strategy with less complexity.

  17. Project Robust Scheduling Based on the Scattered Buffer Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nansheng Pang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The research object in this paper is the sub network formed by the predecessor’s affect on the solution activity. This paper is to study three types of influencing factors from the predecessors that lead to the delay of starting time of the solution activity on the longest path, and to analyze the influence degree on the delay of the solution activity’s starting time from different types of factors. On this basis, through the comprehensive analysis of various factors that influence the solution activity, this paper proposes a metric that is used to evaluate the solution robustness of the project scheduling, and this metric is taken as the optimization goal. This paper also adopts the iterative process to design a scattered buffer heuristics algorithm based on the robust scheduling of the time buffer. At the same time, the resource flow network is introduced in this algorithm, using the tabu search algorithm to solve baseline scheduling. For the generation of resource flow network in the baseline scheduling, this algorithm designs a resource allocation algorithm with the maximum use of the precedence relations. Finally, the algorithm proposed in this paper and some other algorithms in previous literature are taken into the simulation experiment; under the comparative analysis, the experimental results show that the algorithm proposed in this paper is reasonable and feasible.

  18. Approach to Accelerating Dissolved Vector Buffer Generation in Distributed In-Memory Cluster Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxin Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The buffer generation algorithm is a fundamental function in GIS, identifying areas of a given distance surrounding geographic features. Past research largely focused on buffer generation algorithms generated in a stand-alone environment. Moreover, dissolved buffer generation is data- and computing-intensive. In this scenario, the improvement in the stand-alone environment is limited when considering large-scale mass vector data. Nevertheless, recent parallel dissolved vector buffer algorithms suffer from scalability problems, leaving room for further optimization. At present, the prevailing in-memory cluster-computing framework—Spark—provides promising efficiency for computing-intensive analysis; however, it has seldom been researched for buffer analysis. On this basis, we propose a cluster-computing-oriented parallel dissolved vector buffer generating algorithm, called the HPBM, that contains a Hilbert-space-filling-curve-based data partition method, a data skew and cross-boundary objects processing strategy, and a depth-given tree-like merging method. Experiments are conducted in both stand-alone and cluster environments using real-world vector data that include points and roads. Compared with some existing parallel buffer algorithms, as well as various popular GIS software, the HPBM achieves a performance gain of more than 50%.

  19. Implementing peak load reduction algorithms for household electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlamini, Ndumiso G.; Cromieres, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Considering household appliance automation for reduction of household peak power demand, this study explored aspects of the interaction between household automation technology and human behaviour. Given a programmable household appliance switching system, and user-reported appliance use times, we simulated the load reduction effectiveness of three types of algorithms, which were applied at both the single household level and across all 30 households. All three algorithms effected significant load reductions, while the least-to-highest potential user inconvenience ranking was: coordinating the timing of frequent intermittent loads (algorithm 2); moving period-of-day time-flexible loads to off-peak times (algorithm 1); and applying short-term time delays to avoid high peaks (algorithm 3) (least accommodating). Peak reduction was facilitated by load interruptibility, time of use flexibility and the willingness of users to forgo impulsive appliance use. We conclude that a general factor determining the ability to shift the load due to a particular appliance is the time-buffering between the service delivered and the power demand of an appliance. Time-buffering can be ‘technologically inherent’, due to human habits, or realised by managing user expectations. There are implications for the design of appliances and home automation systems. - Highlights: ► We explored the interaction between appliance automation and human behaviour. ► There is potential for considerable load shifting of household appliances. ► Load shifting for load reduction is eased with increased time buffering. ► Design, human habits and user expectations all influence time buffering. ► Certain automation and appliance design features can facilitate load shifting.

  20. Heat conductivity of buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, L.; Fredrikson, Anders; Johannesson, L.E.

    1994-11-01

    The report deals with the thermal conductivity of bentonite based buffer materials. An improved technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of buffer materials is described. Measurements of FLAC calculations applying this technique have led to a proposal of how standardized tests should be conducted and evaluated. The thermal conductivity of bentonite with different void ratio and degree of water saturation has been determined in the following different ways: * Theoretically according to three different investigations by other researchers. * Laboratory measurements with the proposed method. * Results from back-calculated field tests. Comparison and evaluation showed that these results agreed very well, when the buffer material was almost water saturated. However, the influence of the degree of saturation was not very well predicted with the theoretical methods. Furthermore, the field tests showed that the average thermal conductivity in situ of buffer material (compacted to blocks) with low degree of water saturation was lower than expected from laboratory tests. 12 refs, 29 figs, 11 tabs

  1. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  2. Programmable pH buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  3. Theory and algorithms for solving large-scale numerical problems. Application to the management of electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiche, A.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript deals with large-scale optimization problems, and more specifically with solving the electricity unit commitment problem arising at EDF. First, we focused on the augmented Lagrangian algorithm. The behavior of that algorithm on an infeasible convex quadratic optimization problem is analyzed. It is shown that the algorithm finds a point that satisfies the shifted constraints with the smallest possible shift in the sense of the Euclidean norm and that it minimizes the objective on the corresponding shifted constrained set. The convergence to such a point is realized at a global linear rate, which depends explicitly on the augmentation parameter. This suggests us a rule for determining the augmentation parameter to control the speed of convergence of the shifted constraint norm to zero. This rule has the advantage of generating bounded augmentation parameters even when the problem is infeasible. As a by-product, the algorithm computes the smallest translation in the Euclidean norm that makes the constraints feasible. Furthermore, this work provides solution methods for stochastic optimization industrial problems decomposed on a scenario tree, based on the progressive hedging algorithm introduced by [Rockafellar et Wets, 1991]. We also focus on the convergence of that algorithm. On the one hand, we offer a counter-example showing that the algorithm could diverge if its augmentation parameter is iteratively updated. On the other hand, we show how to recover the multipliers associated with the non-dualized constraints defined on the scenario tree from those associated with the corresponding constraints of the scenario subproblems. Their convergence is also analyzed for convex problems. The practical interest of theses solutions techniques is corroborated by numerical experiments performed on the electric production management problem. We apply the progressive hedging algorithm to a realistic industrial problem. More precisely, we solve the French medium

  4. Application of genetic algorithms to in-core nuclear fuel management optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, P.W.; Parks, G.T.

    1993-01-01

    The search for an optimal arrangement of fresh and burnt fuel and control material within the core of a PWR represents a formidable optimization problem. The approach of combining the robust optimization capabilities of the Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm with the computational speed of a Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) based evaluation methodology in the code FORMOSA has proved to be very effective. In this paper, we show that the incorporation of another stochastic search technique, a Genetic Algorithm, results in comparable optimization performance on serial computers and offers substantially superior performance on parallel machines. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of Online DBA Algorithm with Adaptive Sleep Cycle in WDM EPON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajčin, Bojan; Matavulj, Petar; Radivojević, Mirjana

    2018-05-01

    In order to manage Quality of Service (QoS) and energy efficiency in the optical access network, an online Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithm with adaptive sleep cycle is presented. This DBA algorithm has the ability to allocate an additional bandwidth to the end user within a single sleep cycle whose duration changes depending on the current buffers occupancy. The purpose of this DBA algorithm is to tune the duration of the sleep cycle depending on the network load in order to provide service to the end user without violating strict QoS requests in all network operating conditions.

  6. An optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller by Water Cycle Algorithm for power management of Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvi, Mohammad; Avanaki, Isa Nasiri

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method to improve the performance of renewable power management is proposed. • The proposed method is based on Fuzzy Logic optimized by the Water Cycle Algorithm. • The proposed method characteristics are compared with two other methods. • The comparisons confirm that the proposed method is robust and effectiveness one. - Abstract: This paper aims to improve the power management system of a Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power generation based on the Fuzzy Logic Controller optimized by the Water Cycle Algorithm. The proposed Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power consists of wind energy conversion and photovoltaic systems as primary power sources and a battery, fuel cell, and Electrolyzer as energy storage systems. Hydrogen is produced from surplus power generated by the wind energy conversion and photovoltaic systems of Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power and stored in the hydrogen storage tank for fuel cell later using when the power generated by primary sources is lower than load demand. The proposed optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller based power management system determines the power that is generated by fuel cell or use by Electrolyzer. In a hybrid system, operation and maintenance cost and reliability of the system are the important issues that should be considered in studies. In this regard, Water Cycle Algorithm is used to optimize membership functions in order to simultaneously minimize the Loss of Power Supply Probability and operation and maintenance. The results are compared with the particle swarm optimization and the un-optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller power management system to prove that the proposed method is robust and effective. Reduction in Loss of Power Supply Probability and operation and maintenance, are the most advantages of the proposed method. Moreover the level of the State of Charge of the battery in the proposed method is higher than other mentioned methods which leads to increase battery lifetime.

  7. Energy management of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle based on genetic algorithm and quadratic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chris Chunting; Xiong, Rui; Xu, Jun; You, Chenwen

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces an online and intelligent energy management controller to improve the fuel economy of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based on analytic analysis between fuel-rate and battery current at different driveline power and vehicle speed, quadratic equations are applied to simulate the relationship between battery current and vehicle fuel-rate. The power threshold at which engine is turned on is optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) based on vehicle fuel-rate, battery state of charge (SOC) and driveline power demand. The optimal battery current when the engine is on is calculated using quadratic programming (QP) method. The proposed algorithm can control the battery current effectively, which makes the engine work more efficiently and thus reduce the fuel-consumption. Moreover, the controller is still applicable when the battery is unhealthy. Numerical simulations validated the feasibility of the proposed controller.

  8. Nocardial scleritis: A case report and a suggested algorithm for disease management based on a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Laura Pires da; Juncal, Verena; Carvalhaes, Cecília Godoy; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso; Chimara, Erica; Freitas, Denise

    2018-06-01

    To report a case of nocardial scleritis and to propose a logical treatment algorithm based on a literature review. It is important to suspect a nocardial infection when evaluating anterior unilateral scleritis accompanied by multiple purulent or necrotic abscesses, especially in male patients with a history of chronic ocular pain and redness, trauma inflicted by organic materials, or recent ophthalmic surgery. A microbiological investigation is essential. In positive cases, a direct smear reveals weakly acid-fast organisms or Gram-positive, thin, beading and branching filaments. Also, the organism (usually) grows on blood agar and Lowenstein-Jensen plates. An infection can generally be fully resolved by debridement of necrotic areas and application of topical amikacin drops accompanied by systemic sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Together with the case report described, we review data on a total of 43 eyes with nocardial scleritis. Our proposed algorithm may afford a useful understanding of this sight-threatening disease, facilitating easier and faster diagnosis and management.

  9. A Queuing Model-Based System for Triggering Traffic Flow Management Algorithms, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation air traffic management systems are expected use multiple software tools and quantitative methods for managing traffic flow in the National Airspace....

  10. Data-driven Development of ROTEM and TEG Algorithms for the Management of Trauma Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baksaas-Aasen, Kjersti; Van Dieren, Susan; Balvers, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    for ROTEM, TEG, and CCTs to be used in addition to ratio driven transfusion and tranexamic acid. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a systematic approach to define threshold parameters for ROTEM and TEG. These parameters were incorporated into algorithms to support data-driven adjustments of resuscitation...

  11. JOURNAL CLUB: Plagiarism in Manuscripts Submitted to the AJR: Development of an Optimal Screening Algorithm and Management Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Donna B

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of plagiarism in a sample of manuscripts submitted to the AJR using CrossCheck, develop an algorithm to identify significant plagiarism, and formulate management pathways. A sample of 110 of 1610 (6.8%) manuscripts submitted to AJR in 2014 in the categories of Original Research or Review were analyzed using CrossCheck and manual assessment. The overall similarity index (OSI), highest similarity score from a single source, whether duplication was from single or multiple origins, journal section, and presence or absence of referencing the source were recorded. The criteria outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors were the reference standard for identifying manuscripts containing plagiarism. Statistical analysis was used to develop a screening algorithm to maximize sensitivity and specificity for the detection of plagiarism. Criteria for defining the severity of plagiarism and management pathways based on the severity of the plagiarism were determined. Twelve manuscripts (10.9%) contained plagiarism. Nine had an OSI excluding quotations and references of less than 20%. In seven, the highest similarity score from a single source was less than 10%. The highest similarity score from a single source was the work of the same author or authors in nine. Common sections for duplication were the Materials and Methods, Discussion, and abstract. Referencing the original source was lacking in 11. Plagiarism was undetected at submission in five of these 12 articles; two had been accepted for publication. The most effective screening algorithm was to average the OSI including quotations and references and the highest similarity score from a single source and to submit manuscripts with an average value of more than 12% for further review. The current methods for detecting plagiarism are suboptimal. A new screening algorithm is proposed.

  12. Assessing Anthropogenic Influence and Edge Effect Influence on Forested Riparian Buffer Spatial Configuration and Structure: An Example Using Lidar Remote Sensing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.; Chasmer, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Forested riparian buffers (FRB) perform numerous critical ecosystem services. However, globally, FRB spatial configuration and structure have been modified by anthropogenic development resulting in widespread ecological degradation as seen in the Gulf of Mexico and the Chesapeake Bay. Riparian corridors within developed areas are particularly vulnerable to disturbance given two edges - the naturally occurring stream edge and the matrix edge. Increased edge length predisposes riparian vegetation to "edge effects", characterized by modified physical and environmental conditions at the interface between the forested buffer and the adjacent landuse, or matrix and forest fragment degradation. The magnitude and distance of edge influence may be further influenced by adjacent landuse type and the width of the buffer corridor at any given location. There is a need to quantify riparian buffer spatial configuration and structure over broad geographic extents and within multiple riparian systems in support of ecologically sound management and landuse decisions. This study thus assesses the influence of varying landuse types (agriculture, suburban development and undeveloped) on forested riparian buffer 3-dimensional structure and spatial configuration using high resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data collected within a headwater watershed. Few studies have assessed riparian buffer structure and width contiguously for an entire watershed, an integral component of watershed planning and restoration efforts such as those conducted throughout the Chesapeake Bay. The objectives of the study are to 1) quantify differences in vegetation structure at the stream and matrix influenced riparian buffer edges, compared to the forested interior and 2) assess continuous patterns of changes in vegetation structure throughout the buffer corridor beginning at the matrix edge and ending at the stream within buffers a) of varying width and b) that are adjacent to varying landuse

  13. Validating the Western Trauma Association algorithm for managing patients with anterior abdominal stab wounds: a Western Trauma Association multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffl, Walter L; Kaups, Krista L; Pham, Tam N; Rowell, Susan E; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Elterman, J; Moore, Ernest E

    2011-12-01

    The optimal management of stable patients with anterior abdominal stab wounds (AASWs) remains a matter of debate. A recent Western Trauma Association (WTA) multicenter trial found that exclusion of peritoneal penetration by local wound exploration (LWE) allowed immediate discharge (D/C) of 41% of patients with AASWs. Performance of computed tomography (CT) scanning or diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) did not improve the D/C rate; however, these tests led to nontherapeutic (NONTHER) laparotomy (LAP) in 24% and 31% of cases, respectively. An algorithm was proposed that included LWE, followed by either D/C or admission for serial clinical assessments, without further imaging or invasive testing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the algorithm in providing timely interventions for significant injuries. A multicenter, institutional review board-approved study enrolled patients with AASWs. Management was guided by the WTA AASW algorithm. Data on the presentation, evaluation, and clinical course were recorded prospectively. Two hundred twenty-two patients (94% men, age, 34.7 years ± 0.3 years) were enrolled. Sixty-two (28%) had immediate LAP, of which 87% were therapeutic (THER). Three (1%) died and the mean length of stay (LOS) was 6.9 days. One hundred sixty patients were stable and asymptomatic, and 81 of them (51%) were managed entirely per protocol. Twenty (25%) were D/C'ed from the emergency department after (-) LWE, and 11 (14%) were taken to the operating room (OR) for LAP when their clinical condition changed. Two (2%) of the protocol group underwent NONTHER LAP, and no patient experienced morbidity or mortality related to delay in treatment. Seventy-nine (49%) patients had deviations from protocol. There were 47 CT scans, 11 DPLs, and 9 laparoscopic explorations performed. In addition to the laparoscopic procedures, 38 (48%) patients were taken to the OR based on test results rather than a change in the patient's clinical

  14. A Causal and Real-Time Capable Power Management Algorithm for Off-Highway Hybrid Propulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Schalk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid propulsion systems allow for a reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of future off-highway applications. A challenging aspect of a hybridization is the larger number of system components that further increases both the complexity and the diversification of such systems. Hence, beside a standardization on the hardware side for off-highway systems, a high flexibility and modularity of the control schemes is required to employ them in as many different applications as possible. In this paper, a causal optimization-based power management algorithm is introduced to control the power split between engine and electric machine in a hybrid powertrain. The algorithm optimizes the power split to achieve the maximum power supply efficiency and, thereby, considers the energy cost for maintaining the battery charge. Furthermore, the power management provides an optional function to control the battery state of charge in such a way that a target value is attained. In a simulation case study, the potential and the benefits of the proposed power management for the hybrid powertrain—aiming at a reduction of the fuel consumption of a DMU (diesel multiple unit train operated on a representative track—will be shown.

  15. Management of Excessive Weight Loss Following Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Clinical Algorithm and Surgical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akusoba, Ikemefuna; Birriel, T Javier; El Chaar, Maher

    2016-01-01

    There are no clinical guidelines or published studies addressing excessive weight loss and protein calorie malnutrition following a standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) to guide nutritional management and treatment strategies. This study demonstrates the presentation, clinical algorithm, surgical technique, and outcomes of patients afflicted and successfully treated with excessive weight loss following a standard RYGB. Three patients were successfully reversed to normal anatomy after evaluation, management, and treatment by multidisciplinary team. Lowest BMI (kg/m(2)) was 18.9, 17.9, and 14.2, respectively. Twelve-month post-operative BMI (kg/m(2)) was 28.9, 22.8, and 26.1, respectively. Lowest weight (lbs) was 117, 128, and 79, respectively. Twelve-month post-operative weight (lbs) was 179, 161, and 145, respectively. Pre-reversal gastrostomy tube was inserted into the remnant stomach to demonstrate weight gain and improve nutritional status prior to reversal to original anatomy. We propose a practical clinical algorithm for the work-up and management of patients with excessive weight loss and protein calorie malnutrition after standard RYGB including reversal to normal anatomy.

  16. Subdural Fluid Collection and Hydrocephalus After Foramen Magnum Decompression for Chiari Malformation Type I: Management Algorithm of a Rare Complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Zefferino; Milani, Davide; Costa, Francesco; Castellani, Carlotta; Lasio, Giovanni; Fornari, Maurizio

    2017-10-01

    Chiari malformation type I is a hindbrain abnormality characterized by descent of the cerebellar tonsils beneath the foramen magnum, frequently associated with symptoms or brainstem compression, impaired cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and syringomyelia. Foramen magnum decompression represents the most common way of treatment. Rarely, subdural fluid collection and hydrocephalus represent postoperative adverse events. The treatment of this complication is still debated, and physicians are sometimes uncertain when to perform diversion surgery and when to perform more conservative management. We report an unusual occurrence of subdural fluid collection and hydrocephalus that developed in a 23-year-old patient after foramen magnum decompression for Chiari malformation type I. Following a management protocol, based on a step-by-step approach, from conservative therapy to diversion surgery, the patient was managed with urgent external ventricular drainage, and then with conservative management and wound revision. Because of the rarity of this adverse event, previous case reports differ about the form of treatment. In future cases, finding clinical and radiologic features to identify risk factors that are useful in predicting if the patient will benefit from conservative management or will need to undergo diversion surgery is only possible if a uniform form of treatment is used. Therefore, we believe that a management algorithm based on a step-by-step approach will reduce the use of invasive therapies and help to create a standard of care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spontaneous Intramuscular Hematomas of the Abdomen and Pelvis: A New Multilevel Algorithm to Direct Transarterial Embolization and Patient Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, Milen [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Medicine (Switzerland); Sotiriadis, Charalampos; Gay, Frederique; Jouannic, Anne-Marie; Lachenal, Yann; Hajdu, Steven D.; Doenz, Francesco; Qanadli, Salah D., E-mail: salah.qanadli@chuv.ch [Lausanne University Hospital, Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Unit, Department of Radiology (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    PurposeTo report our experience using a multilevel patient management algorithm to direct transarterial embolization (TAE) in managing spontaneous intramuscular hematoma (SIMH).Materials and MethodsFrom May 2006 to January 2014, twenty-seven patients with SIMH had been referred for TAE to our Radiology department. Clinical status and coagulation characteristics of the patients are analyzed. An algorithm integrating CT findings is suggested to manage SIMH. Patients were classified into three groups: Type I, SIMH with no active bleeding (AB); Type II, SIMH with AB and no muscular fascia rupture (MFR); and Type III, SIMH with MFR and AB. Type II is furthermore subcategorized as IIa, IIb and IIc. Types IIb, IIc and III were considered for TAE. The method of embolization as well as the material been used are described. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± SD. Categorical variables are reported as percentages. Technical success, clinical success, complications and 30-day mortality (d30 M) were analyzed.ResultsTwo patients (7.5%) had Type IIb, four (15%) Type IIc and 21 (77.5%) presented Type III. The detailed CT and CTA findings, embolization procedure and materials used are described. Technical success was 96% with a complication rate of 4%. Clinical success was 88%. The bleeding-related thirty-day mortality was 15% (all with Type III).ConclusionTAE is a safe and efficient technique to control bleeding that should be considered in selected SIMH as soon as possible. The proposed algorithm integrating CT features provides a comprehensive chart to select patients for TAE.Level of Evidence4.

  18. Agroforestry buffers for nonpoint source pollution reductions from agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Garrett, Harold E; Kallenbach, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention and demand for the adoption of agroforestry practices throughout the world, rigorous long-term scientific studies confirming environmental benefits from the use of agroforestry practices are limited. The objective was to examine nonpoint-source pollution (NPSP) reduction as influenced by agroforestry buffers in watersheds under grazing and row crop management. The grazing study consists of six watersheds in the Central Mississippi Valley wooded slopes and the row crop study site consists of three watersheds in a paired watershed design in Central Claypan areas. Runoff water samples were analyzed for sediment, total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) for the 2004 to 2008 period. Results indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers on grazed and row crop management sites significantly reduce runoff, sediment, TN, and TP losses to streams. Buffers in association with grazing and row crop management reduced runoff by 49 and 19%, respectively, during the study period as compared with respective control treatments. Average sediment loss for grazing and row crop management systems was 13.8 and 17.9 kg ha yr, respectively. On average, grass and agroforestry buffers reduced sediment, TN, and TP losses by 32, 42, and 46% compared with the control treatments. Buffers were more effective in the grazing management practice than row crop management practice. These differences could in part be attributed to the differences in soils, management, and landscape features. Results from this study strongly indicate that agroforestry and grass buffers can be designed to improve water quality while minimizing the amount of land taken out of production. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  19. REALISATION TRAJECTORY CONTROL IN A HORIZONTAL WITH ADAPTIVE ALGORITHM OF MANAGEMENT OF THWART MOTION OF THE PLANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Vereshikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article results of researches are presented according to efficiency of application of adaptive algorithm of management by the maneuverable plane realised in a cross-section control path, on the basis of identification of some aerodynamic characteristics of the plane and the indignations caused by formation by an asymmetrical configuration of placing of external suspension. By modelling of movement of the plane during performance S - figurative maneuvers with use of a programmno-modelling complex and the flight stand substantial improvement of characteristics of controllability of the asymmetrical plane and, thus, increase of efficiency of its application is shown.

  20. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David; Johnson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the new Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex system engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through Flight Software certification are an important focus of this development effort to further insure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. NASA formed a dedicated M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle for the SLS initiative. As part of the development of the M&FM capabilities, this team has developed a dedicated testbed that

  1. Joint optimization of maintenance, buffers and machines in manufacturing lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Nabil; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2018-01-01

    This article considers a series manufacturing line composed of several machines separated by intermediate buffers of finite capacity. The goal is to find the optimal number of preventive maintenance actions performed on each machine, the optimal selection of machines and the optimal buffer allocation plan that minimize the total system cost, while providing the desired system throughput level. The mean times between failures of all machines are assumed to increase when applying periodic preventive maintenance. To estimate the production line throughput, a decomposition method is used. The decision variables in the formulated optimal design problem are buffer levels, types of machines and times between preventive maintenance actions. Three heuristic approaches are developed to solve the formulated combinatorial optimization problem. The first heuristic consists of a genetic algorithm, the second is based on the nonlinear threshold accepting metaheuristic and the third is an ant colony system. The proposed heuristics are compared and their efficiency is shown through several numerical examples. It is found that the nonlinear threshold accepting algorithm outperforms the genetic algorithm and ant colony system, while the genetic algorithm provides better results than the ant colony system for longer manufacturing lines.

  2. Review of Methods and Algorithms for Dynamic Management of CBRNE Collection Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Li (2000). Note that SAA for UAVs is not a mature technology in the DoD. AFRL’s SAA architecture contains an algorithm called MuSICA (Multi-Sensor...SWOrRD.html. Graham, S., and J. Kay. 2012. Multi-Sensor Integrated Conflict Avoidance ( MuSICA ): 2012 International Test and Evaluation Association...moving target indicator MuSICA Multi-Sensor Integrated Conflict Avoidance MVOI multivariate optimal interpolation MVU maximum variance unfolding

  3. Case-Mix for Performance Management: A Risk Algorithm Based on ICD-10-CM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Moran, Eileen; Almenoff, Peter L

    2018-06-01

    Accurate risk adjustment is the key to a reliable comparison of cost and quality performance among providers and hospitals. However, the existing case-mix algorithms based on age, sex, and diagnoses can only explain up to 50% of the cost variation. More accurate risk adjustment is desired for provider performance assessment and improvement. To develop a case-mix algorithm that hospitals and payers can use to measure and compare cost and quality performance of their providers. All 6,048,895 patients with valid diagnoses and cost recorded in the US Veterans health care system in fiscal year 2016 were included in this study. The dependent variable was total cost at the patient level, and the explanatory variables were age, sex, and comorbidities represented by 762 clinically homogeneous groups, which were created by expanding the 283 categories from Clinical Classifications Software based on ICD-10-CM codes. The split-sample method was used to assess model overfitting and coefficient stability. The predictive power of the algorithms was ascertained by comparing the R, mean absolute percentage error, root mean square error, predictive ratios, and c-statistics. The expansion of the Clinical Classifications Software categories resulted in higher predictive power. The R reached 0.72 and 0.52 for the transformed and raw scale cost, respectively. The case-mix algorithm we developed based on age, sex, and diagnoses outperformed the existing case-mix models reported in the literature. The method developed in this study can be used by other health systems to produce tailored risk models for their specific purpose.

  4. Implementing a Topology Management Algorithm for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal K. Naskar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose to maintain the topology of a MANET by suitably selecting multiple coordinators among the nodes constituting the MANET. The maintenance of topology in a mobile ad–hoc network is of primary importance because the routing techniques can only work if we have a connected network. Thus of the burning issues at present is to device algorithms which ensure that the network topology is always maintained. The basic philosophy behind our algorithm is to isolate two coordinators amongst the system based on positional data. Once elected, they are entrusted with the responsibility to emit signals of different frequencies while the other nodes individually decide the logic they need to follow in order to maintain the topology, thereby greatly reducing the overhead. As far as our knowledge goes, we are the first ones to introduce the concept of multiple coordinators which not only reduces the workload of the coordinator, but also eliminates the need of different signal ranges thereby ensuring greater efficiency. We have simulated the algorithm with the help of a number of robots using embedded systems. The results we have obtained have been quite encouraging.

  5. Development of a hybrid energy storage sizing algorithm associated with the evaluation of power management in different driving cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, Masih Tehrani; Mohammad Reza, Ha'iri Yazdi; Esfahanian, Vahid; Sagha, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid energy storage sizing algorithm for electric vehicles is developed to achieve a semi optimum cost effective design. Using the developed algorithm, a driving cycle is divided into its micro-trips and the power and energy demands in each micro trip are determined. The battery size is estimated because the battery fulfills the power demands. Moreover, the ultra capacitor (UC) energy (or the number of UC modules) is assessed because the UC delivers the maximum energy demands of the different micro trips of a driving cycle. Finally, a design factor, which shows the power of the hybrid energy storage control strategy, is utilized to evaluate the newly designed control strategies. Using the developed algorithm, energy saving loss, driver satisfaction criteria, and battery life criteria are calculated using a feed forward dynamic modeling software program and are utilized for comparison among different energy storage candidates. This procedure is applied to the hybrid energy storage sizing of a series hybrid electric city bus in Manhattan and to the Tehran driving cycle. Results show that a higher aggressive driving cycle (Manhattan) requires more expensive energy storage system and more sophisticated energy management strategy

  6. Application of Ant-Colony-Optimization algorithm for improved management of first flush effects in urban wastewater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer, M; Clara, N; Gutiérrez, O; Poch, M

    2014-07-01

    The first flush effect in combined sewer systems during storm events often causes overflows and overloads of the sewage treatment, which reduces the efficiency of the sewage treatment and decreases the quality of the receiving waters due to the pollutants that are contributed. The use of retention tanks constitutes a widely used way to mitigate this effect. However, the management of the pollutant loads encounters difficulties when the retention tanks are emptied. A new approach is proposed to solve this problem by fulfilling the treatment requirements in real time, focussing on the characteristics of the wastewater. The method is based on the execution of an Ant Colony Optimisation algorithm to obtain a satisfactory sequence for the discharge of the retention tanks. The discharge sequence considers the volume of stormwater and its concentration of pollutants including Suspended Solids, Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus. The Ant Colony Optimisation algorithm was applied successfully to a case study with overall reduction of pollutant loads stored in retention tanks. The algorithm can be adapted in a simple way to the different scenarios, infrastructures and controllers of sewer systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermophysical tests of buffer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H. [ITC, Tokyo (Japan); Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-03-01

    Thermodynamic properties of buffer materials were measured for putting in order thermodynamic constants to be used in the near-field thermal analysis. The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were measured as functions of the water content and temperature to deduce the specific heat. The thermal conductivity and specific heat varied significantly as the water content changed. Obtained values of the specific heat agreed well the expected values calculated based on the constituents of the buffer material. Temperature dependence of the thermodynamic constants was found small below 90degC. From the findings, the thermal conductivity and specific heat of the buffer material were formulated as functions of the water content. Thermodynamic study of powdery bentonite was carried out as well with a purpose of use for filling apertures in the artificial barrier. (H. Baba)

  8. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF QUAZISTEADY MODE OF BEARING AIR BUFFER FILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Today the only way to eliminate contact with the product during the manufacturing process is to provide a support surface under its support surface air buffer layer formed due to the expiration of the working environment through holes perforated gas distribution grids forms. There proposed the method of contactless formation of products consisting of composite materials by the means of air buffer in the article. The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of hydro-gas-dynamic processes occurring when casting of organic- mineral composite material onto the bearing air buffer expressed in the form of mathematical description realizing original hypotheses reflected in the choice of transformation algorithm and limiting conditions are presented. On the base of obtained mathematical model the algorithm of calculation of optimum parameters of transporting systems with discretely powered gas buffer is developed. The method of deduction of a semi-finished product on the gas buffer, which allows to level the pressure field under the bearing surface of the deduction object due to the usage of devices of pseudo fluidized granular material in pneumatic chambers is offered. The application of this method allows to eliminate the possibility of contact between the composite material and the working surface of the equipment and also to reduce the cost of production of pneumatic devices, to improve operational characteristics of this equipment. Submitted depending allowed to develop the methodology and implementation of engineering calculation device for non-contact casting composite materials on air buffer, semi-industrial and industrial variants were created and put into production.

  9. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  10. Cross layer scheduling algorithm for LTE Downlink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    . This paper evaluates a cross layer scheduling algorithm that aims at minimizing the resource utilization. The algorithm makes decisions regarding the channel conditions and the size of transmission buffers and different QoS demands. The simulation results show that the new algorithm improves the resource...

  11. Data-driven Development of ROTEM and TEG Algorithms for the Management of Trauma Hemorrhage: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksaas-Aasen, Kjersti; Van Dieren, Susan; Balvers, Kirsten; Juffermans, Nicole P; Næss, Pål A; Rourke, Claire; Eaglestone, Simon; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Stensballe, Jakob; Stanworth, Simon; Maegele, Marc; Goslings, Carel; Johansson, Pär I; Brohi, Karim; Gaarder, Christine

    2018-05-23

    Developing pragmatic data-driven algorithms for management of trauma induced coagulopathy (TIC) during trauma hemorrhage for viscoelastic hemostatic assays (VHAs). Admission data from conventional coagulation tests (CCT), rotational thrombelastometry (ROTEM) and thrombelastography (TEG) were collected prospectively at 6 European trauma centers during 2008 to 2013. To identify significant VHA parameters capable of detecting TIC (defined as INR > 1.2), hypofibrinogenemia (< 2.0 g/L), and thrombocytopenia (< 100 x10/L), univariate regression models were constructed. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated, and threshold values for TEG and ROTEM parameters with 70% sensitivity were included in the algorithms. A total of, 2287 adult trauma patients (ROTEM: 2019 and TEG: 968) were enrolled. FIBTEM clot amplitude at 5 minutes (CA5) had the largest AUC and 10 mm detected hypofibrinogenemia with 70% sensitivity. The corresponding value for functional fibrinogen (FF) TEG maximum amplitude (MA) was 19 mm. Thrombocytopenia was similarly detected using the calculated threshold EXTEM-FIBTEM CA5 30 mm. The corresponding rTEG-FF TEG MA was 46 mm. TIC was identified by EXTEM CA5 41 mm, rTEG MA 64 mm (80% sensitivity). For hyperfibrinolysis, we examined the relationship between viscoelastic lysis parameters and clinical outcomes, with resulting threshold values of 85% for EXTEM Li30 and 10% for rTEG Ly30.Based on these analyses, we constructed algorithms for ROTEM, TEG, and CCTs to be used in addition to ratio driven transfusion and tranexamic acid. We describe a systematic approach to define threshold parameters for ROTEM and TEG. These parameters were incorporated into algorithms to support data-driven adjustments of resuscitation with therapeutics, to optimize damage control resuscitation practice in trauma.

  12. Optimising the management of vaginal discharge syndrome in Bulgaria: cost effectiveness of four clinical algorithms with risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornier, Nadine; Petrova, Elena; Cavailler, Philippe; Dentcheva, Rossitza; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Janin, Arnaud; Ninet, Béatrice; Anguenot, Jean-Luc; Vassilakos, Pierre; Gerbase, Antonio; Mayaud, Philippe

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate the performance and cost effectiveness of the WHO recommendations of incorporating risk-assessment scores and population prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) into vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS) algorithms. Non-pregnant women presenting with VDS were recruited at a non-governmental sexual health clinic in Sofia, Bulgaria. NG and CT were diagnosed by PCR and vaginal infections by microscopy. Risk factors for NG/CT were identified in multivariable analysis. Four algorithms based on different combinations of behavioural factors, clinical findings and vaginal microscopy were developed. Performance of each algorithm was evaluated for detecting vaginal and cervical infections separately. Cost effectiveness was based on cost per patient treated and cost per case correctly treated. Sensitivity analysis explored the influence of NG/CT prevalence on cost effectiveness. 60% (252/420) of women had genital infections, with 9.5% (40/423) having NG/CT. Factors associated with NG/CT included new and multiple sexual partners in the past 3 months, symptomatic partner, childlessness and >or=10 polymorphonuclear cells per field on vaginal microscopy. For NG/CT detection, the algorithm that relied solely on behavioural risk factors was less sensitive but more specific than those that included speculum examination or microscopy but had higher correct-treatment rate and lower over-treatment rates. The cost per true case treated using a combination of risk factors, speculum examination and microscopy was euro 24.08. A halving and tripling of NG/CT prevalence would have approximately the inverse impact on the cost-effectiveness estimates. Management of NG/CT in Bulgaria was improved by the use of a syndromic approach that included risk scores. Approaches that did not rely on microscopy lost sensitivity but were more cost effective.

  13. A non-algorithmic approach to the In-core-fuel management problem of a PWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimhy, Y.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of a commercial nuclear power plant operation is to produce electricity a low cost while satisfying safety constraints imposed on the operating conditions. Design of a fuel reload cycle for the current generation nuclear power plant represents a multistage process with a series of design decisions taken at various time points. Of these stages, reload core design is an important stage, due to its impact on safety and economic plant performance parameters. Overall. performance of the plant during the power production cycle depends on chosen fresh fuel parameters, as well as specific fuel configuration of the reactor core. The motivation to computerize generation and optimization of fuel reload configurations follows from some reasons: first, reload is performed periodically and requires manipulation of a large amount of data. second, in recent years, more complicated fuel loading patterns were developed and implemented following changes in fuel design and/or operational requirements, such as, longer cycles, advanced burnable poison designs, low leakage loading patterns and reduction of irradiation-induced damage of the pressure vessel. An algorithmic approach to the problem was generally adopted. The nature of the reload design process is a 'heuristic' search performed manually by a fuel manager. The knowledge used by the fuel manager is mostly accumulated experience in reactor physics and core calculations. These features of the problem and the inherent disadvantage of the algorithmic method are the main reasons to explore a non-algorithmic approach for solving the reload configuration problem. Several features of the 'solutions space' ( a collection of acceptable final configurations ) are emphasized in this work: 1) the space contain numerous number of entities (> 25) that are distributed un homogeneously, 2) the lack of a monotonic objective function decrease the probability to find an isolated optimum configuration by depth first search or

  14. Management and prevention of refeeding syndrome in medical inpatients: An evidence-based and consensus-supported algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedli, Natalie; Stanga, Zeno; Culkin, Alison; Crook, Martin; Laviano, Alessandro; Sobotka, Lubos; Kressig, Reto W; Kondrup, Jens; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2018-03-01

    Refeeding syndrome (RFS) can be a life-threatening metabolic condition after nutritional replenishment if not recognized early and treated adequately. There is a lack of evidence-based treatment and monitoring algorithm for daily clinical practice. The aim of the study was to propose an expert consensus guideline for RFS for the medical inpatient (not including anorexic patients) regarding risk factors, diagnostic criteria, and preventive and therapeutic measures based on a previous systematic literature search. Based on a recent qualitative systematic review on the topic, we developed clinically relevant recommendations as well as a treatment and monitoring algorithm for the clinical management of inpatients regarding RFS. With international experts, these recommendations were discussed and agreement with the recommendation was rated. Upon hospital admission, we recommend the use of specific screening criteria (i.e., low body mass index, large unintentional weight loss, little or no nutritional intake, history of alcohol or drug abuse) for risk assessment regarding the occurrence of RFS. According to the patient's individual risk for RFS, a careful start of nutritional therapy with a stepwise increase in energy and fluids goals and supplementation of electrolyte and vitamins, as well as close clinical monitoring, is recommended. We also propose criteria for the diagnosis of imminent and manifest RFS with practical treatment recommendations with adoption of the nutritional therapy. Based on the available evidence, we developed a practical algorithm for risk assessment, treatment, and monitoring of RFS in medical inpatients. In daily routine clinical care, this may help to optimize and standardize the management of this vulnerable patient population. We encourage future quality studies to further refine these recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. On the dosimetric impact of inhomogeneity management in the Acuros XB algorithm for breast treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    A new algorithm for photon dose calculation, Acuros XB, has been recently introduced in the Eclipse, Varian treatment planning system, allowing, similarly to the classic Monte Carlo methods, for accurate modelling of dose deposition in media. Aim of the present study was the assessment of its behaviour in clinical cases. Datasets from ten breast patients scanned under different breathing conditions (free breathing and deep inspiration) were used to calculate dose plans using the simple two tangential field setting, with Acuros XB (in its versions 10 and 11) and the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) for a 6MV beam. Acuros XB calculations were performed as dose-to-medium distributions. This feature was investigated to appraise the capability of the algorithm to distinguish between different elemental compositions in the human body: lobular vs. adipose tissue in the breast, lower (deep inspiration condition) vs. higher (free breathing condition) densities in the lung. The analysis of the two breast structures presenting densities compatible with muscle and with adipose tissue showed an average difference in dose calculation between Acuros XB and AAA of 1.6%, with AAA predicting higher dose than Acuros XB, for the muscle tissue (the lobular breast); while the difference for adipose tissue was negligible. From histograms of the dose difference plans between AAA and Acuros XB (version 10), the dose of the lung portion inside the tangential fields presented an average difference of 0.5% in the free breathing conditions, increasing to 1.5% for the deep inspiration cases, with AAA predicting higher doses than Acuros XB. In lung tissue significant differences are found also between Acuros XB version 10 and 11 for lower density lung. Acuros XB, differently from AAA, is capable to distinguish between the different elemental compositions of the body, and suggests the possibility to further improve the accuracy of the dose plans computed for actual treatment of patients

  16. [New methodological advances: algorithm proposal for management of Clostridium difficile infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Abad, María José; Alonso-Sanz, Mercedes

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is considered the most common cause of health care-associated diarrhea and also is an etiologic agent of community diarrhea. The aim of this study was to assess the potential benefit of a test that detects glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and C. difficile toxin A/B, simultaneously, followed by detection of C. difficile toxin B (tcdB) gene by PCR as confirmatory assay on discrepant samples, and to propose an algorithm more efficient. From June 2012 to January 2013 at Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, Madrid, the stool samples were studied for the simultaneous detection of GDH and toxin A/B, and also for detection of toxin A/B alone. When results between GDH and toxin A/B were discordant, a single sample for patient was selected for detection of C. difficile toxin B (tcdB) gene. A total of 116 samples (52 patients) were tested. Four were positive and 75 negative for toxigenic C. difficile (Toxin A/B, alone or combined with GDH). C. difficile was detected in the remaining 37 samples but not toxin A/B, regardless of the method used, except one. Twenty of the 37 specimens were further tested for C. difficile toxin B (tcdB) gene and 7 were positive. The simultaneous detection of GDH and toxin A/B combined with PCR recovered undiagnosed cases of CDI. In accordance with our data, we propose a two-step algorithm: detection of GDH and PCR (in samples GDH positive). This algorithm could provide a superior cost-benefit ratio in our population.

  17. A readout buffer prototype for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, D; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Mur, M

    2001-01-01

    Readout buffers are critical components in the dataflow chain of the ATLAS trigger/data-acquisition system. At up to 75 kHz, after each Level-1 trigger accept signal, these devices receive and store digitized data from groups of front-end electronic channels. Several readout buffers are grouped to form a readout buffer complex that acts as a data server for the high-level trigger selection algorithms and for the final data-collection system. This paper describes a functional prototype of a readout buffer based on a custom-made PCI mezzanine card that is designed to accept input data at up to 160 MB /s, to store up to 8 MB of data, and to distribute data chunks at the desired request rate. We describe the hardware of the card that is based on an Intel 1960 processor and complex programmable logic devices. We present the integration of several of these cards in a readout buffer complex. We measure various performance figures and discuss to which extent these can fulfil ATLAS needs. (5 refs).

  18. Management Of Large Scale Osmotic Dehydration Solution Using The Pearsons Square Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladejo Duduyemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Osmotic dehydration is a widely researched and advantageous pre-treatment process in food preservation but has not enjoyed industrial acceptance because if its highly concentrated and voluminous effluent. The Pearsons square algorithm was employed to give a focussed attack to the problem by developing a user-friendly template for reconstituting effluents for recycling purposes using Java script programme. Outflow from a pilot scale plant was reactivated and introduced into a scheme of operation for continuous OD of fruits and vegetables. Screened and re-concentrated effluent were subjected to statistical analysis in comparison to initial concentrations solution at confidence limit of p0.05. The template proven to be an adequate representation of the Pearsons square algorithm it is sufficiently good in reconstituting used osmotic solutions for repetitive usage. This protocol if adopted in the industry is not only environmentally friendly but also promises significant economic improvement of OD process. Application Recycling of non-reacting media and as a template for automation in continuous OD processing.

  19. A Capital Adequacy Buffer Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R.J. Powell (Robert); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper, we develop a new capital adequacy buffer model (CABM) which is sensitive to dynamic economic circumstances. The model, which measures additional bank capital required to compensate for fluctuating credit risk, is a novel combination of the Merton

  20. Smoothing type buffer memory device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podorozhnyj, D.M.; Yashin, I.V.

    1990-01-01

    The layout of the micropower 4-bit smoothing type buffer memory device allowing one to record without counting the sequence of input randomly distributed pulses in multi-channel devices with serial poll, is given. The power spent by a memory cell for one binary digit recording is not greater than 0.15 mW, the device dead time is 10 mus

  1. Optimal Energy Management, Location and Size for Stationary Energy Storage System in a Metro Line Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The installation of stationary super-capacitor energy storage system (ESS in metro systems can recycle the vehicle braking energy and improve the pantograph voltage profile. This paper aims to optimize the energy management, location, and size of stationary super-capacitor ESSes simultaneously and obtain the best economic efficiency and voltage profile of metro systems. Firstly, the simulation platform of an urban rail power supply system, which includes trains and super-capacitor energy storage systems, is established. Then, two evaluation functions from the perspectives of economic efficiency and voltage drop compensation are put forward. Ultimately, a novel optimization method that combines genetic algorithms and a simulation platform of urban rail power supply system is proposed, which can obtain the best energy management strategy, location, and size for ESSes simultaneously. With actual parameters of a Chinese metro line applied in the simulation comparison, certain optimal scheme of ESSes’ energy management strategy, location, and size obtained by a novel optimization method can achieve much better performance of metro systems from the perspectives of two evaluation functions. The simulation result shows that with the increase of weight coefficient, the optimal energy management strategy, locations and size of ESSes appear certain regularities, and the best compromise between economic efficiency and voltage drop compensation can be obtained by a novel optimization method, which can provide a valuable reference to subway company.

  2. Delft-FEWS:A Decision Making Platform to Intergrate Data, Model, Algorithm for Large-Scale River Basin Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Welles, E.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we introduce a flood forecasting and decision making platform, named Delft-FEWS, which has been developed over years at the Delft Hydraulics and now at Deltares. The philosophy of Delft-FEWS is to provide water managers and operators with an open shell tool, which allows the integratation of a variety of hydrological, hydraulics, river routing, and reservoir models with hydrometerological forecasts data. Delft-FEWS serves as an powerful tool for both basin-scale and national-scale water resources management. The essential novelty of Delft-FEWS is to change the flood forecasting and water resources management from a single model or agency centric paradigm to a intergrated framework, in which different model, data, algorithm and stakeholders are strongly linked together. The paper will start with the challenges in water resources managment, and the concept and philosophy of Delft-FEWS. Then, the details of data handling and linkages of Delft-FEWS with different hydrological, hydraulic, and reservoir models, etc. Last, several cases studies and applications of Delft-FEWS will be demonstrated, including the National Weather Service and the Bonneville Power Administration in USA, and a national application in the water board in the Netherland.

  3. A Group Based Key Sharing and Management Algorithm for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Shafi Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs are one special type of ad hoc networks that involves vehicles on roads. Typically like ad hoc networks, broadcast approach is used for data dissemination. Blind broadcast to each and every node results in exchange of useless and irrelevant messages and hence creates an overhead. Unicasting is not preferred in ad-hoc networks due to the dynamic topology and the resource requirements as compared to broadcasting. Simple broadcasting techniques create several problems on privacy, disturbance, and resource utilization. In this paper, we propose media mixing algorithm to decide what information should be provided to each user and how to provide such information. Results obtained through simulation show that fewer number of keys are needed to share compared to simple broadcasting. Privacy is also enhanced through this approach.

  4. Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm to Dynamic Energy Management in Cloud Data Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanchen Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the wide deployment of cloud computing data centers, the problems of power consumption have become increasingly prominent. The dynamic energy management problem in pursuit of energy-efficiency in cloud data centers is investigated. Specifically, a dynamic energy management system model for cloud data centers is built, and this system is composed of DVS Management Module, Load Balancing Module, and Task Scheduling Module. According to Task Scheduling Module, the scheduling process is analyzed by Stochastic Petri Net, and a task-oriented resource allocation method (LET-ACO is proposed, which optimizes the running time of the system and the energy consumption by scheduling tasks. Simulation studies confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system model. And the simulation results also show that, compared to ACO, Min-Min, and RR scheduling strategy, the proposed LET-ACO method can save up to 28%, 31%, and 40% energy consumption while meeting performance constraints.

  5. A smartphone-based pain management app for adolescents with cancer: establishing system requirements and a pain care algorithm based on literature review, interviews, and consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibb, Lindsay A; Stevens, Bonnie J; Nathan, Paul C; Seto, Emily; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Stinson, Jennifer N

    2014-03-19

    Pain that occurs both within and outside of the hospital setting is a common and distressing problem for adolescents with cancer. The use of smartphone technology may facilitate rapid, in-the-moment pain support for this population. To ensure the best possible pain management advice is given, evidence-based and expert-vetted care algorithms and system design features, which are designed using user-centered methods, are required. To develop the decision algorithm and system requirements that will inform the pain management advice provided by a real-time smartphone-based pain management app for adolescents with cancer. A systematic approach to algorithm development and system design was utilized. Initially, a comprehensive literature review was undertaken to understand the current body of knowledge pertaining to pediatric cancer pain management. A user-centered approach to development was used as the results of the review were disseminated to 15 international experts (clinicians, scientists, and a consumer) in pediatric pain, pediatric oncology and mHealth design, who participated in a 2-day consensus conference. This conference used nominal group technique to develop consensus on important pain inputs, pain management advice, and system design requirements. Using data generated at the conference, a prototype algorithm was developed. Iterative qualitative testing was conducted with adolescents with cancer, as well as pediatric oncology and pain health care providers to vet and refine the developed algorithm and system requirements for the real-time smartphone app. The systematic literature review established the current state of research related to nonpharmacological pediatric cancer pain management. The 2-day consensus conference established which clinically important pain inputs by adolescents would require action (pain management advice) from the app, the appropriate advice the app should provide to adolescents in pain, and the functional requirements of the app

  6. The logic of logistics theory, algorithms, and applications for logistics and supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Simchi-Levi, David; Bramel, Julien

    2005-01-01

    Fierce competition in today's global market provides a powerful motivation for developing ever more sophisticated logistics systems. This book, written for the logistics manager and researcher, presents a survey of the modern theory and application of logistics. The goal of the book is to present the state of the art in the science of logistics management. As a result, the authors have written a timely and authoritative survey of this field that many practitioners and researchers will find makes an invaluable companion to their work.

  7. A distributed control algorithm for internal flow management in a multi-zone climate unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, C. De; Jessen, J.J.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Schiøler, H.

    2008-01-01

    We examine a distributed control problem for internal flow management in a multi-zone climate unit. The problem consists of guaranteeing prescribed indoor climate conditions in a cascade connection of an arbitrarily large number of communicating zones, in which air masses are exchanged to redirect

  8. Location and distribution management of relief centers: a genetic algorithm approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Najafi, M.; Farahani, R.Z.; de Brito, M.; Dullaert, W.E.H.

    2015-01-01

    Humanitarian logistics is regarded as a key area for improved disaster management efficiency and effectiveness. In this study, a multi-objective integrated logistic model is proposed to locate disaster relief centers while taking into account network costs and responsiveness. Because this location

  9. Management of complex urethral stricture disease: Algorithm and experience from a single institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Shau

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Complex urethral strictures can be managed by a variety of surgical techniques according to specific stricture locations. However, a careful postoperative follow-up for recurrences is mandatory, since ∼40% of patients undergoing buccal mucosal graft-augmented urethroplasties were expected to have additional procedures after the index urethroplasty.

  10. Distributed routing algorithms to manage power flow in agent-based active distribution network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H.P.; Kling, W.L.; Georgiadis, G.; Papatriantafilou, M.; Anh-Tuan, L.; Bertling, L.

    2010-01-01

    The current transition from passive to active electric distribution networks comes with problems and challenges on bi-directional power flow in the network and the uncertainty in the forecast of power generation from grid-connected renewable and distributed energy sources. The power flow management

  11. The thermodynamic-buffer enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, J W

    1980-08-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation operates at optimal efficiency if and only if the condition of conductance matching L33/L11 = square root 1-q2 is fulfilled. In this relation L11 is the phenomenological conductance of phosphorylation, L33 the phenomenological conductance of the load, i.e. the irreversible ATP-utilizing processes in the cell, and q the degree of coupling of oxidative phosphorylation driven by respiration. Since during short time intervals L11 and q are constant whereas L33 fluctuates in the cell, oxidative phosphorylation would only rarely operate at optimal efficiency due to violation of conductance matching. This paper demonstrates that the reversible ATP-utilizing reaction catalyzed by adenylate kinase can effectively compensate deviations from conductance matching in the presence of a fluctuating L33 and hence allows oxidative phosphorylation to operate at optimal efficiency in the cell. Since the adenylate kinase reaction was found to buffer a thermodynamic potential, i.e. the phosphate potential, this finding was generalized to the concept of thermodynamic buffering. The thermodynamic buffering ability of the adenylate kinase reaction was demonstrated by experiments with incubated rat-liver mitochondria. Considerations of changes introduced in the entropy production by the adenylate kinase reaction allowed to establish the theoretical framework for thermodynamic buffering. The ability of thermodynamic buffering to compensate deviations from conductance matching in the presence of fluctuating loads was demonstrated by computer simulations. The possibility of other reversible ATP-utilizing reactions, like the ones catalyzed by creatine kinase and arginine kinase, to contribute to thermodynamic buffering is discussed. Finally, the comparison of the theoretically calculated steady-stae cytosolic adenine nucleotide concentrations with experimental data from perfused livers demonstrated that in livers from fed rats conductance matching is fulfilled on a

  12. Endovascular Management of Refractory Hepatic Encephalopathy Complication of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS): Comprehensive Review and Clinical Practice Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Keith; Carrion, Andres F.; Salsamendi, Jason; Doshi, Mehul; Baker, Reginald; Kably, Issam

    2016-01-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has evolved as an effective intervention for treatment of complications of portal hypertension. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents have improved the patency of the shunts and diminished the incidence of TIPS dysfunction. However, TIPS-related refractory hepatic encephalopathy (rHE) poses a significant challenge. Approximately 3–7 % of patients with TIPS develop rHE. Refractory hepatic encephalopathy is defined as a recurrent or persistent encephalopathy despite appropriate medical treatment. Hepatic encephalopathy can be an extremely debilitating complication that profoundly affects quality of life. The approach to management of patients with rHE is complex and typically requires collaboration between different specialties. Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for rHE; however, the ongoing shortage of organ donation markedly limits this treatment option. Alternative therapies such as shunt occlusion or reduction can control symptoms and serve as a ‘bridge’ therapy to liver transplantation. Therefore, interventional radiologists play a key role in the management of these patients by offering a variety of endovascular techniques. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of these endovascular techniques and to develop a therapeutic algorithm that can be applied in clinical practice for the management of rHE

  13. Endovascular Management of Refractory Hepatic Encephalopathy Complication of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS): Comprehensive Review and Clinical Practice Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Keith, E-mail: keithjppereira@gmail.com [Jackson Memorial Hospital/University of Miami Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Carrion, Andres F., E-mail: andres.carrionmonsa@jhsmiami.org [Jackson Memorial Hospital/University of Miami Hospital, Department of Hepatology (United States); Salsamendi, Jason, E-mail: JSalsamendi@med.miami.edu; Doshi, Mehul, E-mail: MDoshi@med.miami.edu; Baker, Reginald, E-mail: RBaker@med.miami.edu; Kably, Issam, E-mail: ikably@med.miami.edu [Jackson Memorial Hospital/University of Miami Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has evolved as an effective intervention for treatment of complications of portal hypertension. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents have improved the patency of the shunts and diminished the incidence of TIPS dysfunction. However, TIPS-related refractory hepatic encephalopathy (rHE) poses a significant challenge. Approximately 3–7 % of patients with TIPS develop rHE. Refractory hepatic encephalopathy is defined as a recurrent or persistent encephalopathy despite appropriate medical treatment. Hepatic encephalopathy can be an extremely debilitating complication that profoundly affects quality of life. The approach to management of patients with rHE is complex and typically requires collaboration between different specialties. Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for rHE; however, the ongoing shortage of organ donation markedly limits this treatment option. Alternative therapies such as shunt occlusion or reduction can control symptoms and serve as a ‘bridge’ therapy to liver transplantation. Therefore, interventional radiologists play a key role in the management of these patients by offering a variety of endovascular techniques. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of these endovascular techniques and to develop a therapeutic algorithm that can be applied in clinical practice for the management of rHE.

  14. An Algorithmic Game Approach for Demand Side Management in Smart Grid with Distributed Renewable Power Generation and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Shiou Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of minimizing electricity cost and the peak system load in smart grids with distributed renewable energy resources is studied. Unlike prior research works that either assume all of the jobs are interruptible or power-shiftable, this paper focuses on more challenging scenarios in which jobs are non-interruptible and non-power-shiftable. In addition, as more and more newly-built homes have rooftop solar arrays, it is assumed that all users are equipped with a solar-plus-battery system in this paper. Thus, power can be drawn from the battery as needed to reduce the cost of electricity or to lower the overall system load. With a quadratic load-dependent cost function, this paper first shows that the electricity cost minimization problem in such a setting is NP-hard and presents a distributed demand-side management algorithm, called DDSM, to solve this. Experimental results show that the proposed DDSM algorithm is effective, scalable and converges to a Nash equilibrium in finite rounds.

  15. The logic of logistics theory, algorithms, and applications for logistics management

    CERN Document Server

    Simchi-Levi, David; Bramel, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Fierce competition in today's global market provides a powerful motivation for developing ever more sophisticated logistics systems. This book, written for the logistics manager and researcher, presents a survey of the modern theory and application of logistics. The goal of the book is to present the state of the art in the science of logistics management. This third edition includes new chapters on the subjects of game theory, the power of process flexibility, supply chain competition and collaboration. Among the other materials new to the edition are sections on discrete convex analysis and its applications to stochastic inventory models, as well as extended discussions of integrated inventory and pricing models. The material presents a timely and authoritative survey of the field that will make an invaluable companion to the work of many researchers and practitioners.   Review of earlier edition:   "The present book focuses on the application of operational research and mathematical modelling technique...

  16. An Iterative Algorithm for the Management of an Electric Car-Rental Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alberto Conejero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of a car-rental service becomes more complex as long as one-way bookings between different depots are accepted. These bookings can increase the operational costs due to the necessity of moving vehicles from one depot to another by the company staff in order to attend previously accepted bookings. We present an iterative model based on flows on networks for the acceptance of bookings by a car-rental service that permits one-way reservations. Our model lets us also recover the movement of the fleet of vehicles between the depots over the time. In addition, it also permits including restrictions on the amount of cars managed at every single depot. These results can be of interest for an electric car-rental service that operates at different depots within a city or region.

  17. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-14

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. PERFECTION OF THE ALGORITHM FOR MANAGING PREGNANT WOMEN WITH RHESUS IMMUNIZATION: DIAGNOSTIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Николаевна Кравченко

    2017-11-01

    The conclusion. The determination of TBG in a rhesus-conflict pregnancy tested at gestational age of 35 or more is an additional criterion for the prediction of an unfavorable perinatal outcome in rhesus immunization. An integrated approach to the management of pregnant women with rhesus immunization can reduce the number of preterm infants with hemolytic disease, the number of children in need of supervision and treatment in the intensive care unit

  19. Caregiver's satisfaction with a video tutorial for shoulder dystocia management algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A; Salsi, G; Ragusa, A; Ghi, T; Pacella, G; Rizzo, N; Pilu, G

    2015-01-01

    In our questionnaire, a video tutorial illustrating the management of shoulder dystocia was considered by health personnel as a useful complementary training tool. We prepared a 5-min video tutorial on the management of shoulder dystocia, using a simulator that includes maternal pelvic and baby models. We performed a survey among obstetric personnel in order to assess their opinion on the tutorial by inviting them to watch the video tutorial and answer an online questionnaire. Five multiple-choice questions were set, focusing on the video's main objectives: clarity, simplicity and usefulness. Following the collection of answers, global and category-weighted analyses were conducted for each question. Out of 956 invitations sent, 482 (50.4%) answered the survey. More than 90% of all categories found the video tutorial to be clinically relevant and clear. For revising the management of shoulder dystocia most obstetric personnel would use the video tutorial together with traditional textbooks. In conclusion, our video tutorial was considered by health personnel as a useful complementary training tool.

  20. The effect of buffer zone width on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian Morten

    2012-01-01

    Field margin management for conservation purposes is a way to protect both functional biodiversity and biodiversity per se without considerable economical loss as field margins are less productive. However, the effect of width of the buffer zone on achievable biodiversity gains has received littl...

  1. Nitrogen transformation and retention in riparian buffer zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hefting, Maria Margaretha

    2003-01-01

    Diffuse pollution of nutrients and pesticides from agricultural areas is increasingly recognised as a major problem in water management. Ecotechnological measures as constructed wetlands and riparian buffer zones clearly have an important role in the reduction of diffuse pollution by removing and

  2. Urban Runoff: Model Ordinances for Aquatic Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic Buffers serve as natural boundaries between local waterways and existing development. The model and example ordinaces below provide suggested language or technical guidance designed to create the most effective stream buffer zones possible.

  3. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  4. Swelling characteristics of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hideaki; Fujita, Tomoo

    1999-12-01

    After emplacement of the engineered barrier system (EBS), it is expected that the near-field environment will be impacted by phenomena such as heat dissipation by conduction and other heat transfer mechanism, infiltration of groundwater from the surrounding rock into the EBS, generation of swelling pressure in the buffer due to water infiltration and the stress imposed by the overburden pressure. These phenomena are not all independent, but can be strongly influenced by, and coupled with, each other. Evaluating these coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena is important in order to clarify the initial transient behavior of the engineered barrier system within the near-field. This report describes the results on measurement of swelling amount and stress at boundary built up under restraint condition with water uptake. The following results are identified. (1) The swelling stress of buffer material at saturated condition tends to be independent of effects of pore water pressure and synthetic sea water, and to decrease with increasing temperature. The swelling stress can be explained by the effective dry density. (2) The strain due to swelling estimated from the results of the swelling amount of buffer material is proportional to swelling stress. (3) The swelling stress and strain under unsaturated condition increase with water uptake. (author)

  5. Biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots in the riparian zone on agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Julien; Truax, Benoit; Gagnon, Daniel; Lambert, France

    2015-05-01

    In many temperate agricultural areas, riparian forests have been converted to cultivated land, and only narrow strips of herbaceous vegetation now buffer many farm streams. The afforestation of these riparian zones has the potential to increase carbon (C) storage in agricultural landscapes by creating a new biomass sink for atmospheric CO2. Occurring at the same time, the storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant biomass, is an important water quality function that may greatly vary with types of riparian vegetation. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare C, N and P storage in aboveground, belowground and detrital biomass for three types of riparian vegetation cover (9-year-old hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots) across four agricultural sites and (2) to determine potential vegetation cover effects on soil nutrient supply rate in the riparian zone. Site level comparisons suggest that 9-year-old poplar buffers have stored 9-31 times more biomass C, 4-10 times more biomass N, and 3-7 times more biomass P than adjacent non managed herbaceous buffers, with the largest differences observed on the more fertile sites. The conversion of these herbaceous buffers to poplar buffers could respectively increase C, N and P storage in biomass by 3.2-11.9 t/ha/yr, 32-124 kg/ha/yr and 3.2-15.6 kg/ha/yr, over 9 years. Soil NO3 and P supply rates during the summer were respectively 57% and 66% lower in poplar buffers than in adjacent herbaceous buffers, potentially reflecting differences in nutrient storage and cycling between the two buffer types. Biomass C ranged 49-160 t/ha in woodlots, 33-110 t/ha in poplar buffers and 3-4 t/ha in herbaceous buffers. Similar biomass C stocks were found in the most productive poplar buffer and three of the four woodlots studied. Given their large and varied biomass C stocks, conservation of older riparian woodlots is equally important for C balance management in farmland. In addition, the

  6. Algorithm Design of CPCI Backboard's Interrupts Management Based on VxWorks' Multi-Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingyuan; An, Qi; Yang, Junfeng

    2006-09-01

    This paper begins with a brief introduction of the embedded real-time operating system VxWorks and CompactPCI standard, then gives the programming interfaces of Peripheral Controller Interface (PCI) configuring, interrupts handling and multi-tasks programming interface under VxWorks, and then emphasis is placed on the software frameworks of CPCI interrupt management based on multi-tasks. This method is sound in design and easy to adapt, ensures that all possible interrupts are handled in time, which makes it suitable for data acquisition systems with multi-channels, a high data rate, and hard real-time high energy physics.

  7. Buffer erosion in dilute groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, T.; Kanerva, N.; Martikainen, J.; Sane, P.; Olin, M.; Seppaelae, A.; Koskinen, K.

    2013-08-01

    One scenario of interest for repository safety assessment involves the loss of bentonite buffer material in contact with dilute groundwater flowing through a transmissive fracture interface. In order to examine the extrusion/erosion behavior of bentonite buffer material under such circumstances, a series of experiments were performed in a flow-through, 1 mm aperture, artificial fracture system. These experiments covered a range of solution chemistry (salt concentration and composition), material composition (sodium montmorillonite and admixtures with calcium montmorillonite), and flow velocity conditions. No erosion was observed for sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions from 0.5 g/L to 10 g/L NaCl. No erosion was observed for 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against 0.5 g/L NaCl. Erosion was observed for both sodium montmorillonite and 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions ≤ 0.25 g/L NaCl. The calculated erosion rates for the tests with the highest levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under the most dilute conditions (ionic strength (IS) < ∼1 mM), were well-correlated to flow velocity, whereas the calculated erosion rates for the tests with lower levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under somewhat less dilute conditions (∼1 mM < IS < ∼4 mM), were not similarly correlated indicating that material and solution composition can significantly affect erosion rates. In every experiment, both erosive and non-erosive, emplaced buffer material extruded into the fracture and was observed to be impermeable to water flowing in the fracture effectively forming an extended diffusive barrier around the intersecting fracture/buffer interface. Additionally, a model which was developed previously to predict the rate of erosion of bentonite buffer material in low ionic strength water in rock fracture environments was applied to three different cases: sodium montmorillonite expansion in a vertical tube, a

  8. BUFFER CAPACITY IN HETEROGENEOUS MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEMS. REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Spinu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative basis of the theory of buffer properties for two-phase acid-base buffer systems and for multicomponent heterogeneous systems has been derived. The analytical equations with respect to all components for diverse multicomponent systems were deduced. It has been established, that the buffer capacities of components are mutually proportional.

  9. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  10. Evaluating social-ecological aspects of buffer zones at the borders of Etosha National Park, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelani M. Mannetti; Ulrich Zeller; Karen J. Esler

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the premise that the implementation of a buffer zone around a national park provides opportunities for local communities to become active in the management of such areas. The study focuses on the Etosha National Park in Namibia, where the implementation of a buffer zone has been proposed, since the park fence is a potential barrier for...

  11. Effects of riparian buffer width on wood loading in headwater streams after repeated forest thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia I. Burton; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2016-01-01

    Forested riparian buffer zones are used in conjunction with upland forest management, in part, to provide for the recruitment for large wood to streams. Small headwater streams account for the majority of stream networks in many forested regions. Yet, our understanding of how riparian buffer width influences wood dynamics in headwater streams is relatively less...

  12. A method for quantifying and comparing the costs and benefits of alternative riparian zone buffer widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Ethel Wilkerson

    2008-01-01

    We developed a method that can be used to quantify the opportunity costs and ecological benefits of implementing alternative streamside management zones/buffer zone widths. The opportunity costs are computed based on the net value of the timber left behind in the buffer zone, the stump-to-mill logging costs for the logging technology that would have been used to...

  13. A distributed algorithm for demand-side management: Selling back to the grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Milad; Khalili, Azam; Rastegarnia, Amir; Zandi, Sajad; Bazzi, Wael M

    2017-11-01

    Demand side energy consumption scheduling is a well-known issue in the smart grid research area. However, there is lack of a comprehensive method to manage the demand side and consumer behavior in order to obtain an optimum solution. The method needs to address several aspects, including the scale-free requirement and distributed nature of the problem, consideration of renewable resources, allowing consumers to sell electricity back to the main grid, and adaptivity to a local change in the solution point. In addition, the model should allow compensation to consumers and ensurance of certain satisfaction levels. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a novel autonomous demand side management technique which minimizes consumer utility costs and maximizes consumer comfort levels in a fully distributed manner. The technique uses a new logarithmic cost function and allows consumers to sell excess electricity (e.g. from renewable resources) back to the grid in order to reduce their electric utility bill. To develop the proposed scheme, we first formulate the problem as a constrained convex minimization problem. Then, it is converted to an unconstrained version using the segmentation-based penalty method. At each consumer location, we deploy an adaptive diffusion approach to obtain the solution in a distributed fashion. The use of adaptive diffusion makes it possible for consumers to find the optimum energy consumption schedule with a small number of information exchanges. Moreover, the proposed method is able to track drifts resulting from changes in the price parameters and consumer preferences. Simulations and numerical results show that our framework can reduce the total load demand peaks, lower the consumer utility bill, and improve the consumer comfort level.

  14. A distributed algorithm for demand-side management: Selling back to the grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Latifi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Demand side energy consumption scheduling is a well-known issue in the smart grid research area. However, there is lack of a comprehensive method to manage the demand side and consumer behavior in order to obtain an optimum solution. The method needs to address several aspects, including the scale-free requirement and distributed nature of the problem, consideration of renewable resources, allowing consumers to sell electricity back to the main grid, and adaptivity to a local change in the solution point. In addition, the model should allow compensation to consumers and ensurance of certain satisfaction levels. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a novel autonomous demand side management technique which minimizes consumer utility costs and maximizes consumer comfort levels in a fully distributed manner. The technique uses a new logarithmic cost function and allows consumers to sell excess electricity (e.g. from renewable resources back to the grid in order to reduce their electric utility bill. To develop the proposed scheme, we first formulate the problem as a constrained convex minimization problem. Then, it is converted to an unconstrained version using the segmentation-based penalty method. At each consumer location, we deploy an adaptive diffusion approach to obtain the solution in a distributed fashion. The use of adaptive diffusion makes it possible for consumers to find the optimum energy consumption schedule with a small number of information exchanges. Moreover, the proposed method is able to track drifts resulting from changes in the price parameters and consumer preferences. Simulations and numerical results show that our framework can reduce the total load demand peaks, lower the consumer utility bill, and improve the consumer comfort level. Keywords: Energy, Systems engineering, Electrical engineering

  15. Management of High-energy Avulsive Ballistic Facial Injury: A Review of the Literature and Algorithmic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Elbert E; Bellamy, Justin L; Sinno, Sammy; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2018-03-01

    High-energy avulsive ballistic facial injuries pose one of the most significant reconstructive challenges. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to evaluate management trends and outcomes for the treatment of devastating ballistic facial trauma. Furthermore, we describe the senior author's early and definitive staged reconstructive approach to these challenging patients. A Medline search was conducted to include studies that described timing of treatment, interventions, complications, and/or aesthetic outcomes. Initial query revealed 41 articles, of which 17 articles met inclusion criteria. A single comparative study revealed that early versus delayed management resulted in a decreased incidence of soft-tissue contracture, required fewer total procedures, and resulted in shorter hospitalizations (level 3 evidence). Seven of the 9 studies (78%) that advocated delayed reconstruction were from the Middle East, whereas 5 of the 6 studies (83%) advocating immediate or early definitive reconstruction were from the United States. No study compared debridement timing directly in a head-to-head fashion, nor described flap selection based on defect characteristics. Existing literature suggests that early and aggressive intervention improves outcomes following avulsive ballistic injuries. Further comparative studies are needed; however, although evidence is limited, the senior author presents a 3-stage reconstructive algorithm advocating early and definitive reconstruction with aesthetic free tissue transfer in an attempt to optimize reconstructive outcomes of these complex injuries.

  16. Sunlight to hydrogen conversion: Design optimization and energy management of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV-Hydrogen) system using micro genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhan, Muhammad; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the intermittent solar irradiance from cloud cover in the diurnal period and unavailability at night time, the practical design of a solar system requires energy backup storage for an uninterrupted supply or for off-grid operation. However, for highly efficient CPV (concentrated photovoltaic) system, the literature is lacking for energy management and optimization algorithm and tool for standalone operation. In this paper, a system with CPV and electrolyser is presented where beam irradiance of sunlight is harnessed to convert the instantaneously generated electricity into useful Hydrogen/Oxygen gas, where they can be stored and re-used for downstream applications such as the fuel cells, etc. The multi-variable design and multi-objective optimization strategies are proposed and presented for a standalone operation of the CPV-Hydrogen system as well as their system performances, particularly electrical rating of CPV based upon the real weather data of Singapore. - Highlights: • Design modelling and energy management strategy is proposed for CPV-Hydrogen system. • Micro GA does multi-variable and multi-objective optimization for standalone operation. • Design is verified and analysed for minimum cost, zero PSFT and optimal storage. • Performance of each component is presented for different real weather data conditions. • Proposed design approach is applicable in all regions with low and high DNI.

  17. Management of High-energy Avulsive Ballistic Facial Injury: A Review of the Literature and Algorithmic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Elbert E.; Bellamy, Justin L.; Sinno, Sammy

    2018-01-01

    Background: High-energy avulsive ballistic facial injuries pose one of the most significant reconstructive challenges. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to evaluate management trends and outcomes for the treatment of devastating ballistic facial trauma. Furthermore, we describe the senior author’s early and definitive staged reconstructive approach to these challenging patients. Methods: A Medline search was conducted to include studies that described timing of treatment, interventions, complications, and/or aesthetic outcomes. Results: Initial query revealed 41 articles, of which 17 articles met inclusion criteria. A single comparative study revealed that early versus delayed management resulted in a decreased incidence of soft-tissue contracture, required fewer total procedures, and resulted in shorter hospitalizations (level 3 evidence). Seven of the 9 studies (78%) that advocated delayed reconstruction were from the Middle East, whereas 5 of the 6 studies (83%) advocating immediate or early definitive reconstruction were from the United States. No study compared debridement timing directly in a head-to-head fashion, nor described flap selection based on defect characteristics. Conclusions: Existing literature suggests that early and aggressive intervention improves outcomes following avulsive ballistic injuries. Further comparative studies are needed; however, although evidence is limited, the senior author presents a 3-stage reconstructive algorithm advocating early and definitive reconstruction with aesthetic free tissue transfer in an attempt to optimize reconstructive outcomes of these complex injuries. PMID:29707453

  18. A Prospective Study of Tuberculosis Drug Susceptibility in Sabah, Malaysia, and an Algorithm for Management of Isoniazid Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid Ali, Muhammad Redzwan S.; Parameswaran, Uma; William, Timothy; Bird, Elspeth; Wilkes, Christopher S.; Lee, Wai Khew; Yeo, Tsin Wen; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Ralph, Anna P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The burden of tuberculosis is high in eastern Malaysia, and rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance are poorly defined. Our objectives were to determine M. tuberculosis susceptibility and document management after receipt of susceptibility results. Methods. Prospective study of adult outpatients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Sabah, Malaysia. Additionally, hospital clinicians accessed the reference laboratory for clinical purposes during the study. Results. 176 outpatients were enrolled; 173 provided sputum samples. Mycobacterial culture yielded M. tuberculosis in 159 (91.9%) and nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) in three (1.7%). Among outpatients there were no instances of multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Seven people (4.5%) had isoniazid resistance (INH-R); all were switched to an appropriate second-line regimen for varying durations (4.5–9 months). Median delay to commencement of the second-line regimen was 13 weeks. Among 15 inpatients with suspected TB, 2 had multidrug resistant TB (one extensively drug resistant), 2 had INH-R, and 4 had NTM. Conclusions. Current community rates of MDR-TB in Sabah are low. However, INH-resistance poses challenges, and NTM is an important differential diagnosis in this setting, where smear microscopy is the usual diagnostic modality. To address INH-R management issues in our setting, we propose an algorithm for the treatment of isoniazid-resistant PTB. PMID:25838829

  19. The Social Relationship Based Adaptive Multi-Spray-and-Wait Routing Algorithm for Disruption Tolerant Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Guan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing spray-based routing algorithms in DTN cannot dynamically adjust the number of message copies based on actual conditions, which results in a waste of resource and a reduction of the message delivery rate. Besides, the existing spray-based routing protocols may result in blind spots or dead end problems due to the limitation of various given metrics. Therefore, this paper proposes a social relationship based adaptive multiple spray-and-wait routing algorithm (called SRAMSW which retransmits the message copies based on their residence times in the node via buffer management and selects forwarders based on the social relationship. By these means, the proposed algorithm can remove the plight of the message congestion in the buffer and improve the probability of replicas to reach their destinations. The simulation results under different scenarios show that the SRAMSW algorithm can improve the message delivery rate and reduce the messages’ dwell time in the cache and further improve the buffer effectively.

  20. Development and evaluation of an algorithm-based tool for Medication Management in nursing homes: the AMBER study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzkamp, Susanne; Rose, Olaf

    2018-04-20

    Residents of nursing homes are susceptible to risks from medication. Medication Reviews (MR) can increase clinical outcomes and the quality of medication therapy. Limited resources and barriers between healthcare practitioners are potential obstructions to performing MR in nursing homes. Focusing on frequent and relevant problems can support pharmacists in the provision of pharmaceutical care services. This study aims to develop and evaluate an algorithm-based tool that facilitates the provision of Medication Management in clinical practice. This study is subdivided into three phases. In phase I, semistructured interviews with healthcare practitioners and patients will be performed, and a mixed methods approach will be chosen. Qualitative content analysis and the rating of the aspects concerning the frequency and relevance of problems in the medication process in nursing homes will be performed. In phase II, a systematic review of the current literature on problems and interventions will be conducted. The findings will be narratively presented. The results of both phases will be combined to develop an algorithm for MRs. For further refinement of the aspects detected, a Delphi survey will be conducted. In conclusion, a tool for clinical practice will be created. In phase III, the tool will be tested on MRs in nursing homes. In addition, effectiveness, acceptance, feasibility and reproducibility will be assessed. The primary outcome of phase III will be the reduction of drug-related problems (DRPs), which will be detected using the tool. The secondary outcomes will be the proportion of DRPs, the acceptance of pharmaceutical recommendations and the expenditure of time using the tool and inter-rater reliability. This study intervention is approved by the local Ethics Committee. The findings of the study will be presented at national and international scientific conferences and will be published in peer-reviewed journals. DRKS00010995. © Article author(s) (or their

  1. A THEORETICAL DISCUSSION OF THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF BUFFER STOCKS AND BUFFER FUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Phil

    1988-01-01

    It has been established that the absence of risk markets justifies market intervention in principle. The form of intervention that has been discussed most widely in the literature is the buffer stock. This paper points out that other forms of intervention, specifically buffer funds, are likely to perform better. The analysis shows that buffer funds are likely to outperform buffer stocks because they address market failure more directly. A sub-theme developed in this paper is that since buffer...

  2. Development and test results of a flight management algorithm for fuel conservative descents in a time-based metered traffic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.; Cannon, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A simple flight management descent algorithm designed to improve the accuracy of delivering an airplane in a fuel-conservative manner to a metering fix at a time designated by air traffic control was developed and flight tested. This algorithm provides a three dimensional path with terminal area time constraints (four dimensional) for an airplane to make an idle thrust, clean configured (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted) descent to arrive at the metering fix at a predetermined time, altitude, and airspeed. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard pressure and temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm is described. The results of the flight tests flown with the Terminal Configured Vehicle airplane are presented.

  3. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tian, Hui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Corcoran, Sean [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop.' In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature (? 120 °C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  4. Management of temporary urinary retention after arthroscopic knee surgery in low-dose spinal anesthesia: development of a simple algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, Thomas J; Garoscio, Ivo; Rehder, Peter; Oberladstätter, Jürgen; Voelckel, Wolfgang

    2008-06-01

    In practice, trauma and orthopedic surgery during spinal anesthesia are often performed with routine urethral catheterization of the bladder to prevent an overdistention of the bladder. However, use of a catheter has inherent risks. Ultrasound examination of the bladder (Bladderscan) can precisely determine the bladder volume. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify parameters indicative of urinary retention after low-dose spinal anesthesia and to develop a simple algorithm for patient care. This prospective pilot study approved by the Ethics Committee enrolled 45 patients after obtaining their written informed consent. Patients who underwent arthroscopic knee surgery received low-dose spinal anesthesia with 1.4 ml 0.5% bupivacaine at level L3/L4. Bladder volume was measured by urinary bladder scanning at baseline, at the end of surgery and up to 4 h later. The incidence of spontaneous urination versus catheterization was assessed and the relative risk for catheterization was calculated. Mann-Whitney test, chi(2) test with Fischer Exact test and the relative odds ratio were performed as appropriate. *P 300 ml postoperatively had a 6.5-fold greater likelihood for urinary retention. In the management of patients with short-lasting spinal anesthesia for arthroscopic knee surgery we recommend monitoring bladder volume by Bladderscan instead of routine catheterization. Anesthesiologists or nurses under protocol should assess bladder volume preoperatively and at the end of surgery. If bladder volume is >300 ml, catheterization should be performed in the OR. Patients with a bladder volume of 500 ml.

  5. A review of vegetated buffers and a meta-analysis of their mitigation efficacy in reducing nonpoint source pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Liu, Xingmei; Zhang, Minghua; Dahlgren, Randy A; Eitzel, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetated buffers are a well-studied and widely used agricultural management practice for reducing nonpoint-source pollution. A wealth of literature provides experimental data on their mitigation efficacy. This paper aggregated many of these results and performed a meta-analysis to quantify the relationships between pollutant removal efficacy and buffer width, buffer slope, soil type, and vegetation type. Theoretical models for removal efficacy (Y) vs. buffer width (w) were derived and tested against data from the surveyed literature using statistical analyses. A model of the form Y = K x (1-e(-bxw)), (0 pollutant removal, where K reflects the maximum removal efficacy of the buffer and b reflects its probability to remove any single particle of pollutant in a unit distance. Buffer width alone explains 37, 60, 44, and 35% of the total variance in removal efficacy for sediment, pesticides, N, and P, respectively. Buffer slope was linearly associated with sediment removal efficacy either positively (when slope 10%). Buffers composed of trees have higher N and P removal efficacy than buffers composed of grasses or mixtures of grasses and trees. Soil drainage type did not show a significant effect on pollutant removal efficacy. Based on our analysis, a 30-m buffer under favorable slope conditions (approximately 10%) removes more than 85% of all the studied pollutants. These models predicting optimal buffer width/slope can be instrumental in the design, implementation, and modeling of vegetated buffers for treating agricultural runoff.

  6. A practical multi-objective PSO algorithm for optimal operation management of distribution network with regard to fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher; Meymand, Hamed Zeinoddini; Mojarrad, Hasan Doagou [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, P.O. 71555-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    In this paper a novel Multi-objective fuzzy self adaptive hybrid particle swarm optimization (MFSAHPSO) evolutionary algorithm to solve the Multi-objective optimal operation management (MOOM) is presented. The purposes of the MOOM problem are to decrease the total electrical energy losses, the total electrical energy cost and the total pollutant emission produced by fuel cells and substation bus. Conventional algorithms used to solve the multi-objective optimization problems convert the multiple objectives into a single objective, using a vector of the user-predefined weights. In this conversion several deficiencies can be detected. For instance, the optimal solution of the algorithms depends greatly on the values of the weights and also some of the information may be lost in the conversion process and so this strategy is not expected to provide a robust solution. This paper presents a new MFSAHPSO algorithm for the MOOM problem. The proposed algorithm maintains a finite-sized repository of non-dominated solutions which gets iteratively updated in the presence of new solutions. Since the objective functions are not the same, a fuzzy clustering technique is used to control the size of the repository, within the limits. The proposed algorithm is tested on a distribution test feeder and the results demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed approach, to generate true and well-distributed Pareto-optimal non-dominated solutions of the MOOM problem. (author)

  7. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Guerrero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed.

  8. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Lardone, Patricia J.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Guerrero, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. PMID:23609496

  9. Modelling of buffer material behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, L.

    1988-12-01

    Some material models of smectite rich buffer material suited for nuclear waste isolation are accounted for in the report. The application of these models in finite element calculations of some scenarios and performance are also shown. The rock shear scenario has been closely studied with comparisons between calculated and measured results. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of changing the density of the clay and the rate of shear have been performed as well as one calculation using a hollow steel cylinder. Material models and finite element calculations of canister settlement, thermomechanical effects and swelling are also accounted for. The report shows the present state of the work to establish material models and calculation tools which can be used at the final design of the repository. (31 illustrations)

  10. Signature-based store checking buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Vilas; Gurumurthi, Sudhanva

    2015-06-02

    A system and method for optimizing redundant output verification, are provided. A hardware-based store fingerprint buffer receives multiple instances of output from multiple instances of computation. The store fingerprint buffer generates a signature from the content included in the multiple instances of output. When a barrier is reached, the store fingerprint buffer uses the signature to verify the content is error-free.

  11. Probabilistic energy management of a renewable microgrid with hydrogen storage using self-adaptive charge search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niknam, Taher; Golestaneh, Faranak; Shafiei, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Micro Grids (MGs) are clusters of the DER (Distributed Energy Resource) units and loads which can operate in both grid-connected and island modes. This paper addresses a probabilistic cost optimization scheme under uncertain environment for the MGs with several multiple Distributed Generation (DG) units. The purpose of the proposed approach is to make decisions regarding to optimizing the production of the DG units and power exchange with the upstream network for a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system. A PEMFCPP (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel cell power plant) is considered as a prime mover of the CHP system. An electrochemical model for representation and performance of the PEMFC is applied. In order to best use of the FCPP, hydrogen production and storage management are carried out. An economic model is organized to calculate the operation cost of the MG based on the electrochemical model of the PEMFC and hydrogen storage. The proposed optimization scheme comprises a self-adaptive Charged System Search (CSS) linked to the 2m + 1 point estimate method. The 2m + 1 point estimate method is employed to cover the uncertainty in the following data: the hourly market tariffs, electrical and thermal load demands, available output power of the PhotoVoltaic (PV) and Wind Turbines (WT) units, fuel prices, hydrogen selling price, operation temperature of the FC and pressure of the reactant gases of FC. The Self-adaptive CSS (SCSS) is organized based on the CSS algorithm and is upgraded by some modification approaches, mainly a self-adaptive reformation approach. In the proposed reformation method, two updating approaches are considered. Each particle based on the ability of those approaches to find optimal solutions in the past iterations, chooses one of them to improve its solution. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified on a multiple-DG MG in the grid-connected mode. -- Highlights: ► Consider the effect of Hydrogen produced by PEMFC on MGs. ► Combines

  12. SODR Memory Control Buffer Control ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Optical Disk Recorder (SODR) is a state of the art mass storage system for future NASA missions requiring high transmission rates and a large capacity storage system. This report covers the design and development of an SODR memory buffer control applications specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The memory buffer control ASIC has two primary functions: (1) buffering data to prevent loss of data during disk access times, (2) converting data formats from a high performance parallel interface format to a small computer systems interface format. Ten 144 p in, 50 MHz CMOS ASIC's were designed, fabricated and tested to implement the memory buffer control function.

  13. Algorithming the Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Martina; Uprichard, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Imagine sailing across the ocean. The sun is shining, vastness all around you. And suddenly [BOOM] you’ve hit an invisible wall. Welcome to the Truman Show! Ever since Eli Pariser published his thoughts on a potential filter bubble, this movie scenario seems to have become reality, just with slight...... changes: it’s not the ocean, it’s the internet we’re talking about, and it’s not a TV show producer, but algorithms that constitute a sort of invisible wall. Building on this assumption, most research is trying to ‘tame the algorithmic tiger’. While this is a valuable and often inspiring approach, we...

  14. An algorithm for management of deep brain stimulation battery replacements: devising a web-based battery estimator and clinical symptom approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuno, Michael A; Kohner, Andrew B; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective technique that has been utilized to treat advanced and medication-refractory movement and psychiatric disorders. In order to avoid implanted pulse generator (IPG) failure and consequent adverse symptoms, a better understanding of IPG battery longevity and management is necessary. Existing methods for battery estimation lack the specificity required for clinical incorporation. Technical challenges prevent higher accuracy longevity estimations, and a better approach to managing end of DBS battery life is needed. The literature was reviewed and DBS battery estimators were constructed by the authors and made available on the web at http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator. A clinical algorithm for management of DBS battery life was constructed. The algorithm takes into account battery estimations and clinical symptoms. Existing methods of DBS battery life estimation utilize an interpolation of averaged current drains to calculate how long a battery will last. Unfortunately, this technique can only provide general approximations. There are inherent errors in this technique, and these errors compound with each iteration of the battery estimation. Some of these errors cannot be accounted for in the estimation process, and some of the errors stem from device variation, battery voltage dependence, battery usage, battery chemistry, impedance fluctuations, interpolation error, usage patterns, and self-discharge. We present web-based battery estimators along with an algorithm for clinical management. We discuss the perils of using a battery estimator without taking into account the clinical picture. Future work will be needed to provide more reliable management of implanted device batteries; however, implementation of a clinical algorithm that accounts for both estimated battery life and for patient symptoms should improve the care of DBS patients. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  15. Temperature buffer test. Dismantling operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite in the usual way, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a ring of sand. The test was dismantled and sampled during a period from the end of October 2009 to the end of April 2010, and this report describes this operation. Different types of samples have been obtained during this operation. A large number of diameter 50 mm bentonite cores have been taken for analysis of water content and density. Large pieces, so-called big sectors, have been taken for hydro-mechanical and chemical characterizations. Finally, there has been an interest to obtain different types of interface samples in which bentonite were in contact with sand, iron or concrete. One goal has been to investigate the retrievability of the upper heater, given the possibility to remove the surrounding sand shield, and a retrieval test has therefore been performed. The sand in the shield was first removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner after loosening the material through mechanical means (with hammer drill and core machine). A front loader was subsequently used for applying a sufficient lifting force to release the heater from the bentonite underneath. The experiment has been documented in different aspects: measurements of the coordinate (height or radius) of different interfaces (between bentonite blocks and between bentonite and sand); verification of sensor positions and retrieval of sensors for subsequent

  16. Temperature buffer test. Dismantling operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakesson, Mattias

    2010-12-01

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aespoe HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by bentonite in the usual way, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a ring of sand. The test was dismantled and sampled during a period from the end of October 2009 to the end of April 2010, and this report describes this operation. Different types of samples have been obtained during this operation. A large number of diameter 50 mm bentonite cores have been taken for analysis of water content and density. Large pieces, so-called big sectors, have been taken for hydro-mechanical and chemical characterizations. Finally, there has been an interest to obtain different types of interface samples in which bentonite were in contact with sand, iron or concrete. One goal has been to investigate the retrievability of the upper heater, given the possibility to remove the surrounding sand shield, and a retrieval test has therefore been performed. The sand in the shield was first removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner after loosening the material through mechanical means (with hammer drill and core machine). A front loader was subsequently used for applying a sufficient lifting force to release the heater from the bentonite underneath. The experiment has been documented in different aspects: measurements of the coordinate (height or radius) of different interfaces (between bentonite blocks and between bentonite and sand); verification of sensor positions and retrieval of sensors for subsequent

  17. RESTORED RIPARIAN BUFFERS AS TOOLS FOR ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION IN THE MAIA PROCESSES, ENDPOINTS, AND MEASURES OF SUCCESS FOR WATER, SOIL, FLORA AND FAUNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts, moreover the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  18. Effects of Terrestrial Buffer Zones on Amphibians on Golf Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglis, Holly J.; Boone, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    A major cause of amphibian declines worldwide is habitat destruction or alteration. Public green spaces, such as golf courses and parks, could serve as safe havens to curb the effects of habitat loss if managed in ways to bolster local amphibian communities. We reared larval Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) in golf course ponds with and without 1 m terrestrial buffer zones, and released marked cricket frog metamorphs at the golf course ponds they were reared in. Larval survival of both species was affected by the presence of a buffer zone, with increased survival for cricket frogs and decreased survival for green frogs when reared in ponds with buffer zones. No marked cricket frog juveniles were recovered at any golf course pond in the following year, suggesting that most animals died or migrated. In a separate study, we released cricket frogs in a terrestrial pen and allowed them to choose between mown and unmown grass. Cricket frogs had a greater probability of using unmown versus mown grass. Our results suggest that incorporating buffer zones around ponds can offer suitable habitat for some amphibian species and can improve the quality of the aquatic environment for some sensitive local amphibians. PMID:22761833

  19. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine equivalent...

  20. Assisting in Auditing of Buffer Overflow Vulnerabilities via Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkun Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buffer overflow vulnerability is a kind of consequence in which programmers’ intentions are not implemented correctly. In this paper, a static analysis method based on machine learning is proposed to assist in auditing buffer overflow vulnerabilities. First, an extended code property graph is constructed from the source code to extract seven kinds of static attributes, which are used to describe buffer properties. After embedding these attributes into a vector space, five frequently used machine learning algorithms are employed to classify the functions into suspicious vulnerable functions and secure ones. The five classifiers reached an average recall of 83.5%, average true negative rate of 85.9%, a best recall of 96.6%, and a best true negative rate of 91.4%. Due to the imbalance of the training samples, the average precision of the classifiers is 68.9% and the average F1 score is 75.2%. When the classifiers were applied to a new program, our method could reduce the false positive to 1/12 compared to Flawfinder.

  1. THE BUFFER CAPACITY OF AIRWAY EPITHELIAL SECRETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusik eKim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF. The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 µl volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO3- is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (β increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO3- secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO3- secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions.

  2. Shock buffer for nuclear control assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1977-01-01

    A shock buffer is provided for the gradual deceleration of a rapidly descending control element assembly in a nuclear reactor. The interactive buffer components are associated respectively with the movable control element assembly and part of the upper guide structure independent of and spaced from the fuel assemblies of the reactor

  3. Buffer sizing for multi-hop networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-28

    A cumulative buffer may be defined for an interference domain in a wireless mesh network and distributed among nodes in the network to maintain or improve capacity utilization of network resources in the interference domain without increasing packet queuing delay times. When an interference domain having communications links sharing resources in a network is identified, a cumulative buffer size is calculated. The cumulative buffer may be distributed among buffers in each node of the interference domain according to a simple division or according to a cost function taking into account a distance of the communications link from the source and destination. The network may be monitored and the cumulative buffer size recalculated and redistributed when the network conditions change.

  4. Optimization of protein buffer cocktails using Thermofluor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Linda; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Geerlof, Arie; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Weiss, Manfred S

    2013-02-01

    The stability and homogeneity of a protein sample is strongly influenced by the composition of the buffer that the protein is in. A quick and easy approach to identify a buffer composition which increases the stability and possibly the conformational homogeneity of a protein sample is the fluorescence-based thermal-shift assay (Thermofluor). Here, a novel 96-condition screen for Thermofluor experiments is presented which consists of buffer and additive parts. The buffer screen comprises 23 different buffers and the additive screen includes small-molecule additives such as salts and nucleotide analogues. The utilization of small-molecule components which increase the thermal stability of a protein sample frequently results in a protein preparation of higher quality and quantity and ultimately also increases the chances of the protein crystallizing.

  5. Modeling in the State Flow Environment to Support Launch Vehicle Verification Testing for Mission and Fault Management Algorithms in the NASA Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Berg, Peter; England, Dwight; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis methods and testing processes are essential activities in the engineering development and verification of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS). Central to mission success is reliable verification of the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the SLS launch vehicle (LV) flight software. This is particularly difficult because M&FM algorithms integrate and operate LV subsystems, which consist of diverse forms of hardware and software themselves, with equally diverse integration from the engineering disciplines of LV subsystems. M&FM operation of SLS requires a changing mix of LV automation. During pre-launch the LV is primarily operated by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) organization with some LV automation of time-critical functions, and much more autonomous LV operations during ascent that have crucial interactions with the Orion crew capsule, its astronauts, and with mission controllers at the Johnson Space Center. M&FM algorithms must perform all nominal mission commanding via the flight computer to control LV states from pre-launch through disposal and also address failure conditions by initiating autonomous or commanded aborts (crew capsule escape from the failing LV), redundancy management of failing subsystems and components, and safing actions to reduce or prevent threats to ground systems and crew. To address the criticality of the verification testing of these algorithms, the NASA M&FM team has utilized the State Flow environment6 (SFE) with its existing Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) platform which also hosts vendor-supplied physics-based LV subsystem models. The human-derived M&FM algorithms are designed and vetted in Integrated Development Teams composed of design and development disciplines such as Systems Engineering, Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and major subsystems and vehicle elements

  6. ALGOS: the development of a randomized controlled trial testing a case management algorithm designed to reduce suicide risk among suicide attempters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duhem Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide attempts (SA constitute a serious clinical problem. People who attempt suicide are at high risk of further repetition. However, no interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing repetition in this group of patients. Methods/Design Multicentre randomized controlled trial. We examine the effectiveness of «ALGOS algorithm»: an intervention based in a decisional tree of contact type which aims at reducing the incidence of repeated suicide attempt during 6 months. This algorithm of case management comprises the two strategies of intervention that showed a significant reduction in the number of SA repeaters: systematic telephone contact (ineffective in first-attempters and «Crisis card» (effective only in first-attempters. Participants who are lost from contact and those refusing healthcare, can then benefit from «short letters» or «postcards». Discussion ALGOS algorithm is easily reproducible and inexpensive intervention that will supply the guidelines for assessment and management of a population sometimes in difficulties with healthcare compliance. Furthermore, it will target some of these subgroups of patients by providing specific interventions for optimizing the benefits of case management strategy. Trial Registration The study was registered with the ClinicalTrials.gov Registry; number: NCT01123174.

  7. COMBINATIONS OF BUFFER-STOCKS AND BUFFER-FUNDS FOR WOOL PRICE STABILISATION IN AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Moir, Brian; Piggott, Roley R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a preliminary analysis is presented of a combined buffer-fund and buffer-stock as an alternative to a pure buffer-fund or a pure buffer stock for stabilising wool prices. The alternatives analysed are designed so that each provides the same prices to producers as did the Reserve Price Scheme over the period of analysis. Least-cost combinations of policy instruments are derived. The results show that there is considerable potential for cost savings to be made by combining buffer-...

  8. Buffer mass test - Site documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile test site data that are assumed to be of importance for the interpretation of the Buffer Mass Test. Since this test mainly concerns water uptake and migration processes in the integrated rock/backfill system and the development of temperature fields in this system, the work has been focused on the constitution and hydrology of the rock. The major constitutional rock feature of interest for the BMT is the frequency and distribution of joints and fractures. The development of models for water uptake into the highly compacted bentonite in the heater holes requires a very detailed fracture survey. The present investigation shows that two of the holes (no. 1 and 2) are located in richly fractured rock, while the others are located in fracture-poor to moderately fractured rock. The hydrological conditions of the rock in the BMT area are characterized by water pressures of as much as 100 m water head at a few meters distance from the test site. The average hydraulic conductivity of the rock that confines the BMT tunnel has been estimated at about 10 -10 m/s by Lawrence Laboratory. The actual distribution of the water that enters the tunnel has been estimated by observing the successive moistening after having switched off the ventilation, and this has offered basis of predicting the rate and uniformity of the water uptake in the tunnel backfill. As to the heater holes the detailed fracture patterns and various inflow measurements have yielded a similar basis. The report also gives major data on the rock temperature, gas conditions, mineralogy, rock mechanics, and groundwater chemistry for BMT purposes. (author)

  9. Smart power management algorithm in microgrid consisting of photovoltaic, diesel, and battery storage plants considering variations in sunlight, temperature, and load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koohi-Kamali, Sam; Rahim, N.A.; Mokhlis, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel power management algorithm is developed. • An effective power smoothing index is derived. • Application of battery storage in smoothing the power fluctuations is investigated. • An applicable battery sizing and designing algorithm is proposed. • An efficient battery current control algorithm is designed. - Abstract: Integration of utility scaled solar electricity generator into power networks can negatively affect the performance of next generation smartgrid. Rapidly changing output power of this kind is unpredictable and thus one solution is to mitigate it by short-term to mid-term electrical storage systems like battery. The main objective of this paper is to propose a power management system (PMS) which is capable of suppressing these adverse impacts on the main supply. A smart microgrid (MG) including diesel, battery storage, and solar plants has been suggested for this purpose. MG is able to supply its local load based on operator decision and decline the power oscillations caused by solar system together with variable loads. A guideline algorithm is also proposed which helps to precisely design the battery plant. A novel application of time domain signal processing approach to filter oscillating output power of the solar plant is presented as well. In this case, a power smoothing index (PSI) is formulated, which considers both load and generation, and used to dispatch the battery plant. A droop reference estimator to schedule generation is also introduced where diesel plant can share the local load with grid. A current control algorithm is designed as well which adjusts for PSI to ensure battery current magnitude is allowable. MG along with its communication platform and PMS are simulated using PSCAD software. PMS is tested under different scenarios using real load profiles and environmental data in Malaysia to verify the operational abilities of proposed MG. The results indicate that PMS can effectively control the MG

  10. Use of genetic algorithms for high hydrostatic pressure inactivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) for high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores, Bacillus subtilis spores and cells, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, all in milk buffer, were used to demonstrate the utility of genetic algorithms ...

  11. Temperature buffer test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report is the final report and a summary of all work performed within the TBT project. The design and the installation of the different components are summarized: the depositions hole, the heating system, the bentonite blocks with emphasis on the initial density and water content in these, the filling of slots with sand or pellets, the retaining construction with the plug, lid and nine anchor cables, the artificial saturation system, and finally the instrumentation. An overview of the operational conditions is presented: the power output from heaters, which was 1,500 W (and also 1,600 W) from each heater during the first {approx}1,700 days, and then changed to 1,000 and 2,000 W, for the upper and lower heater respectively, during the last {approx}600 days. From the start, the bentonite was hydrated with a groundwater from a nearby bore-hole, but this groundwater was replaced with de-ionized water from day {approx}1,500, due to the high flow resistance of the injections points in the filter, which implied that a high filter pressure couldn't be sustained. The sand shield around the upper heater was hydrated from day {approx}1,500 to day {approx}1

  12. Temperature buffer test. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakesson, Mattias

    2012-04-01

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modelling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report is the final report and a summary of all work performed within the TBT project. The design and the installation of the different components are summarized: the depositions hole, the heating system, the bentonite blocks with emphasis on the initial density and water content in these, the filling of slots with sand or pellets, the retaining construction with the plug, lid and nine anchor cables, the artificial saturation system, and finally the instrumentation. An overview of the operational conditions is presented: the power output from heaters, which was 1,500 W (and also 1,600 W) from each heater during the first ∼1,700 days, and then changed to 1,000 and 2,000 W, for the upper and lower heater respectively, during the last ∼600 days. From the start, the bentonite was hydrated with a groundwater from a nearby bore-hole, but this groundwater was replaced with de-ionized water from day ∼1,500, due to the high flow resistance of the injections points in the filter, which implied that a high filter pressure couldn't be sustained. The sand shield around the upper heater was hydrated from day ∼1,500 to day ∼1,800. The sensors data concerning

  13. Dynamic mechanical properties of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Wataru

    1999-11-01

    The buffer material is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. over a long period of time. Natural clay is mentioned as a material that can relatively satisfy above. Among the kinds of natural clay, bentonite when compacted is superior because (i) it has exceptionally low water permeability and properties to control the movement of water in buffer, (ii) it fills void spaces in the buffer and fractures in the host rock as it swells upon water uptake, (iii) it has the ability to exchange cations and to adsorb cationic radioelements. In order to confirm these functions for the purpose of safety assessment, it is necessary to evaluate buffer properties through laboratory tests and engineering-scale tests, and to make assessments based on the ranges in the data obtained. This report describes the procedures, test conditions, results and examinations on the buffer material of dynamic triaxial tests, measurement of elastic wave velocity and liquefaction tests that aim at getting hold of dynamic mechanical properties. We can get hold of dependency on the shearing strain of the shearing modulus and hysteresis damping constant, the application for the mechanical model etc. by dynamic triaxial tests, the acceptability of maximum shearing modulus obtained from dynamic triaxial tests etc. by measurement of elastic wave velocity and dynamic strength caused by cyclic stress etc. by liquefaction tests. (author)

  14. Buffer-regulated biocorrosion of pure magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Nicholas T; Waterman, Jay; Birbilis, Nick; Dias, George; Woodfield, Tim B F; Hartshorn, Richard M; Staiger, Mark P

    2012-02-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are being actively investigated as potential load-bearing orthopaedic implant materials due to their biodegradability in vivo. With Mg biomaterials at an early stage in their development, the screening of alloy compositions for their biodegradation rate, and hence biocompatibility, is reliant on cost-effective in vitro methods. The use of a buffer to control pH during in vitro biodegradation is recognised as critically important as this seeks to mimic pH control as it occurs naturally in vivo. The two different types of in vitro buffer system available are based on either (i) zwitterionic organic compounds or (ii) carbonate buffers within a partial-CO(2) atmosphere. This study investigated the influence of the buffering system itself on the in vitro corrosion of Mg. It was found that the less realistic zwitterion-based buffer did not form the same corrosion layers as the carbonate buffer, and was potentially affecting the behaviour of the hydrated oxide layer that forms on Mg in all aqueous environments. Consequently it was recommended that Mg in vitro experiments use the more biorealistic carbonate buffering system when possible.

  15. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  16. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  17. Buffer protection in the installation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimelius, Hans; Pusch, Roland

    2008-12-01

    The research and development of the design and construction of the SKB's repository for final disposal of spent reactor fuel is conducted along several paths ('lines'). Issues concerning the bedrock are dealt with in the 'rock line' and those related to buffer and backfill in deposition holes and tunnels are considered in the 'buffer line' and 'backfill line', respectively. These lines also deal with sub-activities that are coupled to several other lines. One of them includes development of techniques for protecting buffer blocks from moisture and water in the installation phase. Techniques and methods for placement and removal of the 'buffer protection sheet' are dealt with in the 'buffer line'. The removal is, however, considered as being part of the backfilling sequence. Since the performance of the sheet is of fundamental importance to the placement and function of the buffer it deserves particular attention. Thus, the removal of the rubber sheet that serves to protect the buffer blocks in the installation phase may be difficult and can cause significant problems that may require retrieval of already placed canister, buffer and backfill. These matters are in focus in the present report. Arrangements for protecting already placed buffer blocks from moist air and water have been tested in earlier large-scale experiments, i.e. the Prototype Repository project at Aespoe but the experience from them has called for more effective protection of the clay blocks as described in the present report. Focus is on the construction of foundation components at the bottom of the deposition holes required for establishing a tight seal between rock and buffer blocks, and on the protection sheet and arrangements for limiting water pressure on it. Special attention is paid to the drainage of the space between rock and protection sheet that is necessary for avoiding failure of the sheet and to systems for achieving this and for providing alarm signals if the allowed pressure is

  18. Buffer protection in the installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimelius, Hans (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Pusch, Roland (Geodevelopment International AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The research and development of the design and construction of the SKB's repository for final disposal of spent reactor fuel is conducted along several paths ('lines'). Issues concerning the bedrock are dealt with in the 'rock line' and those related to buffer and backfill in deposition holes and tunnels are considered in the 'buffer line' and 'backfill line', respectively. These lines also deal with sub-activities that are coupled to several other lines. One of them includes development of techniques for protecting buffer blocks from moisture and water in the installation phase. Techniques and methods for placement and removal of the 'buffer protection sheet' are dealt with in the 'buffer line'. The removal is, however, considered as being part of the backfilling sequence. Since the performance of the sheet is of fundamental importance to the placement and function of the buffer it deserves particular attention. Thus, the removal of the rubber sheet that serves to protect the buffer blocks in the installation phase may be difficult and can cause significant problems that may require retrieval of already placed canister, buffer and backfill. These matters are in focus in the present report. Arrangements for protecting already placed buffer blocks from moist air and water have been tested in earlier large-scale experiments, i.e. the Prototype Repository project at Aespoe but the experience from them has called for more effective protection of the clay blocks as described in the present report. Focus is on the construction of foundation components at the bottom of the deposition holes required for establishing a tight seal between rock and buffer blocks, and on the protection sheet and arrangements for limiting water pressure on it. Special attention is paid to the drainage of the space between rock and protection sheet that is necessary for avoiding failure of the sheet and to systems for achieving

  19. Final Report for File System Support for Burst Buffers on HPC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mohror, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Distributed burst buffers are a promising storage architecture for handling I/O workloads for exascale computing. As they are being deployed on more supercomputers, a file system that efficiently manages these burst buffers for fast I/O operations carries great consequence. Over the past year, FSU team has undertaken several efforts to design, prototype and evaluate distributed file systems for burst buffers on HPC systems. These include MetaKV: a Key-Value Store for Metadata Management of Distributed Burst Buffers, a user-level file system with multiple backends, and a specialized file system for large datasets of deep neural networks. Our progress for these respective efforts are elaborated further in this report.

  20. Shadow algorithms data miner

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Digital shadow generation continues to be an important aspect of visualization and visual effects in film, games, simulations, and scientific applications. This resource offers a thorough picture of the motivations, complexities, and categorized algorithms available to generate digital shadows. From general fundamentals to specific applications, it addresses shadow algorithms and how to manage huge data sets from a shadow perspective. The book also examines the use of shadow algorithms in industrial applications, in terms of what algorithms are used and what software is applicable.

  1. Unified treatment algorithm for the management of crotaline snakebite in the United States: results of an evidence-informed consensus workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerns William P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Envenomation by crotaline snakes (rattlesnake, cottonmouth, copperhead is a complex, potentially lethal condition affecting thousands of people in the United States each year. Treatment of crotaline envenomation is not standardized, and significant variation in practice exists. Methods A geographically diverse panel of experts was convened for the purpose of deriving an evidence-informed unified treatment algorithm. Research staff analyzed the extant medical literature and performed targeted analyses of existing databases to inform specific clinical decisions. A trained external facilitator used modified Delphi and structured consensus methodology to achieve consensus on the final treatment algorithm. Results A unified treatment algorithm was produced and endorsed by all nine expert panel members. This algorithm provides guidance about clinical and laboratory observations, indications for and dosing of antivenom, adjunctive therapies, post-stabilization care, and management of complications from envenomation and therapy. Conclusions Clinical manifestations and ideal treatment of crotaline snakebite differ greatly, and can result in severe complications. Using a modified Delphi method, we provide evidence-informed treatment guidelines in an attempt to reduce variation in care and possibly improve clinical outcomes.

  2. Parameter optimization via cuckoo optimization algorithm of fuzzy controller for energy management of a hybrid power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrazouane, S.; Mohammedi, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for operating a standalone hybrid power system based on cuckoo search algorithm. • Comparison between optimized fuzzy logic controller based on cuckoo search and swarm intelligent. • Loss of power supply probability and levelized energy cost are introduced. - Abstract: This paper presents the development of an optimized fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for operating a standalone hybrid power system based on cuckoo search algorithm. The FLC inputs are batteries state of charge (SOC) and net power flow, FLC outputs are the power rate of batteries, photovoltaic and diesel generator. Data for weekly solar irradiation, ambient temperature and load profile are used to tune the proposed controller by using cuckoo search algorithm. The optimized FLC is able to minimize loss of power supply probability (LPSP), excess energy (EE) and levelized energy cost (LEC). Moreover, the results of CS optimization are better than of particle swarm optimization PSO for fuzzy system controller

  3. Operation management of daily economic dispatch using novel hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm with hybrid mutation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Song; Ji, Zhicheng

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a hybrid particle swarm optimization and gravitational search algorithm based on hybrid mutation strategy (HGSAPSO-M) to optimize economic dispatch (ED) including distributed generations (DGs) considering market-based energy pricing. A daily ED model was formulated and a hybrid mutation strategy was adopted in HGSAPSO-M. The hybrid mutation strategy includes two mutation operators, chaotic mutation, Gaussian mutation. The proposed algorithm was tested on IEEE-33 bus and results show that the approach is effective for this problem.

  4. Abundance of western red-backed salamanders (Plethodon vehiculum) in the Washington Coast Range after headwater stream-buffer manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Wilk; Jeffrey D. Ricklefs; Martin G. Raphael

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of forest riparian alternative tree buffer designs on Western Red-backed Salamanders (Plethodon vehiculum) along headwater stream banks in managed forests of the Washington Coast Range. We used pit trap live removals in early autumn to estimate relative abundances of surface-active salamanders before and after 3 levels of riparian buffer...

  5. Buffer sizing for multi-hop networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem; Jamshaid, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    domain according to a simple division or according to a cost function taking into account a distance of the communications link from the source and destination. The network may be monitored and the cumulative buffer size recalculated and redistributed

  6. Moisture Buffer Value of Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Time, Berit

    2007-01-01

    When building materials are in contact with indoor air they have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized quantity to characterize the moisture buffering capability of materials. It has been the objective o...... is a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested for determination of their Moisture Buffer Value. Finally, the paper presents some of the results of a Round Robin Test on various typical building materials that has been carried out in the project....... of a recent Nordic project to define such a quantity, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. The Moisture Buffer Value is the figure that has been developed in the project as a way to appraise the moisture buffer effect of materials, and the value is described in the paper. Also explained...

  7. Liquid growth hormone: preservatives and buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; Anders, Bojesen; Skydsgaard, Karen

    2004-01-01

    injection are dependent on the preservative used in the formulation and the concentration of GH. Injection pain may also be related to the buffer substance and injection volume. A liquid formulation of GH, Norditropi SimpleXx, has been developed that dispenses with the need for reconstitution before...... solution. More pain was also reported following large volume injections and following injections with solutions containing high protein concentrations. In summary, optimization of the preservative and buffer content of a liquid GH formulation may reduce injection pain and lead to improved patient...... administration. The formulation uses phenol (3 mg/ml) as a preservative (to protect product from microbial degradation or contamination) and histidine as a buffer. Alternative preservatives used in other GH formulations include m-cresol (9 mg/ml) and benzyl alcohol (3-9 mg/ml). Buffering agents include citrate...

  8. Calculating Buffer Zones: A Guide for Applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffer zones provide distance between the application block (i.e., edge of the treated field) and bystanders, in order to control pesticide exposure risk from soil fumigants. Distance requirements may be reduced by credits such as tarps.

  9. Multi-mode energy management strategy for fuel cell electric vehicles based on driving pattern identification using learning vector quantization neural network algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ke; Li, Feiqiang; Hu, Xiao; He, Lin; Niu, Wenxu; Lu, Sihao; Zhang, Tong

    2018-06-01

    The development of fuel cell electric vehicles can to a certain extent alleviate worldwide energy and environmental issues. While a single energy management strategy cannot meet the complex road conditions of an actual vehicle, this article proposes a multi-mode energy management strategy for electric vehicles with a fuel cell range extender based on driving condition recognition technology, which contains a patterns recognizer and a multi-mode energy management controller. This paper introduces a learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural network to design the driving patterns recognizer according to a vehicle's driving information. This multi-mode strategy can automatically switch to the genetic algorithm optimized thermostat strategy under specific driving conditions in the light of the differences in condition recognition results. Simulation experiments were carried out based on the model's validity verification using a dynamometer test bench. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can obtain better economic performance than the single-mode thermostat strategy under dynamic driving conditions.

  10. Buffer regulation of calcium puff sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraiman, Daniel; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2014-01-01

    Puffs are localized Ca 2+ signals that arise in oocytes in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ). They are the result of the liberation of Ca 2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum through the coordinated opening of IP 3 receptor/channels clustered at a functional release site. The presence of buffers that trap Ca 2+ provides a mechanism that enriches the spatio–temporal dynamics of cytosolic calcium. The expression of different types of buffers along the cell's life provides a tool with which Ca 2+ signals and their responses can be modulated. In this paper we extend the stochastic model of a cluster of IP 3 R-Ca 2+ channels introduced previously to elucidate the effect of buffers on sequences of puffs at the same release site. We obtain analytically the probability laws of the interpuff time and of the number of channels that participate of the puffs. Furthermore, we show that under typical experimental conditions the effect of buffers can be accounted for in terms of a simple inhibiting function. Hence, by exploring different inhibiting functions we are able to study the effect of a variety of buffers on the puff size and interpuff time distributions. We find the somewhat counter-intuitive result that the addition of a fast Ca 2+ buffer can increase the average number of channels that participate of a puff. (paper)

  11. Buffer regulation of calcium puff sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiman, Daniel; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2014-02-01

    Puffs are localized Ca(2 +) signals that arise in oocytes in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). They are the result of the liberation of Ca(2 +) from the endoplasmic reticulum through the coordinated opening of IP3 receptor/channels clustered at a functional release site. The presence of buffers that trap Ca(2 +) provides a mechanism that enriches the spatio-temporal dynamics of cytosolic calcium. The expression of different types of buffers along the cell's life provides a tool with which Ca(2 +) signals and their responses can be modulated. In this paper we extend the stochastic model of a cluster of IP3R-Ca(2 +) channels introduced previously to elucidate the effect of buffers on sequences of puffs at the same release site. We obtain analytically the probability laws of the interpuff time and of the number of channels that participate of the puffs. Furthermore, we show that under typical experimental conditions the effect of buffers can be accounted for in terms of a simple inhibiting function. Hence, by exploring different inhibiting functions we are able to study the effect of a variety of buffers on the puff size and interpuff time distributions. We find the somewhat counter-intuitive result that the addition of a fast Ca(2 +) buffer can increase the average number of channels that participate of a puff.

  12. Management of High-energy Avulsive Ballistic Facial Injury: A Review of the Literature and Algorithmic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert E. Vaca, MD

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions:. Existing literature suggests that early and aggressive intervention improves outcomes following avulsive ballistic injuries. Further comparative studies are needed; however, although evidence is limited, the senior author presents a 3-stage reconstructive algorithm advocating early and definitive reconstruction with aesthetic free tissue transfer in an attempt to optimize reconstructive outcomes of these complex injuries.

  13. Perinatal Depression Algorithm: A Home Visitor Step-by-Step Guide for Advanced Management of Perinatal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszewski, Audrey; Wichman, Christina L.; Doering, Jennifer J.; Maletta, Kristyn; Hammel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood professionals do many things to support young families. This is true now more than ever, as researchers continue to discover the long-term benefits of early, healthy, nurturing relationships. This article provides an overview of the development of an advanced practice perinatal depression algorithm created as a step-by-step guide…

  14. Algorithmic cryptanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joux, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Illustrating the power of algorithms, Algorithmic Cryptanalysis describes algorithmic methods with cryptographically relevant examples. Focusing on both private- and public-key cryptographic algorithms, it presents each algorithm either as a textual description, in pseudo-code, or in a C code program.Divided into three parts, the book begins with a short introduction to cryptography and a background chapter on elementary number theory and algebra. It then moves on to algorithms, with each chapter in this section dedicated to a single topic and often illustrated with simple cryptographic applic

  15. Low noise buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators for precise time and frequency measurement and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, R. A.; Dachel, P.; Miller, W. H.; Ingold, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Extremely low noise, high performance, wideband buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators were developed. These buffer amplifiers are designed to distribute reference frequencies from 30 KHz to 45 MHz from a hydrogen maser without degrading the hydrogen maser's performance. The buffered phase comparators are designed to intercompare the phase of state of the art hydrogen masers without adding any significant measurement system noise. These devices have a 27 femtosecond phase stability floor and are stable to better than one picosecond for long periods of time. Their temperature coefficient is less than one picosecond per degree C, and they have shown virtually no voltage coefficients.

  16. Buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions: from protein buffer capacity prediction to bioprocess applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrenburg, Sven; Karow, Anne R; Garidel, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Protein therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have significant buffering capacity, particularly at concentrations>50 mg/mL. This report addresses pH-related issues critical to adoption of self-buffered monoclonal antibody formulations. We evaluated solution conditions with protein concentrations ranging from 50 to 250 mg/mL. Samples were both buffer-free and conventionally buffered with citrate. Samples were non-isotonic or adjusted for isotonicity with NaCl or trehalose. Studies included accelerated temperature stability tests, shaking stability studies, and pH changes in infusion media as protein concentrate is added. We present averaged buffering slopes of capacity that can be applied to any mAb and present a general method for calculating buffering capacity of buffer-free, highly concentrated antibody liquid formulations. In temperature stability tests, neither buffer-free nor conventionally buffered solution conditions showed significant pH changes. Conventionally buffered solutions showed significantly higher opalescence than buffer-free ones. In general, buffer-free solution conditions showed less aggregation than conventionally buffered solutions. Shaking stability tests showed no differences between buffer-free and conventionally buffered solutions. "In-use" preparation experiments showed that pH in infusion bag medium can rapidly approximate that of self-buffered protein concentrate as concentrate is added. In summary, the buffer capacity of proteins can be predicted and buffer-free therapeutic antibody preparations provide a viable alternative to conventionally buffered solutions. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Chinese buffer material for high-level radiowaste disposal-basic features of GMZ-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Zhijian

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive wastes arising from a wide range of human activities are in many different physical and chemical forms, contaminated with varying radioactivity. Their common feature is the potential hazard associated with their radioactivity and the need to manage them in such a way as to protect the human environment. The geological disposal is regarded as the most reasonable and effective way to safety disposal high-level radioactive wastes in the world. The conceptual model of geological disposal in China is based on a multi-barrier system that combines an isolating geological environment with an engineered barrier system. The buffer is one of the main engineered barriers for HLW repository. The buffer material is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing property, radio nuclides adsorption and retardation property, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering property, overpack supporting property, stress buffering property over a long period of time. Bentonite is selected as the main content of buffer material that can satisfy above. GMZ deposit is selected as the candidate supplier for Chinese buffer material of High Level Radioactive waste repository. This paper presents geological features of GMZ deposit and basic property of GMZ Na bentonite. GMZ bentonite deposit is a super large scale deposits with high content of Montmorillonite (about 75%) and GMZ-1, which is Na-bentonite produced from GMZ deposit is selected as reference material for Chinese buffer material study

  18. The buffer value of groundwater when well yield is limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Brozović, N.; Speir, C.

    2017-04-01

    A large proportion of the total value of groundwater in conjunctive use systems is associated with the ability to smooth out shortfalls in surface water supply during droughts. Previous research has argued that aquifer depletion in these regions will impact farmers negatively by reducing the available stock of groundwater to buffer production in future periods, and also by increasing the costs of groundwater extraction. However, existing studies have not considered how depletion may impact the productivity of groundwater stocks in conjunctive use systems through reductions in well yields. In this work, we develop a hydro-economic modeling framework to quantify the effects of changes in well yields on the buffer value of groundwater, and apply this model to an illustrative case study of tomato production in California's Central Valley. Our findings demonstrate that farmers with low well yields are forced to forgo significant production and profits because instantaneous groundwater supply is insufficient to buffer surface water shortfalls in drought years. Negative economic impacts of low well yields are an increasing function of surface water variability, and are also greatest for farmers operating less efficient irrigation systems. These results indicate that impacts of well yield reductions on the productivity of groundwater are an important economic impact of aquifer depletion, and that failure to consider this feedback may lead to significant errors in estimates of the value of groundwater management in conjunctive use systems.

  19. Algorithmic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hougardy, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.

  20. Static mechanical properties of buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaji, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hideaki

    1999-11-01

    The buffer material is expected to maintain its low water permeability, self-sealing properties, radionuclides adsorption and retardation properties, thermal conductivity, chemical buffering properties, overpack supporting properties, stress buffering properties, etc. over a long period of time. Natural clay is mentioned as a material that can relatively satisfy above. Among the kinds of natural clay, bentonite when compacted is superior because (i) it has exceptionally low water permeability and properties to control the movement of water in buffer, (ii) it fills void spaces in the buffer and fractures in the host rock as it swells upon water uptake, (iii) it has the ability to exchange cations and to adsorb cationic radioelements. In order to confirm these functions for the purpose of safety assessment, it is necessary to evaluate buffer properties through laboratory tests and engineering-scale tests, and to make assessments based on the ranges in the data obtained. This report describes the procedures, test conditions, results and examinations on the buffer material of unconfined compression tests, one-dimensional consolidation tests, consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests that aim at getting hold of static mechanical properties. We can get hold of the relationship between the dry density and tensile stress etc. by Brazilian tests, between the dry density and unconfined compressive strength etc. by unconfined compression tests, between the consolidation stress and void ratio etc. by one-dimensional consolidation tests, the stress pass of each effective confining pressure etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests and the axial strain rate with time of each axial stress etc. by consolidated-undrained triaxial creep tests. (author)

  1. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  2. Are Capital Buffers Countercyclical ? An Evidence From Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romila Qamar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available New risk based capital requirement have pro-cyclical effect and causes negative externalities in the economy. During recession, on one side, quality of loan portfolio deteriorates and probability of default increases resulting into increased level of provisions and write off’s and reduced capital level. This causes an increase in capital requirements which becomes more expensive. Weaker banks fail to access new capital and ultimately reduce the credit supply. On the other side, banks are required to maintain the minimum capital which results into credit supply contraction and hits the bank’s profitability leading to a situation called Credit Crunch. This situation may prolong recession. During the crisis, developing countries are more affected than developed countries and this debate is entirely new in Pakistan. This research empirically investigates the pro-cyclical effect of new capital regulation under Basel II using panel data of 47 Pakistani Banks from 2001-2012. Particularly this paper examines the capital management mechanisms using capital buffers, using Generalized Method of Moments (GMM one step and two step estimation techniques on dynamic panel data model. The results gives evidence that capital buffer are counter-cyclical except in case of specialized banks because of difference in operations. The findings also suggest that adjustment costs, cost of raising capital and bankruptcy costs are major determines of holding capital buffer. Analysis confirms too big to fail hypothesis. Form the results, it is concluded that capital buffer are counter-cyclical, consistent with the hypothesis. The findings suggest the banks to adopt Basel III Accord.

  3. Temperature Buffer Test. Measurements of water content and density of the excavated buffer material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    TBT (Temperature Buffer Test) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at understanding and modeling the thermo-hydromechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test was carried out at the - 420 m level in Aespoe HRL in a 8 meters deep and 1.76 m diameter deposition hole, with two heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter), surrounded by a MX-80 bentonite buffer and a confining plug on top anchored with 9 rods. It was installed during spring 2003. The bentonite around upper heater was removed during the period October - December 2009 and the buffer around the lower heater was removed during January - Mars 2010. During dismantling of the buffer, samples were taken on which analyses were made. This report describes the work with the deteroemoeination of the water content and the density of the taken samples. Most of the samples were taken from the buffer by core drilling from the upper surface of each installed bentonite block. The cores had a diameter of about 50 mm and a maximum length equal to the original height of the bentonite blocks (about 500 mm). The water content of the buffer was determined by drying a sample at a temperature of 105 deg C for 24 h and the bulk density was determined by weighing a sample both in the air and immerged in paraffin oil with known density. The water content, dry density, degree of saturation and void ratio of the buffer were then plotted. The plots show that all parts of the buffer had taken up water and the degree of saturation of the buffer varied between 90 - 100%. Large variation in the dry density of the buffer was also observed.

  4. Estimating Above-Ground Biomass in Sub-Tropical Buffer Zone Community Forests, Nepal, Using Sentinel 2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Pandit

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of above-ground biomass (AGB is important for the sustainable management of forests, especially buffer zone (areas within the protected area, where restrictions are placed upon resource use and special measure are undertaken to intensify the conservation value of protected area areas with a high dependence on forest products. This study presents a new AGB estimation method and demonstrates the potential of medium-resolution Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI data application as an alternative to hyperspectral data in inaccessible regions. Sentinel-2 performance was evaluated for a buffer zone community forest in Parsa National Park, Nepal, using field-based AGB as a dependent variable, as well as spectral band values and spectral-derived vegetation indices as independent variables in the Random Forest (RF algorithm. The 10-fold cross-validation was used to evaluate model effectiveness. The effect of the input variable number on AGB prediction was also investigated. The model using all extracted spectral information plus all derived spectral vegetation indices provided better AGB estimates (R2 = 0.81 and RMSE = 25.57 t ha−1. Incorporating the optimal subset of key variables did not improve model variance but reduced the error slightly. This result is explained by the technically-advanced nature of Sentinel-2, which includes fine spatial resolution (10, 20 m and strategically-positioned bands (red-edge, conducted in flat topography with an advanced machine learning algorithm. However, assessing its transferability to other forest types with varying altitude would enable future performance and interpretability assessments of Sentinel-2.

  5. Reconnecting tile drainage to riparian buffer hydrology for enhanced nitrate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaynes, D B; Isenhart, T M

    2014-03-01

    Riparian buffers are a proven practice for removing NO from overland flow and shallow groundwater. However, in landscapes with artificial subsurface (tile) drainage, most of the subsurface flow leaving fields is passed through the buffers in drainage pipes, leaving little opportunity for NO removal. We investigated the feasibility of re-routing a fraction of field tile drainage as subsurface flow through a riparian buffer for increasing NO removal. We intercepted an existing field tile outlet draining a 10.1-ha area of a row-cropped field in central Iowa and re-routed a fraction of the discharge as subsurface flow along 335 m of an existing riparian buffer. Tile drainage from the field was infiltrated through a perforated pipe installed 75 cm below the surface by maintaining a constant head in the pipe at a control box installed in-line with the existing field outlet. During 2 yr, >18,000 m (55%) of the total flow from the tile outlet was redirected as infiltration within the riparian buffer. The redirected water seeped through the 60-m-wide buffer, raising the water table approximately 35 cm. The redirected tile flow contained 228 kg of NO. On the basis of the strong decrease in NO concentrations within the shallow groundwater across the buffer, we hypothesize that the NO did not enter the stream but was removed within the buffer by plant uptake, microbial immobilization, or denitrification. Redirecting tile drainage as subsurface flow through a riparian buffer increased its NO removal benefit and is a promising management practice to improve surface water quality within tile-drained landscapes. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Scientific Applications Performance Evaluation on Burst Buffer

    KAUST Repository

    Markomanolis, George S.

    2017-10-19

    Parallel I/O is an integral component of modern high performance computing, especially in storing and processing very large datasets, such as the case of seismic imaging, CFD, combustion and weather modeling. The storage hierarchy includes nowadays additional layers, the latest being the usage of SSD-based storage as a Burst Buffer for I/O acceleration. We present an in-depth analysis on how to use Burst Buffer for specific cases and how the internal MPI I/O aggregators operate according to the options that the user provides during his job submission. We analyze the performance of a range of I/O intensive scientific applications, at various scales on a large installation of Lustre parallel file system compared to an SSD-based Burst Buffer. Our results show a performance improvement over Lustre when using Burst Buffer. Moreover, we show results from a data hierarchy library which indicate that the standard I/O approaches are not enough to get the expected performance from this technology. The performance gain on the total execution time of the studied applications is between 1.16 and 3 times compared to Lustre. One of the test cases achieved an impressive I/O throughput of 900 GB/s on Burst Buffer.

  7. Transition metal oxide as anode interface buffer for impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Tang, Chao; Wang, Xu-Liang; Zhai, Wen-Juan; Liu, Rui-Lan; Rong, Zhou; Pang, Zong-Qiang; Jiang, Bing; Fan, Qu-Li; Huang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a strong method in electric measurement, which also shows powerful function in research of carrier dynamics in organic semiconductors when suitable mathematical physical models are used. Apart from this, another requirement is that the contact interface between the electrode and materials should at least be quasi-ohmic contact. So in this report, three different transitional metal oxides, V2O5, MoO3 and WO3 were used as hole injection buffer for interface of ITO/NPB. Through the impedance spectroscopy and PSO algorithm, the carrier mobilities and I-V characteristics of the NPB in different devices were measured. Then the data curves were compared with the single layer device without the interface layer in order to investigate the influence of transitional metal oxides on the carrier mobility. The careful research showed that when the work function (WF) of the buffer material was just between the work function of anode and the HOMO of the organic material, such interface material could work as a good bridge for carrier injection. Under such condition, the carrier mobility measured through impedance spectroscopy should be close to the intrinsic value. Considering that the HOMO (or LUMO) of most organic semiconductors did not match with the work function of the electrode, this report also provides a method for wide application of impedance spectroscopy to the research of carrier dynamics.

  8. Improved indexes for targeting placement of buffers of Hortonian runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.G. Dosskey; Z. Qiu; M.J. Helmers; D.E. Eisenhauer

    2011-01-01

    Targeting specific locations within agricultural watersheds for installing vegetative buffers has been advocated as a way to enhance the impact of buffers and buffer programs on stream water quality. Existing models for targeting buffers of Hortonian, or infiltration-excess, runoff are not well developed. The objective was to improve on an existing soil survey–based...

  9. A buffer overflow detection based on inequalities solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoai; Zhang Miao; Yang Yixian

    2007-01-01

    A new buffer overflow detection model based on Inequalities Solution was designed, which is based on analyzing disadvantage of the old buffer overflow detection technique and successfully converting buffer overflow detection to Inequalities Solution. The new model can conquer the disadvantage of the old technique and improve efficiency of buffer overflow detection. (authors)

  10. Moisture buffer capacity of different insulation materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2004-01-01

    . In the isothermal tests the material samples were exposed to the same change in the relative humidity of the ambient air on both sides, while the samples were exposed to variations in relative humidity only on the cold side in the non-isothermal tests. The results of these rather different measurement principles...... lead to more durable constructions. In this paper, a large range of very different thermal insulation materials have been tested in specially constructed laboratory facilities to determine their moisture buffer capacity. Both isothermal and nonisothermal experimental set-ups have been used...... are discussed, and different ways are presented how to determine the moisture buffer capacity of the materials using partly standard material parameters and partly parameters determined from the actual measurements. The results so far show that the determination of moisture buffer capacity is very sensitive...

  11. Buffer construction technique using granular bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Ryoichi; Asano, Hidekazu; Toguri, Satohito; Mori, Takuo; Shimura, Tomoyuki; Matsuda, Takeshi; Uyama, Masao; Noda, Masaru

    2007-01-01

    Buffer construction using bentonite pellets as filling material is a promising technology for enhancing the ease of repository operation. In this study, a test of such technology was conducted in a full-scale simulated disposal drift, using a filling system which utilizes a screw conveyor system. The simulated drift, which contained two dummy overpacks, was configured as a half-cross-section model with a height of 2.22 m and a length of 6.0 m. The average dry density of the buffer obtained in the test was 1.29 Mg/m 3 , with an angle of repose of 35 to 40 degrees. These test results indicate that buffer construction using a screw conveyor system for pellet emplacement in a waste disposal drift is a promising technology for repositories for high level radioactive wastes. (author)

  12. Labview virtual instruments for calcium buffer calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Frederick B; Pollack, Gerald H

    2003-01-01

    Labview VIs based upon the calculator programs of Fabiato and Fabiato (J. Physiol. Paris 75 (1979) 463) are presented. The VIs comprise the necessary computations for the accurate preparation of multiple-metal buffers, for the back-calculation of buffer composition given known free metal concentrations and stability constants used, for the determination of free concentrations from a given buffer composition, and for the determination of apparent stability constants from absolute constants. As implemented, the VIs can concurrently account for up to three divalent metals, two monovalent metals and four ligands thereof, and the modular design of the VIs facilitates further extension of their capacity. As Labview VIs are inherently graphical, these VIs may serve as useful templates for those wishing to adapt this software to other platforms.

  13. Managing the Sick Child in the Era of Declining Malaria Transmission: Development of ALMANACH, an Electronic Algorithm for Appropriate Use of Antimicrobials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Rambaud-Althaus

    Full Text Available To review the available knowledge on epidemiology and diagnoses of acute infections in children aged 2 to 59 months in primary care setting and develop an electronic algorithm for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness to reach optimal clinical outcome and rational use of medicines.A structured literature review in Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Review (CDRS looked for available estimations of diseases prevalence in outpatients aged 2-59 months, and for available evidence on i accuracy of clinical predictors, and ii performance of point-of-care tests for targeted diseases. A new algorithm for the management of childhood illness (ALMANACH was designed based on evidence retrieved and results of a study on etiologies of fever in Tanzanian children outpatients.The major changes in ALMANACH compared to IMCI (2008 version are the following: i assessment of 10 danger signs, ii classification of non-severe children into febrile and non-febrile illness, the latter receiving no antibiotics, iii classification of pneumonia based on a respiratory rate threshold of 50 assessed twice for febrile children 12-59 months; iv malaria rapid diagnostic test performed for all febrile children. In the absence of identified source of fever at the end of the assessment, v urine dipstick performed for febrile children 2 years with abdominal tenderness; and lastly vii classification of 'likely viral infection' in case of negative results.This smartphone-run algorithm based on new evidence and two point-of-care tests should improve the quality of care of <5 year children and lead to more rational use of antimicrobials.

  14. A unified methodology for single- and multiobjective in-core fuel management optimisation based on augmented Chebyshev scalarisation and a harmony search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlünz, E.B.; Bokov, P.M.; Prinsloo, R.H.; Vuuren, J.H. van

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Unified methodology for in-core fuel management optimisation (ICFMO). • Addresses single- and multiobjective constrained and unconstrained ICFMO problems. • Augmented Chebyshev scalarising objective function with additive penalty function. • Harmony search algorithm yields high-quality solution or approximate Pareto set. • Methodology provides cycle-to-cycle optimisation decision support capabilities. - Abstract: The in-core fuel management optimisation (ICFMO) problem is the problem of finding an optimal fuel reload configuration for a nuclear reactor core. ICFMO may involve the pursuit of a single or multiple objectives, while satisfying several constraints. Very little multiobjective ICFMO research involving the fundamental notion of Pareto optimality has, however, been performed. In this paper, a unified methodology is proposed for the modelling and solution of single- and multiobjective ICFMO problems, be they constrained or unconstrained. With this methodology, ICFMO problems incorporating a variety of objectives and/or constraints may be modelled and solved rapidly, thus providing a cycle-to-cycle optimisation decision support capability for nuclear reactors. An augmented Chebyshev scalarising objective function is incorporated in the methodology for modelling any number of objectives, while an additive penalty function handles potential constraints. Furthermore, an adapted harmony search algorithm is used to solve a given ICFMO problem. The algorithm is able to yield a single solution or a nondominated set of solutions as result (depending on the number of objectives in a problem). The applicability of the methodology is demonstrated by solving (approximately) a variety of ICFMO test problems for the SAFARI-1 nuclear research reactor. The results indicate that the methodology may be used as an effective decision support tool for reactor operators tasked with designing reload configurations from cycle to cycle.

  15. The effect of a disease management algorithm and dedicated postacute coronary syndrome clinic on achievement of guideline compliance: results from the parkland acute coronary event treatment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorio, Jeff; Viswanathan, Sundeep; See, Raphael; Uchal, Linda; McWhorter, Jo Ann; Spencer, Nali; Murphy, Sabina; Khera, Amit; de Lemos, James A; McGuire, Darren K

    2008-01-01

    The application of disease management algorithms by physician extenders has been shown to improve therapeutic adherence in selected populations. It is unknown whether this strategy would improve adherence to secondary prevention goals after acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) in a largely indigent county hospital setting. Patients admitted for ACS were randomized at the time of discharge to usual follow-up care versus the same care with the addition of a physician extender visit. Physician extender visits were conducted according to a treatment algorithm based on contemporary practice guidelines. Groups were compared using the primary end point of achievement of low-density lipoprotein treatment goals at 3 months after discharge and achievement of additional evidence-based practice goals. One hundred forty consecutive patients were randomized. A similar proportion of patients returned for study follow-up in both groups at 3 months (54 [79%]/68 in the usual care group vs 57 [79%]/72 in the intervention group; P = 0.97). Among those completing the 3-month visit, a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level less than 100 mg/dL was achieved in 37 (69%) of the usual care patients compared with 35 (57%) of those in the intervention group (P = 0.43). There was no statistical difference in implementation of therapeutic lifestyle changes (smoking cessation, cardiac rehabilitation, or exercise) between groups. Prescription rates of evidence-based therapeutics at 3 months were similar in both groups. The implementation of a post-ACS clinic run by a physician extender applying a disease management algorithm did not measurably improve adherence to evidence-based secondary prevention treatment goals. Despite initially high rates of evidence-based treatment at discharge, adherence with follow-up appointments and sustained implementation of evidence-based therapies remains a significant challenge in this high-risk cohort.

  16. Developing suitable buffers to capture transport cycling behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper; Christiansen, Lars Breum

    2014-01-01

    units (e.g., home-buffer-based neighborhoods) are not necessarily representative for environmental exposure. An increased understanding of appropriate neighborhoods is needed. GPS cycling tracks from 78 participants for 7 days form the basis for the development and testing of different neighborhood...... buffers for transport cycling. The percentage of GPS points per square meter was used as indicator of the effectiveness of a series of different buffer types, including home-based network buffers, shortest route to city center buffers, and city center-directed ellipse-shaped buffers. The results show...... center-directed ellipse-shaped buffers yielded better results than traditional home-based network buffer types. The ellipse-shaped buffer types could therefore be considered an alternative to more traditional buffers or administrative units in future studies of transport cycling behavior....

  17. Buffer of Events as a Markovian Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Mana, C.

    2001-01-01

    In Particle and Asro-Particle Physics experiments, the events which get trough the detectors are read and processes on-line before they are stored for a more detailed processing and future Physics analysis. Since the events are read and, usually, processed sequentially, the time involved in these operations can lead to a significant lose of events which is, to some extent, reduced by using buffers. We present an estimate of the optimum buffer size and the fraction of events lost for a simple experimental condition which serves as an introductory example to the use of Markow Chains.(Author)

  18. Buffer of Events as a Markovian Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Mana, C.

    2001-07-01

    In Particle and Asro-Particle Physics experiments, the events which get trough the detectors are read and processes on-line before they are stored for a more detailed processing and future Physics analysis. Since the events are read and, usually, processed sequentially, the time involved in these operations can lead to a significant lose of events which is, to some extent, reduced by using buffers. We present an estimate of the optimum buffer size and the fraction of events lost for a simple experimental condition which serves as an introductory example to the use of Markow Chains.(Author)

  19. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This bibliography and associated literature synthesis (Melcher and Skagen, 2005) was developed for the Playa Lakes Joint Venture (PLJV). The PLJV sought compilation and annotation of the literature on grass buffers for protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants. In addition, PLJV sought information regarding the extent to which buffers may attenuate the precipitation runoff needed to fill playas, and avian use of buffers. We emphasize grass buffers, but we also provide information on other buffer types.

  20. Development of a hybrid genetic algorithm based decision support system for vehicle routing and scheduling in supply chain logistics managment

    OpenAIRE

    Khanian, Seyed Mohammad Shafi

    2007-01-01

    Vehicle Routing and Scheduling (VRS) constitute an important part of logistics management. Given the fact that the worldwide cost on physical distribution is evermore increasing, the global competition and the complex nature of logistics problems, one area, which determines the efficiency of all others, is the VRS activities. The application of Decision Support Systems (DSS) to assist logistics management with an efficient VRS could be of great benefit. Although the benefits of DSS in VRS are...

  1. Congestion management of deregulated power systems by optimal setting of Interline Power Flow Controller using Gravitational Search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a deregulated electricity market it may at times become difficult to dispatch all the required power that is scheduled to flow due to congestion in transmission lines. An Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC can be used to reduce the system loss and power flow in the heavily loaded line, improve stability and loadability of the system. This paper proposes a Disparity Line Utilization Factor for the optimal placement and Gravitational Search algorithm based optimal tuning of IPFC to control the congestion in transmission lines. DLUF ranks the transmission lines in terms of relative line congestion. The IPFC is accordingly placed in the most congested and the least congested line connected to the same bus. Optimal sizing of IPFC is carried using Gravitational Search algorithm. A multi-objective function has been chosen for tuning the parameters of the IPFC. The proposed method is implemented on an IEEE-30 bus test system. Graphical representations have been included in the paper showing reduction in LUF of the transmission lines after the placement of an IPFC. A reduction in active power and reactive power loss of the system by about 6% is observed after an optimally tuned IPFC has been included in the power system. The effectiveness of the proposed tuning method has also been shown in the paper through the reduction in the values of the objective functions.

  2. Evaluation of a Cross Layer Scheduling Algorithm for LTE Downlink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2013-01-01

    the resource utilization. The algorithm makes decisions based on the channel conditions, the size of the transmission buffers and different quality of service demands. The simulation results show that the new algorithm improves the resource utilization and provides better guaranties for service quality....

  3. A read-out buffer prototype for ATLAS high level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, D; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Mur, M

    2000-01-01

    Read-Out Buffers are critical components in the dataflow chain of the ATLAS Trigger/DAQ system. At up to 75 kHz, after each Level-1 trigger accept signal, these devices receive and store digitized data from groups of front-end electronic channels. Several Read-Out Buffers are grouped to form a Read-Out Buffer Complex that acts as a data server for the High Level Triggers selection algorithms and for the final data collection system. This paper describes a functional prototype of a Read-Out Buffer based on a custom made PCI mezzanine card that is designed to accept input data at up to 160 MB/s, to store up to 8 MB of data and to distribute data chunks at the desired request rate. We describe the hardware of the card that is based on an Intel I960 processor and CPLDs. We present the integration of several of these cards in a Read-Out Buffer Complex. We measure various performance figures and we discuss to which extent these can fulfill ATLAS needs. 5 Refs.

  4. On the use of genetic algorithm to optimize industrial assets lifecycle management under safety and budget constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonchampt, J.; Fessart, K. [EDF R and D, Departement MRI, 6, quai Watier, 78401 Chatou cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the method and tool dedicated to optimize investments planning for industrial assets. These investments may either be preventive maintenance tasks, asset enhancements or logistic investments such as spare parts purchases. The two methodological points to investigate in such an issue are: 1. The measure of the profitability of a portfolio of investments 2. The selection and planning of an optimal set of investments 3. The measure of the risk of a portfolio of investments The measure of the profitability of a set of investments in the IPOP tool is synthesised in the Net Present Value indicator. The NPV is the sum of the differences of discounted cash flows (direct costs, forced outages...) between the situations with and without a given investment. These cash flows are calculated through a pseudo-Markov reliability model representing independently the components of the industrial asset and the spare parts inventories. The component model has been widely discussed over the years but the spare part model is a new one based on some approximations that will be discussed. This model, referred as the NPV function, takes for input an investments portfolio and gives its NPV. The second issue is to optimize the NPV. If all investments were independent, this optimization would be an easy calculation, unfortunately there are two sources of dependency. The first one is introduced by the spare part model, as if components are indeed independent in their reliability model, the fact that several components use the same inventory induces a dependency. The second dependency comes from economic, technical or logistic constraints, such as a global maintenance budget limit or a safety requirement limiting the residual risk of failure of a component or group of component, making the aggregation of individual optimum not necessary feasible. The algorithm used to solve such a difficult optimization problem is a genetic algorithm. After a description

  5. On the use of genetic algorithm to optimize industrial assets lifecycle management under safety and budget constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonchampt, J.; Fessart, K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the method and tool dedicated to optimize investments planning for industrial assets. These investments may either be preventive maintenance tasks, asset enhancements or logistic investments such as spare parts purchases. The two methodological points to investigate in such an issue are: 1. The measure of the profitability of a portfolio of investments 2. The selection and planning of an optimal set of investments 3. The measure of the risk of a portfolio of investments The measure of the profitability of a set of investments in the IPOP tool is synthesised in the Net Present Value indicator. The NPV is the sum of the differences of discounted cash flows (direct costs, forced outages...) between the situations with and without a given investment. These cash flows are calculated through a pseudo-Markov reliability model representing independently the components of the industrial asset and the spare parts inventories. The component model has been widely discussed over the years but the spare part model is a new one based on some approximations that will be discussed. This model, referred as the NPV function, takes for input an investments portfolio and gives its NPV. The second issue is to optimize the NPV. If all investments were independent, this optimization would be an easy calculation, unfortunately there are two sources of dependency. The first one is introduced by the spare part model, as if components are indeed independent in their reliability model, the fact that several components use the same inventory induces a dependency. The second dependency comes from economic, technical or logistic constraints, such as a global maintenance budget limit or a safety requirement limiting the residual risk of failure of a component or group of component, making the aggregation of individual optimum not necessary feasible. The algorithm used to solve such a difficult optimization problem is a genetic algorithm. After a description

  6. Diagnosis and management of transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy in Japan: red-flag symptom clusters and treatment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekijima, Yoshiki; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Koike, Haruki; Misawa, Sonoko; Ishii, Tomonori; Ando, Yukio

    2018-01-17

    Hereditary ATTR (ATTRm) amyloidosis (also called transthyretin-type familial amyloid polyneuropathy [ATTR-FAP]) is an autosomal-dominant, adult-onset, rare systemic disorder predominantly characterized by irreversible, progressive, and persistent peripheral nerve damage. TTR gene mutations (e.g. replacement of valine with methionine at position 30 [Val30Met (p.Val50Met)]) lead to destabilization and dissociation of TTR tetramers into variant TTR monomers, which form amyloid fibrils that deposit in peripheral nerves and various organs, giving rise to peripheral and autonomic neuropathy and several non-disease specific symptoms.Phenotypic and genetic variability and non-disease-specific symptoms often delay diagnosis and lead to misdiagnosis. Red-flag symptom clusters simplify diagnosis globally. However, in Japan, types of TTR variants, age of onset, penetrance, and clinical symptoms of Val30Met are more varied than in other countries. Hence, development of a Japan-specific red-flag symptom cluster is warranted. Presence of progressive peripheral sensory-motor polyneuropathy and ≥1 red-flag sign/symptom (e.g. family history, autonomic dysfunction, cardiac involvement, carpal tunnel syndrome, gastrointestinal disturbances, unexplained weight loss, and immunotherapy resistance) suggests ATTR-FAP. Outside of Japan, pharmacotherapeutic options are first-line therapy. However, because of positive outcomes (better life expectancy and higher survival rates) with living donor transplant in Japan, liver transplantation remains first-line treatment, necessitating a Japan-specific treatment algorithm.Herein, we present a consolidated review of the ATTR-FAP Val30Met landscape in Japan and summarize findings from a medical advisory board meeting held in Tokyo on 18th August 2016, at which a Japan-specific ATTR-FAP red-flag symptom cluster and treatment algorithm was developed. Beside liver transplantation, a TTR-stabilizing agent (e.g. tafamidis) is a treatment option. Early

  7. Semi-mechanistic partial buffer approach to modeling pH, the buffer properties, and the distribution of ionic species in complex solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Daniel P; Da Conceicao Neta, Edith Ramos; McFeeters, Roger F; Lubkin, Sharon R; Breidt, Frederick

    2006-08-09

    In many biological science and food processing applications, it is very important to control or modify pH. However, the complex, unknown composition of biological media and foods often limits the utility of purely theoretical approaches to modeling pH and calculating the distributions of ionizable species. This paper provides general formulas and efficient algorithms for predicting the pH, titration, ionic species concentrations, buffer capacity, and ionic strength of buffer solutions containing both defined and undefined components. A flexible, semi-mechanistic, partial buffering (SMPB) approach is presented that uses local polynomial regression to model the buffering influence of complex or undefined components in a solution, while identified components of known concentration are modeled using expressions based on extensions of the standard acid-base theory. The SMPB method is implemented in a freeware package, (pH)Tools, for use with Matlab. We validated the predictive accuracy of these methods by using strong acid titrations of cucumber slurries to predict the amount of a weak acid required to adjust pH to selected target values.

  8. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane Vindt, Steffen; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-01-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading...... potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system....

  9. Buffer gas cooling and mixture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David S.; Doyle, John M.

    2018-03-06

    An apparatus for spectroscopy of a gas mixture is described. Such an apparatus includes a gas mixing system configured to mix a hot analyte gas that includes at least one analyte species in a gas phase into a cold buffer gas, thereby forming a supersaturated mixture to be provided for spectroscopic analysis.

  10. Buffer Overflow Period in a MAP Queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chydzinski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The buffer overflow period in a queue with Markovian arrival process (MAP and general service time distribution is investigated. The results include distribution of the overflow period in transient and stationary regimes and the distribution of the number of cells lost during the overflow interval. All theorems are illustrated via numerical calculations.

  11. Body Buffer Zone and Proxemics in Blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, John C.; Bahs, Clarence W.

    This paper investigates the effect of personal body buffer zones on compositional arrangements staged by novice directors. Relationships between directors' concepts of personal space and their projection of its dimensions into staging are studied through the use of a variety of proximity measures--distance, area angles of approach, and physical…

  12. A new blood glucose management algorithm for type 2 diabetes: a position statement of the Australian Diabetes Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunton, Jenny E; Cheung, N Wah; Davis, Timothy M E; Zoungas, Sophia; Colagiuri, Stephen

    2014-12-11

    Lowering blood glucose levels in people with type 2 diabetes has clear benefits for preventing microvascular complications and potential benefits for reducing macrovascular complications and death. Treatment needs to be individualised for each person with diabetes. This should start with selecting appropriate glucose and glycated haemoglobin targets, taking into account life expectancy and the patient's wishes. For most people, early use of glucose-lowering therapies is warranted. A range of recently available therapies has added to the options for lowering glucose levels, but this has made the clinical pathway for treating diabetes more complicated. This position statement from the Australian Diabetes Society outlines the risks, benefits and costs of the available therapies and suggests a treatment algorithm incorporating the older and newer agents.

  13. Effect of simulation training on compliance with difficult airway management algorithms, technical ability, and skills retention for emergency cricothyrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Vincent; Duwat, Antoine; Deransy, Romain; Mahjoub, Yazine; Dupont, Hervé

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of simulation is rarely evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a short training course on the ability of anesthesiology residents to comply with current difficult airway management guidelines. Twenty-seven third-year anesthesiology residents were assessed on a simulator in a "can't intubate, can't ventilate" scenario before the training (the pretest) and then randomly 3, 6, or 12 months after training (the posttest). The scenario was built so that the resident was prompted to perform a cricothyrotomy. Compliance with airway management guidelines and the cricothyrotomy's duration and technical quality were assessed as a checklist score [0 to 10] and a global rating scale [7 to 35]. After training, all 27 residents (100%) complied with the airway management guidelines, compared with 17 (63%) in the pretest (P training session significantly improved the residents' compliance with guidelines and their performance of cricothyrotomy.

  14. Riparian buffer zones as pesticide filters of no-till crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Terencio R; Bortolozo, F R; Hansel, F A; Rasera, K; Ferreira, M T

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have pointed to the potential benefits of riparian vegetation as buffer zones for agricultural and industrial pollutants harmful to aquatic ecosystems. However, other studies have called into question its use as an ecological filter, questioning the widths and conditions for which they are effective as a filter. In this work, we have investigated the buffering capacity of the riparian one to retain pesticides in the water-saturated zone, on 27 sites composed by riparian buffer zones with different vegetation structure (woody, shrubs, or grass vegetation) and width (12, 36, and 60 m). Five pesticides were analyzed. The effectiveness of the filtering was largely influenced by the width and vegetation type of the buffer zone. In general, decreasing pesticide removal followed in this order wood > shrubs > grass. The 60 m woody buffer zone was the most effective in the removal of all the pesticides. Only atrazine was detected in this case (0.3 μg L(-1)). Furthermore, a linear correlation (R (2) > 0.97) was observed in their removal for all compounds and buffer zones studied. Thus, preserving the woody vegetation in the riparian zone is important for watershed management and groundwater quality in the no-tillage system in temperate climate.

  15. Buffering action of human dentin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, J; Pashley, D H

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of the mineral and organic phases of dentin to its total buffering capacity and to compare the buffering abilities of normal and caries-affected dentin for acids used in adhesive dentistry. Disks of normal and caries-affected human coronal dentin 0.6 mm thick were prepared. Fifty microL of various acids were applied to the surface of mineralized or completely demineralized dentin for varying lengths of time. They were collected from the surface and combined with water rinses to permit titration of the total amount of acid applied, the amount recovered, the total amount that was taken up by the dentin, and the amount that diffused across dentin into 1 mL of water. Equal volumes of acids were applied to mineralized or demineralized dentin powder or hydroxyapatite powder. About 88% to 90% of applied acid was recovered from the surface; only 10% to 12% of the acid was taken up by dentin. Of the H+ that was taken up, only 1% to 2% actually diffused across 0.6 mm of dentin. Increasing the application time of 37% phosphoric acid did not increase the amount of H+ that diffused across dentin. Increasing the concentration of phosphoric acid from 10% to 65% produced only slight increases in H+ diffusion across dentin. There was no difference in the buffering capacity of normal vs caries-affected dentin disks. Almost all of the buffering capacity of dentin is due to its mineral phase. The high buffering capacity of dentin and the high reactivity of H+ insure that little H+ diffuses through dentin more than 0.6 mm thick.

  16. Towards a real-time Energy Management System for a Microgrid using a multi-objective genetic algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergara, Pedro P.; Torquato, Ricardo; Da Silva, Luiz C.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time Energy Management System (EMS) for a low voltage (LV) Microgrid (MG). The system operation consists in solving the Unit Commitment (UC) and Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) simultaneously for 24 hours ahead at every 15-minute period. This operation is formulated...

  17. Hydrogeological constraints on riparian buffers for reduction of diffuse pollution: examples from the Bear Creek watershed in Iowa, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, W W; Wineland, T R; Andress, R J; Johnston, D A; Caron, G C; Isenhart, T M; Schultz, R C

    2002-01-01

    Riparian Management Systems (RiMS) have been proposed to minimize the impacts of agricultural production and improve water quality in Iowa in the Midwestern USA. As part of RiMS, multispecies riparian buffers have been shown to decrease nutrient, pesticide, and sediment concentrations in runoff from adjacent crop fields. However, their effect on nutrients and pesticides moving in groundwater beneath buffers has been discussed only in limited and idealized hydrogeologic settings. Studies in the Bear Creek watershed of central Iowa show the variability inherent in hydrogeologic systems at the watershed scale, some of which may be favorable or unfavorable to future implementation of buffers. Buffers may be optimized by choosing hydrogeologic systems where a shallow groundwater flow system channels water directly through the riparian buffer at velocities that allow for processes such as denitrification to occur.

  18. Agent-Based Architectures and Algorithms for Energy Management in Smart Grids. Application to Smart Power Generation and Residential Demand Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the convergence of several profound trends in the energy sector, smart grids are emerging as the main paradigm for the modernization of the electric grid. Smart grids hold many promises, including the ability to integrate large shares of distributed and intermittent renewable energy sources, energy storage and electric vehicles, as well as the promise to give consumers more control on their energy consumption. Such goals are expected to be achieved through the use of multiple technologies, and especially of information and communication technologies, supported by intelligent algorithms. These changes are transforming power grids into even more complex systems, that require suitable tools to model, simulate and control their behaviors. In this dissertation, properties of multi-agent systems are used to enable a new systemic approach to energy management, and allow for agent-based architectures and algorithms to be defined. This new approach helps tackle the complexity of a cyber-physical system such as the smart grid by enabling the simultaneous consideration of multiple aspects such as power systems, the communication infrastructure, energy markets, and consumer behaviors. The approach is tested in two applications: a 'smart' energy management system for a gas turbine power plant, and a residential demand response system. An energy management system for gas turbine power plants is designed with the objective to minimize operational costs and emissions, in the smart power generation paradigm. A gas turbine model based on actual data is proposed, and used to run simulations with a simulator specifically developed for this problem. A meta-heuristic achieves dynamic dispatch among gas turbines according to their individual characteristics. Results show that the system is capable of operating the system properly while reducing costs and emissions. The computing and communication requirements of the system, resulting from the selected architecture, are

  19. Handling Trajectory Uncertainties for Airborne Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhydt, Richard; Doble, Nathan A.; Karr, David; Palmer, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne conflict management is an enabling capability for NASA's Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept. DAGTM has the goal of significantly increasing capacity within the National Airspace System, while maintaining or improving safety. Under DAG-TM, autonomous aircraft maintain separation from each other and from managed aircraft unequipped for autonomous flight. NASA Langley Research Center has developed the Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP), an onboard decision support system that provides airborne conflict management (ACM) and strategic flight planning support for autonomous aircraft pilots. The AOP performs conflict detection, prevention, and resolution from nearby traffic aircraft and area hazards. Traffic trajectory information is assumed to be provided by Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). Reliable trajectory prediction is a key capability for providing effective ACM functions. Trajectory uncertainties due to environmental effects, differences in aircraft systems and performance, and unknown intent information lead to prediction errors that can adversely affect AOP performance. To accommodate these uncertainties, the AOP has been enhanced to create cross-track, vertical, and along-track buffers along the predicted trajectories of both ownship and traffic aircraft. These buffers will be structured based on prediction errors noted from previous simulations such as a recent Joint Experiment between NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers and from other outside studies. Currently defined ADS-B parameters related to navigation capability, trajectory type, and path conformance will be used to support the algorithms that generate the buffers.

  20. Breeding Bird Community Continues to Colonize Riparian Buffers Ten Years after Harvest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Pearson

    Full Text Available Riparian ecosystems integrate aquatic and terrestrial communities and often contain unique assemblages of flora and fauna. Retention of forested buffers along riparian habitats is a commonly employed practice to reduce potential negative effects of land use on aquatic systems. However, very few studies have examined long-term population and community responses to buffers, leading to considerable uncertainty about effectiveness of this practice for achieving conservation and management outcomes. We examined short- (1-2 years and long-term (~10 years avian community responses (occupancy and abundance to riparian buffer prescriptions to clearcut logging silvicultural practices in the Pacific Northwest USA. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact experimental approach and temporally replicated point counts analyzed within a Bayesian framework. Our experimental design consisted of forested control sites with no harvest, sites with relatively narrow (~13 m forested buffers on each side of the stream, and sites with wider (~30 m and more variable width unharvested buffer. Buffer treatments exhibited a 31-44% increase in mean species richness in the post-harvest years, a pattern most evident 10 years post-harvest. Post-harvest, species turnover was much higher on both treatments (63-74% relative to the controls (29%. We did not find evidence of local extinction for any species but found strong evidence (no overlap in 95% credible intervals for an increase in site occupancy on both Narrow (short-term: 7%; long-term 29% and Wide buffers (short-term: 21%; long-term 93% relative to controls after harvest. We did not find a treatment effect on total avian abundance. When assessing relationships between buffer width and site level abundance of four riparian specialists, we did not find strong evidence of reduced abundance in Narrow or Wide buffers. Silviculture regulations in this region dictate average buffer widths on small and large permanent streams that

  1. Systematic Integration of Innovation in Process Improvement Projects Using the Enhanced Sigma-TRIZ Algorithm and Its Effective Use by Means of a Knowledge Management Software Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea FULEA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an evolving, highly turbulent and uncertain socio-economic environment, organizations must consider strategies of systematic and continuous integration of innovation within their business systems, as a fundamental condition for sustainable development. Adequate methodologies are required in this respect. A mature framework for integrating innovative problem solving approaches within business process improvement methodologies is proposed in this paper. It considers a TRIZ-centred algorithm in the improvement phase of the DMAIC methodology. The new tool is called enhanced sigma-TRIZ. A case study reveals the practical application of the proposed methodology. The integration of enhanced sigma-TRIZ within a knowledge management software platform (KMSP is further described. Specific developments to support processes of knowledge creation, knowledge storage and retrieval, knowledge transfer and knowledge application in a friendly and effective way within the KMSP are also highlighted.

  2. Optimal design and management of chlorination in drinking water networks: a multi-objective approach using Genetic Algorithms and the Pareto optimality concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouiri, Issam

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the development of multi-objective Genetic Algorithms to optimize chlorination design and management in drinking water networks (DWN). Three objectives have been considered: the improvement of the chlorination uniformity (healthy objective), the minimization of chlorine booster stations number, and the injected chlorine mass (economic objectives). The problem has been dissociated in medium and short terms ones. The proposed methodology was tested on hypothetical and real DWN. Results proved the ability of the developed optimization tool to identify relationships between the healthy and economic objectives as Pareto fronts. The proposed approach was efficient in computing solutions ensuring better chlorination uniformity while requiring the weakest injected chlorine mass when compared to other approaches. For the real DWN studied, chlorination optimization has been crowned by great improvement of free-chlorine-dosing uniformity and by a meaningful chlorine mass reduction, in comparison with the conventional chlorination.

  3. Cash balance management: A comparison between genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.12194

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Botelho da Costa Moraes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to apply genetic algorithms (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO in cash balance management using Miller-Orr model, which consists in a stochastic model that does not define a single ideal point for cash balance, but an oscillation range between a lower bound, an ideal balance and an upper bound. Thus, this paper proposes the application of GA and PSO to minimize the Total Cost of cash maintenance, obtaining the parameter of the lower bound of the Miller-Orr model, using for this the assumptions presented in literature. Computational experiments were applied in the development and validation of the models. The results indicated that both the GA and PSO are applicable in determining the cash level from the lower limit, with best results of PSO model, which had not yet been applied in this type of problem.

  4. A new approach to the use of genetic algorithms to solve the pressurized water reactor's fuel management optimization problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapot, Jorge Luiz C. [ELETRONUCLEAR, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho Da Silva, Fernando; Schirru, Roberto [COPPE/UFRJ-Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-05-01

    A Genetic Algorithm (GA) based system, coupling the computer codes GENESIS 5.0 and ANC through the interface ALGER has been developed aiming at pressurized water reactor's (PWR) fuel management optimization. An innovative codification, the List Model (LM), has been incorporated into the system. LM avoids the use of heuristic crossover operators and only generates valid nonrepetitive loading patterns in the reactor core. The LM has been used to solve the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). The results got for a benchmark problem were very satisfactory, in terms of precision and computational costs. The GENESIS/ALGER/ANC system has been successfully tested in optimization studies for Angra 1 power plant reloads.

  5. An Evaluation of the NSGA-II and MOCell Genetic Algorithms for Self-management Planning in a Pervasive Service Middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2009-01-01

    Planning (for example choosing most suitable servicesfor self-configuration) is one important task in selfmanagement for pervasive service computing, and can bereduced to the problem of multi-objective services selectionwith constraints. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are effectivein solving such multi......-objective optimization problems, andare one of the most successful computational intelligenceapproaches currently available. GAs are beginning to beused in planning for self-management, but there is a lack ofcomprehensive work that evaluates GAs performance andsolution quality, and guides the setting of GAs’ parameters.......This situation makes the application of GAs difficultin the pervasive service computing domain in which performance may be critical and the settings of parameters may have big consequences for performance. In this paper, wewill present our evaluations of two GAs, namely NSGA-IIand MOCell, in the GA framework...

  6. An Algorithmic Approach to the Management of Infantile Digital Fibromatosis: Review of Literature and a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eypper, Elizabeth H; Lee, Johnson C; Tarasen, Ashley J; Weinberg, Maxene H; Adetayo, Oluwaseun A

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Infantile digital fibromatosis is a rare benign childhood tumor, infrequently cited in the literature. Hallmarks include nodular growths exclusive to fingers and toes and the presence of eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions on histology. This article aims to exemplify diagnoses of infantile digital fibromatosis and possible treatment options. Methods: A computerized English literature search was performed in the PubMed/MEDLINE database using MeSH headings "infantile," "juvenile," "digital," and "fibromatosis." Twenty electronic publications were selected and their clinical and histological data recorded and used to compile a treatment algorithm. Results: A 9-month-old male child was referred for a persistent, symptomatic nodule on the third left toe. A direct excision with Brunner-type incisions was performed under general anesthesia. The procedure was successful without complications. The patient has no recurrence at 2 years postsurgery and continues to be followed. Histological examination revealed a proliferation of bland, uniformly plump spindle cells with elongated nuclei and small central nucleoli without paranuclear inclusions consistent with fibromatosis. Conclusions: Asymptomatic nodules should be observed for spontaneous regression or treated with nonsurgical techniques such as chemotherapeutic or steroid injection. Surgical removal should be reserved for cases with structural or functional compromise.

  7. Energy Management Strategy in Consideration of Battery Health for PHEV via Stochastic Control and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy management strategy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs that not only tries to minimize the energy consumption, but also considers the battery health. First, a battery model that can be applied to energy management optimization is given. In this model, battery health damage can be estimated in the different states of charge (SOC and temperature of the battery pack. Then, because of the inevitability that limiting the battery health degradation will increase energy consumption, a Pareto energy management optimization problem is formed. This multi-objective optimal control problem is solved numerically by using stochastic dynamic programming (SDP and particle swarm optimization (PSO for satisfying the vehicle power demand and considering the tradeoff between energy consumption and battery health at the same time. The optimization solution is obtained offline by utilizing real historical traffic data and formed as mappings on the system operating states so as to implement online in the actual driving conditions. Finally, the simulation results carried out on the GT-SUITE-based PHEV test platform are illustrated to demonstrate that the proposed multi-objective optimal control strategy would effectively yield benefits.

  8. Simultaneous Buffer-sizing and Wire-sizing for Clock Trees Based on Lagrangian Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Min Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay, power, skew, area and sensitivity are the most important concerns in current clock-tree design. We present in this paper an algorithm for simultaneously optimizing the above objectives by sizing wires and buffers in clock trees. Our algorithm, based on Lagrangian relaxation method, can optimally minimize delay, power and area simultaneously with very low skew and sensitivity. With linear storage overall and linear runtime per iteration, our algorithm is extremely economical, fast and accurate; for example, our algorithm can solve a 6201-wire-segment clock-tree problem using about 1-minute runtime and 1.3-MB memory and still achieve pico-second precision on an IBM RS/6000 workstation.

  9. Coupled microrings data buffer using fast light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Jacob; Shahriar, Selim

    2013-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of a trap-door optical buffer based on a coupled microrings add/drop filter (ADF) utilizing the white light cavity (WLC). The buffer "trap-door" can be opened and closed by tuning the resonances of the microrings comprising the ADF and trap/release optical pulses. We show that the WLC based ADF yields a maximally flat filter which exhibits superior performances in terms of bandwidth and flatness compared to previous design approaches. We also present a realistic, Silicon-over-Insulator based, design and performance analysis taking into consideration the realistic properties and limitations of the materials and the fabrication process, leading to delays exceeding 850ps for 80GHz bandwidth, and a corresponding delay-bandwidth product of approximately 70.

  10. MOISTURE-BUFFERING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The humidity level of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings, as well as the durability of building components. Indoor humidity levels depend on several factors, such as moisture sources, air flow, and the adsorption/desorption properties of materials. The moisture-buffering characteristics of building materials that are in contact with indoor air may help moderate the variations of indoor humidity, especially in the summer and winter. In this study, the moisture adsorption/desorption properties of building materials were investigated experimentally and numerically. These properties can be used to characterize the ability of building materials to exchange moisture with the indoor environment. This study indicates that a building material surface resistivity was the main factor creating variations of moisture buffering.

  11. Chemical buffering capacity of clay rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaucaire, C.; Pearson, F.J.; Gautschi, A.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term performance of a nuclear waste repository is strongly dependent on the chemical properties of the host rock. The host rock establishes the chemical environment that determines such important performance attributes as radionuclide solubilities from the waste and the transport rates from the repository to the accessible environment. Clay-rich rocks are especially favourable host rocks because they provide a strong buffering capacity to resist chemical changes prompted either internally, by reactions of the waste itself and emplacement materials, or externally, by changes in the hydrologic systems surrounding the host rock. This paper will focus on three aspects of the stability of clay-rich host rocks: their ability to provide pCO 2 and redox buffering, and to resist chemical changes imposed by changes in regional hydrology and hydro-chemistry. (authors)

  12. Role of buffer gases in optoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas III, L.J.; Kelly, M.J.; Amer, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    The dependence of an acoustically resonant optoacoustic signal on the molecular weight and thermodynamic and transport properpties of the buffer gas is reported. Our results show that careful selection of such gases can significantly increase the sensitivity and flexibility of optoacoustic spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that such thermodynamic quantities as γ (equivalentC/sub p//C/sub v/) and sound velocity can now be measured readily and accurately. Other potential applications are suggested

  13. Microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratto, M.; Itavaara, M.

    2012-07-01

    The proposed disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes involves storing the wastes underground in copper-iron containers embedded in buffer material of compacted bentonite. Hydrogen sulphide production by sulphate-reducing prokaryotes is a potential mechanism that could cause corrosion of waste containers in repository conditions. The prevailing conditions in compacted bentonite buffer will be harsh. The swelling pressure is 7-8 MPa, the amount of free water is low and the average pore and pore throat diameters are small. This literature study aims to assess the potential of microbial activity in bentonite buffers. Literature on the environmental limits of microbial life in extreme conditions and the occurrence of sulphatereducing prokaryotes in extreme environments is reviewed briefly and the results of published studies characterizing microbes and microbial processes in repository conditions or in relevant subsurface environments are presented. The presence of bacteria, including SRBs, has been confirmed in deep groundwater and bentonite-based materials. Sulphate reducers have been detected in various high-pressure environments, and sulphate-reduction based on hydrogen as an energy source is considered a major microbial process in deep subsurface environments. In bentonite, microbial activity is strongly suppressed, mainly due to the low amount of free water and small pores, which limit the transport of microbes and nutrients. Spore-forming bacteria have been shown to survive in compacted bentonite as dormant spores, and they are able to resume a metabolically active state after decompaction. Thus, microbial sulphide production may increase in repository conditions if the dry density of the bentonite buffer is locally reduced. (orig.)

  14. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E.

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  15. Nuclear Calcium Buffering Capacity Shapes Neuronal Architecture*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauceri, Daniela; Hagenston, Anna M.; Schramm, Kathrin; Weiss, Ursula; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) such as parvalbumin are part of the cellular calcium buffering system that determines intracellular calcium diffusion and influences the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium signals. In neurons, CaBPs are primarily localized to the cytosol and function, for example, in nerve terminals in short-term synaptic plasticity. However, CaBPs are also expressed in the cell nucleus, suggesting that they modulate nuclear calcium signals, which are key regulators of neuronal gene expression. Here we show that the calcium buffering capacity of the cell nucleus in mouse hippocampal neurons regulates neuronal architecture by modulating the expression levels of VEGFD and the complement factor C1q-c, two nuclear calcium-regulated genes that control dendrite geometry and spine density, respectively. Increasing the levels of nuclear calcium buffers by means of expression of a nuclearly targeted form of parvalbumin fused to mCherry (PV.NLS-mC) led to a reduction in VEGFD expression and, as a result, to a decrease in total dendritic length and complexity. In contrast, mRNA levels of the synapse pruning factor C1q-c were increased in neurons expressing PV.NLS-mC, causing a reduction in the density and size of dendritic spines. Our results establish a close link between nuclear calcium buffering capacity and the transcription of genes that determine neuronal structure. They suggest that the development of cognitive deficits observed in neurological conditions associated with CaBP deregulation may reflect the loss of necessary structural features of dendrites and spines. PMID:26231212

  16. Nuclear Calcium Buffering Capacity Shapes Neuronal Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauceri, Daniela; Hagenston, Anna M; Schramm, Kathrin; Weiss, Ursula; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-09-18

    Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) such as parvalbumin are part of the cellular calcium buffering system that determines intracellular calcium diffusion and influences the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium signals. In neurons, CaBPs are primarily localized to the cytosol and function, for example, in nerve terminals in short-term synaptic plasticity. However, CaBPs are also expressed in the cell nucleus, suggesting that they modulate nuclear calcium signals, which are key regulators of neuronal gene expression. Here we show that the calcium buffering capacity of the cell nucleus in mouse hippocampal neurons regulates neuronal architecture by modulating the expression levels of VEGFD and the complement factor C1q-c, two nuclear calcium-regulated genes that control dendrite geometry and spine density, respectively. Increasing the levels of nuclear calcium buffers by means of expression of a nuclearly targeted form of parvalbumin fused to mCherry (PV.NLS-mC) led to a reduction in VEGFD expression and, as a result, to a decrease in total dendritic length and complexity. In contrast, mRNA levels of the synapse pruning factor C1q-c were increased in neurons expressing PV.NLS-mC, causing a reduction in the density and size of dendritic spines. Our results establish a close link between nuclear calcium buffering capacity and the transcription of genes that determine neuronal structure. They suggest that the development of cognitive deficits observed in neurological conditions associated with CaBP deregulation may reflect the loss of necessary structural features of dendrites and spines. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  18. Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

  19. Connecting Seasonal Riparian Buffer Metrics and Nitrogen Concentrations in a Pulse-Driven Agricultural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffers have been well studied as best management practices for nutrient reduction at field scales yet their effectiveness for bettering water quality at watershed scales has been difficult to determine. Seasonal dynamics of the stream network are often overlooked when ...

  20. Identifying Riparian Buffer Effects on Stream 1 Nitrogen in Southeastern Coastal Plain Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian areas have long demonstrated their ability to attenuate nutrients and sediments from agricultural runoff at the field scale; however, to inform effective nutrient management choices, the impact of riparian buffers on water quality services must be assessed at watershed s...

  1. Denitrification gene density across a wastewater-impacted riparian buffer zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffers are a best management practice used extensively to protect water bodies from agriculturally-generated nitrate pollution. In particular, the biological process of denitrification has been shown to be a sink for this nitrate. Denitrification results in the reduction of nitrate under a...

  2. APEX model simulation of edge-of-field water quality benefits from upland buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    For maximum usefulness, simulation models must be able to estimate the effectiveness of management practices not represented in the dataset used for model calibration. This study focuses on the ability of the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) to simulate upland buffer effectiveness f...

  3. Width of riparian buffer and structure of adjacent plantations influence occupancy of conservation priority birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; T. Bently Wigley; M. Anthony Melchiors; Ronald E. Thill; Philip A. Tappe; Darren A. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity on forest landscapes dominated by plantations has become an increasingly important topic, and opportunities to maintain or enhance biodiversity within these forests need to be recognized and applied. Riparian buffers of mature forest retained along streams in managed forest landscapes offer an opportunity to enhance biodiversity across...

  4. META-ANALYSIS OF NITROGEN REMOVAL IN RIPARIAN BUFFERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer zones, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Riparian buffer width may be positively related to nitrogen removal effectiveness by influencing nitrog...

  5. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  6. Success and failure with phthalate buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocek, P.; Gebauer, P.; Beckers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Phthalate buffers are currently used in capillary electrophoresis as robust electrolyte systems for indirect detection. This contribution demonstrates that these buffers show regularly not only successful regions of mobilities of analytes (sample window) but also regions of failure where the

  7. Algorithm for management of patients with X-ray endovascular artery embolization of the prostate for its benign hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Zhukov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available X-ray endovascular prostatic artery embolization (XEPAE is a comparatively new alternative treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, which has shown good results in Russia and foreign countries. The dissimilarity from other treatments for this nosology is the use of superselective artery ischemia of the prostate, which leads to a decrease in its sizes and a progressive reduction in lower urinary tract symptoms. Twelve patients aged 59–71 years (mean age, 66 years with BPH have been operated on since 2014. The mean follow-up period was 8.4 months (3–17 months. The patients were divided into 3 groups in accordance with prostate volume: 1 60–100 cm3 (n = 3; 2 100–200 сm3 (n = 5; 3 ≥ 200 см3 (n = 4. The mean prostatic specific antigen level was 5.1 ± 2.7 ng/ml (2.7–6.3 ng/ml. Due to the increased pro static specific antigen level up to 4 ng/ml, 6 patients underwent transrectal and/or targeted biopsy of the prostate, which failed to reveal the morphological signs of its malignant process. The examination algorithm included all necessary laboratory and clinical examinations, as those during surgery for BPH, as well as multislice spiral computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging, angiography of small pelvic vessels and organs.  Postoperative patient monitoring revealed that the total International Prognostic Scoring System scores decreased by 41.3 and 61.4 % at 3- and 6-month follow-ups, respectively; then these values were insignificant. The prostate volume substantially decreased at 3 months; but at 6 months it was 47 % of the baseline one. The urine flow rate rose from 6.7 to 15.9 ml/sec. The quality of life index became summarily quite satisfactory at 6-month follow-up and amounted to 3.3 ± 1.3. Thus, it may be stated that XEPAE is a safe and highly effective treatment for BPH if its medical treatment is ineffective. This surgical treatment performed for 3–6 months substantially decreases the prostate

  8. International comparison of observation-specific spatial buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Lawrence D; Fox, Eric H; Ulmer, Jared M

    2017-01-01

    the relative differences in resulting explanatory power on self-reported physical activity outcomes. BEMs were developed in five countries using 'sausage,' 'detailed-trimmed,' and 'detailed,' network buffers at a distance of 1 km around participant household addresses (n = 5883). RESULTS: BEM values were...... significantly different (p trimmed buffer comparisons and 89% of sausage versus detailed network buffer comparisons. Results showed that BEM coefficients in physical activity models did not differ significantly across buffering methods, and in most cases BEM...

  9. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zdeněk; Beneš, Martin; Tesařová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesařová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems.

  10. Design and Evaluation in a Real Use-case of Closed-loop Scheduling Algorithms for the gLite Workload Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreetto, P; Bauce, M; Bertocco, S

    2011-01-01

    The High Throughput Computing paradigm typically involves a scenario whereby a given, estimated processing power is made available and sustained by the computing environment over a medium/long period of time. As a consequence, the performance goals are in general targeted at maximizing resource utilization to obtain the expected throughput, rather than minimizing run time for individual jobs. This does not mean that optimal resource selection through adequate workload management is not desired nor effective, nonetheless, relatively small and pre-assessed percentages of suboptimal choices or unexpected events can be tolerated. However, there are use-cases, among the HEP community, for which the described model does not immediately fit. This paper deals with the workload needs primarily driven by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experimental collaboration. In particular, the CDF analysis facility (CAF) typically operates by splitting its computations into so-called sections, which can be seen as sets of uniform and independent jobs. Processing a section cannot be considered completed until all its jobs have been successfully executed, thus requiring a Minimum Completion Time (MCT) dynamic scheduling policy where not even a single job should lay in non-terminal Grid states. A significant part of the CDF analysis is processed on the European Grid infrastructure through the gLite Workload Management System (WMS). This paper describes the design enhancements and ranking algorithms the WMS has been provided with to implement an adaptive scheduling policy to minimise MCT. Case study, outlined approach and first results are presented.

  11. An Integrated Optimal Energy Management/Gear-Shifting Strategy for an Electric Continuously Variable Transmission Hybrid Powertrain Using Bacterial Foraging Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuan-Yi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an integrated energy management/gear-shifting strategy by using a bacterial foraging algorithm (BFA in an engine/motor hybrid powertrain with electric continuously variable transmission. A control-oriented vehicle model was constructed on the Matlab/Simulink platform for further integration with developed control strategies. A baseline control strategy with four modes was developed for comparison with the proposed BFA. The BFA was used with five bacterial populations to search for the optimal gear ratio and power-split ratio for minimizing the cost: the equivalent fuel consumption. Three main procedures were followed: chemotaxis, reproduction, and elimination-dispersal. After the vehicle model was integrated with the vehicle control unit with the BFA, two driving patterns, the New European Driving Cycle and the Federal Test Procedure, were used to evaluate the energy consumption improvement and equivalent fuel consumption compared with the baseline. The results show that [18.35%,21.77%] and [8.76%,13.81%] were improved for the optimal energy management and integrated optimization at the first and second driving cycles, respectively. Real-time platform designs and vehicle integration for a dynamometer test will be investigated in the future.

  12. Evolving Role of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Management of Extrahepatic Hepatic Ductal Injuries due to Blunt Trauma: Diagnostic and Treatment Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil P. Jaik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrahepatic hepatic ductal injuries (EHDIs due to blunt abdominal trauma are rare. Given the rarity of these injuries and the insidious onset of symptoms, EHDI are commonly missed during the initial trauma evaluation, making their diagnosis difficult and frequently delayed. Diagnostic modalities useful in the setting of EHDI include computed tomography (CT, abdominal ultrasonography (AUS, nuclear imaging (HIDA scan, and cholangiography. Traditional options in management of EHDI include primary ductal repair with or without a T-tube, biliary-enteric anastomosis, ductal ligation, stenting, and drainage. Simple drainage and biliary decompression is often the most appropriate treatment in unstable patients. More recently, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP allowed for diagnosis and potential treatment of these injuries via stenting and/or papillotomy. Our review of 53 cases of EHDI reported in the English-language literature has focused on the evolving role of ERCP in diagnosis and treatment of these injuries. Diagnostic and treatment algorithms incorporating ERCP have been designed to help systematize and simplify the management of EHDI. An illustrative case is reported of blunt traumatic injury involving both the extrahepatic portion of the left hepatic duct and its confluence with the right hepatic duct. This injury was successfully diagnosed and treated using ERCP.

  13. Towards Optimal Buffer Size in Wi-Fi Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Showail, Ahmad J.

    2016-01-19

    Buffer sizing is an important network configuration parameter that impacts the quality of data traffic. Falling memory cost and the fallacy that ‘more is better’ lead to over provisioning network devices with large buffers. Over-buffering or the so called ‘bufferbloat’ phenomenon creates excessive end-to-end delay in today’s networks. On the other hand, under-buffering results in frequent packet loss and subsequent under-utilization of network resources. The buffer sizing problem has been studied extensively for wired networks. However, there is little work addressing the unique challenges of wireless environment. In this dissertation, we discuss buffer sizing challenges in wireless networks, classify the state-of-the-art solutions, and propose two novel buffer sizing schemes. The first scheme targets buffer sizing in wireless multi-hop networks where the radio spectral resource is shared among a set of con- tending nodes. Hence, it sizes the buffer collectively and distributes it over a set of interfering devices. The second buffer sizing scheme is designed to cope up with recent Wi-Fi enhancements. It adapts the buffer size based on measured link characteristics and network load. Also, it enforces limits on the buffer size to maximize frame aggregation benefits. Both mechanisms are evaluated using simulation as well as testbed implementation over half-duplex and full-duplex wireless networks. Experimental evaluation shows that our proposal reduces latency by an order of magnitude.

  14. Concentrated flow paths in riparian buffer zones of southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Pankau; J.E. Schoonover; K.W.J. Willard; P.J. Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Riparian buffers in agricultural landscapes should be designed to trap pollutants in overland flow by slowing, filtering, and infiltrating surface runoff entering the buffer via sheet flow. However, observational evidence suggests that concentrated flow is prevalent from agricultural fields. Over time sediment can accumulate in riparian buffers forming berms that...

  15. MRI and its role in the evaluation and surgical decision making in patients with challenging IPP presentations: descriptions of MRI findings and algorithm for patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, E Fred; Nehra, Ajay; Bruner, Bryan C; Kawashima, Akira; King, Bernard F; Kim, Bohyun

    2012-06-01

    Study Type - Diagnostic (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? It is known that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is safe and effective for imaging patients with inflatable penile prostheses (IPPs). Previous series have reported results of MRI for imaging series of patients with IPPs. The impact on management in particular with regard to salvage procedures is not well defined. This study represents the largest known experience with MRI evaluation of IPPs. This also provides an algorithm that assists with decisions regarding utilization of MRI and treatment planning based on results. • In some patients who undergo placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) the device may function inadequately. We describe the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for anatomical localization and detection of prosthesis malrotation, angulation, displacement and erosion in IPPs with equivocal clinical examination. • We prospectively performed MRI by a defined protocol including T1-weighted imaging, and transaxial, sagittal and coronal fat-saturated fast spin-echo T2-weighted imaging in both deflated and inflated states to evaluate patients seen at our referral centre for IPP-related complaints. • We retrospectively reviewed 32 such MRI studies performed as a supplement to clinical examination between 2000 and 2008. • Of 32 cases, 75% (24/32) underwent surgical intervention. Of these, 45% (11/24) underwent device salvage procedures including cylinder revision in 33% (8/24), cylinder replacement in 8% (2/24) and pump replacement in 4% (1/24). • MRI was most useful for determination of surgical approach in those with abnormal physical examination, and for justification of either surgical or expectant management in those with indeterminate physical examination. • MRI is safe and effective for imaging genitourinary prostheses. • We found MRI to be a valuable adjunct for evaluation of IPP-related complaints when

  16. FPGA based algorithms for data reduction at Belle II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchow, David; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soeren; Liu, Ming; Spruck, Bjoern [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Belle II, the upgrade of the existing Belle experiment at Super-KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, is an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a design luminosity of 8.10{sup 35}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. At Belle II the estimated event rate is {<=}30 kHz. The resulting data rate at the Pixel Detector (PXD) will be {<=}7.2 GB/s. This data rate needs to be reduced to be able to process and store the data. A region of interest (ROI) selection is based upon two mechanisms. a.) a tracklet finder using the silicon strip detector and b.) the HLT using all other Belle II subdetectors. These ROIs and the pixel data are forwarded to an FPGA based Compute Node for processing. Here a VHDL based algorithm on FPGA with the benefit of pipelining and parallelisation will be implemented. For a fast data handling we developed a dedicated memory management system for buffering and storing the data. The status of the implementation and performance tests of the memory manager and data reduction algorithm is presented.

  17. Exchangeability of bentonite buffer and backfill materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, D. [Savage Earth Associates Ltd, Bournemouth (United Kingdom); Arthur, R. [Intera Inc, Ottawa, ON, (Canada); Luukkonen, A.

    2012-08-15

    Clay-based buffer and tunnel backfill materials are important barriers in the KBS-3 repository concept for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. One issue that is relevant to material properties is the degree to which different bentonite compositions can be regarded as interchangeable. In Posiva's current repository design, the reference bentonite composition is MX-80, a sodium montmorillonite dominated clay. Posiva would like to be able to use bentonite with Ca-montmorillonite as the dominant clay mineral. However, at this stage, it is not clear what supporting data need to be acquired/defined to be able to place the state of knowledge of Ca-bentonite at the same level as that of Na-bentonite. In this report, the concept of bentonite exchangeability has been evaluated through consideration of how bentonite behaviour may be affected in six key performance-relevant properties, namely (1) mineralogical composition and availability of materials, (2) hydraulic conductivity, (3) mechanical and rheological properties, (4) long-term alteration, (5) colloidal properties, and (6) swelling pressure. The report evaluates implications for both buffer and backfill. Summary conclusions are drawn from these sections to suggest how bentonite exchangeability may be addressed in regulatory assessments of engineered barrier design for a future geological repository for spent fuel in Finland. Some important conclusions are: (a) There are some fundamental differences between Ca- and Na-bentonites such as colloidal behaviour, pore structure and long-term alteration that could affect the exchangeability of these materials as buffer or backfill materials and which should be further evaluated; (b) Additional experimental data are desirable for some issues such as long-term alteration, hydraulic properties and swelling behaviour, (c) The minor mineral content of bentonites is very variable, both between different bentonites and within the same bentonite type, it is not clear

  18. Bench-to-bedside review: Treating acid–base abnormalities in the intensive care unit – the role of buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Brian K; Schmidt, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    The recognition and management of acid–base disorders is a commonplace activity for intensivists. Despite the frequency with which non-bicarbonate-losing forms of metabolic acidosis such as lactic acidosis occurs in critically ill patients, treatment is controversial. This article describes the properties of several buffering agents and reviews the evidence for their clinical efficacy. The evidence supporting and refuting attempts to correct arterial pH through the administration of currently available buffers is presented. PMID:15312208

  19. Bench-to-bedside review: treating acid-base abnormalities in the intensive care unit - the role of buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Brian K; Schmidt, Gregory A

    2004-08-01

    The recognition and management of acid-base disorders is a commonplace activity for intensivists. Despite the frequency with which non-bicarbonate-losing forms of metabolic acidosis such as lactic acidosis occurs in critically ill patients, treatment is controversial. This article describes the properties of several buffering agents and reviews the evidence for their clinical efficacy. The evidence supporting and refuting attempts to correct arterial pH through the administration of currently available buffers is presented.

  20. Enhanced transpiration by riparian buffer trees in response to advection in a humid temperate agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Santana, V.; Asbjornsen, H.; Sauer, T.; Isenhart, T.; Schilling, K.; Schultz, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Riparian buffers are designed as management practices to increase infiltration and reduce surface runoff and transport of sediment and nonpoint source pollutants from crop fields to adjacent streams. Achieving these ecosystem service goals depends, in part, on their ability to remove water from the soil via transpiration. In these systems, edges between crop fields and trees of the buffer systems can create advection processes, which could influence water use by trees. We conducted a field study in a riparian buffer system established in 1994 under a humid temperate climate, located in the Corn Belt region of the Midwestern U.S. (Iowa). The goals were to estimate stand level transpiration by the riparian buffer, quantify the controls on water use by the buffer system, and determine to what extent advective energy and tree position within the buffer system influence individual tree transpiration rates. We primarily focused on the water use response (determined with the Heat Ratio Method) of one of the dominant species (Acer saccharinum) and a subdominant (Juglans nigra). A few individuals of three additional species (Quercus bicolor, Betula nigra, Platanus occidentalis) were monitored over a shorter time period to assess the generality of responses. Meteorological stations were installed along a transect across the riparian buffer to determine the microclimate conditions. The differences found among individuals were attributed to differences in species sap velocities and sapwood depths, location relative to the forest edge and prevailing winds and canopy exposure and dominance. Sapflow rates for A. saccharinum trees growing at the SE edge (prevailing winds) were 39% greater than SE interior trees and 30% and 69% greater than NW interior and edge trees, respectively. No transpiration enhancement due to edge effect was detected in the subdominant J. nigra. The results were interpreted as indicative of advection effects from the surrounding crops. Further, significant